Sample records for window thermal performance

  1. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF MANAGED WINDOW SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S. E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes ofof thermal loads resulting from the building envelope areThermal Test Facility, LhL-9653, prepared for the ASHRAE/DOE Conference-on"t:heThermal Performance the Exterior Envelope

  2. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF INSULATING WINDOW SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient Use of Energy, New York (1975). Glaser, V.H.J. , "Energy Transport Control in Window Systems", Report ETR-1277-2, Stony Brook, New York, (

  3. Improving the thermal performance of the US residential window stock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Eto, J.H.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Windows have typically been the least efficient thermal component in the residential envelope, but technology advances over the past decade have helped to dramatically improve the energy efficiency of window products. While the thermal performance of these advanced technology windows can be easily characterized for a particular building application, few precise estimates exist of their aggregate impact on national or regional energy use. Policy-makers, utilities, researchers and the fenestration industry must better understand these products` ultimate conservation potential in order to determine the value of developing new products and initiating programs to accelerate their market acceptance. This paper presents a method to estimate the conservation potential of advanced window technologies, combining elements of two well-known modeling paradigms: supply curves of conserved energy and residential end-use forecasting. The unique features include: detailed descriptions of the housing stock by region and vintage, state-of-the-art thermal descriptions of window technologies, and incorporation of market effects to calculate achievable conservation potential and timing. We demonstrate the methodology by comparing, for all new houses built between 1990 and 2010, the conservation potential of very efficient, high R-value ``superwindows`` in the North Central federal region and spectrally-selective low-emissivity (moderate Revalue and solar transmittance) windows in California.

  4. High Performance Window Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Hun, Diana E [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and Traco partnered to develop high-performance windows for commercial building that are cost-effective. The main performance requirement for these windows was that they needed to have an R-value of at least 5 ft2 F h/Btu. This project seeks to quantify the potential energy savings from installing these windows in commercial buildings that are at least 20 years old. To this end, we are conducting evaluations at a two-story test facility that is representative of a commercial building from the 1980s, and are gathering measurements on the performance of its windows before and after double-pane, clear-glazed units are upgraded with R5 windows. Additionally, we will use these data to calibrate EnergyPlus models that we will allow us to extrapolate results to other climates. Findings from this project will provide empirical data on the benefits from high-performance windows, which will help promote their adoption in new and existing commercial buildings. This report describes the experimental setup, and includes some of the field and simulation results.

  5. Experimental and Numerical Examination of the Thermal Transmittance of High Performance Window Frames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustavsen Ph.D., Arild

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    windows are often called passive -house wind ows, as windowse window frames, like passive-house windows. In this p aperare supposed to satisfy the Passive house requirements of

  6. Experimental and Numerical Examination of the Thermal Transmittance of High Performance Window Frames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustavsen Ph.D., Arild

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    one aluminum frame and one PVC frame), found from numericalcellular polyvinylchloride (PVC) frame. Hot box results aremade of polyvinylchloride (PVC) (Frame E). The two thermally

  7. Experimental and Numerical Examination of the Thermal Transmittance of High Performance Window Frames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustavsen Ph.D., Arild

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat transfer performance in fenestration system based on finite element methods.finite -element method (FEM) was used to solve the conductive heat -transfer

  8. A review of electrochromic window performance factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Rubin, M.; Lee, E.S.; Sullivan, R.; Finlayson, E.; Hopkins, D.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance factors which will influence the market acceptance of electrochromic windows are reviewed. A set of data representing the optical properties of existing and foreseeable electrochromic window devices was generated. The issue of reflective versus absorbing electrochromics was explored. This data was used in the DOE 2.1 building energy model to calculate the expected energy savings compared to conventional glazings. The effects of several different control strategies were tested. Significant energy and peak electric demand benefits were obtained for some electrochromic types. Use of predictive control algorithms to optimize cooling control may result in greater energy savings. Initial economic results considering annual savings, cooling equipment cost savings, and electrochromic window costs are presented. Calculations of thermal and visual comfort show additional benefits from electrochromics but more work is needed to quantify their importance. The design freedom and aesthetic possibilities of these dynamic glazings should provide additional market benefits, but their impact is difficult to assess at this time. Ultimately, a full assessment of the market viability of electrochromics must consider the impacts of all of these issues.

  9. Measure Guideline: Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmody, J.; Haglund, K.

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all US climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The document also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well. This document is for builders, homeowners, designers and anyone making decisions about selecting energy efficient window. It is intended to complement other Building America information and efforts.

  10. Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Surface Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Surface Temperatures Brent T Temperatures of Window Specimens: Infrared Thermography Laboratory Measurements Brent T. Griffith1 , Howdy and cold sides, respectively. Surface temperature maps were compiled using an infrared thermographic system

  11. Effects of Overhangs on the Performance of Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tavil, Aslihan; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    issues for large-area electrochromic windows in commercialenergy performance of electrochromic windows controlled forwindows.lbl.gov/comm_perf/Electrochromic/ Winkelmann, F.C. ,

  12. A Review of Electrochromic Window Performance Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz Ed, S.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ratio of 0.30. The electrochromic windows were controlled toProceedings. A Review of Electrochromic Window Performanceand economic benefits of electrochromic smart windows,"

  13. Performance Criteria for Residential Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Huang, Joe; Kohler, Christian; Mitchell, Robin

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Marc LaFrance. 2006. “Zero Energy Windows. ” ProceedingsFuture Advanced Windows for Zero-Energy Homes. ” ASHRAEfor Residential Zero Energy Windows Dariush Arasteh, Howdy

  14. Performance of a multifunctional PV/T hybrid solar window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidsson, Henrik; Perers, Bengt; Karlsson, Bjoern [Energy and Building Design, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A building-integrated multifunctional PV/T solar window has been developed and evaluated. It is constructed of PV cells laminated on solar absorbers placed in a window behind the glazing. To reduce the cost of the solar electricity, tiltable reflectors have been introduced in the construction to focus radiation onto the solar cells. The reflectors render the possibility of controlling the amount of radiation transmitted into the building. The insulated reflectors also reduce the thermal losses through the window. A model for simulation of the electric and hot water production was developed. The model can perform yearly energy simulations where different features such as shading of the cells or effects of the glazing can be included or excluded. The simulation can be run with the reflectors in an active, up right, position or in a passive, horizontal, position. The simulation program was calibrated against measurements on a prototype solar window placed in Lund in the south of Sweden and against a solar window built into a single family house, Solgaarden, in Aelvkarleoe in the central part of Sweden. The results from the simulation shows that the solar window annually produces about 35% more electric energy per unit cell area compared to a vertical flat PV module. (author)

  15. Energy performance analysis of prototype electrochromic windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of three newly developed prototype electrochromic devices. The DOE-2.1 E energy simulation program was used to analyze the annual cooling, lighting, and total electric energy use and peak demand as a function of window type and size. The authors simulated a prototypical commercial office building module located in the cooling-dominated locations of Phoenix, AZ and Miami, FL. Heating energy use was also studied in the heating-dominated location of Madison, WI. Daylight illuminance was used to control electrochromic state-switching. Two types of window systems were analyzed; i.e., the outer pane electrochromic glazing was combined with either a conventional low-E or a spectrally selective inner pane. The properties of the electrochromic glazings are based on measured data of new prototypes developed as part of a cooperative DOE-industry program. The results show the largest difference in annual electric energy performance between the different window types occurs in Phoenix and is about 6.5 kWh/m{sup 2} floor area (0.60 kWh/ft{sup 2}) which can represent a cost of about $.52/m{sup 2} ($.05/ft{sup 2}) using electricity costing $.08/kWh. In heating-dominated locations, the electrochromic should be maintained in its bleached state during the heating season to take advantage of beneficial solar heat gain which would reduce the amount of required heating. This also means that the electrochromic window with the largest solar heat gain coefficient is best.

  16. Proceedings of Thermal VII, Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Buildings,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-42871 BS-400 Proceedings of Thermal VII, Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes locations. The user describes the physical, thermal and optical properties of the windows in each

  17. Key Elements of and Materials Performance Targets for Highly Insulating Window Frames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Grynning, Steinar; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Goudey, Howdy

    2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal performance of windows is important for energy efficient buildings. Windows typically account for about 30-50 percent of the transmission losses though the building envelope, even if their area fraction of the envelope is far less. The reason for this can be found by comparing the thermal transmittance (U-factor) of windows to the U-factor of their opaque counterparts (wall, roof and floor constructions). In well insulated buildings the U-factor of walls, roofs an floors can be between 0.1-0.2 W/(m2K). The best windows have U-values of about 0.7-1.0. It is therefore obvious that the U-factor of windows needs to be reduced, even though looking at the whole energy balance for windows (i.e. solar gains minus transmission losses) makes the picture more complex.In high performance windows the frame design and material use is of utmost importance, as the frame performance is usually the limiting factor for reducing the total window U-factor further. This paper describes simulation studies analyzing the effects on frame and edge-of-glass U-factors of different surface emissivities as well as frame material and spacer conductivities. The goal of this work is to define materials research targets for window frame components that will result in better frame thermal performance than is exhibited by the best products available on the market today.

  18. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Mounted...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Key Issues High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation 2014-05-05 Issuance: Test Procedure for Portable Air Conditioners; Notice of Data Availability...

  19. Visual and energy performance of switchable windows with antireflection coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonsson, Andreas; Roos, Arne [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this project was to investigate how the visual appearance and energy performance of switchable or smart windows can be improved by using antireflective coatings. For this study clear float glass, low-e glass and electrochromic glass were treated with antireflection (AR) coatings. Such a coating considerably increases the transmittance of solar radiation in general and the visible transmittance in particular. For switchable glazing based on absorptive electrochromic layers in their dark state it is necessary to use a low-emissivity coating on the inner pane of a double glazed window in order to reject the absorbed heat. In principle all surfaces can be coated with AR coatings, and it was shown that a thin AR coating on the low-e surface neither influences the thermal emissivity nor the U-value of the glazing. The study showed that the use of AR coatings in switchable glazing significantly increases the light transmittance in the transparent state. It is believed that this is important for a high level of user acceptance of such windows. (author)

  20. Laser window with annular grooves for thermal isolation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; Horton, J.A.; Alger, T.W.

    1983-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser window or other optical element which is thermally loaded, heats up and causes optical distortions because of temperature gradients between the center and the edge. A number of annular grooves, one to three or more, are formed in the element between a central portion and edge portion, producing a web portion which concentrates the thermal gradient and thermally isolates the central portion from the edge portion, producing a uniform temperature profile across the central portion and therefore reduce the optical distortions. The grooves are narrow and closely spaced with respect to the thickness of the element, and successive grooves are formed from alternate sides of the element.

  1. The Impact of Overhang Design on the Performance of Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tavil, Aslihan; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Issues for Large-area Electrochromic Windows in CommercialAnalysis of Prototype Electrochromic Windows”, ASHRAEon the Performance of Electrochromic Windows Asilhan Tavil

  2. Characterization of Energy Savings and Thermal Comfort Improvements Derived from Using Interior Storm Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knox, Jake R.; Widder, Sarah H.

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This field study of a single historic home in Seattle, WA documents the performance of Indow Windows’s interior storm window inserts. Energy use and the temperature profile of the house were monitored before and after the installation of the window inserts and changes in the two recorded metrics were examined. Using the defined analysis approach, it was determined that the interior storm windows produced a 22% reduction of the HVAC energy bill and had an undetermined effect on the thermal comfort in the house. Although there was no measurable changes in the thermal comfort of the house, the occupant noted the house to be “warmer in the winter and cooler in the summer” and that the “temperatures are more even (throughout the house).” The interior storm windows were found to be not cost effective, largely due to the retrofits completed on its heating system. However, if the economic analysis was conducted based on the old heating system, a 72% efficient oil fired furnace, the Indow Windows proved to be economical and had a simple payback period of 9.0 years.

  3. Performance Criteria for Residential Zero Energy Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Huang, Joe; Kohler, Christian; Mitchell, Robin

    2006-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper shows that the energy requirements for today's typical efficient window products (i.e. ENERGY STAR{trademark} products) are significant when compared to the needs of Zero Energy Homes (ZEHs). Through the use of whole house energy modeling, typical efficient products are evaluated in five US climates and compared against the requirements for ZEHs. Products which meet these needs are defined as a function of climate. In heating dominated climates, windows with U-factors of 0.10 Btu/hr-ft{sup 2}-F (0.57 W/m{sup 2}-K) will become energy neutral. In mixed heating/cooling climates a low U-factor is not as significant as the ability to modulate from high SHGCs (heating season) to low SHGCs (cooling season).

  4. Improved Performance of Energy Window Ratio Criteria Obtained Using Multiple Windows at Radiation Portal Monitoring Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weier, Dennis R.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Ely, James H.; Bates, Derrick J.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2006-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation portal monitors are being used to detect radioactive target materials in vehicles transporting cargo. As vehicles pass through the portal monitors, they generate count profiles over time that can be compared to the average panel background counts obtained just prior to the time the vehicle entered the area of the monitors. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in support of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and U.S. Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), has accumulated considerable data regarding such background radiation and vehicle profiles from portal installations. Energy window criteria have been shown to increase sensitivity to certain types of target radioactive sources while also controlling to a manageable level the rate of false or nuisance alarms. First generation equipment had only two-window capability, and while energy windowing for such systems was shown to be useful for detecting certain types of sources, it was subsequently found that improved performance could be obtained with more windows. Second generation equipment instead has more windows and can thus support additional energy window criteria which can be shown to be sensitive to a wider set of target sources. Detection likelihoods are generated for various sources and energy window criteria, as well as for gross count decision criteria, based on computer simulated injections of sources into archived vehicle profiles. (PIET-43741-TM-534)

  5. Window performance for human thermal comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huizenga, C; Zhang, H.; Mattelaer, P.; Yu, T.; Arens, Edward A; Lyons, P.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ? = 0.08 face 4, 6/16/6/16/6mm G8 Table 14: Range of glazinglow- ? coating (G5 and G8) greatly improves the solarm²] G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 G8 Figure 35: Scenario 1 – Maximum

  6. Window performance for human thermal comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huizenga, C; Zhang, H.; Mattelaer, P.; Yu, T.; Arens, Edward A; Lyons, P.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conference on Environmental Ergonomics, Fukuoka, Japan. 21.Ventilated Spaces”. Ergonomics, 29, 215 - 235. 36. Fanger,and Workload”. Applied Ergonomics, 32, 407 – 417. 54.

  7. Window performance for human thermal comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huizenga, C; Zhang, H.; Mattelaer, P.; Yu, T.; Arens, Edward A; Lyons, P.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Basic Principles of Ventilation and Heating. 2 nd Ed. , H.K.Journal of Heating, Ventilation, Air-conditioning and

  8. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF MANAGED WINDOW SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S. E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    progress extends this analysis to include the use of sun control devices and the cumulative impact on heating, cooling and

  9. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF INSULATING WINDOW SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flat Plate Solar Collectors", Solar~. 11· 151-158, (1975).atten- tion in solar collector and passive solar heatingCoeff·icients in Solar Collectors", Bulletin .Q_f the

  10. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF MANAGED WINDOW SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S. E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    plus .35 m2 K/W (2 hr ft 2 F/Btu) for single-glazing, and52 m2 -K/W (2 hr-ft 2 - F/Btu) for double-glazing, assumingthan .85 m -K/W (5 hr-ftL-F/Btu) diminish rapidly and would

  11. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF INSULATING WINDOW SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of .16 m2·K/W (.91 hr·ft2.oF/Btu) for the combined thermalvalue of 6.25 ~;m2.K (1 .1 Btu/hr·ft ·°F) might be reduced3.4- 4.5 w;m2·K (.6- .8 Btu/hr'ft ·°F). Some techniques for

  12. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, J.; Booten, C.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Window air conditioners are the dominant cooling product for residences, in terms of annual unit sales. They are inexpensive, portable and can be installed by the owner. For this reason, they are an attractive solution for supplemental cooling, for retrofitting air conditioning into a home which lacks ductwork, and for renters. Window air conditioners for sale in the United States are required to meet very modest minimum efficiency standards. Four window air conditioners' performance were tested in the Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory on NREL's campus in Golden, CO. In order to separate and study the refrigerant system's performance, the unit's internal leakage pathways, the unit's fanforced ventilation, and the leakage around the unit resulting from installation in a window, a series of tests were devised that focused on each aspect of the unit's performance. These tests were designed to develop a detailed performance map to determine whole-house performance in different climates. Even though the test regimen deviated thoroughly from the industry-standard ratings test, the results permit simple calculation of an estimated rating for both capacity and efficiency that would result from a standard ratings test. Using this calculation method, it was found that the three new air conditioners' measured performance was consistent with their ratings. This method also permits calculation of equivalent SEER for the test articles. Performance datasets were developed across a broad range of indoor and outdoor operating conditions, and used them to generate performance maps.

  13. Energy performance of a dual airflow window under different climates Jingshu Wei1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    -e windows was also calculated for com parison. The dual airflow window can reduce heating energy1 Energy performance of a dual airflow window under different climates Jingshu Wei1 , Jianing Zhao1. This paper reports our effort to use EnergyPlus to simulate the energy performance of a dual airflow window

  14. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, G.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  15. Performance prediction using geostatistics and window reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fontanilla, J.P.; Al-Khalawi, A.A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Johnson, S.G.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is the first window model study in the northern area of a large carbonate reservoir in Saudi Arabia. It describes window reservoir simulation with geostatistics to model uneven water encroachment in the southwest producing area of the northern portion of the reservoir. In addition, this paper describes performance predictions that investigate the sweep efficiency of the current peripheral waterflood. A 50 x 50 x 549 (240 m. x 260 m. x 0.15 m. average grid block size) geological model was constructed with geostatistics software. Conditional simulation was used to obtain spatial distributions of porosity and volume of dolomite. Core data transforms were used to obtain horizontal and vertical permeability distributions. Simple averaging techniques were used to convert the 549-layer geological model to a 50 x 50 x 10 (240 m. x 260 m. x 8 m. average grid block size) window reservoir simulation model. Flux injectors and flux producers were assigned to the outermost grid blocks. Historical boundary flux rates were obtained from a coarsely-ridded full-field model. Pressure distribution, water cuts, GORs, and recent flowmeter data were history matched. Permeability correction factors and numerous parameter adjustments were required to obtain the final history match. The permeability correction factors were based on pressure transient permeability-thickness analyses. The prediction phase of the study evaluated the effects of infill drilling, the use of artificial lifts, workovers, horizontal wells, producing rate constraints, and tight zone development to formulate depletion strategies for the development of this area. The window model will also be used to investigate day-to-day reservoir management problems in this area.

  16. Key Elements of and Materials Performance Targets for Highly Insulating Window Frames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustavsen, Arild

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in light green. 2.5 Window Frame E (PVC) Window frame Eis polyvinyl chloride (PVC). We performed calculations forspacer = 0.25?0.1 W/(mK) ? pvc = 0.9 W/(mK), ? eff. ,spacer

  17. Thermal and Structural Analysis of Targets and Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Toughness R. Gates, D. Wootan, B. Schmitt, J. Deibler FileName//FileDate//PNNL-SA-##### Approach Integrated Design Analysis and Simulation, Thermal, Mechanical, and Irradiation Effects: PNNL has extensive, and irradiated material property changes over the lifetime of the component. PNNL applies an integrated

  18. Performance Testing of Window Installation and Flashing Details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, T. A.; Herrin, J.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and proposed installation practices incorporating new flashing materials. This paper focuses specifically on the installation practices relating to windows with mounting fins or flanges. REVIEW OF CURRENT PRACTICES AND ATTITUDES Interviews with builders... into two categories based on the how the flashing and the rough opening is treated. g167g32 2-Dimensional Methods: using flashing to extend protection around the perimeter of the window flanges on to the face of the sheathing, and g167g32 3...

  19. Energy performance analysis of electrochromic windows in New York commercial office buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy performance analysis of electrochromic windows in New York commercial office buildings E. S This work was supported by Sage Electrochromics, Inc. through the New York State Energy and Research Develop author. E-mail: ESLee@lbl.gov Energy performance analysis of electrochromic windows in New York

  20. Thermal Performance Impacts of Center-of-Glass Deflections in Installed Insulating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-5800E Thermal Performance Impacts of Center-of- Glass Deflections in Installed Insulating Laboratory Windows and Envelope Materials Group Building Technology and Urban Systems Department: temperature difference Thermal Performance Impacts of Center-of-Glass Deflections in Installed Insulating

  1. High Performance X-Ray Transmission Windows Based on Graphenic Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huebner, Sebastian; Kapser, Stefan; Pahlke, Andreas; Kreupl, Franz

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel x-ray transmission window based on graphenic carbon has been developed with superior performance compared to beryllium transmission windows that are currently used in the field. Graphenic carbon in combination with an integrated silicon frame allows for a window design which does not use a mechanical support grid or additional light blocking layers. Compared to beryllium, the novel x-ray transmission window exhibits an improved transmission in the low energy region ($0.1 hbox{keV}-3 hbox{keV}$ ) while demonstrating excellent mechanical stability, as well as light and vacuum tightness. Therefore, the newly established graphenic carbon window, can replace beryllium in x-ray transmission windows with a nontoxic and abundant material. Index terms: Beryllium, Carbon, Graphene, Thin films, X-ray applications, X-ray detectors

  2. IRLstack 3.0: High-Performance Windows Sockets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuo, Yue

    2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    by bottlenecks inside the TCP/IP stack. Improvements have been made for Linux, but there is still limited work in Windows. To bridge this gap, we build a new generation of our network driver IRLstack and show that it can achieve 10 Gbps wire rate (i.e. 14.88 Mpps...

  3. Daylighting control performance of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic window: field study results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Daylighting control performance of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic window: field study results of this emerging technology. Keywords: Building energy-efficiency; Electrochromic windows; Daylighting; Control switched across their dynamic range and could be fully integrated into a complete daylight, glare

  4. Daylighting control performance of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic window: Field study results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, E.S.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    2005-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Control system development and lighting energy monitoring of ceramic thin-film electrochromic (EC) windows were initiated at the new full-scale window systems test-bed facility at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, CA. The new facility consists of three identically configured side-by-side private offices with large-area windows that face due south. In one room, an array of EC windows with a center-of-glass visible transmittance T_v range of 0.05-0.60 was installed. In the two other rooms, unshaded windows with a T_v = 0.50 or 0.15 were used as reference. The same dimmable fluorescent lighting system was used in all three rooms. This study explains the design and commissioning of an integrated EC window-lighting control system, and then illustrates its performance in the test-bed under clear, partly cloudy, and overcast sky conditions during the equinox period. The performance of an early prototype EC window controller is also analyzed. Lighting energy savings data are presented. Daily lighting energy savings were 44-59% compared to the reference window of T_v = 0.15 and 8-23% compared to the reference window of T_v = 0.50. The integrated window-lighting control system maintained interior illuminance levels to within +/- 10% of the setpoint range of 510-700 lx for 89-99% of the day. Further work is planned to refine the control algorithms and monitor cooling load, visual comfort, and human factor impacts of this emerging technology. (author)

  5. Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlled for2006). Advancement of Electrochromic Windows, CaliforniaSavings Potential of Electrochromic Windows in the U.S.

  6. To be submitted to Solar Energy. Daylight performance of a microstructured prismatic window film in deep open

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    To be submitted to Solar Energy. Daylight performance of a microstructured prismatic window film Systems Department, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with vertical windows have the potential to offset lighting energy use in deep perimeter zones

  7. Structural stability vs. thermal performance: old dilemma, new solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, J.; Christian, J.E.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In many building envelopes, actual thermal performance falls quite a bit short of nominal design parameters given in standards. Very often only windows, doors, and a small part of the wall area meet standards requirements. In the other parts of the building envelope, unaccounted thermal bridges reduce the effective thermal resistance of the insulation material. Such unaccounted heat losses compromise the thermal performance of the whole building envelope. For the proper analysis of the thermal performance of most wall and roof details, measurements and three-dimensional thermal modeling are necessary. For wall thermal analysis the whole-wall R-value calculation method can be very useful. In ties method thermal properties of all wall details are incorporated as an area weighted average. For most wall systems, the part of the wall that is traditionally analyzed, is the clear wall, that is, the flat part of the wall that is uninterrupted by details. It comprises only 50 to 80% of the total area of the opaque wall. The remaining 20 to 50% of the wall area is not analyzed nor are its effects incorporated in the thermal performance calculations. For most of the wall technologies, traditionally estimated R-values are 20 to 30% higher than whole-wall R-values. Such considerable overestimation of wall thermal resistance leads to significant errors in building heating and cooling load estimations. In this paper several examples are presented of the use of the whole-wall R-value procedure for building envelope components. The advantages of the use of the whole wall R-value calculation procedure are also discussed. For several building envelope components, traditional clear-wall R-values are compared with the results of whole-wall thermal analysis to highlight significant limits on the use of the traditional methods and the advantages of advanced computer modeling.

  8. NREL Solves Residential Window Air Conditioner Performance Limitations (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Comprehensive performance tests lead to enhanced modeling capability and affordable methods to increase energy efficiency.

  9. Monitored Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlledfor Daylight and Visual Comfort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2005-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A 20-month field study was conducted to measure the energy performance of south-facing large-area tungsten-oxide absorptive electrochromic (EC) windows with a broad switching range in a private office setting. The EC windows were controlled by a variety of means to bring in daylight while minimizing window glare. For some cases, a Venetian blind was coupled with the EC window to block direct sun. Some tests also involved dividing the EC window wall into zones where the upper EC zone was controlled to admit daylight while the lower zone was controlled to prevent glare yet permit view. If visual comfort requirements are addressed by EC control and Venetian blinds, a 2-zone EC window configuration provided average daily lighting energy savings of 10 {+-} 15% compared to the reference case with fully lowered Venetian blinds. Cooling load reductions were 0 {+-} 3%. If the reference case assumes no daylighting controls, lighting energy savings would be 44 {+-} 11%. Peak demand reductions due to window cooling load, given a critical demand-response mode, were 19-26% maximum on clear sunny days. Peak demand reductions in lighting energy use were 0% or 72-100% compared to a reference case with and without daylighting controls, respectively. Lighting energy use was found to be very sensitive to how glare and sun is controlled. Additional research should be conducted to fine-tune EC control for visual comfort based on solar conditions so as to increase lighting energy savings.

  10. Impacts of Operating Hardware on Window Thermal Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) and International Organization for Standardization(ISO) rating systems

  11. Windows NT 4.0 Asynchronous Transfer Mode network interface card performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolendino, L.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Networking Integration Dept.

    1997-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Windows NT desktop and server systems are becoming increasingly important to Sandia. These systems are capable of network performance considerably in excess of the 10 Mbps Ethernet data rate. As alternatives to conventional Ethernet, 155 Mbps Asynchronous Transfer Mode, ATM, and 100 Mbps Ethernet network interface cards were tested and compared to conventional 10 Mbps Ethernet cards in a typical Windows NT system. The results of the tests were analyzed and compared to show the advantages of the alternative technologies. Both 155 Mbps ATM and 100 Mbps Ethernet offer significant performance improvements over conventional 10 Mbps shared media Ethernet.

  12. Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -- Washington D.C. ape13bennion.pdf More Documents & Publications Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration Integrated Power Module Cooling Vehicle...

  13. Key Elements of and Materials Performance Targets for Highly Insulating Window Frames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustavsen, Arild

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Wholethermal transmittance (U-factor) of the building envelope,envelope is far less. The reason for this can be found by comparing the thermal

  14. IEA-SHC Task 27: Environmental Performance Assessment of glazing and windows: context, overview, main concerns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IEA-SHC Task 27: Environmental Performance Assessment of glazing and windows: context, overview, environmental quality criteria will just widen the actual scope of the technical assessment of building products. The first question is a double one : Who will use environmental criteria related to the building products

  15. Monitored Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlled for Daylight and Visual Comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subject responses to electrochromic windows. Submitted toin a full-scale electrochromic window testbed. Technicaloptimization of electrochromic operations for occupant

  16. Urban solarium : thermal performance in Boston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Juliet Chia-Wen

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis addresses the issue of energy efficiency through the lens of thermal performance in the context of urban housing in the city of Boston. Located in the historic brick row house neighborhood of the South End, the ...

  17. Dish Sterling High Performance Thermal Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Stirling High Performance Thermal Storage Sandia National Laboratories SNLAndrakaA: FY13Q2: Charles E. Andraka * 2-D PCM model extended to include realistic heat pipe boundary...

  18. Thermal performance measurements of insulated roof systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Courville, G.E.; Childs, K.W.; Walukas, D.J.; Childs, P.W.; Griggs, E.I.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has established a Roof Thermal Researcch Apparatus for carrying out thermal and hygric experiments on sections of low-sloped roofs. Test panels are exposed to a controlled temperature interior space and to the prevailing East Tennessee exterior environment. They are well instrumented and all data are stored and aided in the analysis by computer systems. Current experiments include studies of the effect of wet insulation on membrane temperature, thermal storage phenomena in built-up roof insulation, and the effects of varying surface reflectance on roof thermal performance.

  19. Are You Ready Phase Two? Pricing Changes and Commercial Products Added to DOE High-Performance Windows Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mapes, Terry S.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article, for publication in Door and Window Manufacturer magazine, describes DOE's High Performance Windows Volume Purchase Program, WVPP, and how PNNL, which manages the program for DOE, is assisting DOE in the transition to the next phase (Phase II), which begins in May. While the foundation of the program will remain relatively unchanged, PNNL is employing several new strategies to continue the momentum built during the program's first full year of implementation. The program helps buyers and manufacturers to develop a market for highly insulating windows and low-E storm windows at affordable prices and thereby overcome the principal barrier of cost.

  20. Advancement of Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Guide for Early-Market Electrochromic Windows. LBNL-59950.Granqvist, C.G. 2000. "Electrochromic Tungsten Oxide Films:the performance of the electrochromic windows. Proceedings

  1. Monitored Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlled for Daylight and Visual Comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Windows Controlled for Daylight and Visual Comfort Eleanorof means to bring in daylight while minimizing window glare.was controlled to admit daylight while the lower zone was

  2. Effect of switching control strategies on the energy performance of electrochromic windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R.; Lee, E.S.; Papamichael, K.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Building Technologies Program

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of electrochromic windows under a variety of state-switching control strategies. The authors used the DOE-2.1E energy simulation program to analyze the annual cooling, lighting, and total electricity use and peak demand as a function of glazing type, size, and electrochromic control strategy. They simulated a prototypical commercial office building module located in the cooling-dominated location of Blythe, California. Control strategies analyzed were based on daylight illuminance, incident total solar radiation, and space cooling load. Their results show that when a daylighting strategy is used to reduce electrical lighting requirements, control algorithms based on daylight illuminance results in the best overall annual energy performance. If daylighting is not a design option, controls based on space cooling load yield the best performance through solar heat gain reduction. The performance of the incident total solar radiation control strategies varies as a function of the values of solar radiation which trigger the bleached and colored states of the electrochromic (setpoint range); for small to moderate window sizes which result in small to moderate solar gains, a large setpoint-range was best since it provides increased illuminance for daylighting without much cooling penalty; for larger window sizes, which provide adequate daylight, a small setpoint-range was best to reduce unwanted solar heat gains and the consequential increased cooling requirement. Of particular importance is the fact that reduction in peak electric demand was found to be independent of the type of control strategy used for electrochromic switching. This is because the electrochromics are generally in their most colored state under peak conditions, and the mechanism used for achieving such a state is not important.

  3. A High Performance Computing Platform for Performing High-Volume Studies With Windows-based Power Grid Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu

    2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Serial Windows-based programs are widely used in power utilities. For applications that require high volume simulations, the single CPU runtime can be on the order of days or weeks. The lengthy runtime, along with the availability of low cost hardware, is leading utilities to seriously consider High Performance Computing (HPC) techniques. However, the vast majority of the HPC computers are still Linux-based and many HPC applications have been custom developed external to the core simulation engine without consideration for ease of use. This has created a technical gap for applying HPC-based tools to today’s power grid studies. To fill this gap and accelerate the acceptance and adoption of HPC for power grid applications, this paper presents a prototype of generic HPC platform for running Windows-based power grid programs on Linux-based HPC environment. The preliminary results show that the runtime can be reduced from weeks to hours to improve work efficiency.

  4. Design and validation of an air window for a molten salt solar thermal receiver

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paxson, Adam Taylor

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis contributes to the development of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) receivers and focuses on the design of an efficient aperture. An air window is proposed for use as the aperture of a CSP molten salt receiver ...

  5. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, M.; Gilbride, T.; Ruiz, K.; Steward, H.; Love, P.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series. It presents information that is useful throughout the United States for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in the first five Best Practices volumes. It provides an introduction to current photovoltaic and solar thermal building practices. Information about window selection and shading is included.

  6. The significance of bolts in the thermal performance of curtain-wall frames for glazed facades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, B.; Finlayson, E.; Yazdanian, M.; Arasteh, D.K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Curtain walls are assemblies of glazings and metal frames that commonly form the exterior glass facades of commercial buildings. Evaluating the thermal performance of the bolts that hold curtain wall glazings in place is necessary to accurately rate the overall thermal performance of curtain walls. Using laboratory tests and computer simulations, the authors assessed the thermal performance of several different configurations of bolts and glazings. Curtain-wall samples were tested at an infrared thermography laboratory. Experimental results were compared to two-dimensional simulations approximating the thermal effect of the bolts using the parallel path and the isothermal planes calculation methods. It is concluded that stainless steel bolts minimally affect curtain-wall thermal performance ({approximately}18%) when spaced at least 230 mm apart, which is the industry standard. Performance is increasingly compromised when there is less than 230 mm between bolts or when steel bolts are used. The authors also show that the isothermal planes method of approximating curtain wall thermal performance can be used with two-dimensional heat transfer software typical of that used in the window industry to give conservative results for the thermal bridging effect caused by bolts.

  7. The energy performance of electrochromic windows in heating-dominated geographic locations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R.; Lee, E.S.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of electrochromic windows in heating-dominated geographic locations under a variety of state-switching control strategies. The authors used the DOE-2.1E energy simulation program to analyze the annual heating, cooling and lighting energy use and performance as a function of glazing type, size, and electrochromic control strategy. They simulated a prototypical commercial office building module located in Madison, Wisconsin. Control strategies analyzed were based on daylight illuminance, incident total solar radiation, and space cooling load. The results show that overall energy performance is best if the electrochromic is left in its clear or bleached state during the heating season, but controlled during the cooling season using daylight illuminance as a control strategy. Even in such heating dominated locations as madison, there is still a well-defined cooling season when electrochromic switching will be beneficial. However, having the electrochromic remain in its bleached state during the winter season may result in glare and visual comfort problems for occupants much in the same way as conventional glazings.

  8. THERMAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS FOR WSB DRUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S

    2008-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nuclear Nonproliferation Programs Design Authority is in the design stage of the Waste Solidification Building (WSB) for the treatment and solidification of the radioactive liquid waste streams generated by the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) and Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The waste streams will be mixed with a cementitious dry mix in a 55-gallon waste container. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been performing the testing and evaluations to support technical decisions for the WSB. Engineering Modeling & Simulation Group was requested to evaluate the thermal performance of the 55-gallon drum containing hydration heat source associated with the current baseline cement waste form. A transient axi-symmetric heat transfer model for the drum partially filled with waste form cement has been developed and heat transfer calculations performed for the baseline design configurations. For this case, 65 percent of the drum volume was assumed to be filled with the waste form, which has transient hydration heat source, as one of the baseline conditions. A series of modeling calculations has been performed using a computational heat transfer approach. The baseline modeling results show that the time to reach the maximum temperature of the 65 percent filled drum is about 32 hours when a 43 C initial cement temperature is assumed to be cooled by natural convection with 27 C external air. In addition, the results computed by the present model were compared with analytical solutions. The modeling results will be benchmarked against the prototypic test results. The verified model will be used for the evaluation of the thermal performance for the WSB drum.

  9. Performance Analysis of Contention Window Cheating Misbehaviors in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalaiarasi, R; Pari, S Neelavathy; Sridharan, D

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of nodes that can be rapidly deployed as a multi-hop network without the aid of any centralized administration. Misbehavior is challenged by bandwidth and energy efficient medium access control and fair share of throughput. Node misbehavior plays an important role in MANET. In this survey, few of the contention window misbehavior is reviewed and compared. The contention window cheating either minimizes the active communication of the network or reduces bandwidth utilization of a particular node. The classification presented is in no case unique but summarizes the chief characteristics of many published proposals for contention window cheating. After getting insight into the different contention window misbehavior, few of the enhancements that can be done to improve the existing contention window are suggested. The purpose of this paper is to facilitate the research efforts in combining the existing solutions to offer more efficient methods to reduce contention win...

