Sample records for windows solar water

  1. Applicability of Solar Airflow Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamed, M. S.; Friedrich, K.; Razaqpur, G.; Foo, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate prediction of the performance of Solar Air Windows (SAWs) operating in various climates under real conditions has not been investigated. This paper reports the results of numerical simulations of SAWs carried out using ANSYS-CFX considering...

  2. Solar Window Technology for BIPV or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    Solar Window Technology for BIPV or BAPV Energy Systems Problem this technology solves: Using of Solar energy considerably, photovoltaic or PV material is still a major $ cost/unit of energy produced a novel high efficiency concentrator design, this static "Solar Window" system is such that it allows

  3. Performance of a multifunctional PV/T hybrid solar window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidsson, Henrik; Perers, Bengt; Karlsson, Bjoern [Energy and Building Design, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A building-integrated multifunctional PV/T solar window has been developed and evaluated. It is constructed of PV cells laminated on solar absorbers placed in a window behind the glazing. To reduce the cost of the solar electricity, tiltable reflectors have been introduced in the construction to focus radiation onto the solar cells. The reflectors render the possibility of controlling the amount of radiation transmitted into the building. The insulated reflectors also reduce the thermal losses through the window. A model for simulation of the electric and hot water production was developed. The model can perform yearly energy simulations where different features such as shading of the cells or effects of the glazing can be included or excluded. The simulation can be run with the reflectors in an active, up right, position or in a passive, horizontal, position. The simulation program was calibrated against measurements on a prototype solar window placed in Lund in the south of Sweden and against a solar window built into a single family house, Solgaarden, in Aelvkarleoe in the central part of Sweden. The results from the simulation shows that the solar window annually produces about 35% more electric energy per unit cell area compared to a vertical flat PV module. (author)

  4. Solar optical materials for innovative window design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lampert, C.M.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New and innovative optical materials and coatings can greatly improve the efficiency of window energy systems. These potential materials and coatings increase energy efficiency by reducing radiative losses in the infrared, or reducing visible reflection losses or controlling overheating due to solar gain. Current progress in heat mirror coatings for glass and polymeric substrates is presented. Highly doped semiconducting oxides and metal/dielectric interference coatings are reviewed. Physical and optical properties are outlined for antireflection films and transparent aerogel insulation media. The potential for optical switching films as window elements includes discussions of electrochromic, photochromic and other physical switching processes.

  5. Measuring sheet resistance of CIGS solar cell's window layer by spatially resolved electroluminescence imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1/12 Measuring sheet resistance of CIGS solar cell's window layer by spatially resolved model to simulate the behavior of CIGS solar cells based on the spread sheet resistance effect on the determination of the window layer sheet resistance in CIGS solar cells, but our approach could be transferred

  6. The ultra-thin solar cells that could generate power through windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    international companies are making thin-film solar cells, but they are typically less efficient at convertingThe ultra-thin solar cells that could generate power through windows By Claire Bates Last updated at 11:11 AM on 06th October 2008 Solar cells that are transparent enough to be used to tint windows

  7. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a Freeze ToLerant Solar Water Heater Using C ross Linkedof a Freeze Tolerant Solar Water Heater Using Crosslinkedcrosslinked poly lene for solar water heater absorbers (18),

  8. Green Systems Solar Hot Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    Green Systems Solar Hot Water Heating the Building Co-generation: Heat Recovery System: Solar panels not enough Generates heat energy Captures heat from generator and transfers it to water Stores Thermal Panels (Trex enclosure) Hot Water Storage Tank (TS-5; basement) Hot Water Heaters (HW-1

  9. Molded polymer solar water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.

    2004-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar water heater has a rotationally-molded water box and a glazing subassembly disposed over the water box that enhances solar gain and provides an insulating air space between the outside environment and the water box. When used with a pressurized water system, an internal heat exchanger is integrally molded within the water box. Mounting and connection hardware is included to provide a rapid and secure method of installation.

  10. Residential Solar Water Heating Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Hampshire offers a rebate for residential solar water-heating systems and solar space-heating systems. The rebate is equal to $1,500 for systems with an annual estimated output of 5.5 MMBTU to...

  11. Multijunction solar cell efficiencies: effect of spectral window, optical environment and radiative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    Multijunction solar cell efficiencies: effect of spectral window, optical environment and radiative,9 The optical environment of a solar cell controls where the radiated photons from a subcell are directed*a Solar cell efficiency is maximized through multijunction architectures that minimize carrier

  12. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a Freeze ToLerant Solar Water Heater Using C ross Linkedof a Freeze Tolerant Solar Water Heater Using CrosslinkedJ Mueller, ! 'Low Cos t Solar Air Heater tl , N78 20639 D-31

  13. Design and validation of an air window for a molten salt solar thermal receiver

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paxson, Adam Taylor

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis contributes to the development of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) receivers and focuses on the design of an efficient aperture. An air window is proposed for use as the aperture of a CSP molten salt receiver ...

  14. Columbia Water & Light- Solar Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Water & Light electric customers are eligible for a $400 rebate for the purchase of a new solar water heater. To apply for this rebate, a customer submits a pre-approval application to...

  15. Solar Works in Seattle: Domestic Hot Water

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Seattle's residential solar hot water workshop. Content also covers general solar resource assessment, siting, and financial incentives.

  16. To be submitted to Solar Energy. Daylight performance of a microstructured prismatic window film in deep open

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    To be submitted to Solar Energy. Daylight performance of a microstructured prismatic window film Systems Department, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with vertical windows have the potential to offset lighting energy use in deep perimeter zones

  17. Utility solar water heating workshops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, L.B. [Barrett Consulting Associates, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to explore the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM measure. Expected benefits from the workshops included an increased awareness and interest by utilities in solar water heating as well as greater understanding by federal research and policy officials of utility perspectives for purposes of planning and programming. Ultimately, the project could result in better information transfer, increased implementation of solar water heating programs, greater penetration of solar systems, and more effective research projects. The objective of the workshops was satisfied. Each workshop succeeded in exploring the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM option. The participants provided a range of ideas and suggestions regarding useful next steps for utilities and NREL. According to evaluations, the participants believed the workshops were very valuable, and they returned to their utilities with new information, ideas, and commitment.

  18. Solar Water Heating Webinar | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Weatherization Assistance Program Pilot Projects Solar Water Heating Webinar Solar Water Heating Webinar Watch a recording of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)...

  19. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Thin Film, Solar Thermal Energy Converters", N7728613, PBsts of Collectors of Solar Thermal Energy, A Steel Flat Platcharacteristics a solar thermal energy utili ng water l1ed

  20. OPTIMIZATION OF GaN WINDOW LAYER FOR InGaN SOLAR CELLS USING POLARIZATION EFFECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honsberg, Christiana

    on the design of wide-band gap GaN window layers for InGaN solar cells. Window layers serve to passivate the top into account during design of the solar cell to improve its collection efficiency. Previously, we have. The present work is a subset of the design optimization process for such solar cells, where we focus

  1. Solar Water Heating Incentive Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Beginning in the fall of 2003, Energy Trust of Oregon's Solar Water Heating (SWH) Incentive Program offers incentives to customers of Pacific Power, PGE, NW Natural Gas and Cascade Natural Gas who...

  2. Benefits of the International Residential Code's Maximum Solar heat Gain Coefficient Requirement for Windows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, G. A.; DeVito, E. M.; Nease, N. H.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    upgrade cost for all low solar gain low-e glazed products. However, our experience suggests that a good estimate of the average upgrade cost for low solar gain low-e is less than a $1.50 per square foot of window area. This price has been..., Oregon and Washington back in 1996 were less than $2 per square foot. Similarly, a 1995 study by the Washington State Energy Office [M. Lubliner & T. Ossinger, ?Pricing of Energy Efficient Windows in the Pacific Northwest?], found the cost to upgrade...

  3. Do You Have a Solar Water Heater?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Earlier this week, Ernie wrote about the economics of getting a solar water heater. As Ernie explained, a solar water heater is more expensive than a normal water heater, but depending on your area...

  4. Benefits of the International Residential Code's Maximum Solar heat Gain Coefficient Requirement for Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, G. A.; DeVito, E. M.; Nease, N. H.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Texas adopted in its residential building energy code a maximum 0.40 solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) for fenestration (e.g., windows, glazed doors and skylights)-a critical driver of cooling energy use, comfort and peak demand. An analysis...

  5. Columbia Water and Light- Solar Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Water and Light (CWL) offers rebates to its commercial and residential customers for the purchase of solar water heaters and solar photovoltaic systems. These rebates are available for...

  6. SMUD- Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Solar Domestic Hot Water Program provides rebates and/or loan financing to customers who install solar water heating systems. The amount of the...

  7. Clark Public Utilities- Solar Water Heater Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clark Public Utilities offers a rebate of $500 to customers who install a solar water heating system. Customers must own the residence or business where the solar water heating system is installed...

  8. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hot water heating, etc, l50 F is good High melting temperatureand hot water systems. E-9Z REVIEW LBL LI TI Solar Absorption Properties of a High Temperature

  9. Columbia Water & Light- Solar Energy Loans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Water & Light (CWL) offers electric residential and commercial customers low-interest loans for photovoltaic (PV) systems and solar water heaters.

  10. Powering Your Water Heater Using Solar Energy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Daniel

    2013-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a detailed overview of my research on solar water heating. Solar water heaters may be used to either supplement or even replace a standard water heater. In addition to being environmentally friendly, solar heaters can save a homeowner...

  11. Santa Clara Water and Sewer- Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 1975, the City of Santa Clara established the nation's first municipal solar utility. Under the Solar Water Heating Program, the Santa Clara Water and Sewer Utilities Department supplies,...

  12. Lakeland Electric- Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lakeland Electric, a municipal utility in Florida, is the nation's first utility to offer solar-heated domestic hot water on a "pay-for-energy" basis. The utility has contracted with a solar...

  13. Grays Harbor PUD- Solar Water Heater Loan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Since October 2001, Grays Harbor PUD has offered a low-interest loan program (currently 4.0%) for the installation of solar water heaters. Loans are available for the installation of solar...

  14. Grays Harbor PUD- Solar Water Heater Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Since October 2001, Grays Harbor PUD has offered a rebate program for the installation of solar water heaters. Rebates of $600 are available for the installation of solar collectors of 40 square...

  15. Burbank Water and Power- Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (California)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Burbank Water and Power is providing incentives for the purchase of solar water heaters. Incentives are only available to residential customers with electric water heaters. There is a limit of one...

  16. Innovative solar thermochemical water splitting.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, Roy E. Jr.; Siegel, Nathan P.; Evans, Lindsey R.; Moss, Timothy A.; Stuecker, John Nicholas (Robocasting Enterprises, Albuquerque, NM); Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); James, Darryl L. (Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX)

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is evaluating the potential of an innovative approach for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen using two-step thermochemical cycles. Thermochemical cycles are heat engines that utilize high-temperature heat to produce chemical work. Like their mechanical work-producing counterparts, their efficiency depends on operating temperature and on the irreversibility of their internal processes. With this in mind, we have invented innovative design concepts for two-step solar-driven thermochemical heat engines based on iron oxide and iron oxide mixed with other metal oxides (ferrites). The design concepts utilize two sets of moving beds of ferrite reactant material in close proximity and moving in opposite directions to overcome a major impediment to achieving high efficiency--thermal recuperation between solids in efficient counter-current arrangements. They also provide inherent separation of the product hydrogen and oxygen and are an excellent match with high-concentration solar flux. However, they also impose unique requirements on the ferrite reactants and materials of construction as well as an understanding of the chemical and cycle thermodynamics. In this report the Counter-Rotating-Ring Receiver/Reactor/Recuperator (CR5) solar thermochemical heat engine and its basic operating principals are described. Preliminary thermal efficiency estimates are presented and discussed. Our ferrite reactant material development activities, thermodynamic studies, test results, and prototype hardware development are also presented.

  17. Solar Hot Water Resources and Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides a brief overview of solar hot water (SHW) technologies supplemented by specific information to apply SHW within the Federal sector.

  18. Monitoring SERC Technologies — Solar Hot Water

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A webinar by National Renewable Energy Laboratory analyst Eliza Hotchkiss on Solar Hot Water systems and how to properly monitor their installation.

  19. Valley Electric Association- Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Valley Electric Association (VEA), a nonprofit member owned cooperative, developed the domestic solar water heating program to encourage energy efficiency at the request of the membership. VEA...

  20. Solar Hot Water Contractor Licensing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In order to be eligible for Maine's solar thermal rebate program, systems must be installed by licensed plumbers who have received additional certification for solar thermal systems from the North...

  1. Piedmont EMC- Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Piedmont Electric Membership Corporation is offering a $500 rebate to its residential members who install solar water heaters on their homes. The utility recommends but does not require the system...

  2. CPS Energy- Solar Hot Water Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As part of a larger program designed to reduce electricity demand within its service territory, CPS Energy now offers rebates for solar water heaters to its customers. In general, any CPS Energy...

  3. On the detection of neutrinos from solar flares using pion-decay photons to provide a time window template

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Wasseige, G; van Eijndhoven, N; Evenson, P; Klein, K -L

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the end of the eighties and in response to a reported increase in the total neutrino flux in the Homestake experiment in coincidence with solar flares, solar neutrino detectors have searched for solar flare signals. Even though these detectors have used different solar flare samples and analyses, none of them has been able to confirm the possible signal seen by Homestake. Neutrinos from the decay of mesons, which are themselves produced in collisions of accelerated ions with the solar atmosphere would provide a novel window on the underlying physics of the hadronic acceleration and interaction processes during solar flares. Solar flare neutrino flux measurements would indeed help to constrain current parameters such as the composition of the accelerated flux, the proton/ion spectral index and the high energy cutoff or the magnetic configuration in the interaction region. We describe here a new way to search for these neutrinos by considering a specific solar flare sample and a data driven time window te...

  4. Solar Hot Water Resources and Technologies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hot Water Resources and Technologies Solar Hot Water Resources and Technologies Photo of a standalone solar hot water system standing in front of a clothesline with a backdrop of...

  5. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Eval and Solar Collector Various Coatings, Substrateof Various Coatings, Substrate Materials and Solar Collectorl'Optimiz ctive Coatings for Solar Collectors", N77-11529,

  6. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Various Coatings, Substrate Materials and Solar Collectorl'Optimiz ctive Coatings for Solar Collectors", N77-11529,on High Efficiency Solar Collector Coatings", N77 -30286,

  7. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN J D, Balcomb, J. Co Heds torm and R, D.Solar Energy. 19. J. D. Balcomb. et al. Solar gains through

  8. Practical Solar Thermal Chilled Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leavell, B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the potential to impact America's use of non-renewable energy beyond its own design capacity by applying it to the optimization of an existing building's system. Solar-thermal chilling systems are not new. However, few of them can be described as a practical...

  9. Practical Solar Thermal Chilled Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leavell, B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the potential to impact America's use of non-renewable energy beyond its own design capacity by applying it to the optimization of an existing building's system. Solar-thermal chilling systems are not new. However, few of them can be described as a practical...

  10. PV vs. Solar Water Heating- Simple Solar Payback

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solar energy systems hang their hats on payback. Financial payback is as tangible as money in your bank account, while other types of payback—like environmental externalities—are not usually calculated in dollars. There’s no doubt that photovoltaic (PV) and solar hot water (SHW) systems will pay you back. Maybe not as quickly as you’d like, but all systems will significantly offset their cost over their lifetimes. Here we’ll try to answer: Which system will give the quickest return on investment (ROI)?

  11. Thin Metal Oxide Films to Modify a Window Layer in CdTe-Based Solar Cells for Improved Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemmon, John P.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Bennett, Wendy D.; Kovarik, Libor

    2012-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on CdS/CdTe photovoltaic devices that contain a thin Ta2O5 film deposited onto the CdS window layer by sputtering. We show that for thicknesses below 5 nm, Ta2O5 films between CdS and CdTe positively affect the solar cell performance, improving JSC, VOC, and the cell power conversion efficiency despite the insulating nature of the interlayer material. Using the Ta2O5 interlayer, a VOC gain of over 100 mV was demonstrated compared to a CdTe/CdS baseline. Application of a 1nm Ta2O5 interlayer enabled the fabrication of CdTe solar cells with extremely thin (less than 30 nm) CdS window layers. The efficiency of these cells exceeded that of a base line cell with 95 nm of CdS.

  12. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for passive solar deSigns of buildings. ! :'feasurements/BUILDING MATERIALS INTRODUC TION The design of passive solar

  13. Solar Hot Water Creates Savings for Homeless Shelters | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Hot Water Creates Savings for Homeless Shelters Solar Hot Water Creates Savings for Homeless Shelters July 15, 2010 - 12:10pm Addthis Kevin Craft What are the key facts?...

  14. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Newly developed solar water heating technology can help Federal agencies cost effectively meet the EISA requirements for solar water heating in new construction and major renovations. This document provides design considerations, application, economics, and maintenance information and resources.

  15. Economic Analysis of Solar Water Heaters in GuangZhou 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Y.; Zhao, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a mature applied technology, the largest obstacle to the promotion of the solar water heater is the high initial investment that makes an impact on consumers' choices. The initial investment and maintenance cost of the solar water heater...

  16. Economic Analysis of Solar Water Heaters in GuangZhou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Y.; Zhao, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a mature applied technology, the largest obstacle to the promotion of the solar water heater is the high initial investment that makes an impact on consumers' choices. The initial investment and maintenance cost of the solar water heater...

  17. U.S. Virgin Islands- Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A household can receive a maximum of two solar water heater rebates. Rebate amounts vary slightly based upon installed equipment. Rebates will be $1,250 for solar water heaters with an OG-300 rat...

  18. Solar Farm Going Strong at Water Treatment Plant in Pennsylvania...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Farm Going Strong at Water Treatment Plant in Pennsylvania Solar Farm Going Strong at Water Treatment Plant in Pennsylvania October 8, 2010 - 10:39am Addthis Aqua...

  19. Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (U.S. Virgin Islands)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Virgin Islands Energy Office currently offers rebates to residents for purchasing solar water heaters from local vendors. The program will cover residential, solar water heaters of 120 gallons...

  20. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    G, S, Perkins, If Sun 'Tracking Solar Energy Collector ll ,K. Selcuk, "A Non- Tracking Solar Energy Collector SystemSolar Collector with Stationary Spherical RefL & a Tracking

  1. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance of Thin Film, Solar Thermal Energy Converters",sts of Collectors of Solar Thermal Energy, A Steel Flat PlatA Comparison of Solar Thermal Coatings", Spie 85, Optics in

  2. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TRANSFER (Section 4) A. PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN B. HEA T PIPESreviews). D-15 A. PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN J D, Balcomb, J. CoSection 4) D-15 - PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN D-17 - HEAT PIPES D-

  3. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and D. F. Frazine, "Mirror Panel Solar Absorptance Test", ADLong Life Terrestrial Solar Panel", 7 8N 24649, DOE/ JPLUno, "High Efficiency Solar Panel (HESP)! ', N78 10572, AD A

  4. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    only for large - scale solar power plant type applica- tionsEnergy Storage for Solar Power Plant", 11th IECEC (1976), J,energy storage~ solar power plants and other preliminary

  5. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Long Life Terrestrial Solar Panel", 7 8N 24649, DOE/ JPLUno, "High Efficiency Solar Panel (HESP)! ', N78 10572, AD AOptically table for Flat Solar Panels", N78 17477 (1977). J.

  6. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Cooling", Sharing the Sun in the Seventie s, Ed, J, Cook (Solar Energyll, Sharing the Sun in the Seventies, Ed, J, Cook (Cook H. M, Curran and M, M, Iller, "Comparative Evaluation of Solar

  7. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems for Solar Thermionic Converters!! , AD 922869 (Performance of a Thermionic Converter Module Utilizing

  8. Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be contributors to zero-energy buildings. This paper definesinto the role of zero energy building components. Achievingthe vision of zero energy buildings. Windows can admit solar

  9. Protecting Solar Rights in California Through an Exploration of the California Water Doctrine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedman, Anna

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nevertheless water and solar energy share many similar to realizing additional solar energy generation throughout installation of a  solar energy systems.    Solar Easement 

  10. WATER POWER SOLAR POWER WIND POWER

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group current C3EDepartmentDepartment(GATE)ActionSolar Water Heat Water

  11. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Study: Sun Light Energy Study: Solar RadiationS, Perkins, If Sun 'Tracking Solar Energy Collector ll , N77L. Berger, "The Sun, a New Source of Energy", AD B 026689,

  12. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    G. E. McOona 1d ABSTRACT: Solar heating panel performance issolar panels, co- efficient of performance of the heat pumps and the heatingThe panel is save heating costs in winter by absorbing solar

  13. Boron-doped amorphous diamondlike carbon as a new p-type window material in amorphous silicon p-i-n solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Yong Jung

    -i-n solar cells Chang Hyun Lee and Koeng Su Lim Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced this film, amorphous silicon (a-Si solar cells with a novel p-a-DLC:H/p-a-SiC double p-layer structure were as window materials for amorphous silicon (a-Si based solar cells.1­4 In using such films as a p layer

  14. STATE OF CALIFORNIA SOLAR DOMESTIC HOT WATER SYSTEMS (SDHW)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    attached CEC F-Chart) # of Collectors in System Collector Size Solar Tank Volume (gallons) §150(j)1B piping shall be insulated. §150(j)4: Solar water-heating system and/or/collectors are certifiedSTATE OF CALIFORNIA SOLAR DOMESTIC HOT WATER SYSTEMS (SDHW) CEC- CF-6R-MECH-02 (Revised 08

  15. A stock water solar heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nydahl, J.; Carlson, B.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the progress in the development of an inexpensive but rugged solar system to heat stock water. Insulation encased in fiber reinforced concrete is the main structural component for the collector and the partition between the unheated stock tank and the heated section. A fully wetted, drain-back collector was designed to produce a high optical efficiency and to permit its water passage to be opened for cleaning. A unique double-glazed design is used in which the inner glazing is a film with a large thermal expansion coefficient. This causes a significant drop in the stagnation temperatures since a single glazed configuration is approached at high temperatures. The collector and the partially covered insulated tank prevented freezing, and held the average water temperature at 6.4 C (44 F) during the day while the mean daily ambient temperature was {minus}5.4 C (22 F) over a nine day test.

  16. South River EMC- Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    South River Electric Membership Corporation (EMC) is providing rebates to encourage their customers to install solar water heating systems. To be eligible for the rebate solar collectors must have...

  17. Lumbee River EMC- Solar Water Heating Loan Program (North Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lumbee River EMC is offering 1.50% loans to residential customers for the installation of solar water heaters on their homes. To qualify, the systems must be certified OG-300 by the Solar Ratings...

  18. Lumbee River EMC- Solar Water Heating Rebate Program (North Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lumbee River EMC is offering $850 rebates to residential customers who install solar water heaters on their homes. To qualify, the systems must be certified OG-300 by the Solar Ratings and...

  19. Orlando Utilities Commission- Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Through a partnership with the Orlando Federal Credit Union (OFCU), OUC also offers a Residential Solar Loan Program to finance the solar hot water system. Customers who choose to finance through...

  20. Lumbee River EMC- Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lumbee River EMC is offering $850 rebates to residential customers who install solar water heaters on their homes.  To qualify, the systems must be certified OG-300 by the Solar Ratings and...

  1. Lumbee River EMC- Solar Water Heating Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lumbee River EMC is offering 1.50% loans to residential customers for the installation of solar water heaters on their homes.  To qualify, the systems must be certified OG-300 by the Solar Ratings...

  2. Water delivery in the Early Solar System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dvorak, Rudolf; Süli, Áron; Sándor, Zsolt; Galiazzo, Mattia; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the national scientific network 'Pathways to Habitable Worlds' the delivery of water onto terrestrial planets is a key question since water is essential for the development of life as we know it. After summarizing the state of the art we show some first results of the transport of water in the early Solar System for scattered main belt objects. Hereby we investigate the questions whether planetesimals and planetesimal fragments which have gained considerable inclination due to the strong dynamical interactions in the main belt region around 2 AU can be efficient water transporting vessels. The Hungaria asteroid group is the best example that such scenarios are realistic. Assuming that the gas giants and the terrestrial planets are already formed, we monitor the collisions of scattered small bodies containing water (in the order of a few percent) with the terrestrial planets. Thus we are able to give a first estimate concerning the respective contribution of such bodies to the actual water content i...

  3. JANUARY 2008 SOLAR DESALINATION OF BRACKISH WATER USING MEMBRANE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    solar collectors as water heaters and to determine the process parameters of the membrane distillationJANUARY 2008 SOLAR DESALINATION OF BRACKISH WATER USING MEMBRANE DISTILLATION PROCESS WRRI Technical Completion Report No. 342 Shuguang Deng NEW MEXICO WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE MSC 3167 New

  4. Solar Water Heating: SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary ofSmallConfidential,2Cycle Selection andSolar Water

  5. Installation package for a Sunspot Cascade Solar Water Heating System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elcam, Incorporated of Santa Barbara, California, has developed two solar water heating systems. The systems have been installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California. The systems consist of the following: collector, collector-tank water loop, solar tank, conventional tank and controls. General guidelines are provided which may be utilized in development of detailed instalation plans and specifications. In addition, it provides instruction on operation, maintenance and installation of solar hot water systems.

  6. Sacramento Ordinance to Waive Fees for Solar Hot Water

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An ordinance suspending for the calendar years 2007-2009 all fees related to installations of solar water heaters on existing residences.

  7. Orlando Utilities Commission- Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC) offers residential electric customers a point-of-sale rebate of $1,000 for new solar water heating systems.

  8. Ocala Utility Services- Solar Hot Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solar Water Heater Rebate Program is offered to residential retail electric customers by the City of Ocala Utility Services. Interested customers must complete an application and receive...

  9. NV Energy (Northern Nevada)- Solar Hot Water Incentive Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NV Energy is providing an incentive for its residential customers, small commercial, nonprofit, school and other public customers to install solar water heaters on their homes and facilities. ...

  10. Non-Residential Solar Water Heating Site Assessment at Milwaukee...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Non-Residential Solar Water Heating Site Assessment at Milwaukee Apartment Buildings The Midwest Renewable Energy Association's certified site assessors conducted 25 site...

  11. Duquesne Light Company- Residential Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Duquesne Light provides rebates to its residential customers for purchasing and installing qualifying solar water heating systems. Eligible systems may receive a flat rebate of $286 per qualifying...

