National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for wind speed direction

  1. Combined Effects of Wind Speed and Wind Direction on Received Signal Strength in Foliated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Combined Effects of Wind Speed and Wind Direction on Received Signal Strength in Foliated Broadband of the received signal strength (RSS) in foliated fixed wireless links resulting from the combined effects of wind speed, changes of wind direction and movement of foliage. The results of a long- term measurement

  2. 1. Wind-splash erosion 4. Relationships between rainfall intensity, wind-speed, wind direction and erosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1. Wind-splash erosion 4. Relationships between rainfall intensity, wind-speed, wind direction and erosion 5. Longer term influence of wind-direction on landscape evolution 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1 of tubes at approximately two week intervals. Contour plots of rainfall intensity (mm/hr) against wind

  3. SCALAR WIND SPEED AND DIRECTION TROPICAL CYCLONE RETRIEVALS FOR CONICAL SCANNING SCATTEROMETERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hennon, Christopher C.

    SCALAR WIND SPEED AND DIRECTION TROPICAL CYCLONE RETRIEVALS FOR CONICAL SCANNING SCATTEROMETERS--Scatterometer measurements of ocean vector winds (OVW) are significantly degraded in the presence of the precipitation, especially in tropical cyclones. This paper presents a new ocean hurricane/typhoon wind vector retrieval

  4. MCMC SAMPLING FOR JOINT SEGMENTATION OF WIND SPEED AND DIRECTION Nicolas Dobigeon and Jean-Yves Tourneret

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tourneret, Jean-Yves

    MCMC SAMPLING FOR JOINT SEGMENTATION OF WIND SPEED AND DIRECTION Nicolas Dobigeon and Jean.dobigeon, jean-yves.tourneret}@enseeiht.fr ABSTRACT The problem of detecting changes in wind speed and direction for correlations between the wind speed and direction. A Gibbs sampling strategy overcomes the computational

  5. Anemometer Data (Wind Speed, Direction) for Pascua Yaqui, AZ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from a height of 20 m. The data was originally made available by Wind Powering America, a DOE Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) program. Data and Resources...

  6. Steady decline of east Asian monsoon winds, 19692000: Evidence from direct ground measurements of wind speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    , especially because of the potential for the monsoon to change with global warming. In this study we analyzed. [1] It is commonly believed that greenhouse-gas-induced global warming can weaken the east Asian that the monsoon wind speed is also highly correlated with incoming solar radiation at the surface. The present

  7. DIRECT REGULATION OF LARGE SPEED EXCURSIONS FOR VARIABLE SPEED WIND W. E. Leithead, D. J. Leith, F. Hardan, H.Markou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Ken

    DIRECT REGULATION OF LARGE SPEED EXCURSIONS FOR VARIABLE SPEED WIND TURBINES W. E. Leithead, D. J turbine aims to maintain the rotor speed within a permitted range. However, this requirement can of a pitch controller for 1 MW variable speed turbine which directly responds to a strong gust by pitching

  8. Forecasting Solar Wind Speeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takeru K. Suzuki

    2006-02-03

    By explicitly taking into account effects of Alfven waves, I derive from a simple energetics argument a fundamental relation which predicts solar wind (SW) speeds in the vicinity of the earth from physical properties on the sun. Kojima et al. recently found from their observations that a ratio of surface magnetic field strength to an expansion factor of open magnetic flux tubes is a good indicator of the SW speed. I show by using the derived relation that this nice correlation is an evidence of the Alfven wave which accelerates SW in expanding flux tubes. The observations further require that fluctuation amplitudes of magnetic field lines at the surface should be almost universal in different coronal holes, which needs to be tested by future observations.

  9. Forecasting wind speed financial return

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Amico, Guglielmo; Prattico, Flavio

    2013-01-01

    The prediction of wind speed is very important when dealing with the production of energy through wind turbines. In this paper, we show a new nonparametric model, based on semi-Markov chains, to predict wind speed. Particularly we use an indexed semi-Markov model that has been shown to be able to reproduce accurately the statistical behavior of wind speed. The model is used to forecast, one step ahead, wind speed. In order to check the validity of the model we show, as indicator of goodness, the root mean square error and mean absolute error between real data and predicted ones. We also compare our forecasting results with those of a persistence model. At last, we show an application of the model to predict financial indicators like the Internal Rate of Return, Duration and Convexity.

  10. Estimation of Wind Speed in Connection to a Wind Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Estimation of Wind Speed in Connection to a Wind Turbine X. Ma #3; , N. K. Poulsen #3; , H. Bindner y December 20, 1995 Abstract The wind speed varies over the rotor plane of wind turbine making the wind speed on the rotor plane will be estimated by using a wind turbine as a wind measuring device

  11. Numerical wind speed simulation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Athey, G.F.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1981-09-01

    A relatively simple stochastic model for simulating wind speed time series that can be used as an alternative to time series from representative locations is described in this report. The model incorporates systematic seasonal variation of the mean wind, its standard deviation, and the correlation speeds. It also incorporates systematic diurnal variation of the mean speed and standard deviation. To demonstrate the model capabilities, simulations were made using model parameters derived from data collected at the Hanford Meteorology Station, and results of analysis of simulated and actual data were compared.

  12. H. J. Sutherland and P. W. Carlin, "Damage Measurements on the NWTC Direct-Drive, Variable-Speed Test Bed," 1998 ASME Wind Energy Symposium, AIAA/ASME, 1998,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado 80401 Abstract The NWTC (National Wind Technology Center-Speed Test Bed," 1998 ASME Wind Energy Symposium, AIAA/ASME, 1998, pp. 315-322. DAMAGE MEASUREMENTS ON THE NWTC DIRECT-DRIVE, VARIABLE-SPEED TEST BED* Herbert J. Sutherland Wind Energy Department Sandia

  13. Wind Speed Forecasting for Power System Operation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Xinxin

    2013-07-22

    In order to support large-scale integration of wind power into current electric energy system, accurate wind speed forecasting is essential, because the high variation and limited predictability of wind pose profound challenges to the power system...

  14. Quantifying hurricane wind speed with undersea sound

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Joshua David

    2006-01-01

    Hurricanes, powerful storms with wind speeds that can exceed 80 m/s, are one of the most destructive natural disasters known to man. While current satellite technology has made it possible to effectively detect and track ...

  15. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurements of Evolving Wind Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simley, E.; Pao, L. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feedforward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. Past studies have assumed Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis, which implies that turbulence remains unchanged as it advects downwind at the mean wind speed. With Taylor's hypothesis applied, the only source of wind speed measurement error is distortion caused by the LIDAR. This study introduces wind evolution, characterized by the longitudinal coherence of the wind, to LIDAR measurement simulations to create a more realistic measurement model. A simple model of wind evolution is applied to a frozen wind field used in previous studies to investigate the effects of varying the intensity of wind evolution. LIDAR measurements are also evaluated with a large eddy simulation of a stable boundary layer provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Simulation results show the combined effects of LIDAR errors and wind evolution for realistic turbine-mounted LIDAR measurement scenarios.

  16. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bywaters, Garrett Lee; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-09-19

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  17. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2007-02-27

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  18. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-07-11

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  19. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2006-10-10

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  20. Wind speed PDF classification using Dirichlet mixtures Rudy CALIF1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Wind speed PDF classification using Dirichlet mixtures Rudy CALIF1 , Richard EMILION2 , Ted'Orléans), UMR CNRS 6628 Université d'Orléans, France. Abstract: Wind energy production is very sensitive to instantaneous wind speed fluctuations. Thus rapid variation of wind speed due to changes in the local

  1. Wind Speed Modelling and Shortterm Predic tion using Wavelets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nason, Guy

    prediction of the wind regime at a proposed wind farm site. Suppose a small amount of wind speed data hasWind Speed Modelling and Short­term Predic­ tion using Wavelets Katherine Hunt and Guy P Nason@bristol.ac.uk Abstract The mathematical method of wavelets is explained and used to predict wind condi­ tions using short

  2. WIND SPEED VARIABILITY AND ADAPTATION STRATEGIES IN COASTAL AREAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohfeld, Karen

    WIND SPEED VARIABILITY AND ADAPTATION STRATEGIES IN COASTAL AREAS OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST of Thesis: Wind Speed Variability and Adaptation Strategies in Coastal Areas of the Pacific Northwest/Approved: ___________________________________________ #12;iii ABSTRACT Overall, previous wind speed studies in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) present

  3. Ris-R-Report LIDAR Wind Speed Measurements from a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-R-Report LIDAR Wind Speed Measurements from a Rotating Spinner: "SpinnerEx 2009" Nikolas: LIDAR wind speed measurements from a rotating spinner (SpinnerEx 2009) Division: Wind Energy Division application of remote sensing techniques in wind energy, the feasibility of upwind observations via a spinner

  4. Probability distributions of land surface wind speeds over North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Aiguo

    Probability distributions of land surface wind speeds over North America Yanping He,1 Adam Hugh of the probability distributions of surface wind speeds (SWS) is essential for surface flux estimation, wind power estimation, and wind risk assessments. The two-parameter Weibull distribution is the most widely used

  5. Abstract--This paper develops a static observer for estimating wind speed in order to control wind speed and angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollerbach, John M.

    Abstract--This paper develops a static observer for estimating wind speed in order to control wind speed and angle control at a user position in a submersive virtual environment. Addition of wind display Active Wind Tunnel (TPAWT). Experiments on a scaled model of the TPAWT show that headwind flow stream

  6. Hi-Q Rotor - Low Wind Speed Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd E. Mills; Judy Tatum

    2010-01-11

    The project objective was to optimize the performance of the Hi-Q Rotor. Early research funded by the California Energy Commission indicated the design might be advantageous over state-of-the-art turbines for collecting wind energy in low wind conditions. The Hi-Q Rotor is a new kind of rotor targeted for harvesting wind in Class 2, 3, and 4 sites, and has application in areas that are closer to cities, or 'load centers.' An advantage of the Hi-Q Rotor is that the rotor has non-conventional blade tips, producing less turbulence, and is quieter than standard wind turbine blades which is critical to the low-wind populated urban sites. Unlike state-of-the-art propeller type blades, the Hi-Q Rotor has six blades connected by end caps. In this phase of the research funded by DOE's Inventions and Innovation Program, the goal was to improve the current design by building a series of theoretical and numeric models, and composite prototypes to determine a best of class device. Development of the rotor was performed by aeronautical engineering and design firm, DARcorporation. From this investigation, an optimized design was determined and an 8-foot diameter, full-scale rotor was built and mounted using a Bergey LX-1 generator and furling system which were adapted to support the rotor. The Hi-Q Rotor was then tested side-by-side against the state-of-the-art Bergey XL-1 at the Alternative Energy Institute's Wind Test Center at West Texas State University for six weeks, and real time measurements of power generated were collected and compared. Early wind tunnel testing showed that the cut-in-speed of the Hi-Q rotor is much lower than a conventional tested HAWT enabling the Hi-Q Wind Turbine to begin collecting energy before a conventional HAWT has started spinning. Also, torque at low wind speeds for the Hi-Q Wind Turbine is higher than the tested conventional HAWT and enabled the wind turbine to generate power at lower wind speeds. Based on the data collected, the results of our first full-scale prototype wind turbine proved that higher energy can be captured at lower wind speeds with the new Hi-Q Rotor. The Hi-Q Rotor is almost 15% more productive than the Bergey from 6 m/s to 8 m/s, making it ideal in Class 3, 4, and 5 wind sites and has application in the critical and heretofore untapped areas that are closer to cities, 'load centers,' and may even be used directly in urban areas. The additional advantage of the Hi-Q Rotor's non-conventional blade tips, which eliminates most air turbulence, is noise reduction which makes it doubly ideal for populated urban areas. Hi-Q Products recommends one final stage of development to take the Hi-Q Rotor through Technology Readiness Levels 8-9. During this stage of development, the rotor will be redesigned to further increase efficiency, match the rotor to a more suitable generator, and lower the cost of manufacturing by redesigning the structure to allow for production in larger quantities at lower cost. Before taking the rotor to market and commercialization, it is necessary to further optimize the performance by finding a better generator and autofurling system, ones more suitable for lower wind speeds and rpms should be used in all future testing. The potential impact of this fully developed technology will be the expansion and proliferation of energy renewal into the heretofore untapped Class 2, 3, 4, and 5 Wind Sites, or the large underutilized sites where the wind speed is broken by physical features such as mountains, buildings, and trees. Market estimates by 2011, if low wind speed technology can be developed are well above: 13 million homes, 675,000 commercial buildings, 250,000 public facilities. Estimated commercial exploitation of the Hi-Q Rotor show potential increase in U.S. energy gained through the clean, renewable wind energy found in low and very low wind speed sites. This new energy source would greatly impact greenhouse emissions as well as the public sector's growing energy demands.

  7. Effectiveness of Changing Wind Turbine Cut-in Speed to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manuela M. P. Huso; John P. Hayes

    2009-04-01

    This report details an experiment on the effectiveness of changing wind turbine cut-in speed on reducing bat fatality from wind turbines at the Casselman Wind Project in Somerset County, Pennsylvania.

  8. Analytical Modelling of Wind Speed Deficit in Large Offshore Wind Farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pryor, Sara C.

    Analytical Modelling of Wind Speed Deficit in Large Offshore Wind Farms Sten Frandsen*, Rebecca areas.As is often the need for offshore wind farms, the model handles a regular array geometry for offshore wind farms, the model handles a priori a regular array geometry with straight rows of wind

  9. The wind speed profile at offshore wind farm sites Bernhard Lange(1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    The wind speed profile at offshore wind farm sites Bernhard Lange(1) , Søren E. Larsen(2) , Jørgen feasibility of offshore wind power utilisation depends on the favourable wind conditions offshore compared for wind power prediction at offshore sites is investigated using data from the measurement program Rødsand

  10. Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. Mc in the context of wind power, where under- forecasting and overforecasting carry different financial penal- ties, calibrated and sharp probabilistic forecasts can help to make wind power a more financially competitive alter

  11. MODELLING THE VERTICAL WIND SPEED AND TURBULENCE INTENSITY PROFILES AT PROSPECTIVE OFFSHORE WIND FARM SITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    MODELLING THE VERTICAL WIND SPEED AND TURBULENCE INTENSITY PROFILES AT PROSPECTIVE OFFSHORE WIND important for offshore wind energy utilisation are discussed and tested: Four models for the surface tested with data from the offshore field measurement Rødsand by extrapolating the measured 10 m wind

  12. MODELLING THE VERTICAL WIND SPEED AND TURBULENCE INTENSITY PROFILES AT PROSPECTIVE OFFSHORE WIND FARM SITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    MODELLING THE VERTICAL WIND SPEED AND TURBULENCE INTENSITY PROFILES AT PROSPECTIVE OFFSHORE WIND for conditions important for offshore wind energy utilisation are compared and tested: Four models tested with data from the offshore field measurement Rødsand by extrapolating the measured 10 m wind

  13. Q: When planning a wind farm, how are wind resources estimated? And if the average wind speed is known at 10 meters is there a general rule for estimating the wind speed at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Q: When planning a wind farm, how are wind resources estimated? And if the average wind speed is known at 10 meters is there a general rule for estimating the wind speed at larger heights above ground level? The wind resource at a wind farm can be estimated in two ways: by measurement or by modeling

  14. The amount of power in the wind is very dependent on the speed of the wind. Because the power in the wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    The amount of power in the wind is very dependent on the speed of the wind. Because the power in the wind is proportional to the cube of the wind speed, small differences in the wind speed make a big. This gives rise to the primary reason for wind re- source assessment. In order to more accurately predict