  10. Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2010 -- Washington D.C. ape016bennion2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Motor Thermal Control Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric...

  11. High Performance Thermal Interface Technology Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Linderman; T. Brunschwiler; B. Smith; B. Michel

    2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview on recent developments in thermal interfaces is given with a focus on a novel thermal interface technology that allows the formation of 2-3 times thinner bondlines with strongly improved thermal properties at lower assembly pressures. This is achieved using nested hierarchical surface channels to control the particle stacking with highly particle-filled materials. Reliability testing with thermal cycling has also demonstrated a decrease in thermal resistance after extended times with longer overall lifetime compared to a flat interface.

  12. Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandes, Luis

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlled forenergy performance of electrochromic windows. Proceedingssignal for daylight (electrochromic window, no overhang).

  13. Thermal performance of the Brookhaven natural thermal storage house

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghaffari, H.T.; Jones, R.F.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the Brookhaven natural thermal storage house, an energy-efficient envelope, passive solar collectors, and a variety of energy conservation methods are incorporated. The thermal characteristics of the house during the tested heating season are evaluated. Temperature distributions at different zones are displayed, and the effects of extending heating supply ducts only to the main floor and heating return ducts only from the second floor are discussed. The thermal retrievals from the structure and the passive collectors are assessed, and the total conservation and passive solar contributions are outlined. Several correlation factors relating these thermal behaviors are introduced, and their diurnal variations are displayed. Finally, the annual energy requirements, and the average load factors are analyzed and discussed.

  14. Database of Low-e Storm Window Energy Performance across U.S. Climate Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Culp, Thomas D.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2014-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This is an update of a report that describes process, assumptions, and modeling results produced Create a Database of U.S. Climate-Based Analysis for Low-E Storm Windows. The scope of the overall effort is to develop a database of energy savings and cost effectiveness of low-E storm windows in residential homes across a broad range of U.S. climates using the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) and RESFEN model calculations. This report includes a summary of the results, NEAT and RESFEN background, methodology, and input assumptions, and an appendix with detailed results and assumptions by cliamte zone.

  15. A NEW MEASUREMENT STRATEGY FOR in situ TESTING OF WALL THERMAL PERFORMANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Condon, P.E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conservation, Dynamic thermal envelope thermal performanceTHERHAL TEST UNIT The envelope thermal test unit (ETTU) is athe thermal resistance of building envelope systems through

  16. Performance Evaluation of the Delphi Non-Thermal Plasma System...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Dynamics & Propulsion Innovation Center Performance Evaluation of the Delphi Non-Thermal Plasma System Under Transient and Steady State Conditions 8 th Diesel Engine Emission...

  17. Dish/Stirling High-Performance Thermal Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    studies Goal: * Demonstrate the feasibility of significant thermal storage for dish Stirling systems to leverage their existing high performance to greater capacity * Demonstrate...

  18. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in each of the volumes. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems More Documents & Publications Building America Whole-House Solutions for...

  19. Thermal Performance of Vegetative Roofing Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL; Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL; Ennis, Mike J [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vegetative roofing, otherwise known as green or garden roofing, has seen tremendous growth in the last decade in the United States. The numerous benefits that green roofs provide have helped to fuel their resurgence in industrial and urban settings. There are many environmental and economical benefits that can be realized by incorporating a vegetative roof into the design of a building. These include storm-water retention, energy conservation, reduction in the urban heat island effect, increased longevity of the roofing membrane, the ability of plants to create biodiversity and filter air contaminants, and beautification of the surroundings by incorporating green space. The vegetative roof research project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was initiated to quantify the thermal performance of various vegetative roofing systems relative to black and white roofs. Single Ply Roofing Institute (SPRI) continued its long-term commitment to cooperative research with ORNL in this project. Low-slope roof systems for this study were constructed and instrumented for continuous monitoring in the mixed climate of East Tennessee. This report summarizes the results of the annual cooling and heating loads per unit area of three vegetative roofing systems with side-by-side comparison to black and white roofing systems as well as a test section with just the growing media without plants. Results showed vegetative roofs reduced heat gain (reduced cooling loads) compared to the white control system due to the thermal mass, extra insulation, and evapo-transpiration associated with the vegetative roofing systems. The 4-inch and tray systems reduced the heat gain by approximately 61%, while the reduction with the 8-inch vegetative roof was found to be approximately 67%. The vegetative roofing systems were more effective in reducing heat gain than in reducing heat losses (heating loads). The reduction in heat losses for the 4-inch and tray systems were found to be approximately 40% in the mixed climate of East Tennessee. It should be noted that these values are climate dependent. Vegetative roofs also reduced the temperature (heat exposure) and temperature fluctuations (thermal stress) experienced by the membrane. In the cooling season of East Tennessee, the average peak temperature of the 4-inch and tray systems was found to be approximately 94 F cooler than the control black roofing system. The average temperature fluctuations at the membrane for the 4-inch and tray systems were found to be approximately 10 F compared to 125 F for black and 64 F for white systems. As expected, the 8-inch vegetative roof had the lowest fluctuations at approximately 2 F. Future work will include modeling of the energy performance of vegetative roof panels in the test climate of East Tennessee. The validated model then will be used to predict energy use in roofs with different insulation levels and in climates different from the test climate.

  20. Dish Stirling High Performance Thermal Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    National Laboratories Amir Faghri, University of Connecticut Judith Gomez, NREL National Solar Thermal Test Facility: World Class Capabilities at Your Service Testing 5MW...

  1. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF BUILDINGS AND BUILDING ENVELOPE SYSTEMS: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, William L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dynamic test methods for envelope thermal performance whichtransieu~ thermal behavior of building envelopes, and theof dynamic thermal performance, of layered envelope construe

  2. Electrical, Frequency and Thermal Measurement and Modelling of Supercapacitor Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Electrical, Frequency and Thermal Measurement and Modelling of Supercapacitor Performance Yasser--This paper presents an evaluation of commercial supercapacitors performance (ESR, C, self-discharge, Pmax, Emax, coulumbic efficiency, etc), under different conditions. Characterization of supercapacitor

  3. Thermal Insulation Performance in the Process Industries: Facts and Fallacies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tye, R. P.

    Guarded Hot Box Study on Thermal Performance of Fibrous Insulations Used in Lofts," private com munication. 295 ESL-IE-85-05-54 Proceedings from the Seventh National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 12-15, 1985 ...THERMAL INSULATION PERFORMANCE IN 'mE PROCESS INDUSTRIES: FACTS AND FALLACIES R.P. Tye Dynatech RID Company, Cambridge, MA, U.S.A. ABSTRACT The efficient use of thermal insulation materials and systems for design of cryogenic and elevated...

  4. Thin Metal Oxide Films to Modify a Window Layer in CdTe-Based Solar Cells for Improved Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemmon, John P.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Bennett, Wendy D.; Kovarik, Libor

    2012-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on CdS/CdTe photovoltaic devices that contain a thin Ta2O5 film deposited onto the CdS window layer by sputtering. We show that for thicknesses below 5 nm, Ta2O5 films between CdS and CdTe positively affect the solar cell performance, improving JSC, VOC, and the cell power conversion efficiency despite the insulating nature of the interlayer material. Using the Ta2O5 interlayer, a VOC gain of over 100 mV was demonstrated compared to a CdTe/CdS baseline. Application of a 1nm Ta2O5 interlayer enabled the fabrication of CdTe solar cells with extremely thin (less than 30 nm) CdS window layers. The efficiency of these cells exceeded that of a base line cell with 95 nm of CdS.

  5. The Impact of Overhang Design on the Performance of ElectrochromicWindows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tavil, Aslihan; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, various facade designs with overhangs combined with electrochromic window control strategies were modeled with a prototypical commercial office building in a hot and cold climate using the DOE 2.1E building energy simulation program. Annual total energy use (ATE), peak electric demand (PED), average daylight illuminance (DI), and daylight glare index (DGI) were computed and compared to determine which combinations of fagade design and control strategies yielded the greatest energy efficiency, daylight amenity, and visual comfort.

  6. Electrochromic windows for commercial buildings: Monitored results from a full-scale testbed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lifetime prediction of electrochromic windows for buildingsenergy performance of electrochromic windows. ” Proceedingsin the Proceedings. Electrochromic Windows for Commercial

  7. ALSEP Thermal Performance at Off-Equator Latitudes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    CONFIGURATION 33 THERMAL ANALYSIS 35 4. 1 SOLAR HEATING OF CENTRAL STATION ENCLOSURE AT LUNAR NOON 35 4.2 SOLAR HEATING OF CENTRAL STATION ENCLOSURE AT LUNAR SUNSET 35 DISCUSSION 40 5. 1 MODIFICATIONS TO CENTRAL.6 EFFECT OF OFF-EQUATOR DEPLOYMENT ON PDM PANEL 58 REFERENCES 59 #12;: : t ~ ALSEP Thermal Performance

  8. Assessment of Relevant Physical Phenomena Controlling Thermal Performance of Nanofluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    Assessment of Relevant Physical Phenomena Controlling Thermal Performance of Nanofluids Majid thermal conductivity of nanofluids. Through an investigation, a large degree of randomness and scatter has and lower bounds are developed for steady-state conduction in stationary nanofluids. Comparisons between

  9. A Design Guide for Early-Market Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Office worker preferences of electrochromic windows: a pilotDetails for an Electrochromic Window Wall Attached arethe performance of the electrochromic windows. Proceedings

  10. Windows technology assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baron, J.J.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This assessment estimates that energy loss through windows is approximately 15 percent of all the energy used for space heating and cooling in residential and commercial buildings in New York State. The rule of thumb for the nation as a whole is about 25 percent. The difference may reflect a traditional assumption of single-pane windows while this assessment analyzed installed window types in the region. Based on the often-quoted assumption, in the United States some 3.5 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of primary energy, costing some $20 billion, is annually consumed as a result of energy lost through windows. According to this assessment, in New York State, the energy lost due to heat loss through windows is approximately 80 trillion Btu at an annual cost of approximately $1 billion.

  11. Window Spacers and Edge Seals in Insulating Glass Units: A State-of-the-Art

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in buildings is by increasing the thermal performance of their envelopes. Gustavsen Norwegian University of Science and Technology Windows and Envelope Materials Group Building), Windows & Envelope Materials Group, Berkeley, CA 94720- 8134, USA Abstract Insulating glass (IG) units

  12. Thermal performance of steel-framed walls. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbour, E. [NAHB Research Center, Inc., Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Goodrow, J. [Holometrix, Inc., Bedford, MA (United States); Kosny, J.; Christian, J.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In wall construction, highly conductive members spaced along the wall, which allow higher heat transfer than that through less conductive areas, are referred to as thermal bridges. Thermal bridges in walls tend to increase heat loss and, under certain adverse conditions, can cause dust streaking (``ghosting``) on interior walls over studs due to temperature differentials, as well as condensation in and on walls. Although such adverse conditions can be easily avoided by proper thermal design of wall systems, these effects have not been well understood and thermal data has been lacking. Therefore, the present study was initiated to provide (1) a better understanding of the thermal behavior of steel-framed walls, (2) a set of R-values for typical wall constructions, and (3) information that could be used to develop improved methods of predicting R-values. An improved method for estimating R-value would allow an equitable comparison of thermal performance with other construction types and materials. This would increase the number of alternative materials for walls available to designers, thus allowing them to choose the optimum choice for construction. Twenty-three wall samples were tested in a calibrated hot box (ASTM C9761) to measure the thermal performance of steel-framed wall systems. The tests included an array of stud frame configurations, exterior sheathing and fiberglass batt insulations. Other studies have not included the use of insulating sheathing, which reduces the extent of the thermal bridges and improves total thermal performance. The purpose of the project was to provide measured R-values for commonly used steel-framed wall configurations and to improve R-value estimating methods. Test results were compared to R-value estimates using the parallel path method, the isothermal planes method and the ASHRAE Zone method. The comparison showed that the known procedures do not fully account for the three-dimensional effects created by steel framing in a wall.

  13. Effect of Surface Mass on Roof Thermal Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkes, K. E.; Shipp, P. H.; Sanders, J. P.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECT OF SURFACE MASS ON ROOF THERMAL PERFORMANCE KENNETH E. WILKES, PAUL H. SHIPP, AND JOHN P. SANDERS Staff Members Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee ABSTRACT The roof of a building is exposed to the most severe... of guidelines for the use of surface mass are presented. The experiment on surface mass was carried out at the U.S. Department of Energy Roof Research Center using the Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (RTRA) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) .4...

  14. Duct thermal performance models for large commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wray, Craig P.

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite the potential for significant energy savings by reducing duct leakage or other thermal losses from duct systems in large commercial buildings, California Title 24 has no provisions to credit energy-efficient duct systems in these buildings. A substantial reason is the lack of readily available simulation tools to demonstrate the energy-saving benefits associated with efficient duct systems in large commercial buildings. The overall goal of the Efficient Distribution Systems (EDS) project within the PIER High Performance Commercial Building Systems Program is to bridge the gaps in current duct thermal performance modeling capabilities, and to expand our understanding of duct thermal performance in California large commercial buildings. As steps toward this goal, our strategy in the EDS project involves two parts: (1) developing a whole-building energy simulation approach for analyzing duct thermal performance in large commercial buildings, and (2) using the tool to identify the energy impacts of duct leakage in California large commercial buildings, in support of future recommendations to address duct performance in the Title 24 Energy Efficiency Standards for Nonresidential Buildings. The specific technical objectives for the EDS project were to: (1) Identify a near-term whole-building energy simulation approach that can be used in the impacts analysis task of this project (see Objective 3), with little or no modification. A secondary objective is to recommend how to proceed with long-term development of an improved compliance tool for Title 24 that addresses duct thermal performance. (2) Develop an Alternative Calculation Method (ACM) change proposal to include a new metric for thermal distribution system efficiency in the reporting requirements for the 2005 Title 24 Standards. The metric will facilitate future comparisons of different system types using a common ''yardstick''. (3) Using the selected near-term simulation approach, assess the impacts of duct system improvements in California large commercial buildings, over a range of building vintages and climates. This assessment will provide a solid foundation for future efforts that address the energy efficiency of large commercial duct systems in Title 24. This report describes our work to address Objective 1, which includes a review of past modeling efforts related to duct thermal performance, and recommends near- and long-term modeling approaches for analyzing duct thermal performance in large commercial buildings.

  15. Sensitivity analysis of window characteristics and their interactions on thermal performance in residential buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Julie N

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The interactions were shown to have significant effects on predicted energy reductions in the six climates studied....

  16. Sensitivity analysis of window characteristics and their interactions on thermal performance in residential buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Julie N

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The interactions were shown to have significant effects on predicted energy reductions in the six climates studied....

  17. Improving the Thermal Performance of Single Glazed Windows using Translucent Granular Aerogel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark Dowson; David Harrison; Salmaan Craig; Zachary Gill

    This paper is made available in accordance with Taylor & Francis publisher policies. Please cite the original published version only using the following reference:

  18. Thermal Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces for Power Electronics Packaging Applications (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devoto, D.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation discusses the thermal performance and reliability of bonded interfaces for power electronics packaging applications.

  19. PERFORMANCE OF A CONCENTRATING PHOTOVOLTAIC/THERMAL SOLAR COLLECTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Sustainable Energy Systems, Australian National University, Canberra, 0200, Australia +612 6125 3976, +612 increased solar energy conversion and potential cost benefits (Fujisawa and Tani, 1997, 2001, Huang et alPERFORMANCE OF A CONCENTRATING PHOTOVOLTAIC/THERMAL SOLAR COLLECTOR Joe S Coventry Centre

  20. Performance, Energy, and Thermal Considerations for SMT and CMP Architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skadron, Kevin

    Performance, Energy, and Thermal Considerations for SMT and CMP Architectures Yingmin Li , David,skadron}@cs.virginia.edu, zhigangh@us.ibm.com, dbrooks@eecs.harvard.edu Abstract Simultaneous multithreading (SMT) and chip multi, but SMT to be superior for memory-bound benchmarks due to a larger L2 cache. Al- though both exhibit

  1. FOCUSED R&D FOR ELECTROCHROMIC SMART WINDOWS: SIGNIFICANT PERFORMANCE AND YIELD ENHANCEMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marcus Milling

    2004-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Developments made under this program will play a key role in underpinning the technology for producing EC devices. It is anticipated that the work begun during this period will continue to improve materials properties, and drive yields up and costs down, increase durability and make manufacture simpler and more cost effective. It is hoped that this will contribute to a successful and profitable industry, which will help reduce energy consumption and improve comfort for building occupants worldwide. The first major task involved improvements to the materials used in the process. The improvements made as a result of the work done during this project have contributed to the enhanced performance, including dynamic range, uniformity and electrical characteristics. Another major objective of the project was to develop technology to improve yield, reduce cost, and facilitate manufacturing of EC products. Improvements directly attributable to the work carried out as part of this project and seen in the overall EC device performance, have been accompanied by an improvement in the repeatability and consistency of the production process. Innovative test facilities for characterizing devices in a timely and well-defined manner have been developed. The equipment has been designed in such a way as to make scaling-up to accommodate higher throughput necessary for manufacturing relatively straightforward. Finally, the third major goal was to assure the durability of the EC product, both by developments aimed at improving the product performance, as well as development of novel procedures to test the durability of this new product. Both aspects have been demonstrated, both by carrying out a number of different durability tests, both in-house and by independent third-party testers, and also developing several novel durability tests.

  2. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  3. The performance check between whole building thermal performance criteria and exterior wall measured clear wall R-value, thermal bridging, thermal mass, and airtightness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, J.; Christian, J.E.; Desjarlais, A.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Buildings Technology Center; Kossecka, E. [Polish Academy of Sciences (Poland); Berrenberg, L. [American Polysteel Forms (United States)

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the last IEA Annex 32 meeting it was proposed that the annex develop the links between level 1 (the whole building performance) and level 2 (the envelope system). This paper provides a case study of just that type of connection. An exterior wall mockup is hot box tested and modeled in the laboratory. Measurements of the steady state and dynamic behavior of this mockup are used as the basis to define the thermal bridging, thermal mass benefit and air tightness of the whole wall system. These level two performance characteristics are related to the whole building performance. They can be analyzed by a finite difference modeling of the wall assembly. An equivalent wall theory is used to convert three dimensional heat flow to one dimensional terms that capture thermal mass effects, which in turn are used in a common whole building simulation model. This paper illustrates a performance check between the thermal performance of a Massive ICF (Insulating Concrete Form) wall system mocked up (level 2) and Whole Building Performance criteria (level 1) such as total space heating and cooling loads (thermal comfort).

  4. Assessment and Prediction of the Thermal Performance of a Centralized Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Utilizing Artificial Neural Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El-Sawi, A.; Haghighat, F.; Akbari, H.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simulation tool is developed to analyze the thermal performance of a centralized latent heat thermal energy storage system (LHTES) using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The LHTES system is integrated with a mechanical ventilation system...

  5. Thermal Performance Evaluation of Innovative Metal Building Roof Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Daniel James [ORNL; Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to meet the coming energy codes, multiple layers of various insulation types will be required. The demand for greater efficiency has pushed insulation levels beyond the cavity depth. These experiments show the potential for improving metal building roof thermal performance. Additional work is currently being done by several stakeholders, so the data is expanding. These experiments are for research and development purposes, and may not be viable for immediate use.

  6. High Performance Window Attachments

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHighLouisiana |HighMaterials

  7. ASME PTC 47 - IGCC performance testing: Gasification island thermal performance testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirolli, M.D.; Doering, E.L.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past several years, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants have been introduced in a number of competitive markets. Most of the demonstration projects have been subsidized. However, as the technology is further developed, its versatility will lead to its application in a variety of market segments. This leads to the need of the user to evaluate the performance of the gasification process within the IGCC power plant through field testing. This paper deals with an approach to measuring the gasification island thermal performance. A thermal efficiency term based upon an input/output test approach is introduced. Measured parameters and pre-test planning are discussed. Computational procedures for determining the thermal efficiency of the gasification island are described including an uncertainty analysis for the performance test.

  8. Analysis of the Window Side Thermal Environment Formed by Air Barrier Technique in Winter Conditions and Its Economy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, C.; Jia, Y.; Liu, L.; Wang, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    strategy of this technology. It can be found that the air barrier technique, instead of the heating-supply around outside-zone for office building, can avoid dewfall in winter and decrease the cold radiation, which has a great effect on thermal environment...

  9. Analysis of the Window Side Thermal Environment Formed by Air Barrier Technique in Winter Conditions and Its Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, C.; Jia, Y.; Liu, L.; Wang, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    strategy of this technology. It can be found that the air barrier technique, instead of the heating-supply around outside-zone for office building, can avoid dewfall in winter and decrease the cold radiation, which has a great effect on thermal environment...

  10. Thermal Performance of Phase Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feustel, H.E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the discharge of thermal energy storage without releasingto low-energy cooling sources. Large thermal storage devices

  11. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The SRF window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The SRF window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the SRF window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  12. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1997-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  13. Enhanced thermal and gas flow performance in a three-way catalytic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    thermal and gas flow performance in a three-way catalytic converter through use of insulation within the ceramic monolith Enhanced thermal and gas flow performance in a three-way...

  14. Thermal degradation of the performance of elastomeric bearings for seismic isolation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirazi, Ali

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Thermal Degradation of the Performance90 Degradation of93 5 DEGRADATION PHENOMENON IN ELASTOMERIC BEARINGS AND THE

  15. Window shopping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Best, D.

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The author addresses the energy efficiency of windows and describes changes and new products available in this consumer information article. Experiments currently being done by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Bonneville Power Authority and the Washington State Energy Office show that some of these superwindows collect more energy from the sun than they let escape from inside the home. One type of window in current production is the low-E (low-emissivity) and the IGUs (insulated glass units). Low-E techniques include glazing of the glass with various materials including polyester and metallic coatings. Other measures include filling the airspace in double pane windows with argon, aerogel or by creating a vacuum in the airspace. Another factor the author considers is ultraviolet light protection.

  16. Performance contracting for parabolic trough solar thermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, H.; Hewett, R.; Walker, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Gee, R.; May, K. [Industrial Solar Technology, Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Several applications of solar energy have proven viable in the energy marketplace, due to competitive technology and economic performance. One example is the parabolic trough solar collectors, which use focused solar energy to maximize efficiency and reduce material use in construction. Technical improvements are complemented by new business practices to make parabolic trough solar thermal systems technically and economically viable in an ever widening range of applications. Technical developments in materials and fabrication techniques reduce production cost and expand applications from swimming pool heating and service hot water, to higher-temperature applications such as absorption cooling and process steam. Simultaneously, new financing mechanisms such as a recently awarded US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) indefinite quantity Energy Savings Performance Contract (Super ESPC) facilitate and streamline implementation of the technology in federal facilities such as prisons and military bases.

  17. End User Impacts of Automated Electrochromic Windows in a Pilot Retrofit Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Eleanor S.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2006. Advancement of electrochromic windows: Final report.User Impacts of Automated Electrochromic Windows in a Pilotenergy performance of electrochromic windows controlled for

  18. Integrated analysis of nuclear thermal rocket system performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buksa, J.J.; Rider, W.J.; Hall, M.; Perry, R.T.; Houts, M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engines will play a key transportation role. Although a number of tests of prismatic, solid-core nuclear engines were completed during the ROVER/NERVA program, the estimated cost of completing full-engine tests will severely limit the scope, duration, and number of any such tests in the future. Design optimization by test iteration is unlikely, and an emphasis on computational modeling is a cost-effective alternative. As a consequence of our responsibilities within the US Dept. of Energy's SEI efforts to develop key NTR technologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is developing the capability to design and verify the safety and performance of NTR systems. Because of the important role that computational modeling will play in the faster, better, and cheaper development of an NTR system, we are pursuing two paths of analysis. The first undertaking is the development of accurate separate-effects codes for design and analysis. Included in this category are thermal-hydraulic and radiation-transport codes. Our other endeavor, which is the focus of this paper, is to develop an advanced computational architecture that can be used to model the entire NTR system.

  19. AIR LEAKAGE OF NEWLY INSTALLED RESIDENTIAL WINDOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidt, John

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tables 2.0.2a 2.0.2b PAGE Air Leakage Through Sash/FrameOperation Types . . . . . Air Leakage of Installed WindowsComparison of Window Types Air Leakage Performance of

  20. Key Elements of and Materials Performance Targets for Highly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Technology, Høgskoleringen 7A, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway Abstract The thermal performance of windows of the transmission losses though the building envelope, even if their area fraction of the envelope is far less. The reason for this can be found by comparing the thermal transmittance (U-factor) of windows to the U

  1. Apparatus for thermal performance measurements of insulated roof systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Courville, G.E.; Childs, K.W.; Walukas, D.J.; Childs, P.W.; Griggs, E.I.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy conducted thermal performance measurements on low-slope roofs with a recently developed field test apparatus at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The apparatus accommodates four 4 ft x 8 ft test specimens and includes the measurement capabilities for specimen temperatures, temperature gradients, heat flows and moisture content. A weather station characterizes outdoor weather conditions. Tests underway include (1) validation of a roof surface temperature model developed to study the effects of wet insulation; (2) measurement of temperature distributions and heat transfer in high R-value roofs; and (3) validation of an analysis of the effectiveness of high reflectance surfaces. Preliminary experimental results are presented and correlations between experiment and modeling are discussed.

  2. Thermal Performance of Poly Alpha Olefin Nanofluid with Spherical and Non-spherical Nanoparticles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Chan Hyun

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Research on nanofluids has been undertaken for several years because of the reported enhancements of thermal properties such as thermal conductivity and enhanced heat transfer performance in laminar flow. Nanofluid is the fluid where nanoparticles...

  3. Thermal hydraulic performance analysis of a small integral pressurized water reactor core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blair, Stuart R. (Stuart Ryan), 1972-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal hydraulic analysis of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) core has been performed. Thermal margins for steady state and a selection of Loss Of Flow Accidents have been assessed using three ...

  4. Thermal Performance of Poly Alpha Olefin Nanofluid with Spherical and Non-spherical Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Chan Hyun

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Research on nanofluids has been undertaken for several years because of the reported enhancements of thermal properties such as thermal conductivity and enhanced heat transfer performance in laminar flow. Nanofluid is the fluid where nanoparticles...

  5. Determining Adaptability Performance of Artificial Neural Network-Based Thermal Control Logics for Envelope Conditions in Residential Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moon, Jin Woo; Chang, Jae D.; Kim, Sooyoung

    2013-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines the performance and adaptability of Artificial Neural Network (ANN)-based thermal control strategies for diverse thermal properties of building envelope conditions applied to residential buildings. The thermal performance using...

  6. Electromagnetic and mechanical design of gridded radio-frequency cavity windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alsharo'a, Mohammad M.

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electromagnetic, thermal and structural analyses of radio-frequency (RF) cavities were performed as part of a developmental RF cavity program for muon cooling. RF cavities are necessary to provide longitudinal focusing of the muons and to compensate for their energy loss. Closing the cavity ends by electrically conducting windows reduces the power requirement and increases the on-axis electric field for a given maximum surface electric field. Many factors must be considered in the design of RF cavity windows. RF heating can cause the windows to deform in the axial direction of the cavity. The resulting thermal stresses in the window must be maintained below the yield stress of the window material. The out-of-plane deflection must be small enough so that the consequent frequency shift is tolerable. For example, for an 805 MHz cavity, the out-of-plane deflection must be kept below 25 microns to prevent the frequency of the cavity from shifting more than 10 kHz. In addition, the window design should yield smooth electric and magnetic fields, terminate field leakage beyond the window, and minimize beam scattering. In the present thesis, gridded-tube window designs were considered because of their high structural integrity. As a starting point in the analysis, a cylindrical pillbox cavity was considered as a benchmark problem. Analytical and finite element solutions were obtained for the electric and magnetic fields, power loss density, and temperature profile. Excellent agreement was obtained between the analytical and finite element results. The finite element method was then used to study a variety of gridded-tube windows. It was found that cooling of the gridded-tube windows by passing helium gas inside the tubes significantly reduces the out-of-plane deflection and the thermal stresses. Certain tube geometries and grid patterns were found to satisfy all of the design requirements.

  7. Establishment of a Rating Program for Pre- and Post-Fabricated Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Graham B.; Mapes, Terry S.; Shah, B.; Bloyd, Cary N.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document was prepared to support the Smart Buildings-Material Testing and Rating Centres (SB-2) activity of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Energy Smart Communities Initiative (ESCI). The ESCI was put forward by APEC Leaders at the 2010 meeting in Japan. APEC is the premier forum for facilitating economic growth, cooperation, trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region. This document addresses the testing and certification of building products and equipment to support building energy codes, focusing specifically on energy-efficient factory-built windows. It sets forth a proposed structure for an APEC economy to establish a testing, rating, certification, and labeling program for efficient factory-built windows. In the context of this document, efficient windows would be windows made with insulating glass (IG) and an efficient frame assembly. The minimum efficiency metric (or thermal performance) for these windows is not quantified in this document and would generally be established by a governmental agency.

  8. Pennsylvania: Window Technology First of Its Kind for Commercial...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    manufacturer Traco, a division of Kawneer (an Alcoa company), to develop the OptiQ(tm) Ultra Thermal Window series (OptiQ(tm)) for the commercial buildings sector. These windows...

  9. An Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of Wall And Window Retrofit Configurations: Supporting the Residential Retrofit Best Practices Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Petrie, Thomas [ORNL; Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL; Hulvey, Kimberly D [ORNL

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Retrofit Best Practices Guide was developed to encourage homeowners to consider energy conservation issues whenever they modify their siding or windows. In support of this guide, an experimental program was implemented to measure the performance of a number of possible wall siding and window retrofit configurations. Both thermal and air-leakage measurements were made for a 2.4 x 2.4 m (8 x 8 ft) wall section with and without a 0.9 x 1.2 m (3 x 4 ft) window. The windows tested were previously well-characterized at a dedicated window test facility. A computer model was also used to provide information for the Best Practices Guide. The experimental data for walls and windows were used in conjunction with this model to estimate the total annual energy savings for several typical houses in a number of different locations.

  10. Applicability of Solar Airflow Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamed, M. S.; Friedrich, K.; Razaqpur, G.; Foo, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate prediction of the performance of Solar Air Windows (SAWs) operating in various climates under real conditions has not been investigated. This paper reports the results of numerical simulations of SAWs carried out using ANSYS-CFX considering...

  11. Performance Evaluation of the Delphi Non-Thermal Plasma System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distribution from a Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis Development of Optimal Catalyst...

  12. Dish/Stirling High-Performance Thermal Storge

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Simulation of Heat Pipe-Assisted Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Unit for Dish-Stirling Systems" to ASME 2013 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition. *...

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Thermal Performance Benchmarking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about thermal...

  14. In situ thermal performance of APP modified bitumen roof membranes coated with reflective coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, J.D.; Smith, T.L. (National Roofing Contractors Association, Rosemont, IL (United States)); Christian, J.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-faceted field research program regarding seven atactic polypropylene (APP) modified bitumen membrane roof systems and four reflective coatings began in 1991. This long-term project is evaluating the performance of various APP modified bitumen membranes (both coated and uncoated), the comparative performance of coating application soon after membrane installation versus preweathering, coating performance, and aspects of recoating. This paper is a progress report on the in situ thermal performance of the various types of coatings compared to the thermal performance of the exposed membrane. The thermal performance of an adjacent ballasted ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) roofing system is also described.

  15. In situ thermal performance of APP modified bitumen roof membranes coated with reflective coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, J.D.; Smith, T.L. [National Roofing Contractors Association, Rosemont, IL (United States); Christian, J.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-faceted field research program regarding seven atactic polypropylene (APP) modified bitumen membrane roof systems and four reflective coatings began in 1991. This long-term project is evaluating the performance of various APP modified bitumen membranes (both coated and uncoated), the comparative performance of coating application soon after membrane installation versus preweathering, coating performance, and aspects of recoating. This paper is a progress report on the in situ thermal performance of the various types of coatings compared to the thermal performance of the exposed membrane. The thermal performance of an adjacent ballasted ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) roofing system is also described.

  16. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Harry L. (Seaford, VA); Elliott, Thomas S. (Yorktown, VA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  17. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Harry Lawrence (Seaford, VA); Elliott, Thomas S. (Yorktown, VA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  18. Residential Windows and Window Coverings: A Detailed View of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Windows and Window Coverings: A Detailed View of the Installed Base and User Behavior Residential Windows and Window Coverings: A Detailed View of the Installed Base...

  19. Influence of concrete fracture on the rain infiltration and thermal performance of building facades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influence of concrete fracture on the rain infiltration and thermal performance of building facades., Foray G., Roux J.-J., 2013. Influence of concrete fracture on the rain infiltration and thermal is to be accounted for in long-term hygrothermal performance as- sessments of the building envelope. The present work

  20. Radiative transfer and thermal performance levels in foam insulation boardstocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreno, John David

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The validity of predictive models for the thermal conductivity of foam insulation is established based on the fundamental geometry of the closed-cell foam. The extinction coefficient is experimentally and theoretically ...

  1. Windows Server Evaluation Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Galen

    Windows Server 2012 R2 Evaluation Guide #12;Copyright Information © 2013 Microsoft Corporation. All .......................................................................................................................1 Introduction to Windows Server 2012 R2 ..................................................................................................7 Windows Server: Architecture of the Evaluation Environment

  2. Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Grove, CA. Zero Energy Windows Dariush Arasteh,No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Zero Energy Windows Dariush Arasteh,Advanced Windows for Zero-Energy Homes. ASHRAE - American

  3. Numerical evaluation of the thermal performances of roof-mounted radiant barriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miranville, Frédéric; Lucas, Franck; Johan, Seriacaroupin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with the thermal performances of roof-mounted radiant barriers. Using dynamic simulations of a mathematical model of a whole test cell including a radiant barrier installed between the roof top and the ceiling, the thermal performance of the roof is calculated. The mean method is more particularly used to assess the thermal resistance of the building component and lead to a value which is compared to the one obtained for a mass insulation product such as polyurethane foam. On a further stage, the thermal mathematical model is replaced by a thermo-aeraulic model which is used to evaluate the thermal resistance of the roof as a function of the airflow rate. The results shows a better performance of the roof in this new configuration, which is widely used in practice. Finally, the mathematical relation between the thermal resistance and the airflow rate is proposed.

  4. Windows XP - LPR Printing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dbrown

    2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Printer Setup in Windows XP. To print to the math department printers in Windows XP, “Print Services for Unix” must be installed. To begin installation of “

  5. Rigid thin windows for vacuum applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Glenn Allyn (Danville, CA); Ciarlo, Dino R. (Livermore, CA); Myers, Booth Richard (Livermore, CA); Chen, Hao-Lin (Lafayette, CA); Wakalopulos, George (Pacific Palisades, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin window that stands off atmospheric pressure is fabricated using photolithographic and wet chemical etching techniques and comprises at least two layers: an etch stop layer and a protective barrier layer. The window structure also comprises a series of support ribs running the width of the window. The windows are typically made of boron-doped silicon and silicon nitride and are useful in instruments such as electron beam guns and x-ray detectors. In an electron beam gun, the window does not impede the electrons and has demonstrated outstanding gun performance and survivability during the gun tube manufacturing process.

  6. Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the Lab Homes: Winter Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Graham B.; Widder, Sarah H.; Bauman, Nathan N.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This field evaluation of highly insulating windows was undertaken in a matched pair of 'Lab Homes' located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus during the 2012 winter heating season. Improving the insulation and solar heat gain characteristics of a home's windows has the potential to significantly improve the home's building envelope and overall thermal performance by reducing heat loss (in the winter), and cooling loss and solar heat gain (in the summer) through the windows. A high quality installation and/or window retrofit will also minimize or reduce air leakage through the window cavity and thus also contribute to reduced heat loss in the winter and cooling loss in the summer. These improvements all contribute to decreasing overall annual home energy use. Occupant comfort (non-quantifiable) can also be increased by minimizing or eliminating the cold 'draft' (temperature) many residents experience at or near window surfaces that are at a noticeably lower temperature than the room air temperature. Lastly, although not measured in this experiment, highly insulating windows (triple-pane in this experiment) also have the potential to significantly reduce the noise transmittance through windows compared to standard double-pane windows. The metered data taken in the Lab Homes and data analysis presented here represent 70 days of data taken during the 2012 heating season. As such, the savings from highly insulating windows in the experimental home (Lab Home B) compared to the standard double-pane clear glass windows in the baseline home (Lab Home A) are only a portion of the energy savings expected from a year-long experiment that would include a cooling season. The cooling season experiment will take place in the homes in the summer of 2012, and results of that experiment will be reported in a subsequent report available to all stakeholders.