  12. Fort Pierce Utilities Authority- Solar Water Heating Rebate (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '''''Fort Pierce Utilities Authority has suspended the Solar Water Heating rebate program until 2013. Contact the utility for more information on these offerings.'''''

  13. Opportunities for utility involvement with solar domestic hot water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlisle, N.; Christensen, C. (National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)); Barrett, L. (Barrett Consulting Associates, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States))

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar water heating is one of a number of options that can be considered under utility demand-side management (DSM) programs. Utilities perceive a range of potential benefits for solar water heating in terms of customer service, energy conservation, load management, environmental enhancement, and public relations. The solar industry may benefit from utility marketing efforts, economies of scale, added credibility, financing options, and long-term maintenance arrangements. This paper covers three topics: (1) the energy and demand impacts of solar water heating on utility load profiles based on the results of four studies in the literature, (2) the results of workshops sponsored by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to identify key issues faced by utilities in considering residential solar water heating as a DSM option, (3) several current or planned utility programs to promote solar water heating. 7 refs.

  14. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    G. E. Bush, "A Simple Home Heating System", N77 20598, UCRLmore modest projects such as home heating and cooling is theEconomical Solar Heating System for Homes DATE: July 1

  15. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar energy systeml. Non-intrusive n1easurernent tech-with the flow. Thus non-intrusive techniques are desirable;medical arena for non-intrusive blood flow measurements(50-

  16. The Hanle and Zeeman Effects in Solar Spicules: A Novel Diagnostic Window on Chromospheric Magnetism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Trujillo Bueno; L. Merenda; R. Centeno; M. Collados; E. Landi Degl'Innocenti

    2005-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An attractive diagnostic tool for investigating the magnetism of the solar chromosphere is the observation and theoretical modeling of the Hanle and Zeeman effects in spicules, as shown in this letter for the first time. Here we report on spectropolarimetric observations of solar chromospheric spicules in the He I 10830 \\AA multiplet and on their theoretical modeling accounting for radiative transfer effects. We find that the magnetic field in the observed (quiet Sun) spicular material at a height of about 2000 km above the visible solar surface has a strength of the order of 10 G and is inclined by approximately $35^{\\circ}$ with respect to the local vertical direction. Our empirical finding based on full Stokes-vector spectropolarimetry should be taken into account in future magnetohydrodynamical simulations of spicules.

  17. Solar Water Heating: What's Hot and What's Not 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stein, J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A handful of electric utilities in the United States now pay incentives to their customers to install solar water heaters or are developing programs to do so. The solar water heater incentives are part of a broader utility demand-side management...

  18. Solar Water Heating: What's Hot and What's Not

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stein, J.

    A handful of electric utilities in the United States now pay incentives to their customers to install solar water heaters or are developing programs to do so. The solar water heater incentives are part of a broader utility demand-side management...

  19. enhanced) in water vapor. The distribution of water ice throughout the solar nebula may

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    enhanced) in water vapor. The distribution of water ice throughout the solar nebula may have varied Solar System (Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ, 1988), p. 348. The time scale for settling of solids that are a few hundred times greater than that of the canonical solar nebula (14). Turbulent

  20. Protecting Solar Rights in California Through an Exploration of the California Water Doctrine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedman, Anna

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nevertheless water and solar energy share many similar resource.  Water and solar energy share several  properties that both water and solar energy share that  make the 

  1. Design package for solar domestic hot water system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information used to evaluate the initial design of the Elcam, Inc., Solar Domestic Hot Water System is presented. Included are such items as the system performance specification, detailed design drawings and other information. Elcam, Inc., has developed two solar heated prototype hot water systems and two heat exchangers. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished Site Data Acquisition. The two systems are installed at Tempe, Arizona, and San Diego, California.

  2. Water Pollution Control Plant Solar Site Evaluation: San José

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes the findings of a solar site evaluation conducted at the San Jose/Santa Clara Water Pollution Control Plant (Site) in the City of San Jose, California (City). This evaluation was conducted as part of a larger study to assess solar potential at multiple public facilities within the City.

  3. City of Tallahassee Utilities- Solar Water Heating Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The homeowner must allow the City of Tallahassee to conduct an energy audit on the home in order to make a preliminary assessment of sun exposure and to provide program guidance. All solar water...

  4. Entergy New Orleans- Residential Solar Water Heating Program (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Entergy New Orleans offers a Solar Water Heater Rebate pilot program designed to help residential customers make energy efficiency improvements. Rebates will be offered on a first-come, first...

  5. New Hampshire Electric Co-Op- Solar Hot Water

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Hampshire Electric Co-Op (NHEC) offers rebates to residential customers who install qualified solar water-heating systems. The rebate is equal to 20% of installed system costs, with a maximum...

  6. Southwest Gas Corporation- Smarter Greener Better Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Southwest Gas is offering rebates to Nevada customers for solar water heating systems installed in private residential, small business, public and other properties. Rebates are based on the amount...

  7. Beaches Energy Services- Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Beaches Energy Services offers a solar water heating rebate to their residential customers. This $500 rebate applies to new systems which are properly installed and certified. New construction and...

  8. Creating a Comprehensive Solar Water Heating Deployment Strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Focus Marketing Services

    1999-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry.

  9. Questar Gas- Residential Solar Assisted Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questar gas provides incentives for residential customers to purchase and install solar water heating systems on their homes. Rebates of $750 per system are provided to customers of Questar who...

  10. Texas Gas Service- Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate Program (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Texas Gas Service offers a flat rebate of $750 for its residential customers within the Austin and Sunset Valley city limits for the installation and purchase of a new solar water heater with...

  11. Questar Gas- Residential Solar Assisted Water Heating Rebate Program (Idaho)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questar gas provides incentives for residential customers to purchase and install solar water heating systems on their homes. Rebates of $750 per system are provided to customers of Questar who...

  12. Marshall Municipal Utilities- Solar Thermal Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Marshall Municipal Utilities (MMU) offers residential customers rebates for installing a ENERGY STAR Solar Thermal Water Heater. Rebates are based on the size of the system; MMU offers $20 per...

  13. NV Energy (Southern Nevada)- Solar Hot Water Incentive Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NV Energy is providing an incentive for its residential customers to install solar water heaters on their homes. As of July 26, 2013, NV Energy electric customers in Southern Nevada who own their...

  14. Lake Worth Utilities- Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Lake Worth Utilities (CLWU), in conjunction with Florida Municipal Power Agency, offers rebates to customers who purchase and install a solar water heating system for residential use. A...

  15. Questar Gas- Residential Solar Assisted Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questar Gas provides incentives for residential customers to purchase and install solar water heating systems on their homes. Rebates of $750 per system are provided to customers of Questar who...

  16. GreyStone Power- Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    GreyStone Power, an electricity cooperative serving 103,000 customers in Georgia, introduced a solar water heating rebate in March 2009. This $500 rebate is available to customers regardless of...

  17. Minnesota Power- Solar-Thermal Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Minnesota Power offers a 25% rebate for qualifying solar thermal water heating systems. The maximum award for single-family customers is $2,000 per customer; $4,000 for 2-3 family unit buildings;...

  18. Theoretical investigation of solar energy conversion and water oxidation catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lee-Ping

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar energy conversion and water oxidation catalysis are two great scientific and engineering challenges that will play pivotal roles in a future sustainable energy economy. In this work, I apply electronic structure ...

  19. City of Palo Alto Utilities- Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    City of Palo Alto Utilities is offering incentives for their residential, commercial and industrial customers to install solar water heating systems on their homes and facilities with a goal of 1...

  20. New Braunfels Utilities- Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Braunfels Utilities offers a rebate for residential customers who purchase and install solar water heating systems on eligible homes. A rebate of the equivalent of $0.265 per kWh is available...

  1. Expansion and Improvement of Solar Water Heating Technology in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    development of high-quality and attractive-looking model designs for integrating solar water heaters (SWH) into buildings in China. Coordinates: 39.90601, 116.387909 Show...

  2. NREL and Industry Advance Low-Cost Solar Water Heating R&D (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL and Rhotech develop cost-effective solar water heating prototype to rival natural gas water heater market.

  3. A comprehensive review of market research on solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghent, P.; Keller, C.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the second report of a four-task project to develop a marketing plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry. The objective of this task is to identify key elements in previous studies on the marketing of solar water heaters in the new home industry. This review includes studies performed by FOCUS Marketing Services, the National Association of Home Builders Research Center, Symmetrics Marketing Corporation, and the California Energy Commission.

  4. The Phases of Water Ice in the Solar Nebula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciesla, Fred J

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the phases of water ice that were present in the solar nebula has implications for understanding cometary and planetary compositions as well as internal evolution of these bodies. Here we show that amorphous ice formed more readily than previously recognized, with formation at temperatures ice to form. This processing would be a natural consequence of ice dynamics, and would allow for the trapping of noble gases and other volatiles in water ice in the outer solar nebula.

  5. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Webinar on Solar Water Heating Transcript

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording transcript of a Webinar on Nov. 16, 2010 about residential solar water heating applications

  6. Georgia Power- Residential Solar and Heat Pump Water Heater Rebate (Georgia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Georgia Power customers may be eligible for rebates up to $250 each toward the installation costs of a 50 gallon or greater solar water heater or heat pump water heater. The solar water heater or...

  7. EWEB- Residential Solar Water Heating Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Eugene Water & Electric Board (EWEB) offers residential customers a loan and cash discount program called, "The Bright Way To Heat Water." The program is designed to promote the installation of...

  8. Solar water heaters | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with form HistoryRistmaSinosteelSolar Energy sroWiki Page Solar and WindHot

  9. Mountain Association for Community Economic Development- Solar Water Heater Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Kentucky Solar Partnership (KSP) and the Mountain Association for Community Economic Development (MACED) partner to offer low interest loans for the installation of solar water heaters. Loans...

  10. The effects of high temperature processing on the structural and optical properties of oxygenated CdS window layers in CdTe solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paudel, Naba R.; Grice, Corey R.; Xiao, Chuanxiao; Yan, Yanfa [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    High efficiency CdTe solar cells typically use oxygenated CdS (CdS:O) window layers. We synthesize CdS:O window layers at room temperature (RT) and 270?°C using reactive sputtering. The band gaps of CdS:O layers deposited at RT increase when O{sub 2}/(O{sub 2}?+?Ar) ratios in the deposition chamber increase. On the other hand, the band gaps of CdS:O layers deposited at 270?°C decrease as the O{sub 2}/(O{sub 2}?+?Ar) ratios increase. Interestingly, however, our high temperature closed-space sublimation (CSS) processed CdTe solar cells using CdS:O window layers deposited at RT and 270?°C exhibit very similar cell performance, including similar short-circuit current densities. To understand the underlying reasons, CdS:O thin films deposited at RT and 270?°C are annealed at temperatures that simulate the CSS process of CdTe deposition. X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and UV-visible light absorption spectroscopy characterization of the annealed films reveals that the CdS:O films deposited at RT undergo grain regrowth and/or crystallization and exhibit reduced band gaps after the annealing. Our results suggest that CdS:O thin films deposited at RT and 270?°C should exhibit similar optical properties after the deposition of CdTe layers, explaining the similar cell performance.

  11. Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudon, K.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.; Maguire, J.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The market environment for solar water heating technology has changed substantially with the successful introduction of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs). The addition of this energy-efficient technology to the market increases direct competition with solar water heaters (SWHs) for available energy savings. It is therefore essential to understand which segment of the market is best suited for HPWHs and focus the development of innovative, low-cost SWHs in the market segment where the largest opportunities exist. To evaluate cost and performance tradeoffs between high performance hot water heating systems, annual energy simulations were run using the program, TRNSYS, and analysis was performed to compare the energy savings associated with HPWH and SWH technologies to conventional methods of water heating.

  12. Through a window, brightly : modulating daylight and solar radiation in commercial and institutional buildings through the use of architectural elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlereth, Hans-Joachim

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural lighting serves several important functions in buildings. The visual power of a shaft of sunlight penetrating a dark space or the visual beauty of a stained window has long been recognized by architects and designers. ...

  13. Zero Energy Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Windows in the U.S. consume 30 percent of building heating and cooling energy, representing an annual impact of 4.1 quadrillion BTU (quads) of primary energy. Windows have an even larger impact on peak energy demand and on occupant comfort. An additional 1 quad of lighting energy could be saved if buildings employed effective daylighting strategies. The ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program has made standard windows significantly more efficient. However, even if all windows in the stock were replaced with today's efficient products, window energy consumption would still be approximately 2 quads. However, windows can be ''net energy gainers'' or ''zero-energy'' products. Highly insulating products in heating applications can admit more useful solar gain than the conductive energy lost through them. Dynamic glazings can modulate solar gains to minimize cooling energy needs and, in commercial buildings, allow daylighting to offset lighting requirements. The needed solutions vary with building type and climate. Developing this next generation of zero-energy windows will provide products for both existing buildings undergoing window replacements and products which are expected to be contributors to zero-energy buildings. This paper defines the requirements for zero-energy windows. The technical potentials in terms of national energy savings and the research and development (R&D) status of the following technologies are presented: (1) Highly insulating systems with U-factors of 0.1 Btu/hr-ft{sup 2}-F; (2) Dynamic windows: glazings that modulate transmittance (i.e., change from clear to tinted and/or reflective) in response to climate conditions; and (3) Integrated facades for commercial buildings to control/ redirect daylight. Market transformation policies to promote these technologies as they emerge into the marketplace are then described.

  14. Study Design And Realization Of Solar Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lounis, M. [LAAR Laboratory-Physics Department-USTOMB 31000 Oran (Algeria); Boudjemaa, F.; Akil, S. Kouider [Genie Climatic Department-CUKM 44000-Khemis Miliana (Algeria)

    2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar is one of the most easily exploitable energy, it is moreover inexhaustible. His applications are many and are varied. The heating of the domestic water is one of the most immediate, simplest and also of most widespread exploitation of the solar energy. Algeria, from its geographical situation, it deposits one of the largest high sun surface expositions in the world. The exposition duration of the almost territory exceeds 2000 hours annually and can reach the 3900 hours (high plateaus and Sahara). By knowing the daily energy received by 1 m{sup 2} of a horizontal surface of the solar thermal panel is nearly around 1700 KWh/m{sup 2} a year in the north and 2263 KWh/m{sup 2} a year in the south of the country, we release the most important and strategic place of the solar technologies in the present and in the future for Algeria. This work consists to study, conceive and manufacture solar water heating with the available local materials so, this type of the energy will be profitable for all, particularly the poor countries. If we consider the illumination duration of the panel around 6 hours a day, the water heat panel manufactured in our laboratory produce an equivalent energy of 11.615 KWh a day so, 4239 KWh a year. These values of energy can be easily increased with performing the panel manufacture.

  15. Salem Electric- Solar Water Heater Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Salem Electric residential customers with electric water heating are eligible for a $600 rebate through Salem's Bright Way program. A program brochure with details is available on the program...

  16. Solar Hot Water Heater Industry in Barbados

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMayDepartment of Energy Ready,SmartEnergyEnergy ResourceSolar Hot

  17. Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

  18. Solar space and water heating system installed at Charlottesville, Virginia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greer, Charles R.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar energy system located at David C. Wilson Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Charlottesville, Virginia, consists of 88 single glazed, Sunworks Solector copper base plate collector modules; hot water coils in the hot air ducts; a domestic hot water (DHW) preheat tank; a 3,000 gallon concrete urethane-insulated storage tank and other miscellaneous components. This report includes extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  19. Marketing and promoting solar water heaters to home builders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, C.; Ghent, P.

    1999-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a four-task project to develop a marketing plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry. This report outlines suggested marketing communication materials and other promotional tools focused on selling products to the new home builder. Information relevant to promoting products to the new home buyer is also included.

  20. Reactive Sputtering of Bismuth Vanadate Photoanodes for Solar Water Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Javey, Ali

    Reactive Sputtering of Bismuth Vanadate Photoanodes for Solar Water Splitting Le Chen,, Esther of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 has remained relatively underexplored. Here, we report the synthesis of BiVO4 thin films by reactive

  1. Vehicle cabin cooling system for capturing and exhausting heated boundary layer air from inner surfaces of solar heated windows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrington, Robert B. (Golden, CO); Anderson, Ren (Broomfield, CO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cabin cooling system includes a cooling duct positioned proximate and above upper edges of one or more windows of a vehicle to exhaust hot air as the air is heated by inner surfaces of the windows and forms thin boundary layers of heated air adjacent the heated windows. The cabin cooling system includes at least one fan to draw the hot air into the cooling duct at a flow rate that captures the hot air in the boundary layer without capturing a significant portion of the cooler cabin interior air and to discharge the hot air at a point outside the vehicle cabin, such as the vehicle trunk. In a preferred embodiment, the cooling duct has a cross-sectional area that gradually increases from a distal point to a proximal point to the fan inlet to develop a substantially uniform pressure drop along the length of the cooling duct. Correspondingly, this cross-sectional configuration develops a uniform suction pressure and uniform flow rate at the upper edge of the window to capture the hot air in the boundary layer adjacent each window.

  2. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Solar Hot Water-Ready Checklist |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Hot Water-Ready Checklist DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Solar Hot Water-Ready Checklist DOE Zero Energy Ready Home National Program encourages, but does not require,...

  3. An overview of water disinfection in developing countries and the potential for solar thermal water pasteurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Thomas, K.E.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study originated within the Solar Buildings Program at the U.S. Department of Energy. Its goal is to assess the potential for solar thermal water disinfection in developing countries. In order to assess solar thermal potential, the alternatives must be clearly understood and compared. The objectives of the study are to: (a) characterize the developing world disinfection needs and market; (b) identify competing technologies, both traditional and emerging; (c) analyze and characterize solar thermal pasteurization; (d) compare technologies on cost-effectiveness and appropriateness; and (e) identify research opportunities. Natural consequences of the study beyond these objectives include a broad knowledge of water disinfection problems and technologies, introduction of solar thermal pasteurization technologies to a broad audience, and general identification of disinfection opportunities for renewable technologies.

  4. Rolling, Rolling, Rolling: Roller Window Shades | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    anyway, even if our windows were of the highest efficiency. One of my colleagues in a solar energy group I belonged to was a distributor of a high R-value quilted roller window...

  5. Solar Water Heater Roadmap Leads Path to Market Expansion (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Innovative strategy to reduce installed cost of solar water heater systems can rival conventional natural gas water heaters in the marketplace.

  6. Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMayDepartment of EnergySite Screening Decision Tree SolarSolar Water

  7. Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. A more-realistic ratings draw is proposed that eliminates most bias by improving mains inlet temperature and by specifying realistic hot water use. This paper outlines the current and the proposed draws and estimates typical ratings changes from draw specification changes for typical systems in four cities.

  8. Solar heating and hot water system installed at office building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the Final Report of the Solar Energy System Installed at the First Solar Heated Office Building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas. The Solar System was designed to provide 87 percent of the space heating needs, 100 percent of the potable hot water needs and is sized for future absorption cooling. The collection subsystem consists of 28 Solargenics, series 76, flat plate collectors with a total area of 1596 square feet. The solar loop circulates an ethylene glycol-water solution through the collectors into a hot water system heat exchanger. The hot water storage subsystem consists of a heat exchanger, two 2300 gallon concrete hot water storage tanks with built in heat exchangers and a back-up electric boiler. The domestic hot water subsystem sends hot water to the 10,200 square feet floor area office building hot water fixtures. The building cold water system provides make-up to the solar loop, the heating loop, and the hot water concrete storage tanks. The design, construction, cost analysis, operation and maintenance of the solar system are described. The system became operational July 11, 1979.

  9. Measurement and verification for solar water heating performance contracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, A.; Azerbegi, R.J.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar water heating is a hardware intensive and therefore capital intensive, energy conservation measure. Energy Savings Performance Contracting (ESPC) offers a solution to the financing barrier by using third-party funds to install a system, and then paying the financier back out of the energy cost savings over the term of the contract. Measurement and Verification (M and V) of system performance is key to this kind of contract, and for Federal government ESPC projects, measurement and verification of energy cost savings is required by statute. The design of an M and V program has very important implications for customers and project developers alike. This paper presents detailed discussion of solar water heating M and V options developed for the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), but with general application for all solar water heating performance contracting arrangements, public and private. The options described in the paper are: stipulation with inspection; metering; utility bill analysis; and renormalized computer models. In addition to contrasting the cost, benefits and appropriate application of each option, this paper discusses issues common to all options, such as the statistical design of M and V programs. The paper concludes with recommended options based on the size and type of project, the cost of the M and V program, and the allocation of risk between the contracting parties.

  10. Solar water heating technical support. Technical report for November 1997--April 1998 and final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, J.

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This progress report covers the time period November 1, 1997 through April 30, 1998, and also summarizes the project as the final report. The topics of the report include certification of solar collectors for water heating systems, modeling and testing of solar collectors and gas water heater backup systems, ratings of collectors for specific climates, and solar pool heating systems.

  11. Design and Experiments of a Solar Low-temperature Hot Water Floor Radiant Heating System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Z.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar low-temperature hot water floor radiant heating system combines solar energy heating with floor radiant heating. This kind of environmental heating way not only saves fossil resources and reduces pollution, but also makes people feel more...

  12. Design and Experiments of a Solar Low-temperature Hot Water Floor Radiant Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Z.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar low-temperature hot water floor radiant heating system combines solar energy heating with floor radiant heating. This kind of environmental heating way not only saves fossil resources and reduces pollution, but also makes people feel more...

  13. Mandating Solar Hot Water by California Local Governments: Legal Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman,, Peter C.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and counties the power to require dedication of solar accessthe power to re- quire dedication of solar easements as a

  14. Solar High Temperature Water-Splitting Cycle with Quantum Boost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Robin [SAIC] [SAIC; Davenport, Roger [SAIC] [SAIC; Talbot, Jan [UCSD] [UCSD; Herz, Richard [UCSD] [UCSD; Genders, David [Electrosynthesis Co.] [Electrosynthesis Co.; Symons, Peter [Electrosynthesis Co.] [Electrosynthesis Co.; Brown, Lloyd [TChemE] [TChemE

    2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A sulfur family chemical cycle having ammonia as the working fluid and reagent was developed as a cost-effective and efficient hydrogen production technology based on a solar thermochemical water-splitting cycle. The sulfur ammonia (SA) cycle is a renewable and sustainable process that is unique in that it is an all-fluid cycle (i.e., with no solids handling). It uses a moderate temperature solar plant with the solar receiver operating at 800°C. All electricity needed is generated internally from recovered heat. The plant would operate continuously with low cost storage and it is a good potential solar thermochemical hydrogen production cycle for reaching the DOE cost goals. Two approaches were considered for the hydrogen production step of the SA cycle: (1) photocatalytic, and (2) electrolytic oxidation of ammonium sulfite to ammonium sulfate in aqueous solutions. Also, two sub-cycles were evaluated for the oxygen evolution side of the SA cycle: (1) zinc sulfate/zinc oxide, and (2) potassium sulfate/potassium pyrosulfate. The laboratory testing and optimization of all the process steps for each version of the SA cycle were proven in the laboratory or have been fully demonstrated by others, but further optimization is still possible and needed. The solar configuration evolved to a 50 MW(thermal) central receiver system with a North heliostat field, a cavity receiver, and NaCl molten salt storage to allow continuous operation. The H2A economic model was used to optimize and trade-off SA cycle configurations. Parametric studies of chemical plant performance have indicated process efficiencies of ~20%. Although the current process efficiency is technically acceptable, an increased efficiency is needed if the DOE cost targets are to be reached. There are two interrelated areas in which there is the potential for significant efficiency improvements: electrolysis cell voltage and excessive water vaporization. Methods to significantly reduce water evaporation are proposed for future activities. Electrolysis membranes that permit higher temperatures and lower voltages are attainable. The oxygen half cycle will need further development and improvement.

  15. Solar Water Heaters and the Economy | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssues DOE's Nuclear EnergySmart Metersof EnergyRightsSolarWater

  16. Solar Water Splitting: Photocatalyst Materials Discovery and Systems Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNulty, Thomas F.

    2008-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen promises to be an attractive transportation fuel in the post-fossil fuel era. Relatively abundant and clean burning (water being the principal byproduct), hydrogen offers the potential to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, there are significant technical barriers that require solutions before hydrogen can be implemented in large scale. These are: · Sources (e.g. hydrocarbon, water) · Transportation · Storage Each of the aforementioned barriers carries with it important considerations. First, would a hydrocarbon-based hydrogen source be of any benefit compared to conventional fossil fuels? Second, will a system based on centralized generation and distribution be viable? Finally, methods of on-board storage, whether they are liquefaction, adsorption, or intercalation, are far from optimized. The scope of this program is limited to hydrogen generation, specifically generation using solarinitiated water electrolysis. Though concept of making hydrogen using water and sunlight may sound somewhat far-fetched, in reality the concept is very real. Since the discovery of solar-generated hydrogen, termed photoelectrochemical hydrogen, nearly 30 years ago by Fujishima and Honda, significant advances in both fundamental understanding and technological capability have been made. Using solar radiation to generate hydrogen in a fashion akin to using solar to generate electricity offers many advantages. First, hydrogen can be generated at the point of use, reducing the importance of transportation. Second, using water as the hydrogen source eliminates greenhouse gas evolution and the consequences that come with it. Finally, because the process uses very little electricity (pumps and compressors predominantly), the quantity of chemical fuel produced far exceeds the amount of electricity consumed. Consequently, there is some level of truth to the notion that photoelectrochemically-derived hydrogen offers the potential to nearly eliminate greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation landscape. This report focuses primarily on the technical issues inherent to developing an economically viable photoelectrochemical hydrogen system. This involves research intended to address technology gaps as well as research to address commercial feasibility. Though a firm cost target is not identified explicitly, much of the economics are presented in terms of “dollars per gallon of gasoline equivalent” ($/gge). Obviously this is a moving target, but it is important to understand cost in terms of current gasoline pricing, since the intended target is gasoline replacement. However, this does put the cost contribution into a perspective that at least allows for a reasonable assessment of technological viability. It also allows for the identification of need areas beyond the obvious technology gaps.

  17. San Diego Solar Panels Generate Clean Electricity Along with Clean Water

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Thanks to San Diego's ambitious solar energy program, the Otay Water Treatment Plant may soon be able to do that with net zero electricity consumption.