  15. The Probability Distribution of Land Surface Wind Speeds ADAM H. MONAHAN AND YANPING HE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Yanping

    , the Netherlands, and Los Alamos, New Mexico, demonstrate that lower-tropospheric wind speeds become moreThe Probability Distribution of Land Surface Wind Speeds ADAM H. MONAHAN AND YANPING HE School surface wind speeds is characterized using a global network of observations. Daytime surface wind speeds

  16. Mining Markov chain transition matrix from wind speed time series data Zhe Song a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    . Researches related with wind speed are quite extensive, includ- ing wind speed forecasting (Kusiak, Zheng, Essiarab, & Sayigh, 2004; Sahin & Sen, 2001) and so on. Wind speed forecasting and simulation could approaches, Markov chain is a popular tool to model, forecast and simulate the wind speed in a discrete

  17. Bidding wind energy exploiting wind speed forecasts Antonio Giannitrapani, Simone Paoletti,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garulli, Andrea

    -ahead generation profile for a wind power producer by exploiting wind speed forecasts provided by a meteorological service. In the con- sidered framework, the wind power producer is called to take part integration in the grid is causing serious problems to transmission and distribution system operators [2]. One

  18. The Effect of Wind Speed and Electric Rates On Wind Turbine Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    The Effect of Wind Speed and Electric Rates On Wind Turbine Economics Economics of wind power by the theoretical maximum energy production if the generator were running at its rated power all the year turbine Rated Power per turbine: assumption 1,500 kW C Availability assumption 97% D 8,760 hrs/year E

  19. The Solar Wind Helium Abundance: Variation with Wind Speed and the Solar Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    The Solar Wind Helium Abundance: Variation with Wind Speed and the Solar Cycle Matthias R. Aellig Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM 87545 Abstract We investigate the helium abundance in the solar wind of 1994 and early 2000 are analyzed. In agreement with similar work for previous solar cycles, we find

  20. Observed and CAM3 GCM Sea Surface Wind Speed Distributions: Characterization, Comparison, and Bias Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capps, Scott B; Zender, Charles S

    2008-01-01

    341–345. Yuan, X. , 2004: High-wind-speed evaluation in theCosca, 2004: Effects of wind speed and gas exchange param-dust emission caused by wind erosion. J. Geophys. Res. ,

  1. ARE660 Wind Generator: Low Wind Speed Technology for Small Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert W. Preus; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2008-04-23

    This project is for the design of a wind turbine that can generate most or all of the net energy required for homes and small businesses in moderately windy areas. The purpose is to expand the current market for residential wind generators by providing cost effective power in a lower wind regime than current technology has made available, as well as reduce noise and improve reliability and safety. Robert W. Preus’ experience designing and/or maintaining residential wind generators of many configurations helped identify the need for an improved experience of safety for the consumer. Current small wind products have unreliable or no method of stopping the wind generator in fault or high wind conditions. Consumers and their neighbors do not want to hear their wind generators. In addition, with current technology, only sites with unusually high wind speeds provide payback times that are acceptable for the on-grid user. Abundant Renewable Energy’s (ARE) basic original concept for the ARE660 was a combination of a stall controlled variable speed small wind generator and automatic fail safe furling for shutdown. The stall control for a small wind generator is not novel, but has not been developed for a variable speed application with a permanent magnet alternator (PMA). The fail safe furling approach for shutdown has not been used to our knowledge.

  2. Examination of wind speed thresholds for vorticity-driven lateral fire spread

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Jason

    , to specifically consider the effect of wind speed in generating the fire-induced vorticity necessary to drive wind speed, below which the prevailing winds are too weak to drive the vorticity-generating interactionExamination of wind speed thresholds for vorticity-driven lateral fire spread J.J. Sharples a , C

  3. Why do meteorologists use wind vanes? Wind vanes are used to determine the direction of the wind. Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Fun Facts Why do meteorologists use wind vanes? Wind vanes are used to determine the direction of the wind. Wind· vanes are also called weather vanes. What do wind vanes look like on a weather station? Wind vanes that are on weather stations look a lot like the one you· made! The biggest differences

  4. Probability distributions for offshore wind speeds Eugene C. Morgan a,*, Matthew Lackner b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogel, Richard M.

    Probability distributions for offshore wind speeds Eugene C. Morgan a,*, Matthew Lackner b Wind turbine energy output Weibull distribution Extreme wind a b s t r a c t In planning offshore wind farms, short-term wind speeds play a central role in estimating various engi- neering parameters

  5. Wind Speed Modelling and Short-term Predic-tion using Wavelets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nason, Guy

    prediction of the wind regime at a proposed wind farm site. Suppose a small amount of wind speed data hasWind Speed Modelling and Short-term Predic- tion using Wavelets Katherine Hunt and Guy P Nason@bristol.ac.uk Abstract The mathematical method of wavelets is explained and used to predict wind condi- tions using short

  6. United States- Land Based and Offshore Annual Average Wind Speed at 100 Meters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Full-size, high resolution version of the 100-meter land-based and offshore wind speed resource map.

  7. Predicting the arrival of high-speed solar wind streams at Earth using the STEREO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lockwood, Mike

    Predicting the arrival of high-speed solar wind streams at Earth using the STEREO Heliospheric of solar wind speed to predict the arrival of such streams at Earth, assuming they corotated with the Sun November 2011; accepted 11 December 2011; published 16 February 2012. [1] High-speed solar wind streams

  8. Wind speed influence on phytoplankton bloom dynamics in the Southern Ocean Marginal Ice Zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Keith

    Wind speed influence on phytoplankton bloom dynamics in the Southern Ocean Marginal Ice Zone Dillon; published 7 August 2007. [1] Analysis of satellite ocean color and wind speed data within the seasonal ice. Moore (2007), Wind speed influence on phytoplankton bloom dynamics in the Southern Ocean Marginal Ice

  9. A Robust STATCOM Control to Augment LVRT capability of Fixed Speed Wind Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    A Robust STATCOM Control to Augment LVRT capability of Fixed Speed Wind Turbines M. J. Hossain, H Compensator (STATCOM) to enhance the Low-Voltage Ride- Through (LVRT) capability of fixed-speed wind turbines cost and maintenance due to rugged brushless construction. Constant speed wind turbines equipped

  10. Solar wind-magnetosphere coupling leading to relativistic electron energization during high-speed streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyons, Larry

    Solar wind-magnetosphere coupling leading to relativistic electron energization during high. Smith (2005), Solar wind-magnetosphere coupling leading to relativistic electron energization during. Using observations during a period of persistent high-speed, corotating, solar wind streams, we

  11. Wind speed influence on phytoplankton bloom dynamics in the Southern Ocean Marginal Ice Zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitch, Dillon T; Moore, J. Keith

    2007-01-01

    Niebauer, H. J. (1982), Wind and melt driven circulation inJ. K. Moore (2007), Wind speed influence on phytoplanktonby the NASA Ocean Vector Winds Science Team. Data are

  12. Ris-PhD-Report Accounting for the speed shear in wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-PhD-Report Accounting for the speed shear in wind turbine power performance measurement Rozenn for the speed shear in wind turbine power performance measurement Division: Wind Energy Division Abstract: The power curve of a wind turbine is the primary char- acteristic of the machine as it is the basis

  13. Solar wind suprathermal electron Stahl widths across high-speed stream structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skoug, Ruth M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steinberg, John T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goodrich, Katherine A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Brett R [DARTMUTH UNIV.

    2011-01-03

    Suprathermal electrons (100-1500 eV) observed in the solar wind typically show a strahl distribution, that is, a beam directed away from the Sun along the magnetic field direction. The strahl width observed at 1 AU is highly variable, ranging from 10-70 degrees. The obsenred finite width of the strahl results from the competition between beam focusing as the interplanetary magnetic field strength drops with distance from the Sun, and pitch-angle scattering as the beam interacts with the solar wind plasma in transit from the sun. Here we examine strahl width, observed with ACE SWEPAM across high-speed stream structures to investigate variations in electron scattering as a function of local plasma characteristics. We find that narrow strahls (less than 20 degrees wide), indicating reduced scattering, are observed within high-speed streams. Narrow strahls are also observed in both very low temperature solar wind, in association with ICMEs. Case studies of high-speed streams typically show the strahl narrowing at the leading edge of the stream. In some cases, the strahl narrows at the reverse shock or pressure wave, in other cases at the stream interface. The narrowing can either occur discontinuously or gradually over a period of hours. Within the high-speed wind, the strahl remains narrow for a period of hours to days, and then gradually broadens. The strahl width is roughly constant at all energies across these structures. For some fraction of high-speed streams, counterstreaming is associated with passage of the corotating interaction region. In these cases, we find the widths of the two counterstreaming beams frequently differ by more than 40 degrees. This dramatic difference in strahl width contrasts with observations in the solar wind as a whole, in which counterstreaming strahls typically differ in width by less than 20 degrees.

  14. EFFECT OF PITCH CONTROL AND POWER CONDITIONING ON POWER QUALITY OF VARIABLE SPEED WIND TURBINE GENERATORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EFFECT OF PITCH CONTROL AND POWER CONDITIONING ON POWER QUALITY OF VARIABLE SPEED WIND TURBINE), Curtin University of Technology, WA Abstract: Variable speed wind turbine generators provide the opportunity to capture more power than fixed speed turbines. However the variable speed machine output can

  15. Relationship Between Solar Wind Speed and Coronal Magnetic Field Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fujiki, Ken'ichi; Iju, Tomoya; Hakamada, Kazuyuki; Kojima, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the relationship between the solar-wind speed $[V]$ and the coronal magnetic-field properties (a flux expansion factor [$f$] and photospheric magnetic-field strength [$B_{\\mathrm{S}}$]) at all latitudes using data of interplanetary scintillation and solar magnetic field obtained for 24 years from 1986 to 2009. Using a cross-correlation analyses, we verified that $V$ is inversely proportional to $f$ and found that $V$ tends to increase with $B_{\\mathrm{S}}$ if $f$ is the same. As a consequence, we find that $V$ has extremely good linear correlation with $B_{\\mathrm{S}}/f$. However, this linear relation of $V$ and $B_{\\mathrm{S}}/f$ cannot be used for predicting the solar-wind velocity without information on the solar-wind mass flux. We discuss why the inverse relation between $V$ and $f$ has been successfully used for solar-wind velocity prediction, even though it does not explicitly include the mass flux and magnetic-field strength, which are important physical parameters for solar-wind accele...

  16. Modelling and Analysis of Variable Speed Wind Turbines with Induction Generator during Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, René Rydhof

    Modelling and Analysis of Variable Speed Wind Turbines with Induction Generator during Grid Fault Risø National Laboratory Vestas Wind Systems A/S #12;#12;I Modelling and Analysis of Variable Speed Wind Turbines with Induction Generator during Grid Fault by Sigrid M. Bolik Institute of Energy

  17. A sea drag relation for hurricane wind speeds N. C. Zweers,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vries, Hans de

    A sea drag relation for hurricane wind speeds N. C. Zweers,1 V. K. Makin,1 J. W. de Vries,1 and G, the surface drag is overestimated in NWP models for hurricane wind speeds and the intensity of hurricane winds is tested in an NWP model. Two hurricanes in the Caribbean are modeled: Ivan (2004) and Katrina (2005

  18. Variable Speed Wind Turbine Generator with Zero-sequence Filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muljadi, Eduard (Golden, CO)

    1998-08-25

    A variable speed wind turbine generator system to convert mechanical power into electrical power or energy and to recover the electrical power or energy in the form of three phase alternating current and return the power or energy to a utility or other load with single phase sinusoidal waveform at sixty (60) hertz and unity power factor includes an excitation controller for generating three phase commanded current, a generator, and a zero sequence filter. Each commanded current signal includes two components: a positive sequence variable frequency current signal to provide the balanced three phase excitation currents required in the stator windings of the generator to generate the rotating magnetic field needed to recover an optimum level of real power from the generator; and a zero frequency sixty (60) hertz current signal to allow the real power generated by the generator to be supplied to the utility. The positive sequence current signals are balanced three phase signals and are prevented from entering the utility by the zero sequence filter. The zero sequence current signals have zero phase displacement from each other and are prevented from entering the generator by the star connected stator windings. The zero sequence filter allows the zero sequence current signals to pass through to deliver power to the utility.

  19. Variable speed wind turbine generator with zero-sequence filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muljadi, Eduard (Golden, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A variable speed wind turbine generator system to convert mechanical power into electrical power or energy and to recover the electrical power or energy in the form of three phase alternating current and return the power or energy to a utility or other load with single phase sinusoidal waveform at sixty (60) hertz and unity power factor includes an excitation controller for generating three phase commanded current, a generator, and a zero sequence filter. Each commanded current signal includes two components: a positive sequence variable frequency current signal to provide the balanced three phase excitation currents required in the stator windings of the generator to generate the rotating magnetic field needed to recover an optimum level of real power from the generator; and a zero frequency sixty (60) hertz current signal to allow the real power generated by the generator to be supplied to the utility. The positive sequence current signals are balanced three phase signals and are prevented from entering the utility by the zero sequence filter. The zero sequence current signals have zero phase displacement from each other and are prevented from entering the generator by the star connected stator windings. The zero sequence filter allows the zero sequence current signals to pass through to deliver power to the utility.

  20. Variable speed wind turbine generator with zero-sequence filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muljadi, E.

    1998-08-25

    A variable speed wind turbine generator system to convert mechanical power into electrical power or energy and to recover the electrical power or energy in the form of three phase alternating current and return the power or energy to a utility or other load with single phase sinusoidal waveform at sixty (60) hertz and unity power factor includes an excitation controller for generating three phase commanded current, a generator, and a zero sequence filter. Each commanded current signal includes two components: a positive sequence variable frequency current signal to provide the balanced three phase excitation currents required in the stator windings of the generator to generate the rotating magnetic field needed to recover an optimum level of real power from the generator; and a zero frequency sixty (60) hertz current signal to allow the real power generated by the generator to be supplied to the utility. The positive sequence current signals are balanced three phase signals and are prevented from entering the utility by the zero sequence filter. The zero sequence current signals have zero phase displacement from each other and are prevented from entering the generator by the star connected stator windings. The zero sequence filter allows the zero sequence current signals to pass through to deliver power to the utility. 14 figs.

  1. Low Wind Speed Turbine Development Project Report: November 4, 2002 - December 31, 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikhail, A.

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes work conducted by Clipper Windpower under the DOE Low Wind Speed Turbine project. The objective of this project was to produce a wind turbine that can lower the cost of energy.

  2. Offshore Coastal Wind Speed Gradients: issues for the design and development of large offshore windfarms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pryor, Sara C.

    -situ and remote sensing data from offshore wind farms in Denmark, are used to examine both horizontal and vertical the area of the wind farm appear to be small and negligible. 1. INTRODUCTION As large offshore wind farmsOffshore Coastal Wind Speed Gradients: issues for the design and development of large offshore

  3. The effect of wind speed fluctuations on the performance of a wind-powered membrane system for brackish water desalination 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Gavin L.; Schäfer, Andrea; Richards, Bryce S.

    2011-01-01

    A wind-powered reverse osmosis membrane (wind-membrane) system without energy storage was tested using synthetic brackish water (2750 and 5500 mg/L NaCl) over a range of simulated wind speeds under both steady-state and ...