  7. State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating Window Frames - Research and Market Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Arasteh, Dariush; Kohler, Christian

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reports the findings of a market and research review related to state-of-the-art highly insulating window frames. The market review focuses on window frames that satisfy the Passivhaus requirements (window U-value less or equal to 0.8 W/m{sup 2}K ), while other examples are also given in order to show the variety of materials and solutions that may be used for constructing window frames with a low thermal transmittance (U-value). The market search shows that several combinations of materials are used in order to obtain window frames with a low U-value. The most common insulating material seems to be Polyurethane (PUR), which is used together with most of the common structural materials such as wood, aluminum, and PVC. The frame research review also shows examples of window frames developed in order to increase the energy efficiency of the frames and the glazings which the frames are to be used together with. The authors find that two main tracks are used in searching for better solutions. The first one is to minimize the heat losses through the frame itself. The result is that conductive materials are replaced by highly thermal insulating materials and air cavities. The other option is to reduce the window frame area to a minimum, which is done by focusing on the net energy gain by the entire window (frame, spacer and glazing). Literature shows that a window with a higher U-value may give a net energy gain to a building that is higher than a window with a smaller U-value. The net energy gain is calculated by subtracting the transmission losses through the window from the solar energy passing through the windows. The net energy gain depends on frame versus glazing area, solar factor, solar irradiance, calculation period and U-value. The frame research review also discusses heat transfer modeling issues related to window frames. Thermal performance increasing measures, surface modeling, and frame cavity modeling are among the topics discussed. The review shows that the current knowledge gives the basis for improving the calculation procedures in the calculation standards. At the same time it is room for improvement within some areas, e.g. to fully understand the natural convection effects inside irregular vertical frame cavities (jambs) and ventilated frame cavities.

  8. A first-generation prototype dynamic residential window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohler, Christian; Goudey, Howdy; Arasteh, Dariush

    2004-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the concept for a ''smart'' highly efficient dynamic window that maximizes solar heat gain during the heating season and minimizes solar heat gain during the cooling season in residential buildings. We describe a prototype dynamic window that relies on an internal shade, which deploys automatically in response to solar radiation and temperature. This prototype was built at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory from commercially available ''off-the-shelf'' components. It is a stand-alone, standard-size product, so it can be easily installed in place of standard window products. Our design shows promise for near-term commercialization. Improving thermal performance of this prototype by incorporating commercially available highly efficient glazing technologies could result in the first window that could be suitable for use in zero-energy homes. The unit's predictable deployment of shading could help capture energy savings that are not possible with manual shading. Installation of dynamically shaded windows in the field will allow researchers to better quantify the energy effects of shades, which could lead to increased efficiency in the sizing of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning equipment for residences.

  9. APPLICATION OF IT AND INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS TO IMPROVE BUILDING ENVELOPE PERFORMANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammad, Amin

    , Quebec, Canada ABSTRACT Improving thermal performance of building envelopes reduces energy consumption the thermal performance of the building envelope, e.g., the advanced house program from NRCan, better windows, and improved thermal performance of building envelopes. According to Hydro Quebec, house characteristics

  10. Modeling, design and thermal performance of a BIPV/T system thermally coupled with a ventilated concrete slab in a low energy solar house: Part 1, BIPV/T system and house energy concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yuxiang; Athienitis, A.K.; Galal, Khaled [Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 De Maisonneuve West, EV6.139, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is the first of two papers that describe the modeling, design, and performance assessment based on monitored data of a building-integrated photovoltaic-thermal (BIPV/T) system thermally coupled with a ventilated concrete slab (VCS) in a prefabricated, two-storey detached, low energy solar house. This house, with a design goal of near net-zero annual energy consumption, was constructed in 2007 in Eastman, Quebec, Canada - a cold climate area. Several novel solar technologies are integrated into the house and with passive solar design to reach this goal. An air-based open-loop BIPV/T system produces electricity and collects heat simultaneously. Building-integrated thermal mass is utilized both in passive and active forms. Distributed thermal mass in the direct gain area and relatively large south facing triple-glazed windows (about 9% of floor area) are employed to collect and store passive solar gains. An active thermal energy storage system (TES) stores part of the collected thermal energy from the BIPV/T system, thus reducing the energy consumption of the house ground source heat pump heating system. This paper focuses on the BIPV/T system and the integrated energy concept of the house. Monitored data indicate that the BIPV/T system has a typical efficiency of about 20% for thermal energy collection, and the annual space heating energy consumption of the house is about 5% of the national average. A thermal model of the BIPV/T system suitable for preliminary design and control of the airflow is developed and verified with monitored data. (author)

  11. End User Impacts of Automated Electrochromic Windows in a Pilot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-6027E End User Impacts of Automated Electrochromic Windows in a Pilot Retrofit Application E Electrochromic Windows in a Pilot Retrofit Application Eleanor S. Lee1 Abstract , Erin S. Claybaugh Building Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, DC 20585 USA Automated electrochromic (EC) windows, advanced thermally

  12. Thermal Performance and Reliability Characterization of Bonded Interface Materials (BIMs): Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVoto, D.; Paret, P.; Mihalic, M.; Narumanchi, S.; Bar-Cohen, A.; Matin, K.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal interface materials are an important enabler for low thermal resistance and reliable electronics packaging for a wide array of applications. There is a trend towards bonded interface materials (BIMs) because of their potential for low thermal resistivity (< 1 mm2K/W). However, BIMs induce thermomechanical stresses in the package and can be prone to failures and integrity risks. Deteriorated interfaces can result in high thermal resistance in the package and degradation and/or failure of the electronics. DARPA's Thermal Management Technologies program has addressed this challenge, supporting the development of mechanically-compliant, low resistivity nano-thermal interface (NTI) materials. In this work, we describe the testing procedure and report the results of NREL's thermal performance and reliability characterization of an initial sample of four different NTI-BIMs.

  13. Hybrid Model of Existing Buildings for Transient Thermal Performance Estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, X.; Wang, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Building level energy models are important to provide accurate prediction of energy consumption for building performance diagnosis and energy efficiency assessment of retrofitting alternatives for building performance upgrading. Simplified...

  14. Abstract--Eventually, prediction of transformer thermal performance for dynamic loading will be made using models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Abstract--Eventually, prediction of transformer thermal performance for dynamic loading will be made using models distilled from measure data, rather than models derived from transformer heat for measuring the acceptability of transformer thermal models. For a model to be acceptable, it must have

  15. Fluorinated Phosphazene Co-solvents for Improved Thermal and Safety Performance in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry W. Rollins; Mason K. Harrup; Eric J. Dufek; David K. Jamison; Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Dayna L. Daubaras

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The safety of lithium-ion batteries is coming under increased scrutiny as they are being adopted for large format applications especially in the vehicle transportation industry and for grid-scale energy storage. The primary short-comings of lithium-ion batteries are the flammability of the liquid electrolyte and sensitivity to high voltage and elevated temperatures. We have synthesized a series of non-flammable fluorinated phosphazene liquids and blended them with conventional carbonate solvents. While the use of these phosphazenes as standalone electrolytes is highly desirable, they simply do not satisfy all of the many requirements that must be met such as high LiPF6 solubility and low viscosity, thus we have used them as additives and co-solvents in blends with typical carbonates. The physical and electrochemical properties of the electrolyte blends were characterized, and then the blends were used to build 2032-type coin cells which were evaluated at constant current cycling rates from C/10 to C/1. We have evaluated the performance of the electrolytes by determining the conductivity, viscosity, flash point, vapor pressure, thermal stability, electrochemical window, cell cycling data, and the ability to form solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) films. This paper presents our results on a series of chemically similar fluorinated cyclic phosphazene trimers, the FM series, which has exhibited numerous beneficial effects on battery performance, lifetimes, and safety aspects.

  16. Measure Guideline: Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  17. The thermal performance of fixed and variable selective transmitters in commercial architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartovics, William A

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A parametric model is developed for use in evaluating the relative thermal and lighting performance of a variety of existing and proposed types of commercial glazing materials. The glazing materials considered are divided ...

  18. Evaluating Equipment Performance Using SCADA/PMS Data for Thermal Utility Plants - Case Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, X.; Chen, Q.; Xu, C.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The equipment in cogeneration plants and thermal energy plants such as gas tubing generators, boilers, steam turbine generators, chillers and cooling towers are often critical to satisfying building needs. Their actual energy performance is very...

  19. Thermal and lighting performance of toplighting systems in the hot and humid climate of Thailand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harntaweewongsa, Siritip

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    , light distribution, and uniformity. EnergyPlus was used as the thermal analysis tool, and RADIANCE, along with a physical scale model, was used as the lighting performance analysis tool. The sky conditions tested were overcast, clear sky...

  20. Thermal mass performance in residential construction : an energy analysis using a cube model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ledwith, Alison C. (Alison Catherine)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Given the pervasiveness of energy efficiency concerns in the built environment, this research aims to answer key questions regarding the performance of thermal mass construction. The work presents the Cube Model, a simplified ...

  1. Effects of Framing on the Thermal Performance of Wood and Steel-Framed Walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosny, J.; Yarbrough, D. W.; Childs, P.; Mohiuddin, S. A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the consequences of installation imperfections in cavity insulation on thermal performance are analyzed. The results of the study demonstrated significant sensitivity in some configurations of residential walls to the framing factor and insulation installation... imperfections. Keywords R-value, Framing Factor, Cavity Insulation, Framing Effect Coefficient, Steel Frame walls, Wood-frame walls TERMINOLOGY OF THE WHOLE WALL R-VALUE PROCEDURE USED IN THIS PAPER The following list of thermal performance...

  2. Process of making cryogenically cooled high thermal performance crystal optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for constructing a cooled optic wherein one or more cavities are milled, drilled or formed using casting or ultrasound laser machining techniques in a single crystal base and filled with porous material having high thermal conductivity at cryogenic temperatures. A non-machined strain-free single crystal can be bonded to the base to produce superior optics. During operation of the cooled optic, N[sub 2] is pumped through the porous material at a sub-cooled cryogenic inlet temperature and with sufficient system pressure to prevent the fluid bulk temperature from reaching saturation. 7 figs.

  3. Process of making cryogenically cooled high thermal performance crystal optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuzay, Tuncer M. (Naperville, IL)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for constructing a cooled optic wherein one or more cavities are milled, drilled or formed using casting or ultrasound laser machining techniques in a single crystal base and filled with porous material having high thermal conductivity at cryogenic temperatures. A non-machined strain-free single crystal can be bonded to the base to produce superior optics. During operation of the cooled optic, N.sub.2 is pumped through the porous material at a sub-cooled cryogenic inlet temperature and with sufficient system pressure to prevent the fluid bulk temperature from reaching saturation.

  4. Roof system effects on in-situ thermal performance of HCFC polyisocyanurate insulation. [Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, J.E.; Desjarlais, A.O.; Courville, G.; Graves, R.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industry-produced, permeably-faced, experimental polyisocyanurate (PIR) laminated boardstock foamed with several different hydrochlorofluorcarbons (HCFCS) is undergoing in-situ testing at the Building Envelopes Research User Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The overall objective of this research is to determine the long term thermal performance differences between PIR foamed with CFC-11 and PIR foamed with HCFC-123, HCFC-14lb and blends of HCFCs. Boards from the same batch were installed in outdoor test facilities and instrumented in part to determine if the insulation thermal performance aging characteristics are dependent on how they are handled and installed in the field. One of the major contributions of this research is the field validation of an accelerated thermal aging procedure. The laboratory measurements of the apparent thermal conductivity (k) of 10-mm-thick slices conducted over a period of less than a year are used to predict the k of 38-50-mm-thick PIR laminated board stock for 12--20 years after production. In situ thermal performance measurements of these well characterized three-year-old boards under white and under black ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) membranes are compared with the accelerated aging procedure and with boards from the same batch in different roofing systems: mechanically attached EPDM, fully adhered EPDM, and built-up roof (BUR). The comparison indicates that this accelerated aging procedure should be seriously considered for providing in-service thermal performance information to building owners and roofing contractors.

  5. Roof system effects on in-situ thermal performance of HCFC polyisocyanurate insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, J.E.; Desjarlais, A.O.; Courville, G.; Graves, R.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industry-produced, permeably-faced, experimental polyisocyanurate (PIR) laminated boardstock foamed with several different hydrochlorofluorcarbons (HCFCS) is undergoing in-situ testing at the Building Envelopes Research User Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The overall objective of this research is to determine the long term thermal performance differences between PIR foamed with CFC-11 and PIR foamed with HCFC-123, HCFC-14lb and blends of HCFCs. Boards from the same batch were installed in outdoor test facilities and instrumented in part to determine if the insulation thermal performance aging characteristics are dependent on how they are handled and installed in the field. One of the major contributions of this research is the field validation of an accelerated thermal aging procedure. The laboratory measurements of the apparent thermal conductivity (k) of 10-mm-thick slices conducted over a period of less than a year are used to predict the k of 38-50-mm-thick PIR laminated board stock for 12--20 years after production. In situ thermal performance measurements of these well characterized three-year-old boards under white and under black ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) membranes are compared with the accelerated aging procedure and with boards from the same batch in different roofing systems: mechanically attached EPDM, fully adhered EPDM, and built-up roof (BUR). The comparison indicates that this accelerated aging procedure should be seriously considered for providing in-service thermal performance information to building owners and roofing contractors.

  6. A true virtual window

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radikovic, Adrijan Silvester

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous research from environmental psychology shows that human well-being suffers in windowless environments in many ways and a window view of nature is psychologically and physiologically beneficial to humans. Current window substitutes, still...

  7. Three-Dimensional Numerical Evaluation of Thermal Performance of Uninsulated Wall Assemblies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridouane, E. H.; Bianchi, M.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study describes a detailed three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics modeling to evaluate the thermal performance of uninsulated wall assemblies accounting for conduction through framing, convection, and radiation. The model allows for material properties variations with temperature. Parameters that were varied in the study include ambient outdoor temperature and cavity surface emissivity. Understanding the thermal performance of uninsulated wall cavities is essential for accurate prediction of energy use in residential buildings. The results can serve as input for building energy simulation tools for modeling the temperature dependent energy performance of homes with uninsulated walls.

  8. Current performance and potential improvements in solar thermal industrial heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hale, M.J.; Williams, T.; Barker, G.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A representive current state-of-the-art system using parabolic trough technology was developed using data from a system recently installed in Tehachapi, California. A simulation model was used to estimate the annual energy output from the system at three different insolation locations. Based on discussions with industry personnel and within NREL, we identified a number of technology improvements that offer the potential for increasing the energy performance and reducing the energy-cost of the baseline system. The technology improvements modeled included an evacuated-tube receiver, an antireflective coating on the receiver tube, an improved absorber material, a cleaner reflecting surface, a reflecting surface that can withstand contact cleaning, and two silver reflectors. The properties associated with the improvements were incorporated into the model simulation at the three insolation locations to determine if there were any performance gains. The results showed that there was a potential for a more am 50% improvement in the annual energy delivered by a 2677 m{sup 2} system incorporating a combination of the enumerated technology improvements. We discuss the commercial and technological status of each design improvement and present performance predictions for the trough-design improvements.

  9. Current performance and potential improvements in solar thermal industrial heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hale, M.J.; Williams, T.; Barker, G.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A representive current state-of-the-art system using parabolic trough technology was developed using data from a system recently installed in Tehachapi, California. A simulation model was used to estimate the annual energy output from the system at three different insolation locations. Based on discussions with industry personnel and within NREL, we identified a number of technology improvements that offer the potential for increasing the energy performance and reducing the energy-cost of the baseline system. The technology improvements modeled included an evacuated-tube receiver, an antireflective coating on the receiver tube, an improved absorber material, a cleaner reflecting surface, a reflecting surface that can withstand contact cleaning, and two silver reflectors. The properties associated with the improvements were incorporated into the model simulation at the three insolation locations to determine if there were any performance gains. The results showed that there was a potential for a more am 50% improvement in the annual energy delivered by a 2677 m[sup 2] system incorporating a combination of the enumerated technology improvements. We discuss the commercial and technological status of each design improvement and present performance predictions for the trough-design improvements.

  10. THERMAL PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS ON ULTIMATE HEAT SINKS - COOLING PONDS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not FoundInformation DOEInformation Summary Big* - ' E 1PERFORMANCE

  11. Effects of Courtyard on Thermal Performance of Commercial Buildings in Hot-Dry Climate, Ahmedabad, India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, R,

    of the simulation exercise has been established on the available weather data. The result would be the analysis of energy performance of different building models. Keywords: Courtyards, Building Configuration, Energy Consumption, Thermal Simulation, Computer... in reducing energy consumption of buildings. Many research studies suggest that courtyard as a climatic modifier helps in improving thermal environment and enhancing daylight deep into the interior thus reducing energy consumption of the building...

  12. Side-by-Side Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the PNNL Lab Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.; Bauman, Nathan N.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To examine the energy, air leakage, and thermal performance of highly insulating windows, a field evaluation was undertaken in a matched pair of all-electric, factory-built “Lab Homes” located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus in Richland, Washington. The “baseline” Lab Home B was retrofitted with “standard” double-pane clear aluminum-frame slider windows and patio doors, while the “experimental” Lab Home A was retrofitted with Jeld-Wen® triple-pane vinyl-frame slider windows and patio doors with a U-factor of 0.2 and solar heat gain coefficient of 0.19. To assess the window, the building shell air leakage, energy use, and interior temperatures of each home were compared during the 2012 winter heating and summer cooling seasons. The measured energy savings in Lab Home B averaged 5,821 watt-hours per day (Wh/day) during the heating season and 6,518 Wh/day during the cooling season. The overall whole-house energy savings of Lab Home B compared to Lab Home A are 11.6% ± 1.53% for the heating season and 18.4 ± 2.06% for the cooling season for identical occupancy conditions with no window coverings deployed. Extrapolating these energy savings numbers based on typical average heating degree days and cooling degree days per year yields an estimated annual energy savings of 12.2%, or 1,784 kWh/yr. The data suggest that highly insulating windows are an effective energy-saving measure that should be considered for high-performance new homes and in existing retrofits. However, the cost effectiveness of the measure, as determined by the simple payback period, suggests that highly insulating window costs continue to make windows difficult to justify on a cost basis alone. Additional reductions in costs via improvements in manufacturing and/or market penetration that continue to drive down costs will make highly insulating windows much more viable as a cost-effective energy efficiency measure. This study also illustrates that highly insulating windows have important impacts on peak load, occupant comfort, and condensation potential, which are not captured in the energy savings calculation. More consistent and uniform interior temperature distributions suggest that highly insulated windows, as part of a high performance building envelope, may enable more centralized duct design and downsized HVAC systems. Shorter, more centralized duct systems and smaller HVAC systems to yield additional cost savings, making highly insulating windows more cost effective as part of a package of new construction or retrofit measures which achieve significant reductions in home energy use.

  13. Apparatus for insulating windows and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitchell, R.A.

    1984-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for insulating window openings through walls and the like includes a thermal shutter, a rail for mounting the shutter adjacent to the window opening and a coupling for connecting the shutter to the rail. The thermal shutter includes an insulated panel adhered to frame members which surround the periphery of the panel. The frame members include a hard portion for providing the frame and a soft portion for providing a seal with that portion of the wall adjacent to the periphery of the opening. The coupling means is preferably integral with the attachment rail. According to a preferred embodiment, the coupling means includes a continuous hinge of reduced thickness. The thermal shutter can be permanently attached, hinged, bi-folded, or sliding with respect to the window and wall. A distribution method is to market the apparatus in kit'' form. 11 figs.

  14. Apparatus for insulating windows and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Robert A. (R.D. #1, Box 462-A, Voorheesville, NY 12186)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for insulating window openings through walls and the like includes a thermal shutter, a rail for mounting the shutter adjacent to the window opening and a coupling for connecting the shutter to the rail. The thermal shutter includes an insulated panel adhered to frame members which surround the periphery of the panel. The frame members include a hard portion for providing the frame and a soft portion for providing a seal with that portion of the wall adjacent to the periphery of the opening. The coupling means is preferably integral with the attachment rail. According to a preferred embodiment, the coupling means includes a continuous hinge of reduced thickness. The thermal shutter can be permanently attached, hinged, bi-folded, or sliding with respect to the window and wall. A distribution method is to market the apparatus in "kit" form.

  15. Database of Low-E Storm Window Energy Performance across U.S. Climate Zones (Task ET-WIN-PNNL-FY13-01_5.3)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Culp, Thomas D.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes process, assumptions, and modeling results produced in support of the Emerging Technologies Low-e Storm Windows Task 5.3: Create a Database of U.S. Climate-Based Analysis for Low-E Storm Windows. The scope of the overall effort is to develop a database of energy savings and cost effectiveness of low-E storm windows in residential homes across a broad range of U.S. climates using the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) and RESFEN model calculations. This report includes a summary of the results, NEAT and RESFEN background, methodology, and input assumptions, and an appendix with detailed results and assumptions by cliamte zone. Both sets of calculation results will be made publicly available through the Building America Solution Center.

  16. Evaluation of cooling performance of thermally activated building system with evaporative cooling source for typical United States climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and high temperature cooling_REHVA Guidebook, Federation ofEvaluation of cooling performance of thermally activatedsystem with evaporative cooling source for typical United

  17. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance of the Acurex solar collector with FEK 244 reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal performance predictions are presented for the Acurex solar collector, with FEK 244 reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  18. Automated DecisionAnalytic Diagnosis of Thermal Performance in Gas Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horvitz, Eric

    Automated Decision­Analytic Diagnosis of Thermal Performance in Gas Turbines To be presented Abstract We have developed an expert system for diagno­ sis of e#ciency problems for large gas turbines the ultimate goal of applying the system in the day­to­day maintenance of gas­ turbine power plants. A Overview

  19. Automated Decision-Analytic Diagnosis of Thermal Performance in Gas Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horvitz, Eric

    Automated Decision-Analytic Diagnosis of Thermal Performance in Gas Turbines To be presented Abstract We have developed an expert system for diagno- sis of efficiency problems for large gas turbines the ultimate goal of applying the system in the day-to-day maintenance of gas- turbine power plants. A Overview

  20. Thermal Performance of Vegetative Roofing Systems Andre O. Desjarlais, Abdi Zaltash, and Jerald A. Atchley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Thermal Performance of Vegetative Roofing Systems Andre O. Desjarlais, Abdi Zaltash, and Jerald A purposes. #12;ABSTRACT Vegetative roofing, otherwise known as green or garden roofing, has seen tremendous growth in the last decade in the United States. The numerous benefits that green roofs provide have

  1. Using X Windows

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    remote applications on your local computer screen. X-Windows follows the client-server architecture. Normally, the X server runs on the users desktoplaptop computer, while...

  2. Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be contributors to zero-energy buildings. This paper definesinto the role of zero energy building components. Achievingthe vision of zero energy buildings. Windows can admit solar

  3. Performance of a Thermally Stable Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon in a Simulated Concentrating Solar Power Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL] [ORNL; Bell, Jason R [ORNL] [ORNL; Felde, David K [ORNL] [ORNL; Joseph III, Robert Anthony [ORNL] [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL] [ORNL; Weaver, Samuel P [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbon thermal fluids showing thermally stability to 600 C have been tested for solar thermal-power applications. Although static thermal tests showed promising results for 1-phenylnaphthalene, loop testing at temperatures to 450 C indicated that the fluid isomerized and degraded at a slow rate. In a loop with a temperature high enough to drive the isomerization, the higher melting point byproducts tended to condense onto cooler surfaces. So, as experienced in loop operation, eventually the internal channels of cooler components in trough solar electric generating systems, such as the waste heat rejection exchanger, may become coated or clogged affecting loop performance. Thus, pure 1-phenylnaphthalene, without addition of stabilizers, does not appear to be a fluid that would have a sufficiently long lifetime (years to decades) to be used in a loop at the temperatures greater than 500 C. The performance of a concentrating solar loop using high temperature fluids was modeled based on the National Renewable Laboratory Solar Advisory Model. It was determined that a solar-to-electricity efficiency of up to 30% and a capacity factor of near 60% could be achieved using a high efficiency collector and 12 h thermal energy storage.

  4. Comparison of the thermal performances of two nanofluids at low temperature in a plate heat Thierry Mar *a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Comparison of the thermal performances of two nanofluids at low temperature in a plate heat water based nanofluid. The Pôle Cristal of Dinan that has contributed to this study is also gratefully of this study is to compare experimentally the thermal performances of two types of commercial nanofluids

  5. Zero Energy Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Windows in the U.S. consume 30 percent of building heating and cooling energy, representing an annual impact of 4.1 quadrillion BTU (quads) of primary energy. Windows have an even larger impact on peak energy demand and on occupant comfort. An additional 1 quad of lighting energy could be saved if buildings employed effective daylighting strategies. The ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program has made standard windows significantly more efficient. However, even if all windows in the stock were replaced with today's efficient products, window energy consumption would still be approximately 2 quads. However, windows can be ''net energy gainers'' or ''zero-energy'' products. Highly insulating products in heating applications can admit more useful solar gain than the conductive energy lost through them. Dynamic glazings can modulate solar gains to minimize cooling energy needs and, in commercial buildings, allow daylighting to offset lighting requirements. The needed solutions vary with building type and climate. Developing this next generation of zero-energy windows will provide products for both existing buildings undergoing window replacements and products which are expected to be contributors to zero-energy buildings. This paper defines the requirements for zero-energy windows. The technical potentials in terms of national energy savings and the research and development (R&D) status of the following technologies are presented: (1) Highly insulating systems with U-factors of 0.1 Btu/hr-ft{sup 2}-F; (2) Dynamic windows: glazings that modulate transmittance (i.e., change from clear to tinted and/or reflective) in response to climate conditions; and (3) Integrated facades for commercial buildings to control/ redirect daylight. Market transformation policies to promote these technologies as they emerge into the marketplace are then described.

  6. Thermal treatment effects on charge storage performance of graphene-based materials for supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hongxin [ORNL; Bhat, Vinay V [ORNL; Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene materials were synthesized by reduction of exfoliated graphene oxide sheets by hydrazine hydrate and then thermally treated in nitrogen to improve the surface area and their electrochemical performance as electrical double-layer capacitor electrodes. The structural and surface properties of the prepared reduced graphite oxide (RGO) were investigated using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption / desorption. RGO forms a continuous network of crumpled sheets, which consist of numerous few-layer and single-layer graphenes. Electrochemical studies were conducted by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. The modified RGO materials showed enhanced electrochemical performance, with maximum specific capacitance of 96 F/g, energy density of 12.8 Wh/kg, and power density of 160 kW/kg. The results demonstrate that thermal treatment of RGO at selected conditions is a convenient and efficient method for improving specific capacitance, energy, and power density.

  7. Thermal performance testing of two Thales 9310 pulse-tube cryocoolers for PHyTIR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paine, Christopher G. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena CA 91109 (United States)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    PHyTIR is a NASA-funded technology demonstration for a near-term earth-observing instrument in the thermal infrared spectrum, intended for use in the HyspIRI mission. PHyTIR will use two Thales 9310 single-stage pulse tube cryocoolers, one to directly cool the FPA, the other to simulate a passive radiator. We report performance measurements for the two Thales 9310 cryocoolers intended for inclusion in the PHyTIR demonstrator.

  8. Thermal Performance of Building Envelope in Very Hot Dry Desert Region in Egypt (Toshky)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khalil, M. H.; Sheble, S. S.; Helal, M. A.; El-Demirdash, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal Performance of Building Envelope in Very Hot Dry Desert Region in Egypt (Toshky Region) S.S. Sheble* M. H. Khalil M. A. Helal Prof. M. El- Demirdash3 Asso. Prof. Building Physics Institute (HBRC) Asso. Prof. Building Physics... Institute (HBRC) Prof. & head of Building Physics Institute (HBRC) Prof. & Chairman of HBRC Housing & Building National Research Center (HBRC) Cairo, Egypt * Author ABSTRACT Toshky region is a desert region located in the south east...

  9. Thermal Impact of Fasteners in High-Performance Wood-Framed Walls: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Buildings are heavy consumers of energy, and residential building design is rapidly addressing topics to maximize energy conservation en route to net-zero energy consumption. Annual energy analysis of a building informs the choice among disparate energy measures, for cost, durability, occupant comfort, and whole-house energy use. Physics-based and empirical models of elements of a building are used in such analyses. High-performance wood-framed walls enable builders to construct homes that use much less than 40% of the energy consumed by similar homes built to minimum code. Modeling for these walls has considered physical features such as framing factor, insulation and framing properties, roughness and convective effects, and air leakage. The thermal effects of fasteners used to construct these walls have not been fully evaluated, even though their thermal conductivity is orders of magnitudes higher than that of other building materials. Drywall screws and siding nails are considered in this finite element thermal conductivity analysis of wall sections that represent wood-framed walls that are often used in high-performance homes. Nails and screws reduce even the best walls' insulating performance by approximately 3% and become increasingly significant as the framing factor increases.

  10. Standard Test Method for Determining Thermal Performance of Tracking Concentrating Solar Collectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of thermal performance of tracking concentrating solar collectors that heat fluids for use in thermal systems. 1.2 This test method applies to one- or two-axis tracking reflecting concentrating collectors in which the fluid enters the collector through a single inlet and leaves the collector through a single outlet, and to those collectors where a single inlet and outlet can be effectively provided, such as into parallel inlets and outlets of multiple collector modules. 1.3 This test method is intended for those collectors whose design is such that the effects of diffuse irradiance on performance is negligible and whose performance can be characterized in terms of direct irradiance. Note 1—For purposes of clarification, this method shall apply to collectors with a geometric concentration ratio of seven or greater. 1.4 The collector may be tested either as a thermal collection subsystem where the effects of tracking errors have been essentially removed from t...

  11. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  12. IN-SITU MEASUREMENT OF WALL THERMAL PERFORMANCE: DATA INTERPRETATION AND APPARATUS DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modera, M.P.; Sherman, M.H.; de Vinuesa, S.G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Description: The Envelope Thermal Test Unit (submitted forCross-sectional view of Envelope Thermal Test Unit blanketmeasurement prototype, the Envelope Thermal Test Unit,12 and

  13. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Visual quality assessment of electrochromic and conventionalissues for large-area electrochromic windows in commercialOffice worker preferences of electrochromic windows: a pilot

  14. Effects of regional insolation differences upon advanced solar thermal electric power plant performance and energy costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latta, A.F.; Bowyer, J.M.; Fujita, T.; Richter, P.H.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study determines the performance and cost of four 10 MWe advanced solar thermal electric power plants sited in various regions of the continental United States. The solar plants are conceptualized to begin commercial operation in the year 2000. It is assumed that major subsystem performance will have improved substantially as compared to that of pilot plants currently operating or under construction. The net average annual system efficiency is therefore roughly twice that of current solar thermal electric power plant designs. Similarly, capital costs reflecting goals based on high-volume mass production that are considered to be appropriate for the year 2000 have been used. These costs, which are approximately an order of magnitude below the costs of current experimental projects, are believed to be achievable as a result of the anticipated sizeable solar penetration into the energy market in the 1990 to 2000 timeframe. The paraboloidal dish, central receiver, cylindrical parabolic trough, and compound parabolic concentrators comprise the advanced collector concepts studied. All concepts exhibit their best performance when sited in regional areas such as the sunbelt where the annual insolation is high. The regional variation in solar plant performance has been assessed in relation to the expected rise in the future cost of residential and commercial electricity in the same regions. A discussion of the regional insolation data base, a description of the solar systems performance and costs, and a presentation of a range for the forecast cost of conventional electricity by region and nationally over the next several decades are given.

  15. Close Window ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michigan, University of

    , in local time versus geomagnetic (dipole) latitude coordinates, shows the equivalent current contoursClose Window ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLE Geomagnetic variations Variations in the natural magnetic field measured at the Earth's surface and elsewhere in the Earth's magnetosphere (for example

  16. CH7 Windows Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collette. Sébastien

    4 Server · Account lockout security ­ Protection contre les attaques sur les mots de passe Windows NT 4 Server · Account lockout security ­ Protection contre les attaques sur les mots de passe

  17. Advancement of Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to control bright sky luminance that can cause discomfortluminance, and to operate in a reliable manner under representative sun and skysky equinox or solstice conditions, the EC window at Tv=0.05 maintained the luminance

  18. Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Window Type Sales (Business as usual) Energy Star (Low-e)Total, quads Sales (Business as usual) Energy Star (Low-e)modest energy savings beyond the business-as usual case (0.3

  19. Thermal Performance of Exterior Insulation and Finish Systems Containing Vacuum Insulation Panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, Kenneth W [ORNL; Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Carbary, Lawrence D [Dow Corning Corporation, Midland, MI

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-performance wall system is under development to improve wall thermal performance to a level of U-factor of 0.19 W/(m2 K) (R-30 [h ft2 F]/Btu) in a standard wall thickness by incorporating vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) into an exterior insulation finish system (EIFS). Such a system would be applicable to new construction and will offer a solution to more challenging retrofit situations as well. Multiple design options were considered to balance the need to protect theVIPs during construction and building operation, while minimizing heat transfer through the wall system. The results reported here encompass an indepth assessment of potential system performances including thermal modeling, detailed laboratory measurements under controlled conditions on the component, and system levels according to ASTM C518 (ASTM 2010). The results demonstrate the importance of maximizing the VIP coverage over the wall face. The results also reveal the impact of both the design and execution of system details, such as the joints between adjacent VIPs. The test results include an explicit modeled evaluation of the system performance in a clear wall.

  20. High Performance Building Facade Solutions PIER Final Project Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Eleanor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subject responses to electrochromic windows. Energy andhttp://windows.lbl.gov/comm_perf/Electrochromic/refs/LBNL_energy performance of electrochromic windows controlled for

  1. Thermal performance simulation of a solar cavity receiver under windy conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, J.B.; Wei, J.J.; Dong, X.W.; Wang, Y.S. [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar cavity receiver plays a dominant role in the light-heat conversion. Its performance can directly affect the efficiency of the whole power generation system. A combined calculation method for evaluating the thermal performance of the solar cavity receiver is raised in this paper. This method couples the Monte-Carlo method, the correlations of the flow boiling heat transfer, and the calculation of air flow field. And this method can ultimately figure out the surface heat flux inside the cavity, the wall temperature of the boiling tubes, and the heat loss of the solar receiver with an iterative solution. With this method, the thermal performance of a solar cavity receiver, a saturated steam receiver, is simulated under different wind environments. The highest wall temperature of the boiling tubes is about 150 C higher than the water saturation temperature. And it appears in the upper middle parts of the absorbing panels. Changing the wind angle or velocity can obviously affect the air velocity inside the receiver. The air velocity reaches the maximum value when the wind comes from the side of the receiver (flow angle {alpha} = 90 ). The heat loss of the solar cavity receiver also reaches a maximum for the side-on wind. (author)

  2. Effect of gaps on the performance of the vertically installed wet thermal insulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. I.; Park, C. T.; Choi, S.; Yoon, J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daeduk-daero 989-111, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In SMART, the main flow path of the reactor coolant and the pressurizer partially share common walls in the reactor coolant system. To reduce this heat transfer, the wet thermal insulator (WTI) is installed on the inner wall of the pressurizer. The WTI is constituted of stacked thin stainless steel plates. The water layer width between the plates is chosen to suppress natural convection in each layer. The plates of the WTI require clearance for thermal expansion. When the WTI is installed on a vertical wall, this clearance might cause gaps at the top and bottom at the operating condition. In this study, we focused on the effect of gaps at the both ends on the WTI performance. A numerical simulation was conducted for an 8-layer WTI with gaps at the both ends. To compare with this, a simulation of a WTI without a gap, which is an ideal case, was also conducted. The simulation was conducted in a 2-dimensional manner by a commercial computational fluid dynamics code, FLUENT. The simulations showed that the WTI thermal performance was substantially decreased by a flow that circulated through the top and bottom gaps and water layers at the sides of the WTI. This circulation caused a high temperature difference between the wall and the circulating flow. To find a way to prevent this performance deterioration of the WTI we simulated several cases with the smaller gap heights. However, the flow circulation and the higher heat transfer rate were still observed even at a case with the smallest gap, which seems to be hardly achievable in a real installation. Another way of reducing the flow circulation was suggested and also simulated in this study. (authors)

  3. Standard Practice for Generating All-Day Thermal Performance Data for Solar Collectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This practice covers a means of generating all-day thermal performance data for flat-plate collectors, concentrating collectors, and tracking collectors. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in the parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. The Volatility and the Thermal Storage Performance of Binary Polyalcohol Systems Used in the Wall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Q.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The structural and chemical analyses of a kind of shape-stabilized paraffin. ACTA Energiae Solaris Sinica. 2000, 21(4):4 421. (in Chinese) Qin Penghua, Yang Rui, Zhang Yinping etc.. Thermal performance of shape-stabilized phase change materials. J (in... Chinese) Fan Yaofeng, Zhang Xinxiang. Progress in studies of solid-solid phase change materials. REVIEW OF MATERIALS. 2003,17(7):50-53. (in Ch [10] Ruan Deshui?Zhang Taiping. DSC Research of phase change materials. ACTA Energiae Solaris Sinica...