  18. Enhanced water window x-ray emission from in situ formed carbon clusters irradiated by intense ultra-short laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakravarty, U.; Rao, B. S.; Arora, V.; Upadhyay, A.; Singhal, H.; Naik, P. A.; Chakera, J. A.; Mukherjee, C.; Gupta, P. D. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452 013 Madhya Pradesh (India)] [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452 013 Madhya Pradesh (India)

    2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Enhanced water window x-ray emission (23–44 Å) from carbon clusters, formed in situ using a pre-pulse, irradiated by intense (I > 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}) ultra-short laser pulse, is demonstrated. An order of magnitude x-ray enhancement over planar graphite target is observed in carbon clusters, formed by a sub-ns pre-pulse, interacting with intense main pulse after a delay. The effect of the delay and the duration of the main pulse is studied for optimizing the x-ray emission in the water window region. This x-ray source has added advantages of being an efficient, high repetition rate, and low debris x-ray source.

  19. Window and Envelope Technologies Overview - 2014 BTO Peer Review...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Windows and Building Envelope Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review Research and Development Roadmap: Windows and Building Envelope Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging Water Heating...

  20. Promising freeze protection alternatives in solar domestic hot water systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, D.E.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the gains associated with solar thermal energy technologies are comparatively small in relation to the required capital investment, it is vital to maximize conversion efficiency. While providing the necessary function of freeze protection, the heat exchanger commonly included in solar domestic water heating systems represents a system inefficiency. This thesis explores two alternate methods of providing freeze protection without resorting to a heat exchanger. Commonly, collectors are made of rigid copper tubes separated by copper or aluminum fins. Cracking damage can occur when water is allowed to freeze and expand inside the non compliant tubes. The possibility of making collectors out of an elastic material was investigated and shown to be effective. Since unlike copper, elastomers typically have low thermal conductivities, the standard collector performance prediction equations do not apply. Modified thermal performance prediction equations were developed which can be used for both low and high thermal conductivity materials to provide accurate predictions within a limited range of plate geometries. An elastomeric collector plate was then designed and shown to have comparable performance to a copper plate collector whose aperture area is approximately 33% smaller. Another options for providing freeze protection to an SDHW system is to turn it off during the winter. Choosing a three-season operating period means two things. First, the system will have different optimums such as slope and collector area. Second, the wintertime solar energy incident on the collector is unavailable for meeting a heating load. However, the system`s heat exchanger becomes unnecessary and removing it increases the amount of energy that arrives at the storage tank during those periods in which the system is operating.

  1. New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute, New Mexico State University http://wrri.nmsu.edu Solar Desalination of Brackish Water Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    It was found that the solar water heater could increase the brackish water temperature to above 170 F during://wrri.nmsu.edu Solar Desalination of Brackish Water Using Membrane Distillation Process Shuguang Deng, NMSU from brackish water by using solar energy assisted membrane distillation processes. Problem

  2. Fuels from Water, CO2, and Solar Energy Prof. Aldo Steinfeld

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    Fuels from Water, CO2, and Solar Energy Prof. Aldo Steinfeld Department of Mechanical and Process fuels make use of concentrated solar radiation as the energy source of high-temperature process heat Engineering, ETH Zurich, Switzerland and Solar Technology Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland

  3. Penetration of solar radiation in the upper ocean: A numerical model for oceanic and coastal waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Zhongping

    Penetration of solar radiation in the upper ocean: A numerical model for oceanic and coastal waters in the upper ocean, the vertical distribution of solar radiation (ESR) in the shortwave domain plays (2005), Penetration of solar radiation in the upper ocean: A numerical model for oceanic and coastal

  4. A photonic nano-architecture is designed to enhance solar water splitting effi-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steiner, Ullrich

    energy into hydrogen. However, the solar- to-H2 conversion efficiency is still very low due to rapid bulk artificial photosynthesis routes using solar energy to produce H2 or other fuels is an attractive scientificA photonic nano-architecture is designed to enhance solar water splitting effi- ciency

  5. Water use and supply concerns for utility-scale solar projects in the Southwestern United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Reno, Marissa Devan; Moreland, Barbara D.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO] [National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are currently being built and planned for locations in the U.S. with the greatest solar resource potential, an understanding of water use for construction and operations is needed as siting tends to target locations with low natural rainfall and where most existing freshwater is already appropriated. Using methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine water used in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance, an estimate of water used over the lifetime at the solar power plant is determined and applied to each watershed in six Southwestern states. Results indicate that that PV systems overall use little water, though construction usage is high compared to O&M water use over the lifetime of the facility. Also noted is a transition being made from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities that will significantly reduce operational water use at these facilities. Using these water use factors, estimates of future water demand for current and planned solar development was made. In efforts to determine where water could be a limiting factor in solar energy development, water availability, cost, and projected future competing demands were mapped for the six Southwestern states. Ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability.

  6. The Influence of Residential Solar Water Heating on Electric Utility Demand 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vliet, G. C.; Askey, J. L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Similar sets of residences in Austin, Texas with electric water heaters and solar water heaters with electric back-up were monitored during 1982 to determine their instantaneous electric demands, the purpose being to determine the influence...

  7. The Influence of Residential Solar Water Heating on Electric Utility Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vliet, G. C.; Askey, J. L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Similar sets of residences in Austin, Texas with electric water heaters and solar water heaters with electric back-up were monitored during 1982 to determine their instantaneous electric demands, the purpose being to determine the influence...

  8. Mandating Solar Hot Water by California Local Governments: Legal Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman,, Peter C.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the county building code to require solar energy to be thebuilding code, in accord with the energy element of its general plan, to require solar

  9. Window shopping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Best, D.

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The author addresses the energy efficiency of windows and describes changes and new products available in this consumer information article. Experiments currently being done by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Bonneville Power Authority and the Washington State Energy Office show that some of these superwindows collect more energy from the sun than they let escape from inside the home. One type of window in current production is the low-E (low-emissivity) and the IGUs (insulated glass units). Low-E techniques include glazing of the glass with various materials including polyester and metallic coatings. Other measures include filling the airspace in double pane windows with argon, aerogel or by creating a vacuum in the airspace. Another factor the author considers is ultraviolet light protection.

  10. Final report : testing and evaluation for solar hot water reliability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caudell, Thomas P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM) [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; He, Hongbo (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM) [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Menicucci, David F. (Building Specialists, Inc., Albuquerque, NM) [Building Specialists, Inc., Albuquerque, NM; Mammoli, Andrea A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM) [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Burch, Jay (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO) [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar hot water (SHW) systems are being installed by the thousands. Tax credits and utility rebate programs are spurring this burgeoning market. However, the reliability of these systems is virtually unknown. Recent work by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has shown that few data exist to quantify the mean time to failure of these systems. However, there is keen interest in developing new techniques to measure SHW reliability, particularly among utilities that use ratepayer money to pay the rebates. This document reports on an effort to develop and test new, simplified techniques to directly measure the state of health of fielded SHW systems. One approach was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and is based on the idea that the performance of the solar storage tank can reliably indicate the operational status of the SHW systems. Another approach, developed by the University of New Mexico (UNM), uses adaptive resonance theory, a type of neural network, to detect and predict failures. This method uses the same sensors that are normally used to control the SHW system. The NREL method uses two additional temperature sensors on the solar tank. The theories, development, application, and testing of both methods are described in the report. Testing was performed on the SHW Reliability Testbed at UNM, a highly instrumented SHW system developed jointly by SNL and UNM. The two methods were tested against a number of simulated failures. The results show that both methods show promise for inclusion in conventional SHW controllers, giving them advanced capability in detecting and predicting component failures.

  11. Modelling of a solar-powered supercritical water biomass gasifier Laurance A Watson1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the waste heat (steam) of a downstream Fischer- Tropsch process. An intermediate heat exchange unitModelling of a solar-powered supercritical water biomass gasifier Laurance A Watson1 , John D Pye2 exercise to design a solar supercritical water gasification (SCWG) reactor. A formative reactor concept

  12. Improving the efficiency of water splitting in dye-sensitized solar cells by using a biomimetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Improving the efficiency of water splitting in dye-sensitized solar cells by using a biomimetic studied this problem in dye-sensitized solar cells where a molecular dye and a porous TiO2 electrode act been demonstrated using dye-sensitized electrodes. The quantum yield for water splitting in these dye

  13. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of power consumption by ALCWs allows for on-board power electronics for automatic matching of transmission through windows to varying climate conditions without drawing the power from the power grid. ALCWs are capable of transmitting more sunlight in winters to assist in heating and less sunlight in summers to minimize overheating. As such, they can change the window from being a source of energy loss to a source of energy gain. In addition, the scalable AMI’s roll-to-roll process, proved by making 1ft × 1ftALCW prototype panels, allows for cost-effective production of large-scale window panels along with capability to change easily their color and shape. In addition to architectural glazing in houses and commercial buildings, ALCWs can be used in other applications where control of sunlight is needed, such as green houses, used by commercial produce growers and botanical gardens, cars, aircrafts, etc.

  14. Thickness Effect of Al-Doped ZnO Window Layer on Damp Heat Stability of CuInGaSe2 Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pern, F. J.; Mansfield, L.; DeHart, C.; Glick, S. H.; Yan, F.; Noufi, R.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the damp heat (DH) stability of CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells as a function of thickness of the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) window layer from the 'standard' 0.12 ?m to a modest 0.50 ?m over an underlying 0.10-?m intrinsic ZnO buffer layer. The CIGS cells were prepared with external electrical contact using fine Au wire to the tiny 'standard' Ni/Al (0.05 ?m/3 ?m) metal grid contact pads. Bare cell coupons and sample sets encapsulated in a specially designed, Al-frame test structure with an opening for moisture ingress control using a TPT backsheet were exposed to DH at 85oC and 85% relative humidity, and characterized by current-voltage (I-V), quantum efficiency (QE), and (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (ECIS). The results show that bare cells exhibited rapid degradation within 50-100 h, accompanied by film wrinkling and delamination and corrosion of Mo and AlNi grid, regardless of AZO thickness. In contrast, the encapsulated cells did not show film wrinkling, delamination, and Mo corrosion after 168 h DH exposure; but the trend of efficiency degradation rate showed a weak correlation to the AZO thickness.

  15. A cash-flow economic model for analyzing utility/ESCO solar hot water programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bircher, C. [ENSTAR, De Pere, WI (United States); DeLaune, J.L. [Wisconsin Public Service Corp., Green Bay, WI (United States); Lyons, C.R. [Energy Alliance Group, Boston, MA (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wisconsin Public Service Corporation (WPSC), in partnership with Energy Alliance Group (EAG), has developed a robust cash-flow economic model to analyze an energy service company (ESCO) approach to utility solar water heating programs. This paper describes the ESCO approach and its potential to increase penetration of solar water heating. The economic model is presented, and its use in designing WPSC`s Solar-Wise Water Heating Service program is described. The model`s results for WPSC are positive, indicating that an ESCO approach has strong potential. A feasibility study of ESCO solar water heating programs for a varied sample of other US utilities was also conducted using the model, and the results are summarized. Sensitivity analyses from the study reveal that the three key drivers of ESCO solar water heating success are electric rate, length of the service agreement, and the amount of the customer`s payment for the service.

  16. Pipe Freeze Prevention for Passive Solar Water Heaters Using a Room-Air Natural Convection Loop: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Heater, M.; Brandemuhl, M.; Krarti, M.

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conference paper regarding research in the use of freeze prevention for passive solar domestic water heating systems.

  17. Solar heating and hot water system installed at St. Louis, Missouri. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information is provided on the solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao and Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri. The information consists of description, photos, maintenance and construction problems, final drawing, system requirements and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50% of the hot water requirements and 45% of the space heating needs for a 900 square foot office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 square foot of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  18. Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlled for2006). Advancement of Electrochromic Windows, CaliforniaSavings Potential of Electrochromic Windows in the U.S.

  19. home power 114 / august & september 2006 in Solar Hot Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knowles, David William

    : Heliotrope Thermal DTT-84 Solar Collectors: Two Heliodyne Gobi 410, 4 x 10 ft. Cold Supply In Hot to House

  20. Laboratory-size three-dimensional x-ray microscope with Wolter type I mirror optics and an electron-impact water window x-ray source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohsuka, Shinji, E-mail: ohsuka@crl.hpk.co.jp [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); The Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, 1955-1 Kurematsu-cho, Nishi-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 431-1202 (Japan); Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); Nakano, Tomoyasu [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); Ray-Focus Co. Ltd., 6009 Shinpara, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-0003 (Japan); Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques, and observed bio-medical samples to evaluate its applicability to life science research fields. It consists of a condenser and an objective grazing incidence Wolter type I mirror, an electron-impact type oxygen K? x-ray source, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit of around 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-?m scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved.

  1. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming (Syvania, OH)

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  2. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming (Syvania, OH); Liao, Xianbo (Toledo, OH); Du, Wenhui (Toledo, OH)

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  3. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming (Sylvania, OH); Liao, Xianbo (Toledo, OH); Du, Wenhui (Toledo, OH)

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  4. Thin Metal Oxide Films to Modify a Window Layer in CdTe-Based...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin Metal Oxide Films to Modify a Window Layer in CdTe-Based Solar Cells for Improved Performance. Thin Metal Oxide Films to Modify a Window Layer in CdTe-Based Solar Cells for...

  5. Comparison Between TRNSYS Software Simulation and F-Chart Program on Solar Domestic Hot Water System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Baltazar, J. C.; Mao, C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents the accuracy test of a TRNSYS Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) System simulation. The testing is based on comparing the results with the F-Chart software. The selected system to carry out the tests was the Active Solar Domestic...

  6. Comparison Between TRNSYS Software Simulation and F-Chart Program on Solar Domestic Hot Water System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Baltazar, J. C.; Mao, C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents the accuracy test of a TRNSYS Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) System simulation. The testing is based on comparing the results with the F-Chart software. The selected system to carry out the tests was the Active Solar Domestic...

  7. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, John W. (Sag Harbor, NY)

    1983-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A water heater or system which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  8. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, J.W.

    1980-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A water heater or system is described which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  9. Progress Energy Florida- SunSense Solar Water Heating with EnergyWise

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Progress Energy Florida (PEF) launched the ''Solar Water Heating with EnergyWise Program'' in February 2007 to encourage its residential customers to participate in its load control program and...

  10. Investigation of a Novel Solar Assisted Water Heating System with Enhanced Energy Yield for Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, X.; Zhao, X.; Xu, J.; Yu, X.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presented the concept, prototype application, operational performance and benefits relating to a novel solar assisted water heating system for building services. It was undertaken through dedicated theoretical analysis, computer...

  11. Duke Energy Florida- SunSense Solar Water Heating with EnergyWise

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Duke Energy Florida (DEF) launched the Solar Water Heating with EnergyWise Program in February 2007 to encourage its residential customers to participate in its load control program and install a...

  12. Spirasol : improvements to semi-continuous solar disinfection water treatment systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loux, Brian Michael, 1981-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was carried out to determine the feasibility of an original point of use solar water disinfection system created by the author and named "Spirasol." The study primarily focused on the comparison of ...

  13. FirstEnergy (West Penn Power)- Residential Solar Water Heating Program (Pennsylvania)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    West Penn Power, a First Energy utility, provides rebates to residential customers for purchasing and installing qualifying solar water heating systems. Eligible systems may receive a rebate of up...

  14. Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc- Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clay Electric Cooperative (CEC) provides a rebate of $0.01 per BTU output to its residential members when they purchase qualified solar water heaters. This rebate is capped at 60,000 BTUs per...

  15. Solar PV water pumping system for rural development in Nepal: Problems and prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, J.N. [Inst. of Engineering, Kathmandu (Nepal). Dept. of Electronics Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Although PV water pumping systems have high initial costs, they require virtually no maintenance, require no fuel and thus save foreign exchange. They are easy to install and operate, have no moving parts and hence are highly reliable and durable and are modular in nature for future expansion, PV systems are found to be competitive with conventional diesel generator systems. Despite the above mentioned facts policy makers are still not convinced that solar PV water pumping systems can support rural development. This paper gives reasons for the failures of some solar PV water pumping projects in Nepal. Development of solar electricity totaling about 800 KWp in Nepal is briefly highlighted. Basic preconditions are identified for the successful operation of solar PV water pumping systems. The findings of successful solar PV water pumping systems are highlighted with specific reference to socio-economic impacts in the rural society. Subsidy policy of the government on solar PV water pumping systems is analyzed. Development of a spontaneous market for community solar PV water pumping system is analyzed. Suggestions are given on how solar PV water pumping system can be made more affordable by village people. Typical Nepalese rural areas are found to be suitable and economical for SPVWPS. Site evaluation procedure is given. Finally, the paper indicates the important of training for the local people in installation, operation and routine maintenance to ensure the reliability of the SPVWPS. The paper emphasizes the involvement of end-users from the very beginning of planning stage of SPVWPS. Detail comparison between a SPVWPS and an equivalent diesel generator is also indicated in the paper.

  16. Designing of a prototype heat-sealer to manufacture solar water sterilization pouches for use in developing nations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quinlan, Saundra S

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water purification proves to be a difficult task in many developing nations. The SODIS (SOlar water DISinfection) process is a method which improves the microbiological quality of water making it safer for drinking and ...

  17. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Shoney's Restaurant, North Little Rock, Arkansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar heating system is designed to supply a major portion of the space and water heating requirements for a newly built Shoney's Big Boy Restaurant which was installed with completion occurring in December 1979. The restaurant has a floor space of approximately 4,650 square feet and requires approximately 1500 gallons of hot water daily. The solar energy system consists of 1,428 square feet of Chamberlain flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 1500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 321 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/yr (specified) building heating and hot water heating. Designer - Energy Solutions, Incorporated. Contractor - Stephens Brothers, Incorporated. This report includes extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, drawings installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  18. California Solar Initiative- Low-Income Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) voted in October 2011 to create the California Solar Initiative (CSI) Thermal Low-Income program for single and multifamily residential properties....

  19. Relationships between inherent optical properties and the depth of penetration of solar radiation in optically complex coastal waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strathclyde, University of

    Relationships between inherent optical properties and the depth of penetration of solar radiation optical properties and the depth of penetration of solar radiation in optically complex coastal waters, J

  20. Gainesville Regional Utilities- Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Gainesville Regional Utilities (GRU) Solar Rebate Program, established in early 1997 as part of GRU's demand-side management initiatives, provides rebates of $500 to residential customers of...

  1. Texas Gas Service- Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Only active systems with panels (or collectors) that are certified OG-100 by the Solar Rating Certification Corporation (SRCC) qualify for this rebate. Work must be completed by a licensed contra...

  2. City Water Light and Power- Solar Rewards Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Funding for the SOLAR REWARDS Rebate program has been exhausted for the current fiscal year. Please check back after March 1, 2015, to see if funding has been reinstated.

  3. Residential Windows and Window Coverings: A Detailed View of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Windows and Window Coverings: A Detailed View of the Installed Base and User Behavior Residential Windows and Window Coverings: A Detailed View of the Installed Base...

  4. Connate Water Saturation -Irreducible or Not: the Key to Reliable Hydraulic Rock Typing in Reservoirs Straddling Multiple Capillary Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    of flow capacity. High in-situ capillary pressure causes connate water saturation in reservoir rocks petrophysical analysis based solely on conventional logs, including gamma ray, neutron porosity, bulk densitySPE 166082 Connate Water Saturation - Irreducible or Not: the Key to Reliable Hydraulic Rock Typing

  5. Windows Server Evaluation Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Galen

    Windows Server 2012 R2 Evaluation Guide #12;Copyright Information © 2013 Microsoft Corporation. All .......................................................................................................................1 Introduction to Windows Server 2012 R2 ..................................................................................................7 Windows Server: Architecture of the Evaluation Environment

  6. Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Grove, CA. Zero Energy Windows Dariush Arasteh,No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Zero Energy Windows Dariush Arasteh,Advanced Windows for Zero-Energy Homes. ASHRAE - American

  7. Advancement of Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Guide for Early-Market Electrochromic Windows. LBNL-59950.Granqvist, C.G. 2000. "Electrochromic Tungsten Oxide Films:the performance of the electrochromic windows. Proceedings

  8. Windows XP - LPR Printing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dbrown

    2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Printer Setup in Windows XP. To print to the math department printers in Windows XP, “Print Services for Unix” must be installed. To begin installation of “

  9. Solar hot water system installed at Quality Inn, Key West, Florida. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar energy hot water system installed in the Quality Inn, Key West, Florida, which consists of four buildings, is described. Three buildings are low-rise, two-story buildings containing 100 rooms. The fourth is a four-story building with 48 rooms. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50% of the energy required for the domestic hot water system. The solar system consists of approximately 1400 ft/sup 2/ of flat plate collector, two 500 gal storage tanks, a circulating pump, and a controller. Operation of the system was begun in April 1978, and has continued to date with only three minor interruptions for pump repair. In the first year of operation, it was determined that the use of the solar facility resulted in 40% fuel savings.

  10. Solar Water Heating: SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMayDepartment of EnergySite Screening Decision Tree SolarSolar

  11. Efficient Solar Concentrators: Affordable Energy from Water and Sunlight

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Teledyne is developing a liquid prism panel that tracks the position of the sun to help efficiently concentrate its light onto a solar cell to produce power. Typically, solar tracking devices have bulky and expensive mechanical moving parts that require a lot of power and are often unreliable. Teledyne’s liquid prism panel has no bulky and heavy supporting parts—instead it relies on electrowetting. Electrowetting is a process where an electric field is applied to the liquid to control the angle at which it meets the sunlight above and to control the angle of the sunlight to the focusing lensthe more direct the angle to the focusing lens, the more efficiently the light can be concentrated to solar panels and converted into electricity. This allows the prism to be tuned like a radio to track the sun across the sky and steer sunlight into the solar cell without any moving mechanical parts. This process uses very little power and requires no expensive supporting hardware or moving parts, enabling efficient and quiet rooftop operation for integration into buildings.

  12. Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front cost of this system because it was financed through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). The ESPC payments are 10% less than the energy savings so that the prison saves an average of$6,700 per year, providing an immediate payback. The solar hot water system produces up to 50,000 gallons of hot water daily, enough to meet the needs of 1,250 inmates and staff who use the kitchen, shower, and laundry facilities.

  13. Comparison of experimental and simulated thermal ratings of drain-back solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, J.H.; Carlson, W.T.; Duff, W.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (United States)); Schaefer, P.J.; Beckman, W.A.; Klein, S.A. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Short-term experimental tests of drain-back solar water heaters are compared to ratings obtained using TRNSYS to determine if computer simulations can effectively replace laboratory thermal ratings of solar domestic hot water heating systems. The effectiveness of TRNSYS in predicting changes in rating due to limited changes in collector area, collector flow rate, recirculation flow rate, storage tank volume, and storage tank design is validated to within [plus minus]10 percent. Storage tank design is varied by using a stratification manifold in place of the standard drop tube. Variations in other component sizes and operating factors are based on current industry standards.

  14. High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Solar Thermochemical Splitting of Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heske, Clemens; Moujaes, Samir; Weimer, Alan; Wong, Bunsen; Siegal, Nathan; McFarland, Eric; Miller, Eric; Lewis, Michele; Bingham, Carl; Roth, Kurth; Sabacky, Bruce; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to identify economically feasible concepts for the production of hydrogen from water using solar energy. The ultimate project objective was to select one or more competitive concepts for pilot-scale demonstration using concentrated solar energy. Results of pilot scale plant performance would be used as foundation for seeking public and private resources for full-scale plant development and testing. Economical success in this venture would afford the public with a renewable and limitless source of energy carrier for use in electric power load-leveling and as a carbon-free transportation fuel. The Solar Hydrogen Generation Research (SHGR) project embraces technologies relevant to hydrogen research under the Office of Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technology (HFCIT) as well as concentrated solar power under the Office of Solar Energy Technologies (SET). Although the photoelectrochemical work is aligned with HFCIT, some of the technologies in this effort are also consistent with the skills and technologies found in concentrated solar power and photovoltaic technology under the Office of Solar Energy Technologies (SET). Hydrogen production by thermo-chemical water-splitting is a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or a combination of heat and electrolysis instead of pure electrolysis and meets the goals for hydrogen production using only water and renewable solar energy as feed-stocks. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production also meets these goals by implementing photo-electrolysis at the surface of a semiconductor in contact with an electrolyte with bias provided by a photovoltaic source. Here, water splitting is a photo-electrolytic process in which hydrogen is produced using only solar photons and water as feed-stocks. The thermochemical hydrogen task engendered formal collaborations among two universities, three national laboratories and two private sector entities. The photoelectrochemical hydrogen task included formal collaborations with three universities and one national laboratory. The formal participants in these two tasks are listed above. Informal collaborations in both projects included one additional university (the University of Nevada, Reno) and two additional national laboratories (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory).

  15. Solar-induced thermal activity and stratification in pond water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownridge, James D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ponds are universally used to store water for a large number of uses. With the increasing demand for more fresh water, ponds, lakes and reservoirs are likely to be constructed on a larger scale. We must understand the effects of environmental changes on fresh water if we are to most efficiently utilize this resource. This study undertakes to increase our understanding of the rate of thermal response of ponds and other bodies of water to every-day environmental changes. The central research agenda is to investigate how the temperature of pond water from top to bottom responds to the day/night cycle, changes in air temperature just above the surface, cloud conditions, and other sudden environmental changes. Data collection for this study spanned October 2007 to June 2011 and had a continuous time resolution of 50 seconds.

  16. Boston solar retrofits: studies of solar access and economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, M.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of solar access and solar retrofit economics are described for residential applications in the City of Boston. The study of solar access was based upon a random sample of 94 buildings; the sample was stratified to ensure a broad geographic representation from the city's various sections. Using available data on the heights and orientations of the sampled structures and surrounding buildings, each building's hourly access to sunlight was computed separately for the roof and south facing walls. These data were then aggregated by broad structural classifications in order to provide general measures of solar access. The second study was a comparative analysis of the economics of several solar heating and hot water systems. An active hot water system, installed using pre-assembled, commercially purchased equipment, was selected as a reference technology. A variety of measures of economic performance were computed for this system, with and without existing tax credits and under various financing arrangements. Next, a number of alternative approaches for solar space and water heating were identified from interviews with individuals and groups involved in solar retrofit projects in the Boston area. The objective was to identify approaches that many of those interviewed believe to be low-cost means of applying solar energy in residential settings. The approaches selected include thermal window covers, wall collectors, bread box water heaters, and sun spaces. Preliminary estimates of the performance of several representative designs were developed and the economics of these designs evaluated.