  4. Low Wind Speed Turbine Developments in Convoloid Gearing: Final Technical Report, June 2005 - October 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genesis Partners LP

    2010-08-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted by Genesis Partners LP as part of the United States Department of Energy Wind Energy Research Program to develop wind technology that will enable wind systems to compete in regions having low wind speeds. The purpose of the program is to reduce the cost of electricity from large wind systems in areas having Class 4 winds to 3 cents per kWh for onshore systems or 5 cents per kWh for offshore systems. This work builds upon previous activities under the WindPACT project, the Next Generation Turbine project, and Phase I of the Low Wind Speed Turbine (LWST) project. This project is concerned with the development of more cost-effective gearing for speed increasers for wind turbines.

  5. Wind Direct Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavyAgencyTendo New EnergyWindState GridWind Turbinespro energyDirect

  6. Master's thesis: "Wind speed measurements in an offshore wind farm by remote sensing: Comparison of radar satellite TerraSAR-X and ground-based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peinke, Joachim

    Master's thesis: "Wind speed measurements in an offshore wind farm by remote sensing: Comparison of the Offshore wind farm alpha ventus with 12 wind turbines, substation and met mast Fino1. Southerly winds cause (wake) caused by wind farms and especially for the interaction of large offshore wind farms, which can

  7. Very short-term wind speed forecasting with Bayesian structural break model , Zhe Song a,*, Andrew Kusiak b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    of the wind industry, such as wind turbine predictive control [2,3], wind power grid integration and economic July 2012 Available online Keywords: Time series Forecasting Wind power Wind speed Bayesian structural applications, such as wind turbine predictive control, wind power scheduling. The proposed model is tested

  8. Improved Method for Specifying Solar Wind Speed Near the Sun Charles N. Arge*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    much better than one derived previously, which is a function of fs only. We focus here on the solarImproved Method for Specifying Solar Wind Speed Near the Sun Charles N. Arge* , Dusan Odstrcil solar wind flow speed near the Sun (~0.1 AU) us- ing a set of three simple inter-linked coronal/solar

  9. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling, including relativistic electron energization, during high-speed streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyons, Larry

    Solar-wind­ magnetosphere coupling, including relativistic electron energization, during high. If this inference is correct, and if it is chorus that energizes the relativistic electrons, then high-speed solar-speed solar wind streams, and fluxes of relativistic electrons observed at geosynchronous orbit enhance

  10. PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH REMOTELY SENSING WIND SPEED Yulia Hristova, William Lindsey, Scott Small,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Problems Associated with Remotely Sensing Wind Speed Yulia Hristova, William Lindsey, Scott Small, DeepakPROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH REMOTELY SENSING WIND SPEED By Yulia Hristova, William Lindsey, Scott Small, Deepak Subbarayappa, Toni Tullius, and John R. Hoffman IMA Preprint Series # 2285 ( October 2009

  11. The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and Long-term Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohfeld, Karen

    The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and Long- term Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir and Long-term Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows on Wind Power in the Pacific through diversification. In hydroelectric dominated systems, like the PNW, the benefits of wind power can

  12. EVALUATION OF MODELS FOR THE VERTICAL EXTRAPOLATION OF WIND SPEED MEASUREMENTS AT OFFSHORE SITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    EVALUATION OF MODELS FOR THE VERTICAL EXTRAPOLATION OF WIND SPEED MEASUREMENTS AT OFFSHORE SITES important for offshore wind energy utilisation are discussed and tested: Four models for the surface tested with data from the offshore field measurement Rødsand by extrapolating the measured 10 m wind

  13. EVALUATION OF MODELS FOR THE VERTICAL EXTRAPOLATION OF WIND SPEED MEASUREMENTS AT OFFSHORE SITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    EVALUATION OF MODELS FOR THE VERTICAL EXTRAPOLATION OF WIND SPEED MEASUREMENTS AT OFFSHORE SITES important for offshore wind energy utilisation are discussed and tested: Four models for the surface that an important part of the future expansion of wind energy utilisation at least in Europe will come from offshore

  14. Aalborg Universitet Individual Pitch Control for Mitigation of Power Fluctuation of Variable Speed Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Weihao

    angles are adjusted separately according to the generator output power and the azimuth angle of the wind Wind Turbines Zhang, Yunqian; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Cheng, Ming Published in: Proceedings of the 10th Pitch Control for Mitigation of Power Fluctuation of Variable Speed Wind Turbines. In Proceedings

  15. Statistical Analysis of Environment Canada's Wind Speed Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, James H.

    of wind power generation poses operational difficulties to electricity markets. An electricity market to the defaulters. The wind energy (WE) utility thus faces the challenge of producing accurate power generation the kinetic energy in the wind is converted into electric power by the wind power generator. Stationary time

  16. Noise-cancelling quadrature magnetic position, speed and direction sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Preston, Mark A. (Niskayuna, NY); King, Robert D. (Schenectady, NY)

    1996-01-01

    An array of three magnetic sensors in a single package is employed with a single bias magnet for sensing shaft position, speed and direction of a motor in a high magnetic noise environment. Two of the three magnetic sensors are situated in an anti-phase relationship (i.e., 180.degree. out-of-phase) with respect to the relationship between the other of the two sensors and magnetically salient target, and the third magnetic sensor is situated between the anti-phase sensors. The result is quadrature sensing with noise immunity for accurate relative position, speed and direction measurements.

  17. First and second order semi-Markov chains for wind speed modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Amico, Guglielmo; Prattico, Flavio

    2012-01-01

    The increasing interest in renewable energy, particularly in wind, has given rise to the necessity of accurate models for the generation of good synthetic wind speed data. Markov chains are often used with this purpose but better models are needed to reproduce the statistical properties of wind speed data. We downloaded a database, freely available from the web, in which are included wind speed data taken from L.S.I. -Lastem station (Italy) and sampled every 10 minutes. With the aim of reproducing the statistical properties of this data we propose the use of three semi-Markov models. We generate synthetic time series for wind speed by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The time lagged autocorrelation is then used to compare statistical properties of the proposed models with those of real data and also with a synthetic time series generated though a simple Markov chain.

  18. Reconstruction of Helio-latitudinal Structure of the Solar Wind Proton Speed and Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sokó?, Justyna M; Bzowski, Maciej; Tokumaru, Munetoshi

    2015-01-01

    The modeling of the heliosphere requires continuous three-dimensional solar wind data. The in-situ out-of-ecliptic measurements are very rare, so that other methods of solar wind detection are needed. We use the remote sensing data of the solar wind speed from observations of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) to reconstruct spatial and temporal structures of the solar wind proton speed from 1985 to 2013. We developed a method of filling the data gaps in the IPS observations to obtain continuous and homogeneous solar wind speed records. We also present a method to retrieve the solar wind density from the solar wind speed, utilizing the invariance of the solar wind dynamic pressure and energy flux with latitude. To construct the synoptic maps of solar wind speed we use the decomposition into spherical harmonics of each of the Carrington rotation map. To fill the gaps in time we apply the singular spectrum analysis to the time series of the coefficients of spherical harmonics. We obtained helio-latitudinal prof...

  19. Offshore Wind Project Surges Ahead in South Carolina

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Center for Marine and Wetland Studies studies wind speed data from buoys, which have been measuring wind speed and direction for the past year.

  20. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurement Analysis and Feed-Forward Blade Pitch Control for Load Mitigation in Wind Turbines: January 2010--January 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunne, F.; Simley, E.; Pao, L.Y.

    2011-10-01

    This report examines the accuracy of measurements that rely on Doppler LIDAR systems to determine their applicability to wind turbine feed-forward control systems and discusses feed-forward control system designs that use preview wind measurements. Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feed-forward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. The first half of this report examines the accuracy of different measurement scenarios that rely on coherent continuous-wave or pulsed Doppler LIDAR systems to determine their applicability to feed-forward control. In particular, the impacts of measurement range and angular offset from the wind direction are studied for various wind conditions. A realistic case involving a scanning LIDAR unit mounted in the spinner of a wind turbine is studied in depth with emphasis on choices for scan radius and preview distance. The effects of turbulence parameters on measurement accuracy are studied as well. Continuous-wave and pulsed LIDAR models based on typical commercially available units were used in the studies present in this report. The second half of this report discusses feed-forward control system designs that use preview wind measurements. Combined feedback/feed-forward blade pitch control is compared to industry standard feedback control when simulated in realistic turbulent above-rated winds. The feed-forward controllers are designed to reduce fatigue loads, increasing turbine lifetime and therefore reducing the cost of energy. Three feed-forward designs are studied: non-causal series expansion, Preview Control, and optimized FIR filter. The input to the feed-forward controller is a measurement of incoming wind speeds that could be provided by LIDAR. Non-causal series expansion and Preview Control methods reduce blade root loads but increase tower bending in simulation results. The optimized FIR filter reduces loads overall, keeps pitch rates low, and maintains rotor speed regulation and power capture, while using imperfect wind measurements provided by the spinning continuous-wave LIDAR model.

  1. Wind speed forecasting at different time scales: a non parametric approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Amico, Guglielmo; Prattico, Flavio

    2013-01-01

    The prediction of wind speed is one of the most important aspects when dealing with renewable energy. In this paper we show a new nonparametric model, based on semi-Markov chains, to predict wind speed. Particularly we use an indexed semi-Markov model, that reproduces accurately the statistical behavior of wind speed, to forecast wind speed one step ahead for different time scales and for very long time horizon maintaining the goodness of prediction. In order to check the main features of the model we show, as indicator of goodness, the root mean square error between real data and predicted ones and we compare our forecasting results with those of a persistence model.

  2. Construction of SDE-based wind speed models with exponential autocorrelation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miñano, Rafael Zárate

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a systematic method to build wind speed models based on stochastic differential equations (SDEs). The resulting models produce stochastic processes with a given probability distribution and exponential decaying autocorrelation function. The only information needed to build the models is the probability density function of the wind speed and its autocorrelation coefficient. Unlike other methods previously proposed in the literature, the proposed method leads to models able to reproduce an exact exponential autocorrelation even if the probability distribution is not Gaussian. A sufficient condition for the property above is provided. The paper includes the explicit formulation of SDE-based wind speed models obtained from several probability distributions used in the literature to describe different wind speed behaviors.

  3. Microsoft Word - utah_wind_speed_summary.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    November (110102 - 111302) 6.3 mph Overall Average (110901 - 111302) 7.0 mph Kirk SmithLee Llewellyn Washington Correctional Facility Site Hurricane, Utah Average Wind...

  4. Effects of solar wind magnetosphere coupling recorded at different geomagnetic latitudes: Separation of directly-driven and storage/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lockwood, Mike

    Effects of solar wind magnetosphere coupling recorded at different geomagnetic latitudes: Separation of directly-driven and storage/ release systems I. D. Finch,1 M. L. Lockwood,1,2 and A. P November 2008. [1] The effect on geomagnetic activity of solar wind speed, compared

  5. THE HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER WIDE SWATH SIMULATION AND WIND SPEED RETRIEVALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    THE HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER WIDE SWATH SIMULATION AND WIND SPEED RETRIEVALS Ruba A. Amarin1 Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama 4 NOAA/AOML/Hurricane Research Division, Miami, Florida, USA ABSTRACT The knowledge of peak winds in hurricanes is critical to classification of hurricane intensity

  6. Euler-Bernoulli Implementation of Spherical Anemometers for High Wind Speed Calculations via Strain Gauges 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castillo, Davis

    2011-08-08

    New measuring methods continue to be developed in the field of wind anemometry for various environments subject to low-speed and high-speed flows, turbulent-present flows, and ideal and non-ideal flows. As a result, anemometry has taken different...

  7. Independent Coding of Wind Direction in Cockroach Giant Interneurons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Libersat, Frederic

    Independent Coding of Wind Direction in Cockroach Giant Interneurons ADI MIZRAHI AND FREDERIC of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel Mizrahi, Adi and Frederic Libersat. Independent coding of wind soma-to-cell interactions in the localization processing of a wind of three pairs of bilateral cells. The vGIs (GI1

  8. Wind turbine having a direct-drive drivetrain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bevington, Christopher M.; Bywaters, Garrett L.; Coleman, Clint C.; Costin, Daniel P.; Danforth, William L.; Lynch, Jonathan A.; Rolland, Robert H.

    2011-02-22

    A wind turbine comprising an electrical generator that includes a rotor assembly. A wind rotor that includes a wind rotor hub is directly coupled to the rotor assembly via a simplified connection. The wind rotor and generator rotor assembly are rotatably mounted on a central spindle via a bearing assembly. The wind rotor hub includes an opening having a diameter larger than the outside diameter of the central spindle adjacent the bearing assembly so as to allow access to the bearing assembly from a cavity inside the wind rotor hub. The spindle is attached to a turret supported by a tower. Each of the spindle, turret and tower has an interior cavity that permits personnel to traverse therethrough to the cavity of the wind rotor hub. The wind turbine further includes a frictional braking system for slowing, stopping or keeping stopped the rotation of the wind rotor and rotor assembly.

  9. Fixed-Speed and Variable-Slip Wind Turbines Providing Spinning Reserves to the Grid: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.

    2012-11-01

    As the level of wind penetration increases, wind turbine technology must move from merely generating power from wind to taking a role in supporting the bulk power system. Wind turbines should have the capability to provide inertial response and primary frequency (governor) response so they can support the frequency stability of the grid. To provide governor response, wind turbines should be able to generate less power than the available wind power and hold the rest in reserve, ready to be accessed as needed. This paper explores several ways to control wind turbine output to enable reserve-holding capability. This paper focuses on fixed-speed (also known as Type 1) and variable-slip (also known as Type 2) turbines.

  10. Long-term-average, solar cycle, and seasonal response of magnetospheric energetic electrons to the solar wind speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vassiliadis, Dimitrios

    is parameterized by the time delay (t), measured from the time of solar wind impact, and the L shell (L). We to the solar wind speed D. Vassiliadis,1 A. J. Klimas,2 S. G. Kanekal,3 D. N. Baker,3 and R. S. Weigel4. [1] Among the interplanetary activity parameters the solar wind speed is the one best correlated

  11. Space-time forecasting and evaluation of wind speed with statistical tests for comparing accuracy of spatial predictions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hering, Amanda S.

    2010-10-12

    High-quality short-term forecasts of wind speed are vital to making wind power a more reliable energy source. Gneiting et al. (2006) have introduced a model for the average wind speed two hours ahead based on both spatial and temporal information...

  12. Adaptive pitch control for variable speed wind turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Kathryn E. (Boulder, CO); Fingersh, Lee Jay (Westminster, CO)

    2012-05-08

    An adaptive method for adjusting blade pitch angle, and controllers implementing such a method, for achieving higher power coefficients. Average power coefficients are determined for first and second periods of operation for the wind turbine. When the average power coefficient for the second time period is larger than for the first, a pitch increment, which may be generated based on the power coefficients, is added (or the sign is retained) to the nominal pitch angle value for the wind turbine. When the average power coefficient for the second time period is less than for the first, the pitch increment is subtracted (or the sign is changed). A control signal is generated based on the adapted pitch angle value and sent to blade pitch actuators that act to change the pitch angle of the wind turbine to the new or modified pitch angle setting, and this process is iteratively performed.

  13. A study of wind-speed maxima near the surface over the south central United States 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckman, Samuel Karl

    1973-01-01

    A STUDY OF WIND-SPEED MAXIMA NEAR THE SURFACE OVER THE SOUTH CENTRAL UNITED STATES A Thesis by Samuel Karl Beckman Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas Addd University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1973 Major Subject: Meteorology A STUDY OF WIND-SPEED MAXIMA NEAR THE SURFACE OVER THE SOUTH CENTRAL UNITED STATES A Thesis by Samuel Karl Beckman Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Commi ee) (Head of D p tment...