  5. IMPROVING THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL DRUM TYPEPACKAGES BY USING HEAT PIPES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, N

    2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a feasibility study to improve thermal loading of existing radioactive material packages by using heat pipes. The concept could be used to channel heat in certain directions and dissipate to the environment. The concept is applied to a drum type package because the drum type packages are stored and transported in an upright position. This orientation is suitable for heat pipe operation that could facilitate the heat pipe implementation in the existing well proven package designs or in new designs where thermal loading is high. In this position, heat pipes utilize gravity very effectively to enhance heat flow in the upward direction Heat pipes have extremely high effective thermal conductivity that is several magnitudes higher than the most heat conducting metals. In addition, heat pipes are highly unidirectional so that the effective conductivity for heat transfer in the reverse direction is greatly reduced. The concept is applied to the 9977 package that is currently going through the DOE certification review. The paper presents computer simulations using typical off-the-shelf heat pipe available configurations and performance data for the 9977 package. A path forward is outlined for implementing the concepts for further study and prototype testing.

  6. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of power consumption by ALCWs allows for on-board power electronics for automatic matching of transmission through windows to varying climate conditions without drawing the power from the power grid. ALCWs are capable of transmitting more sunlight in winters to assist in heating and less sunlight in summers to minimize overheating. As such, they can change the window from being a source of energy loss to a source of energy gain. In addition, the scalable AMI’s roll-to-roll process, proved by making 1ft × 1ftALCW prototype panels, allows for cost-effective production of large-scale window panels along with capability to change easily their color and shape. In addition to architectural glazing in houses and commercial buildings, ALCWs can be used in other applications where control of sunlight is needed, such as green houses, used by commercial produce growers and botanical gardens, cars, aircrafts, etc.

  7. The Envelope Thermal Test Unit (ETTU): Full Measurement of Wall Perform ance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sonderegger, R.C.; Sherman, M.H.; Adams, J.W.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    March 30-April THE ENVELOPE THERMAL TEST UNIT (ETTU): FIELDFigure 1. Schematic of Envelope Thermal Test Unit (cross-the dvnami c thermal propert i es of envelope c~ponents. The

  8. The Envelope Thermal Test Unit (ETTU): Full Measurement of Wall Perform ance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, J.W.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    March 30-April THE ENVELOPE THERMAL TEST UNIT (ETTU): FIELDFigure 1. Schematic of Envelope Thermal Test Unit (cross-the dvnami c thermal propert i es of envelope c~ponents. The

  9. EFFECT OF ELECTROLYZER CONFIGURATION AND PERFORMANCE ON HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS NET THERMAL EFFICIENCY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M

    2007-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid Sulfur cycle is gaining popularity as a possible means for massive production of hydrogen from nuclear energy. Several different ways of carrying out the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis step are being pursued by a number of researchers. These alternatives are evaluated with complete flowsheet simulations and on a common design basis using Aspen Plus{trademark}. Sensitivity analyses are performed to assess the performance potential of each configuration, and the flowsheets are optimized for energy recovery. Net thermal efficiencies are calculated for the best set of operating conditions for each flowsheet and the results compared. This will help focus attention on the most promising electrolysis alternatives. The sensitivity analyses should also help identify those features that offer the greatest potential for improvement.

  10. Performance of quantum data transmission systems in the presence of thermal noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Cariolaro; G. Pierobon

    2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In the literature the performance of quantum data transmission systems is usually evaluated in the absence of thermal noise. A more realistic approach taking into account the thermal noise is intrinsically more difficult because it requires dealing with Glauber coherent states in an infinite--dimensional space. In particular, the exact evaluation of the optimal measurement operators is a very difficult task, and numerical approximation is unavoidable. The paper faces the problem by approximating the P-representation of the noisy quantum states with a large but finite number of terms and applying to them the square root measurement (SRM) approach. Comparisons with the exact solution obtained with convex semidefinite programming show that the SRM approach gives quite accurate results. As application, the performance of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and phase shift keying (PSK) systems is considered. In spite of the fact that the SRM approach is not optimal and overestimates the error probability, also in these cases the quantum detection maintains its superiority with respect to the classical homodyne detection.

  11. Fouling and thermal-performance characteristics of the Humboldt Bay Unit 2 power-plant condenser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabas, T.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Elliott, E.S. [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Ramon, CA (US)

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental program was conducted at the Humboldt Bay condenser using eight clusters of four neighboring tubes with different conditions. In each cluster, there were (1) a new tube, the tubeside fluid being distilled water; (2) a new tube, the tubeside fluid being plant circulating water (seawater) and no cleaning; (3) an old tube, plant circulating water with no cleaning; and (4) an old tube, plant circulating water with normal periodic manual cleaning (blowing plugs or sponge balls). These tube clusters were located at four different locations within both the first and second passes of this two-pass condenser. Because of the different conditions, the fouling and cleaning characteristics can be obtained with measurements of the flow rate and inlet, outlet, and saturation temperatures. In addition to the fouling data, the thermal performance can be compared to that obtained with the standard rating method. There was a reduction in the thermal performance of the new, distilled-water tubes for about the first 80 days, and then the performance remained essentially constant. This performance change was most likely the result of the change from dropwise to filmwise condensation on the 7/8-in OD, 18 BWG Admiralty tubes. There was a continued increase of the tubeside fouling resistance with time (no asymptotic behavior) for the tubes that were not cleaned in each cluster using the plant circulating water. The fouling rates were somewhat larger for the first or lower temperature pass initially for the new tubes and after about 100 days for the old tubes. However, the fouling resistance values were substantially larger for the old tubes.

  12. Novel Thermal Break with Simplified Manufacturing for R7 Commercial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (R5 OptiQ-Ultra Thermal Windows). Windows incorporating the foam-based sandwich-type thermal-break would achieve U-Factor of 0.14 Btuhr-ft2-F (R7 or better) with...

  13. Windows and lighting program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More than 30% of all energy use in buildings is attributable to two sources: windows and lighting. Together they account for annual consumer energy expenditures of more than $50 billion. Each affects not only energy use by other major building systems, but also comfort and productivity -- factors that influence building economics far more than does direct energy consumption alone. Windows play a unique role in the building envelope, physically separating the conditioned space from the world outside without sacrificing vital visual contact. Throughout the indoor environment, lighting systems facilitate a variety of tasks associated with a wide range of visual requirements while defining the luminous qualities of the indoor environment. Windows and lighting are thus essential components of any comprehensive building science program. Despite important achievements in reducing building energy consumption over the past decade, significant additional savings are still possible. These will come from two complementary strategies: (1) improve building designs so that they effectively apply existing technologies and extend the market penetration of these technologies; and (2) develop advanced technologies that increase the savings potential of each application. Both the Windows and Daylighting Group and the Lighting System Research Group have made substantial contributions in each of these areas, and continue to do so through the ongoing research summarized here. 23 refs., 16 figs.

  14. Carbon smackdown: smart windows

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Delia Milliron

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    August 3, 2010 Berkeley Lab talk: In the fourth of five Carbon Smackdown matches, Berkeley Lab researchers Delia Milliron of the Materials Sciences Division and Stephen Selkowitz of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division talk about their work on energy-saving smart windows.

  15. Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    impact of 4.1 quadrillion BTU (quads) of primary energy 1 .systems with U-factors of 0.1 Btu/hr-ft²-°F Dynamic windows:for 1 quadrillion (10 15 ) Btu = 1.056 EJ. percent (Apte,

  16. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data: Sun-Heet nontracking solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), is currently conducting a program to predict the performance and measure the characteristics of commercially available solar collectors that have the potential for use in industrial process heat and enhanced oil recovery applications. The thermal performance predictions for the Sun-Heet nontracking, line-focusing parabolic trough collector at five cities in the US are presented. (WHK)

  17. The Window Strategy with Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCorkle, Dean; Amosson, Stephen H.; Fausett, Marvin

    1999-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The window strategy is one of several marketing strategies using futures and options to establish a floor price and allow for upside price potential. It also reduces option premium costs. This publication discusses how the window strategy works...

  18. Effect of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of bulk heterojunction organic solar cell blended with organic salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabri, Nasehah Syamin; Yap, Chi Chin; Yahaya, Muhammad [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Salleh, Muhamad Mat [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This work presents the influence of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of organic solar cell blended with organic salt. The organic solar cells were composed of indium tin oxide as anode, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene]: (6,6)-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester: tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate blend as organic active layer and aluminium as cathode. The devices underwent a simultaneous fixed-voltage electrical and thermal treatment at different temperatures of 25, 50 and 75 °C. It was found that photovoltaic performance improved with the thermal treatment temperature. Accumulation of more organic salt ions in the active layer leads to broadening of p-n doped regions and hence higher built-in electric field across thin intrinsic layer. The simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment has been shown to be able to reduce the electrical treatment voltage.

  19. NREL Provides Guidance to Improve Thermal Comfort in High-Performance Homes (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical highlight describes NREL research to develop recommendations on HVAC system design and operating conditions to achieve optimal thermal comfort in high-performance homes. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have developed recommendations to help residential heating, cooling, and ventilation (HVAC) designers select optimal supply inlet size and system operating conditions to maintain good thermal comfort in low heating and cooling load homes. This can be achieved by using high sidewall supply air jets to create proper combinations of air temperature and air motion in the occupied zone of the conditioned space. The design of air distribution systems for low-load homes is an integral part of residential system research and development in systems integration. As American homes become more energy efficient, space conditioning systems will be downsized. The downsizing will reach the point where the air flow volumes required to meet the remaining heating and cooling loads may be too small to maintain uniform room air mixing, which can affect thermal comfort. NREL researchers performed a detailed study evaluating the performance of high sidewall supply air jets over a wide range of parameters including supply air temperature, supply air velocity, and supply inlet size. They found that in heating mode, low and intermediate supply temperatures of 95 F (308 K) and 105 F (314 K) maintained acceptable comfort levels at lower fan powers than can be achieved at 120 F (322 K) supply temperatures. For the high supply temperature of 120 F (322 K), higher fan powers (supply velocities) were required to overcome buoyancy effects and reach a good mixing in the room. In cooling mode, a supply temperature of 55 F (286 K) provided acceptable comfort levels. A small supply inlet of 8-in. (0.2 m) x 1-in. (0.025 m) is recommended in both heating and cooling modes. Computational fluid dynamics was used to model heat transfer and airflow in the room. The technique consists of using the model output to determine how well the supply air mixes with the room air. Thermal comfort is evaluated by determining the Air Diffusion Performance Index (ADPI). The level of comfort is evaluated by monitoring air temperature and air velocity in more than 600,000 control volumes that make up the occupied zone of a single room. The room has an acceptable comfort level when more than 70% of the control volumes meet the comfort criteria on both air temperature and air velocity. Figure 1 illustrates the plots of acceptable draft temperature, which is between -3 (-1.7) and 2 F (1.1 K) for two supply velocities of 394 fpm (2 m/s) (a) and 788 fpm (4 m/s) (b) when the room was supplied by 55 F (286 K) air. The plots show the distribution at selected cross-sections along the room. Colored regions on each cross-section are considered comfortable (blue regions are on the cold side and red regions are on the warm side). Regions of acceptable draft temperature are larger at low velocity and decrease as the velocity increases. As a result, the supply velocity of 394 fpm (2 m/s) provided higher comfort level than the supply velocity of 788 fpm (4 m/s). Work is in progress at NREL to extend this research to evaluate additional configurations and to integrate this system into a whole-house context.

  20. Thermal performance of typical light frame walls with reflective surface insulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, R.G. (Jim Walter Research Corp., St. Petersburg, FL (US)); Riskowski, G.L.; Christianson, L.L. (Agricultural Engineering Dept., Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (US))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of tests were conducted in a guarded hotbox to evaluate the thermal performance (R-value) of wall constructions typical of light-frame buildings that are commonly used in agricultural applications. The systems were insulated with either a commercially available foil-faced bubble pack material (FFBP) or foil-faced polyisocyanurate (PIR) foam board. Tests were conducted under two different temperature conditions, chosen to be representative of a midwestern winter and summer. This paper reports temperatures of the surfaces bounding the reflective airspaces measured and the R-value calculated. These data were used in the ASHRAE series/parallel calculations and the resultant R-value was compared to the measured R-value. Agreement was usually better than 10%.

  1. Acceptance Performance Test Guideline for Utility Scale Parabolic Trough and Other CSP Solar Thermal Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehos, M. S.; Wagner, M. J.; Kearney, D. W.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prior to commercial operation, large solar systems in utility-size power plants need to pass a performance acceptance test conducted by the engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contractor or owners. In lieu of the present absence of ASME or other international test codes developed for this purpose, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has undertaken the development of interim guidelines to provide recommendations for test procedures that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. Progress on interim guidelines was presented at SolarPACES 2010. Significant additions and modifications were made to the guidelines since that time, resulting in a final report published by NREL in April 2011. This paper summarizes those changes, which emphasize criteria for assuring thermal equilibrium and steady state conditions within the solar field.

  2. 1: 62-950829-LANL-GWurden-01, TPX Windows Study, M. Merrigan and G. Wurden LA-UR-95-3237

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    remote maintenance of in-vessel hardware. The vacuum vessel and internal components will be cooled to 150 diagnostic windows is reviewed, thermal loads on the windows estimated, and cooling requirements for the windows considered. Applicable window- cooling technology from other fields is reviewed and its

  3. Thin Metal Oxide Films to Modify a Window Layer in CdTe-Based...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin Metal Oxide Films to Modify a Window Layer in CdTe-Based Solar Cells for Improved Performance. Thin Metal Oxide Films to Modify a Window Layer in CdTe-Based Solar Cells for...

  4. Utility and economic benefits of electrochromic smart windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, J.L.; Reilly, M.S.; Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Ander, G.D. [Southern California Edison Co., Rosemead, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Windows have very significant direct and indirect impacts on building energy consumption, load shape, and peak demand. Electrochromic switchable glazings can potentially provide substantial reductions in all aspects of cooling and lighting electricity usage. This study explores the potential benefits of electrochromics in comparison to other currently available and emerging glazing technologies. These effects are explored in office buildings in several climates as a function of window size, orientation, and building operating characteristics. The DOE-2 building energy simulation program was used to model the performances of these dynamic coatings, accounting for both thermal and daylighting impacts. Very substantial savings are demonstrated compared to conventional glazings, but specific impacts on component and total energy consumption, peak demand, and HVAC system sizing vary widely among the options analyzed. In a hot, sunny climate, simple payback periods of three to ten years were calculated. Electrochromic glazings appear to represent a very important future building design option that will allow architects and engineers a high degree of design freedom to meet occupant needs, while minimizing operating costs to building owners and providing a new and important electricity demand control option for utilities. Utility demand-side management programs can accelerate the market penetration of electrochromics by offering incentives to reduce net first cost and payback periods.

  5. Experimental Evaluation of the Thermal Performance of a Water Shield for a Surface Power Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearson, J. Boise; Stewart, Eric T. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Reid, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States)

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Water based reactor shielding is being investigated for use on initial lunar surface power systems. A water shield may lower overall cost (as compared to development cost for other materials) and simplify operations in the setup and handling. The thermal hydraulic performance of the shield is of significant interest. The mechanism for transferring heat through the shield is natural convection. Natural convection in a 100 kWt lunar surface reactor shield design is evaluated with 2 kW power input to the water in the Water Shield Testbed (WST) at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The experimental data from the WST is used to validate a CFD model. Performance of the water shield on the lunar surface is then predicted with a CFD model anchored to test data. The experiment had a maximum water temperature of 75 deg. C. The CFD model with 1/6-g predicts a maximum water temperature of 88 deg. C with the same heat load and external boundary conditions. This difference in maximum temperature does not greatly affect the structural design of the shield, and demonstrates that it may be possible to use water for a lunar reactor shield.

  6. Window Replacement, Rehabilitation, & Repair Guides - Building...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Window Replacement, Rehabilitation, & Repair Guides - Building America Top Innovation Window Replacement, Rehabilitation, & Repair Guides - Building America Top Innovation Effec...

  7. Development and Performance Evaluation of High Temperature Concrete for Thermal Energy Storage for Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Panneer Selvam, Micah Hale and Matt strasser

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal energy can be stored by the mechanism of sensible or latent heat or heat from chemical reactions. Sensible heat is the means of storing energy by increasing the temperature of the solid or liquid. Since the concrete as media cost per kWhthermal is $1, this seems to be a very economical material to be used as a TES. This research is focused on extending the concrete TES system for higher temperatures (500 �ºC to 600 �ºC) and increasing the heat transfer performance using novel construction techniques. To store heat at high temperature special concretes are developed and tested for its performance. The storage capacity costs of the developed concrete is in the range of $0.91-$3.02/kWhthermal Two different storage methods are investigated. In the first one heat is transported using molten slat through a stainless steel tube and heat is transported into concrete block through diffusion. The cost of the system is higher than the targeted DOE goal of $15/kWhthermal The increase in cost of the system is due to stainless steel tube to transfer the heat from molten salt to the concrete blocks.The other method is a one-tank thermocline system in which both the hot and cold fluid occupy the same tank resulting in reduced storage tank volume. In this model, heated molten salt enters the top of the tank which contains a packed bed of quartzite rock and silica sand as the thermal energy storage (TES) medium. The single-tank storage system uses about half the salt that is required by the two-tank system for a required storage capacity. This amounts to a significant reduction in the cost of the storage system. The single tank alternative has also been proven to be cheaper than the option which uses large concrete modules with embedded heat exchangers. Using computer models optimum dimensions are determined to have an round trip efficiency of 84%. Additionally, the cost of the structured concrete thermocline configuration provides the TES capacity cost of $33.80$/kWhthermal compared with $30.04/kWhthermal for a packed-bed thermocline (PBTC) configuration and $46.11/kWhthermal for a two-tank liquid configuration.

  8. Analysis of the Thermal Performance of Tierra I--A Low-Energy High-Mass Residence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M. W.

    2001-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-energy concrete house was designed using passive solar strategies to consume 70% less heating and cooling energy than a base case that conformed to the 1996 Home Energy Rating System (HERS) and the 1995 Model Energy Code (MEC). The performance of this house was then evaluated using computer simulations and measured data. The house, Tierra I, was monitored from July 22, 1996, through October 14, 1997. A Short Term Energy Monitoring (STEM) test was done November 19 to December 10, 1996. Computer simulations of the house were done using SUNREL, an updated version of the hourly data simulation package SERI-RES. The SUNREL model of the house was calibrated using both short- and long-term data. The house achieved energy savings of 56%, below the goal of 70%. The lower than expected savings resulted from problems with the window modeling. As a result, during the design phase the solar gains were overestimated causing an underestimate in the level of insulation necessary to achieve the savings goal. For very low-energy passive solar buildings, it is apparent that very accurate window modeling is required. It also became apparent that accurate ground models are required as well because ground-heat loss accounts for a significant portion of the total heat loss in low-energy buildings.

  9. A Bulk Tungsten Tile for JET: Derivation of Power-Handling Performance and Validation of the Thermal Model, in the MARION Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Bulk Tungsten Tile for JET: Derivation of Power-Handling Performance and Validation of the Thermal Model, in the MARION Facility

  10. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility predictions for thermal performance of the Suntec solar collector with heat-formed glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal performance predictions are presented for the Suntec solar collector, with heat-formed glass reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  11. High Thermal Conductivity UO2-BeO Nulcear Fuel: Neutronic Performance Assessments and Overview of Fabrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naramore, Michael J

    2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work was to evaluate a new high conductivity nuclear fuel form. Uranium dioxide (UO2) is a very effective nuclear fuel, but it’s performance is limited by its low thermal conductivity. The fuel concept considered here is a...

  12. High Thermal Conductivity UO2-BeO Nulcear Fuel: Neutronic Performance Assessments and Overview of Fabrication 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naramore, Michael J

    2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work was to evaluate a new high conductivity nuclear fuel form. Uranium dioxide (UO2) is a very effective nuclear fuel, but it’s performance is limited by its low thermal conductivity. The fuel concept considered here is a...

  13. Battery Usage and Thermal Performance of the Toyota Prius and Honda Insight for Various Chassis Dynamometer Test Procedures: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, K. J.; Mihalic, M.; Zolot, M.

    2001-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This study describes the results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) chassis dynamometer testing of a 2000 model year Honda Insight and 2001 model year Toyota Prius. The tests were conducted for the purpose of evaluating the battery thermal performance, assessing the impact of air conditioning on fuel economy and emissions, and providing information for NREL's Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR).

  14. Condensation potential in high thermal performance walls. Hot, humid summer climate. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherwood, G.E.

    1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To observe actual moisture patterns and the potential for condensation due to long periods of air conditioning in a hot, humid climate, a test structure was constructed near Gulfport, Mississippi, for exposure of eight types of insulated wall panels at controlled indoor conditions and typical outdoor weather conditions. Panels were instrumented with moisture sensors and tested without (Phase 1) and with (Phase 2) penetrations (electrical outlets) in the indoor surface. There was no sustained condensation in any of the walls during either winter season. One type of high thermal performance wall had sustained condensation during both summers, but the wall dried out as the weather became cooler, and moisture content of framing never exceeded 17 percent. Low-permeance sheathing appeared to provide resistance to the buildup of moisture during summer in walls with high overall R values. Penetrating the walls with electrical outlets resulted in slightly higher moisture levels in all of the walls throughout the year. This paper should be useful to building designers, builders, and building code officials in establishing vapor retarder requirements for walls.

  15. Thermochromic undoped and Mg-doped VO{sub 2} thin films and nanoparticles: Optical properties and performance limits for energy efficient windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Shu-Yi, E-mail: Shuyi.Li@angstrom.uu.se; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G. [Department of Engineering Sciences, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Undoped and Mg-doped thermochromic VO{sub 2} films with atom ratios z???Mg/(Mg?+?V) of 0???z?performance limits are given on T{sub lum} and ?T{sub sol} for thermochromic VO{sub 2} films, with and without Mg doping and antireflection coating, and also for VO{sub 2}-containing dilute nanocomposites.

  16. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  17. Advanced thermal insulation for energy efficient buildings : structural performance of aerogel composite panels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goutierre, Thomas

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerogels are well known as exceptional thermal insulators. Thermal conductivities of 9 to 10 mW/m.K have been achieved at atmospheric pressure, and a moderate vacuum (between 1/3 and 1/10 of an atmosphere) can lower this ...

  18. Thermal Performance of Exposed Composed Roofs in Very Hot Dry Desert Region in Egypt (Toshky)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khalil, M. H.; Sheble, S.; Morsey, M. S.; Fakhry, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is considered the major part of the building envelop which exposed to high thermal load due to the high solar intensity and high outdoor air temperature through summer season which reach to 6 months. In Egypt the thermal effect of roof is increased as one go...

  19. Thermal performance analysis of an electrochromic vacuum glazing with low emittance coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Yueping; Hyde, Trevor; Hewitt, Neil [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, BT37 0QB N. Ireland (United Kingdom); Eames, Philip C. [Centre for Research in Renewable Energy Science and Technology, University of Loughborough (United Kingdom); Norton, Brian [Dublin Energy Lab, Dublin Institute of Technology, Aungier Street, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal performance of an electrochromic (EC) vacuum glazing (VG) was modelled under ASTM standard winter conditions. The EC VG comprised three 0.5 m by 0.5 m glass panes with a 0.12 mm wide evacuated space between two 4 mm thick panes sealed contiguously by a 6 mm wide indium based edge seal with either one or two low-emittance (low-e) coatings supported by a 0.32 mm diameter square pillar grid spaced at 25 mm. The third glass pane on which the 0.1 mm thick EC layer was deposited was sealed to the evacuated glass unit. The whole unit was rebated by 10 mm within a solid wood frame. The low-e coating absorbed 10% of solar energy incident on it. With the EC VG installed with the EC component facing the outdoor environment, for an incident solar radiation of 300 W m{sup -2}, simulations demonstrated that when the EC layer is opaque for winter conditions, the temperature of the inside glass pane is higher than the indoor air temperature, due to solar radiation absorbed by the low-e coatings and the EC layer, the EC VG is a heat source with heat transferred from the glazing to the interior environment. When the emittance was lower to 0.02, the outdoor and indoor glass pane temperatures of the glazing with single and two low-e coatings are very close to each other. For an insolation of 1000 W m{sup -2}, the outdoor glass pane temperature exceeds the indoor glass pane temperature, consequentially the outdoor glass pane transfers heat to the indoor glass pane. (author)

  20. Final Report: Use of Graphite Foam as a Thermal Performance Enhancement of Heavy Hybrid Propulsion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klett, James William [ORNL; Conklin, Jim [ORNL

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory's graphite foam has the potential to be used as a heat exchanger for the Army's Future Combat System Manned Ground Vehicle and thus has the potential to improve its thermal performance. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program FLOW3D was used to develop a new CFD model for the graphite foam to be used in the development of a proper heat exchanger. The program was calibrated by first measuring the properties of the solid foams and determining the parameters to be used in the CFD model. Then the model was used to predict within 5% error the performance of finned foam heat sinks. In addition, the f factors and j factors commonly used to predict pressure drop and heat transfer were calculated for both the solid and finned structures. There was some evidence that corrugating the foams would yield higher j/f ratios than state of the art heat exchangers, confirming previously measured data. Because the results show that the CFD model was validated, it is recommended that the funding for Phases 2 through 5 be approved for the design of both the finned heat exchanger using tubes and round fin structures and the solid foam design using corrugated foams. It was found that the new CFD model using FLOW3D can predict both solid foam heat transfer and finned foam heat transfer with the validated model parameters. In addition, it was found that the finned foam structures exhibited j/f ratios that indicate that significant heat transfer is occurring within the fin structures due to aerodynamically induced flow, which is not present in solid aluminum fin structures. It is possible that the foam surfaces can act as turbulators that increase heat transfer without affecting pressure drop, like the vortex generators seen in state of the art heat exchangers. These numbers indicate that the foam can be engineered into an excellent heat exchanger. It was also found that corrugating the solid foams would increase the j/f ratio dramatically, allowing the solid foams to compete directly with standard heat exchangers. Although corrugated L1 foam samples have not been produced (attempts are under way), it is possible that their j/f ratio can be even higher than those of the finned structures.

  1. A window on urban sustainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stigt, Rien van, E-mail: rien.vanstigt@hu.nl [Research Center for Technology and Innovation, Utrecht University of Applied Sciences, P.O. Box 182, 3500 AD Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter P.J., E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Spit, Tejo J.M., E-mail: T.J.M.Spit@uu.nl [Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sustainable urban development requires the integration of environmental interests in urban planning. Although various methods of environmental assessment have been developed, plan outcomes are often disappointing due to the complex nature of decision-making in urban planning, which takes place in multiple arenas within multiple policy networks involving diverse stakeholders. We argue that the concept of ‘decision windows’ can structure this seemingly chaotic chain of interrelated decisions. First, explicitly considering the dynamics of the decision-making process, we further conceptualized decision windows as moments in an intricate web of substantively connected deliberative processes where issues are reframed within a decision-making arena, and interests may be linked within and across arenas. Adopting this perspective in two case studies, we then explored how decision windows arise, which factors determine their effectiveness and how their occurrence can be influenced so as to arrive at more sustainable solutions. We conclude that the integration of environmental interests in urban planning is highly dependent on the ability of the professionals involved to recognize and manipulate decision windows. Finally, we explore how decision windows may be opened. -- Highlights: • Decision-making about sustainable urban development occurs in networks. • The concept of ‘decision windows’ was further elaborated. • Decision windows help understand how environmental interests enter decision-making. • Decision windows can, to some extent, be influenced.

  2. Proceedings of the ASHRAE/DOE/BTECC Conference, Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Buildings VII, Clearwater Beach, Florida, December 7-11, 1998

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;1 Proceedings of the Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Buildings VII, December 7-11, 1998LBNL-41443 IS-390 Proceedings of the ASHRAE/DOE/BTECC Conference, Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Buildings VII, Clearwater Beach, Florida, December 7-11, 1998 The research reported

  3. Checkpointing strategies with prediction windows Regular paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Checkpointing strategies with prediction windows Regular paper Guillaume Aupy1,3, Yves Robert1, a regular mode outside prediction windows, and a proactive mode inside prediction windows, whenever the size of these windows is large enough. We are able to compute the best period for any size of the prediction windows

  4. Experimental and Simulation Approaches for Optimizing the Thermal Performance of Building Enclosures Containing Phase Change Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kyoung Ok

    2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been proven that the integration of phase change materials (PCM) into building enclosures helps with wall thermal management as well as in reducing building energy consumption. Most older and some current PCM ...

  5. Numerical Simulation of Thermal Performance of Floor Radiant Heating System with Enclosed Phase Change Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, L.; Wu, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water temperatures. With the method of enthalpy , the PCM thermal storage time is studied under different supply water temperatures, supply water flows, distances between water wipe in the floor construction, floor covers and insulation conditions....

  6. Thermal-performance study of liquid metal fast breeder reactor insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiu, Kelvin K.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three types of metallic thermal insulation were investigated analytically and experimentally: multilayer reflective plates, multilayer honeycomb composite, and multilayer screens. Each type was subjected to evacuated and nonevacuated conditions, where thermal measurements were made to determine thermal-physical characteristics. A variation of the separation distance between adjacent reflective plates of multilayer reflective plates and multilayer screen insulation was also experimentally studied to reveal its significance. One configuration of the multilayer screen insulation was further selected to be examined in sodium and sodium oxide environments. The emissivity of Type 304 stainless steel used in comprising the insulation was measured by employing infrared technology. A comprehensive model was developed to describe the different proposed types of thermal insulation. Various modes of heat transfer inherent in each type of insulation were addressed and their relative importance compared. Provision was also made in the model to allow accurate simulation of possible sodium and sodium oxide contamination of the insulation. The thermal-radiation contribution to heat transfer in the temperature range of interest for LMFBR's was found to be moderate, and the suppression of natural convection within the insulation was vital in preserving its insulating properties. Experimental data were compared with the model and other published results. Moreover, the three proposed test samples were assessed and compared under various conditions as viable LMFBR thermal insulations.

  7. Performance Criteria for Residential Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Huang, Joe; Kohler, Christian; Mitchell, Robin

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy use data were collected for each city, to provide information regarding the predominant glass area

  8. MEASURED WINTER PERFORMANCE OF STORM WINDOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    problem. From existing data (U. S. Department of Energy 2002) one can estimate that 90% of the present payback of energy savings. Certainly, given the present spectrum of available products, it is difficult. Interestingly, solar heat gain was not negligible, even in north-facing orientation. Introduction Over the past

  9. A Review of Electrochromic Window Performance Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz Ed, S.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    controls and a lighting power density of 16.1 W/m2 (1.5controls and a lighting power density of 16.1 W/m2 (1.5ft) office spaces. Lighting power density was 16.1 W/m2 (1.5

  10. A Review of Electrochromic Window Performance Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz Ed, S.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    approaches, utility demand side management programs, and7. Utilities with demand-side management programs to reduce

  11. A Review of Electrochromic Window Performance Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz Ed, S.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    between energy-efficient designs and productivity, there isenergy-efficient control algorithm may result in increased daylight admission (up to and even exceeding the designdesign illuminance level of 538 lux (50 fc). The superior energy-efficient

  12. High Performance Solar Control Office Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, William J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat losses (except for ventilation), the problem during allproblem in energy conservation since the design factors for lighting, ventilation,

  13. Performance Criteria for Residential Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Huang, Joe; Kohler, Christian; Mitchell, Robin

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CA) MEC Zone MEC Pkg # Glz % Btu/h-ft2-F Fenestration U-factor W/m2-K (h-ft2-F)/Btu Ceiling R-value (m2-K)/W (h-ft2-F)/Btu Wall R-value (m2-K)/W (h-ft2-F)/Btu Floor

  14. High Performance Window Attachments | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe Solar Power ProjectHawai'iPresentedHigh PenetrationEnergyHigh

  15. Performance and cost benefits associated with nonimaging secondary concentrators used in point-focus dish solar thermal applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Gallagher, J.; Winston, R.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using nonimaging secondary concentrators in point-focus applications may permit the development of more cost-effective concentrator systems by either improving performance or reducing costs. Secondaries may also increase design flexibility. The major objective of this study was to develop as complete an understanding as possible of the quantitative performance and cost effects associated with deploying nonimaging secondary concentrators at the focal zone of point-focus solar thermal concentrators. A performance model was developed that uses a Monte Carlo ray-trace procedure to determine the focal plane distribution of a paraboloidal primary as a function of optical parameters. It then calculates the corresponding optimized concentration and thermal efficiency as a function of temperature with and without the secondary. To examine the potential cost benefits associated with secondaries, a preliminary model for the rational optimization of performance versus cost trade-offs was developed. This model suggests a possible 10% to 20% reduction in the cost of delivered energy when secondaries are used. This is a lower limit, and the benefits may even be greater if using a secondary permits the development of inexpensive primary technologies for which the performance would not otherwise be viable. 20 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Do You Have Windows That Need Replacing?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Do you have windows that need replacing, too? Do you have any plans to replace them with newer, more efficient windows?

  17. Building America's Low-e Storm Window Adoption Program Plan (FY2014)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cort, Katherine A.

    2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Low emissivity (low-e) storm windows/panels appear to hold promise for effectively reducing existing home heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) consumption. Due to the affordability of low-e storm windows and the large numbers of existing homes that have low-performing single-pane or double-pane clear windows, a tremendous opportunity exists to provide energy savings by transforming the low-e storm window market and increasing market adoption. This report outlines U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America’s planned market transformation activities in support of low-e storm window adoption during fiscal year (FY) 2014.

  18. A Monolithic Microconcentrator Receiver For A Hybrid PV-Thermal System: Preliminary Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ://solar.anu.edu.au Abstract: An innovative hybrid PV-thermal microconcentrator (MCT) system is being jointly developed by Chromasun Inc., San Jose, California, and at the Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, Australian National University. The MCT aims to develop the small-scale, roof-top market for grid-integrated linear CPV systems

  19. Software Optimization for Performance, Energy, and Thermal Distribution: Initial Case Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herbordt, Martin

    of our time. Data center energy consumption is now 2-3% of total US electricity use and is increasing better software for reducing energy consumption and thermal problems. For example, the distance that data-level energy consumption. I. INTRODUCTION Energy efficiency is one of the central societal and technical issues

  20. Performance degradation of GaN field-effect transistors due to thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . We used the standard model for the band gap energy temperature dependence EG ¼ EG0 À aT2 =(b þ material specific models for carrier drift-diffusion and thermal conductivity the authors deter- mine in GaN transis- tors is also discussed. Obtained results can be used for structure optimisation of Ga

  1. Expected near-field thermal performance for nuclear waste repositories at potential salt sites: Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNulty, E.G.

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal analyses were made for the environmental assessments of seven potential salt sites for a nuclear waste repository. These analyses predicted that potential repository sites in domal salts located in the Gulf Coast will experience higher temperature than those in bedded salts of Paradox and Palo Duro Basins, mainly because of higher ambient temperatures at depth. The TEMPV5 code, a semi-analytical heat transfer code for finite line sources, calculated temperatures for commercial high-level waste (CHLW) and spent fuel from pressurized-water reactors (SFPWR). Benchmarks with HEATING6, THAC-SIP-3D, STEALTH, and SPECTROM-41 showed that TEMPV5 agreed closely in the very near field around the waste package and approximately in the near-field and far-field regions of the repository. The analyses used site-specific thermal conductivities that were increased by 40% to compensate for reductions caused by testing technique, salt impurities, and other heterogeneities, and sampling disturbance. Analyses showed peak salt temperatures of 236/sup 0/C (CHLW) and 134/sup 0/C (SFPWR) for the bedded salt and 296/sup 0/C (CHLW) and 180/sup 0/C (SFPWR) for the domal salt. Analyses with uncorrected laboratory thermal conductivities would increase peak salt temperatures by about 120/sup 0/C for CHLW and about 60/sup 0/C for SFPWR. These temperature increases would increase the thermally induced flow of brine and accelerate corrosion of the waste package. 30 refs., 35 figs., 48 tabs.