  17. The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured at Armagh, 18812000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured in atmospheric circulation, are discussed. Citation: Stanhill, G. (2011), The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured at Armagh, 1881­2000, J. Geophys. Res., 116

  18. Effects of Electron Trapping and Protonation on the Efficiency of Water-Splitting Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    energy in fuels is a key challenge for solar energy research. Water-splitting dye- sensitized light illumination. In these cells, a mesoporous anatase TiO2 anode is sensitized with a dye and a water- sensitized solar cells. In nanocrystalline TiO2 films, trap states are thought to be the related

  19. Comments on Jacobson et al.'s proposal for a wind, water, and solar energy future for New York State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    Forum Comments on Jacobson et al.'s proposal for a wind, water, and solar energy future for New April 2013 Accepted 2 May 2013 Keywords: Energy systems Renewable integration Global warming a b s t r of the energy demands in New York State with wind, solar, and water resources. In this forum we suggest

  20. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Electro-Optics Technology Center; Wei, G. [Mobil Solar Energy Corp., Billerica, MA (United States); Yu, P.C. [PPG Industries, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors` institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  1. Corona Department of Water and Power- Solar Partnership Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Corona Department of Water and Power is providing rebates for residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems. The rebate amount for 2013 is $1.22 per watt up to $3,660 for residential systems...

  2. Corona Department of Water & Power- Solar Partnership Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Corona Department of Water & Power is providing rebates for residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems. The rebate amount for 2015 is $0.78 per watt up to $2,340 for residential...

  3. Hybrid Solar Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxey, L Curt [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid solar lighting systems focus highly concentrated sunlight into a fiber optic bundle to provide sunlight in rooms without windows or conventional skylights.

  4. Everything You Wanted to Know About Solar Water Heating Systems |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 Russian NuclearandJunetrackEllen|July 14,Department of Energy Solar panels

  5. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe Solar Power ProjectHawai'i EstablishesChillerEast WingHeat

  6. SolarWaterWorld AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt LtdShawangunk, NewSingapore Jump to:VoltaicSolarPro

  7. Characteristics and experiences of applicants for HUD grants for solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, W.H.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thirty-eight winners and 45 losers of HUD solar water heater grants in the Florida panhandle were interviewed in 1978 concerning their experiences, and their solar installations were inspected. Operational problems were mostly attributable to control system failure. Grantees were generally pleased with the subsidy program. Grant recipients were not typical of the general public, in that they were mostly middle-aged, well-educated, reasonably affluent people who had a technical background, liked to do things on their own, and were fairly sophisticated so far as energy problems were concerned. It may be that the grant program is not having a great effect on solar energy commercialization, except perhaps in terms of publicity; the recipients generally would have installed systems without a grant, and most of the losers had gone ahead with a solar installation or were planning to do so.

  8. Life in the Solar System Assume we need energy, liquid water, and organic materials.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirley, Yancy

    high pressure, no sunlight, high temperature. Not much chance of life there. Gas Giants #12;The moonsLife in the Solar System Assume we need energy, liquid water, and organic materials. #12;Size N2 Titan Thick atmo Thick atmo Thin atmo #12;Small rocky bodies are unlikely to host life: too hot

  9. The Role of Confined Water in Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    for improving the performance of IL DSSC by replacing water with additives that would play the same role Structure, Quantum Chemistry,General Theory The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) proposed by Gratzel et al.1, and nonflammable. However, with current ILs, the DSSC performance is degraded due to decreased reductant rates

  10. DOE NSF Partnership to Address Critical Challenges in Hydrogen Production from Solar Water Splitting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EERE and the National Science Foundation (NSF) announce a funding opportunity in the area of renewable hydrogen technology research and development, specifically addressing discovery and development of advanced materials systems and chemical proceesses for direct photochemical and/or thermochemical water splitting for application in the solar production of hydrogen fuel.

  11. Comparison of conventional and solar-water-heating products and industries report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noreen, D; LeChevalier, R; Choi, M; Morehouse, J

    1980-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    President Carter established a goal that would require installation of at least one million solar water heaters by 1985 and 20 million water-heating systems by the year 2000. The goals established require that the solar industry be sufficiently mature to provide cost-effective, reliable designs in the immediate future. The objective of this study was to provide the Department of Energy with quantified data that can be used to assess and redirect, if necessary, the program plans to assure compliance with the President's goals. Results deal with the product, the industry, the market, and the consumer. All issues are examined in the framework of the conventional-hot-water industry. Based on the results of this solar hot water assessment study, there is documented proof that the solar industry is blessed with over 20 good solar hot water systems. A total of eight generic types are currently being produced, but a majority of the systems being sold are included in only five generic types. The good systems are well-packaged for quality, performance and installation ease. These leading systems are sized and designed to fit the requirements of the consumer in every respect. This delivery end also suffers from a lack of understanding of the best methods for selling the product. At the supplier end, there are problems also, including: some design deficiencies, improper materials selection and, occasionally, the improper selection of components and subsystems. These, in total, are not serious problems in the better systems and will be resolved as this industry matures.

  12. California Solar Initiative- Low-Income Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The program is only available to customers who currently heat their water with natural gas in the service territories of Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), San Diego Gas & Electric ...

  13. Concentrating solar collector system for the evaporation of low-level radioactive waste water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diamond, S.C.; Cappiello, C.C.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has recently been awarded a grant under the Solar Federal Buildings Program to design, construct, and operate a high-temperature solar energy system for the processing of low-level radioactive waste water. Conceptual design studies have been completed, and detailed design work is under way for a solar system to produce process heat to evaporate 38,000 gal (143,830 L) of waste water per month. The system will use approximately 11,000 ft/sup 2/ (1022 m/sup 2/) of concentrating parabolic trough collectors operating at about 500/sup 0/F (262/sup 0/C). Construction of the system is anticipated to begin in 1981. Performance optimization of collector array size and configuration, storage medium and capacity, system operation, and control schemes are done using the active solar system simulator in the DOE-2 building energy analysis computer program. Results of this optimization are reported. This project represents a unique application of solar energy to an increasingly significant problem area in the energy field.

  14. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  15. A true virtual window

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radikovic, Adrijan Silvester

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous research from environmental psychology shows that human well-being suffers in windowless environments in many ways and a window view of nature is psychologically and physiologically beneficial to humans. Current window substitutes, still...

  16. Protecting Solar Rights in California Through an Exploration of the California Water Doctrine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedman, Anna

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    installing  residential solar panels and commercial solar of photovoltaic (PV) solar panels, grows increasingly more Currently there are  solar panels on one percent of 

  17. Energy Gaining Windows for Residential Buildings Jesper Kragh, Assistant Professor,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    season. It is assumed that in northern cold climates all of the solar gain during the heating season can profiles, solar gain, net energy gain, low energy houses SUMMARY: This paper presents some of the research buildings. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain minus the heat loss integrated over the heating

  18. Solar Hot Water Heater Industry in Barbados | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssues DOE's Nuclear EnergySmart Meters and|WaterEnergyFieldHot

  19. Impact of component selection and operation on thermal ratings of drain-back solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, J.H.; Carlson, W.T.; Duff, W.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Solar Energy Applications Lab.)

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper a half-factorial, two-level experimental design is used to determine the effects of changes in collector area, storage tank volume, collector flow rate, recirculation flow rate, and storage tank design on thermal rating of a solar drain-back water heating system. Experimental ratings are determined in accordance with the Solar Rating and Certification Corporation guidelines. Storage tank design is varied by using a stratification manifold in place of the standard drop tube. Variations in other component sizes and operating factors are based on current industry standards. Statistical analyses indicate that a change in collector area accounts for nearly 90 percent of the variation in heat output. Doubling collector area from 2.78 m[sup 2] to 5.56 m[sup 2] increases delivered solar energy by 31 percent. Use of a stratification manifold increases the delivery of solar energy by six percent. Doubling collector flow rate from 0.057 to 0.114 1/s increases solar output by aproximately three percent; however, the increase in pumping energy outweighs the benefits of increasing collector flow rate. The effects of recirculation flow rate and tank volume are obscured by experimental error.

  20. Solar process heat technology in action: The process hot water system at the California Correctional Institution at Tehachapi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewett, R. (National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)); Gee, R.; May, K. (Industrial Solar Technology, Arvada, CO (United States))

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar process heat technology relates to solar thermal energy systems for industry, commerce, and government. Applications include water preheating and heating, steam generation, process hot air, ventilation air heating, and refrigeration. Solar process heat systems are available for commercial use. At the present time, however, they are economically viable only in niche markets. This paper describes a functioning system in one such market. The California Department of Corrections (CDOC), which operates correctional facilities for the state of California, uses a solar system for providing hot water and space heating at the California Correctional Institute at Tehachapi (CCI/Tehachapi). CCI/Tehachapi is a 5100-inmate facility. The CDOC does not own the solar system. Rather, it buys energy from private investors who own the solar system located on CCI/Tehachapi property; this arrangement is part of a long-term energy purchase agreement. United Solar Technologies (UST) of Olympia Washington is the system operator. The solar system, which began operating in the fall of 1990, utilizes 2677 m{sup 2} (28,800 ft{sup 2}) of parabolic through solar concentrators. Thermal energy collected by the system is used to generate hot water for showers, kitchen operations, and laundry functions. Thermal energy collected by the system is also used for space heating. At peak operating conditions, the system is designed to meet approximately 80 percent of the summer thermal load. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Revisions to the SRCC Rating Process for Solar Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Huggins, J.; Long, S.; Thornton, J.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are computed with component-based simulation models driven by typical meteorological year weather and specified water draw. Changes in the process are being implemented to enhance credibility through increased transparency and accuracy. Changes to the process include using a graphical rather than text-based model-building tool, performing analytical tests on all components and systems, checking energy balances on every component, loop, and system at every time step, comparing the results to detect outliers and potential errors, and documenting the modeling process in detail. Examples of changes in ratings are shown, along with analytical and comparative testing results.

  2. NREL: Continuum Magazine - Energy Efficient Window Coatings that...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    even before coming to NREL, Satyen Deb conceived of making a window that incorporated tungsten oxide thin films that had adjustable properties. Once at NREL (then, the Solar Energy...

  3. Northward Market Extension for Passive Solar Water Heaters by Using Pipe Freeze Protection with Freeze-Tolerant Piping: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Heater, M.; Brandemuhl, M.; Krarti, M.

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conference paper regarding research in freeze-protection methods that could extend market acceptance for passive solar domestic water heating systems in more northern climates if the U.S.

  4. National Solar Water Heater Workshop Present at DOE Region V meeting for managers of State Energy Extension Service and State Energy Conservation Plan, March 18-19, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mumma, S.A.; Marinello, M.G.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After a brief description of the National Solar Water Heater Workshop and some comments by users of the solar water heater, the hardware supplier handbook is presented. The performance expected of a hardware supplier is described, solar system components and their specifications are listed, and information is provided to assist the hardware supplier in obtaining necessary materials. (LEW)

  5. Solar powered desalination system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2008, uses concentrated solar power to split water. Figurethe main reason the potential for solar power is boundless.a clean energy source, solar power is inexhaustible, fairly

  6. Using X Windows

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    remote applications on your local computer screen. X-Windows follows the client-server architecture. Normally, the X server runs on the users desktoplaptop computer, while...

  7. Protecting Solar Rights in California Through an Exploration of the California Water Doctrine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedman, Anna

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of photovoltaic (PV) solar panels, grows increasingly more Currently there are  solar panels on one percent of technology.   The number of solar panel installations maybe 

  8. Improving thermosyphon solar domestic hot water system model performance. Final report, March 1994--February 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, T.N.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data from an indoor solar simulator experimental performance test is used to develop a systematic calibration procedure for a computer model of a thermosyphoning, solar domestic hot water heating system with a tank-in-tank heat exchanger. Calibration is performed using an indoor test with a simulated solar collector to adjust heat transfer in the heat exchanger and heat transfer between adjacent layers of water in the storage tank. An outdoor test is used to calibrate the calculation of the friction drop in the closed collector loop. Additional indoor data with forced flow in the annulus of the heat exchanger leads to improved heat transfer correlations for the inside and outside regions of the tank-in-tank heat exchanger. The calibrated simulation model is compared to several additional outdoor tests both with and without auxiliary heating. Integrated draw energies are predicted with greater accuracy and draw temperature profiles match experimental results to a better degree. Auxiliary energy input predictions improve significantly. 63 figs., 29 tabs.

  9. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  10. Fuel from Bacteria, CO2, Water, and Solar Energy: Engineering a Bacterial Reverse Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrofuels Project: Harvard is engineering a self-contained, scalable Electrofuels production system that can directly generate liquid fuels from bacteria, carbon dioxide (CO2), water, and sunlight. Harvard is genetically engineering bacteria called Shewanella, so the bacteria can sit directly on electrical conductors and absorb electrical current. This current, which is powered by solar panels, gives the bacteria the energy they need to process CO2 into liquid fuels. The Harvard team pumps this CO2 into the system, in addition to water and other nutrients needed to grow the bacteria. Harvard is also engineering the bacteria to produce fuel molecules that have properties similar to gasoline or diesel fuel—making them easier to incorporate into the existing fuel infrastructure. These molecules are designed to spontaneously separate from the water-based culture that the bacteria live in and to be used directly as fuel without further chemical processing once they’re pumped out of the tank.

  11. Solar space- and water-heating system at Stanford University. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Application of an active hydronic domestic hot water and space heating solar system for the Central Food Services Building is discussed. The closed-loop drain-back system is described as offering dependability of gravity drain-back freeze protection, low maintenance, minimal costs, and simplicity. The system features an 840 square-foot collector and storage capacity of 1550 gallons. The acceptance testing and the predicted system performance data are briefly described. Solar performance calculations were performed using a computer design program (FCHART). Bidding, costs, and economics of the system are reviewed. Problems are discussed and solutions and recommendations given. An operation and maintenance manual is given in Appendix A, and Appendix B presents As-built Drawings. (MCW)

  12. Protecting Solar Rights in California Through an Exploration of the California Water Doctrine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedman, Anna

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to Sunlight: New Mexico's Solar Rights Act."  Natural and William Hillhouse.  "New Mexico's Solar Rights Act: A Cloud Over  Solar Rights."  Solar L.  Rep.  (1979).  

  13. Electrochromic sun control coverings for windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, D K; Tracy, C E

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2 billion square meters (m{sup 2}) of building windows in the United States cause a national energy drain almost as large as the energy supply of the Alaskan oil pipeline. Unlike the pipeline, the drain of energy through windows will continue well into the 21st century. A part of this energy drain is due to unwanted sun gain through windows. This is a problem throughout the country in commercial buildings because they generally require air conditioning even in cold climates. New commercial windows create an additional 1600 MW demand for peak electric power in the United States each year. Sun control films, widely used in new windows and as retrofits to old windows, help to mitigate this problem. However, conventional, static solar control films also block sunlight when it is wanted for warmth and daylighting. New electrochromic, switchable, sun-gain-control films now under development will provide more nearly optimal and automatic sun control for added comfort, decreased building operating expense, and greater energy saving. Switchable, electrochromic films can be deposited on polymers at high speeds by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) in a process that may be suitable for roll coating. This paper describes the electrochromic coatings and the PECVD processes, and speculates about their adaptability to high-speed roll coating. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  15. Solar process water heat for the Iris Images Custom Color Photo Lab. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final technical report of the solar facility locted at Iris Images Custom Photo Laboratory in Mill Valley, California. It was designed to provide 59 percent of the hot water requirements for developing photographic film and domestic hot water use. The design load is to provide 6 gallons of hot water per minute for 8 hours per working day at 100/sup 0/F. It has 640 square feet of flat plate collectors and 360 gallons of hot water storage. The auxiliary back up system is a conventional gas-fired water heater. Freeze protection in this mild climate was originally provided by closed-loop circulation of hot water from the storage tank. Later this was changed to a drain-down system due to a freeze when electrical power failed. This system has been relatively successful with little or no scheduled maintenance. The site and building description, subsystem description, as-built drawings, cost breakdown and analysis, performance analysis, lessons learned, and the operation and maintenance manual are included.

  16. Bandgap Engineering of 1-Dimensional Nitride and Oxynitride Materials for Solar Water Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, Christopher

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Shell Nanowire Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. J. Phys. Chem. BNanoporous Tio2 Dye- Sensitized Solar Cells. Nonequilibrium

  17. Windows technology assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baron, J.J.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This assessment estimates that energy loss through windows is approximately 15 percent of all the energy used for space heating and cooling in residential and commercial buildings in New York State. The rule of thumb for the nation as a whole is about 25 percent. The difference may reflect a traditional assumption of single-pane windows while this assessment analyzed installed window types in the region. Based on the often-quoted assumption, in the United States some 3.5 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of primary energy, costing some $20 billion, is annually consumed as a result of energy lost through windows. According to this assessment, in New York State, the energy lost due to heat loss through windows is approximately 80 trillion Btu at an annual cost of approximately $1 billion.

  18. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 281 Solar Hot Water Application Assessment for U.S. Army IMCOM-Southeast Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russo, Bryan J.; Chvala, William D.

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 requires installations (EISA) to install solar systems of sufficient capacity to provide 30% of service hot water in new construction and renovations where cost-effective. However, installations are struggling with how to implement solar hot water, and while several installations are installing solar hot water on a limited basis, paybacks remain long. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked to address this issue to help determine how best to implement solar hot water projects. This documents discusses the results of that project.

  19. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  20. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Visual quality assessment of electrochromic and conventionalissues for large-area electrochromic windows in commercialOffice worker preferences of electrochromic windows: a pilot

  1. Environmental Evaluation for Installation of Solar Arrays at San Jose/Santa Clara Water Pollution Control Plant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this technical memorandum (TM) is to review the options to develop a potential solar array development (Project) within or adjacent to western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) habitat in the buffer lands that surround the San José/Santa Clara Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) and to determine if there is a ground-mounted solar photovoltaic (PV) configuration that would enable a workable co-existence between the burrowing owl habitat and the PV arrays.

  2. WATER DEUTERIUM FRACTIONATION IN THE INNER REGIONS OF TWO SOLAR-TYPE PROTOSTARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taquet, V.; Lopez-Sepulcre, A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Kahane, C. [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble, F-38041 (France); Neri, R. [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique (IRAM), 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint Martin dHeres (France); Coutens, A.; Vastel, C. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France)

    2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The [HDO]/[H{sub 2}O] ratio is a crucial parameter for probing the history of water formation. So far, it has been measured for only three solar-type protostars and yielded different results, possibly pointing to a substantially different history in their formation. In the present work, we report new interferometric observations of the HDO 4{sub 2,2}-4{sub 2,3} line for two solar-type protostars, IRAS2A and IRAS4A, located in the NGC 1333 region. In both sources, the detected HDO emission originates from a central compact unresolved region. A comparison with previously published interferometric observations of the H{sub 2}{sup 18}O 3{sub 1,3}-2{sub 2,0} line shows that the HDO and H{sub 2}O lines mostly come from the same region. A non-LTE large velocity gradient analysis of the HDO and H{sub 2}{sup 18}O line emissions, combined with published observations, provides an [HDO]/[H{sub 2}O] ratio of 0.3%-8% in IRAS2A and 0.5%-3% in IRAS4A. First, the water fractionation is lower than that of other molecules such as formaldehyde and methanol in the same sources. Second, it is similar to that measured in the solar-type protostar prototype, IRAS16293-2422, and, surprisingly enough, larger than that measured in NGC 1333 IRAS4B. The comparison of the measured values toward IRAS2A and IRAS4A with the predictions of our gas-grain model GRAINOBLE gives similar conclusions to those for IRAS 16293, arguing that these protostars share a similar chemical history, although they are located in different clouds.

  3. Close Window ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michigan, University of

    , in local time versus geomagnetic (dipole) latitude coordinates, shows the equivalent current contoursClose Window ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLE Geomagnetic variations Variations in the natural magnetic field measured at the Earth's surface and elsewhere in the Earth's magnetosphere (for example

  4. CH7 Windows Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collette. Sébastien

    4 Server · Account lockout security ­ Protection contre les attaques sur les mots de passe Windows NT 4 Server · Account lockout security ­ Protection contre les attaques sur les mots de passe

  5. Advancement of Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to control bright sky luminance that can cause discomfortluminance, and to operate in a reliable manner under representative sun and skysky equinox or solstice conditions, the EC window at Tv=0.05 maintained the luminance

  6. Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Window Type Sales (Business as usual) Energy Star (Low-e)Total, quads Sales (Business as usual) Energy Star (Low-e)modest energy savings beyond the business-as usual case (0.3

  7. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The SRF window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The SRF window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the SRF window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  8. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1997-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  9. Investigation of polycrystalline thin-film CuInSe{sub 2} solar cells based on ZnSe windows. Annual subcontract report, 15 Febraury 1992--14 February 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, L C [Washington State Univ. at Tri-Cities, Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigations of ZnSe/CIS solar cells are being carried out in an effort to improve the efficiencies CIS cells and to determine if ZnSe is a viable alternative to CdS as a window material. MOCVD growth of ZnSe is accomplished in a SPIRE 500XT reactor housed in the Electronic Materials Laboratory at WSU Tri-Cities by reacting a zinc adduct with H{sub 2}Se. Conductive n-type ZnSe is grown by using iodine as a dopant. Ethyliodide was mixed with helium and installed on one of the gas lines to the system. ZnSe films have been grown on CIS substrates at 200{degrees}C to 250{degrees}C. ZnO is also being deposited by MOCVD by reacting tetrahydrofuran (THF) with a zinc adduct. ZnSe/CIS heterojunctions have been studied by growing n-ZnSe films onto 2 cm x 2 cm CIS substrates diced from materials supplied by Siemens and then depositing an array of aluminum circular areas 2.8.mm in diameter on top of the ZnSe to serve as contacts. Al films are deposited with a thickness of 80 to l00 {angstrom}so that light can pass through the film, thus allowing the illuminated characteristics of the ZnSe/CIS junction to be tested. Accounting for the 20 to 25 % transmittance through the Al film into the ZnSe/CIS structure, current devices have estimated, active-area AM1.5 efficiencies of 14 %. Open circuit voltages > 500 mV are often attained.

  10. High Performance Window Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Hun, Diana E [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and Traco partnered to develop high-performance windows for commercial building that are cost-effective. The main performance requirement for these windows was that they needed to have an R-value of at least 5 ft2 F h/Btu. This project seeks to quantify the potential energy savings from installing these windows in commercial buildings that are at least 20 years old. To this end, we are conducting evaluations at a two-story test facility that is representative of a commercial building from the 1980s, and are gathering measurements on the performance of its windows before and after double-pane, clear-glazed units are upgraded with R5 windows. Additionally, we will use these data to calibrate EnergyPlus models that we will allow us to extrapolate results to other climates. Findings from this project will provide empirical data on the benefits from high-performance windows, which will help promote their adoption in new and existing commercial buildings. This report describes the experimental setup, and includes some of the field and simulation results.

  11. On the Design of Oxide Films, Nanomaterials, and Heterostructures for Solar Water Oxidation Photoanodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kronawitter, Coleman

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to a series of dye-sensitized solar cells to achieve waterthe design of dye-sensitized solar cells, which require dyeevident in dye-sensitized solar cells when planar TiO 2 dye

  12. Protecting Solar Rights in California Through an Exploration of the California Water Doctrine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedman, Anna

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Directions in Solar Access Protection."  Environmental Law Directions in Solar Access Protection."  Environmental  Law and environmental benefits that  may need to be prioritized above an individual’s right to solar.   

  13. On the Design of Oxide Films, Nanomaterials, and Heterostructures for Solar Water Oxidation Photoanodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kronawitter, Coleman

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and economical solar fuel production. 47 Alpha-phase iron(economical solar electricity and fuel production. Figure 3-2the large-scale production of solar fuels – those energy-

  14. Method and apparatus for the in situ decontamination of underground water with the aid of solar energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bench, Thomas R. (Pittsburgh, PA); McCann, Larry D. (Elizabeth, PA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the in situ decontamination of underground water containing -volatile contaminants comprising continuously contacting in situ underground water containing non-volatile contaminants with a liquid-absorbent material possessing high capillary activity, allowing the non-volatile contaminants to deposit in the material while the water moves upwardly through the material by capillary action, allowing substantially decontaminated water to be volatilized by impinging solar radiation, and then allowing the volatilized water to escape from the material into the atmosphere. An apparatus for the in situ decontamination of underground water containing non-volatile contaminants comprising at least one water-impermeable elongated conduit having an upper portion and first and second open ends and containing a homogeneous liquid-absorbent material possessing high capillary activity, means for supporting said conduit, and means for accelerating the escape of the volatilized decontamined water from the material, said means being detachably connected to the second end of the elongated conduit; wherein when underground water contaminated with non-volatile contaminants is continuously contacted in situ with the material contained in the first end of the conduit and the second end of the conduit is placed in contact with atmospheric air, non-volatile contaminants deposit in said material as the water moves upwardly through the material by capillary action, is then volatilized by impinging solar energy and escapes to the atmosphere.

  15. Solar-thermal Water Splitting Using the Sodium Manganese Oxide Process & Preliminary H2A Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd M. Francis, Paul R. Lichty, Christopher Perkins, Melinda Tucker, Peter B. Kreider, Hans H. Funke, Allan Lewandowski, and Alan W. Weimer

    2012-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    There are three primary reactions in the sodium manganese oxide high temperature water splitting cycle. In the first reaction, Mn2O3 is decomposed to MnO at 1,500°C and 50 psig. This reaction occurs in a high temperature solar reactor and has a heat of reaction of 173,212 J/mol. Hydrogen is produced in the next step of this cycle. This step occurs at 700°C and 1 atm in the presence of sodium hydroxide. Finally, water is added in the hydrolysis step, which removes NaOH and regenerates the original reactant, Mn2O3. The high temperature solar�driven step for decomposing Mn2O3 to MnO can be carried out to high conversion without major complication in an inert environment. The second step to produce H2 in the presence of sodium hydroxide is also straightforward and can be completed. The third step, the low temperature step to recover the sodium hydroxide is the most difficult. The amount of energy required to essentially distill water to recover sodium hydroxide is prohibitive and too costly. Methods must be found for lower cost recovery. This report provides information on the use of ZnO as an additive to improve the recovery of sodium hydroxide.