  14. Effect of wind speed on the growth of the upper convective zone in a solar pond 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMinn, Steven Lee

    1990-01-01

    EFFECT OF WIND SPEED ON THE GROWTH OF THE UPPER CONVECTIVE ZONE IN A SOLAR POND A Thesis by STEVEN LEE MCMINN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering EFFECT OF WIND SPEED ON THE GROWTH OF THE UPPER CONVECTIVE ZONE IN A SOLAR POND A Thesis by STEVEN LEE MCMINN Approved as to style and content by: W. R. Laster (Chair...

  15. Wind speed modeled as a semi-Markov process with memory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Amico, Guglielmo; Prattico, Flavio

    2012-01-01

    The increasing interest in renewable energy, particularly in wind, has given rise to the necessity of accurate models for the generation of good synthetic wind speed data. Markov chains are often used with this purpose but better models are needed to reproduce the statistical properties of wind speed data. In a previous paper we showed that semi-Markov processes are more appropriate for this purpose but to reach an accurate reproduction of real data features high order model should be used. In this work we introduce an indexed semi-Markov process that is able to fit real data. We downloaded a database, freely available from the web, in which are included wind speed data taken from L.S.I. -Lastem station (Italy) and sampled every 10 minutes. We then generate synthetic time series for wind speed by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The time lagged autocorrelation is then used to compare statistical properties of the proposed model with those of real data and also with a synthetic time series generated though a ...

  16. Passively cooled direct drive wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Costin, Daniel P. (Chelsea, VT)

    2008-03-18

    A wind turbine is provided that passively cools an electrical generator. The wind turbine includes a plurality of fins arranged peripherally around a generator house. Each of the fins being oriented at an angle greater than zero degrees to allow parallel flow of air over the fin. The fin is further tapered to allow a constant portion of the fin to extend beyond the air stream boundary layer. Turbulence initiators on the nose cone further enhance heat transfer at the fins.

  17. An event-based approach to validating solar wind speed predictions: High-speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    December 2005. [1] One of the primary goals of the Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM for the Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) solar wind models and suggest an event-based approach-Sheeley-Arge Model [3] CISM is using the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model (WSA) [Arge and Pizzo, 2000; Arge et al., 2003

  18. EXPERIENCES WITH SONIC WIND SENSORS IN OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS Wiel M.F. Wauben

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wauben, Wiel

    ) uses conventional cup anemometers and wind vanes to measure wind speed and direction. Although the KNMI sonic considered in the previous evaluation. The advanced sensor has the required wind speed range up. An uncertainty of the wind speed of maximally 2 % at all wind directions is required for the wind profile

  19. Wind Resource Assessment and Characterization | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to accurately define, measure, and forecast the nation's land-based and offshore wind resources. More accurate prediction and measurement of wind speed and direction allow...

  20. The Influence of Boundary Layer Processes on the Diurnal Variation of the Climatological Near-Surface Wind Speed Probability Distribution over Land*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Yanping

    -Surface Wind Speed Probability Distribution over Land* YANPING HE School of Earth and Ocean Sciences wind speed probability distribution is essential for surface flux estimation and wind power management. Global observations indicate that the surface wind speed probability density function (PDF

  1. Wind speed response of marine non-precipitating stratocumulus clouds over a diurnal cycle in cloud-system resolving simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kazil, J.; Feingold, G.; Yamaguchi, T.

    2015-10-21

    Observed and projected trends in large scale wind speed over the oceans prompt the question: how might marine stratocumulus clouds and their radiative properties respond to future changes in large scale wind speed? Wind speed drives the surface fluxes of sensible heat, moisture, and momentum, and thereby acts on cloud liquid water path (LWP) and cloud radiative properties. We present an investigation of the dynamical response of non-precipitating, overcast marine stratocumulus clouds to different wind speeds, all else equal. In cloud-system resolving simulations, we find that higher wind speed leads to faster boundary layer growth and stronger entrainment. The dynamicalmore »driver is enhanced buoyant production of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) from latent heat release in cloud updrafts. LWP is enhanced during the night and in the morning at higher wind speed, and more strongly suppressed later in the day. Wind speed hence accentuates the diurnal LWP cycle by expanding the morning – afternoon contrast. The higher LWP at higher wind speed does not, however, enhance cloud top cooling because in clouds with LWP ⪆ 50 g m?2, long wave emissions are very insensitive to LWP. This leads to the more general conclusion that in sufficiently thick stratocumulus clouds, additional boundary layer growth and entrainment due to a boundary layer moistening arises by stronger production of TKE from latent heat release in cloud updrafts, rather than from enhanced longwave cooling. We find furthermore that large scale wind modulates boundary layer decoupling. At nighttime and at low wind speed during daytime, it enhances decoupling in part by faster boundary layer growth and stronger entrainment, and in part because circulation driven by shear from large scale wind in the sub-cloud layer hinders vertical moisture transport between the surface and cloud base. With increasing wind speed, however, in decoupled daytime conditions, shear-driven circulation due to large scale wind takes over from buoyancy-driven circulation in transporting moisture from the surface to cloud base, and thereby reduces decoupling and helps maintain LWP. The cloud radiative effect (CRE) responds to changes in LWP and cloud fraction, and higher wind speed translates to a stronger diurnally averaged CRE. However, the sensitivity of the diurnally averaged CRE to wind speed decreases with increasing wind speed.« less

  2. Sliding Mode Power Control of Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    operation regions depending on wind turbines tip speed ratio. They are distinguished by a minimum phase such as robustness to parametric uncertainties of the turbine and the generator as well as to electric grid turbine to evaluate its consistency and performance. The next step was the validation using the NREL

  3. HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATE RETRIEVAL: [PART-1] DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED OCEAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATE RETRIEVAL: [PART-1] DEVELOPMENT U.S.A * selnimri@mail.ucf.edu 2 NOAA/AOML/Hurricane Research Division, Miami, Florida, USA 3 Space model has been developed to support the analysis and design of the new airborne Hurricane Imaging

  4. Long-term-average, solar cycle, and seasonal response of magnetospheric energetic electrons to the solar wind speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . [1] Among the interplanetary activity parameters the solar wind speed is the one best correlatedLong-term-average, solar cycle, and seasonal response of magnetospheric energetic electrons to the solar wind speed D. Vassiliadis,1 A. J. Klimas,2 S. G. Kanekal,3 D. N. Baker,3 and R. S. Weigel4

  5. High resolution reanalysis of wind speeds over the British Isles for wind energy integration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawkins, Samuel Lennon

    2012-11-29

    The UK has highly ambitious targets for wind development, particularly offshore, where over 30GW of capacity is proposed for development. Integrating such a large amount of variable generation presents enormous challenges. ...

  6. Wind turbine having a direct-drive drivetrain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bevington, Christopher M.; Bywaters, Garrett L.; Coleman, Clint C.; Costin, Daniel P.; Danforth, William L.; Lynch, Jonathan A.; Rolland, Robert H.

    2008-10-07

    A wind turbine (100) comprising an electrical generator (108) that includes a rotor assembly (112). A wind rotor (104) that includes a wind rotor hub (124) is directly coupled to the rotor assembly via a simplified connection. The wind rotor and generator rotor assembly are rotatably mounted on a central spindle (160) via a bearing assembly (180). The wind rotor hub includes an opening (244) having a diameter larger than the outside diameter of the central spindle adjacent the bearing assembly so as to allow access to the bearing assembly from a cavity (380) inside the wind rotor hub. The spindle is attached to a turret (140) supported by a tower (136). Each of the spindle, turret and tower has an interior cavity (172, 176, 368) that permits personnel to traverse therethrough to the cavity of the wind rotor hub. The wind turbine further includes a frictional braking system (276) for slowing, stopping or keeping stopped the rotation of the wind rotor and rotor assembly.

  7. Log-normal distribution based EMOS models for probabilistic wind speed forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baran, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    Ensembles of forecasts are obtained from multiple runs of numerical weather forecasting models with different initial conditions and typically employed to account for forecast uncertainties. However, biases and dispersion errors often occur in forecast ensembles, they are usually under-dispersive and uncalibrated and require statistical post-processing. We present an Ensemble Model Output Statistics (EMOS) method for calibration of wind speed forecasts based on the log-normal (LN) distribution, and we also show a regime-switching extension of the model which combines the previously studied truncated normal (TN) distribution with the LN. Both presented models are applied to wind speed forecasts of the eight-member University of Washington mesoscale ensemble, of the fifty-member ECMWF ensemble and of the eleven-member ALADIN-HUNEPS ensemble of the Hungarian Meteorological Service, and their predictive performances are compared to those of the TN and general extreme value (GEV) distribution based EMOS methods an...

  8. Nonlinear Dual-Mode Control of Variable-Speed Wind Turbines with Doubly Fed Induction Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Choon Yik; Jiang, John N

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a feedback/feedforward nonlinear controller for variable-speed wind turbines with doubly fed induction generators. By appropriately adjusting the rotor voltages and the blade pitch angle, the controller simultaneously enables: (a) control of the active power in both the maximum power tracking and power regulation modes, (b) seamless switching between the two modes, and (c) control of the reactive power so that a desirable power factor is maintained. Unlike many existing designs, the controller is developed based on original, nonlinear, electromechanically-coupled models of wind turbines, without attempting approximate linearization. Its development consists of three steps: (i) employ feedback linearization to exactly cancel some of the nonlinearities and perform arbitrary pole placement, (ii) design a speed controller that makes the rotor angular velocity track a desired reference whenever possible, and (iii) introduce a Lyapunov-like function and present a gradient-based approach for mini...

  9. Airâ??sea dimethylsulfide (DMS) gas transfer in the North Atlantic: evidence for limited interfacial gas exchange at high wind speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, T. G; De Bruyn, W.; Miller, S. D; Ward, B.; Christensen, K.; Saltzman, E. S

    2013-01-01

    al. , 2004). Small-scale wave properties are primarily wind-displayed a small linear dependence on mean wind speed (G hfsmall areal coverage of whitecaps observed during Knorr_11. The weak- ened wind

  10. Solar Wind Sources in the Late Declining Phase of Cycle 23: Effects of the Weak Solar Polar Field on High Speed Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    Isenberg, P.A. (eds. ) Solar Wind Nine, AIP Conf. Proc. 471,AT SOLAR MINIMUM Solar Wind Sources in the Late Decliningfor their high speed solar wind streams that dominate the

  11. Prediction of wind speed profiles for short-term forecasting in the offshore environment R.J. Barthelmie and G. Giebel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in planning of maintenance visits to offshore wind farms. In most cases the basis for the predictionPrediction of wind speed profiles for short-term forecasting in the offshore environment R wind farms. The main effects considered here are: wind speed gradients in the coastal zone, vertical

  12. Evidence of a Threshold Wind Speed in Tower-mounted Scatterometer Data David W. Draper and David G. Long

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    . Evidence of the threshold wind speed and a hysteresis effect have been observed in airship and wave tank in airship data [2]. YSCAT, an ultra-wideband (2-14 GHz) tower-mounted scat- terometer, provides significant

  13. POPULATION ECOLOGY Radiotelemetric Analysis of the Effects of Prevailing Wind Direction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lorch, Patrick D.

    POPULATION ECOLOGY Radiotelemetric Analysis of the Effects of Prevailing Wind Direction on Mormon study. We examined the effect of wind direction on Mormon cricket migratory band movement direction simplex, katydid, collective movement, radiotransmitter, hopper band Mormon crickets [Anabrus simplex

  14. Rotor Speed Dependent Yaw Control of Wind Turbines Based on Empirical Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kragh, K. A.; Fleming, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    When extracting energy from the wind using horizontal-axis upwind wind turbines, a primary condition for maximum power yield is the ability to align the rotor axis with the dominating wind direction. Attempts have been made to improve yaw alignment by applying advanced measurement techniques such as LIDARs. This study is focused at assessing the current performance of an operating turbine and exploring how the yaw alignment can be improved using existing measurements. By analyzing available turbine and met mast data a correction scheme for the original yaw alignment system is synthesized. The correction scheme is applied and it is seen that with the correction scheme in place, the power yield below rated is raised 1-5 percent. Furthermore, results indicate that blade load variations are decreased when the correction scheme is applied. The results are associated with uncertainties due to the amount of available data and the wind site climate. Further work should be focused at gathering more experimental data.

  15. Low Wind Speed Turbine Project Phase II: The Application of Medium-Voltage Electrical Apparatus to the Class of Variable Speed Multi-Megawatt Low Wind Speed Turbines; 15 June 2004--30 April 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdman, W.; Behnke, M.

    2005-11-01

    Kilowatt ratings of modern wind turbines have progressed rapidly from 50 kW to 1,800 kW over the past 25 years, with 3.0- to 7.5-MW turbines expected in the next 5 years. The premise of this study is simple: The rapid growth of wind turbine power ratings and the corresponding growth in turbine electrical generation systems and associated controls are quickly making low-voltage (LV) electrical design approaches cost-ineffective. This report provides design detail and compares the cost of energy (COE) between commercial LV-class wind power machines and emerging medium-voltage (MV)-class multi-megawatt wind technology. The key finding is that a 2.5% reduction in the COE can be achieved by moving from LV to MV systems. This is a conservative estimate, with a 3% to 3.5% reduction believed to be attainable once purchase orders to support a 250-turbine/year production level are placed. This evaluation considers capital costs as well as installation, maintenance, and training requirements for wind turbine maintenance personnel. Subsystems investigated include the generator, pendant cables, variable-speed converter, and padmount transformer with switchgear. Both current-source and voltage-source converter/inverter MV topologies are compared against their low-voltage, voltage-source counterparts at the 3.0-, 5.0-, and 7.5-MW levels.

  16. Error propagation equations for estimating the uncertainty in high-speed wind tunnel test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E.L.

    1994-07-01

    Error propagation equations, based on the Taylor series model, are derived for the nondimensional ratios and coefficients most often encountered in high-speed wind tunnel testing. These include pressure ratio and coefficient, static force and moment coefficients, dynamic stability coefficients, and calibration Mach number. The error equations contain partial derivatives, denoted as sensitivity coefficients, which define the influence of free-steam Mach number, M{infinity}, on various aerodynamic ratios. To facilitate use of the error equations, sensitivity coefficients are derived and evaluated for five fundamental aerodynamic ratios which relate free-steam test conditions to a reference condition.

  17. Effect of Tip-Speed Constraints on the Optimized Design of a Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dykes, K.; Resor, B.; Platt, A.; Guo, Y.; Ning, A.; King, R.; Parsons, T.; Petch, D.; Veers, P.

    2014-10-01

    This study investigates the effect of tip-velocity constraints on system levelized cost of energy (LCOE). The results indicate that a change in maximum tip speed from 80 to 100~m/s could produce a 32% decrease in gearbox weight (a 33% reduction in cost) which would result in an overall reduction of 1%-9% in system LCOE depending on the design approach. Three 100~m/s design cases were considered including a low tip-speed ratio/high-solidity rotor design, a high tip-speed ratio/ low-solidity rotor design, and finally a flexible blade design in which a high tip-speed ratio was used along with removing the tip deflection constraint on the rotor design. In all three cases, the significant reduction in gearbox weight caused by the higher tip-speed and lower overall gear ratio was counterbalanced by increased weights for the rotor and/or other drivetrain components and the tower. As a result, the increased costs of either the rotor or drivetrain components offset the overall reduction in turbine costs from down-sizing the gearbox. Other system costs were not significantly affected, whereas energy production was slightly reduced in the 100~m/s case low tip-speed ratio case and increased in the high tip-speed ratio case. This resulted in system cost of energy reductions moving from the 80~m/s design to the 100~m/s designs of 1.2% for the low tip-speed ratio, 4.6% for the high tip-speed ratio, and 9.5% for the final flexible case (the latter result is optimistic because the impact of deflection of the flexible blade on power production was not modeled). Overall, the results demonstrate that there is a trade-off in system design between the maximum tip velocity and the overall wind plant cost of energy, and there are many trade-offs within the overall system in designing a turbine for a high maximum tip velocity.