  2. Window-closing safety system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A safety device includes a wire loop embedded in the glass of a passenger car window and routed near the closing leading-edge of the window. The wire loop carries microwave pulses around the loop to and from a transceiver with separate output and input ports. An evanescent field only and inch or two in radius is created along the wire loop by the pulses. Just about any object coming within the evanescent field will dramatically reduce the energy of the microwave pulses received back by the transceiver. Such a loss in energy is interpreted as a closing area blockage, and electrical interlocks are provided to halt or reverse a power window motor that is actively trying to close the window.

  3. Window-closing safety system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A safety device includes a wire loop embedded in the glass of a passenger car window and routed near the closing leading-edge of the window. The wire loop carries microwave pulses around the loop to and from a transceiver with separate output and input ports. An evanescent field only an inch or two in radius is created along the wire loop by the pulses. Just about any object coming within the evanescent field will dramatically reduce the energy of the microwave pulses received back by the transceiver. Such a loss in energy is interpreted as a closing area blockage, and electrical interlocks are provided to halt or reverse a power window motor that is actively trying to close the window. 5 figs.

  4. The influence of the Prandtl number on the thermal performance of tubes with the separation and reattachment enhancement mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabas, T.J.; Arman, B.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper demonstrates that the heat-transfer performance of an enhanced tube with transverse, rectangular disruptions can be predicted with a numerical modeling method, an accomplishment not previously achieved. This computer code is then used to determine the influence of the Prandtl number. The numerical simulation demonstrated that six distinct regions exist: the three rib surfaces, the upstream and downstream recirculation regions, and the boundary-layer development zone. Three zones dominate the thermal performance: the rib top and downstream faces and the downstream recirculation zone. The thermal performance at the rib region begins to dominate tile overall performance as the Prandtl number becomes large. The contribution from the downstream recirculation zone becomes more important and dominates for low Prandtl number fluids such as air. The Reynolds number dependence at the rib region and the downstream recirculation zone is similar to that for reattaching flows with exponents in the 0.65 to 0.75 range. The location of the maximum in the recirculation moves closer to the rib with increasing Reynolds and Prandtl numbers and is bounded upstream by the location of the maximum wall shear stress and downstream by the reattachment length. The high turbulence level near the surface in this region is responsible for the heat-transfer enhancement.

  5. The influence of the Prandtl number on the thermal performance of tubes with the separation and reattachment enhancement mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabas, T.J.; Arman, B.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper demonstrates that the heat-transfer performance of an enhanced tube with transverse, rectangular disruptions can be predicted with a numerical modeling method, an accomplishment not previously achieved. This computer code is then used to determine the influence of the Prandtl number. The numerical simulation demonstrated that six distinct regions exist: the three rib surfaces, the upstream and downstream recirculation regions, and the boundary-layer development zone. Three zones dominate the thermal performance: the rib top and downstream faces and the downstream recirculation zone. The thermal performance at the rib region begins to dominate tile overall performance as the Prandtl number becomes large. The contribution from the downstream recirculation zone becomes more important and dominates for low Prandtl number fluids such as air. The Reynolds number dependence at the rib region and the downstream recirculation zone is similar to that for reattaching flows with exponents in the 0.65 to 0.75 range. The location of the maximum in the recirculation moves closer to the rib with increasing Reynolds and Prandtl numbers and is bounded upstream by the location of the maximum wall shear stress and downstream by the reattachment length. The high turbulence level near the surface in this region is responsible for the heat-transfer enhancement.

  6. Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group The Mechanical Engineering (ME) & Thermal Group at LASP has · STOP (Structural, Thermal, and Optical Performance) analyses of optical systems Thermal engineers lead evolved with the complexity of instrument design demands, LASP mechanical engineers develop advanced

  7. Modeling, design and thermal performance of a BIPV/T system thermally coupled with a ventilated concrete slab in a low energy solar house: Part 2, ventilated concrete slab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yuxiang; Galal, Khaled; Athienitis, A.K. [Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 De Maisonneuve West, EV6.139, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is the second of two papers that describe the modeling and design of a building-integrated photovoltaic-thermal (BIPV/T) system thermally coupled with a ventilated concrete slab (VCS) adopted in a prefabricated, two-storey detached, low energy solar house and their performance assessment based on monitored data. The VCS concept is based on an integrated thermal-structural design with active storage of solar thermal energy while serving as a structural component - the basement floor slab ({proportional_to}33 m{sup 2}). This paper describes the numerical modeling, design, and thermal performance assessment of the VCS. The thermal performance of the VCS during the commissioning of the unoccupied house is presented. Analysis of the monitored data shows that the VCS can store 9-12 kWh of heat from the total thermal energy collected by the BIPV/T system, on a typical clear sunny day with an outdoor temperature of about 0 C. It can also accumulate thermal energy during a series of clear sunny days without overheating the slab surface or the living space. This research shows that coupling the VCS with the BIPV/T system is a viable method to enhance the utilization of collected solar thermal energy. A method is presented for creating a simplified three-dimensional, control volume finite difference, explicit thermal model of the VCS. The model is created and validated using monitored data. The modeling method is suitable for detailed parametric study of the thermal behavior of the VCS without excessive computational effort. (author)

  8. Thermal performance sensitivity studies in support of material modeling for extended storage of used nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuta, Judith M.; Suffield, Sarah R.; Fort, James A.; Adkins, Harold E.

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The work reported here is an investigation of the sensitivity of component temperatures of a storage system, including fuel cladding temperatures, in response to age-related changes that could degrade the design-basis thermal behavior of the system. Three specific areas of interest were identified for this study. • degradation of the canister backfill gas from pure helium to a mixture of air and helium, resulting from postulated leakage due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of canister welds • changes in surface emissivity of system components, resulting from corrosion or other aging mechanisms, which could cause potentially significant changes in temperatures and temperature distributions, due to the effect on thermal radiation exchange between components • changes in fuel and basket temperatures due to changes in fuel assembly position within the basket cells in the canister The purpose of these sensitivity studies is to provide a realistic example of how changes in the physical properties or configuration of the storage system components can affect temperatures and temperature distributions. The magnitudes of these sensitivities can provide guidance for identifying appropriate modeling assumptions for thermal evaluations extending long term storage out beyond 50, 100, 200, and 300 years.

  9. A Design Guide for Early-Market Electrochromic Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.; Clear, Robert D.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph H.; Fernandes, Luis L.; Ward, GregJ.; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Yazdanian, Mehry

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Switchable variable-tint electrochromic (EC) windows preserve view out while modulating transmitted light, glare, and solar heat gains. Consumers will require objective information on the risks and benefits of this emerging technology as it enters the market in 2006. This guide provides such information and data derived from a wide variety of simulations, laboratory tests, and a 2.5-year field test of prototype large-area EC windows evaluated under outdoor sun and sky conditions. This design guide is provided to architects, engineers, building owners, and others interested in electrochromic windows. The design guide provides basic information about what is an electrochromic window, what it looks like, how fast does it switch, and what current product offerings are. The guide also provides information on performance benefits if more mature product offerings were available.

  10. Focused R&D For Electrochromic Smart Windowsa: Significant Performance and Yield Enhancements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2003-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a need to improve the energy efficiency of building envelopes as they are the primary factor governing the heating, cooling, lighting and ventilation requirements of buildings--influencing 53% of building energy use. In particular, windows contribute significantly to the overall energy performance of building envelopes, thus there is a need to develop advanced energy efficient window and glazing systems. Electrochromic (EC) windows represent the next generation of advanced glazing technology that will (1) reduce the energy consumed in buildings, (2) improve the overall comfort of the building occupants, and (3) improve the thermal performance of the building envelope. ''Switchable'' EC windows provide, on demand, dynamic control of visible light, solar heat gain, and glare without blocking the view. As exterior light levels change, the window's performance can be electronically adjusted to suit conditions. A schematic illustrating how SageGlass{reg_sign} electrochromic windows work is shown in Figure I.1. SageGlass{reg_sign} EC glazings offer the potential to save cooling and lighting costs, with the added benefit of improving thermal and visual comfort. Control over solar heat gain will also result in the use of smaller HVAC equipment. If a step change in the energy efficiency and performance of buildings is to be achieved, there is a clear need to bring EC technology to the marketplace. This project addresses accelerating the widespread introduction of EC windows in buildings and thus maximizing total energy savings in the U.S. and worldwide. We report on R&D activities to improve the optical performance needed to broadly penetrate the full range of architectural markets. Also, processing enhancements have been implemented to reduce manufacturing costs. Finally, tests are being conducted to demonstrate the durability of the EC device and the dual pane insulating glass unit (IGU) to be at least equal to that of conventional windows.

  11. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data. Toltec two-axis tracking solar collector with 3M acrylic polyester film reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Toltec solar collector, with acrylic film reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  12. Proceedings of the ASHRAE/DOE/BTECC Conference, Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Buildings VII, Clearwater Beach, Florida, December 7-11, 1998

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-41694 BS-384 Proceedings of the ASHRAE/DOE/BTECC Conference, Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Buildings VII, Clearwater Beach, Florida, December 7-11, 1998 This work was supported

  13. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility predictions for thermal performance of the Solar Kinetics T-700 solar collector with FEK 244 reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal performance predictions are presented for the Solar Kinetics T-700 solar collector, with FEK 244 reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  14. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data. Polisolar Model POL solar collector with glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Polisolar Model POL solar collector, with glass reflector surfaces, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  15. Development of a cooled microwave window. CRADA final report for CRADA Number Y-1293-0200

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, G.L.; Bigelow, T.S.; Leitch, R.M.; Berry, L.A. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holber, W.M. [Applied Science and Technology, Inc., Woburn, MA (United States)

    1995-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this Cooperative Research and Development project (CRADA) was to generate a new design for a microwave vacuum window to be used with ASTeX Corporation plasma processing equipment. This vacuum window allows transmission of microwave power from an input waveguide into a vacuum chamber for creation of plasma using the electron cyclotron resonance process. Requirements for the window design are: higher power capability, improved resistance to chemical attack, and physical compatibility with previous window models. In these applications, a significant portion of the input power is deposited in the window by plasma bombardment so the window must remove a great deal of heat to remain at a reliable operating temperature. A power level increase from 1.5 kW to 5 kW is desired by ASTeX for the new window which must have {approximately} 120 mm diameter and be compatible with existing hardware. New applications for these processing systems are being developed by ASTeX; these require the use of highly reactive fluorine plasmas which can rapidly etch some window materials. Therefore, the use of a fluorine compatible window ceramic is required. Two new window designs were investigated using advanced window-modeling techniques and low-power laboratory testing. It was determined that both concepts were capable of operating at significantly higher power levels than present commercial windows and would meet the CRADA design objectives. The compatibility of the window materials considered with fluorine plasmas are believed to be acceptable. ASTeX has a continuing interest in pursuing these window designs and will likely begin manufacturing design work of the improved design in the near future. There will also be a continuing effort to keep AlN ceramic manufacturers interested in improving the quality of large AlN disks. Additional window tests and development work could be performed by ORNL/MMES if a suitable funding source is available.

  16. Electrochromic windows for commercial buildings: Monitored results from a full-scale testbed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic glazings promise to be the next major advance in energy-efficient window technology, helping to transform windows and skylights from an energy liability to an energy source for the nation's building stock. Monitored results from a full-scale demonstration of large-area electrochromic windows are given. The test consisted of two side-by-side, 3.7x4.6-m, office-like rooms. In each room, five 62x173-cm lower electrochromic windows and five 62x43-cm upper electrochromic windows formed a large window wall. The window-to-exterior-wall ratio (WWR) was 0.40. The southeast-facing electrochromic windows had an overall visible transmittance (Tv) range of Tv=0.11-0.38 and were integrated with a dimmable electric lighting system to provide constant work plane illuminance and to control direct sun. Daily lighting use from the automated electrochromic window system decreased by 6 to 24% compared to energy use with static, low-transmission (Tv =0.11), unshaded windows in overcast to cle ar sky winter conditions in Oakland, California. Daily lighting energy use increased as much as 13% compared to lighting energy use with static windows that had Tv=0.38. Even when lighting energy savings were not obtainable, the visual environment produced by the electrochromic windows, indicated by well-controlled window and room luminance levels, was significantly improved for computer-type tasks throughout the day compared to the visual environment with unshaded 38%-glazing. Cooling loads were not measured, but previous building energy simulations indicate that additional savings could be achieved. To ensure visual and thermal comfort, electrochromics require occasional use of interior or exterior shading systems when direct sun is present. Other recommendations to improve electrochromic materials and controls are noted along with some architectural constraints.

  17. Extending the X Window System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenkosh, J.P.

    1993-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The X Window System was originally developed in 1984 at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It provides client-server computing functionality and also facilitates the establishment of a distributed computing environment. Since its inception the X Window System has undergone many enhancements. Despite these enhancements there will always be a functionality desired in the standard released version of X that is not supported or commercially or academically available. The developers of the X Window System have designed it in such a way that it is possible to add functionality that is not included in the standard release. This is called an extension. Extensions are one method used to develop a customized version of the X Window System to support a specialized application. This report presents the mechanics of adding an extension and examines a particular extension that was developed at Sandia National Laboratories to support data compression in X Windows which was one aspect of the Desktop Video and Collaborative Engineering Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD).

  18. Short time scale thermal mechanical shock wave propagation in high performance microelectronic packaging configuration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagaraj, Mahavir

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    joint fatigue during the prototyping stage. Vandevelde et al. [2] conducted a parameter based thermomechanical modeling of Chip Scale Package (CSP) assemblies. Using parameters related to solder joint geometry, CSP dimensions and a fatigue... GPa Poisson Ration (? ) 0.22 Density (? ) 2330 kg/m3 Specific heat (cv) 700 J/kg?C Thermal conductivity (k) 155 W/m?C Expansion coefficient (? ) 2.3 ?? /?C It can be seen that the mechanical wave speed is essentially constant for t2 less...

  19. NREL Evaluates the Thermal Performance of Uninsulated Walls to Improve the Accuracy of Building Energy Simulation Tools (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical highlight describes NREL research to develop models of uninsulated wall assemblies that help to improve the accuracy of building energy simulation tools when modeling potential energy savings in older homes. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have developed models for evaluating the thermal performance of walls in existing homes that will improve the accuracy of building energy simulation tools when predicting potential energy savings of existing homes. Uninsulated walls are typical in older homes where the wall cavities were not insulated during construction or where the insulating material has settled. Accurate calculation of heat transfer through building enclosures will help determine the benefit of energy efficiency upgrades in order to reduce energy consumption in older American homes. NREL performed detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis to quantify the energy loss/gain through the walls and to visualize different airflow regimes within the uninsulated cavities. The effects of ambient outdoor temperature, radiative properties of building materials, and insulation level were investigated. The study showed that multi-dimensional airflows occur in walls with uninsulated cavities and that the thermal resistance is a function of the outdoor temperature - an effect not accounted for in existing building energy simulation tools. The study quantified the difference between CFD prediction and the approach currently used in building energy simulation tools over a wide range of conditions. For example, researchers found that CFD predicted lower heating loads and slightly higher cooling loads. Implementation of CFD results into building energy simulation tools such as DOE2 and EnergyPlus will likely reduce the predicted heating load of homes. Researchers also determined that a small air gap in a partially insulated cavity can lead to a significant reduction in thermal resistance. For instance, a 4-in. tall air gap (Figure 1a) led to a 15% reduction in resistance. Similarly, a 2-ft tall air gap (Figure 1c) led to 54% reduction in thermal resistance. NREL researchers plan to extend this study to include additional wall configurations, and also to evaluate the performance of attic spaces with different insulation levels. NREL's objective is to address each potential issue that leads to inaccuracies in building energy simulation tools to improve the predictions.

  20. Thermal properties of granular silica aerogel for high-performance insulation systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neugebauer, Adam (Adam Halbert)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on mounting evidence in support of anthropogenic global climate change, there is an urgency for developments in high-performance building techniques and technologies. New construction projects provide substantial ...

  1. Steam generation in line-focus solar collectors: a comparative assessment of thermal performance, operating stability, and cost issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, L.M.; May, E.K.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The engineering and system benefits of using direct steam (in situ) generation in line-focus collectors are assessed. The major emphasis of the analysis is a detailed thermal performance comparison of in situ systems (which utilize unfired boilers). The analysis model developed for this study is discussed in detail. An analysis of potential flow stability problems is also provided along with a cursory cost analysis and an assessment of freeze protection, safety, and control issues. Results indicated a significant thermal performance advantage over the more conventional oil and flash systems and the flow stability does not appear to be a significant problem. In particular, at steam temperatures of 220/sup 0/C (430/sup 0/F) under the chosen set of assumptions, annual delivered energy predictions indicate that the in situ system can deliver 15% more energy than an oil system and 12% more energy than a flash system, with all of the systems using the same collector field. Further, the in situ system may result in a 10% capital cost reduction. Other advantages include improvement in simpler control when compared with flash systems, and fluid handling and safety enhancement when compared with oil systems.

  2. Evaluation of integrated wall systems incorporating electrochromic windows [Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sbar, Neil L.

    2001-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Billions of dollars are spent annually in the U.S. on energy lost through the use of inefficient windows. Even wall systems with advanced static glazings and moveable shading devices are not optimal because they can't effectively respond to changing solar conditions. Electrochromic (EC) smart windows can dynamically control the amount of solar light and heat entering a building. The energy saving performance of fully dynamic wall systems containing EC windows was compared with that of static systems using the DOE 2.1E building simulation program. Total costs for different scenarios were computed. SAGE demonstrated the capability to produce double pane EC windows in which the transmittance repeatedly varied between 2-58%. Relative impact of EC glazings in buildings compared to static is 10-20% energy savings across all climatic regions investigated. Significant life cycle cost savings are predicted for SAGE's EC windows when compared to conventional solar control windows over an estimated product lifetime of 20 years.

  3. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 6: High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Steward, Heidi E.; Love, Pat M.

    2007-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide is was written by PNNL for the US Department of Energy's Building America program to provide information for residential production builders interested in building near zero energy homes. The guide provides indepth descriptions of various roof-top photovoltaic power generating systems for homes. The guide also provides extensive information on various designs of solar thermal water heating systems for homes. The guide also provides construction company owners and managers with an understanding of how solar technologies can be added to their homes in a way that is cost effective, practical, and marketable. Twelve case studies provide examples of production builders across the United States who are building energy-efficient homes with photovoltaic or solar water heating systems.

  4. Spectral selectivity of electrochromic windows with color state for all-sky conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soule, D.E. [Western Illinois Univ., Macomb, IL (United States)] [Western Illinois Univ., Macomb, IL (United States); Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The optical performance of an electrochromic window is studied for the visible, ultraviolet, and near infrared spectral regions. The performance is found to deviate strongly with window color state and for clear or cloudy skies. A new spectral cloud model is applied to an electrochromic window recently developed at NREL. A spectral comparison is made between the electrochromic window and spectrally selective standard windows. Two series of double-glazed window sections, including the electrochromic window with color state and a series of low-E windows, were measured for transmittance and reflectance (300-2500nm), With these spectral data, a new near-infrared blocking (reflection + absorption) factor is developed for window application in warm climates for cooling load reduction. A chromaticity analysis is presented for both the daylight spectra and the transmitted electrochromic window spectra with color state, Computed daylight correlated color temperatures show a wide range, with values of 5660K for clear global irradiation, 6210K for clouds, and 13,250K for a zenith blue sky. Chromatic trajectories with color state for transmitted radiation extend further toward the blue to 8180K for the global and 28,990K for zenith sky irradiation.

  5. Steam Turbine Performance in Europe | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Steam Turbine Performance in Europe Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to...

  6. Assessment of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants for window air conditioners that currently use refrigerant R410A for residential and commercial applications. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and a mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration) and R125 (10% molar concentration). Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model was calibrated with the baseline data and was used to assess the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners.

  7. his article presents a comprehensive analysis of the thermal effects in advanced high-performance inter-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -performance inter- connect systems arising due to self-heating under various circuit conditions, including and signal transmission through the intercon- nects due to self-heating (or Joule heating) caused by the flow- nect temperature. This phenomenon is referred to as Joule heating or self-heating. Even though this I R

  8. Electro-Thermal Comparison and Performance Optimization of Thin-Body SOI and GOI MOSFETs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutton, Robert W.

    .723.8482, Fax 650.723.7657 ABSTRACT This paper examines self-heating trends in ultra-scaled fully depleted SOI for SOI [6][7]. In this work we analyze self-heating trends in GOI and SOI devices and show that despite can be designed to provide optimal performance, taking self-heating into account self

  9. Simulation and study of thermal performance of liquid desiccant cooling cycle configurations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dhir, Rajesh

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    evaporative cooler(s), liquid desiccant packed dehumidifying tower, and air-to-air heat exchanger. Constant effectiveness of 0.85 and 0.9 were assumed for the direct evaporative cooler and air-to-air heat exchanger respectively. The performance of these five...

  10. Influence of concrete fracture on the rain infiltration and thermal performance of building facades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of the occupants. Over time, the pore structure of such materials may however be altered by cracks and defects for the purpose of durability assessments as well. Keywords heat; moisture; modelling; building material; fracture is to be accounted for in any long-term performance assessment. Hygrothermal simulations of building components

  11. Numerical Simulation of Thermal Performance of Floor Radiant Heating System with Enclosed Phase Change Material 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, L.; Wu, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present paper, a kind of enclosed phase change material (PCM) used in solar and low-temperature hot water radiant floor heating is investigated. On the basis of obtaining the best performance of PCM properties, a new radiant heating structure...

  12. Mickey Leland Energy Fellowship Report: Development of Advanced Window Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolton, Ladena A.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced fenestration technologies for light and thermal management in building applications are of great recent research interest for improvements in energy efficiency. Of these technologies, there is specific interest in advanced window coating technologies that have tailored control over the visible and infrared (IR) scattering into a room for both static and dynamic applications. Recently, PNNL has investigated novel subwavelength nanostructured coatings for both daylighting, and IR thermal management applications. Such coatings rese still in the early stages and additional research is needed in terms of scalable manufacturing. This project investigates aspects of a potential new methodology for low-cost scalable manufacture of said subwavelength coatings.

  13. Midtemperature solar systems test faclity predictions for thermal performance based on test data: Solar Kinetics T-700 solar collector with glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), is currently conducting a program to predict the performance and measure the characteristics of commercially available solar collectors that have the potential for use in industrial process heat and enhanced oil recovery applications. The thermal performance predictions for the Solar Kinetics solar line-focusing parabolic trough collector for five cities in the US are presented. (WHK)

  14. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data: AAI solar collector with pressure-formed glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), is currently conducting a program to predict the performance and measure the characteristics of commercially available solar collectors that have the potential for use in industrial process heat and enhance oil recovery applications. The thermal performance predictions for the AAI solar line-focusing slat-type collector for five cities in the US are presented. (WHK)

  15. Monitoring and simulation of the thermal performance of solar heated outdoor swimming pools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahne, E.; Kuebler, R. (Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany))

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on detailed measurements of two outdoor swimming pools (at Leonberg and Moehringen) a computer model has been developed and validated for the simulation of the thermal behaviour of such pools. The subroutine is compatible to TRNSYS 13.1. Correlations for the heat losses due to evaporation, convection, and radiation were taken from literature and tested in the model. It was not possible to select one optimal correlation for the description of the evaporative heat losses of both swimming pools due to the different exposure to wind. Using the most suitable correlation for the evaporative heat losses of each pool allowed for the simulation of the pool temperature with less than 0.5 K standard deviation between measured and simulated temperature. the major problem was the measurement of the relevant wind speed to be used in the correlations describing the evaporative heat losses under real outdoor conditions. A method is described detailing how to calibrate the model using the heating energy requirement and the measured pool temperature during actual operation periods. The analysis of the measured data of two different outdoor swimming pools under the same climatic conditions showed differences of a factor 2 and more in the heat demand per unit pool area. This was mainly caused by the difference in local wind speed which differed by more than a factor 4. The two pools investigated were heated by solar energy with a fraction of 28% and 14%, respectively, and the seasonal efficiency of the solar systems was 37.7% and 33.4%. Simulations show that a reduction of the water temperature from 24[degrees]C to 22[degrees]C during periods with low outdoor temperatures and few visitors, reduces the fuel consumption to less than half and increases the solar fraction from 28% to 50% in one pool.

  16. Thermal Decomposition of Bulk K-CoMoSx Mixed Alcohol Catalyst Precursors and Effects on Catalyst Morphology and Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menart, M. J.; Hensley, J. E.; Costelow, K. E.

    2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Cobalt molybdenum sulfide-type mixed alcohol catalysts were synthesized via calcination of precipitated bulk sulfides and studied with temperature programmed decomposition analysis. Precursors containing aqueous potassium were also considered. Precipitates thermally decomposed in unique events which released ammonia, carbon dioxide, and sulfur. Higher temperature treatments led to more crystalline and less active catalysts in general with ethanol productivity falling from 203 to 97 g (kg cat){sup -1} h{sup -1} when the calcination temperature was increased from 375 to 500 C. The addition of potassium to the precursor led to materials with crystalline potassium sulfides and good catalytic performance. In general, less potassium was required to promote alcohol selectivity when added before calcination. At calcination temperatures above 350 C, segregated cobalt sulfides were observed, suggesting that thermally decomposed sulfide precursors may contain a mixture of molybdenum and cobalt sulfides instead of a dispersed CoMoS type of material. When dimethyl disulfide was fed to the precursor during calcination, crystalline cobalt sulfides were not detected, suggesting an important role of free sulfur during decomposition.

  17. RUGGED CERAMIC WINDOW FOR RF APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MIKE NEUBAUER

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-current RF cavities that are needed for many accelerator applications are often limited by the power transmission capability of the pressure barriers (windows) that separate the cavity from the power source. Most efforts to improve RF window design have focused on alumina ceramic, the most popular historical choice, and have not taken advantage of new materials. Alternative window materials have been investigated using a novel Merit Factor comparison and likely candidates have been tested for the material properties which will enable construction in the self-matched window configuration. Window assemblies have also been modeled and fabricated using compressed window techniques which have proven to increase the power handling capability of waveguide windows. Candidate materials have been chosen to be used in fabricating a window for high power testing at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

  18. Rolling, Rolling, Rolling: Roller Window Shades | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    anyway, even if our windows were of the highest efficiency. One of my colleagues in a solar energy group I belonged to was a distributor of a high R-value quilted roller window...

  19. An analysis of residential window waterproofing systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parsons, Austin, 1959-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The prevalence of vinyl nail-on windows in the North American new home construction market has prompted ASTM International to write ASTM E2112-01 "Standard Practice for Installation of Exterior Windows, Doors and Skylights". ...

  20. V-217: Microsoft Windows NAT Driver ICMP Packet Handling Denial...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A vulnerability was reported in the Windows NAT Driver PLATFORM: Windows Server 2012 ABSTRACT: This security update resolves a vulnerability in the Windows NAT Driver in Microsoft...

  1. High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a window air...

  2. Whole House Thermal Performance of Asphalt Shingles Exploiting Special Infrared Reflective Pigments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, L.; Miller, W.; Desjarlais, A.; Jacobs, J.; Youngquist, A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -04 using cycle 4 as described in Table X2.1, Common Exposure Conditions, of the G 154 standard (ASTM 2002b). A UVB-340 lamp was used for simulating direct solar UV radiation; this lamp has no UV output below 300 nm, which is the cutoff wavelength... for this behavior is unknown; overall, however, the data clearly show that the IRR shingles perform just as well when subjected to direct solar UV radiation as standard products accepted on the open market. The IRR asphalt shingles do not lose solar reflectance...

  3. Windows Server 2008 R2 Licensing Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasayya, Vivek

    Windows Server 2008 R2 Licensing Guide m Your Comprehensive Resource for Licensing and Pricing #12;2 Table of Contents Summary 3 Table of Windows Server 2008 R2 Core Product Offerings 3 License Terms ­ Windows Server 2008 R2 Product Line Updates 4 Edition Comparison by Server Role 5 New and Updated Features

  4. Instruction-Window Power Reduction Using Data Dependence Metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hsien-Hsin "Sean"

    power savings, and with an average performance loss of a very modest 1.9%. I. INTRODUCTION NewInstruction-Window Power Reduction Using Data Dependence Metric Ziad Youssfi and Michael Shanblatt Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824 ziad

  5. Measuring the Optical Performance of Evacuated Receivers via an Outdoor Thermal Transient Test: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.; Burkholder, F.; Netter, J.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern parabolic trough solar collectors operated at high temperatures to provide the heat input to Rankine steam power cycles employ evacuated receiver tubes along the collector focal line. High performance is achieved via the use of a selective surface with a high absorptance for incoming short-wave solar radiation and a low emittance for outgoing long-wave infrared radiation, as well as the use of a hard vacuum to essentially eliminate convective and conductive heat losses. This paper describes a new method that determines receiver overall optical efficiency by exposing a fluid-filled, pre-cooled receiver to one sun outdoors and measuring the slope of the temperature curve at the point where the receiver temperature passes the glass envelope temperature (that is, the point at which there is no heat gain or loss from the absorber). This transient test method offers the potential advantages of simplicity, high accuracy, and the use of the actual solar spectrum.

  6. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  7. Application issues for large-area electrochromic windows incommercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Projections of performance from small-area devices to large-area windows and enterprise marketing have created high expectations for electrochromic glazings. As a result, this paper seeks to precipitate an objective dialog between material scientists and building-application scientists to determine whether actual large-area electrochromic devices will result in significant performance benefits and what material improvements are needed, if any, to make electrochromics more practical for commercial building applications. Few in-situ tests have been conducted with large-area electrochromic windows applied in buildings. This study presents monitored results from a full-scale field test of large-area electrochromic windows to illustrate how this technology will perform in commercial buildings. The visible transmittance (Tv) of the installed electrochromic ranged from 0.11 to 0.38. The data are limited to the winter period for a south-east-facing window. The effect of actual device performance on lighting energy use, direct sun control, discomfort glare, and interior illumination is discussed. No mechanical system loads were monitored. These data demonstrate the use of electrochromics in a moderate climate and focus on the most restrictive visual task: computer use in offices. Through this small demonstration, we were able to determine that electrochromic windows can indeed provide unmitigated transparent views and a level of dynamic illumination control never before seen in architectural glazing materials. Daily lighting energy use was 6-24 percent less compared to the 11 percent-glazing, with improved interior brightness levels. Daily lighting energy use was 3 percent less to 13 percent more compared to the 38 percent-glazing, with improved window brightness control. The electrochromic window may not be able to fulfill both energy-efficiency and visual comfort objectives when low winter direct sun is present, particularly for computer tasks using cathode-ray tube (CRT) displays. However, window and architectural design as well as electrochromic control options are suggested as methods to broaden the applicability of electrochromics for commercial buildings. Without further modification, its applicability is expected to be limited during cold winter periods due to its slow switching speed.

  8. Thermal Performance Evaluation of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems Using the Large Scale Climate Simulator (LSCS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Application of radiant barriers and low-emittance surface coatings in residential building attics can significantly reduce conditioning loads from heat flow through attic floors. The roofing industry has been developing and using various radiant barrier systems and low-emittance surface coatings to increase energy efficiency in buildings; however, minimal data are available that quantifies the effectiveness of these technologies. This study evaluates performance of various attic radiant barrier systems under simulated summer daytime conditions and nighttime or low solar gain daytime winter conditions using the large scale climate simulator (LSCS). The four attic configurations that were evaluated are 1) no radiant barrier (control), 2) perforated low-e foil laminated oriented strand board (OSB) deck, 3) low-e foil stapled on rafters, and 4) liquid applied low-emittance coating on roof deck and rafters. All test attics used nominal RUS 13 h-ft2- F/Btu (RSI 2.29 m2-K/W) fiberglass batt insulation on attic floor. Results indicate that the three systems with radiant barriers had heat flows through the attic floor during summer daytime condition that were 33%, 50%, and 19% lower than the control, respectively.

  9. High Reliability R-10 Windows Using Vacuum Insulating Glass Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stark, David

    2012-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this effort was for EverSealed Windows (“EverSealed” or “ESW”) to design, assemble, thermally and environmentally test and demonstrate a Vacuum Insulating Glass Unit (“VIGU” or “VIG”) that would enable a whole window to meet or exceed the an R-10 insulating value (U-factor ? 0.1). To produce a VIGU that could withstand any North American environment, ESW believed it needed to design, produce and use a flexible edge seal system. This is because a rigid edge seal, used by all other know VIG producers and developers, limits the size and/or thermal environment of the VIG to where the unit is not practical for typical IG sizes and cannot withstand severe outdoor environments. The rigid-sealed VIG’s use would be limited to mild climates where it would not have a reasonable economic payback when compared to traditional double-pane or triple-pane IGs. ESW’s goals, in addition to achieving a sufficiently high R-value to enable a whole window to achieve R-10, included creating a VIG design that could be produced for a cost equal to or lower than a traditional triple-pane IG (low-e, argon filled). ESW achieved these goals. EverSealed produced, tested and demonstrated a flexible edge-seal VIG that had an R-13 insulating value and the edge-seal system durability to operate reliably for at least 40 years in the harshest climates of North America.

  10. Energy Efficient Electrochromic Windows Incorporating Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheri Boykin; James Finley; Donald Anthony; Julianna Knowles; Richard Markovic; Michael Buchanan; Mary Ann Fuhry; Lisa Perrine

    2008-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    One approach to increasing the energy efficiency of windows is to control the amount of solar radiation transmitted through a window by using electrochromic technology. What is unique about this project is that the electrochromic is based on the reduction/oxidation reactions of cathodic and anodic organic semi-conducting polymers using room temperature ionic liquids as ion transport electrolytes. It is believed that these types of coatings would be a lower cost alternative to traditional all inorganic thin film based electrochromic technologies. Although there are patents1 based on the proposed technology, it has never been reduced to practice and thoroughly evaluated (i.e. durability and performance) in a window application. We demonstrate that by using organic semi-conductive polymers, specific bands of the solar spectrum (specifically visible and near infrared) can be targeted for electrochemical variable transmittance responsiveness. In addition, when the technology is incorporated into an insulating glass unit, the energy parameters such as the solar heat gain coefficient and the light to solar gain ratio are improved over that of a typical insulating glass unit comprised of glass with a low emissivity coating. A minimum of {approx}0.02 quads of energy savings per year with a reduction of carbon emissions for electricity of {approx}320 MKg/yr benefit is achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. Note that these values include a penalty in the heating season. If this penalty is removed (i.e. in southern climates or commercial structures where cooling is predominate year-round) a maximum energy savings of {approx}0.05 quad per year and {approx}801 MKg/yr can be achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. In its current state, the technology is not durable enough for an exterior window application. The primary downfall is that the redox chemistry fails to recover to a bleached state upon exposure to heat and solar radiation while being cycled over time from the bleached to the dark state. Most likely the polymers are undergoing degradation reactions which are accelerated by heat and solar exposure while in either the reduced or oxidized states and the performance of the polymers is greatly reduced over time. For this technology to succeed in an exterior window application, there needs to be more work done to understand the degradation of the polymers under real-life application conditions such as elevated temperatures and solar exposure so that recommendations for improvements in to the overall system can be made. This will be the key to utilizing this type of technology in any future real-life applications.

  11. Simulating Complex Window Systems using BSDF Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konstantoglou, Maria; Jonsson, Jacob; Lee, Eleanor

    2009-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Nowadays, virtual models are commonly used to evaluate the performance of conventional window systems. Complex fenestration systems can be difficult to simulate accurately not only because of their geometry but also because of their optical properties that scatter light in an unpredictable manner. Bi-directional Scattering Distribution Functions (BSDF) have recently been developed based on a mixture of measurements and modelling to characterize the optics of such systems. This paper describes the workflow needed to create then use these BSDF datasets in the Radiance lighting simulation software. Limited comparisons are made between visualizations produced using the standard ray-tracing method, the BSDF method, and that taken in a full-scale outdoor mockup.

  12. Window Types | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: SinceDevelopment | Department ofPartnerships ToolkitWasteWho WillWind Programof EnergyWindow

  13. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data: Custom Engineering trough with glass reflector surface and Sandia-designed receivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Custom Engineering trough and Sandia-designed receivers, with glass reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States. Two experimental receivers were tested, one with an antireflective coating on the glass envelope around the receiver tube and one without the antireflective coating.