  16. New MS-Windows-Based Educational Software for Teaching the Sunpath Diagram and Shading Mask Protractor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oh, J. K. W.; Haberl, J. S.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , The Passive Solar Energy Book, expanded professional ed., Rodale Press, Emmaus, Pa McCluney, R 1995. "Software for Window Solar Gain Analysis", Building Simulation '95: Proceedings ofthe International Building Peformance Simulation Association, J... traditionally been used by architects and engineers to analyze whether or not a solar shading device will block direct sunlight on a given point in the plane of an exterior window. The sunpath diagram is a two-dimensional graphical representation...

  17. Solar heating and hot water system installed at the Senior Citizen Center, Huntsville, Alabama. [Includes engineering drawings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information is provided on the solar energy system installed at the Huntsville Senior Citizen Center. The solar space heating and hot water facility and the project involved in its construction are described in considerable detail and detailed drawings of the complete system and discussions of the planning, the hardware, recommendations, and other pertinent information are included. The facility was designed to provide 85 percent of the hot water and 85 percent of the space heating requirements. Two important factors concerning this project for commercial demonstration are the successful use of silicon oil as a heat transfer fluid and the architecturally aesthetic impact of a large solar energy system as a visual centerpoint. There is no overheat or freeze protection due to the characteristics of the silicon oil and the design of the system. Construction proceeded on schedule with no cost overruns. It is designed to be relatively free of scheduled maintenance, and has experienced practically no problems.

  18. High Performance Solar Control Office Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, William J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat losses (except for ventilation), the problem during allproblem in energy conservation since the design factors for lighting, ventilation,

  19. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  20. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    batteries. Solar Water Heater Solar water heater is becomingSolar Water Heater heaters, thermal protection for electronics, spacecrafts, and solar

  1. Evaluation of integrated wall systems incorporating electrochromic windows [Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sbar, Neil L.

    2001-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Billions of dollars are spent annually in the U.S. on energy lost through the use of inefficient windows. Even wall systems with advanced static glazings and moveable shading devices are not optimal because they can't effectively respond to changing solar conditions. Electrochromic (EC) smart windows can dynamically control the amount of solar light and heat entering a building. The energy saving performance of fully dynamic wall systems containing EC windows was compared with that of static systems using the DOE 2.1E building simulation program. Total costs for different scenarios were computed. SAGE demonstrated the capability to produce double pane EC windows in which the transmittance repeatedly varied between 2-58%. Relative impact of EC glazings in buildings compared to static is 10-20% energy savings across all climatic regions investigated. Significant life cycle cost savings are predicted for SAGE's EC windows when compared to conventional solar control windows over an estimated product lifetime of 20 years.

  2. MEAN MONTHLY PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR HEATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Place, W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF PASSIVE SOLAR WATER HEATERS W. Place, M. Daneshyar. andOF PASSIVE SOLAR WATER HEATERS* We Place, M. Daneshyar, tWarm Water Standard Water Heater Tank Hot Water The solar

  3. Spring Home Maintenance: Windows, Windows, Windows! | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO Overview OCHCO OverviewRepositoryManagement |SolarSpecial Report:Spectrum PolicySpring Home

  4. Windows and lighting program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More than 30% of all energy use in buildings is attributable to two sources: windows and lighting. Together they account for annual consumer energy expenditures of more than $50 billion. Each affects not only energy use by other major building systems, but also comfort and productivity -- factors that influence building economics far more than does direct energy consumption alone. Windows play a unique role in the building envelope, physically separating the conditioned space from the world outside without sacrificing vital visual contact. Throughout the indoor environment, lighting systems facilitate a variety of tasks associated with a wide range of visual requirements while defining the luminous qualities of the indoor environment. Windows and lighting are thus essential components of any comprehensive building science program. Despite important achievements in reducing building energy consumption over the past decade, significant additional savings are still possible. These will come from two complementary strategies: (1) improve building designs so that they effectively apply existing technologies and extend the market penetration of these technologies; and (2) develop advanced technologies that increase the savings potential of each application. Both the Windows and Daylighting Group and the Lighting System Research Group have made substantial contributions in each of these areas, and continue to do so through the ongoing research summarized here. 23 refs., 16 figs.

  5. Carbon smackdown: smart windows

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Delia Milliron

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    August 3, 2010 Berkeley Lab talk: In the fourth of five Carbon Smackdown matches, Berkeley Lab researchers Delia Milliron of the Materials Sciences Division and Stephen Selkowitz of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division talk about their work on energy-saving smart windows.

  6. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Harry L. (Seaford, VA); Elliott, Thomas S. (Yorktown, VA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  7. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Harry Lawrence (Seaford, VA); Elliott, Thomas S. (Yorktown, VA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  8. Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    impact of 4.1 quadrillion BTU (quads) of primary energy 1 .systems with U-factors of 0.1 Btu/hr-ft²-°F Dynamic windows:for 1 quadrillion (10 15 ) Btu = 1.056 EJ. percent (Apte,

  9. California Solar Initiative- Solar Thermal Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Originally restricted to just solar water heaters, the prorgam was expanded by CPUC Decision 13-02-018 in February 2013 to include other solar thermal technologies, including solar process heatin...

  10. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water is the transfer medium that delivers solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivers solar-heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provides auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  11. Light shield for solar concentrators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plesniak, Adam P.; Martins, Guy L.

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar receiver unit including a housing defining a recess, a cell assembly received in the recess, the cell assembly including a solar cell, and a light shield received in the recess and including a body and at least two tabs, the body defining a window therein, the tabs extending outward from the body and being engaged with the recess, wherein the window is aligned with the solar cell.

  12. Investigation of a Novel Solar Assisted Water Heating System with Enhanced Energy Yield for Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, X.; Zhao, X.; Xu, J.; Yu, X.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    simulation and experimental verification. The unique characteristic of such system consists in the integrated loop heat pipe and heat pump unit (LHP-HP), which was proposed to improve solar photovoltaic (PV) generation, capture additional solar heat...

  13. Report on the analysis of field data relating to the reliability of solar hot water systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menicucci, David F. (Building Specialists, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilities are overseeing the installations of thousand of solar hot water (SHW) systems. Utility planners have begun to ask for quantitative measures of the expected lifetimes of these systems so that they can properly forecast their loads. This report, which augments a 2009 reliability analysis effort by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), addresses this need. Additional reliability data have been collected, added to the existing database, and analyzed. The results are presented. Additionally, formal reliability theory is described, including the bathtub curve, which is the most common model to characterize the lifetime reliability character of systems, and for predicting failures in the field. Reliability theory is used to assess the SNL reliability database. This assessment shows that the database is heavily weighted with data that describe the reliability of SHW systems early in their lives, during the warranty period. But it contains few measured data to describe the ends of SHW systems lives. End-of-life data are the most critical ones to define sufficiently the reliability of SHW systems in order to answer the questions that the utilities pose. Several ideas are presented for collecting the required data, including photometric analysis of aerial photographs of installed collectors, statistical and neural network analysis of energy bills from solar homes, and the development of simple algorithms to allow conventional SHW controllers to announce system failures and record the details of the event, similar to how aircraft black box recorders perform. Some information is also presented about public expectations for the longevity of a SHW system, information that is useful in developing reliability goals.

  14. The Window Strategy with Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCorkle, Dean; Amosson, Stephen H.; Fausett, Marvin

    1999-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The window strategy is one of several marketing strategies using futures and options to establish a floor price and allow for upside price potential. It also reduces option premium costs. This publication discusses how the window strategy works...

  15. Guidelines for selecting a solar heating, cooling or hot water design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, C.J. Jr.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Guidelines are presented for the professional who may have to choose between competing solar heating and cooling designs for buildings. The experience of the National Solar Data Network in monitoring over 100 solar installations are drawn upon. Three basic principles and a design selection checklist are developed which will aid in choosing the most cost effective design.

  16. A Review of Electrochromic Window Performance Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz Ed, S.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ratio of 0.30. The electrochromic windows were controlled toProceedings. A Review of Electrochromic Window Performanceand economic benefits of electrochromic smart windows,"

  17. Performance Criteria for Residential Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Huang, Joe; Kohler, Christian; Mitchell, Robin

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Marc LaFrance. 2006. “Zero Energy Windows. ” ProceedingsFuture Advanced Windows for Zero-Energy Homes. ” ASHRAEfor Residential Zero Energy Windows Dariush Arasteh, Howdy

  18. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    modeling of solar steam- generators, solar water heating systems, Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems, wind speed predictions, control in power generation systems,

  19. Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Use of solar water heating (SWH) in the United States grew significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits. Since 1985, however, expiration of federal tax credits and decreased energy prices have virtually eliminated the U.S. market for SWH. More recently, increases in energy prices, concerns regarding emissions of greenhouse gases, and improvements in SWH systems have created new interest in the potential of this technology. SWH, which uses the sun to heat water directly or via a heat-transfer fluid in a collector, may be particularly important in its ability to reduce natural gas use. Dependence on natural gas as an energy resource in the United States has significantly increased in the past decade, along with increased prices, price volatility, and concerns about sustainability and security of supply. One of the readily deployable technologies available to decrease use of natural gas is solar water heating. This report provides an overview of the technical potential of solar water heating to reduce fossil fuel consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. residential and commercial buildings.

  20. Energy performance analysis of prototype electrochromic windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of three newly developed prototype electrochromic devices. The DOE-2.1 E energy simulation program was used to analyze the annual cooling, lighting, and total electric energy use and peak demand as a function of window type and size. The authors simulated a prototypical commercial office building module located in the cooling-dominated locations of Phoenix, AZ and Miami, FL. Heating energy use was also studied in the heating-dominated location of Madison, WI. Daylight illuminance was used to control electrochromic state-switching. Two types of window systems were analyzed; i.e., the outer pane electrochromic glazing was combined with either a conventional low-E or a spectrally selective inner pane. The properties of the electrochromic glazings are based on measured data of new prototypes developed as part of a cooperative DOE-industry program. The results show the largest difference in annual electric energy performance between the different window types occurs in Phoenix and is about 6.5 kWh/m{sup 2} floor area (0.60 kWh/ft{sup 2}) which can represent a cost of about $.52/m{sup 2} ($.05/ft{sup 2}) using electricity costing $.08/kWh. In heating-dominated locations, the electrochromic should be maintained in its bleached state during the heating season to take advantage of beneficial solar heat gain which would reduce the amount of required heating. This also means that the electrochromic window with the largest solar heat gain coefficient is best.

  1. Assembly and comparison of available solar hot water system reliability databases and information.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menicucci, David F. (Building Specialists, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar hot water (SHW) systems have been installed commercially for over 30 years, yet few quantitative details are known about their reliability. This report describes a comprehensive analysis of all of the known major previous research and data regarding the reliability of SHW systems and components. Some important conclusions emerged. First, based on a detailed inspection of ten-year-old systems in Florida, about half of active systems can be expected to fail within a ten-year period. Second, valves were identified as the probable cause of a majority of active SHW failures. Third, passive integral and thermosiphon SHW systems have much lower failure rates than active ones, probably due to their simple design that employs few mechanical parts. Fourth, it is probable that the existing data about reliability do not reveal the full extent of fielded system failures because most of the data were based on trouble calls. Often an SHW system owner is not aware of a failure because the backup system silently continues to produce hot water. Thus, a repair event may not be generated in a timely manner, if at all. This final report for the project provides all of the pertinent details about this study, including the source of the data, the techniques to assure their quality before analysis, the organization of the data into perhaps the most comprehensive reliability database in existence, a detailed statistical analysis, and a list of recommendations for additional critical work. Important recommendations include the inclusion of an alarm on SHW systems to identify a failed system, the need for a scientifically designed study to collect high-quality reliability data that will lead to design improvements and lower costs, and accelerated testing of components that are identified as highly problematic.

  2. A first-generation prototype dynamic residential window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohler, Christian; Goudey, Howdy; Arasteh, Dariush

    2004-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the concept for a ''smart'' highly efficient dynamic window that maximizes solar heat gain during the heating season and minimizes solar heat gain during the cooling season in residential buildings. We describe a prototype dynamic window that relies on an internal shade, which deploys automatically in response to solar radiation and temperature. This prototype was built at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory from commercially available ''off-the-shelf'' components. It is a stand-alone, standard-size product, so it can be easily installed in place of standard window products. Our design shows promise for near-term commercialization. Improving thermal performance of this prototype by incorporating commercially available highly efficient glazing technologies could result in the first window that could be suitable for use in zero-energy homes. The unit's predictable deployment of shading could help capture energy savings that are not possible with manual shading. Installation of dynamically shaded windows in the field will allow researchers to better quantify the energy effects of shades, which could lead to increased efficiency in the sizing of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning equipment for residences.

  3. Standard Test Method for Water Penetration of Flat Plate Solar Collectors by Uniform Static Air Pressure Difference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the resistance of flat plate solar collectors to water penetration when water is applied to their outer surfaces with a static air pressure at the outer surface higher than the pressure at the interior of the collector. 1.2 This test method is applicable to any flat plate solar collector. 1.3 The proper use of this test method requires a knowledge of the principles of pressure and deflection measurement. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific precautionary information is contained in Section 6.

  4. Window Replacement, Rehabilitation, & Repair Guides - Building...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Window Replacement, Rehabilitation, & Repair Guides - Building America Top Innovation Window Replacement, Rehabilitation, & Repair Guides - Building America Top Innovation Effec...

  5. A Design Guide for Early-Market Electrochromic Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.; Clear, Robert D.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph H.; Fernandes, Luis L.; Ward, GregJ.; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Yazdanian, Mehry

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Switchable variable-tint electrochromic (EC) windows preserve view out while modulating transmitted light, glare, and solar heat gains. Consumers will require objective information on the risks and benefits of this emerging technology as it enters the market in 2006. This guide provides such information and data derived from a wide variety of simulations, laboratory tests, and a 2.5-year field test of prototype large-area EC windows evaluated under outdoor sun and sky conditions. This design guide is provided to architects, engineers, building owners, and others interested in electrochromic windows. The design guide provides basic information about what is an electrochromic window, what it looks like, how fast does it switch, and what current product offerings are. The guide also provides information on performance benefits if more mature product offerings were available.

  6. Solar Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Water Using a Dual Bed Photosystem - Phase I Final Report and Phase II Proposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clovis A. Linkous; Darlene K. Slattery

    2000-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we are attempting to perform the highly efficient storage of solar energy in the form of H{sub 2} via photocatalytic decomposition of water. While it has been demonstrated that H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} can be evolved from a single vessel containing a single suspended photocatalyst (Sayama 1994; 1997), we are attempting to perform net water-splitting by using two photocatalysts immobilized in separate containers, or beds. A schematic showing how the device would work is shown.

  7. Energy Efficient Electrochromic Windows Incorporating Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheri Boykin; James Finley; Donald Anthony; Julianna Knowles; Richard Markovic; Michael Buchanan; Mary Ann Fuhry; Lisa Perrine

    2008-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    One approach to increasing the energy efficiency of windows is to control the amount of solar radiation transmitted through a window by using electrochromic technology. What is unique about this project is that the electrochromic is based on the reduction/oxidation reactions of cathodic and anodic organic semi-conducting polymers using room temperature ionic liquids as ion transport electrolytes. It is believed that these types of coatings would be a lower cost alternative to traditional all inorganic thin film based electrochromic technologies. Although there are patents1 based on the proposed technology, it has never been reduced to practice and thoroughly evaluated (i.e. durability and performance) in a window application. We demonstrate that by using organic semi-conductive polymers, specific bands of the solar spectrum (specifically visible and near infrared) can be targeted for electrochemical variable transmittance responsiveness. In addition, when the technology is incorporated into an insulating glass unit, the energy parameters such as the solar heat gain coefficient and the light to solar gain ratio are improved over that of a typical insulating glass unit comprised of glass with a low emissivity coating. A minimum of {approx}0.02 quads of energy savings per year with a reduction of carbon emissions for electricity of {approx}320 MKg/yr benefit is achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. Note that these values include a penalty in the heating season. If this penalty is removed (i.e. in southern climates or commercial structures where cooling is predominate year-round) a maximum energy savings of {approx}0.05 quad per year and {approx}801 MKg/yr can be achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. In its current state, the technology is not durable enough for an exterior window application. The primary downfall is that the redox chemistry fails to recover to a bleached state upon exposure to heat and solar radiation while being cycled over time from the bleached to the dark state. Most likely the polymers are undergoing degradation reactions which are accelerated by heat and solar exposure while in either the reduced or oxidized states and the performance of the polymers is greatly reduced over time. For this technology to succeed in an exterior window application, there needs to be more work done to understand the degradation of the polymers under real-life application conditions such as elevated temperatures and solar exposure so that recommendations for improvements in to the overall system can be made. This will be the key to utilizing this type of technology in any future real-life applications.

  8. High density polyethylene (HDPE) containers as an alternative to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles for solar disinfection of drinking water in northern region, Ghana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yazdani, Iman

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the technical feasibility of high density polyethylene (HDPE) containers as an alternative to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles for the solar disinfection of drinking water ...

  9. Preliminary Assessment of the Energy-Saving Potential of Electrochromic Windows in Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, D. R.

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic windows provide variable tinting that can help control glare and solar heat gain. We used BEopt software to evaluate their performance in prototypical energy models of a single-family home.

  10. JEA- Solar Incentive Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The JEA Solar Incentive Program provides rebates to JEA's residential customers who install new and retrofit solar hot water heaters on their homes. The rebate is worth $800 for new solar thermal...

  11. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    market research on solar water heaters. National Renew- ablecom- bined space/water heaters, solar water heaters,combined solar space/water heater, electric water heaters

  12. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    market research on solar water heaters. National Renewabletankless combined space/water heaterds, solar water heaters,combined solar space/water heater, electric water heaters

  13. Solar panels are cost intensive, have limitations with respect to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    Solar panels are cost intensive, have limitations with respect to where they can be integrated to a building as solar panels on a roof or facades are. Ref. TU Delft OCT-13-022 TU Delft / Valorisation Centre of the window, integrated in the window frames, strip-shaped CIGS PV solar cells convert the light

  14. Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassard, H.; Denholm, P.; Ong, S.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the break-even cost for residential rooftop solar water heating (SWH) technology, defined as the point where the cost of the energy saved with a SWH system equals the cost of a conventional heating fuel purchased from the grid (either electricity or natural gas). We examine the break-even cost for the largest 1,000 electric and natural gas utilities serving residential customers in the United States as of 2008. Currently, the break-even cost of SWH in the United States varies by more than a factor of five for both electricity and natural gas, despite a much smaller variation in the amount of energy saved by the systems (a factor of approximately one and a half). The break-even price for natural gas is lower than that for electricity due to a lower fuel cost. We also consider the relationship between SWH price and solar fraction and examine the key drivers behind break-even costs. Overall, the key drivers of the break-even cost of SWH are a combination of fuel price, local incentives, and technical factors including the solar resource location, system size, and hot water draw.

  15. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  16. All-glass vacuum tube collector heat transfer model used in forced-circulation solar water heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhiyong; Chen, Chao; Luo, Hailiang; Zhang, Ye; Xue, Yaning [College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing (China)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this paper is to establish the heat transfer model of all-glass vacuum tube collector used in forced-circulation solar water heating system. In this model, the simplified heat transfer of collector is composed of the natural convection in single glass tube and forced flow in manifold header. Thus the heat balance equation of water in single tube and the heat balance equation of water in manifold header have been established. The flow equation is also built by analyzing the friction and buoyancy in tube. Through solved these equations the relationship between the collector average temperature, the outlet temperature and natural convection flow rate have been obtained. From this relationship and energy balance equation of collector, the collector outlet temperature can be calculated. The validated experiments of this model were carried out in winter of Beijing. (author)

  17. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heaterds, solar water heaters, combined solar space/watermarket research on solar water heaters. National Renewableheaters, combined space heating and water heating appliances 3 , solar

  18. U.S. Virgin Islands- Solar Water Heating Requirement for New Construction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In July 2009, U.S. Virgin Islands enacted legislation Act 7075. This legislation requires all new developments, and substantial building modifications, must be installed with energy efficient solar...

  19. Improving the thermal performance of the US residential window stock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Eto, J.H.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Windows have typically been the least efficient thermal component in the residential envelope, but technology advances over the past decade have helped to dramatically improve the energy efficiency of window products. While the thermal performance of these advanced technology windows can be easily characterized for a particular building application, few precise estimates exist of their aggregate impact on national or regional energy use. Policy-makers, utilities, researchers and the fenestration industry must better understand these products` ultimate conservation potential in order to determine the value of developing new products and initiating programs to accelerate their market acceptance. This paper presents a method to estimate the conservation potential of advanced window technologies, combining elements of two well-known modeling paradigms: supply curves of conserved energy and residential end-use forecasting. The unique features include: detailed descriptions of the housing stock by region and vintage, state-of-the-art thermal descriptions of window technologies, and incorporation of market effects to calculate achievable conservation potential and timing. We demonstrate the methodology by comparing, for all new houses built between 1990 and 2010, the conservation potential of very efficient, high R-value ``superwindows`` in the North Central federal region and spectrally-selective low-emissivity (moderate Revalue and solar transmittance) windows in California.

  20. A window on urban sustainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stigt, Rien van, E-mail: rien.vanstigt@hu.nl [Research Center for Technology and Innovation, Utrecht University of Applied Sciences, P.O. Box 182, 3500 AD Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter P.J., E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Spit, Tejo J.M., E-mail: T.J.M.Spit@uu.nl [Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sustainable urban development requires the integration of environmental interests in urban planning. Although various methods of environmental assessment have been developed, plan outcomes are often disappointing due to the complex nature of decision-making in urban planning, which takes place in multiple arenas within multiple policy networks involving diverse stakeholders. We argue that the concept of ‘decision windows’ can structure this seemingly chaotic chain of interrelated decisions. First, explicitly considering the dynamics of the decision-making process, we further conceptualized decision windows as moments in an intricate web of substantively connected deliberative processes where issues are reframed within a decision-making arena, and interests may be linked within and across arenas. Adopting this perspective in two case studies, we then explored how decision windows arise, which factors determine their effectiveness and how their occurrence can be influenced so as to arrive at more sustainable solutions. We conclude that the integration of environmental interests in urban planning is highly dependent on the ability of the professionals involved to recognize and manipulate decision windows. Finally, we explore how decision windows may be opened. -- Highlights: • Decision-making about sustainable urban development occurs in networks. • The concept of ‘decision windows’ was further elaborated. • Decision windows help understand how environmental interests enter decision-making. • Decision windows can, to some extent, be influenced.

  1. MEAN MONTHLY PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR HEATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Place, W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR WATER HEATERS W. Place, M.PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR WATER HEATERS* We Place, M.The Performance of Solar Water Heaters with Natu)""al

  2. Checkpointing strategies with prediction windows Regular paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Checkpointing strategies with prediction windows Regular paper Guillaume Aupy1,3, Yves Robert1, a regular mode outside prediction windows, and a proactive mode inside prediction windows, whenever the size of these windows is large enough. We are able to compute the best period for any size of the prediction windows

  3. 2014-10-14 Issuance: Test Procedures and Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Solar Water Heaters; Request for Information

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register request for information regarding test procedures and energy conservation standards for residential solar water heaters, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on October 14, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  4. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Water Heater power systems that rely on batteries. Solar Water HeaterSolar water heater is becoming more popular because they are

  5. Method and apparatus for simulating atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to water vapor and CO{sub 2}

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth`s surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO{sub 2} and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO{sub 2} and moisture. 8 figs.

  6. Method and apparatus for simulating atomospheric absorption of solar energy due to water vapor and CO.sub.2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth's surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO.sub.2 and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO.sub.2 and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO.sub.2 and moisture.

  7. Charged- and neutral-current solar-neutrino cross sections for heavy-water Cherenkov detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ying, S.; Haxton, W.C.; Henley, E.M. (Department of Physics, FM-15, and National Institute for Nuclear Theory, HN-12, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States))

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Charged- and neutral-current neutrino cross sections for deuterium have been calculated for the Bonn, Paris, and Hamada-Johnson potentials in order to estimate event rates (and their uncertainties) for solar and supernova neutrino detection in the Sudbury Solar Neutrino Observatory. Tests of the wave functions are provided by calculations of the {ital j}=1/2 hyperfine-state muon capture rate and of the total cross section for absorbing {nu}{sub {ital e}s} from stopped muon decay. Detailed tables of the Paris potential results are given, and comparisons are made to the work of Doi and Kubodera.

  8. NREL Demonstrates Efficient Solar Water Splitting by Metal Oxide Photoabsorber (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New development demonstrates that inexpensive and robust metal oxide photoabsorbers hold great promise as photoanodes for water oxidation.

  9. Nanotechnology for Solar-hydrogen Production via Photoelectrochemical Water-splitting: Design, Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of Nanomaterials and Quantum Dots 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alenzi, Naser D.

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR SOLAR-HYDROGEN PRODUCTION VIA PHOTOELECTROCHEMICAL WATER-SPLITTING: DESIGN, SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, AND APPLICATION OF NANOMATERIALS AND QUANTUM DOTS A Dissertation by NASER D. ALENZI Submitted... to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2010 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR SOLAR-HYDROGEN PRODUCTION VIA...

  10. Solar heated rotary kiln

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shell, Pamela K. (Tracy, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

  11. Do You Have Windows That Need Replacing?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Do you have windows that need replacing, too? Do you have any plans to replace them with newer, more efficient windows?

  12. Solar in the Real World: Tour of Solar Homes Begins in October...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Of course, I was interested in learning about the experiences of the owners with their passive solar design, solar water heaters, and photovoltaic solar electric systems. But I...