  18. GLOBAL GAIN-SCHEDULING CONTROL FOR VARIABLE SPEED WIND TURBINES W. E. Leithead, D. J. Leith, F. Hardan, H.Markou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Ken

    1 GLOBAL GAIN-SCHEDULING CONTROL FOR VARIABLE SPEED WIND TURBINES W. E. Leithead, D. J. Leith, F wind turbines exhibit a separability property similar to that previously established for constant speed wind turbines. The importance of this result is that it establishes that from a control viewpoint

  19. Damage measurements on the NWTC direct-drive, variable-speed test bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherland, H.J.; Carlin, P.W.

    1998-12-31

    The NWTC (National Wind Technology Center) Variable-Speed Test Bed turbine is a three-bladed, 10-meter, downwind machine that can be run in either fixed-speed or variable-speed mode. In the variable-speed mode, the generator torque is regulated, using a discrete-stepped load bank to maximize the turbine`s power coefficient. At rated power, a second control loop that uses blade pitch to maintain rotor speed essentially as before, i.e., using the load bank to maintain either generator power or (optionally) generator torque. In this paper, the authors will use this turbine to study the effect of variable-speed operation on blade damage. Using time-series data obtained from blade flap and edge strain gauges, the load spectrum for the turbine is developed using rainflow counting techniques. Miner`s rule is then used to determine the damage rates for variable-speed and fixed-speed operation. The results illustrate that the controller algorithm used with this turbine introduces relatively large load cycles into the blade that significantly reduce its service lifetime, while power production is only marginally increased.

  20. Bias Correction and Bayesian Model Averaging for Ensemble Forecasts of Surface Wind Direction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    Bias Correction and Bayesian Model Averaging for Ensemble Forecasts of Surface Wind Direction LE proposes an effective bias correction technique for wind direction forecasts from numerical weather forecasts. These techniques are applied to 48-h forecasts of surface wind direction over the Pacific

  1. J2.5 ADDRESSING WIND DIRECTION UNCERTAINTY IN SOURCE ESTIMATION THROUGH DYNAMIC TIME WARPING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Jessica

    J2.5 ADDRESSING WIND DIRECTION UNCERTAINTY IN SOURCE ESTIMATION THROUGH DYNAMIC TIME WARPING G score. The correct wind direction is paramount to source estimation problems. It was observed that errors in wind direction of only a few degrees drastically worsen the source estimation. Even when

  2. Spin and Wind Directions: Identifying Entanglement in Nature and Cognition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diederik Aerts; Sandro Sozzo

    2015-07-31

    We performed a cognitive experiment in which we asked the participants to pick a pair of directions they considered as the 'preferred good example of two different wind directions'. The results of the experiment reveal that the 'Clauser Horne Shimony Holt' (CHSH) form of Bell inequalities is violated. The violation is significant and, amazingly enough, numerically almost equal to the violation of the CHSH inequality in coincidence spin measurements on a compound system of two quantum particles in an entangled spin state. Hence, it seems as if the human mind selects probabilistically on wind directions and their difference in the same way as Stern-Gerlach apparata select probabilistically on spin directions and their difference. As in the quantum case, our violation reveals that entanglement systematically occurs in human cognition, and that non-classical probabilistic structures of a quantum type are needed in the modeling of cognitive processes. We support this result by presenting a quantum theoretical model in Hilbert space, which exactly reproduces the collected data and further illustrates the analogies between quantum and cognitive entities.

  3. Spin and Wind Directions: Identifying Entanglement in Nature and Cognition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diederik Aerts; Sandro Sozzo

    2015-08-20

    We performed a cognitive experiment in which we asked the participants to pick a pair of directions they considered as the 'preferred good example of two different wind directions'. The results of the experiment reveal that the 'Clauser Horne Shimony Holt' (CHSH) form of Bell inequalities is violated. The violation is significant and numerically almost equal to the violation of the CHSH inequality predicted by quantum theory and observed in coincidence spin measurements on pairs of quantum particles in an entangled spin state. Analysing the experiment there are more similarities, as if the human mind selects probabilistically on wind directions and their difference in the same way as Stern-Gerlach apparatuses select probabilistically on spin directions and their difference. As in the quantum violation, our violation indicates that entanglement systematically occurs in human cognition, and that accordingly non-classical probabilistic structures of a quantum type are needed in the modeling of cognitive processes. We support this result by presenting a quantum theoretical model in Hilbert space, which exactly reproduces the collected data and enlightens the deep analogies existing between quantum and cognitive entities.

  4. Connecting speeds, directions and arrival times of 22 coronal mass ejections from the sun to 1 AU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Möstl, C.; Veronig, A. M.; Rollett, T.; Temmer, M.; Peinhart, V.; Amla, K.; Hall, J. R.; Liewer, P. C.; De Jong, E. M.; Colaninno, R. C.; Davies, J. A.; Harrison, R. A.; Lugaz, N.; Farrugia, C. J.; Galvin, A. B.; Liu, Y. D.; Luhmann, J. G.; Vršnak, B.

    2014-06-01

    Forecasting the in situ properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from remote images is expected to strongly enhance predictions of space weather and is of general interest for studying the interaction of CMEs with planetary environments. We study the feasibility of using a single heliospheric imager (HI) instrument, imaging the solar wind density from the Sun to 1 AU, for connecting remote images to in situ observations of CMEs. We compare the predictions of speed and arrival time for 22 CMEs (in 2008-2012) to the corresponding interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) parameters at in situ observatories (STEREO PLASTIC/IMPACT, Wind SWE/MFI). The list consists of front- and backsided, slow and fast CMEs (up to 2700 km s{sup –1}). We track the CMEs to 34.9 ± 7.1 deg elongation from the Sun with J maps constructed using the SATPLOT tool, resulting in prediction lead times of –26.4 ± 15.3 hr. The geometrical models we use assume different CME front shapes (fixed-?, harmonic mean, self-similar expansion) and constant CME speed and direction. We find no significant superiority in the predictive capability of any of the three methods. The absolute difference between predicted and observed ICME arrival times is 8.1 ± 6.3 hr (rms value of 10.9 hr). Speeds are consistent to within 284 ± 288 km s{sup –1}. Empirical corrections to the predictions enhance their performance for the arrival times to 6.1 ± 5.0 hr (rms value of 7.9 hr), and for the speeds to 53 ± 50 km s{sup –1}. These results are important for Solar Orbiter and a space weather mission positioned away from the Sun-Earth line.

  5. Design of a high angle of attack robotic sting mount for tests in a low speed wind tunnel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kubler, Tommy Jack

    1989-01-01

    DESIGN OF A HIGH ANGLE OF ATTACK ROBOTIC STING MOUNT FOR TESTS IN A LOW SPEED WIND TUNNEL A Thesis by TOMMY JACK KUBLER Submitted to the Oflice of Graduate Studies of Texas AJcM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1989 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering DESIGN OF A HIGH ANGLE OF ATTACK ROBOTIC STING MOUNT FOR TESTS IN A IOW SPEED WIND TUNNEL A Thesis bv TOMMY JACK KHBLER Approved as to style and content by: Thomas C...

  6. Methods and apparatus for reducing peak wind turbine loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw

    2007-02-13

    A method for reducing peak loads of wind turbines in a changing wind environment includes measuring or estimating an instantaneous wind speed and direction at the wind turbine and determining a yaw error of the wind turbine relative to the measured instantaneous wind direction. The method further includes comparing the yaw error to a yaw error trigger that has different values at different wind speeds and shutting down the wind turbine when the yaw error exceeds the yaw error trigger corresponding to the measured or estimated instantaneous wind speed.

  7. IMPROVED MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING OF HURRICANE WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATES USING THE HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER (HIRAD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    IMPROVED MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING OF HURRICANE WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATES USING THE HURRICANE@mail.ucf.edu ABSTRACT The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a new imaging technology microwave remote sensor for hurricane observations that is currently under development by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

  8. Low-dimensional Models in Spatio-Temporal Wind Speed Forecasting Borhan M. Sanandaji, Akin Tascikaraoglu, , , Kameshwar Poolla, and Pravin Varaiya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanandaji, Borhan M.

    Tascikaraoglu, , , Kameshwar Poolla, and Pravin Varaiya Abstract-- Integrating wind power into the grid to achieve the power balance needed for its integration into the grid [3], [4]. The use of ancillary services of wind power. The paper presents a spatio-temporal wind speed forecasting algorithm that incorporates

  9. Forecasting of wind speed using wavelets analysis and cascade-correlation neural networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    such as sunlight, wind, rain or geothermal heat. Wind energy is actually one of the fastest-growing forms, that is why its wind energy market has been progressing steadily in recent years. While in 2000, there were only 30 MW of wind generating capacity in France, the total installed capacity at the end of 2007

  10. Decoding the Speed and Motion Direction of Moving Targets Using a Turtle Retinal Patch Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Bijoy K.

    Decoding the Speed and Motion Direction of Moving Targets Using a Turtle Retinal Patch Model to express my sincerest gratitude to my advisor, Dr. Bijoy Ghosh, whose guidance, advice, encouragement and support made my research possible at the Center for BioCybernetis and Intelligent Systems (CBCIS

  11. Supersonic Bi-Directional Flying Wing, Part II: Conceptual Design of a High Speed Civil Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zha, Gecheng

    ° so that the side of the airplane during supersonic flight becomes the front of the airplane airplanes and is not a serious problem for transonic flight due to the low supersonic Mach numberSupersonic Bi-Directional Flying Wing, Part II: Conceptual Design of a High Speed Civil Transport

  12. Aalborg Universitet Ancillary Frequency Control of Direct Drive Full-Scale Converter Based Wind Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Weihao

    , integration of such a lot of wind energy into power grids presents a major challenge to power system operators more attentions all over the world. Large-scale wind power plants are increasingly integrated). Ancillary Frequency Control of Direct Drive Full-Scale Converter Based Wind Power Plants. In Proceedings

  13. Choosing wind power plant locations and sizes based on electric reliability measures using multiple-year wind speed measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.R.; Artig, R.

    1999-07-08

    To project the US potential to meet future electricity demands with wind energy, estimates of available wind resource and costs to access that resource are critical. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) annually estimates the US market penetration of wind in its Annual Energy Outlook series. For these estimates, the EIA uses wind resource data developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for each region of the country. However, the EIA multiplies the cost of windpower by several factors, some as large as 3, to account for resource quality, market factors associated with accessing the resource, electric grid impacts, and rapid growth in the wind industry. This paper examines the rationale behind these additional costs and suggests alternatives.

  14. Technology Improvement Opportunities for Low Wind Speed Turbines and Implications for Cost of Energy Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2008-02-01

    This report analyzes the status of wind energy technology in 2002 and describes the potential for technology advancements to reduce the cost and increase the performance of wind turbines.

  15. Modelling the reorientation of sea-ice faults as the wind changes direction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feltham, Daniel

    Modelling the reorientation of sea-ice faults as the wind changes direction Alexander V. WILCHINSKY-1290, USA ABSTRACT. A discrete-element model of sea ice is used to study how a 908 change in wind direction alters the pattern of faults generated through mechanical failure of the ice. The sea-ice domain is 400

  16. Review of Wind Turbine Wake Models and Future Directions (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churchfield, M. J.

    2013-08-01

    This presentation gives a brief overview to wind turbine wake modeling, ranging from models used in the 1980s up to the present. The presentation shows the strengths and weaknesses of various models and discusses the needs of the wind energy industry and research sectors. Both power production and loads analysis are discussed.

  17. Remote sensing of total integrated water vapor, wind speed, and cloud liquid water over the ocean using the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, Norman Willis William

    1997-01-01

    A modified D-matrix retrieval method is the basis of the refined total integrated water vapor (TIWV), total integrated cloud liquid water (CLW), and surface wind speed (WS) retrieval methods that are developed. The 85 GHZ ...

  18. High-Speed Optical Spectroscopy of a Cataclysmic Variable Wind BZ Camelopardalis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ringwald, F A

    1997-01-01

    BZ Cam is the first cataclysmic variable star with an accretion disk wind evident in its optical spectrum. The wind was found by Thorstensen, who discovered intermittent P Cygni profiles occurring simultaneously in He I 5876 Angstroms and H alpha. We have since obtained spectra with 0.4-Angstroms/pixel dispersion and 60-s time resolution. We find a wind much faster and more rapidly variable than the radiatively accelerated winds of OB stars, Wolf-Rayet stars, or luminous blue variables. Instead of showing blob ejection, the whole wind of BZ Cam appears to turn on and off. We use this to measure the acceleration law of a CV wind for the first time. The velocity increases linearly with time, attaining blue edge velocities near -3000 km/s, and absorption velocities near -1700 km/s, in 6 to 8 min after starting near rest. We also find a subsequent linear deceleration to nearly rest in 30 to 40 min, perhaps an effect of dilution as the wind expands. No periodicity from rotational outflow is obvious. This wind is e...

  19. Wind Fields over the Great Lakes Measured by the SeaWinds Scatterometer on the QuikSCAT Satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wind Fields over the Great Lakes Measured by the SeaWinds Scatterometer on the QuikSCAT Satellite for wind retrieval over the Great Lakes on a daily basis. We use data acquired by the SeaWinds Scatterometer on the QuikSCAT (QSCAT) satellite launched in June 1999 to derive wind speeds and directions over

  20. Direct Power Control of Doubly-Fed Generator Based Wind Turbine Converters to Improve Low Voltage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimball, Jonathan W.

    by an Industrial Power Corruptor (IPC) in the laboratory. I. INTRODUCTION The new grid code requirements for windDirect Power Control of Doubly-Fed Generator Based Wind Turbine Converters to Improve Low Voltage power integration state that doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) controllers should be capable

  1. High-Speed Optical Spectroscopy of a Cataclysmic Variable Wind: BZ Camelopardalis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. A. Ringwald; T. Naylor

    1997-10-02

    BZ Cam is the first cataclysmic variable star with an accretion disk wind evident in its optical spectrum. The wind was found by Thorstensen, who discovered intermittent P Cygni profiles occurring simultaneously in He I 5876 Angstroms and H alpha. We have since obtained spectra with 0.4-Angstroms/pixel dispersion and 60-s time resolution. We find a wind much faster and more rapidly variable than the radiatively accelerated winds of OB stars, Wolf-Rayet stars, or luminous blue variables. Instead of showing blob ejection, the whole wind of BZ Cam appears to turn on and off. We use this to measure the acceleration law of a CV wind for the first time. The velocity increases linearly with time, attaining blue edge velocities near -3000 km/s, and absorption velocities near -1700 km/s, in 6 to 8 min after starting near rest. We also find a subsequent linear deceleration to nearly rest in 30 to 40 min, perhaps an effect of dilution as the wind expands. No periodicity from rotational outflow is obvious. This wind is erratic and incessantly variable, and perhaps bipolar and face-on, but not highly collimated. The P Cygni absorption events trace out sawtooth waves, occurring within 30 to 40 white dwarf radii from the disk. This is the approximate size of the disk, as well as the disk/wind transition region recently postulated by Knigge and Drew. We estimate a distance of 830 +/- 160 pc, and an orbital inclination i such that 12 < i(degrees) < 40.