  14. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming (Syvania, OH)

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  15. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming (Syvania, OH); Liao, Xianbo (Toledo, OH); Du, Wenhui (Toledo, OH)

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  16. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming (Sylvania, OH); Liao, Xianbo (Toledo, OH); Du, Wenhui (Toledo, OH)

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  17. Preliminary Assessment of the Energy-Saving Potential of Electrochromic Windows in Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, D. R.

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic windows provide variable tinting that can help control glare and solar heat gain. We used BEopt software to evaluate their performance in prototypical energy models of a single-family home.

  18. Highly Insulating Windows with a U-value less than 0.6 W/m2K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendell Rhine; Ying Tang; Wenting Dong; Roxana Trifu; Reduane Begag

    2008-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. households rely primarily on three sources of energy: natural gas, electricity, and fuel oil. In the past several decades, electricity consumption by households has grown dramatically, and a significant portion of electricity used in homes is for lighting. Lighting includes both indoor and outdoor lighting and is found in virtually every household in the United States. In 2001, according to the US Energy Information Administration, lighting accounted for 101 billion kWh (8.8 percent) of U.S. household electricity use. Incandescent lamps, which are commonly found in households, are highly inefficient sources of light because about 90 percent of the energy used is lost as heat. For that reason, lighting has been one focus area to increase the efficiency of household electricity consumption. Windows have several functions, and one of the main functions is to provide a view to the outside. Daylighting is another one of windows main functions and determines the distribution of daylight to a space. Daylighting windows do not need to be transparent, and a translucent daylighting window is sufficient, and often desired, to diffuse the light and make the space more environmentally pleasing. In homes, skylights are one source of daylighting, but skylights are not very energy efficient and are inseparably linked to solar heat gain. In some climates, added solar heat gains from daylighting may be welcome; but in other climates, heat gain must be controlled. More energy efficient skylights and daylighting solutions, in general, are desired and can be designed by insulating them with aerogels. Aerogels are a highly insulating and transparent material in its pure form. The overall objective for this project was to prepare an economical, translucent, fiber-reinforced aerogel insulation material for daylighting applications that is durable for manufacturing purposes. This advanced insulation material will increase the thermal performance of daylighting windows, while satisfying constraints such as durability, cost, user acceptance, size limits, and environmental safety concerns. The energy efficient daylighting window will consist of a translucent and resilient aerogel panel sandwiched between glass panes in double glazed windows. Compared to the best windows available today, the double glazed translucent windows with 1/2-inch aerogel inserts will have a U-value of 1.2 W/m{sup 2} K (0.211 BTU/ft{sup 2} h F) without any coating or low conductivity fill gases. These windows will be more effective than the windows with an Energy Star rating of U-2 W/m{sup 2} K and could be made even more efficient by using low-e coated glass glazings and inert gas fills. This report summarizes the work accomplished on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41950. During this project, Aspen Aerogels made transparent and translucent aerogels from TMOS and TEOS. We characterized the transparency of the aerogels, reinforced the transparent aerogels with fibers and prepared large translucent aerogel panels and blankets. We also conducted an initial market study for energy efficient translucent windows. A lab-scale process was developed that could be scaled-up to manufacture blankets of these translucent aerogels. The large blankets prepared were used to fabricate prototype translucent windows and skylights. The primary goal of this project was to develop transparent, resilient, hydrophobic silica aerogels that have low thermal conductivities (R-10/inch) to be used to produce aerogel insulated double-glazing windows with a U value of 0.6 W/m{sup 2}K. To meet this objective we developed a process and equipment to produce blankets of translucent, hydrophobic aerogel. We focused on silica, organically-modified silica aerogels (Ormosils), and fiber reinforced silica aerogels due to the appreciable expertise in silica sol-gel processing available with the personnel at Aspen Aerogels, and also due to the quantity of knowledge available in the scientific literature. The project was conducted in three budget periods, herein called BP1, BP2 and BP3.

  19. The Delivery Man Problem with Time Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    depot, while open time windows are considered at all other locations. ... nodes of G: earliest and latest times are described by parameters ei and li for nodes i ...

  20. Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows in the PNNL Lab Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knox, Jake R.; Widder, Sarah H.

    2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines the performance of exterior and interior low-e storm panels with a controlled whole home experimental design using PNNL's Lab Homes. Summing the estimated annual average heating and cooling savings, the installation of low-e storm panels resulted in approximately 10% annual energy savings. The results of the experiment will be used to determine and validate performance of low-e storm windows over double pane clear glass windows in a whole home setting.

  1. Impacts of Soil and Pipe Thermal Conductivity on Performance of Horizontal Pipe in a Ground-source Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Y.; Yao, Y.; Na, W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the composition and thermal property of soil are discussed. The main factors that impact the soil thermal conductivity and several commonly-used pipe materials are studied. A model of heat exchanger with horizontal pipes of ground-source...

  2. The energy-savings potential of electrochromic windows in the UScommercial buildings sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eleanor; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2004-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Switchable electrochromic (EC) windows have been projected to significantly reduce the energy use of buildings nationwide. This study quantifies the potential impact of electrochromic windows on US primary energy use in the commercial building sector and also provides a broader database of energy use and peak demand savings for perimeter zones than that given in previous LBNL simulation studies. The DOE-2.1E building simulation program was used to predict the annual energy use of a three-story prototypical commercial office building located in five US climates and 16 California climate zones. The energy performance of an electrochromic window controlled to maintain daylight illuminance at a prescribed setpoint level is compared to conventional and the best available commercial windows as well as windows defined by the ASHRAE 90.1-1999 and California Title 24-2005 Prescriptive Standards. Perimeter zone energy use and peak demand savings data by orientation, window size, and climate are given for windows with interior shading, attached shading, and horizon obstructions (to simulate an urban environment). Perimeter zone primary energy use is reduced by 10-20% in east, south, and west zones in most climates if the commercial building has a large window-to-wall area ratio of 0.60 compared to a spectrally selective low-e window with daylighting controls and no interior or exterior shading. Peak demand for the same condition is reduced by 20-30%. The emerging electrochromic window with daylighting controls is projected to save approximately 91.5-97.3 10{sup 12} Btu in the year 2030 compared to a spectrally selective low-E window with manually-controlled interior shades and no daylighting controls if it reaches a 40% market penetration level in that year.

  3. Laser sealed vacuum insulation window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the glass panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

  4. Laser sealed vacuum insulating window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1985-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the galss panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

  5. Design and Construction of a Guarded Hot Box Facility for Evaluating the Thermal Performance of Building Wall Materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mero, Claire Renee

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    , studs in walls are also thermal bridges, since the thermal resistance of wood is much less than the insulation surrounding them. [5] In order to block thermal bridging, either exterior insulation or Aerogel stud strips can be used. [4]. Most exterior... components. [6] 3 3 Aerogel is a silica based nano-scale structure originally developed by NASA and used on the Mars Rover that is 98% air [7], [8]. Until recently aerogel has been far too expensive to even consider using in homes, however...

  6. Design and Construction of a Guarded Hot Box Facility for Evaluating the Thermal Performance of Building Wall Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mero, Claire Renee

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    , studs in walls are also thermal bridges, since the thermal resistance of wood is much less than the insulation surrounding them. [5] In order to block thermal bridging, either exterior insulation or Aerogel stud strips can be used. [4]. Most exterior... components. [6] 3 3 Aerogel is a silica based nano-scale structure originally developed by NASA and used on the Mars Rover that is 98% air [7], [8]. Until recently aerogel has been far too expensive to even consider using in homes, however...

  7. THE MOBILE WINDOW THERMAL TEST FACILITY (MoWiTT)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klems, J. H.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    facilitieso For a 2 K/W (10 BTU- 1 ft 2 hr F) is reasonable;or 0005 W m- 2 K- l (0.01 BTU hr- 1 ft- 2 ). For a commonthis becomes 0.05 W/K (0.1 BTU hr- 1 F- 1 ). (approximately

  8. Solar Window Technology for BIPV or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    Solar Window Technology for BIPV or BAPV Energy Systems Problem this technology solves: Using of Solar energy considerably, photovoltaic or PV material is still a major $ cost/unit of energy produced a novel high efficiency concentrator design, this static "Solar Window" system is such that it allows

  9. Evaluation of the Thermal Performance for a Wire Mesh/Hollow Glass Microsphere Composite Structure as a Conduction Barrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mckenna, Sean

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental investigation exploring the use of wire mesh/hollow glass microsphere combination for use as thermal insulation was conducted with the aim to conclude whether or not it represents a superior insulation technology to those...

  10. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance of Thin Film, Solar Thermal Energy Converters",sts of Collectors of Solar Thermal Energy, A Steel Flat PlatA Comparison of Solar Thermal Coatings", Spie 85, Optics in

  11. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Electro-Optics Technology Center; Wei, G. [Mobil Solar Energy Corp., Billerica, MA (United States); Yu, P.C. [PPG Industries, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors` institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  12. THERM 5 / WINDOW 5 NFRC simulation manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Robin; Kohler, Christian; Arasteh, Dariush; Carmody, John; Huizenga, Charlie; Curcija, Dragan

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document, the ''THERM 5/WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual', discusses how to use the THERM and WINDOW programs to model products for NFRC certified simulations and assumes that the user is already familiar with those programs. In order to learn how to use these programs, it is necessary to become familiar with the material in both the ''THERM User's Manual'' and the ''WINDOW User's Manual''. In general, this manual references the User's Manuals rather than repeating the information. If there is a conflict between either of the User Manual and this ''THERM 5/''WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'', the ''THERM 5/WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'' takes precedence. In addition, if this manual is in conflict with any NFRC standards, the standards take precedence. For example, if samples in this manual do not follow the current taping and testing NFRC standards, the standards not the samples in this manual, take precedence.

  13. The Impact of Above-Sheathing Ventilation on the Thermal and Moisture Performance of Steep-Slope Residential Roofs and Attics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, W.; Karagiozis, A.; Wilson, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE IMPACT OF ABOVE-SHEATHING VENTILATION ON THE THERMAL AND MOISTURE PERFORMANCE OF STEEP-SLOPE RESIDENTIAL ROOFS AND ATTICS William (Bill) Miller Research Scientist Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee Joe Wilson Product... with and without infrared blocking color pigments (IrBCPs) and with and without above-sheathing ventilation. The combination of increased solar reflectance and above-sheathing ventilation reduced the heat flow penetrating the attic floor by 70% as compared...

  14. The Impact of Above-Sheathing Ventilation on the Thermal and Moisture Performance of Steep-Slope Residential Roofs and Attics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, W.; Karagiozis, A.; Wilson, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE IMPACT OF ABOVE-SHEATHING VENTILATION ON THE THERMAL AND MOISTURE PERFORMANCE OF STEEP-SLOPE RESIDENTIAL ROOFS AND ATTICS William (Bill) Miller Research Scientist Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee Joe Wilson Product... Manager Metro Roof Products Oceanside, California Achilles Karagiozis Research Scientist Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee ABSTRACT Field studies were conducted on several attic assemblies having stone-coated metal shake roofs...

  15. Thermal hydraulic performance testing of printed circuit heat exchangers in a high-temperature helium test facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sai K. Mylavarapu; Xiaodong Sun; Richard E. Glosup; Richard N. Christensen; Michael W. Patterson

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, such as a very high temperature reactor (VHTR), an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is required to efficiently transfer the core thermal output to a secondary fluid for electricity generation with an indirect power cycle and/or process heat applications. Currently, there is no proven high-temperature (750–800 °C or higher) compact heat exchanger technology for high-temperature reactor design concepts. In this study, printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE), a potential IHX concept for high-temperature applications, has been investigated for their heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics under high operating temperatures and pressures. Two PCHEs, each having 10 hot and 10 cold plates with 12 channels (semicircular cross-section) in each plate are fabricated using Alloy 617 plates and tested for their performance in a high-temperature helium test facility (HTHF). The PCHE inlet temperature and pressure were varied from 85 to 390 °C/1.0–2.7 MPa for the cold side and 208–790 °C/1.0–2.7 MPa for the hot side, respectively, while the mass flow rate of helium was varied from 15 to 49 kg/h. This range of mass flow rates corresponds to PCHE channel Reynolds numbers of 950 to 4100 for the cold side and 900 to 3900 for the hot side (corresponding to the laminar and laminar-to-turbulent transition flow regimes). The obtained experimental data have been analyzed for the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of the heat transfer surface of the PCHEs and compared with the available models and correlations in the literature. In addition, a numerical treatment of hydrodynamically developing and hydrodynamically fully-developed laminar flow through a semicircular duct is presented. Relations developed for determining the hydrodynamic entrance length in a semicircular duct and the friction factor (or pressure drop) in the hydrodynamic entry length region for laminar flow through a semicircular duct are given. Various hydrodynamic entrance region parameters, such as incremental pressure drop number, apparent Fanning friction factor, and hydrodynamic entrance length in a semicircular duct have been numerically estimated.

  16. Design and experimental testing of the performance of an outdoor LiBr/H{sub 2}O solar thermal absorption cooling system with a cold store

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agyenim, Francis; Knight, Ian; Rhodes, Michael [The Welsh School of Architecture, Bute Building, King Edward VII Avenue, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF10 3NB Wales (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A domestic-scale prototype experimental solar cooling system has been developed based on a LiBr/H{sub 2}O absorption system and tested during the 2007 summer and autumn months in Cardiff University, UK. The system consisted of a 12 m{sup 2} vacuum tube solar collector, a 4.5 kW LiBr/H{sub 2}O absorption chiller, a 1000 l cold storage tank and a 6 kW fan coil. The system performance, as well as the performances of the individual components in the system, were evaluated based on the physical measurements of the daily solar radiation, ambient temperature, inlet and outlet fluid temperatures, mass flow rates and electrical consumption by component. The average coefficient of thermal performance (COP) of the system was 0.58, based on the thermal cooling power output per unit of available thermal solar energy from the 12 m{sup 2} Thermomax DF100 vacuum tube collector on a hot sunny day with average peak insolation of 800 W/m{sup 2} (between 11 and 13.30 h) and ambient temperature of 24 C. The system produced an electrical COP of 3.6. Experimental results prove the feasibility of the new concept of cold store at this scale, with chilled water temperatures as low as 7.4 C, demonstrating its potential use in cooling domestic scale buildings. (author)

  17. Measurements of gas sorption from seawater and the influence of gas release on open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) system performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penney, T.R.; Althof, J.A.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical community has questioned the validity and cost-effectiveness of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) systems because of the unknown effect of noncondensable gas on heat exchanger performance and the power needed to run vacuum equipment to remove this gas. To date, studies of seawater gas desorption have not been prototypical for system level analysis. This study gives preliminary gas desorption data on a vertical spout, direct contact evaporator and multiple condenser geometries. Results indicate that dissolved gas can be substantially removed before the seawater enters the heat exchange process, reducing the uncertainty and effect of inert gas on heat exchanger performance.

  18. Observational Window Functions in Planet Transit Searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaspar von Braun; David R. Ciardi

    2008-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Window functions describe, as a function of orbital period, the probability that an existing planetary transit is detectable in one's data for a given observing strategy. We show the dependence of this probability upon several strategy and astrophysical parameters, such as length of observing run, observing cadence, length of night, and transit duration. The ability to detect a transit is directly related to the intrinsic noise of the observations. In our simulations of the window function, we explicitly address non-correlated (gaussian or white) noise and correlated (red) noise and discuss how these two different noise components affect window functions in different manners.

  19. Highly Insulating Residential Windows Using Smart Automated Shading...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Smart Window with integrated sensors, control logic and a motorized shade between glass panes. Image: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 2 of 3 Residential Smart Window...

  20. Research and Development Roadmap: Windows and Building Envelope...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    office windows. This Building Technologies Office (BTO) Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap identifies priority windows and building envelope R&D areas of interest. Cost and...

  1. Window and Envelope Technologies Overview - 2014 BTO Peer Review...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Windows and Building Envelope Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review Research and Development Roadmap: Windows and Building Envelope Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging Water Heating...

  2. June 1998Program Description Windows and Daylighting Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    June 1998Program Description THERM 2.0 Windows and Daylighting Group Building Technologies, and Dariush Arasteh Windows and Daylighting Group Building Technologies Department Environmental Energy

  3. Dynamics of window glass fracture in explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beauchamp, E.K.; Matalucci, R.V.

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An exploratory study was conducted under the Architectural Surety Program to examine the possibility of modifying fracture of glass in the shock-wave environment associated with terrorist bombings. The intent was to explore strategies to reduce the number and severity of injuries resulting from those attacks. The study consisted of a series of three experiments at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology at Socorro, NM, in which annealed and tempered glass sheets were exposed to blast waves at several different levels of overpressure and specific impulse. A preliminary assessment of the response of tempered glass to the blast environment suggested that inducing early failure would result in lowering fragment velocity as well as reducing the loading from the window to the structure. To test that possibility, two different and novel procedures (indentation flaws and spot annealing) were used to reduce the failure strength of the tempered glass while maintaining its ability to fracture into small cube-shaped fragments. Each experiment involved a comparison of the performance of four sheets of glass with different treatments.

  4. Two-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics and Conduction Simulations of Heat Transfer in Horizontal Window Frames with Internal Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, Arlid; Kohler, Christian; Dalehaug, Arvid; Arasteh, Dariush

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper assesses the accuracy of the simplified frame cavity conduction/convection and radiation models presented in ISO 15099 and used in software for rating and labeling window products. Temperatures and U-factors for typical horizontal window frames with internal cavities are compared; results from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations with detailed radiation modeling are used as a reference. Four different frames were studied. Two were made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and two of aluminum. For each frame, six different simulations were performed, two with a CFD code and four with a building-component thermal-simulation tool using the Finite Element Method (FEM). This FEM tool addresses convection using correlations from ISO 15099; it addressed radiation with either correlations from ISO 15099 or with a detailed, view-factor-based radiation model. Calculations were performed using the CFD code with and without fluid flow in the window frame cavities; the calculations without fluid flow were performed to verify that the CFD code and the building-component thermal-simulation tool produced consistent results. With the FEM-code, the practice of subdividing small frame cavities was examined, in some cases not subdividing, in some cases subdividing cavities with interconnections smaller than five millimeters (mm) (ISO 15099) and in some cases subdividing cavities with interconnections smaller than seven mm (a breakpoint that has been suggested in other studies). For the various frames, the calculated U-factors were found to be quite comparable (the maximum difference between the reference CFD simulation and the other simulations was found to be 13.2 percent). A maximum difference of 8.5 percent was found between the CFD simulation and the FEM simulation using ISO 15099 procedures. The ISO 15099 correlation works best for frames with high U-factors. For more efficient frames, the relative differences among various simulations are larger. Temperature was also compared, at selected locations on the frames. Small differences was found in the results from model to model. Finally, the effectiveness of the ISO cavity radiation algorithms was examined by comparing results from these algorithms to detailed radiation calculations (from both programs). Our results suggest that improvements in cavity heat transfer calculations can be obtained by using detailed radiation modeling (i.e. view-factor or ray-tracing models), and that incorporation of these strategies may be more important for improving the accuracy of results than the use of CFD modeling for horizontal cavities.

  5. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  6. High Performance Commercial Fenestration Framing Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Manteghi; Sneh Kumar; Joshua Early; Bhaskar Adusumalli

    2010-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A major objective of the U.S. Department of Energy is to have a zero energy commercial building by the year 2025. Windows have a major influence on the energy performance of the building envelope as they control over 55% of building energy load, and represent one important area where technologies can be developed to save energy. Aluminum framing systems are used in over 80% of commercial fenestration products (i.e. windows, curtain walls, store fronts, etc.). Aluminum framing systems are often required in commercial buildings because of their inherent good structural properties and long service life, which is required from commercial and architectural frames. At the same time, they are lightweight and durable, requiring very little maintenance, and offer design flexibility. An additional benefit of aluminum framing systems is their relatively low cost and easy manufacturability. Aluminum, being an easily recyclable material, also offers sustainable features. However, from energy efficiency point of view, aluminum frames have lower thermal performance due to the very high thermal conductivity of aluminum. Fenestration systems constructed of aluminum alloys therefore have lower performance in terms of being effective barrier to energy transfer (heat loss or gain). Despite the lower energy performance, aluminum is the choice material for commercial framing systems and dominates the commercial/architectural fenestration market because of the reasons mentioned above. In addition, there is no other cost effective and energy efficient replacement material available to take place of aluminum in the commercial/architectural market. Hence it is imperative to improve the performance of aluminum framing system to improve the energy performance of commercial fenestration system and in turn reduce the energy consumption of commercial building and achieve zero energy building by 2025. The objective of this project was to develop high performance, energy efficient commercial fenestration framing systems, by investigating new technologies that would improve the thermal performance of aluminum frames, while maintaining their structural and life-cycle performance. The project targeted an improvement of over 30% (whole window performance) over conventional commercial framing technology by improving the performance of commercial framing systems.

  7. NREL Electrochromic Window Research Wins Award

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Winners of the CO-LABS Governor's Award for High-Impact Research in Energy Efficiency, Dr. Satyen Deb at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) discovered that a small electrical charge can change the opacity of tungsten oxide from clear to tinted. He, Dr. Dane Gillaspie, and their fellow scientists at NREL then applied this knowledge to develop and transfer the technologies required to construct an electrochromic window, which can switch between clear and heavily tinted states. Electrochromic windows allow natural light in while adding tint to reduce summer heat and glare, and going clear to allow sunlight through in the winter. Broad adaptation of these windows could reduce US total energy use by four percent and reduce building cooling loads by 20%, much of this during expensive peak hours. Windows based on these discoveries are now being installed worldwide.

  8. NREL Electrochromic Window Research Wins Award

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Winners of the CO-LABS Governor's Award for High-Impact Research in Energy Efficiency, Dr. Satyen Deb at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) discovered that a small electrical charge can change the opacity of tungsten oxide from clear to tinted. He, Dr. Dane Gillaspie, and their fellow scientists at NREL then applied this knowledge to develop and transfer the technologies required to construct an electrochromic window, which can switch between clear and heavily tinted states. Electrochromic windows allow natural light in while adding tint to reduce summer heat and glare, and going clear to allow sunlight through in the winter. Broad adaptation of these windows could reduce US total energy use by four percent and reduce building cooling loads by 20%, much of this during expensive peak hours. Windows based on these discoveries are now being installed worldwide.

  9. 700 MHz window R & D at LBNL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rimmer, R.A.; Koehler, G.; Saleh, T.; Weidenbach, R.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBNL-47939 LAUR 01-2574 CBP tech230 700 MHz Window R&D at LBNL R. Rimmer, G. Koehler, T.describes the R&D activities at LBNL under contract # 06261-

  10. Domestic olivine vs magnesite as a thermal-energy-storage material: performance comparisons for electrically heated room-size units in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 94. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laster, W.R.; Schoenhals, R.J.; Gay, B.M.; Palmour, H. III

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrically heated thermal-energy-storage (TES) heaters employing high-heat-capacity ceramic refractories for sensible heat storage have been in use in Europe for several years. With these heaters, low cost off-peak electrical energy is stored by heating a storage core composed of ceramic material to approximately 800/sup 0/C. During the peak period, no electrical energy is used as the building heating needs are supplied by extracting the stored heat from the core by forced air circulation. Recently significant interest in the use of off-peak TES units in the US has occured, leading to the search for a domestic supply of high heat capacity ceramic refractory material. North Carolina's extensive but under-utilized supply of refractory grade olivine has been proposed as a source of storage material for these units. In this paper, the suitability of North Carolina olivine for heat-storage applications is assessed by comparing its thermal performance with that of European materials. Using the method of ASHRAE Standard 94.2, the thermal performance of two small room-sized commercially available TES units was determined experimentally with two different storage materials, North Carolina olivine and German magnesite. Comparisons between the two materials are made and conclusions are drawn.

  11. Electrochromic sun control coverings for windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, D K; Tracy, C E

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2 billion square meters (m{sup 2}) of building windows in the United States cause a national energy drain almost as large as the energy supply of the Alaskan oil pipeline. Unlike the pipeline, the drain of energy through windows will continue well into the 21st century. A part of this energy drain is due to unwanted sun gain through windows. This is a problem throughout the country in commercial buildings because they generally require air conditioning even in cold climates. New commercial windows create an additional 1600 MW demand for peak electric power in the United States each year. Sun control films, widely used in new windows and as retrofits to old windows, help to mitigate this problem. However, conventional, static solar control films also block sunlight when it is wanted for warmth and daylighting. New electrochromic, switchable, sun-gain-control films now under development will provide more nearly optimal and automatic sun control for added comfort, decreased building operating expense, and greater energy saving. Switchable, electrochromic films can be deposited on polymers at high speeds by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) in a process that may be suitable for roll coating. This paper describes the electrochromic coatings and the PECVD processes, and speculates about their adaptability to high-speed roll coating. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Mapping comfort : an analysis method for understanding diversity in the thermal environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webb, Amanda Laurel

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our thermal experience is never neutral. Whether standing near a cold window in the winter, or in the shade on a sunny day, we constantly experience a rich set of thermal stimuli. Yet, many of the tools used in professional ...

  13. End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program: Characterizing residential thermal performance from high resolution end-use data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N.E.; Williamson, M.A.; Bailey, S.A.; Pratt, R.G.; Stokes, G.M.; Sandusky, W.F.; Pearson, E.W.; Roberts, J.S.

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is part of a two-volume set describing a series of thermal analyses of the residential buildings monitored under the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program. Volume 1 describes in detail the thermal analysis methodology employed. Volume 2 presents the results of applying the methodology in a series of four distinct analyses: (1) an analysis of the first monitored heating season, 1985--1986; (2) an analysis of the second monitored heating season, (3) a comparison of first- and second-year analyses showing changes in residential consumption with changes in weather and evaluating the ability of the analytical technique to discriminate those changes; and (4) a continuation of the previous analyses evaluating the effects of foundation type and heating system type on the results.

  14. Use of thermal desorption/gas chromatography as a performance-based screening method for petroleum hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slavin, P.J. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Crandall, K. [Brown and Root Environmental, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dawson, L.; Kottenstette, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wade, M. [INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal desorption/gas chromatography (TD/GC) was used to screen soil samples on site for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content during a RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI). It proved to be a rapid, cost- effective tool for detecting non-aromatic mineral oil in soil. The on- site TD/GC results correlated well with those generated at an off- site laboratory for samples analyzed in accordance with EPA Method 418.1.

  15. User's manual for DELSOL2: a computer code for calculating the optical performance and optimal system design for solar-thermal central-receiver plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dellin, T.A.; Fish, M.J.; Yang, C.L.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DELSOL2 is a revised and substantially extended version of the DELSOL computer program for calculating collector field performance and layout, and optimal system design for solar thermal central receiver plants. The code consists of a detailed model of the optical performance, a simpler model of the non-optical performance, an algorithm for field layout, and a searching algorithm to find the best system design. The latter two features are coupled to a cost model of central receiver components and an economic model for calculating energy costs. The code can handle flat, focused and/or canted heliostats, and external cylindrical, multi-aperture cavity, and flat plate receivers. The program optimizes the tower height, receiver size, field layout, heliostat spacings, and tower position at user specified power levels subject to flux limits on the receiver and land constraints for field layout. The advantages of speed and accuracy characteristic of Version I are maintained in DELSOL2.

  16. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data. Alpha Solarco Model 104 solar collector with 0. 125-inch Schott low-iron glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Alpha Solarco Model 104 solar collector, with 0.125-inch Schott low-iron glass reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  17. Effects of axial plate heat conduction on the thermal performance of a laminar counterflow flat plate heat exchanger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demko, Jonathan Alexander

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THEN THE CENTERLINE TEHPERATUBES EY USING THZ ENERGY EQUATION AIONG THE CENTERLINE FINALLY E VAL HAT I THE FLO W FIELD EPS= 1, OD-04 DO 999 K=1, 850 REST=0 ~ 0 DO DO 70 J=1rM TH {N, J)= (4 DU?TH (8-1, J) -TH(8-2 ~ J) ) /3 DO DO 60 I= 2, 8L TH (I, M) = (DY2... thermal conductivity ratios of the plate to the fluid, dimensionless plate thicknesses, Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my thanks to all those who gave me support while I was working toward this goal. Dr. Louis...

  18. Numerical analysis of heat transfer by conduction and natural convection in loose-fill fiberglass insulation--effects of convection on thermal performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delmas, A.A.; Wilkes, K.E.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-dimensional code for solving equations of convective heat transfer in porous media is used to analyze heat transfer by conduction and convection in the attic insulation configuration. The particular cases treated correspond to loose-fill fiberglass insulation, which is characterized by high porosity and air permeability. The effects of natural convection on the thermal performance of the insulation are analyzed for various densities, permeabilities, and thicknesses of insulation. With convection increasing the total heat transfer through the insulation, the thermal resistance was found to decrease as the temperature difference across the insulating material increases. The predicted results for the thermal resistance are compared with data obtained in the large-scale climate simulator at the Roof Research Center using the attic test module, where the same phenomenon has already been observed. The way the wood joists within the insulation influence the start of convection is studied for differing thermophysical and dynamic properties of the insulating material. The presence of wood joists induces convection at a lower temperature difference.

  19. Final Report on Work Performed Under Agreement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Solutia Performance Films, utilizing funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Buildings Technologies Program, completed research to develop, validate, and commercialize a range of cost-effective, low-emissivity energy-control retrofit window films with significantly improved emissivity over current technology. These films, sold under the EnerLogic® trade name, offer the energy-saving properties of modern low-e windows, with several advantages over replacement windows, such as: lower initial installation cost, a significantly lower product carbon footprint, and an ability to provide a much faster return on investment. EnerLogic® window films also offer significantly greater energy savings than previously available with window films with similar visible light transmissions. EnerLogic® window films offer these energy-saving advantages over other window films due to its ability to offer both summer cooling and winter heating savings. Unlike most window films, that produce savings only during the cooling season, EnerLogic® window film is an all-season, low-emissivity (low-e) film that produces both cooling and heating season savings. This paper will present technical information on the development hurdles as well as details regarding the following claims being made about EnerLogic® window film, which can be found at www.EnerLogicfilm.com: 1. Other window film technologies save energy. EnerLogic® window film's patent-pending coating delivers excellent energy efficiency in every season, so no other film can match its annual dollar or energy consumption savings. 2. EnerLogic® window film is a low-cost, high-return technology that compares favorably to other popular energy-saving measures both in terms of energy efficiency and cost savings. In fact, EnerLogic® window film typically outperforms most of the alternatives in terms of simple payback. 3. EnerLogic® window film provides unparalleled glass insulating capabilities for window film products. With its patent-pending low-e technology, EnerLogic® window film has the best insulating performance of any film product available. The insulating power of EnerLogic® window film gives single-pane windows the annual insulating performance of double-pane windows - and gives double-pane windows the annual insulating performance of triple-pane windows.

  20. Microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for packaging of microelectronic devices, including an integral window. The microelectronic device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can include a cofired ceramic frame or body. The package can have an internal stepped structure made of one or more plates, with apertures, which are patterned with metallized conductive circuit traces. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded on the plate to these traces, and oriented so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A cover lid can be attached to the opposite side of the package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, having an integral window that can be hermetically-sealed. The package body can be formed by low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the window being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. Multiple chips can be located within a single package. The cover lid can include a window. The apparatus is particularly suited for packaging of MEMS devices, since the number of handling steps is greatly reduced, thereby reducing the potential for contamination.

  1. Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy Window Functions Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lloyd Knox

    1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary results of most observations of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy are estimates of the angular power spectrum averaged through some broad band, called band-powers. These estimates are in turn what are used to produce constraints on cosmological parameters due to all CMB observations. Essential to this estimation of cosmological parameters is the calculation of the expected band-power for a given experiment, given a theoretical power spectrum. Here we derive the "band power" window function which should be used for this calculation, and point out that it is not equivalent to the window function used to calculate the variance. This important distinction has been absent from much of the literature: the variance window function is often used as the band-power window function. We discuss the validity of this assumed equivalence, the role of window functions for experiments that constrain the power in {\\it multiple} bands, and summarize a prescription for reporting experimental results. The analysis methods detailed here are applied in a companion paper to three years of data from the Medium Scale Anisotropy Measurement.

  2. Hot Cell Window Shielding Analysis Using MCNP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad L. Pope; Wade W. Scates; J. Todd Taylor

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex nuclear facilities are undergoing a documented safety analysis upgrade. In conjunction with the upgrade effort, shielding analysis of the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) hot cell windows has been conducted. This paper describes the shielding analysis methodology. Each 4-ft thick window uses nine glass slabs, an oil film between the slabs, numerous steel plates, and packed lead wool. Operations in the hot cell center on used nuclear fuel (UNF) processing. Prior to the shielding analysis, shield testing with a gamma ray source was conducted, and the windows were found to be very effective gamma shields. Despite these results, because the glass contained significant amounts of lead and little neutron absorbing material, some doubt lingered regarding the effectiveness of the windows in neutron shielding situations, such as during an accidental criticality. MCNP was selected as an analysis tool because it could model complicated geometry, and it could track gamma and neutron radiation. A bounding criticality source was developed based on the composition of the UNF. Additionally, a bounding gamma source was developed based on the fission product content of the UNF. Modeling the windows required field inspections and detailed examination of drawings and material specifications. Consistent with the shield testing results, MCNP results demonstrated that the shielding was very effective with respect to gamma radiation, and in addition, the analysis demonstrated that the shielding was also very effective during an accidental criticality.

  3. Gosselin, J.R. and Chen, Q. 2008. "A computational method for calculating heat transfer and airflow through a dual airflow window," Energy and Buildings, 40(4), 452-458.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    and airflow through a dual airflow window," Energy and Buildings, 40(4), 452-458. A computational method for calculating heat transfer and airflow through a dual-airflow window Jennifer R. Gosselin, Qingyan (Yan) Chen, and their energy performance can be studied using several computational models. A dual-airflow window with triple

  4. Test for Modeling Windows in DOE 2.1E for Comparing the Window Library with the Shading Coefficient Method for a Single-Family Residence in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, S.; Haberl, J. S.

    2008-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    . The window simulation tests are performed using single-pane, double-pane, and low-e glass on two standard DOE 2.1E single-family house models: 1) the model which has the R-value for wall, roof and floor according to 2000 IECC (Quick Wall), and 2) the model...

  5. An Evaluation of Improper Refrigerant Charge on the Performance of a Split System Air Conditioner with a Thermal Expansion Valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farzad, M.; O'Neal, D. L.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by the manufacturer for a specific indoor and outdoor temperatures. Once the full charge was determined, the unit was subjected to 40%, 30%, 20%, 15%, 10%, and 5% undercharging and 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% overcharging of refrigerant by mass. The fully charged tests were... CONDITION All tests were performed on a split system central air conditioner provided by the Trane company. To determine the proper amount of refrigerant charge needed in the system and the unit's corresponding performance, charging specifications...

  6. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility Program for predicting thermal performance of line-focusing, concentrating solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The program at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, for predicting the performance of line-focusing solar collectors in industrial process heat applications is described. The qualifications of the laboratories selected to do the testing and the procedure for selecting commercial collectors for testing are given. The testing program is outlined. The computer program for performance predictions is described. An error estimate for the predictions and a sample of outputs from the program are included.

  7. Performance predictions for a laser intensified thermal beam for use in high resolution Focused Ion Beam instruments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wouters, S H W; Notermans, R P M J W; Debernardi, N; Mutsaers, P H A; Luiten, O J; Vredenbregt, E J D

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photo-ionization of a laser-cooled and compressed atomic beam from a high-flux thermal source can be used to create a high-brightness ion beam for use in Focus Ion Beam (FIB) instruments. Here we show using calculations and Doppler cooling simulations that an atomic rubidium beam with a brightness of $2.1 \\times 10^7 A/(m^2\\,sr\\,eV)$ at a current of 1 nA can be created using a compact 5 cm long 2D magneto-optical compressor which is more than an order of magnitude better than the current state of the art Liquid Metal Ion Source.

  8. Solar optical materials for innovative window design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lampert, C.M.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New and innovative optical materials and coatings can greatly improve the efficiency of window energy systems. These potential materials and coatings increase energy efficiency by reducing radiative losses in the infrared, or reducing visible reflection losses or controlling overheating due to solar gain. Current progress in heat mirror coatings for glass and polymeric substrates is presented. Highly doped semiconducting oxides and metal/dielectric interference coatings are reviewed. Physical and optical properties are outlined for antireflection films and transparent aerogel insulation media. The potential for optical switching films as window elements includes discussions of electrochromic, photochromic and other physical switching processes.