  13. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Alissa

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    households with water heaters, solar water heaters areMODELING THE IMPACT OF SOLAR WATER HEATERS ON THE REDUCTIONconditions than solar water heaters, and therefore provide

  14. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Alissa

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MODELING THE IMPACT OF SOLAR WATER HEATERS ON THE REDUCTIONinsurance industry as a solar water heater driver in Southwith water heaters, solar water heaters are gaining in

  15. Solar buildings program summary: Volume 2: Research summaries, fiscal year 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Buildings Technology Program was initiated in 1975 to provide focus, direction, and funding for the development of solar technologies for buildings as an energy option for the United States. The program's progress has been impressive: active solar water and passive space heating systems are now widely available and have operated reliably throughout the United States. The efficiency of flat-plate collectors has increased 35%, and the incidence of system problems has decreased markedly. Whereas design tools for passive solar homes were once unavailable. DOE-sponsored research has led to the development of widely accepted guidelines, suitable for designing passive solar homes for any region of the country. Under DOE sponsorship, researchers have developed new window glazing materials such as low-emissivity films that significantly reduce heat loss over standard windows. Proven strategies also have been developed for using daylight to provide 50% of the lighting needs for small nonresidential buildings, substantially reducing electricity and cooling requirements. The Solar Buildings Technology Program Summary, Fiscal Year 1988 is a two-volume reference set describing the technological advances and future research and development (R and D) directions of the Solar Buildings Technology Program for the Fiscal Year 1988 (October 1, 1987 through September 30, 1988).

  16. Window-closing safety system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A safety device includes a wire loop embedded in the glass of a passenger car window and routed near the closing leading-edge of the window. The wire loop carries microwave pulses around the loop to and from a transceiver with separate output and input ports. An evanescent field only and inch or two in radius is created along the wire loop by the pulses. Just about any object coming within the evanescent field will dramatically reduce the energy of the microwave pulses received back by the transceiver. Such a loss in energy is interpreted as a closing area blockage, and electrical interlocks are provided to halt or reverse a power window motor that is actively trying to close the window.

  17. Window-closing safety system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A safety device includes a wire loop embedded in the glass of a passenger car window and routed near the closing leading-edge of the window. The wire loop carries microwave pulses around the loop to and from a transceiver with separate output and input ports. An evanescent field only an inch or two in radius is created along the wire loop by the pulses. Just about any object coming within the evanescent field will dramatically reduce the energy of the microwave pulses received back by the transceiver. Such a loss in energy is interpreted as a closing area blockage, and electrical interlocks are provided to halt or reverse a power window motor that is actively trying to close the window. 5 figs.

  18. Factors associated with compliance among users of solar water disinfection in rural Bolivia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    contained in transparent plastic bottles: characterizing theon disposable translu- cent plastic bottles of 1-2 litres inof water-filled plastic bottles exposed to sunlight [

  19. Enhancing the Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS) Method Using a Fresnel Lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Awad, Christina

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water contained in plastic bottles: characterizing thecontamination from the plastic bottles themselves (Schmid*,into plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and

  20. Factors associated with compliance among users of solar water disinfection in rural Bolivia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water disinfection in rural Bolivia. BMC Public Health 2011childhood diarrhoea in rural Bolivia: a cluster-randomized,disinfection in rural Bolivia Andri Christen 1,2 , Gonzalo

  1. Making Water Heaters More Efficient | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Heaters More Efficient Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on...

  2. Solar Hot Water Market Development in Knoxville, TN | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary ofSmallConfidential,2 Solar

  3. Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the Lab Homes: Winter Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Graham B.; Widder, Sarah H.; Bauman, Nathan N.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This field evaluation of highly insulating windows was undertaken in a matched pair of 'Lab Homes' located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus during the 2012 winter heating season. Improving the insulation and solar heat gain characteristics of a home's windows has the potential to significantly improve the home's building envelope and overall thermal performance by reducing heat loss (in the winter), and cooling loss and solar heat gain (in the summer) through the windows. A high quality installation and/or window retrofit will also minimize or reduce air leakage through the window cavity and thus also contribute to reduced heat loss in the winter and cooling loss in the summer. These improvements all contribute to decreasing overall annual home energy use. Occupant comfort (non-quantifiable) can also be increased by minimizing or eliminating the cold 'draft' (temperature) many residents experience at or near window surfaces that are at a noticeably lower temperature than the room air temperature. Lastly, although not measured in this experiment, highly insulating windows (triple-pane in this experiment) also have the potential to significantly reduce the noise transmittance through windows compared to standard double-pane windows. The metered data taken in the Lab Homes and data analysis presented here represent 70 days of data taken during the 2012 heating season. As such, the savings from highly insulating windows in the experimental home (Lab Home B) compared to the standard double-pane clear glass windows in the baseline home (Lab Home A) are only a portion of the energy savings expected from a year-long experiment that would include a cooling season. The cooling season experiment will take place in the homes in the summer of 2012, and results of that experiment will be reported in a subsequent report available to all stakeholders.

  4. Halite depositional facies in a solar salt pond: A key to interpreting physical energy and water depth in ancient deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Handford, C.R. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (USA))

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subaqueous deposits of aragonite, gypsum, and halite are accumulating in shallow solar salt ponds constructed in the Pekelmeer, a sea-level salina on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. Several halite facies are deposited in the crystallizer ponds in response to difference in water depth and wave energy. Cumulate halite, which originates as floating rafts, is present only along the protected, upwind margins of ponds where low-energy conditions foster their formation and preservation. Cornet crystals with peculiar mushroom- and mortarboard-shaped caps precipitate in centimetre-deep brine sheets within a couple of metres of the upwind or low-energy margins. Downwind from these margins, cornet and chevron halite precipitate on the pond floors in water depths ranging from a few centimetres to {approximately} 60 cm. Halite pisoids with radial-concentric structure are precipitated in the swash zone along downwind high-energy shorelines where they form pebbly beaches. This study suggests that primary halite facies are energy and/or depth dependent and that some primary features, if preserved in ancient halite deposits, can be used to infer physical energy conditions, subenvironments such as low- to high-energy shorelines, and extremely shallow water depths in ancient evaporite basins.

  5. Key Elements of and Materials Performance Targets for Highly Insulating Window Frames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Grynning, Steinar; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Goudey, Howdy

    2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal performance of windows is important for energy efficient buildings. Windows typically account for about 30-50 percent of the transmission losses though the building envelope, even if their area fraction of the envelope is far less. The reason for this can be found by comparing the thermal transmittance (U-factor) of windows to the U-factor of their opaque counterparts (wall, roof and floor constructions). In well insulated buildings the U-factor of walls, roofs an floors can be between 0.1-0.2 W/(m2K). The best windows have U-values of about 0.7-1.0. It is therefore obvious that the U-factor of windows needs to be reduced, even though looking at the whole energy balance for windows (i.e. solar gains minus transmission losses) makes the picture more complex.In high performance windows the frame design and material use is of utmost importance, as the frame performance is usually the limiting factor for reducing the total window U-factor further. This paper describes simulation studies analyzing the effects on frame and edge-of-glass U-factors of different surface emissivities as well as frame material and spacer conductivities. The goal of this work is to define materials research targets for window frame components that will result in better frame thermal performance than is exhibited by the best products available on the market today.

  6. Can carbon finance contribute to the promotion of solar water heating in Bolivia? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayek, Niklas

    2011-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    water heating in Bolivia. These include an investment barrier due to the high upfront costs, lack of awareness and little confidence in the technology. This study investigated whether carbon finance can contribute to overcoming these barriers: Access...

  7. Nanopillar Photovoltaics: Photon Management and Junction Engineering for Next-Generation Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariani, Giacomo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    F. The influence of the InGaP window of GaAs solar cells,F. The influence of the InGaP window layer on the opticalEnhanced PCE using InGaP passivation…………………. ……..…. …………

  8. University of Maryland's "WaterShed" Wins 2011 Solar Decathlon | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO Overview OCHCOSystems Analysis Success|SustainableDepartment of Energy Solar Decathlonof

  9. Low Cost Solar Water Heating R&D | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & Gas »ofMarketing |Prepare for| Department ofofLow CostSolar

  10. Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe Solar Power ProjectHawai'i EstablishesChillerEastHomesHeat

  11. Extending the X Window System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenkosh, J.P.

    1993-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The X Window System was originally developed in 1984 at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It provides client-server computing functionality and also facilitates the establishment of a distributed computing environment. Since its inception the X Window System has undergone many enhancements. Despite these enhancements there will always be a functionality desired in the standard released version of X that is not supported or commercially or academically available. The developers of the X Window System have designed it in such a way that it is possible to add functionality that is not included in the standard release. This is called an extension. Extensions are one method used to develop a customized version of the X Window System to support a specialized application. This report presents the mechanics of adding an extension and examines a particular extension that was developed at Sandia National Laboratories to support data compression in X Windows which was one aspect of the Desktop Video and Collaborative Engineering Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD).

  12. The influence of stratus, stratocumulus, and altocumulus clouds on the spectral distribution of solar radiation over Antarctic waters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pettett, James Eugene

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    function of local solar time. 14 Stratus extinction of solar radiation in the infrared band, 700-2, 800 nm, as a function of local solar time. 15 Stratocumulus extinction of solar radiation in the infrared band, 700-2, 800 nm, as a function of local... solar time . . . ~ . . . . . ~ . ~ . ~ 53 16 Altocumulus extinction of Solar radiation in the infrared band, 700-2, 800 nm, as a function of local solar time 55 LIST OP TABLES Tab le Page Per cent of daily total flux contained in three spectral...

  13. MEAN MONTHLY PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR HEATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Place, W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I For the compact heater, the solar absorption rate equalsPERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR WATER HEATERS W. Place, M.PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR WATER HEATERS* We Place, M.

  14. Solar Construction Permitting Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Owners of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems and solar water heating systems in Colorado are required to obtain a building permit before their systems may be installed. Permits are handled at the l...

  15. Solar Sales Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For both residential and non-residential systems, the exemption applies to solar-energy systems that utilize solar radiation to produce energy designed to provide heating, cooling, hot water and/or...

  16. Solar Construction Permitting Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Owners of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems and solar water heating systems in Arizona are required to obtain a building permit before their systems may be installed. Permits are handled at the...

  17. Solar radiation data manual for buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marion, W.; Wilcox, S.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Architects and engineers use solar resource information to help design passive solar and daylighting features for buildings. Solar resource information includes data on how much solar radiation and illuminance are available for different window orientations, and how they vary. This manual provides solar radiation and illuminance values for a horizontal window and four vertical windows (facing north, east, south, and west) for 239 stations in the United States and its territories. The solar radiation values are monthly and yearly averages for the period of 1961--1990. Included are values showing the solar radiation incident on the window and the amount transmitted into the living space, with and without exterior shading of the window. Illuminance values are presented r average dismal profiles for 4 months of the year. In addition to the solar radiation and illuminance data, this manual contains tables listing climatic condition such as average temperature, average daily minimum and maximum temperature, record minimum and maxi mum temperature, average heating and cooling degree days, average humidity ratio, average wind speed, an average clearness index. The solar radiation, illuminance, and climatic data a presented in tables. Data for each station are presented on a single page, and the pages are arranged alphabetically by the state or territory two-letter abbreviation. Within a state or territory, the pages are arranged alp betically by city or island.

  18. Solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, William G. (Cutchogue, NY)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The field of this invention is solar collectors, and more particularly, the invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame (14). A thin film window (42) is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber (24) of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers (24a, 24b) that are sealed perimetrically. The layers (24a, 24b) define a fluid-tight planar envelope (24c) of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber (24) is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  19. State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating Window Frames - Research and Market Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Arasteh, Dariush; Kohler, Christian

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reports the findings of a market and research review related to state-of-the-art highly insulating window frames. The market review focuses on window frames that satisfy the Passivhaus requirements (window U-value less or equal to 0.8 W/m{sup 2}K ), while other examples are also given in order to show the variety of materials and solutions that may be used for constructing window frames with a low thermal transmittance (U-value). The market search shows that several combinations of materials are used in order to obtain window frames with a low U-value. The most common insulating material seems to be Polyurethane (PUR), which is used together with most of the common structural materials such as wood, aluminum, and PVC. The frame research review also shows examples of window frames developed in order to increase the energy efficiency of the frames and the glazings which the frames are to be used together with. The authors find that two main tracks are used in searching for better solutions. The first one is to minimize the heat losses through the frame itself. The result is that conductive materials are replaced by highly thermal insulating materials and air cavities. The other option is to reduce the window frame area to a minimum, which is done by focusing on the net energy gain by the entire window (frame, spacer and glazing). Literature shows that a window with a higher U-value may give a net energy gain to a building that is higher than a window with a smaller U-value. The net energy gain is calculated by subtracting the transmission losses through the window from the solar energy passing through the windows. The net energy gain depends on frame versus glazing area, solar factor, solar irradiance, calculation period and U-value. The frame research review also discusses heat transfer modeling issues related to window frames. Thermal performance increasing measures, surface modeling, and frame cavity modeling are among the topics discussed. The review shows that the current knowledge gives the basis for improving the calculation procedures in the calculation standards. At the same time it is room for improvement within some areas, e.g. to fully understand the natural convection effects inside irregular vertical frame cavities (jambs) and ventilated frame cavities.

  20. Life in the Solar System Assume we need energy, liquid water, and organic materials.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirley, Yancy

    wells up and spreads over the surface. A potential mission to Europa would land on the ice pack, use in the last few years! #12;Mars PHOENIX Lander digs up apparent water ice which evaporates Ice chunks Gone, with surface ice. Callisto is heavily cratered, but may also have a deep buried ocean. #12;Enceladus ­ An Icy

  1. Life in the Solar System Assume we need energy, liquid water, and organic materials.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirley, Yancy

    ;Small rocky bodies are unlikely to host life: too hot or cold for water, no protective atmosphere so too. #12;Venus is hot (molten lead can exist on its surface!), high pressure (90 atmospheres), toxic, no sunlight, high temperature. Not much chance of life there. Gas Giants #12;The moons of the giant planets

  2. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Charlotte Memorial Hospital, Charlotte, North Carolina. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Included in this report is detailed information regarding the design and installation of a heating and hot water system in a commercial application. This information includes descriptions of system and building, design philosophy, control logic operation modes, design and installation drawing and a brief description of problems encountered and their solutions.

  3. Solar Policy Environment: New Orleans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To use unprecedented rebuilding of the city of New Orleans is an opportunity for the Office of Recovery Management and its partners to encourage solar in New Orleans’ energy marketplace. While all Solar Cities grantees are undertaking market transformation activities that will both remove barriers to the adoption of solar technologies and reduce the cost of solar technologies, the reconstruction process affords New Orleans a window of opportunity to structurally alter the ways in which solar technologies are regulated, incentivized, produced, and consumed in the Greater New Orleans area.

  4. Catalyzed Water Oxidation by Solar Irradiation of Band-Gap-Narrowed Semiconductors (Part 1. Overview).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita,E.; Khalifah, P.; Lymar, S.; Muckerman, J.T.; Rodgriguez, J.

    2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Investigate the catalysis of water oxidation by cobalt and manganese hydrous oxides immobilized on titania or silica nanoparticles, and dinuclear metal complexes with quinonoid ligands in order to develop a better understanding of the critical water oxidation chemistry, and rationally search for improved catalysts. (2) Optimize the light-harvesting and charge-separation abilities of stable semiconductors including both a focused effort to improve the best existing materials by investigating their structural and electronic properties using a full suite of characterization tools, and a parallel effort to discover and characterize new materials. (3) Combine these elements to examine the function of oxidation catalysts on Band-Gap-Narrowed Semiconductor (BGNSC) surfaces and elucidate the core scientific challenges to the efficient coupling of the materials functions.

  5. Solar space and water heating system at Stanford University Central Food Services Building. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This active hydronic domestic hot water and space heating system was 840 ft/sup 2/ of single-glazed, liquid, flat plate collectors and 1550 gal heat storage tanks. The following are discussed: energy conservation, design philosophy, operation, acceptance testing, performance data, collector selection, bidding, costs, economics, problems, and recommendations. An operation and maintenance manual and as-built drawings are included in appendices. (MHR)

  6. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF INSULATING WINDOW SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flat Plate Solar Collectors", Solar~. 11· 151-158, (1975).atten- tion in solar collector and passive solar heatingCoeff·icients in Solar Collectors", Bulletin .Q_f the

  7. New formulae to evaluate the atmospheric layers of precipitable water and gases, applicable in solar radiation computing models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in solar radiation computing models V. B0103descu Energetica, Centrale Electrice, Polytechn. Inst irradiance. In this context, the relatively low density of solar radiation recording stations favoured measurements. Reviews and classifications of the main calculations procedures of solar radiation have been

  8. Subtask 2: Water oxidation complex | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solid ... StrengtheningLabSubmittingProduction 2: Water

  9. RUGGED CERAMIC WINDOW FOR RF APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MIKE NEUBAUER

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-current RF cavities that are needed for many accelerator applications are often limited by the power transmission capability of the pressure barriers (windows) that separate the cavity from the power source. Most efforts to improve RF window design have focused on alumina ceramic, the most popular historical choice, and have not taken advantage of new materials. Alternative window materials have been investigated using a novel Merit Factor comparison and likely candidates have been tested for the material properties which will enable construction in the self-matched window configuration. Window assemblies have also been modeled and fabricated using compressed window techniques which have proven to increase the power handling capability of waveguide windows. Candidate materials have been chosen to be used in fabricating a window for high power testing at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

  10. AIR LEAKAGE OF NEWLY INSTALLED RESIDENTIAL WINDOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidt, John

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tables 2.0.2a 2.0.2b PAGE Air Leakage Through Sash/FrameOperation Types . . . . . Air Leakage of Installed WindowsComparison of Window Types Air Leakage Performance of

  11. An analysis of residential window waterproofing systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parsons, Austin, 1959-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The prevalence of vinyl nail-on windows in the North American new home construction market has prompted ASTM International to write ASTM E2112-01 "Standard Practice for Installation of Exterior Windows, Doors and Skylights". ...

  12. V-217: Microsoft Windows NAT Driver ICMP Packet Handling Denial...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A vulnerability was reported in the Windows NAT Driver PLATFORM: Windows Server 2012 ABSTRACT: This security update resolves a vulnerability in the Windows NAT Driver in Microsoft...

  13. A Design Guide for Early-Market Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Office worker preferences of electrochromic windows: a pilotDetails for an Electrochromic Window Wall Attached arethe performance of the electrochromic windows. Proceedings

  14. High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a window air...

  15. Behavioral Perspectives on Home Energy Audits: The Role of Auditors, Labels, Reports, and Audit Tools on Homeowner Decision Making

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingle, Aaron

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water  heater  and  solar  panels   Solar  thermals   Some  windows   Solar  Panel   Solar  Water  Heater   Percent  the  refrigerator   Solar  panels   The  in-­?line  hot-­?

  16. Windows Server 2008 R2 Licensing Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasayya, Vivek

    Windows Server 2008 R2 Licensing Guide m Your Comprehensive Resource for Licensing and Pricing #12;2 Table of Contents Summary 3 Table of Windows Server 2008 R2 Core Product Offerings 3 License Terms ­ Windows Server 2008 R2 Product Line Updates 4 Edition Comparison by Server Role 5 New and Updated Features

  17. Spectroscopy of Solar Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Wurm; Franz von Feilitzsch; Marianne Goeger-Neff; Tobias Lachenmaier; Timo Lewke; Quirin Meindl; Randoplh Moellenberg; Lothar Oberauer; Walter Potzel; Marc Tippmann; Christoph Traunsteiner; Juergen Winter

    2010-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In the last years, liquid-scintillator detectors have opened a new window for the observation of low-energetic astrophysical neutrino sources. In 2007, the solar neutrino experiment Borexino began its data-taking in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory. High energy resolution and excellent radioactive background conditions in the detector allow the first-time spectroscopic measurement of solar neutrinos in the sub-MeV energy regime. The experimental results of the Beryllium-7 neutrino flux measurements as well as the prospects for the detection of solar Boron-8, pep and CNO neutrinos are presented in the context of the currently discussed ambiguities in solar metallicity. In addition, the potential of the future SNO+ and LENA experiments for high-precision solar neutrino spectroscopy will be outlined.

  18. Micron-scale D/H heterogeneity in chondrite matrices: a signature of the pristine solar system water?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piani, Laurette; Remusat, Laurent

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic matter and hydrous silicates are intimately mixed in the matrix of chondrites and in-situ determination of their individual D/H ratios is therefore challenging. Nevertheless, the D/H ratio of each pure component in this mixture should yield a comprehensible signature of the origin and evolution of water and organic matter in our solar system. We measured hydrogen isotope ratios of organic and hydrous silicates in the matrices of two carbonaceous chondrites (Orgueil CI1 and Renazzo CR2) and one unequilibrated ordinary chondrite (Semarkona, LL3.0). A novel protocol was adopted, involving NanoSIMS imaging of H isotopes of monoatomatic ($H^-$) and molecular ($OH^-$) secondary ions collected at the same location. This allowed the most enriched component with respect to D to be identified in the mixture. Using this protocol, we found that in carbonaceous chondrites the isotopically homogeneous hydrous silicates are mixed with D-rich organic matter. The opposite was observed in Semarkona. Hydrous silicates i...

  19. A water-processable organic electron-selective layer for solution-processed inverted organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Dongcheng; Zhou, Hu; Cai, Ping; Sun, Shi; Ye, Hua; Su, Shi-Jian, E-mail: mssjsu@scut.edu.cn; Cao, Yong [State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices (South China University of Technology) and Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A triazine- and pyridinium-containing water-soluble material of 1,1?,1?-(4,4?,4?-(1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyl)tris(benzene-4,1-diyl)) tris(methylene)tripyridinium bromide (TzPyBr) was developed as an organic electron-selective layer in solution-processed inverted organic solar cells due to its strong anti-erosion capacity against non-polar organic solvents commonly used for the active layer. Ohmic-like contact with the adjacent active materials like fullerene derivatives is speculated to be formed, as confirmed by the work-function measurements with scanning Kelvin probe and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. Besides, considering the deep highest occupied molecular orbital energy level of TzPyBr, excellent hole-blocking property of the electron-selective layer is also anticipated. The inverted organic photovoltaic devices based on the TzPyBr/ITO (indium tin oxide) bilayer cathode exhibit dramatically enhanced performance compared to the control devices with bare ITO as the cathode and even higher efficiency than the conventional type devices with ITO and Al as the electrodes.

  20. Solar Installations – Experience and Recommendations City of Madison

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Assessment of local solar hot water markets, market variables, market barriers, and suggested strategies to increase solar hot water deployment in the city and county.

  1. Solar-heated rotary kiln

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shell, P.K.

    1982-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate is disclosed. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

  2. Rigid thin windows for vacuum applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Glenn Allyn (Danville, CA); Ciarlo, Dino R. (Livermore, CA); Myers, Booth Richard (Livermore, CA); Chen, Hao-Lin (Lafayette, CA); Wakalopulos, George (Pacific Palisades, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin window that stands off atmospheric pressure is fabricated using photolithographic and wet chemical etching techniques and comprises at least two layers: an etch stop layer and a protective barrier layer. The window structure also comprises a series of support ribs running the width of the window. The windows are typically made of boron-doped silicon and silicon nitride and are useful in instruments such as electron beam guns and x-ray detectors. In an electron beam gun, the window does not impede the electrons and has demonstrated outstanding gun performance and survivability during the gun tube manufacturing process.

  3. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING and COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dols, C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the solar-heated hot water. This heater can be seen inwater (solar heated, boosted, or heated entirely in the auxiliary heater)

  4. Renewable Energy Ready Home Solar Photovoltaic Specifications...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Photovoltaic Specification, Checklist and Guide, from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. rerhsolarelectricguide.pdf More Documents & Publications Solar Water...

  5. SOLAR CENTER INFORMATION NCSU Box 7401 Raleigh, NC 27695 (919) 515-3480 Toll Free 1-800-33-NC SUN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SOLAR CENTER INFORMATION NCSU Box 7401 Raleigh, NC 27695 (919) 515-3480 Toll Free 1-800-33-NC SUN Summer Shading and Exterior Insulation for North Carolina Windows The same windows that provide window energy efficiency. A well-insulated window will never be as efficient as a well-insulated wall

  6. Transmission spectra of an electrochromic window based on polyaniline, Prussian blue and tungsten oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jelle, B.P.; Hagen, G. [Norwegian Inst. of Tech., Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Applied Electrochemistry

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The demand for energy savings in buildings will increase in the coming years, as the world`s attention is drawn towards environmental aspects and energy economizing. Windows which are able to dynamically control the sun radiation throughput will play an important role. In this respect, the authors have studied two different electrochromic window configurations; one based on the two complementary electrochromic materials polyaniline (PANI) and tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}), the other one with the electrochromic coating Prussian blue (PB) in addition to PANI and WO{sub 3}. The inclusion of PB enhances the transmission modulation. Integrating over the solar spectrum they find that the window based on PANI and WO{sub 3} is able to regulate 39% of the total solar energy, while with the inclusion of PB they manage to regulate as much as 50% of the sun radiation.

  7. Monitored Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlledfor Daylight and Visual Comfort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2005-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A 20-month field study was conducted to measure the energy performance of south-facing large-area tungsten-oxide absorptive electrochromic (EC) windows with a broad switching range in a private office setting. The EC windows were controlled by a variety of means to bring in daylight while minimizing window glare. For some cases, a Venetian blind was coupled with the EC window to block direct sun. Some tests also involved dividing the EC window wall into zones where the upper EC zone was controlled to admit daylight while the lower zone was controlled to prevent glare yet permit view. If visual comfort requirements are addressed by EC control and Venetian blinds, a 2-zone EC window configuration provided average daily lighting energy savings of 10 {+-} 15% compared to the reference case with fully lowered Venetian blinds. Cooling load reductions were 0 {+-} 3%. If the reference case assumes no daylighting controls, lighting energy savings would be 44 {+-} 11%. Peak demand reductions due to window cooling load, given a critical demand-response mode, were 19-26% maximum on clear sunny days. Peak demand reductions in lighting energy use were 0% or 72-100% compared to a reference case with and without daylighting controls, respectively. Lighting energy use was found to be very sensitive to how glare and sun is controlled. Additional research should be conducted to fine-tune EC control for visual comfort based on solar conditions so as to increase lighting energy savings.