  2. Difference in the wind speeds required for initiation versus continuation of sand transport on Mars: Implications for dunes and dust storms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kok, Jasper F

    2010-01-01

    Much of the surface of Mars is covered by dunes, ripples, and other features formed by the blowing of sand by wind, known as saltation. In addition, saltation loads the atmosphere with dust aerosols, which dominate the Martian climate. We show here that saltation can be maintained on Mars by wind speeds an order of magnitude less than required to initiate it. We further show that the resulting hysteresis effect causes saltation to occur for much lower wind speeds than previously thought. These findings have important implications for the formation of dust storms, sand dunes, and ripples on Mars.

  3. Structural optimisation of permanent magnet direct drive generators for 5MW wind turbines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zavvos, Aristeidis

    2013-11-28

    This thesis focuses on permanent magnet "direct drive" electrical generators for wind turbines with large power output. A variety of such generator topologies is reviewed, tested and optimised in an attempt to increase ...

  4. Speed tuning of direction repulsion describes an inverted U-function William Curran a,*, Christopher P. Benton b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curran, William

    Speed tuning of direction repulsion describes an inverted U-function William Curran a (Braddick, Wishart, & Curran, 2002; Dakin & Mareschal, 2000). The effect is not restricted to superimposed. * Corresponding author. E-mail address: w.curran@q

  5. WIND DATA REPORT Presque Isle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Presque Isle June 1, 2005 ­ August 31, 2005 Prepared for United States Department...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distributions

  6. WIND DATA REPORT Presque Isle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Presque Isle December 1, 2004 ­ February 28, 2005 Prepared for United States.................................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Distributions

  7. WIND DATA REPORT Presque Isle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Presque Isle December 1, 2004 ­ December 1, 2005 Prepared for United States ......................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Distributions

  8. WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island June 1, 2003 ­ August 31, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distribution

  9. WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island December 1, 2003 ­ February 29, 2004 Prepared for Massachusetts.................................................................................................................... 11 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 11 Wind Speed Distribution

  10. WIND DATA REPORT Presque Isle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Presque Isle March 1, 2005 ­ May 31, 2005 Prepared for United States Department.................................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Distributions

  11. WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island March 1, 2003 ­ May 31, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distributions

  12. WIND DATA REPORT FALMOUTH, MA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT FALMOUTH, MA June1, 2004 to August 31, 2004. Prepared for Massachusetts Technology...................................................................................................................... 8 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 8 Wind Speed Distributions

  13. WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island September 1, 2003 ­ November 30, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distribution

  14. WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island March 1, 2004 ­ May 31, 2004 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distribution

  15. WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island June 1, 2004 ­ August 31, 2004 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distribution

  16. WIND DATA REPORT Nantucket, MA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Nantucket, MA March 1st 2006 to May 31th 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts.................................................................................................................... 11 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 11 Wind Speed Distribut

  17. The solar wind interaction with Mars: Recent progress and future directions The Sun has a powerful influence on planetary atmospheres.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Editorial The solar wind interaction with Mars: Recent progress and future directions The Sun has field, because the solar wind can interact directly with the upper atmo- sphere. Neutral particles in the upper atmosphere are ionized by solar photons and through interactions with solar wind charged particles

  18. An aero-elastic flutter based electromagnetic energy harvester with wind speed augmenting funnel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    area as demands for renewable energy sources increase. Energy harvesting systems refer to devices-scale renewable energy generating systems such as wind turbines, thermal generators, and solar panels, energy source for energy harvesters because of its potential capacity for generating electrical power. Flutter

  19. Variable-speed wind power system with improved energy capture via multilevel conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, Robert W.; Al-Naseem, Osama A.; Fingersh, Lee Jay

    2005-05-31

    A system and method for efficiently capturing electrical energy from a variable-speed generator are disclosed. The system includes a matrix converter using full-bridge, multilevel switch cells, in which semiconductor devices are clamped to a known constant DC voltage of a capacitor. The multilevel matrix converter is capable of generating multilevel voltage wave waveform of arbitrary magnitude and frequencies. The matrix converter can be controlled by using space vector modulation.

  20. MHK ISDB/Sensors/Wind Speed Sensor 2740 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas:Montezuma,Information MHKMHK ISDB/Sensors/SmartMHKInformation Speed (with

  1. Error propagation equations and tables for estimating the uncertainty in high-speed wind tunnel test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E.L.

    1993-08-01

    Error propagation equations, based on the Taylor series model, are derived for the nondimensional ratios and coefficients most often encountered in high-speed wind tunnel testing. These include pressure ratio and coefficient, static force and moment coefficients, dynamic stability coefficients, calibration Mach number and Reynolds number. The error equations contain partial derivatives, denoted as sensitivity coefficients, which define the influence of free-stream Mach number, M{infinity}, on various aerodynamic ratios. To facilitate use of the error equations, sensitivity coefficients are derived and evaluated for nine fundamental aerodynamic ratios, most of which relate free-stream test conditions (pressure, temperature, density or velocity) to a reference condition. Tables of the ratios, R, absolute sensitivity coefficients, {partial_derivative}R/{partial_derivative}M{infinity}, and relative sensitivity coefficients, (M{infinity}/R) ({partial_derivative}R/{partial_derivative}M{infinity}), are provided as functions of M{infinity}.

  2. WIND ENERGY Wind Energ. (2014)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peinke, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    to generate in this way wind speed fluctuations with similar statistics as observed in nature. Forces wereWIND ENERGY Wind Energ. (2014) Published online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary wind inflow conditions M. R. Luhur, J. Peinke, J. Schneemann and M. Wächter ForWind-Center for Wind

  3. Wind Power Plant Prediction by Using Neural Networks: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Z.; Gao, W.; Wan, Y. H.; Muljadi, E.

    2012-08-01

    This paper introduces a method of short-term wind power prediction for a wind power plant by training neural networks based on historical data of wind speed and wind direction. The model proposed is shown to achieve a high accuracy with respect to the measured data.

  4. MHK ISDB/Sensors/Wind Speed (with 3m cable) Smart Sensor | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas:Montezuma,Information MHKMHK ISDB/Sensors/SmartMHKInformation Speed (with 3m

  5. Simulation of winds as seen by a rotating vertical axis wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, R.L.

    1984-02-01

    The objective of this report is to provide turbulent wind analyses relevant to the design and testing of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT). A technique was developed for utilizing high-speed turbulence wind data from a line of seven anemometers at a single level to simulate the wind seen by a rotating VAWT blade. Twelve data cases, representing a range of wind speeds and stability classes, were selected from the large volume of data available from the Clayton, New Mexico, Vertical Plane Array (VPA) project. Simulations were run of the rotationally sampled wind speed relative to the earth, as well as the tangential and radial wind speeds, which are relative to the rotating wind turbine blade. Spectral analysis is used to compare and assess wind simulations from the different wind regimes, as well as from alternate wind measurement techniques. The variance in the wind speed at frequencies at or above the blade rotation rate is computed for all cases, and is used to quantitatively compare the VAWT simulations with Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) simulations. Qualitative comparisons are also made with direct wind measurements from a VAWT blade.

  6. Ris-R-Report Verification test for three WindCubeTM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sensors mounted at a meteorological mast. Results are presented for three tested units ­ in detail the evaluation of measured mean wind speeds, wind directions and wind speed standard deviations. The data.6 Specifications of reference sensors 10 2.7 Time synchronization 10 3 Procedure of testing (verification test

  7. Preliminary design and viability consideration of external, shroud-based stators in wind turbine generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoemaker-Trejo, Nathaniel (Nathaniel Joseph)

    2012-01-01

    Horizontal-axis wind turbine designs often included gearboxes or large direct-drive generators to compensate for the low peripheral speeds of the turbine hub. To take advantage of high blade tip speeds, an alternative ...

  8. ANNUAL WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    ANNUAL WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island March 1, 2002 ­ February 28, 2003 Prepared.................................................................................................................... 11 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 11 Wind Speed Distributions

  9. WIND DATA REPORT January -December, 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Vinalhaven January - December, 2003 Prepared for Fox Islands Electric Cooperative...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distributions

  10. WIND DATA REPORT January -March, 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Vinalhaven January - March, 2004 Prepared for Fox Islands Electric Cooperative...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distributions

  11. WIND DATA REPORT Deer Island Outfall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Deer Island Outfall August 18, 2003 ­ December 4, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 7 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 7 Wind Speed Distributions

  12. WIND DATA REPORT Deer Island Parking Lot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Deer Island Parking Lot May 1, 2003 ­ July 15, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 7 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 7 Wind Speed Distributions

  13. Comparative Assessment of Direct Drive High Temperature Superconducting Generators in Multi-Megawatt Class Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maples, B.; Hand, M.; Musial, W.

    2010-10-01

    This paper summarizes the work completed under the CRADA between NREL and American Superconductor (AMSC). The CRADA combined NREL and AMSC resources to benchmark high temperature superconducting direct drive (HTSDD) generator technology by integrating the technologies into a conceptual wind turbine design, and comparing the design to geared drive and permanent magnet direct drive (PMDD) wind turbine configurations. Analysis was accomplished by upgrading the NREL Wind Turbine Design Cost and Scaling Model to represent geared and PMDD turbines at machine ratings up to 10 MW and then comparing cost and mass figures of AMSC's HTSDD wind turbine designs to theoretical geared and PMDD turbine designs at 3.1, 6, and 10 MW sizes. Based on the cost and performance data supplied by AMSC, HTSDD technology has good potential to compete successfully as an alternative technology to PMDD and geared technology turbines in the multi megawatt classes. In addition, data suggests the economics of HTSDD turbines improve with increasing size, although several uncertainties remain for all machines in the 6 to 10 MW class.

  14. Review of Wind Energy Forecasting Methods for Modeling Ramping Events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K; Marjanovic, N; Williams, J L; Rhodes, M; Chow, T K; Maxwell, R

    2011-03-28

    Tall onshore wind turbines, with hub heights between 80 m and 100 m, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere since they generally encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complexity of boundary layer flows. This complexity of the lowest layers of the atmosphere, where wind turbines reside, has made conventional modeling efforts less than ideal. To meet the nation's goal of increasing wind power into the U.S. electrical grid, the accuracy of wind power forecasts must be improved. In this report, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in collaboration with the University of Colorado at Boulder, University of California at Berkeley, and Colorado School of Mines, evaluates innovative approaches to forecasting sudden changes in wind speed or 'ramping events' at an onshore, multimegawatt wind farm. The forecast simulations are compared to observations of wind speed and direction from tall meteorological towers and a remote-sensing Sound Detection and Ranging (SODAR) instrument. Ramping events, i.e., sudden increases or decreases in wind speed and hence, power generated by a turbine, are especially problematic for wind farm operators. Sudden changes in wind speed or direction can lead to large power generation differences across a wind farm and are very difficult to predict with current forecasting tools. Here, we quantify the ability of three models, mesoscale WRF, WRF-LES, and PF.WRF, which vary in sophistication and required user expertise, to predict three ramping events at a North American wind farm.

  15. Distributed Wind Energy in Idaho

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, John; Ferguson, James; Ahmed-Zaid, Said; Johnson, Kathryn; Haynes, Todd; Bennett, Keith

    2009-01-31

    Project Objective: This project is a research and development program aimed at furthering distributed wind technology. In particular, this project addresses some of the barriers to distributed wind energy utilization in Idaho. Background: At its core, the technological challenge inherent in Wind Energy is the transformation of a highly variable form of energy to one which is compatible with the commercial power grid or another useful application. A major economic barrier to the success of distributed wind technology is the relatively high capital investment (and related long payback periods) associated with wind turbines. This project will carry out fundamental research and technology development to address both the technological and economic barriers. � Active drive train control holds the potential to improve the overall efficiency of a turbine system by allowing variable speed turbine operation while ensuring a tight control of generator shaft speed, thus greatly simplifying power conditioning. � Recent blade aerodynamic advancements have been focused on large, utility-scale wind turbine generators (WTGs) as opposed to smaller WTGs designed for distributed generation. Because of Reynolds Number considerations, blade designs do not scale well. Blades which are aerodynamically optimized for distributed-scale WTGs can potentially reduce the cost of electricity by increasing shaft-torque in a given wind speed. � Grid-connected electric generators typically operate at a fixed speed. If a generator were able to economically operate at multiple speeds, it could potentially convert more of the wind�s energy to electricity, thus reducing the cost of electricity. This research directly supports the stated goal of the Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program for Distributed Wind Energy Technology: By 2007, reduce the cost of electricity from distributed wind systems to 10 to 15 cents/kWh in Class 3 wind resources, the same level that is currently achievable in Class 5 winds.

  16. American Wind Energy Association, Denver, May 2005 Uncertainties in Results of Measure-Correlate-Predict Analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    American Wind Energy Association, Denver, May 2005 Uncertainties in Results of Measure-correlate-predict (MCP) algorithms are used to predict the wind resource at target sites for wind power development. MCP methods model the relationship between wind data (speed and direction) measured at the target site

  17. Peak Power Bi-directional Transfer From High Speed Flywheel to Electrical Regulated Bus Voltage System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szabados, Barna

    were performed to determine the energy transfer capabilities of a flywheel coupled high speed permanent magnet synchronous machine through the proposed system's energy storage tank. Results are presented have helped generate much interest for the development of practical and highly efficient electric

  18. Global ocean wind power sensitivity to surface layer stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capps, Scott B; Zender, Charles S

    2009-01-01

    Can satellite sampling of offshore wind speeds realisticallydata to evaluate the offshore wind power resource of

  19. A simple method to downscale daily wind statistics to hourly wind data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zhongling

    2013-01-01

    Wind is the principal driver in the wind erosion models. The hourly wind speed data were generally required for precisely wind erosion modeling. In this study, a simple method to generate hourly wind speed data from daily wind statistics (daily average and maximum wind speeds together or daily average wind speed only) was established. A typical windy location with 3285 days (9 years) measured hourly wind speed data were used to validate the downscaling method. The results showed that the overall agreement between observed and simulated cumulative wind speed probability distributions appears excellent, especially for the wind speeds greater than 5 m s-1 range (erosive wind speed). The results further revealed that the values of daily average erosive wind power density (AWPD) calculated from generated wind speeds fit the counterparts computed from measured wind speeds well with high models' efficiency (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient). So that the hourly wind speed data can be predicted from daily average and maximu...