  9. Energy-Efficient Windows | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPowerHome |Cooking for WinterWindow TreatmentsWindows

  10. Making Smart Windows Smarter | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & Gas »ofMarketingSmart Windows Smarter Making Smart Windows

  11. Integral window/photon beam position monitor and beam flux detectors for x-ray beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shu, Deming (Darien, IL); Kuzay, Tuncer M. (Naperville, IL)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monitor/detector assembly in a synchrotron for either monitoring the position of a photon beam or detecting beam flux may additionally function as a vacuum barrier between the front end and downstream segment of the beamline in the synchrotron. A base flange of the monitor/detector assembly is formed of oxygen free copper with a central opening covered by a window foil that is fused thereon. The window foil is made of man-made materials, such as chemical vapor deposition diamond or cubic boron nitrate and in certain configurations includes a central opening through which the beams are transmitted. Sensors of low atomic number materials, such as aluminum or beryllium, are laid on the window foil. The configuration of the sensors on the window foil may be varied depending on the function to be performed. A contact plate of insulating material, such as aluminum oxide, is secured to the base flange and is thereby clamped against the sensor on the window foil. The sensor is coupled to external electronic signal processing devices via a gold or silver lead printed onto the contact plate and a copper post screw or alternatively via a copper screw and a copper spring that can be inserted through the contact plate and coupled to the sensors. In an alternate embodiment of the monitor/detector assembly, the sensors are sandwiched between the window foil of chemical vapor deposition diamond or cubic boron nitrate and a front foil made of similar material.

  12. Defining window-boundaries for genomic analyses using smoothing spline techniques

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Beissinger, Timothy M; Rosa, Guilherme JM; Kaeppler, Shawn M; Gianola, Daniel; de Leon, Natalia

    2015-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-density genomic data is often analyzed by combining information over windows of adjacent markers. Interpretation of data grouped in windows versus at individual locations may increase statistical power, simplify computation, reduce sampling noise, and reduce the total number of tests performed. However, use of adjacent marker information can result in over- or under-smoothing, undesirable window boundary specifications, or highly correlated test statistics. We introduce a method for defining windows based on statistically guided breakpoints in the data, as a foundation for the analysis of multiple adjacent data points. This method involves first fitting a cubic smoothing spline to the data and then identifying the inflection points of the fitted spline, which serve as the boundaries of adjacent windows. This technique does not require prior knowledge of linkage disequilibrium, and therefore can be applied to data collected from individual or pooled sequencing experiments. Moreover, in contrast to existing methods, an arbitrary choice of window size is not necessary, since these are determined empirically and allowed to vary along the genome.

  13. Evaluation of control strategies for different smart window combinations using computer simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonsson, Andreas; Roos, Arne [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Several studies have shown that the use of switchable windows could lower the energy consumption of buildings. Since the main function of windows is to provide daylight and visual contact with the external world, high visible transmittance is needed. From an energy perspective it is always best to have the windows in their low-transparent state whenever there are cooling needs, but this is generally not preferable from a daylight and visual contact point of view. Therefore a control system, which can be based on user presence, is needed in connection with switchable windows. In this study the heating and cooling needs of the building, using different control mechanisms were evaluated. This was done for different locations and for different combinations of switchable windows, using electrochromic glazing in combination with either low-e or solar control glazing. Four control mechanisms were investigated; one that only optimizes the window to lower the need for heating and cooling, one that assumes that the office is in use during the daytime, one based on user presence and one limiting the perpendicular component of the incident solar irradiation to avoid glare and too strong daylight. The control mechanisms were compared using computer simulations. A simplified approach based on the balance temperature concept was used instead of performing complete building simulations. The results show that an occupancy-based control system is clearly beneficial and also that the best way to combine the panes in the switchable window differs depending on the balance temperature of the building and on the climate. It is also shown that it can be beneficial to have different window combinations for different orientations. (author)

  14. Battery life and performance depend strongly on temperature; thus there exists a need for thermal conditioning in plug-in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    change in the battery and a degradation model that estimates capacity loss. A driving and storage profile and stress factors during storage and cycling also affects how quickly the battery will degradeABSTRACT Battery life and performance depend strongly on temperature; thus there exists a need

  15. Modeling Windows in Energy Plus with Simple Performance Indices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    indices (U-factor, Solar Heat Gain Coefficient, and Visible Transmittance) to model the energy impacts, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents, process, or service by its trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily

  16. Energy Performance Ratings for Windows, Doors, and Skylights | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 FederalTexas Energy Incentive Programs,EnergyAugust 10,Installof Energy

  17. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Mounted Air

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report:40PM toLED

  18. Energy Performance Ratings for Windows, Doors, and Skylights | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPowerHome | DocumentsElements ofin Log HomesEnergyof

  19. New Rating System for Enhancing Window Energy Performance | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015of 2005 attheMohammed Khan -DepartmentDepartmentCyber SecurityDepartment

  20. Energy Performance Ratings for Windows, Doors, and Skylights | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisoryStandard |in STEMEnergyI.ofTrack 1shouldJuneContracting Energyof

  1. New Rating System for Enhancing Window Energy Performance | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEW HAMPSHIREof EnergyBulbs | Department ofofWinsofPerspective

  2. The Current T2K Beam Window

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Downstream Helium velocity 5 m/s Heat transfer coefficient 150 W/m2K #12;Helium flow grooves He in He out at KEK (via Oak Ridge via PSI). #12;Assembled Window #12;Remote Handling #12;Remote handling Monitor Chamber (Canada) Target Station (Japan) #12;Remote installation #12;Stress analysis and upgrade potential

  3. Occupant Response to Window Control Signaling Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ackerly, Katherine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    preventing energy waste during the red light mode is a moregreen lights was installed to help avoid energy waste, or inlight means that energy is being used to modify the temparature inside and therefore if I open my window it will waste energy.  

  4. End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program: Characterizing residential thermal performance from high resolution end-use data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N.E.; Pearson, E.W.; Stokes, G.M.; Pratt, R.G.; Williamson, M.A.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) began the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP) in 1983. Prior to beginning the ELCAP, there was an abundance of information regarding total power consumption for residential structures in the Pacific Northwest and limited information regarding power consumption by various end uses. The purpose of ELCAP is to collect actual end-use load data from both residential and commercial buildings in the region. This report presents the methodology used in several statistical modeling studies carried out on the ELCAP data between 1986 and 1989. These studies involve the thermal characterization of homes and comparisons of building techniques and conservation measures by residential and commercial consumers within the Bonneville service area of the Pacific Northwest. Each data gathering technique was successful in extracting a specific set of consumer-related energy use information. The analytical techniques used in these studies are compiled in this methodology report and are to be used in conjunction with Volume 2 -- Analysis. This should facilitate ease of reference use during future analyses. It is anticipated that the data gathered on participating consumers could potentially be used to aid in decisions regarding the management of the Northwest's electrical energy resources. 7 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Development of trade-off equations for EnergyStar windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Joe; Mitchell, Robin; Selkowitz, Steve; Arasteh, Dariush; Clear, Bob

    2004-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors explore the feasibility of adding a performance option to DOE's EnergyStar{copyright} Windows program whereby windows of differing U-factors and SHGCs can qualify so long as they have equivalent annual energy performance. An iterative simulation procedure is used to calculate trade-off equations giving the change in SHGC needed to compensate for a change in U-factor. Of the four EnergyStar{copyright} Window climate zones, trade-off equations are possible only in the Northern and Southern zones. In the North/Central and South/Central zones, equations are not possible either because of large intrazone climate variations or the current SHGC requirements are already near optimum.

  6. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1: CDRL Item 2, pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume VII. Pilot plant cost and commercial plant cost and performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed cost and performance data for the proposed tower focus pilot plant and commercial plant are given. The baseline central receiver concept defined by the MDAC team consists of the following features: (A) an external receiver mounted on a tower, and located in a 360/sup 0/ array of sun-tracking heliostats which comprise the collector subsystem. (B) feedwater from the electrical power generation subsystem is pumped through a riser to the receiver, where the feedwater is converted to superheated steam in a single pass through the tubes of the receiver panels. (C) The steam from the receiver is routed through a downcomer to the ground and introduced to a turbine directly for expansion and generation of electricity, and/or to a thermal storage subsystem, where the steam is condensed in charging heat exchangers to heat a dual-medium oil and rock thermal storage unit (TSU). (D) Extended operation after daylight hours is facilitated by discharging the TSU to generate steam for feeding the admission port of the turbine. (E) Overall control of the system is provided by a master control unit, which handles the interactions between subsystems that take place during startup, shutdown, and transitions between operating modes. (WHK)

  7. An Evaluation of Improper Refrigerant Charge on the Performance of a Split System Air Conditioner with a Thermal Expansion Valve 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farzad, M.; O'Neal, D. L.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and was exhausted by the unit fan back into the room through the outdoor coil. PSYCHROMETRIC ROOMS The psychrometric rooms could simulate all testing conditions required for air conditioning and heat pump performance testing. Dew point and room temperatures could..., Including Heat Pumps (1979)[7]. The entering dry bulb temperature for the outdoor coil for steady state and cyclic tests was 82? +/-0.3 F DB and 20% relative humidity. The steady state tests were repeated for outdoor temperatures of 90?, 95?, and 100?F...

  8. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the portion of thermal energy that can be converted toof high-performance thermal energy harvesting systems, butreferred to as the thermal energy from low- temperature heat

  9. Pennsylvania: New Series of Windows Has Potential to Save Energy...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    increase in energy efficiency compared to existing commercially available double-pane low-emissivity windows. Prior to the introduction of the OptiQ(tm), R-5 windows were not...

  10. Highly Insulating Residential Windows Using Smart Automated Shading...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The windows will function autonomously and in a networked configuration. Project Impact LBNL is aiming toward a mature market cost increment of 12ft2 of window. LBNL will also...

  11. The energy-savings potential of electrochromic windows in the US commercial buildings sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Eleanor; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alone Photovoltaic-Powered Electrochromic Smart Window.Subject responses to electrochromic windows. To be publishedAnalysis of Prototype Electrochromic Windows, ASHRAE

  12. Laminated electrochromic windows based on nickel oxide, tungsten oxide, and gel electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Passerini, S.; Scrosati, B.; Hermann, V. (Univ. di Roma (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica); Holmblad, C.; Bartlett, T. (Medtronic Promeon, Minneapolis, MN (United States))

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The characteristic and the performance of solid-state, laminated electrochromic windows using tungsten oxide as the principal electrochromic electrode and nonstoichiometric nickel oxide as the counterelectrode separated by selected gel electrolytes, are presented and discussed. These advanced-design, electro-optical devices show a very promising behavior in terms of light modulation and cyclability.

  13. Computing Reliability Distributions of Windowed Max-log-map (MLM) Detectors : ISI Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavcic, Aleksandar

    Computing Reliability Distributions of Windowed Max-log-map (MLM) Detectors : ISI Channels Fabian-log-map (MLM) detector has well-known appli- cations to the intersymbol interefence (ISI) channel [1, · · · , is trans- mitted across the ISI channel. Let the following random This work was performed when F. Lim

  14. Active load management with advanced window wall systems: Research and industry perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.; Levi, Mark S.; Blanc, Steven L.; McConahey, Erin; McClintock, Maurya; Hakkarainen, Pekka; Sbar, Neil L.; Myser, Michael P.

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced window wall systems have the potential to provide demand response by reducing peak electric loads by 20-30% in many commercial buildings through the active control of motorized shading systems, switchable window coatings, operable windows, and ventilated double-skin facade systems. These window strategies involve balancing daylighting and solar heat gains, heat rejection through ventilation, and night-time natural ventilation to achieve space-conditioning and lighting energy use reductions without the negative impacts on occupants associated with other demand responsive (DR) strategies. This paper explores conceptually how advanced window systems fit into the context of active load management programs, which cause customers to directly experience the time-varying costs of their consumption decisions. Technological options are suggested. We present pragmatic criteria that building owners use to determine whether to deploy such strategies. A utility's perspective is given. Industry also provides their perspectives on where the technology is today and what needs to happen to implement such strategies more broadly in the US. While there is significant potential for these advanced window concepts, widespread deployment is unlikely to occur with business-as-usual practice. Technologically, integrated window-lighting-HVAC products are underdeveloped. Implementation is hindered by fragmented labor practices, non-standard communication protocols, and lack of technical expertise. Design tools and information products that quantify energy performance, occupant impacts, reliability, and other pragmatic concerns are not available. Interest within the building industry in sustainability, energy-efficiency, and increased occupant amenity, comfort, and productivity will be the driving factors for these advanced facades in the near term--at least until the dust settles on the deregulated electricity market.

  15. Performance of High-Performance Glazing in IECC Compliant Building Simulation Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, J.; Haberl, J. S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    windows with evacuated or low-conductance gas-filled gaps (Carmody et al. 2004), and aerogel windows to reduce the heat loss (V-factor) of windows (Hartman et al. 1987). Technologies to reduce solar heat gain include improvements to existing low-E.../12-04, [CDROM]. College Station, TX: Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M University. Hartman, J., M.Rubin, and D. Arasteh. 1987. Thermal and solar-optical properties of silica aerogel for use in insulated windows. Proceedings of the 12th - 138 ? ESL-PA-06...

  16. Affordable Window Insulation with R-10/inch Rating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenifer Marchesi Redouane Begag; Je Kyun Lee; Danny Ou; Jong Ho Sonn; George Gould; Wendell Rhine

    2004-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    During the performance of contract DE-FC26-00-NT40998, entitled ''Affordable Window Insulation with R-10/inch Value'', research was conducted at Aspen Aerogels, Inc. to develop new transparent aerogel materials suitable for window insulation applications. The project requirements were to develop a formulation or multiple formulations that have high transparency (85-90%) in the visible region, are hydrophobic (will not opacify with exposure to water vapor or liquid), and have at least 2% resiliency (interpreted as recoverable 2% strain and better than 5% strain to failure in compression). Results from an unrelated project showed that silica aerogels covalently bonded to organic polymers exhibit excellent mechanical properties. At the outset of this project, we believed that such a route is the best to improve mechanical properties. We have applied Design of Experiment (DOE) techniques to optimize formulations including both silica aerogels and organically modified silica aerogels (''Ormosils''). We used these DOE results to optimize formulations around the local/global optimization points. This report documents that we succeeded in developing a number of formulations that meet all of the stated criteria. We successfully developed formulations utilizing a two-step approach where the first step involves acid catalyzed hydrolysis and the second step involves base catalyzed condensation to make the gels. The gels were dried using supercritical CO{sub 2} and we were able to make 1 foot x 1 foot x 0.5 inch panels that met the criteria established.

  17. Analysing the effects of apodizing windows on local correlation tracking using Nirvana simulations of convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louis, Rohan E; Georgoulis, Manolis K; Küker, Manfred

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We employ different shapes of apodizing windows in the local correlation tracking (LCT) routine to retrieve horizontal velocities using numerical simulations of convection. LCT was applied on a time sequence of temperature maps generated by the Nirvana code with four different apodizing windows, namely--Gaussian, Lorentzian, trapezoidal and triangular, with varying widths. In terms of correlations (between the LCT-retrieved and simulated flow field), the triangular and the trapezoidal perform the best and worst, respectively. On segregating the intrinsic velocities in the simulations on the basis of their magnitudes, we find that for all windows, a significantly higher correlation is obtained for the intermediate and high-velocity bins and only modest or weak values in the low-velocity bins. The differences between the LCT-retrieved and simulated flow fields were determined spatially which show large residuals at or close to the boundary of granules. The extent to which the horizontal flow vectors retrieved b...

  18. Comparative Experimental Investigation of Combustion, Performance and Emission in a Single Cylinder Thermal Barrier Coated Diesel Engine using Diesel and Neem Biodiesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M C Navindgi; Dr. Maheswar Dutta; Dr. B. Sudheer Prem Kumar

    Abstract- The use of methyl esters of vegetable oil known as biodiesel are increasingly popular because of their low impact on environment, green alternate fuel and most interestingly it's use in engines does not require major modification in the engine hardware. Use of biodiesel as sole fuel in conventional direct injection diesel engine results in combustion problems, hence it is proposed to use the biodiesel in low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engines with its significance characteristics of higher operating temperature, maximum heat release, higher brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and ability to handle the lower calorific value (CV) fuel. In this work biodiesel from Neem oil called as Neem oil methyl ester (NOME) was used as sole fuel in conventional diesel engine and LHR direct injection (Dl) diesel engine. The low heat rejection engine was developed with uniform ceramic coating of combustion chamber (includes piston crown, cylinder head, valves and cylinder liner) by partially stabilized /zirconia (PSZ) of 0.5 mm thickness. The experimental investigation was carried out in a single cylinder water-cooled LHR direct injection diesel engine. In this investigation, the combustion, performance and emission analysis were carried out in a diesel and biodiesel fueled conventional and LHR engine under identical operating conditions. The test result of biodiesel fueled LHR engine was quite identical to that of the conventional diesel engine. The brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of LHR engine with biodiesel is decreased marginally than LHR engine operated with diesel. Carbon monoxide (CO) and Hydrocarbon (HC) emission levels are decreased. The results of this comparative experimental investigation reveals that, some of the drawbacks of

  19. Developing Low-Conductance Window Frames: Capabilities and Limitations of Current Window Heat Transfer Design Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Curcija, Charlie; Kohler, Christian

    2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    While window frames typically represent 20-30% of the overall window area, their impact on the total window heat transfer rates may be much larger. This effect is even greater in low-conductance (highly insulating) windows that incorporate very low-conductance glazing. Developing low-conductance window frames requires accurate simulation tools for product research and development. Based on a literature review and an evaluation of current methods of modeling heat transfer through window frames, we conclude that current procedures specified in ISO standards are not sufficiently adequate for accurately evaluating heat transfer through the low-conductance frames. We conclude that the near-term priorities for improving the modeling of heat transfer through low-conductance frames are: (1) Add 2D view-factor radiation to standard modeling and examine the current practice of averaging surface emissivity based on area weighting and the process of making an equivalent rectangular frame cavity. (2) Asses 3D radiation effects in frame cavities and develop recommendation for inclusion into the design fenestration tools. (3) Assess existing correlations for convection in vertical cavities using CFD. (4) Study 2D and 3D natural convection heat transfer in frame cavities for cavities that are proven to be deficient from item 3 above. Recommend improved correlations or full CFD modeling into ISO standards and design fenestration tools, if appropriate. (5) Study 3D hardware short-circuits and propose methods to ensure that these effects are incorporated into ratings. (6) Study the heat transfer effects of ventilated frame cavities and propose updated correlations.

  20. Chromogenic switchable glazing: Towards the development of the smart window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lampert, C.M.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The science and technology of chromogenic materials for switchable glazings in building applications is discussed. These glazings can be used for dynamic control of solar and visible energy. Currently many researchers and engineers are involved with the development of products in this field. A summary of activities in Japan, Europe, Australia, USA and Canada is made. The activities of the International Energy Agency are included. Both non-electrically activated and electrically activated glazings are discussed. Technologies covered in the first category are photochromics, and thermochromics and thermotropics. A discussion of electrically activated chromogenic glazings includes dispersed liquid crystals, dispersed particles and electrochromics. A selection of device structures and performance characteristics are compared. A discussion of transparent conductors is presented. Technical issues concerning large-area development of smart windows are discussed.

  1. List of Windows Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf KilaueaInformation Other Alternative FuelEnergysourcesourceWindows

  2. Window Daylighting Demo | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric VehicleCenters | Department ofoftoMay 8,Energy Wind Vision:Window

  3. X-Windows Acceleration via NX

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsingWhat isJoin theanniversaryI 1 0 3 P 0 dX-RayX-Windows

  4. Window Industry Technology Roadmap | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapers Home Kyoung's pictureWind PowerWindStromRoadmap Name Window

  5. Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a full-scale office testbed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Lee, Eleanor S.; McNeil, Andrew

    2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Daylight redirecting systems with vertical windows have the potential to offset lighting energy use in deep perimeter zones. Microstructured prismatic window films can be manufactured using low-cost, roll-to-roll fabrication methods and adhered to the inside surface of existing windows as a retrofit measure or installed as a replacement insulating glass unit in the clerestory portion of the window wall. A clear film patterned with linear, 50-250 micrometer high, four-sided asymmetrical prisms was fabricated and installed in the south-facing, clerestory low-e, clear glazed windows of a full-scale testbed facility. Views through the film were distorted. The film was evaluated in a sunny climate over a two-year period to gauge daylighting and visual comfort performance. The daylighting aperture was small (window-towall ratio of 0.18) and the lower windows were blocked off to isolate the evaluation to the window film. Workplane illuminance measurements were made in the 4.6 m (15 ft) deep room furnished as a private office. Analysis of discomfort glare was conducted using high dynamic range imaging coupled with the evalglare software tool, which computes the daylight glare probability and other metrics used to evaluate visual discomfort. The window film was found to result in perceptible levels of discomfort glare on clear sunny days from the most conservative view point in the rear of the room looking toward the window. Daylight illuminance levels at the rear of the room were significantly increased above the reference window condition, which was defined as the same glazed clerestory window but with an interior Venetian blind (slat angle set to the cut-off angle), for the equinox to winter solstice period on clear sunny days. For partly cloudy and overcast sky conditions, daylight levels were improved slightly. To reduce glare, the daylighting film was coupled with a diffusing film in an insulating glazing unit. The diffusing film retained the directionality of the redirected light spreading it within a small range of outgoing angles. This solution was found to reduce glare to imperceptible levels while retaining for the most part the illuminance levels achieved solely by the daylighting film.

  6. Developing Low-Conductance Window Frames: Capabilities and Limitations of Current Window Heat Transfer Design Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transfer Design Tools Arild Gustavsen1,* , Dariush Arasteh2 , Bjørn Petter Jelle3,4 , Charlie Curcija5-conductance window frames requires accurate simulation tools for product research and development. Based and develop recommendation for inclusion into the design fenestration tools. 3. Assess existing correlations

  7. Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) powered electrochromic window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Crandall, R.S.; Deb, S.K.; Stone, J.L.

    1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A variable transmittance double pane window includes an electrochromic material that has been deposited on one pane of the window in conjunction with an array of photovoltaic cells deposited along an edge of the pane to produce the required electric power necessary to vary the effective transmittance of the window. A battery is placed in a parallel fashion to the array of photovoltaic cells to allow the user the ability to manually override the system when a desired transmittance is desired. 11 figures.

  8. Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) powered electrochromic window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Crandall, Richard S. (Boulder, CO); Deb, Satyendra K. (Boulder, CO); Stone, Jack L. (Lakewood, CO)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variable transmittance double pane window includes an electrochromic material that has been deposited on one pane of the window in conjunction with an array of photovoltaic cells deposited along an edge of the pane to produce the required electric power necessary to vary the effective transmittance of the window. A battery is placed in a parallel fashion to the array of photovoltaic cells to allow the user the ability to manually override the system when a desired transmittance is desired.

  9. Toshiba recommends Windows 7 Satellite L750-12T

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Toshiba recommends Windows 7 Model: i Satellite L750-12T 2nd Generation Intel® CoreTM i3-2350M processor­ 2.3 GHz, Genuine Windows® 7 Home Premium, 15.6" HD LCD, 4GB DDR3, 640GB HDD S-ATA, DVD Super and Enhanced Intel® SpeedStep® Technology Operating System Genuine Windows® 7 Home Premium Key Features Toshiba

  10. Windows and Building Envelope Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Envelope Technologies Overview - 2014 BTO Peer Review Emerging Technologies Program Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review Research and Development Roadmap: Windows and Building Envelope...

  11. Robust Inventory Routing with Flexible Time Window Allocation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chengliang Zhang

    2015-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Jan 15, 2015 ... Abstract: This paper studies a robust maritime inventory routing problem with time windows and stochastic travel times. One of the novelties of ...

  12. "Explosive" atom movement is new window into growing metalnanostructu...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    movement is new window into growing metal nanostructures Michael Tringides, Materials Science and Engineering , 515-294-6439 Breehan Gerleman Lucchesi, Public Affairs,...

  13. Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase Program Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Graham B.; Mapes, Terry S.; Zalis, WJ

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase Program, conduced by PNNL for DOE-BTP, including a summary of outcomes and lessons learned.

  14. The robust vehicle routing problem with time windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agostinho Agra

    2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Oct 2, 2012 ... Abstract: This paper addresses the robust vehicle routing problem with time windows. We are motivated by a problem that arises in maritime ...

  15. Technology Advancements to Lower Costs of Electrochromic Window Glazing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2008-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An Electrochromic (EC) Window is a solar control device that can electronically regulate the flow of sunlight and heat. In the case of the SageGlass{reg_sign} EC window, this property derives from a proprietary all-ceramic, intrinsically durable thin-film stack applied to an inner surface of a glass double-pane window. As solar irradiation and temperatures change, the window can be set to an appropriate level of tint to optimize the comfort and productivity of the occupants as well as to minimize building energy usage as a result of HVAC and lighting optimization. The primary goal of this project is to replace certain batch processes for EC thin film deposition resulting in a complete in-line vacuum process that will reduce future capital and labor coats, while increasing throughput and yields. This will require key technology developments to replace the offline processes. This project has enabled development of the next generation of electrochromic devices suitable for large-scale production. Specifically, the requirements to produce large area devices cost effectively require processes amenable to mass production, using a variety of different substrate materials, having minimal handling and capable of being run at high yield. The present SageGlass{reg_sign} production process consists of two vacuum steps separated by an atmospheric process. This means that the glass goes through several additional handling steps, including venting and pumping down to go from vacuum to atmosphere and back, which can only serve to introduce additional defects associated with such processes. The aim of this project therefore was to develop a process which would eliminate the need for the atmospheric process. The overall project was divided into several logical tasks which would result in a process ready to be implemented in the present SAGE facility. Tasks 2 and 3 were devoted to development and the optimization of a new thin film material process. These tasks are more complicated than would be expected, as it has been determined in the past that there are a number of interactions between the new material and the layers beneath, which have an important effect on the behavior of the device. The effects of these interactions needed to be understood in order for this task to be successful. Tasks 4 and 5 were devoted to production of devices using the novel technology developed in the previous tasks. In addition, characterization tests were required to ensure the devices would perform adequately as replacements for the existing technology. Each of these tasks has been achieved successfully. In task 2, a series of potential materials were surveyed, and ranked in order of desirability. Prototype device structures were produced and characterized in order to do this. This satisfied the requirements for Task 2. From the results of this relatively extensive survey, the number of candidate materials was reduced to one or two. Small devices were made in order to test the functionality of such samples, and a series of optimization experiments were carried out with encouraging results. Devices were fabricated, and some room temperature cycling carried out showing that there are no fundamental problems with this technology. This series of achievements satisfied the requirements for Tasks 3 and 4. The results obtained from Task 3 naturally led to scale-up of the process, so a large cathode was obtained and installed in a spare slot in the production coater, and a series of large devices fabricated. In particular, devices with dimensions of 60-inch x 34-inch were produced, using processes which are fully compatible with mass production. Testing followed, satisfying the requirements for Task 5. As can be seen from this discussion, all the requirements of the project have therefore been successfully achieved. The devices produced using the newly developed technology showed excellent optical properties, often exceeding the performance of the existing technology, equivalent durability results, and promise a significantly simplified manufacturing approach, the

  16. Reducing residential cooling requirements through the use of electrochromic windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of electrochromic windows in a prototypical residential building under a variety of state switching control strategies. We used the DOE-2.1E energy simulation program to analyze the annual cooling energy and peak demand as a function of glazing type, size, and electrochromic control strategy. A single-story ranch-style home located in the cooling-dominated locations of Miami, FL and Phoenix, AZ was simulated. Electrochromic control strategies analyzed were based on incident total solar radiation, space cooling load, and outside air temperature. Our results show that an electrochromic material with a high reflectance in the colored state provides the best performance for all control strategies. On the other hand, electrochromic switching using space cooling load provides the best performance for all the electrochromic materials. The performance of the incident total solar radiation control strategy varies as a function of the values of solar radiation which trigger the bleached and colored states of the electrochromic (setpoint range); i.e., required cooling decreases as the setpoint range decreases; also, performance differences among electrochromics increases. The setpoint range of outside air temperature control of electrochromics must relate to the ambient weather conditions prevalent in a particular location. If the setpoint range is too large, electrochromic cooling performance is very poor. Electrochromics compare favorably to conventional low-E clear glazings that have high solar heat gain coefficients that are used with overhangs. However, low-E tinted glazings with low solar heat gain coefficients can outperform certain electrochromics. Overhangs should be considered as a design option for electrochromics whose state properties do not change significantly between bleached and colored states.

  17. Porting salinas to the windows platform.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reese, Garth M.; Wilson, Christopher Riley

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ASC program has enabled significant development of high end engineering applications on massively parallel machines. There is a great benefit in providing these applications on the desktop of the analysts and designers, at least insofar as the small models may be run on these platforms, thus providing a tool set that spans the application needs. This effort documents the work of porting Salinas to the WINDOWS{trademark} platform. Selection of the tools required to compile, link, test and run Salinas in this environment is discussed. Significant problems encountered along the way are listed along with an estimation of the overall cost of the port. This report may serve as a baseline for streamlining further porting activities with other ASC codes.

  18. MAVIS III -- A Windows 95/NT Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardwick, M.F. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). GTS Engineering Dept.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MAVIS (Modeling and Analysis of Explosive Valve Interactions) is a computer program that simulates operation of explosively actuated valve. MAVIS was originally written in Fortran in the mid 1970`s and was primarily run on the Sandia Vax computers in use through the early 1990`s. During the mid to late 1980`s MAVIS was upgraded to include the effects of plastic deformation and it became MAVIS II. When the Vax computers were retired, the Gas Transfer System (GTS) Development Department ported the code to the Macintosh and PC platforms, where it ran as a simple console application. All graphical output was lost during these ports. GTS code developers recently completed an upgrade that provides a Windows 95/NT MAVIS application and restores all of the original graphical output. This upgrade is called MAVIS III version 1.0. This report serves both as a user`s manual for MAVIS III v 1.0 and as a general software development reference.

  19. Isocurvature forecast in the anthropic axion window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamann, J. [LAPTh, Université de Savoie, CNRS, BP 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France); Hannestad, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Raffelt, G.G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Wong, Y.Y.Y., E-mail: hamann@lapp.in2p3.fr, E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk, E-mail: raffelt@mppmu.mpg.de, E-mail: yvonne.wong@cern.ch [Theory Division, Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland)

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the cosmological sensitivity to the amplitude of isocurvature fluctuations that would be caused by axions in the ''anthropic window'' where the axion decay constant f{sub a} >> 10{sup 12} GeV and the initial misalignment angle ?{sub i} << 1. In a minimal ?CDM cosmology extended with subdominant scale-invariant isocurvature fluctuations, existing data constrain the isocurvature fraction to ? < 0.09 at 95% C.L. If no signal shows up, Planck can improve this constraint to 0.042 while an ultimate CMB probe limited only by cosmic variance in both temperature and E-polarisation can reach 0.017, about a factor of five better than the current limit. In the parameter space of f{sub a} and H{sub I} (Hubble parameter during inflation) we identify a small region where axion detection remains within the reach of realistic cosmological probes.

  20. INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENT WINDOW-WALL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Arney, Ph.D.

    2002-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The building industry faces the challenge of reducing energy use while simultaneously improving construction methods and marketability. This paper describes the first phase of a project to address these concerns by designing an Integrated Window Wall System (IWWS) that can be commercialized. This work builds on previous research conducted during the 1990's by Lawrence Berkeley national Laboratories (LBNL). During this phase, the objective was to identify appropriate technologies, problems and issues and develop a number of design concepts. Four design concepts were developed into prototypes and preliminary energy analyses were conducted Three of these concepts (the foam wall, steel wall, and stiffened plate designs) showed particular potential for meeting the project objectives and will be continued into a second phase where one or two of the systems will be brought closer to commercialization.

  1. Managing coherence via put/get windows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton on Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Hoenicke, Dirk (Ossining, NY); Ohmacht, Martin (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for managing coherence between two processors of a two processor node of a multi-processor computer system. Generally the present invention relates to a software algorithm that simplifies and significantly speeds the management of cache coherence in a message passing parallel computer, and to hardware apparatus that assists this cache coherence algorithm. The software algorithm uses the opening and closing of put/get windows to coordinate the activated required to achieve cache coherence. The hardware apparatus may be an extension to the hardware address decode, that creates, in the physical memory address space of the node, an area of virtual memory that (a) does not actually exist, and (b) is therefore able to respond instantly to read and write requests from the processing elements.

  2. Managing coherence via put/get windows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton on Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Hoenicke, Dirk (Ossining, NY); Ohmacht, Martin (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for managing coherence between two processors of a two processor node of a multi-processor computer system. Generally the present invention relates to a software algorithm that simplifies and significantly speeds the management of cache coherence in a message passing parallel computer, and to hardware apparatus that assists this cache coherence algorithm. The software algorithm uses the opening and closing of put/get windows to coordinate the activated required to achieve cache coherence. The hardware apparatus may be an extension to the hardware address decode, that creates, in the physical memory address space of the node, an area of virtual memory that (a) does not actually exist, and (b) is therefore able to respond instantly to read and write requests from the processing elements.

  3. Planck 2015 results. IV. Low Frequency Instrument beams and window functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ade, P A R; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Christensen, P R; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kiiveri, K; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; Lindholm, V; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renzi, A; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vassallo, T; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the characterization of the in-flight beams, the beam window functions, and the associated uncertainties for the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI). The structure of the paper is similar to that presented in the 2013 Planck release; the main differences concern the beam normalization and the delivery of the window functions to be used for polarization analysis. The in-flight assessment of the LFI main beams relies on measurements performed during observations of Jupiter. By stacking data from seven Jupiter transits, the main beam profiles are measured down to -25 dB at 30 and 44 GHz, and down to -30 dB at 70 GHz. The agreement between the simulated beams and the measured beams is confirmed to be better than 1% at each LFI frequency band (within the 20 dB contour from the peak, the rms values are: 0.1% at 30 and 70 GHz; 0.2% at 44 GHz). Simulated polarized beams are used for the computation of the effective beam window functions. The error budget for the window functions is estimated fro...

  4. Benefits of Windows Small Business Server Code Name "Aurora"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Galen

    Benefits of Windows Small Business Server Code Name "Aurora" includes: Daily automatic backups Business Server Code Name "Aurora" provides an easy-to-use solution ideal for first server small businesses with up to 25 users, Windows Small Business Server Code Name "Aurora" provides a cost-effective and easy

  5. Validation of the Window Model of the Modelica Buildings Library

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-5735E Validation of the Window Model of the Modelica Buildings Library Thierry Stephane MODEL OF THE MODELICA BUILDINGS LIBRARY Thierry Stephane Nouidui, Michael Wetter, and Wangda Zuo the validation of the window model of the free open-source Modelica Buildings library. This paper starts

  6. Boron nitride protective coating of beryllium window surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gmuer, N.F.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of beryllium windows on white synchrotron radiation beamlines is constrained by the fact that the downstream surfaces of these windows should not be exposed to ambient atmosphere. They should, rather, be protected by a tail-piece under vacuum or containing helium atmosphere. This tailpiece is typically capped by Kapton (3M Corporation, St. Paul, MN) or aluminum foil. The reason for such an arrangement is due to the health risk associated with contaminants (BeO) which from on the exposed beryllium window surfaces and due to possible loss of integrity of the windows. Such a tail-piece may, however, add unwanted complications to the beamline in the form of vacuum pumps or helium supplies and their related monitoring systems. The Kapton windows may burn through in the case of high intensity beams and lower energy radiation may be absorbed in the case of aluminum foil windows. A more ideal situation would be to provide a coating for the exposed beryllium window surface, sealing it off from the atmosphere, thus preventing contamination and/or degradation of the window, and eliminating the need for helium or vacuum equipment.

  7. Windowing Time in Digital Libraries Michael G. Christel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christel, Mike

    Windowing Time in Digital Libraries Michael G. Christel Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA, organization, and utility of time references identified in digital library materials, emphasizing how to treat to illustrate the concept of windowing such time in digital library interfaces. Categories and Subject

  8. Budget Windows, Sunsets and Fiscal Control Alan J. Auerbach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    Budget Windows, Sunsets and Fiscal Control Alan J. Auerbach University of California, Berkeley have struggled to find the right method of controlling public spending and budget deficits. In recent years, the United States has evaluated policy changes using a ten-year budget window. The use of a multi

  9. Radiation-transparent windows, method for imaging fluid transfers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shu, Deming (Darien, IL); Wang, Jin (Burr Ridge, IL)

    2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin, x-ray-transparent window system for environmental chambers involving pneumatic pressures above 40 bar is presented. The window allows for x-ray access to such phenomena as fuel sprays injected into a pressurized chamber that mimics realistic internal combustion engine cylinder operating conditions.