  8. THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mertol, Atila

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Performance of Solar Water Heater With Natural Ci rculperformance of solar thermos i phon water heaters with heatSolar Jubilee, Phoenix, AZ, June 2-6, 1980 THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS

  9. Evaluation of control strategies for different smart window combinations using computer simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonsson, Andreas; Roos, Arne [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Several studies have shown that the use of switchable windows could lower the energy consumption of buildings. Since the main function of windows is to provide daylight and visual contact with the external world, high visible transmittance is needed. From an energy perspective it is always best to have the windows in their low-transparent state whenever there are cooling needs, but this is generally not preferable from a daylight and visual contact point of view. Therefore a control system, which can be based on user presence, is needed in connection with switchable windows. In this study the heating and cooling needs of the building, using different control mechanisms were evaluated. This was done for different locations and for different combinations of switchable windows, using electrochromic glazing in combination with either low-e or solar control glazing. Four control mechanisms were investigated; one that only optimizes the window to lower the need for heating and cooling, one that assumes that the office is in use during the daytime, one based on user presence and one limiting the perpendicular component of the incident solar irradiation to avoid glare and too strong daylight. The control mechanisms were compared using computer simulations. A simplified approach based on the balance temperature concept was used instead of performing complete building simulations. The results show that an occupancy-based control system is clearly beneficial and also that the best way to combine the panes in the switchable window differs depending on the balance temperature of the building and on the climate. It is also shown that it can be beneficial to have different window combinations for different orientations. (author)

  10. Window Types | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: SinceDevelopment | Department ofPartnerships ToolkitWasteWho WillWind Programof EnergyWindow

  11. Development and testing of a photometric method to identify non-operating solar hot water systems in field settings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Hongbo (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Vorobieff, Peter V. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Menicucci, David (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Mammoli, Andrea A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of experimental tests of a concept for using infrared (IR) photos to identify non-operational systems based on their glazing temperatures; operating systems have lower glazing temperatures than those in stagnation. In recent years thousands of new solar hot water (SHW) systems have been installed in some utility districts. As these numbers increase, concern is growing about the systems dependability because installation rebates are often based on the assumption that all of the SHW systems will perform flawlessly for a 20-year period. If SHW systems routinely fail prematurely, then the utilities will have overpaid for grid-energy reduction performance that is unrealized. Moreover, utilities are responsible for replacing energy for loads that failed SHW system were supplying. Thus, utilities are seeking data to quantify the reliability of SHW systems. The work described herein is intended to help meet this need. The details of the experiment are presented, including a description of the SHW collectors that were examined, the testbed that was used to control the system and record data, the IR camera that was employed, and the conditions in which testing was completed. The details of the associated analysis are presented, including direct examination of the video records of operational and stagnant collectors, as well as the development of a model to predict glazing temperatures and an analysis of temporal intermittency of the images, both of which are critical to properly adjusting the IR camera for optimal performance. Many IR images and a video are presented to show the contrast between operating and stagnant collectors. The major conclusion is that the technique has potential to be applied by using an aircraft fitted with an IR camera that can fly over an area with installed SHW systems, thus recording the images. Subsequent analysis of the images can determine the operational condition of the fielded collectors. Specific recommendations are presented relative to the application of the technique, including ways to mitigate and manage potential sources of error.

  12. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat pump space heaters, and solar water heaters, as well asmarket research on solar water heaters. National Renewable

  13. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    market research on solar water heaters. National Renewablespace heaters, and solar water heaters, as well as other

  14. Visual and energy performance of switchable windows with antireflection coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonsson, Andreas; Roos, Arne [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this project was to investigate how the visual appearance and energy performance of switchable or smart windows can be improved by using antireflective coatings. For this study clear float glass, low-e glass and electrochromic glass were treated with antireflection (AR) coatings. Such a coating considerably increases the transmittance of solar radiation in general and the visible transmittance in particular. For switchable glazing based on absorptive electrochromic layers in their dark state it is necessary to use a low-emissivity coating on the inner pane of a double glazed window in order to reject the absorbed heat. In principle all surfaces can be coated with AR coatings, and it was shown that a thin AR coating on the low-e surface neither influences the thermal emissivity nor the U-value of the glazing. The study showed that the use of AR coatings in switchable glazing significantly increases the light transmittance in the transparent state. It is believed that this is important for a high level of user acceptance of such windows. (author)

  15. Heterojunction solar cell with passivated emitter surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1994-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-efficiency heterojunction solar cell is described wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga[sub 0.52]In[sub 0.48]P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. A passivating window layer of defined composition is disposed over the emitter layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the window layer. 1 fig.

  16. Heterojunction solar cell with passivated emitter surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO); Kurtz, Sarah R. (Golden, CO)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-efficiency heterojunction solar cell wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. A passivating window layer of defined composition is disposed over the emitter layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the window layer.

  17. Solar Policy Environment: Ann Arbor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The goal for Ann Arbor’s Solar America Cities program is to utilize a wide range of community partners and resources to remove market barriers to the adoption of solar energy while simultaneously increasing consumer awareness and demand, and helping solar energy manufacturers and contractors to succeed. Expected outcomes include a Solar Plan for Ann Arbor, one or more large-scale photovoltaic demonstration projects, more small-scale solar hot water and photovoltaic demonstration projects, greater consumer awareness of solar options, a simpler permitting process for solar projects, and proof that solar energy works even in cloudy cities.

  18. Homebuilder's Guide to Going Solar (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This 8-page brochure describes the steps a builder would take to install solar electricity (photovoltaics or PV), solar water heating, or how to build a home solar ready.

  19. Passive solar house in Skillman, NJ: Case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kendig, J.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study traces the history of a single family residence in Skillman, NJ designed by Harrison Fraker. The house, built in 1978, was conceived as primarily passive solar house intended to rely on solar energy for most of its heating needs. Solar features include direct gain windows, water walls and sunspace. The study documents original solar features, identifies changes over time and evaluates performance of the house. The owners have removed movable insulation and significantly reduced the amount of thermal mass over the life of the building. The owner reported comfort level changes intuitively consistent with those modifications. The owner is contemplating further changes to make the house more marketable, changes likely to further alter the remaining passive solar features. Builders Guide software was used to calculate changes in solar performance of the house related to building modifications. Calculations of solar performance generally correspond to anecdotal information from the owner. The author's attempts with Energy 10 program showed some promise, but are as yet inconclusive. At this time BG appears to be more useful and user friendly to the average practitioner with limited time and design resources. As a practicing architect the author is most interested in lessons to be learned from the past as they might contribute to future projects. Information gleaned from this study did confirm intuitively expected and currently disseminated thinking regarding passive solar design. The thermal mass proved to be vulnerable to change. Features which required daily manual adjustment were quickly discarded. Desire for comfort was driving force in changing the house and took precedence over the need to save energy or money.

  20. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Mounted...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Key Issues High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation 2014-05-05 Issuance: Test Procedure for Portable Air Conditioners; Notice of Data Availability...

  1. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF INSULATING WINDOW SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient Use of Energy, New York (1975). Glaser, V.H.J. , "Energy Transport Control in Window Systems", Report ETR-1277-2, Stony Brook, New York, (

  2. The Delivery Man Problem with Time Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    depot, while open time windows are considered at all other locations. ... nodes of G: earliest and latest times are described by parameters ei and li for nodes i ...

  3. Real-Time Water Quality Management in the Grassland Water District

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Grassland Water District. Solar Panel with 12-volt batteryWater District. Power Solar Panel with 12-volt batteryWater District. Power Solar Panel with 12-volt battery

  4. Solar Water Heater Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hawaii Energy, a third-party administered public benefits fund, provides incentives for energy efficiency and conservation to customers of the Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) and its subsidiaries,...

  5. The Texas Solar D House 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrison, M.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    technologies: photovoltaic (PV) power, passive solar heating, daylighting, natural ventilation, and solar hot water heating were integrated with concepts of affordability and energy conservation to help promote an ideology of sustainable architecture....

  6. Overcoming Barriers to Solar Use 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halme, D. S.; Sicotte, J. R.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar water heating systems built during the past ten years represent the beginning of a strong North American Solar Industry. The opportunities provided through Government assistance programs have enabled the Industry to develop products, standards...

  7. Laser sealed vacuum insulation window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the glass panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

  8. Laser sealed vacuum insulating window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1985-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the galss panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

  9. Solar Energy Windows and Smart IR Switchable Building Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarny, James; Kornish, Brian

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The three building envelope functions with the largest impact on the energy usage are illumination, energy flux and energy production. In general, these three functions are addressed separately in the building design. A step change toward a zero-energy building can be achieved with a glazing system that combines these three functions and their control into a single unit. In particular, significant value could be realized if illumination into the building is dynamically controlled such that it occurs during periods of low load on the grid (e.g., morning) to augment illumination supplied by interior lights and then to have that same light diverted to PV energy production and the thermal energy rejected during periods of high load on the grid. The objective of this project is to investigate the feasibility of a glazing unit design that integrates these three key functions (illumination and energy flux control, and power production) into a single module.

  10. Photovoltaic-integrated electrochromic device for smart-window applications - preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deb, S.

    2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Three different, innovative approaches have been taken to develop photovoltaic (PV) integrated electrochromic (EC) devices for smart-window applications. These are (1) a stand-alone, side-by-side PV-powered EC window; (2) a monolithically integrated PV-EC device; and, (3) a novel photoelectrochromic device based on dye-sensitized TiO{sub 2} solar cells. The compatibility of PV-EC devices has been analyzed and the potential for large energy savings for building applications has been suggested.

  11. Measure Guideline: Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  12. Side-by-Side Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the PNNL Lab Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.; Bauman, Nathan N.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To examine the energy, air leakage, and thermal performance of highly insulating windows, a field evaluation was undertaken in a matched pair of all-electric, factory-built “Lab Homes” located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus in Richland, Washington. The “baseline” Lab Home B was retrofitted with “standard” double-pane clear aluminum-frame slider windows and patio doors, while the “experimental” Lab Home A was retrofitted with Jeld-Wen® triple-pane vinyl-frame slider windows and patio doors with a U-factor of 0.2 and solar heat gain coefficient of 0.19. To assess the window, the building shell air leakage, energy use, and interior temperatures of each home were compared during the 2012 winter heating and summer cooling seasons. The measured energy savings in Lab Home B averaged 5,821 watt-hours per day (Wh/day) during the heating season and 6,518 Wh/day during the cooling season. The overall whole-house energy savings of Lab Home B compared to Lab Home A are 11.6% ± 1.53% for the heating season and 18.4 ± 2.06% for the cooling season for identical occupancy conditions with no window coverings deployed. Extrapolating these energy savings numbers based on typical average heating degree days and cooling degree days per year yields an estimated annual energy savings of 12.2%, or 1,784 kWh/yr. The data suggest that highly insulating windows are an effective energy-saving measure that should be considered for high-performance new homes and in existing retrofits. However, the cost effectiveness of the measure, as determined by the simple payback period, suggests that highly insulating window costs continue to make windows difficult to justify on a cost basis alone. Additional reductions in costs via improvements in manufacturing and/or market penetration that continue to drive down costs will make highly insulating windows much more viable as a cost-effective energy efficiency measure. This study also illustrates that highly insulating windows have important impacts on peak load, occupant comfort, and condensation potential, which are not captured in the energy savings calculation. More consistent and uniform interior temperature distributions suggest that highly insulated windows, as part of a high performance building envelope, may enable more centralized duct design and downsized HVAC systems. Shorter, more centralized duct systems and smaller HVAC systems to yield additional cost savings, making highly insulating windows more cost effective as part of a package of new construction or retrofit measures which achieve significant reductions in home energy use.

  13. Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water heaters, heat-pump water heaters, and instantaneous (Wasted water Solar Heat pump water heater Australia/New

  14. Performance prediction using geostatistics and window reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fontanilla, J.P.; Al-Khalawi, A.A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Johnson, S.G.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is the first window model study in the northern area of a large carbonate reservoir in Saudi Arabia. It describes window reservoir simulation with geostatistics to model uneven water encroachment in the southwest producing area of the northern portion of the reservoir. In addition, this paper describes performance predictions that investigate the sweep efficiency of the current peripheral waterflood. A 50 x 50 x 549 (240 m. x 260 m. x 0.15 m. average grid block size) geological model was constructed with geostatistics software. Conditional simulation was used to obtain spatial distributions of porosity and volume of dolomite. Core data transforms were used to obtain horizontal and vertical permeability distributions. Simple averaging techniques were used to convert the 549-layer geological model to a 50 x 50 x 10 (240 m. x 260 m. x 8 m. average grid block size) window reservoir simulation model. Flux injectors and flux producers were assigned to the outermost grid blocks. Historical boundary flux rates were obtained from a coarsely-ridded full-field model. Pressure distribution, water cuts, GORs, and recent flowmeter data were history matched. Permeability correction factors and numerous parameter adjustments were required to obtain the final history match. The permeability correction factors were based on pressure transient permeability-thickness analyses. The prediction phase of the study evaluated the effects of infill drilling, the use of artificial lifts, workovers, horizontal wells, producing rate constraints, and tight zone development to formulate depletion strategies for the development of this area. The window model will also be used to investigate day-to-day reservoir management problems in this area.

  15. THERM 5 / WINDOW 5 NFRC simulation manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Robin; Kohler, Christian; Arasteh, Dariush; Carmody, John; Huizenga, Charlie; Curcija, Dragan

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document, the ''THERM 5/WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual', discusses how to use the THERM and WINDOW programs to model products for NFRC certified simulations and assumes that the user is already familiar with those programs. In order to learn how to use these programs, it is necessary to become familiar with the material in both the ''THERM User's Manual'' and the ''WINDOW User's Manual''. In general, this manual references the User's Manuals rather than repeating the information. If there is a conflict between either of the User Manual and this ''THERM 5/''WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'', the ''THERM 5/WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'' takes precedence. In addition, if this manual is in conflict with any NFRC standards, the standards take precedence. For example, if samples in this manual do not follow the current taping and testing NFRC standards, the standards not the samples in this manual, take precedence.

  16. Solar energy storage through the homogeneous electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide : photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathrum, Aaron John

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photoelectrochemistry and Solar-Energy - Progress, PromiseGeneration from Water Using Solar Energy. Materials-RelatedSemiconductor/Electrolyte Solar Energy Conversion. J. Phys.

  17. Solar energy storage through the homogeneous electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide : photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathrum, Aaron John

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Generation from Water Using Solar Energy. Materials-RelatedSemiconductor/Electrolyte Solar Energy Conversion. J. Phys.Conversion of Solar Energy. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A-Math.

  18. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with. Comparing tracking solar CHP systems to stationary PVratios of tracking collector solar CHP to stationary PV isprovided by a tracking concentrating solar collector, water

  19. Solar energy storage through the homogeneous electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide : photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathrum, Aaron John

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical Challenges in Solar Energy Utilization. Proc. Natl.Generation from Water Using Solar Energy. Materials-RelatedSemiconductor/Electrolyte Solar Energy Conversion. J. Phys.

  20. Electrochromic windows for commercial buildings: Monitored results from a full-scale testbed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lifetime prediction of electrochromic windows for buildingsenergy performance of electrochromic windows. ” Proceedingsin the Proceedings. Electrochromic Windows for Commercial

  1. Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandes, Luis

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlled forenergy performance of electrochromic windows. Proceedingssignal for daylight (electrochromic window, no overhang).

  2. DETAILED LOOP MODEL (DLM) ANALYSIS OF LIQUID SOLAR THERMOSIPHONS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mertol, A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of a erant Solar Water Heater Using CrosslinkedCeylon of a Pressurized Solar Water Heater of the CombinedH.P. , 11 System Design in Solar Water Heaters With Natural

  3. Austin Utilities- Solar Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Austin Utilities provides incentives for their residential and commercial customers to install photovoltaic (PV) and solar water heating systems. Qualifying PV systems can earn $1 per watt;...

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: Solar Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PV systems evaluations and ... Renewable Energy On November 10, 2010, in Renewable Energy Wind Solar Water Geothermal Biomass Renewable Energy Events Renewable News...

  5. Reducing residential cooling requirements through the use of electrochromic windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of electrochromic windows in a prototypical residential building under a variety of state switching control strategies. We used the DOE-2.1E energy simulation program to analyze the annual cooling energy and peak demand as a function of glazing type, size, and electrochromic control strategy. A single-story ranch-style home located in the cooling-dominated locations of Miami, FL and Phoenix, AZ was simulated. Electrochromic control strategies analyzed were based on incident total solar radiation, space cooling load, and outside air temperature. Our results show that an electrochromic material with a high reflectance in the colored state provides the best performance for all control strategies. On the other hand, electrochromic switching using space cooling load provides the best performance for all the electrochromic materials. The performance of the incident total solar radiation control strategy varies as a function of the values of solar radiation which trigger the bleached and colored states of the electrochromic (setpoint range); i.e., required cooling decreases as the setpoint range decreases; also, performance differences among electrochromics increases. The setpoint range of outside air temperature control of electrochromics must relate to the ambient weather conditions prevalent in a particular location. If the setpoint range is too large, electrochromic cooling performance is very poor. Electrochromics compare favorably to conventional low-E clear glazings that have high solar heat gain coefficients that are used with overhangs. However, low-E tinted glazings with low solar heat gain coefficients can outperform certain electrochromics. Overhangs should be considered as a design option for electrochromics whose state properties do not change significantly between bleached and colored states.

  6. Abengoa Solar, Inc. (Mojave Solar) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar, Inc. (Mojave Solar) Abengoa Solar, Inc. (Mojave Solar) Abengoa Solar, Inc. (Mojave Solar) Abengoa Solar, Inc. (Mojave Solar) Abengoa Solar, Inc. (Mojave Solar) Abengoa...

  7. Observational Window Functions in Planet Transit Searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaspar von Braun; David R. Ciardi

    2008-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Window functions describe, as a function of orbital period, the probability that an existing planetary transit is detectable in one's data for a given observing strategy. We show the dependence of this probability upon several strategy and astrophysical parameters, such as length of observing run, observing cadence, length of night, and transit duration. The ability to detect a transit is directly related to the intrinsic noise of the observations. In our simulations of the window function, we explicitly address non-correlated (gaussian or white) noise and correlated (red) noise and discuss how these two different noise components affect window functions in different manners.

  8. Highly Insulating Residential Windows Using Smart Automated Shading...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Smart Window with integrated sensors, control logic and a motorized shade between glass panes. Image: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 2 of 3 Residential Smart Window...

  9. Research and Development Roadmap: Windows and Building Envelope...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    office windows. This Building Technologies Office (BTO) Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap identifies priority windows and building envelope R&D areas of interest. Cost and...

  10. June 1998Program Description Windows and Daylighting Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    June 1998Program Description THERM 2.0 Windows and Daylighting Group Building Technologies, and Dariush Arasteh Windows and Daylighting Group Building Technologies Department Environmental Energy

  11. Effects of Overhangs on the Performance of Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tavil, Aslihan; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    issues for large-area electrochromic windows in commercialenergy performance of electrochromic windows controlled forwindows.lbl.gov/comm_perf/Electrochromic/ Winkelmann, F.C. ,

  12. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  13. Treating and Reusing Produced Water | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Researchers at OGTC Seek Sustainable Produced Water Management Solutions Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to...

  14. Storm Windows | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMayDepartment of StaffingStorage Water Heaters Storage Water HeatersStorm

  15. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In June 2010, Louisiana enacted solar rights legislation (HB 751) that prohibits certain entities from unreasonably restricting a property owner from installing a solar collector. Solar collectors...

  16. Solar Thermal Incentive Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) offers incentives for the installation of solar water heating systems to residential and non-residential customers of the...

  17. NREL Electrochromic Window Research Wins Award

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Winners of the CO-LABS Governor's Award for High-Impact Research in Energy Efficiency, Dr. Satyen Deb at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) discovered that a small electrical charge can change the opacity of tungsten oxide from clear to tinted. He, Dr. Dane Gillaspie, and their fellow scientists at NREL then applied this knowledge to develop and transfer the technologies required to construct an electrochromic window, which can switch between clear and heavily tinted states. Electrochromic windows allow natural light in while adding tint to reduce summer heat and glare, and going clear to allow sunlight through in the winter. Broad adaptation of these windows could reduce US total energy use by four percent and reduce building cooling loads by 20%, much of this during expensive peak hours. Windows based on these discoveries are now being installed worldwide.

  18. NREL Electrochromic Window Research Wins Award

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Winners of the CO-LABS Governor's Award for High-Impact Research in Energy Efficiency, Dr. Satyen Deb at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) discovered that a small electrical charge can change the opacity of tungsten oxide from clear to tinted. He, Dr. Dane Gillaspie, and their fellow scientists at NREL then applied this knowledge to develop and transfer the technologies required to construct an electrochromic window, which can switch between clear and heavily tinted states. Electrochromic windows allow natural light in while adding tint to reduce summer heat and glare, and going clear to allow sunlight through in the winter. Broad adaptation of these windows could reduce US total energy use by four percent and reduce building cooling loads by 20%, much of this during expensive peak hours. Windows based on these discoveries are now being installed worldwide.

  19. 700 MHz window R & D at LBNL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rimmer, R.A.; Koehler, G.; Saleh, T.; Weidenbach, R.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBNL-47939 LAUR 01-2574 CBP tech230 700 MHz Window R&D at LBNL R. Rimmer, G. Koehler, T.describes the R&D activities at LBNL under contract # 06261-

  20. 8Li electron spectrum versus 8B neutrino spectrum Implications for measuring solar neutrinos with a heavy water detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonkmans, G; Sur, B

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sensitivity of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) to measure the shape of the recoil electron spectrum in the charged-current reaction of $^{8}$B solar neutrinos interacting with deuterium can be improved if the results of a $^{8}$Li beta-decay calibration experiment are included in the test. We calculate an improvement in sensitivity, under certain idealistic assumptions, of about a factor of 2, sufficient to resolve different neutrino-oscillation solutions to the solar-neutrino problem. We further examine the role of recoil and radiative corrections on both the $^{8}$B neutrino spectrum and the $^{8}$Li electron spectrum and conclude that the influence of these effects on the ratio of the two spectra as measured by SNO is very small.

  1. Effect of switching control strategies on the energy performance of electrochromic windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R.; Lee, E.S.; Papamichael, K.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Building Technologies Program

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of electrochromic windows under a variety of state-switching control strategies. The authors used the DOE-2.1E energy simulation program to analyze the annual cooling, lighting, and total electricity use and peak demand as a function of glazing type, size, and electrochromic control strategy. They simulated a prototypical commercial office building module located in the cooling-dominated location of Blythe, California. Control strategies analyzed were based on daylight illuminance, incident total solar radiation, and space cooling load. Their results show that when a daylighting strategy is used to reduce electrical lighting requirements, control algorithms based on daylight illuminance results in the best overall annual energy performance. If daylighting is not a design option, controls based on space cooling load yield the best performance through solar heat gain reduction. The performance of the incident total solar radiation control strategies varies as a function of the values of solar radiation which trigger the bleached and colored states of the electrochromic (setpoint range); for small to moderate window sizes which result in small to moderate solar gains, a large setpoint-range was best since it provides increased illuminance for daylighting without much cooling penalty; for larger window sizes, which provide adequate daylight, a small setpoint-range was best to reduce unwanted solar heat gains and the consequential increased cooling requirement. Of particular importance is the fact that reduction in peak electric demand was found to be independent of the type of control strategy used for electrochromic switching. This is because the electrochromics are generally in their most colored state under peak conditions, and the mechanism used for achieving such a state is not important.

  2. Chromogenic switchable glazing: Towards the development of the smart window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lampert, C.M.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The science and technology of chromogenic materials for switchable glazings in building applications is discussed. These glazings can be used for dynamic control of solar and visible energy. Currently many researchers and engineers are involved with the development of products in this field. A summary of activities in Japan, Europe, Australia, USA and Canada is made. The activities of the International Energy Agency are included. Both non-electrically activated and electrically activated glazings are discussed. Technologies covered in the first category are photochromics, and thermochromics and thermotropics. A discussion of electrically activated chromogenic glazings includes dispersed liquid crystals, dispersed particles and electrochromics. A selection of device structures and performance characteristics are compared. A discussion of transparent conductors is presented. Technical issues concerning large-area development of smart windows are discussed.

  3. Active load management with advanced window wall systems: Research and industry perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.; Levi, Mark S.; Blanc, Steven L.; McConahey, Erin; McClintock, Maurya; Hakkarainen, Pekka; Sbar, Neil L.; Myser, Michael P.

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced window wall systems have the potential to provide demand response by reducing peak electric loads by 20-30% in many commercial buildings through the active control of motorized shading systems, switchable window coatings, operable windows, and ventilated double-skin facade systems. These window strategies involve balancing daylighting and solar heat gains, heat rejection through ventilation, and night-time natural ventilation to achieve space-conditioning and lighting energy use reductions without the negative impacts on occupants associated with other demand responsive (DR) strategies. This paper explores conceptually how advanced window systems fit into the context of active load management programs, which cause customers to directly experience the time-varying costs of their consumption decisions. Technological options are suggested. We present pragmatic criteria that building owners use to determine whether to deploy such strategies. A utility's perspective is given. Industry also provides their perspectives on where the technology is today and what needs to happen to implement such strategies more broadly in the US. While there is significant potential for these advanced window concepts, widespread deployment is unlikely to occur with business-as-usual practice. Technologically, integrated window-lighting-HVAC products are underdeveloped. Implementation is hindered by fragmented labor practices, non-standard communication protocols, and lack of technical expertise. Design tools and information products that quantify energy performance, occupant impacts, reliability, and other pragmatic concerns are not available. Interest within the building industry in sustainability, energy-efficiency, and increased occupant amenity, comfort, and productivity will be the driving factors for these advanced facades in the near term--at least until the dust settles on the deregulated electricity market.