  20. WIND DATA REPORT September 1 2003 November 30 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Paxton, MA September 1 2003 ­ November 30 2003 by James F. Manwell Anthony F.................................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Distributions

  1. WIND DATA REPORT September 1, 2003 November 31, 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Mt. Tom September 1, 2003 ­ November 31, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distributions

  2. WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME December 1, 2006 ­ February 28, 2007...................................................................................................................... 7 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 8 Wind Speed Distributions

  3. WIND DATA REPORT January 1, 2004 December 31, 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Vinalhaven January 1, 2004 ­ December 31, 2004 Prepared for Fox Islands Electric...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distributions

  4. WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME March 1st 2006 to May 31th 2006 Prepared.................................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Distributions

  5. WIND DATA REPORT December 1 2003 February 29 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Paxton, MA December 1 2003 ­ February 29 2004 Prepared for Diane Dillman, Paxton.................................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Distributions

  6. WIND DATA REPORT December, 2003 February 29, 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Orleans December, 2003 ­ February 29, 2004 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology.................................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Distributions

  7. WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME September 1st 2006 to November 30th 2006.................................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Distributions

  8. WIND DATA REPORT October 27, 2003 November 31, 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Orleans October 27, 2003 ­ November 31, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distributions

  9. WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME December 1st 2005 to February 28th 2006.................................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Distributions

  10. WIND DATA REPORT March 1, 2004 May 31, 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Eastham March 1, 2004 ­ May 31, 2004 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distributions

  11. WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME June 1st 2006 to August 31th 2006 Prepared.................................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Distributions

  12. WIND DATA REPORT December 1, 2003 February 29, 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Mt. Tom December 1, 2003 ­ February 29, 2004 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology.................................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Distributions

  13. WIND DATA REPORT August 28 -December 31, 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Vinalhaven August 28 - December 31, 2002 Prepared for Fox Islands Electric...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distributions

  14. Development of Advanced Nanomanufacturing: 3D Integration and High Speed Directed Self-assembly 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Huifeng

    2011-10-21

    patterned by nanoimprint; (b) Deposit PSS-wrapped SWNT by ESA from suspension; (c) Deposit PVA on top of PSS-wrapped SWNT by ESA; (d) Deposit the 2nd layer of PSS-wrapped SWNT; (e) Deposit the 2nd layer of PVA; (f) Remove polymer template by solvent... the angle between the polarization directions of the incident laser light and the longitudinal direction of the deposited CNT stripes. (a) Before the lift-off of polymer template; (b) After the the lift-off of polymer template...

  15. Supplementary material for "Does the size distribution of mineral dust aerosols depend on the wind speed at emission?"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    Supplementary material for "Does the size distribution of mineral dust aerosols depend on the wind by truncating those bins. I do so by assuming that the sub-bin distribution follows the power law found by both

  16. High-Speed Non-Directional Infrared Communication for Wireless Local-Area Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carruthers, Jeffrey

    terminals and a base station, allowing construction of in-building wireless local-area networks. We discuss.0 Introduction Non-directional infrared radiation [1-4] is an attrac- tive transmission medium for wireless characterized free-space infrared channels in a variety of indoor environments [6] using a swept

  17. Low Speed Technology for Small Turbine Development Reaction Injection Molded 7.5 Meter Wind Turbine Blade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David M. Wright; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2007-07-31

    An optimized small turbine blade (7.5m radius) was designed and a partial section molded with the RIM (reaction-injection molded polymer) process for mass production. The intended market is for generic three-bladed wind turbines, 100 kilowatts or less, for grid-assist end users with rural and semi-rural sites, such as the farm/ranch market, having low to moderate IEC Class 3-4 wind regimes. This blade will have substantial performance improvements over, and be cheaper than, present-day 7.5m blades. This is made possible by the injection-molding process, which yields high repeatability, accurate geometry and weights, and low cost in production quantities. No wind turbine blade in the 7.5m or greater size has used this process. The blade design chosen uses a RIM skin bonded to a braided infused carbon fiber/epoxy spar. This approach is attractive to present users of wind turbine blades in the 5-10m sizes. These include rebladeing California wind farms, refurbishing used turbines for the Midwest farm market, and other manufacturers introducing new turbines in this size range.

  18. A WRF Ensemble for Improved Wind Speed Forecasts at Turbine Height ADAM J. DEPPE AND WILLIAM A. GALLUS JR.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    University, Ames, Iowa (Manuscript received 2 October 2011, in final form 15 May 2013) ABSTRACT The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) with 10-km horizontal grid spacing was used to explore improvements.S. Department of Energy goal of having 20% of the nation's electrical energy from wind by 2030 will require

  19. Aeroacoustic Testing of Wind Turbine Airfoils: February 20, 2004 - February 19, 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devenport, W.; Burdisso, R. A.; Camargo, H.; Crede, E.; Remillieux, M.; Rasnick, M.; Van Seeters, P.

    2010-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), working through its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is engaged in a comprehensive research effort to improve the understanding of wind turbine aeroacoustics. The motivation for this effort is the desire to exploit the large expanse of low wind speed sites that tend to be close to U.S. load centers. Quiet wind turbines are an inducement to widespread deployment, so the goal of NREL's aeroacoustic research is to develop tools that the U.S. wind industry can use in developing and deploying highly efficient, quiet wind turbines at low wind speed sites. NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) is implementing a multifaceted approach that includes wind tunnel tests, field tests, and theoretical analyses in direct support of low wind speed turbine development by its industry partners. NWTC researchers are working hand in hand with engineers in industry to ensure that research findings are available to support ongoing design decisions.

  20. Hydrodynamics and drive-train dynamics of a direct-drive floating wind turbine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sethuraman, Latha

    2014-06-30

    Floating wind turbines (FWTs) are considered a new lease of opportunity for sustaining growth from offshore wind energy. In recent years, several new concepts have emerged, with only a few making it to demonstration or ...

  1. Reassessing Wind Potential Estimates for India: Economic and Policy Implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2012-01-01

    Use Requirements of Modern Wind Power Plants in the UnitedScale Integration of Wind Power and on Transmission Networks11 Wind Power Density and Wind Speed

  2. Guide to Using the WIND Toolkit Validation Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lieberman-Cribbin, W.; Draxl, C.; Clifton, A.

    2014-12-01

    In response to the U.S. Department of Energy's goal of using 20% wind energy by 2030, the Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit was created to provide information on wind speed, wind direction, temperature, surface air pressure, and air density on more than 126,000 locations across the United States from 2007 to 2013. The numerical weather prediction model output, gridded at 2-km and at a 5-minute resolution, was further converted to detail the wind power production time series of existing and potential wind facility sites. For users of the dataset it is important that the information presented in the WIND Toolkit is accurate and that errors are known, as then corrective steps can be taken. Therefore, we provide validation code written in R that will be made public to provide users with tools to validate data of their own locations. Validation is based on statistical analyses of wind speed, using error metrics such as bias, root-mean-square error, centered root-mean-square error, mean absolute error, and percent error. Plots of diurnal cycles, annual cycles, wind roses, histograms of wind speed, and quantile-quantile plots are created to visualize how well observational data compares to model data. Ideally, validation will confirm beneficial locations to utilize wind energy and encourage regional wind integration studies using the WIND Toolkit.

  3. Strong wind forcing of the ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zedler, Sarah E.

    2007-01-01

    of mesoscale and steady wind driven 1. Introduction 2. Modelparameterization at high wind speeds 1. Introduction 2. DataSupplementary Formulae 1. Wind Stress 2. Rankine Vortex A .

  4. A differential model for predicting growth of the upper convective zone of a solar pond due to wind speed 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hullender, Todd Allan

    1991-01-01

    pond, containing less empiricism and therefore a better model of the physics. Secondly, this model is heated from below, just as the experimental wind/wave tank constructed at the Texas A8cM Energy Systems Laboratory [9[. This tank has dimensions 2... for the anisotropic component of the dissipation. The conservation equation for dissipation is of the form ? f C~2/k where the terms on the RHS account for molecular and turbulent diffusion, buoyant production or destruction, and viscous destruction. Before...

  5. the risk issue of wind measurement for wind turbine operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    Sciences, National Taiwan University #12;outline · Wind measurement in meteorology and wind farm design-related issues on wind turbine operation 3/31/2011 2 #12;WIND MEASUREMENT IN METEOROLOGY & WIND FARM DESIGN 3://www.atm.ncu.edu.tw/93/wind/ MM5 simulation (1996~2000 database) Wind speed (m/s) at 50mWind power (100W/m2) at 50m http://wind.itri.org.tw/wind

  6. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 7. The south central region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, R.L.; Graves, L.F.; Sprankle, A.C.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    This atlas of the south central region combines seven collections of wind resource data: one for the region, and one for each of the six states (Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas). At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than that provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  7. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 2. The North Central Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The North Central atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the North Central region (Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and that data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and international wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  8. WP2 IEA Wind Task 26:The Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lantz, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Wind and HydropowerSpeed Sites. ” European Wind Energy Association. Marseille,Innovation and the price of wind energy in the US. ” Energy

  9. WP2 IEA Wind Task 26:The Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lantz, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Speed Sites. ” European Wind Energy Association. Marseille,Innovation and the price of wind energy in the US. ” EnergyThe Economics of Wind Energy. ” Renewable and Sustainable

  10. Raw Data from National Wind Technology Center M2 Tower (2001...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    such as global PSP (Wm2) and meteorological data, such as temperature, pressure, and wind speed and direction (at 2m, 5m, 10m, 20m, 50m, and 80m). Included here is a portion...

  11. Airâ??sea dimethylsulfide (DMS) gas transfer in the North Atlantic: evidence for limited interfacial gas exchange at high wind speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, T. G; De Bruyn, W.; Miller, S. D; Ward, B.; Christensen, K.; Saltzman, E. S

    2013-01-01

    O. : Modulation of short wind waves by long waves, J.P. , and Donelan, M. A. : Wind stress in the presence ofunder moderate to strong wind conditions, J. Geophys. Res. -

  12. Solar Wind Sources in the Late Declining Phase of Cycle 23: Effects of the Weak Solar Polar Field on High Speed Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    B spacecraft for L1 solar wind prediction purposes (e.g.solar wind model currently running at the NOAA Space Weather Prediction

  13. On the measurement of wind speeds in tornadoes with a portable CW/FM-CW Doppler radar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bluestein, H.B. . School of Meteorology); Unruh, W.P. )

    1991-01-01

    Both the formation mechanism and structure of tornadoes are not yet well understood. The Doppler radar is probably the best remote-sensing instrument at present for determining the wind field in tornadoes. Although much has been learned about the non-supercell tornado from relatively close range using Doppler radars at fixed sites, close-range measurements in supercell tornadoes are relatively few. Doppler radar can increase significantly the number of high-resolution, sub-cloud base measurements of both the tornado vortex and its parent vortex in supercells, with simultaneous visual documentation. The design details and operation of the CW/FM-CW Doppler radar developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and used by storm-intercept teams at the Univ. of Oklahoma are described elsewhere. The radar transmits 1 W at 3 cm, and can be switched back and forth between CW and FM-CW modes. In the FM-CW mode the sweep repetition frequency is 15.575 kHz and the sweep width 1.9 MHz; the corresponding maximum unambiguous range and velocity, and range resolution are 5 km, {plus minus} 115 m s{sup {minus}1}, and 78 m respectively. The bistatic antennas, which have half-power beamwidths of 5{degree}, are easily pointed wit the aid of a boresighted VCR. FM-CW Data are recorded on the VCR, while voice documentation is recorded on the audio tape; video is recorded on another VCR. The radar and antennas are easily mounted on a tripod, and can be set up by three people in a minute or two. The purpose of this paper is to describe the signal processing techniques used to determine the Doppler spectrum in the FM-CW mode and a method of its interpretation in real time, and to present data gathered in a tornadic storm in 1990. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Atmospheric Stability Impacts on Power Curves of Tall Wind Turbines - An Analysis of a West Coast North American Wind Farm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K

    2010-02-22

    Tall wind turbines, with hub heights at 80 m or above, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere because they are likely to encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complex nature of wind flow and turbulence at these heights in the boundary layer. Depending on whether the boundary layer is stable, neutral, or convective, the mean wind speed, direction, and turbulence properties may vary greatly across the tall turbine swept area (40 to 120 m AGL). This variability can cause tall turbines to produce difference amounts of power during time periods with identical hub height wind speeds. Using meteorological and power generation data from a West Coast North American wind farm over a one-year period, our study synthesizes standard wind park observations, such as wind speed from turbine nacelles and sparse meteorological tower observations, with high-resolution profiles of wind speed and turbulence from a remote sensing platform, to quantify the impact of atmospheric stability on power output. We first compare approaches to defining atmospheric stability. The standard, limited, wind farm operations enable the calculation only of a wind shear exponent ({alpha}) or turbulence intensity (I{sub U}) from cup anemometers, while the presence at this wind farm of a SODAR enables the direct observation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) throughout the turbine rotor disk. Additionally, a nearby research meteorological station provided observations of the Obukhov length, L, a direct measure of atmospheric stability. In general, the stability parameters {alpha}, I{sub U}, and TKE are in high agreement with the more physically-robust L, with TKE exhibiting the best agreement with L. Using these metrics, data periods are segregated by stability class to investigate power performance dependencies. Power output at this wind farm is highly correlated with atmospheric stability during the spring and summer months, while atmospheric stability exerts little impact on power output during the winter and autumn periods. During the spring and summer seasons, power output for a given wind speed was significantly higher during stable conditions and significantly lower during strongly convective conditions: power output differences approached 20% between stable and convective regimes. The dependency of stability on power output was apparent only when both turbulence and the shape of the wind speed profile were considered. Turbulence is one of the mechanisms by which atmospheric stability affects a turbine's power curve at this particular site, and measurements of turbulence can yield actionable insights into wind turbine behavior.

  15. Wind Climate Analyses for National Weather Service Stations in the Southeast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, A.H.

    2003-02-10

    Wind speed and direction data have been collected by National Weather Service (NWS) Stations in the U.S. for a number of years and presented in various forms to help depict the climate for different regions. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is particularly interested in the Southeast since mesoscale models using NWS wind observations are run on a daily basis for emergency response and other operational purposes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Historically, wind roses have been a convenient method to depict the predominant wind speeds and directions at measurement sites. Some typical applications of wind rose data are for climate and risk assessment; air pollution exposure and dose calculations; siting industrial plants, wind turbine generators, businesses, and homes; city planning; and air stagnation and high ozone concentration studies. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the overall relationships of wind patterns for NWS stations in the Southeast. Since organized collection of wind data records in the NWS developed rapidly in conjunction with the expansion of commercial aviation after World War II there are now about 50 years of wind speed and direction data available for a large number of NWS stations in this area. In this study we used wind roses for relatively short time scales to show the progression of winds diurnally and monthly to span a typical year. The date used here consist of wind records from 13 National Weather Service Stations in the Southeastern U.S. for approximately 50-year periods.

  16. Seismic experiments provide new clues to earthquake wave directionality and growth speed PASADENA, Calif.--In recent years, seismologists thought they were getting a handle on how an earthquake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seismic experiments provide new clues to earthquake wave directionality and growth speed PASADENA that direction. The phenomenon has to do with the basic ways rupture fronts (generating seismic waves

  17. 2009 Wind Technologies Market Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    directly charging wind power projects for balancing servicesin smaller balancing areas. The successful use of wind power

  18. Sutherland/Carlin, Wind Energy 1998, ASME/AIAA AIAA-98-0064 DAMAGE MEASUREMENTS ON THE NWTC DIRECT-DRIVE,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is equipped with a set of composite blades and a direct-coupled, permanent magnet, 20-kW generator-speed mode. In the variable- speed mode, the generator torque is regulated, using a discrete-stepped load, i.e., using the load bank to maintain either generator torque or (optionally) generator power

  19. Airplane and the wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Airplane and the wind. An airplane starts from the point A and flies to B. The speed of the airplane with respect to the air is v (constant). There is also a wind of

  20. Directed batch assembly of three-dimensional helical nanobelts through angular winding and electroplating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yu

    and electroplating This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article of three-dimensional helical nanobelts through angular winding and electroplating D J Bell1 , T E Bauert1. In a subsequent Au electroplating step, contacts are electroformed and the batch assembly is completed, while

  1. Direct Simulations of Wind-Driven Breaking Ocean Waves with Data Assimilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dommermuth, Douglas G; Tran, Vu H; Valenciano, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    A formulation is developed to assimilate ocean-wave data into the Numerical Flow Analysis (NFA) code. NFA is a Cartesian-based implicit Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) code with Volume of Fluid (VOF) interface capturing. The sequential assimilation of data into NFA permits detailed analysis of ocean-wave physics with higher bandwidths than is possible using either other formulations, such as High-Order Spectral (HOS) methods, or field measurements. A framework is provided for assimilating the wavy and vortical portions of the flow. Nudging is used to assimilate wave data at low wavenumbers, and the wave data at high wavenumbers form naturally through nonlinear interactions, wave breaking, and wind forcing. Similarly, the vertical profiles of the mean vortical flow in the wind and the wind drift are nudged, and the turbulent fluctuations are allowed to form naturally. As a demonstration, the results of a HOS of a JONSWAP wave spectrum are assimilated to study short-crested seas in equilibrium with the wind. Log pr...