  10. Testing and Operation of the WR340 Waveguide Window in the APS Linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haase, Andrew

    2003-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac high-power switching system makes extensive use of SF6 pressurized, WR340-size waveguide, incorporating waveguide switches. A tunable, extra low return loss waveguide window has been developed to support interfacing the pressurized waveguide with the original waveguide, which is under vacuum. The tunable approach is able to consistently achieve a return loss of at least 40 dB. Test and alignment methods, performance, and initial operating experience are described.

  11. Testing and operation of the WR340 waveguide window in the APS linac.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerlick, A. E.; Berg, S.; Goeppner, G. A.; Nassiri, A.; Pile, G.; Smith, T. L.

    2002-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac high-power switching system makes extensive use of SF6 pressurized, WR340-size waveguide, incorporating waveguide switches. A tunable, extra low return loss waveguide window has been developed to support interfacing the pressurized waveguide with the original waveguide, which is under vacuum. The tunable approach is able to consistently achieve a return loss of at least 40 dB. Test and alignment methods, performance, and initial operating experience are described.

  12. The Post-occupancy Performance of Green Office Buildings: Evidence for the Fiekd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newsham, G.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ? Workplace Image ? Positive Mood ? Visual and Physical Discomfort Frequency ? Sleep Quality at Night Green vs. Conventional (Physical Measurements) ? Green buildings perform better: ? Lower air speed ? Fewer airborne particulates G b ildi f? reen... to windows ? lower predicted mean vote e a v e ( d a y s / m(better thermal comfort) ? lower number of airborne particulates S i c k L e (?/m3)Mass of Particles ? 10 micron, PM10 (?g/m3) Energy ? Re-analysis of data from 100 LEED...

  13. Migrate Roles and Features to Windows Server 2012 R2 or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Galen

    #12;Migrate Roles and Features to Windows Server 2012 R2 or Windows Server 2012 Summary: This E-Book includes guidance to help you migrate server roles and features to Windows Server 2012 R2 or Windows Server 2012. Also included is an installation and operations guide for Windows Server Migration Tools, a set

  14. Systems analysis of thermal storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copeland, R.J.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During FY 1981, analyses were conducted on thermal storage concepts for solar thermal applications. These studies include estimates of both the obtainable costs of thermal storage concepts and their worth to a user (i.e., value). Based on obtainable costs and performance, an in-depth study evaluated thermal storage concepts for water/steam, organic fluid, and gas/Brayton solar thermal receivers. Promising and nonpromising concepts were identified. A study to evaluate thermal storage concepts for a liquid metal receiver was initiated. The value of thermal storage in a solar thermal industrial process heat application was analyzed. Several advanced concepts are being studied, including ground-mounted thermal storage for parabolic dishes with Stirling engines.

  15. Spectrally selective beam splitters designed to decouple quantum and thermal solar energy conversion in hybrid concentrating systems: Final report, Phase 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osborn, D.E.

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical feasibility and flexibility of developing elements that separate concentrated solar irradiation into specific spectral regions matched to specific photoquantum processes have been shown. These elements, spectrally selective beam splitters or filters, are designed to decouple quantum and thermal solar energy conversion in hybrid concentrating systems. Both interference filters and liquid absorption filters were investigated for use as spectrally selective beam splitters. Spectral selectivity is investigated for a variety of quantum systems with various spectral windows utilizing interference and absorption filters designed. Detailed analysis of one typical quantum system is provided consisting of a model of the silicon cell photovoltaic/photothermal hybrid system using spectral selectivity. The performance benefits of this approach are shown. Interference filters show the greatest flexibility and ability to match specific spectral windows. Liquid absorption filters appear to be a lower cost option, when an appropriate spectrally selective solution that can be used as a heat transfer fluid is available. 18 refs., 88 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Developing Low-Conductance Window Frames: Capabilities and Limitations of Current Window Heat Transfer Design Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustavsen, Arild

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    contours for one of the PVC frames studied by Gustavsen etframe with a polyvinyl chloride (PVC ) thermal breakand a PVC frame] were examined with air leakage rates of

  17. Demographic Window, H. G. Muller et al. 1 Demographic Window to Aging in the Wild: Constructing Life

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Hans-Georg

    Demographic Window, H. G. M¨uller et al. 1 Demographic Window to Aging in the Wild: Constructing for wild populations. A demographic key identity is established that leads to a method whereby age identity is established for the continuous case where the survival schedule of the wild population

  18. Functional requirements for component films in a solar thin-film photovoltaic/thermal panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, David [Power and Energy Research Group, School of Engineering, Northumbria University, Ellison Place, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The functional requirements of the component films of a solar thin-film photovoltaic/thermal panel were considered. Particular emphasis was placed on the new functions, that each layer is required to perform, in addition to their pre-existing functions. The cut-off wavelength of the window layer, required for solar selectivity, can be achieved with charge carrier concentrations typical of photovoltaic devices, and thus does not compromise electrical efficiency. The upper (semiconductor) absorber layer has a sufficiently high thermal conductivity that there is negligible temperature difference across the film, and thus negligible loss in thermal performance. The lower (cermet) absorber layer can be fabricated with a high ceramic content, to maintain high solar selectivity, without significant increase in electrical resistance. A thin layer of molybdenum-based cermet at the top of this layer can provide an Ohmic contact to the upper absorber layer. A layer of aluminium nitride between the metal substrate and the back metal contact can provide electrical isolation to avoid short-circuiting of series-connected cells, while maintaining a thermal path to the metal substrate and heat extraction systems. Potential problems of differential contraction of heated films and substrates were identified, with a recommendation that fabrication processes, which avoid heating, are preferable. (author)

  19. Creating a Parallel Version of VisIt for Microsoft Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitlock, B J; Biagas, K S; Rawson, P L

    2011-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    VisIt is a popular, free interactive parallel visualization and analysis tool for scientific data. Users can quickly generate visualizations from their data, animate them through time, manipulate them, and save the resulting images or movies for presentations. VisIt was designed from the ground up to work on many scales of computers from modest desktops up to massively parallel clusters. VisIt is comprised of a set of cooperating programs. All programs can be run locally or in client/server mode in which some run locally and some run remotely on compute clusters. The VisIt program most able to harness today's computing power is the VisIt compute engine. The compute engine is responsible for reading simulation data from disk, processing it, and sending results or images back to the VisIt viewer program. In a parallel environment, the compute engine runs several processes, coordinating using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library. Each MPI process reads some subset of the scientific data and filters the data in various ways to create useful visualizations. By using MPI, VisIt has been able to scale well into the thousands of processors on large computers such as dawn and graph at LLNL. The advent of multicore CPU's has made parallelism the 'new' way to achieve increasing performance. With today's computers having at least 2 cores and in many cases up to 8 and beyond, it is more important than ever to deploy parallel software that can use that computing power not only on clusters but also on the desktop. We have created a parallel version of VisIt for Windows that uses Microsoft's MPI implementation (MSMPI) to process data in parallel on the Windows desktop as well as on a Windows HPC cluster running Microsoft Windows Server 2008. Initial desktop parallel support for Windows was deployed in VisIt 2.4.0. Windows HPC cluster support has been completed and will appear in the VisIt 2.5.0 release. We plan to continue supporting parallel VisIt on Windows so our users will be able to take full advantage of their multicore resources.

  20. Thermal treatment wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Livermore, CA); Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  1. Residential Windows and Window Coverings: A Detailed View of the Installed Base and User Behavior

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015 < prevQuickEnergyforDepartment ofEnergyResidential Windows

  2. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen-Tuong, Viet (Seaford, VA); Dylla, III, Henry Frederick (Yorktown, VA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost.

  3. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen-Tuong, V.; Dylla, H.F. III

    1997-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost. 5 figs.

  4. Effect of window reflections on photonic Doppler velocimetry measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ao, T.; Dolan, D. H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) has rapidly become a standard diagnostic for measuring velocities in dynamic compression research. While free surface velocity measurements are fairly straightforward, complications occur when PDV is used to measure a dynamically loaded sample through a window. Fresnel reflections can severely affect the velocity and time resolution of PDV measurements, especially for low-velocity transients. Shock experiments of quartz compressed between two sapphire plates demonstrate how optical window reflections cause ringing in the extracted PDV velocity profile. Velocity ringing is significantly reduced by using either a wedge window or an antireflective coating.

  5. State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating Window Frames - Research and Market Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustavsen, Arild

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    through vacuum and electrochromic vacuum glazed windows,technologies, such as an electrochromic vacuum glazedof rebate depth on an electrochromic vacuum glazed window.

  6. Manufactured Homes Simulated Thermal Analysis and Cost Effectiveness Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylon, David

    1990-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1988 and 1989, 150 manufactured homes were built to comply with Super Good Cents (SGC) specifications adapted from the existing specifications for site-built homes under the Residential Construction Demonstration Project (RCDP). Engineering calculations and computer simulations were used to estimate the effects of the SGC specifications on the thermal performance of the homes. These results were compared with consumer costs to establish the cost-effectiveness of individual measures. Heat loss U-factors for windows, walls, floors and ceilings were established using the standard ASHRAE parallel heat flow method. Adjustments resulted in higher U-factors for ceilings and floors than assumed at the time the homes were approved as meeting the SGC specifications. Except for those homes which included heat pumps, most of the homes did not meet the SGC compliance standards. Nonetheless these homes achieved substantial reductions in overall heat loss rate (UA) compared to UAs estimated for the same homes using the standard insulation packages provided by the manufacturers in the absence of the RCDP program. Homes with conventional electric furnaces showed a 35% reduction in total UA while homes with heat pumps had a 25% reduction. A regression analysis showed no significant relationship between climate zone, manufacturer and UA. A modified version of SUNDAY building simulation program which simulates duct and heat pump performance was used to model the thermal performance of each RCDP home as built and the same home as it would have been built without SGC specifications (base case). Standard assumptions were used for thermostat setpoint, thermal mass, internal gains and infiltration rates. 11 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Hydrogen Safety Project: Chemical analysis support task. Window ``E`` analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, T.E.; Campbell, J.A.; Hoppe, E.W.; Greenwood, L.R.; Gillespie, B.M.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Core samples taken from tank 101-SY at Hanford during ``window E`` were analyzed for organic and radiochemical constituents by staff of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Westinghouse Hanford company submitted these samples to the laboratory.

  8. Building America Expert Meeting: Windows Options for New and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership held an Expert Meeting on Windows Options for New and Existing Homes on November 14, 2011 at the Nolte Building on the campus of the...

  9. Switchable window based on electrochromic polymers Chunye Xu,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taya, Minoru

    Switchable window based on electrochromic polymers Chunye Xu,a) Lu Liu, Susan E. Legenski, Dai Ning March 2004) A large contrast ratio (> 60%) and rapid switching (0.3­1 s) electrochromic (EC) polymer

  10. Engineering adenylate cyclases regulated by near-infrared window light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryu, Min-Hyung

    Bacteriophytochromes sense light in the near-infrared window, the spectral region where absorption by mammalian tissues is minimal, and their chromophore, biliverdin IX?, is naturally present in animal cells. These properties ...

  11. Multilayered Microelectronic Device Package With An Integral Window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2004-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A microelectronic package with an integral window mounted in a recessed lip for housing a microelectronic device. The device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can be formed of a low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) or high temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayered material, with the integral window being simultaneously joined (e.g. co-fired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded and oriented so that a light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. The result is a compact, low profile package, having an integral window mounted in a recessed lip, that can be hermetically sealed.

  12. NREL: Continuum Magazine - Energy Efficient Window Coatings that...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    even before coming to NREL, Satyen Deb conceived of making a window that incorporated tungsten oxide thin films that had adjustable properties. Once at NREL (then, the Solar Energy...

  13. Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    performance Photovoltaic (PV) Regional Test Center (RTC) Website Goes Live On February 26, 2013, in Energy, National Solar Thermal Test Facility, News, News & Events, Partnership,...

  15. Nanofluids for vehicle thermal management.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, S. U.-S.; Yu, W.; Hull, J. R.; Zhang, Z. G.; Lockwood, F. E.; Energy Technology; The Valvoline Co.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Applying nanotechnology to thermal engineering, ANL has addressed the interesting and timely topic of nanofluids. We have developed methods for producing both oxide and metal nanofluids, studied their thermal conductivity, and obtained promising results: (1) Stable suspensions of nanoparticles can be achieved. (2) Nanofluids have significantly higher thermal conductivities than their base liquids. (3) Measured thermal conductivities of nanofluids are much greater than predicted. For these reasons, nanofluids show promise for improving the design and performance of vehicle thermal management systems. However, critical barriers to further development and application of nanofluid technology are agglomeration of nanoparticles and oxidation of metallic nanoparticles. Therefore, methods to prevent particle agglomeration and degradation are required.

  16. Conductive Thermal Interaction in Evaporative Cooling Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, B. S.; Degelman, L. O.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from the evaporative cooler would often be more than 6.5'F lower than that of a conventional evaporative cooling system due to thermal conduction between water and entering air. - Figure 1 Pad type evaporative cooler. DIRECT EVAPORATIVE COOLER... There are several types of direct evaporative cooler configurations available. Two popular system types are pad type unit and rotary type unit. A number of window mounted units are pad type evaporative coolers (Figure 1). In a pad type cooler, water...

  17. QUEENSLAND UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY CENTRE FOR MEDICAL, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL SCIENCES MODIFICATION OF ATRIUM DESIGN TO IMPROVE THERMAL AND DAYLIGHTING PERFORMANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashley Mabb; Centre For Medical; Environmental Physics

    The inclusion of a central court or atrium within a building is a popular design due to its aesthetic, open appearance. The greater penetration of natural light aids in the reduction in use of artificial lighting during the day. Care must be taken to balance the solar heat gain against the daylight penetration. This balance is critical for the reduction of the electrical energy load of the building, whilst maintaining a high level of comfort for the occupants. In the tropics modifications to atrium building designs are necessary to diminish high elevation direct solar heat gain. Traditionally, shading the window apertures or lowering the transmission through the glazing was used. These solutions limit the view and reduce the light level. The use of angular selective glazing upon atria allows the rejection of high elevation direct sunlight whilst redirecting and therefore improving low elevation skylight penetration. Tilted angular selective glazing used upon adjoining spaces to atria help vertical light in the atrium well to be redirected horizontally deep into the space. These effects reduce overheating which would normally restrict the use of atria in warmer environments as well as improve illumination penetration into adjoining spaces.

  18. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "This fact sheet describes a scattering solar thermal concentrators project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Pennsylvania State University, is working to demonstrate a new, scattering-based approach to concentrating sunlight that aims to improve the overall performance and reliability of the collector field. The research team aims to show that scattering solar thermal collectors are capable of achieving optical performance equal to state-of-the-art parabolic trough systems, but with the added benefits of immunity to wind-load tracking error, more efficient land use, and utilization of stationary receivers."

  19. Completed April 30, 2004. LBNL-54966. The Energy-Savings Potential of Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    " as the number one top priority. Smart windows include chromogenic glazings that can be reversibly switched from century [1]. Window industry executives identified a new generation of dynamic, responsive "Smart Windows and optical properties that can be dynamically controlled. "Smart windows" incorporating electrochromic

  20. Design optimization of thermal paths in spacecraft systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stout, Kevin Dale

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis introduces a thermal design approach to increase thermal control system performance and decrease reliance on system resources, e.g., mass. Thermal design optimization has lagged other subsystems because the ...

  1. Assessment of Hypothermia Blankets Using an Advanced Thermal Manikin: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J. P.; Barazanji, K.

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal manikin developed at NREL helped to assess thermal blankets used to treat U.S. Army personnel suffering from hypothermia. The chemical blanket showed the best thermal performance.

  2. Simulating Complex Window Systems using BSDF Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a new capability that enables designers to more accurately model the solar-optical performance Environmental Energy Technologies Division June 2009 To be presented at the 20th Conference on Passive and Low of California. #12;PLEA2009 - 26th Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture, Quebec City, Canada, 22

  3. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, Jeffert J. (Orchard Park, NY); Owens, William J. (Kenmore, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprising high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

  4. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprises high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 2 figs.

  5. Method of making an integral window hermetic fiber optic component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dalton, R.D.; Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.; Waker, D.A.

    1996-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In the fabrication of igniters, actuators, detonators, and other pyrotechnic devices to be activated by a laser beam, an integral optical glass window is formed by placing a preform in the structural member of the device and then melting the glass and sealing it in place by heating at a temperature between the ceramming temperature of the glass and the melting point of the metal, followed by rapid furnace cooling to avoid devitrification. No other sealing material is needed to achieve hermeticity. A preferred embodiment of this type of device is fabricated by allowing the molten glass to flow further and form a plano-convex lens integral with and at the bottom of the window. The lens functions to decrease the beam divergence caused by refraction of the laser light passing through the window when the device is fired by means of a laser beam. 9 figs.

  6. Method of making an integral window hermetic fiber optic component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dalton, Rick D. (Miamisburg, OH); Kramer, Daniel P. (Centerville, OH); Massey, Richard T. (Hamilton, OH); Waker, Damon A. (Bellbrook, OH)

    1996-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In the fabrication of igniters, actuators, detonators, and other pyrotechnic devices to be activated by a laser beam, an integral optical glass window is formed by placing a preform in the structural member of the device and then melting the glass and sealing it in place by heating at a temperature between the ceramming temperature of the glass and the melting point of the metal, followed by rapid furnace cooling to avoid devitrification. No other sealing material is needed to achieve hermeticity. A preferred embodiment of this type of device is fabricated by allowing the molten glass to flow further and form a plano-convex lens integral with and at the bottom of the window. The lens functions to decrease the beam divergence caused by refraction of the laser light passing through the window when the device is fired by means of a laser beam.

  7. Developmental time windows for axon growth influence neuronal network topology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Sol

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Early brain connectivity development consists of multiple stages: birth of neurons, their migration and the subsequent growth of axons and dendrites. Each stage occurs within a certain period of time depending on types of neurons and cortical layers. Forming synapses between neurons either by growing axons starting at similar times for all neurons (much-overlapped time windows) or at different time points (less-overlapped) may affect the topological and spatial properties of neuronal networks. Here, we explore the extreme cases of axon formation especially concerning short-distance connectivity during early development, either starting at the same time for all neurons (parallel, i.e. maximally-overlapped time windows) or occurring for each neuron separately one neuron after another (serial, i.e. no overlaps in time windows). For both cases, the number of potential and established synapses remained comparable. Topological and spatial properties, however, differed: neurons that started axon growth early on in s...

  8. Optimized ECR plasma apparatus with varied microwave window thickness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, L.A.

    1995-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention describes a technique to control the radial profile of microwave power in an ECR plasma discharge. In order to provide for a uniform plasma density to a specimen, uniform energy absorption by the plasma is desired. By controlling the radial profile of the microwave power transmitted through the microwave window of a reactor, the profile of the transmitted energy to the plasma can be controlled in order to have uniform energy absorption by the plasma. An advantage of controlling the profile using the window transmission characteristics is that variations to the radial profile of microwave power can be made without changing the microwave coupler or reactor design. 9 figs.

  9. Optimized ECR plasma apparatus with varied microwave window thickness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, Lee A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention describes a technique to control the radial profile of microwave power in an ECR plasma discharge. In order to provide for a uniform plasma density to a specimen, uniform energy absorption by the plasma is desired. By controlling the radial profile of the microwave power transmitted through the microwave window of a reactor, the profile of the transmitted energy to the plasma can be controlled in order to have uniform energy absorption by the plasma. An advantage of controlling the profile using the window transmission characteristics is that variations to the radial profile of microwave power can be made without changing the microwave coupler or reactor design.

  10. Thermal Processes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Some thermal processes use the energy in various resources, such as natural gas, coal, or biomass, to release hydrogen, which is part of their molecular structure. In other processes, heat, in...

  11. Systems analysis of thermal storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copeland, R. J.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During FY80 analyses were conducted on thermal storage concepts for solar thermal applications. These studies include both estimates of the obtainable costs of thermal storage concepts and their worth to a user (i.e., value). Based on obtainable costs and performance, promising thermal storage concepts are being identified. A preliminary screening was completed in FY80 and a more in-depth study was initiated. Value studies are being conducted to establish cost goals. A ranking of storage concepts based on value in solar thermal electric plants was conducted for both diurnal and long duration applications. Ground mounted thermal storage concepts for a parabolic dish/Stirling systtem are also being evaluated.

  12. T-547: Microsoft Windows Human Interface Device (HID) Vulnerability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Microsoft Windows does not properly warn the user before enabling additional Human Interface Device (HID) functionality over USB, which allows user-assisted attackers to execute arbitrary programs via crafted USB data, as demonstrated by keyboard and mouse data sent by malware on a Smartphone that the user connected to the computer.

  13. The In uence of Windowing on Time Delay Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    'Ruanaidh Siemens Corporate Research 755 College Road East Princeton , NJ 08540 rvbalan,rosca,rickard,oruanaidh@scr.siemens of frequencies. Such a relation holds true when the Fourier transform is used to go into the frequency domain. However, in practice, one has to use the windowed Fourier transform to obtain the frequency domain

  14. The Influence of Windowing on Time Delay Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balan, Radu V.

    O'Ruanaidh Siemens Corporate Research 755 College Road East Princeton , NJ 08540 rvbalan,rosca,rickard,oruanaidh@scr.siemens of frequencies. Such a relation holds true when the Fourier transform is used to go into the frequency domain. However, in practice, one has to use the windowed Fourier transform to obtain the frequency domain

  15. OPERATING TEMPERATURE WINDOWS FOR FUSION REACTOR STRUCTURAL MATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    OPERATING TEMPERATURE WINDOWS FOR FUSION REACTOR STRUCTURAL MATERIALS S.J. Zinkle1 and N.M. Ghoniem reactor structural materials: four reduced-activation structural materials (oxide-dispersion- strengthened operating temperature limit of structural materials is determined by one of four factors, all of which

  16. Carbon Smackdown: Smart Windows (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milliron, Delia; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    August 3, 2010 Berkeley Lab talk: In the fourth of five Carbon Smackdown matches, Berkeley Lab researchers Delia Milliron of the Materials Sciences Division and Stephen Selkowitz of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division talk about their work on energy-saving smart windows.

  17. Windows on Computer Science Department of Computer and Information Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Shiaofen

    1 CSCI 120 Windows on Computer Science Department of Computer and Information Science IUPUI What is Computer Science? Is Computer Science the study of computers (Building computers, and writing computer programs) ? Computer Science is no more about computers than astronomy is about telescopes, or biology

  18. Energy Gaining Windows for Residential Buildings Jesper Kragh, Assistant Professor,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    season. It is assumed that in northern cold climates all of the solar gain during the heating season can profiles, solar gain, net energy gain, low energy houses SUMMARY: This paper presents some of the research buildings. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain minus the heat loss integrated over the heating

  19. Covered Product Category: Residential Windows, Doors, and Skylights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential windows, doors, and skylights, which are an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  20. Intermittent and sustained periodic windows in networked chaotic Rössler oscillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Zhiwei; Sun, Yong [Wuhan Center for Magnetic Resonance, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China) [Wuhan Center for Magnetic Resonance, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhan, Meng, E-mail: zhanmeng@wipm.ac.cn [Wuhan Center for Magnetic Resonance, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [Wuhan Center for Magnetic Resonance, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Route to chaos (or periodicity) in dynamical systems is one of fundamental problems. Here, dynamical behaviors of coupled chaotic Rössler oscillators on complex networks are investigated and two different types of periodic windows with the variation of coupling strength are found. Under a moderate coupling, the periodic window is intermittent, and the attractors within the window extremely sensitively depend on the initial conditions, coupling parameter, and topology of the network. Therefore, after adding or removing one edge of network, the periodic attractor can be destroyed and substituted by a chaotic one, or vice versa. In contrast, under an extremely weak coupling, another type of periodic window appears, which insensitively depends on the initial conditions, coupling parameter, and network. It is sustained and unchanged for different types of network structure. It is also found that the phase differences of the oscillators are almost discrete and randomly distributed except that directly linked oscillators more likely have different phases. These dynamical behaviors have also been generally observed in other networked chaotic oscillators.

  1. DO NOT INCLUDE: flatten cardboard staples, tape & envelope windows ok

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    / bottles Metal items other than cans/foil Napkins Paper towels Plastic bags Plastic films Plastic utensilsDO NOT INCLUDE: flatten cardboard staples, tape & envelope windows ok Aerosol cans Books Bottle, PDAs, inkjet cartridges, CFL bulbs (cushioned, sealed in plastic) computers, printers, printer

  2. EMC PERSPECTIVE: THE POWER OF WINDOWS SERVER 2012 AND EMC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    EMC PERSPECTIVE: THE POWER OF WINDOWS SERVER 2012 AND EMC INFRASTRUCTURE FOR MICROSOFT PRIVATE and storage optimization features of intelligent storage arrays, such as the EMC® Symmetrix® VMAX® storage family, the EMC® VNX® series, and the EMC® Isilon® scale-out NAS family. With new technologies

  3. INITIAL MAR ASSESSMENTS TO ACCESS THE IMPACT OF AL DISSOLUTION ON DWPF OPERATING WINDOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newell, J; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    SRNL was tasked to provide an assessment of the downstream impacts (or lack thereof) to DWPF of decisions regarding the implementation of Al-dissolution to support sludge mass reduction and processing. Based on future sludge batch compositional projections, assessments have been made with respect to the ability to maintain comparable projected operating windows for sludges with high temperature Al-dissolution and without Al-dissolution. In general, paper study assessments indicated that most of the future sludge batches (twelve with and fourteen without high temperature Al-dissolution) had multiple frits available that yielded relatively large operating windows. The projected operating windows were defined by the waste loading (WL) interval over which glasses were classified as acceptable based on current process control models and their related constraints. Although multiple frits were identified, using a 17-point width as a general guide for a reasonable operating window (e.g., 25-41% WL), there generally appeared to be more flexibility in frit selection for the without Al-dissolution flowsheets. This larger frit compositional platform could allow frit development efforts to make more significant adjustments to melt rate. However, based on the general observations of the paper study, there is essentially no clear distinction between the two options with which to drive a decision to implement Al-dissolution. That is, comparable operating windows can be achieved through the frit development and selection process for either process. One could interpret this general summary statement to indicate: given frit development efforts can compensate for the different pretreatment strategies yielding equivalent operating windows or maximum WL targets, the lower sludge mass as a result of Al-dissolution would obviously result in reducing the number of cans produced at DWPF. Although the basic mathematics is technically sound, other factors need to be considered including facility operating times or mission life for the Tank Farm, DWPF and Saltstone. To address some of these questions, candidate frit compositions have been selected to assess melt rate as a function of waste loading for the glass systems representing future sludge batches with and without Al dissolution. The frit selection process was driven by reviewing compositional trends that have historically influenced melt rate as well as identifying systems with relatively large operating windows. With respect to the identification of sludge batches to support the melt rate testing, average compositions representing with and without Al-dissolution 'clusters' were developed using a statistical grouping routine. Ultimately, five frits were identified for each average 'cluster' composition. Melt rate assessments will be performed as a function of waste loading for the five frits selected. The data obtained from the experimental melt rate program can be used in combination with actual DWPF processing data to provide valuable insight into the waste throughput potentials for both flowsheets.

  4. Thermal performance of a buried nuclear waste storage container storing a hybrid mix of PWR and BWR spent fuel rods; Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, G.L.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will design, model, and test nuclear waste packages for use at the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. One such package would store tightly packed spent fuel rods from both pressurized and boiling water reactors. The storage container provides the primary containment of the nuclear waste and the spent fuel rod cladding provides secondary containment. A series of transient conduction and radiation heat transfer analyses was run to determine for the first 1000 yr of storage if the temperature of the tuff at the borehole wall ever falls below 97{degrees}C and whether the cladding of the stored spent fuel ever exceeds 350{degrees}C. Limiting the borehole to temperatures of 97{degrees}C or greater helps minimize corrosion by assuring that no condensed water collects on the container. The 350{degrees}C cladding limit minimizes the possibility of creep- related failure in the spent fuel rod cladding. For a series of packages stored in a 8 {times} 30 m borehole grid where each package contains 10-yr-old spent fuel rods generating 4.74 kW or more, the borehole wall stays above 97{degrees}C for the full 10000-yr analysis period. For the 4.74-kW load, the peak cladding temperature rises to just below the 350{degrees}C limit about 4 years after emplacement. If the packages are stored using the spacing specified in the Site Characterization Plan (15 ft {times} 126 ft), a maximum of 4.1 kW per container may be stored. If the 0.05-m-thick void between the container and the borehole wall is filled with loosely packed bentonite, the peak cladding temperature rises more than 40{degrees}C above the allowed cladding limit. In all cases the dominant heat transfer mode between container components is thermal radiation.

  5. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Hartmann, J.L.

    1988-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas. 2 figs.

  6. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selkowitz, Stephen E. (Piedmont, CA); Arasteh, Dariush K. (Oakland, CA); Hartmann, John L. (Seattle, WA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas.

  7. Hit the Road, Jack! New Thermal Window Technology Lessens Menace of Jack

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department of EnergySeacrist,the Community Market BuildingFrost |

  8. Novel Thermal Break with Simplified Manufacturing for R7 Commercial Windows

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in ManyDepartment of Energy NorthB O| DepartmentMEAs | Department of|

  9. Hit the Road, Jack! New Thermal Window Technology Lessens Menace of Jack

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEND D e e p p a aHiltonVirginia Market

  10. Demonstration with Energy and Daylighting Assessment of Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic (SRT) Window Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broekhuis, Michael; Liposcak, Curtis; Witte, Michael; Henninger, Robert; Zhou, Xiaohui; Petzen, George; Buchanan, Michael; Kumar, Sneh

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pleotint, LLC was able to successfully extrude thermochromic interlayer for use in the fenestration industry. Pleotint has developed a thermochromic sytem that requires two thermochromic colors to make a neutral color when in the tinted state. These two colors were assembled into a single interlayer called a tri-layer prelam by Crown Operations for use in the glass lamination industry. Various locations, orientations, and constructions of thermochromic windows were studied with funds from this contract. Locations included Australia, California, Costa Rica, Indiana, Iowa, Mexico. Installed orientations included vertical and skylight glazing applications. Various constructions included monolithic, double pane, triple pane constructions. A daylighting study was conducted at LinEl Signature. LinEl Signature has a conference room with a sylight roof system that has a west orientation. The existing LinEl Signature conference room had constant tint 40% VLT transparent skylights. Irradiance meters were installed on the interior and exterior sides of a constant tint skylight. After a month and a half of data collection, the irradiance meters were removed and the constant tint skylights were replaced with Pleotint thermochromic skylight windows. The irradiance meters were reinstalled in the same locations and irradiance data was collected. Both data sets were compared. The data showed that there was a linear relationship with exterior and interior irradiance for the existing constant tint skylights. The thermochromic skylights have a non-linear relationship. The thermochromic skylights were able to limit the amount of irradiance that passed through the thermochromic skylight. A second study of the LinEl Signature conference was performed using EnergyPlus to calculate the amount of Illuminance that passed through constant tint skylights as compared to thermochromic skylights. The constant tint skylights transmitted Illuminance is 2.8 times higher than the thermochromic skylights during the months of May, June, July, August and 1.9 times higher than the thermochromic skylight during the months of March, April, September, October. Calculated illuminance levels were much more consistent as compared to the existing constant tint skylights installed at LinEl Signature. This allows for a more comfortable interior space in regard to glare discomfort and interior lighting control. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was contracted to characterize the performance of the thermochromic interlayer and thermochromic window systems. Thermochromic interlayer was characterized with spectrometer equipment. The thermochromic window systems were characterized using LBNL’s Advanced Window Test Facility. A copy of the report can be found in the Appendix. Iowa State University was contracted to compare thermochromic window technology to constant tint technology. Iowa State University conducted the testing at the Energy Resource Station (ERS). The ERS has the ability to simultaneously test side-by-side competing building technologies. The building is equipped with two identical air handling units, each with its own dedicated and identical chiller. One air handling unit supplies the four test rooms designated as the A rooms and the other unit serves the four test rooms designated as the B rooms. There is one A test room and one B test rooms arranged as pairs in a side-by-side design with each pair having a different exposure. There is a pair of test rooms that face the south, an east and west facing pair. Each of the test rooms is a mirror image of its match with identical construction. The rooms are unoccupied; however, the capability to impose false loads on the rooms exists. The false loads and room lighting can be scheduled to simulate various usage patterns. A copy of the report can be found in the Appendix. GARD Analytics was contracted to compare EnergyPlus building simulations to the data recorded at the Iowa ERS. The goal of this research was to validate the building simulation software developed by the US Department of Energy. EnergyPlus is

  11. On the use of the exponential window method in the space domain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Li

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    treatments. In this dissertation, an alternative is investigated based on the dynamic stiffness and the exponential window method in the space-wave number domain. Applying the exponential window in the space-wave number domain is equivalent to introducing...

  12. Photo of the Week: The First Energy-Efficient Dual-Paned Windows...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Photo of the Week: The First Energy-Efficient Dual-Paned Windows Photo of the Week: The First Energy-Efficient Dual-Paned Windows December 5, 2013 - 12:53pm Addthis Researchers at...

  13. Building America Webinar: Low-E Storms: The Next Big Thing in Window Retrofits

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Building America webinar presented a new and improved low-e storm window that boasts a combination of curb appeal and energy efficiency, all for a fraction of the cost of window replacement, on Sept. 9, 2014.

  14. Design of an energy efficient and economical actuator for automobile windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durand, Keith (Keith V.)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the design and analysis of an efficient, yet low cost, drum driven window actuation system for an automotive power window. The design uses a novel approach that involves using cables to both actuate ...

  15. Print this article Close This Window EU OKs India joining ITER nuclear reactor project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Print this article Close This Window EU OKs India joining ITER nuclear reactor project Fri Dec 2 trademarks and trademarks of the Reuters group of companies around the world. Close This Window 12/2/05 4

  16. TIME-VARIABLEFILTERING OF MtTLTI[CHANNELSIGNALS USING MULTIPLE WINDOWS COHERENCEAND THE WEYL TRANSFORM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandsten, Maria

    TIME-VARIABLEFILTERING OF MtTLTI[CHANNELSIGNALS USING MULTIPLE WINDOWS COHERENCEAND THE WEYL between all channel pairs. Time-frequency coherence functions are estimated using the multiple window

  17. Window-Related Energy Consumption in the US Residential and Commercial Building Stock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Joshua; Arasteh, Dariush

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Building Heating Loads (Trillion BTU/yr) Total BuildingCooling Loads (Trillion BTU/yr) Non. Wind Infilt SHGC Wind.Energy Consumption (Trillion BTU/yr) Area, Window Window

  18. Evaluation of Effect of Fuel Assembly Loading Patterns on Thermal and Shielding Performance of a Spent Fuel Storage/Transportation Cask

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuta, Judith M.; Jenquin, Urban P.; McKinnon, Mikal A.

    2001-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The licensing of spent fuel storage casks is generally based on conservative analyses that assume a storage system being uniformly loaded with design basis fuel. The design basis fuel typically assumes a maximum assembly enrichment, maximum burn up, and minimum cooling time. These conditions set the maximum decay heat loads and radioactive source terms for the design. Recognizing that reactor spent fuel pools hold spent fuel with an array of initial enrichments, burners, and cooling times, this study was performed to evaluate the effect of load pattern on peak cladding temperature and cask surface dose rate. Based on the analysis, the authors concluded that load patterns could be used to reduce peak cladding temperatures in a cask without adversely impacting the surface dose rates.

  19. U-028: Microsoft Windows win32k.sys TrueType Font Parsing Vulnerability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A vulnerability has been reported in Microsoft Windows, which can be exploited by malicious people to compromise a user's system.

  20. Installation of Window Air Conditioners Page 1 of 2 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University No. 5705 Rev.: 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    Installation of Window Air Conditioners Page 1 of 2 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State __________________________________________________________________________________ Subject: Installation of Window Air Conditioners........................................................................................................................................1 1. Purpose To define a policy for installation of window air conditioners that avoids exterior