  4. Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy multiplier Distribution losses Smart controls Wasted water Solar Heat pump water heater Australia/

  5. Applied solar energy at the Shiraz Technical Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, James Wagner

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Factors affecting the application of solar energy and the preliminary design of a solar system to supplement the service hot water system at the Shiraz

  6. Annual DOE active solar heating and cooling contractors' review meeting. Premeeting proceedings and project summaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None,

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ninety-three project summaries are presented which discuss the following aspects of active solar heating and cooling: Rankine solar cooling systems; absorption solar cooling systems; desiccant solar cooling systems; solar heat pump systems; solar hot water systems; special projects (such as the National Solar Data Network, hybrid solar thermal/photovoltaic applications, and heat transfer and water migration in soils); administrative/management support; and solar collector, storage, controls, analysis, and materials technology. (LEW)

  7. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    condensing tankless com- bined space/water heaters, solarmarket research on solar water heaters. National Renew- ablewater heaters, combined solar space/water heater, electric

  8. The 2005 Solar D House 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrison, M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    technologies and sustainable building materials. The Energy saving features of the house include, a 7.9 kW photovoltaic solar power system, evacuated tube “heat pipe” solar water collectors, a high efficiency HVAC system and an energy conserving design..., each of which designed, built, and operated a totally solar-powered home with a home office and their transportation needs using a solar-charged vehicle. Organized by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable energy Laboratory...

  9. Solar Federal Buildings Program plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Federal Buildings Program (SFBP) is a multi-year program designed to stimulate the growth and improve the efficiency of the solar industry by providing funds to Federal agencies for the design, acquisition, construction, and installation of commercially applicable solar hot water, heating, cooling, and process systems in new and existing Federal buildings. This document outlines the Program Plan to be used in implementing this major solar commercialization effort.

  10. Solar project description for Arno Kahn/Builders and Laborers Commonwealth single family residence Duluth, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, D

    1982-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Arno Kahn/Builders and Laborers Commonwealth Site is a house in a Minnesota suburb. It combines a modified direct-gain sun space system with a thermal envelope. The living space is separated from the sun space by a three-story mass wall. Sunlight enters the three-story solarium and heats the mass wall which in turn heats the air. The warm air is then distributed through the thermal envelope. Manually operated shades provide night insulation for the south-facing windows, and roof overhangs and a turbine vent in the solarium roof prevent overheating. Domestic hot water is preheated in four tanks located behind the window of the basement sunroom. The concrete floor in the basement provides part of the heat storage. Wood burning stoves and electric baseboard heaters provide auxiliary heating. Five modes of operation are described: collector-to-storage, collector-to-space heating, storage-to-space heating, solarium cooling and domestic hot water preheating. The instrumentation for the National Solar Data Network is described. The solar energy portion of the construction costs is estimated to be $7000. (LEW)

  11. Design of Semiconducting Tetrahedral Mn 1 ? x Zn x O Alloys and Their Application to Solar Water Splitting

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peng, Haowei; Ndione, Paul F.; Ginley, David S.; Zakutayev, Andriy; Lany, Stephan

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transition metal oxides play important roles as contact and electrode materials, but their use as active layers in solar energy conversion requires achieving semiconducting properties akin to those of conventional semiconductors like Si or GaAs. In particular, efficient bipolar carrier transport is a challenge in these materials. Based on the prediction that a tetrahedral polymorph of MnO should have such desirable semiconducting properties, and the possibility to overcome thermodynamic solubility limits by nonequilibrium thin-film growth, we exploit both structure-property and composition-structure relationships to design and realize novel wurtzite-structure Mn??xZnxO alloys. At Zn compositions above x ? 0.3, thin films ofmore »these alloys assume the tetrahedral wurtzite structure instead of the octahedral rocksalt structure of MnO, thereby enabling semiconductor properties that are unique among transition metal oxides, i.e., a band gap within the visible spectrum, a band-transport mechanism for both electron and hole carriers, electron doping, and a band lineup suitable for solar hydrogen generation. A proof of principle is provided by initial photo-electrocatalytic device measurements, corroborating, in particular, the predicted favorable hole-transport properties of these alloys.« less

  12. Design of Semiconducting Tetrahedral Mn 1 ? x Zn x O Alloys and Their Application to Solar Water Splitting

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peng, Haowei; Ndione, Paul F.; Ginley, David S.; Zakutayev, Andriy; Lany, Stephan

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transition metal oxides play important roles as contact and electrode materials, but their use as active layers in solar energy conversion requires achieving semiconducting properties akin to those of conventional semiconductors like Si or GaAs. In particular, efficient bipolar carrier transport is a challenge in these materials. Based on the prediction that a tetrahedral polymorph of MnO should have such desirable semiconducting properties, and the possibility to overcome thermodynamic solubility limits by nonequilibrium thin-film growth, we exploit both structure-property and composition-structure relationships to design and realize novel wurtzite-structure Mn??xZnxO alloys. At Zn compositions above x ? 0.3, thin films of these alloys assume the tetrahedral wurtzite structure instead of the octahedral rocksalt structure of MnO, thereby enabling semiconductor properties that are unique among transition metal oxides, i.e., a band gap within the visible spectrum, a band-transport mechanism for both electron and hole carriers, electron doping, and a band lineup suitable for solar hydrogen generation. A proof of principle is provided by initial photo-electrocatalytic device measurements, corroborating, in particular, the predicted favorable hole-transport properties of these alloys.

  13. Nanotechnology for Solar-hydrogen Production via Photoelectrochemical Water-splitting: Design, Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of Nanomaterials and Quantum Dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alenzi, Naser D.

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    -scale ..................................................... 35 1.25 Atoms nucleation and growth rate during synthesis .................................. 36 1.26 The AM 1.5 solar spectrum as function of photon energy. ........................ 37 1.27 Thermal solar energy systems (A) parabolic dish (B... Page 1.1 Hydrogen production pathways ................................................................. 4 1.2 Solar to hydrogen conversion pathways, STC is solar thermochemical, CST is concentrating solar thermal, and PEC...

  14. Microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for packaging of microelectronic devices, including an integral window. The microelectronic device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can include a cofired ceramic frame or body. The package can have an internal stepped structure made of one or more plates, with apertures, which are patterned with metallized conductive circuit traces. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded on the plate to these traces, and oriented so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A cover lid can be attached to the opposite side of the package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, having an integral window that can be hermetically-sealed. The package body can be formed by low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the window being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. Multiple chips can be located within a single package. The cover lid can include a window. The apparatus is particularly suited for packaging of MEMS devices, since the number of handling steps is greatly reduced, thereby reducing the potential for contamination.

  15. Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy Window Functions Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lloyd Knox

    1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary results of most observations of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy are estimates of the angular power spectrum averaged through some broad band, called band-powers. These estimates are in turn what are used to produce constraints on cosmological parameters due to all CMB observations. Essential to this estimation of cosmological parameters is the calculation of the expected band-power for a given experiment, given a theoretical power spectrum. Here we derive the "band power" window function which should be used for this calculation, and point out that it is not equivalent to the window function used to calculate the variance. This important distinction has been absent from much of the literature: the variance window function is often used as the band-power window function. We discuss the validity of this assumed equivalence, the role of window functions for experiments that constrain the power in {\\it multiple} bands, and summarize a prescription for reporting experimental results. The analysis methods detailed here are applied in a companion paper to three years of data from the Medium Scale Anisotropy Measurement.

  16. Hot Cell Window Shielding Analysis Using MCNP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad L. Pope; Wade W. Scates; J. Todd Taylor

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex nuclear facilities are undergoing a documented safety analysis upgrade. In conjunction with the upgrade effort, shielding analysis of the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) hot cell windows has been conducted. This paper describes the shielding analysis methodology. Each 4-ft thick window uses nine glass slabs, an oil film between the slabs, numerous steel plates, and packed lead wool. Operations in the hot cell center on used nuclear fuel (UNF) processing. Prior to the shielding analysis, shield testing with a gamma ray source was conducted, and the windows were found to be very effective gamma shields. Despite these results, because the glass contained significant amounts of lead and little neutron absorbing material, some doubt lingered regarding the effectiveness of the windows in neutron shielding situations, such as during an accidental criticality. MCNP was selected as an analysis tool because it could model complicated geometry, and it could track gamma and neutron radiation. A bounding criticality source was developed based on the composition of the UNF. Additionally, a bounding gamma source was developed based on the fission product content of the UNF. Modeling the windows required field inspections and detailed examination of drawings and material specifications. Consistent with the shield testing results, MCNP results demonstrated that the shielding was very effective with respect to gamma radiation, and in addition, the analysis demonstrated that the shielding was also very effective during an accidental criticality.

  17. State of Solar Photovoltaics in North Carolina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .dsireusa.org / January 2012 Solar water heating eligible * Extra credit for solar or customer-sited renewables Includes: 20% x 2020 (IOUs) 10% x 2020 (co-ops) HI: 40% x 2030 Minimum solar or customer-sited requirement TXState of Solar Photovoltaics in North Carolina Amy Heinemann March 7, 2012 #12;http

  18. 1 Copyright 2004 by ASME Proceedings of Solar 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribando, Robert J.

    1 Copyright © 2004 by ASME Proceedings of Solar 2004 July 11-14, 2004 Portland, Oregon ISEC2004- contractors unfamiliar with the construction technique, higher material costs, the necessary custom window in the structure. The building shell is subjected to a daily variation in solar radiation and air temperature

  19. THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mertol, Atila

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Performance of Solar Water Heater With Natural Ci rcul2-6, 1980 THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERSJune 1980 THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS*

  20. Apparatus for insulating windows and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitchell, R.A.

    1984-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for insulating window openings through walls and the like includes a thermal shutter, a rail for mounting the shutter adjacent to the window opening and a coupling for connecting the shutter to the rail. The thermal shutter includes an insulated panel adhered to frame members which surround the periphery of the panel. The frame members include a hard portion for providing the frame and a soft portion for providing a seal with that portion of the wall adjacent to the periphery of the opening. The coupling means is preferably integral with the attachment rail. According to a preferred embodiment, the coupling means includes a continuous hinge of reduced thickness. The thermal shutter can be permanently attached, hinged, bi-folded, or sliding with respect to the window and wall. A distribution method is to market the apparatus in kit'' form. 11 figs.

  1. Apparatus for insulating windows and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Robert A. (R.D. #1, Box 462-A, Voorheesville, NY 12186)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for insulating window openings through walls and the like includes a thermal shutter, a rail for mounting the shutter adjacent to the window opening and a coupling for connecting the shutter to the rail. The thermal shutter includes an insulated panel adhered to frame members which surround the periphery of the panel. The frame members include a hard portion for providing the frame and a soft portion for providing a seal with that portion of the wall adjacent to the periphery of the opening. The coupling means is preferably integral with the attachment rail. According to a preferred embodiment, the coupling means includes a continuous hinge of reduced thickness. The thermal shutter can be permanently attached, hinged, bi-folded, or sliding with respect to the window and wall. A distribution method is to market the apparatus in "kit" form.

  2. Solar Still Coupled With Solar Collector and Storage Tank

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M, Rajesh A

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acute shortage of good, clean drinking water is a major problem for most developing countries of the world. In most cases, ponds, streams, wells and rivers are often polluted that they are unsafe for direct use as drinking water >.Often water sources are brackish and or contain harmful bacteria. Therefore cannot be used for drinking .In addition there are many coastal locations where sea water is abundant but potable water is not available. Solar distillation is one of the important methods of utilizing solar energy for the supply of potable water to small communities where natural supply of fresh water is inadequate or of poor quality .In this direction an experimental performance analysis was carried out on a single basin still compared with FPC coupled one. Test were carried out for different water samples namely borewell water, sea water, river water for a water depth of 20 mm

  3. Solar-Driven Microbial Photoelectrochemical System for Energy Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Hanyu

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S. S. , A Perspective on Solar-Driven Water Splitting withI. S. ; Kim, I. S. , A Solar-Powered Microbial ElectrolysisD. R. , Development of a Solar-Powered Microbial Fuel Cell.

  4. Denton Municipal Electric- GreenSense Solar Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Denton Municipal Electric offers rebates to its electric customers for the installation of solar PV and solar water heating systems. The solar rebates are designed for residential and small...

  5. A Continuous Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Plant Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luc, Wesley Wai

    A.W. , “Likely Near-Term Solar-Thermal Water SplittingFundamentals of s Solar-thermal Mn 2 O 3 /MnO ThermochemicalPower-Photovaltaics or Solar Thermal Power? ” Proceedings of

  6. EECBG Success Story: Knox County Detention Facility Goes Solar...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hillsborough County Courthouse Goes Solar The roof of the justice center where a solar panel array will be installed to power a solar thermal water-heating system | Photo courtesy...

  7. atmospheric solar heating: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  8. aire acondicionado solar: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  9. active solar heating: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  10. Energy-Efficient Windows | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPowerHome |Cooking for WinterWindow TreatmentsWindows

  11. Making Smart Windows Smarter | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & Gas »ofMarketingSmart Windows Smarter Making Smart Windows

  12. DETAILED LOOP MODEL (DLM) ANALYSIS OF LIQUID SOLAR THERMOSIPHONS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mertol, A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural Circu- lation Solar Heater-Models With Linear andthe Natural Circul on Solar Heater," in Proceedings of theon Compact Solar Water Heaters, 11 Solar E Vo1.20, 1977,

  13. Improved Performance of Energy Window Ratio Criteria Obtained Using Multiple Windows at Radiation Portal Monitoring Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weier, Dennis R.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Ely, James H.; Bates, Derrick J.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2006-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation portal monitors are being used to detect radioactive target materials in vehicles transporting cargo. As vehicles pass through the portal monitors, they generate count profiles over time that can be compared to the average panel background counts obtained just prior to the time the vehicle entered the area of the monitors. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in support of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and U.S. Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), has accumulated considerable data regarding such background radiation and vehicle profiles from portal installations. Energy window criteria have been shown to increase sensitivity to certain types of target radioactive sources while also controlling to a manageable level the rate of false or nuisance alarms. First generation equipment had only two-window capability, and while energy windowing for such systems was shown to be useful for detecting certain types of sources, it was subsequently found that improved performance could be obtained with more windows. Second generation equipment instead has more windows and can thus support additional energy window criteria which can be shown to be sensitive to a wider set of target sources. Detection likelihoods are generated for various sources and energy window criteria, as well as for gross count decision criteria, based on computer simulated injections of sources into archived vehicle profiles. (PIET-43741-TM-534)

  14. Approaches To Integrating A HIgh Penertration Of Solar PV and CPV Onto The Electrical Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Steven Craig

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    connection the water borne solar plant and the City of Lodi1.1 January 13, 2013 Solar Plant Modeling Impacts onborne solar on waste water treatment plants. In response to

  15. Study of the thermochemistry for oxygen production for a solar sulfur-ammonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Mimi Kai Wai

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to use concentrated solar thermal energy to power a costSolar-Thermal Water Splitting Technologies,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy,Solar-Thermal Water Splitting Technologies,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy,

  16. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING and COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dols, C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar heated, boosted, or heated entirely in the auxiliary heater)for the solar-heated hot water. This heater can be seen insolar heating and cooling system, showing plumbing runs containing solenoid valves, auxiliary heater (

  17. Consumers Power, Inc.- Solar Energy System Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Consumers Power, Inc. (CPI) offers rebates to its residential customers who install solar water heating systems or solar photovoltaic (PV) systems from October 1, 2012 to September 30, 2013. The...

  18. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Solar Radiation Atlas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NREL

    1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This atlas provides a record of monthly mean solar radiation generated by a Climatological Solar Radiation model, using quasi-climatological inputs of cloud cover, aerosol optical depth, precipitable water vapor, ozone, surface albedo, and atmospheric pressure.

  19. The Current T2K Beam Window

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Downstream Helium velocity 5 m/s Heat transfer coefficient 150 W/m2K #12;Helium flow grooves He in He out at KEK (via Oak Ridge via PSI). #12;Assembled Window #12;Remote Handling #12;Remote handling Monitor Chamber (Canada) Target Station (Japan) #12;Remote installation #12;Stress analysis and upgrade potential

  20. Occupant Response to Window Control Signaling Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ackerly, Katherine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    preventing energy waste during the red light mode is a moregreen lights was installed to help avoid energy waste, or inlight means that energy is being used to modify the temparature inside and therefore if I open my window it will waste energy.  

  1. Technology Advancements to Lower Costs of Electrochromic Window Glazing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2008-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An Electrochromic (EC) Window is a solar control device that can electronically regulate the flow of sunlight and heat. In the case of the SageGlass{reg_sign} EC window, this property derives from a proprietary all-ceramic, intrinsically durable thin-film stack applied to an inner surface of a glass double-pane window. As solar irradiation and temperatures change, the window can be set to an appropriate level of tint to optimize the comfort and productivity of the occupants as well as to minimize building energy usage as a result of HVAC and lighting optimization. The primary goal of this project is to replace certain batch processes for EC thin film deposition resulting in a complete in-line vacuum process that will reduce future capital and labor coats, while increasing throughput and yields. This will require key technology developments to replace the offline processes. This project has enabled development of the next generation of electrochromic devices suitable for large-scale production. Specifically, the requirements to produce large area devices cost effectively require processes amenable to mass production, using a variety of different substrate materials, having minimal handling and capable of being run at high yield. The present SageGlass{reg_sign} production process consists of two vacuum steps separated by an atmospheric process. This means that the glass goes through several additional handling steps, including venting and pumping down to go from vacuum to atmosphere and back, which can only serve to introduce additional defects associated with such processes. The aim of this project therefore was to develop a process which would eliminate the need for the atmospheric process. The overall project was divided into several logical tasks which would result in a process ready to be implemented in the present SAGE facility. Tasks 2 and 3 were devoted to development and the optimization of a new thin film material process. These tasks are more complicated than would be expected, as it has been determined in the past that there are a number of interactions between the new material and the layers beneath, which have an important effect on the behavior of the device. The effects of these interactions needed to be understood in order for this task to be successful. Tasks 4 and 5 were devoted to production of devices using the novel technology developed in the previous tasks. In addition, characterization tests were required to ensure the devices would perform adequately as replacements for the existing technology. Each of these tasks has been achieved successfully. In task 2, a series of potential materials were surveyed, and ranked in order of desirability. Prototype device structures were produced and characterized in order to do this. This satisfied the requirements for Task 2. From the results of this relatively extensive survey, the number of candidate materials was reduced to one or two. Small devices were made in order to test the functionality of such samples, and a series of optimization experiments were carried out with encouraging results. Devices were fabricated, and some room temperature cycling carried out showing that there are no fundamental problems with this technology. This series of achievements satisfied the requirements for Tasks 3 and 4. The results obtained from Task 3 naturally led to scale-up of the process, so a large cathode was obtained and installed in a spare slot in the production coater, and a series of large devices fabricated. In particular, devices with dimensions of 60-inch x 34-inch were produced, using processes which are fully compatible with mass production. Testing followed, satisfying the requirements for Task 5. As can be seen from this discussion, all the requirements of the project have therefore been successfully achieved. The devices produced using the newly developed technology showed excellent optical properties, often exceeding the performance of the existing technology, equivalent durability results, and promise a significantly simplified manufacturing approach, the

  2. Performance Evaluation of a 4.5 kW (1.3 Refrigeration Tons) Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide/Water Solar Powered (Hot-Water-Fired) Absorption Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL; Petrov, Andrei Y [ORNL; Linkous, Randall Lee [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the summer months, air-conditioning (cooling) is the single largest use of electricity in both residential and commercial buildings with the major impact on peak electric demand. Improved air-conditioning technology has by far the greatest potential impact on the electric industry compared to any other technology that uses electricity. Thermally activated absorption air-conditioning (absorption chillers) can provide overall peak load reduction and electric grid relief for summer peak demand. This innovative absorption technology is based on integrated rotating heat exchangers to enhance heat and mass transfer resulting in a potential reduction of size, cost, and weight of the "next generation" absorption units. Rotartica Absorption Chiller (RAC) is a 4.5 kW (1.3 refrigeration tons or RT) air-cooled lithium bromide (LiBr)/water unit powered by hot water generated using the solar energy and/or waste heat. Typically LiBr/water absorption chillers are water-cooled units which use a cooling tower to reject heat. Cooling towers require a large amount of space, increase start-up and maintenance costs. However, RAC is an air-cooled absorption chiller (no cooling tower). The purpose of this evaluation is to verify RAC performance by comparing the Coefficient of Performance (COP or ratio of cooling capacity to energy input) and the cooling capacity results with those of the manufacturer. The performance of the RAC was tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a controlled environment at various hot and chilled water flow rates, air handler flow rates, and ambient temperatures. Temperature probes, mass flow meters, rotational speed measuring device, pressure transducers, and a web camera mounted inside the unit were used to monitor the RAC via a web control-based data acquisition system using Automated Logic Controller (ALC). Results showed a COP and cooling capacity of approximately 0.58 and 3.7 kW respectively at 35 C (95 F) design condition for ambient temperature with 40 C (104 F) cooling water temperature. This is in close agreement with the manufacturer data of 0.60 for COP and 3.9 kW for cooling capacity. This study resulted in a complete performance map of RAC which will be used to evaluate the potential benefits of rotating heat exchangers in making the "next-generation" absorption chillers more compact and cost effective without any significant degradation in the performance. In addition, the feasibility of using rotating heat exchangers in other applications will be evaluated.

  3. SOLAR ENERGY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy sources such as solar heated industrial waste heat, geothermal water, brines, and ocean thermal

  4. SOLAR ENERGY PROGRAM: CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy sources such as solar heated water, indus- trial waste heat, geothermal brines, and ocean thermal

  5. NRG Solar (California Valley Solar Ranch) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar (California Valley Solar Ranch) NRG Solar (California Valley Solar Ranch) NRG Solar (California Valley Solar Ranch) NRG Solar (California Valley Solar Ranch) Location: San...

  6. Occupant Response to Window Control Signaling Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ackerly, Katherine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the thermostat and blind controls. C- 10 MS Thesis, Dept. ofand  blinds.  Solar Energy, 77(1), 15?28.   MS   Thesis,

  7. Occupant Response to Window Control Signaling Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ackerly, Katherine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    systems in low?energy buildings in particular is often low (behaviour in low?energy office buildings, Solar  Energy 81 (Designs for low?energy office buildings increasingly 

  8. Solar Easements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Virginia's solar easement law is similar to those in effect in other states. The Virginia Solar Easements Act of 1978 allows property owners to create binding solar easements for the purpose of...

  9. Affordable Window Insulation with R-10/inch Rating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenifer Marchesi Redouane Begag; Je Kyun Lee; Danny Ou; Jong Ho Sonn; George Gould; Wendell Rhine

    2004-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    During the performance of contract DE-FC26-00-NT40998, entitled ''Affordable Window Insulation with R-10/inch Value'', research was conducted at Aspen Aerogels, Inc. to develop new transparent aerogel materials suitable for window insulation applications. The project requirements were to develop a formulation or multiple formulations that have high transparency (85-90%) in the visible region, are hydrophobic (will not opacify with exposure to water vapor or liquid), and have at least 2% resiliency (interpreted as recoverable 2% strain and better than 5% strain to failure in compression). Results from an unrelated project showed that silica aerogels covalently bonded to organic polymers exhibit excellent mechanical properties. At the outset of this project, we believed that such a route is the best to improve mechanical properties. We have applied Design of Experiment (DOE) techniques to optimize formulations including both silica aerogels and organically modified silica aerogels (''Ormosils''). We used these DOE results to optimize formulations around the local/global optimization points. This report documents that we succeeded in developing a number of formulations that meet all of the stated criteria. We successfully developed formulations utilizing a two-step approach where the first step involves acid catalyzed hydrolysis and the second step involves base catalyzed condensation to make the gels. The gels were dried using supercritical CO{sub 2} and we were able to make 1 foot x 1 foot x 0.5 inch panels that met the criteria established.

  10. Waverly Light and Power- Residential Solar Thermal Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Waverly Light and Power (WL&P) offers rebates for solar hot water heating systems to its residential customers. All purchases must be pre-approved through WL&P's solar water heater...

  11. Initial Study of Solar Control Film in a Hotel Guest Room in Winter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, W. C.; Chen, Y.; Mak, B.; Li, D.; Huang, Y.; Xie, H.; Hou, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    studies about energy performance and its related financial savings and environmental improvement brought by those facilities, such as heat pumps, solar-control film on the window, sensor and dimmer for lighting control, etc. Nevertheless, there is a lack...

  12. Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Surface Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Surface Temperatures Brent T Temperatures of Window Specimens: Infrared Thermography Laboratory Measurements Brent T. Griffith1 , Howdy and cold sides, respectively. Surface temperature maps were compiled using an infrared thermographic system

  13. Pennsylvania: Window Technology First of Its Kind for Commercial...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    manufacturer Traco, a division of Kawneer (an Alcoa company), to develop the OptiQ(tm) Ultra Thermal Window series (OptiQ(tm)) for the commercial buildings sector. These windows...

  14. Pennsylvania: New Series of Windows Has Potential to Save Energy...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    increase in energy efficiency compared to existing commercially available double-pane low-emissivity windows. Prior to the introduction of the OptiQ(tm), R-5 windows were not...

  15. Highly Insulating Residential Windows Using Smart Automated Shading...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The windows will function autonomously and in a networked configuration. Project Impact LBNL is aiming toward a mature market cost increment of 12ft2 of window. LBNL will also...

  16. Solar Thermal Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conversion process of solar energy is based on well-known phenomena of heat transfer (Kreith 1976). In all thermal conversion processes, solar radiation is absorbed at the surface of a receiver, which contains or is in contact with flow passages through which a working fluid passes. As the receiver heats up, heat is transferred to the working fluid which may be air, water, oil, or a molten salt. The upper temperature that can be achieved in solar thermal conversion depends on the insolation, the degree to which the sunlight is concentrated, and the measures taken to reduce heat losses from the working fluid.

  17. The Impact of Overhang Design on the Performance of Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tavil, Aslihan; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Issues for Large-area Electrochromic Windows in CommercialAnalysis of Prototype Electrochromic Windows”, ASHRAEon the Performance of Electrochromic Windows Asilhan Tavil

  18. The energy-savings potential of electrochromic windows in the US commercial buildings sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Eleanor; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alone Photovoltaic-Powered Electrochromic Smart Window.Subject responses to electrochromic windows. To be publishedAnalysis of Prototype Electrochromic Windows, ASHRAE

  19. End User Impacts of Automated Electrochromic Windows in a Pilot Retrofit Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Eleanor S.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2006. Advancement of electrochromic windows: Final report.User Impacts of Automated Electrochromic Windows in a Pilotenergy performance of electrochromic windows controlled for

  20. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimating Unmeasured Solar Radiation Quantities . . . . . .Appendix C - Appendix 0 - Solar Radiation Glossary. ConversSolar Data a. Solar Radiation. , , . , . . , , , , . , . . .