  2. Technology Improvement Opportunities for Low Wind Speed Turbines and Implications for Cost of Energy Reduction: July 9, 2005 - July 8, 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, J.; Schweizer, T.; Laxson, A.; Butterfield, S.; Schreck, S.; Fingersh, L.; Veers, P.; Ashwill, T.

    2008-02-01

    This report analyzes the status of wind energy technology in 2002 and describes the potential for technology advancements to reduce the cost and increase the performance of wind turbines.

  3. Candidate wind turbine generator site: annual data summary, January 1981-December 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandusky, W.F.; Buck, J.W.; Renne, D.S.; Hadley, D.L.; Abbey, O.B.

    1982-07-01

    Summarized hourly meteorological data for 34 candidate and wind turbine generator sites for calendar year 1981 are presented. These data are collected for the purpose of evaluating the wind energy potential at these sites and are used to assist in selection of potential sites for installation and testing of large wind turbines in electric utility systems. For each site, wind speed, direction, and distribution data are given in eight tables. Use of information from these tables, with information about specific wind turbines, should allow the user to estimate the potential for wind energy production at each site.

  4. Global ocean wind power sensitivity to surface layer stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capps, Scott B; Zender, Charles S

    2009-01-01

    2005), Evaluation of global wind power, J. Geophys. Res. ,Pryor (2003), Can satellite sampling of offshore wind speedsrealistically represent wind speed distributions? , J. Appl.

  5. An experimental and numerical study of wind turbine seismic behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prowell, I.

    2011-01-01

    wind was unavailable, power (from an external electric generator)wind conditions and 22 RPM in higher wind speeds by adjusting the generator power

  6. Site by site, all directional plots Part 1 Wind Rose, Pollution Rose,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanier, Charlie

    Elementary 191630019 Blackhawk Foundry / Wellman St. Met, PM (1hr/24hr) Blackhawk Foundry #12;10th and Vine estimated regional background = 15.0 #12;Blackhawk Foundry #12;20062008 #12;06-08 Wind Rose Site: 191630019. Exceedance Threshold (above background) = 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 #12;#12;#12;Blackhawk Foundry #12;2008 #12

  7. Tracking large tabular icebergs using the SeaWinds Ku-band microwave scatterometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    . Originally designed to measure wind speed and direction over the ocean, SeaWinds is a microwave scatterometer. For instance, iceberg positions affect shipping lanes, outline ocean currents, and influence biological. Optical sensors produce high-resolution images but are unable to penetrate cloud cover and are dependent

  8. Balloon-borne sounding system (BBSS): Vaisala-processed winds, press., temp, and RH

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Coulter, Richard; Ritsche, Michael

    Balloon-borne sounding system (BBSS): Vaisala-processed winds, press., temp, and RH. The balloon-borne sounding system (SONDE) provides in situ measurements (vertical profiles) of both the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere, and the wind speed and direction.

  9. Wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C. (Glastonbury, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  10. Wind energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Longrigg, Paul (Golden, CO)

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  11. WP2 IEA Wind Task 26:The Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lantz, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Bolinger, M. ( 2011). 2010 Wind Technologies Market Report.Cost of Energy From U.S. Wind Power Projects. Presentationand Energy Capture at Low Wind Speed Sites. ” European Wind

  12. 10MW Class Direct Drive HTS Wind Turbine, CRADA Number CRD-08-00312

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby a contractor of the(Technical Report)Rayf . ./lp

  13. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 23, NO. 2, JUNE 2008 551 Sliding Mode Power Control of Variable-Speed Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    turbine to evaluate its consistency and performance. The next step was the validation using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) wind turbine simulator called the fatigue, aerodynamics, structures

  14. 2012 Wind Technologies Market Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    a brief discussion on Small Wind Turbines is provided onO&M costs. 2012 Wind Technologies Market Report Small WindTurbines Small wind turbines can provide power directly to

  15. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 88, 042146 (2013) Uncovering wind turbine properties through two-dimensional stochastic modeling of wind dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peinke, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW E 88, 042146 (2013) Uncovering wind turbine properties through two, such as the rated speed of the wind turbine or the descriptive wind speed statistics, can be related to the equations describing the evolution of power production and wind speed at single wind turbines. DOI: 10

  16. Double row loop-coil configuration for high-speed electrodynamic maglev suspension, guidance, propulsion and guideway directional switching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    He, Jianliang (Naperville, IL); Rote, Donald M. (Lagrange, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A stabilization and propulsion system comprising a series of loop-coils arranged in parallel rows wherein two rows combine to form one of two magnetic rails. Levitation and lateral stability are provided when the induced field in the magnetic rails interacts with the superconducting magnets mounted on the magnetic levitation vehicle. The loop-coils forming the magnetic rails have specified dimensions and a specified number of turns and by constructing differently these specifications, for one rail with respect to the other, the angle of tilt of the vehicle can be controlled during directional switching. Propulsion is provided by the interaction of a traveling magnetic wave associated with the coils forming the rails and the super conducting magnets on the vehicle.

  17. Double row loop-coil configuration for high-speed electrodynamic maglev suspension, guidance, propulsion and guideway directional switching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    He, J.; Rote, D.M.

    1996-05-21

    A stabilization and propulsion system are disclosed comprising a series of loop-coils arranged in parallel rows wherein two rows combine to form one of two magnetic rails. Levitation and lateral stability are provided when the induced field in the magnetic rails interacts with the superconducting magnets mounted on the magnetic levitation vehicle. The loop-coils forming the magnetic rails have specified dimensions and a specified number of turns and by constructing differently these specifications, for one rail with respect to the other, the angle of tilt of the vehicle can be controlled during directional switching. Propulsion is provided by the interaction of a traveling magnetic wave associated with the coils forming the rails and the superconducting magnets on the vehicle. 12 figs.

  18. Wind Resource Assessment in Europe Using Emergy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paudel, Subodh; Santarelli, Massimo; Martin, Viktoria; Lacarriere, Bruno; Le Corre, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    to change in upstream and downstream wind speed from 850 kW,1650 kW and 3000 kW wind turbinesseJ/J) Transformity of Wind Turbine (1650kW) Latitude

  19. RELIABILITY OF WIND POWER FROM DISPERSED SITES: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahn, E.

    2011-01-01

    r r r r rated power of wind turbine generator rated speed ofWind Characteristics on Annual Power Estimates from Wind Turbine Generators,WIND ARRAYS With the introduction of large generators into power

  20. Wind Technology Advancements and Impacts on Western Wind Resources (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robichaud, R.

    2014-09-01

    Robi Robichaud made this presentation at the Bureau of Land Management West-wide Wind Opportunities and Constraints Mapping (WWOCM) Project public meeting in Denver, Colorado in September 2014. This presentation outlines recent wind technology advancements, evolving turbine technologies, and industry challenges. The presentation includes maps of mean wind speeds at 50-m, 80-m, and 100-m hub heights on BLM lands. Robichaud also presented on the difference in mean wind speeds from 80m to 100m in Wyoming.

  1. Analyzing Effects of Turbulence on Power Generation Using Wind Plant Monitoring Data: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.; Chowdhury, S.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a methodology is developed to analyze how ambient and wake turbulence affects the power generation of a single wind turbine within an array of turbines. Using monitoring data from a wind power plant, we selected two sets of wind and power data for turbines on the edge of the wind plant that resemble (i) an out-of-wake scenario (i.e., when the turbine directly faces incoming winds) and (ii) an in-wake scenario (i.e., when the turbine is under the wake of other turbines). For each set of data, two surrogate models were then developed to represent the turbine power generation (i) as a function of the wind speed; and (ii) as a function of the wind speed and turbulence intensity. Support vector regression was adopted for the development of the surrogate models. Three types of uncertainties in the turbine power generation were also investigated: (i) the uncertainty in power generation with respect to the published/reported power curve, (ii) the uncertainty in power generation with respect to the estimated power response that accounts for only mean wind speed; and (iii) the uncertainty in power generation with respect to the estimated power response that accounts for both mean wind speed and turbulence intensity. Results show that (i) under the same wind conditions, the turbine generates different power between the in-wake and out-of-wake scenarios, (ii) a turbine generally produces more power under the in-wake scenario than under the out-of-wake scenario, (iii) the power generation is sensitive to turbulence intensity even when the wind speed is greater than the turbine rated speed, and (iv) there is relatively more uncertainty in the power generation under the in-wake scenario than under the out-of-wake scenario.

  2. Turbine Inflow Characterization at the National Wind Technology Center: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifton, A.; Schreck, S.; Scott, G.; Kelley, N.; Lundquist, J.

    2012-01-01

    Utility-scale wind turbines operate in dynamic flows that can vary significantly over timescales from less than a second to several years. To better understand the inflow to utility-scale turbines, two inflow towers were installed and commissioned at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado, in 2011. These towers are 135 m tall and instrumented with a combination of sonic anemometers, cup anemometers, wind vanes, and temperature measurements to characterize the inflow wind speed and direction, turbulence, stability and thermal stratification to two utility-scale turbines. Herein, we present variations in mean and turbulent wind parameters with height, atmospheric stability, and as a function of wind direction that could be important for turbine operation as well as persistence of turbine wakes. Wind speed, turbulence intensity, and dissipation are all factors that affect turbine performance. Our results shown that these all vary with height across the rotor disk, demonstrating the importance of measuring atmospheric conditions that influence wind turbine performance at multiple heights in the rotor disk, rather than relying on extrapolation from lower levels.

  3. Synoptic and local influences on boundary layer processes, with an application to California wind power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mansbach, David K.

    2010-01-01

    3.4.2 Wind roses . . . . . . . .Figure 5.5: Downscaled wind speed changes and componentin?uences on California’s wind energy resource. Part 1:

  4. The Effect of Steady Winds on Radon-222 Entry from soil into houses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riley, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    data generated in a small wind tunnel and meteorologicaldifference was small, high wind speeds were associated withof days. In contrast, small scale wind fluctuations have

  5. International Statistical Review (2012), 80, 1, 223 doi:10.1111/j.1751-5823.2011.00168.x Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genton, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    @stat.tamu.edu Summary The emphasis on renewable energy and concerns about the environment have led to large-scale wind mix and develop diverse sources of clean, renewable energy. Cost-effective energy that can be produced to 1990), to increase the amount of renewable energy to 20% of the energy supply, and to reduce

  6. Wind/Wave Misalignment in the Loads Analysis of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barj, L.; Stewart, S.; Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2014-02-01

    Wind resources far from the shore and in deeper seas have encouraged the offshore wind industry to look into floating platforms. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is developing a new technical specification for the design of floating offshore wind turbines that extends existing design standards for land-based and fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines. The work summarized in this paper supports the development of best practices and simulation requirements in the loads analysis of floating offshore wind turbines by examining the impact of wind/wave misalignment on the system loads under normal operation. Simulations of the OC3-Hywind floating offshore wind turbine system under a wide range of wind speeds, significant wave heights, peak-spectral periods and wind/wave misalignments have been carried out with the aero-servo-hydro-elastic tool FAST [4]. The extreme and fatigue loads have been calculated for all the simulations. The extreme and fatigue loading as a function of wind/wave misalignment have been represented as load roses and a directional binning sensitivity study has been carried out. This study focused on identifying the number and type of wind/wave misalignment simulations needed to accurately capture the extreme and fatigue loads of the system in all possible metocean conditions considered, and for a down-selected set identified as the generic US East Coast site. For this axisymmetric platform, perpendicular wind and waves play an important role in the support structure and including these cases in the design loads analysis can improve the estimation of extreme and fatigue loads. However, most structural locations see their highest extreme and fatigue loads with aligned wind and waves. These results are specific to the spar type platform, but it is expected that the results presented here will be similar to other floating platforms.

  7. Structural responses and power output of a wind turbine are strongly affected by the wind field acting on the wind turbine. Knowledge about the wind field and its

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    ABSTRACT Structural responses and power output of a wind turbine are strongly affected by the wind affect the power output and structural responses of a wind turbine. Wind field characteristics are conventionally described by time averaged features, such as mean wind speed, turbulence intensity and power

  8. An investigation of wind loads on conventional and nonconventional highway signs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, Hayes Ellis

    1967-01-01

    51 2. 1. 9 Full-Scale Sign in Upright Position 53 Figure 2. 1. 10 Mobile Instrumentation Laboratory 2. 1. 11 Oscillograph Recorder and Takeup Unit 2. 1. 12 Oscillograph Amplifier and Power Supply 2. 1. 13 Wind Speed and Direction Equipment 2. 1... the tests, i. e. , the instrumented sign, the wind speed and direction indi- cators, a mobile instrumentation laboratory, and a portable generator for supplying the electrical power. The mobile instrumentation labora- tory Mouse e ns rumen s use n recor...

  9. WREF 2012: THE PAST AND FUTURE COST OF WIND ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Low Wind Speed Turbines and Implications for Cost of EnergyWIND ENERGY by as much as 270% when comparing today’s turbines

  10. Stochastic modeling and performance monitoring of wind farm power production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milan, Patrick; Peinke, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    We present a new stochastic approach to describe and remodel the conversion process of a wind farm at a sampling frequency of 1Hz. When conditioning on various wind direction sectors, the dynamics of the conversion process appear as a fluctuating trajectory around an average IEC-like power curve, see section II. Our approach is to consider the wind farm as a dynamical system that can be described as a stochastic drift/diffusion model, where a drift coefficient describes the attraction towards the power curve and a diffusion coefficient quantifies additional turbulent fluctuations. These stochastic coefficients are inserted into a Langevin equation that, once properly adapted to our particular system, models a synthetic signal of power output for any given wind speed/direction signals, see section III. When combined with a pre-model for turbulent wind fluctuations, the stochastic approach models the power output of the wind farm at a sampling frequency of 1Hz using only ten-minute average values of wind speed ...

  11. Wind Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Power Bioenergy Power Systems Wind Power Wind Power Main Page Outreach Programs Image Gallery FAQs Links Software Hydro Power INL Home Wind Power Introduction The Wind Power...

  12. Operational behavior of a double-fed permanent magnet generator for wind turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddy, Sivananda Kumjula

    2005-01-01

    Greater efficiency in wind turbine systems is achieved by allowing the rotor to change its rate of rotation as the wind speed changes. The wind turbine system is decoupled from the utility grid and a variable speed operation ...

  13. Description of the Columbia Basin Wind Energy Study (CBWES)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry K.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Nelson, Danny A.

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this Technical Report is to provide background information about the Columbia Basin Wind Energy Study (CBWES). This study, which was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Wind and Water Power Program, was conducted from 16 November 2010 through 21 March 2012 at a field site in northeastern Oregon. The primary goal of the study was to provide profiles of wind speed and wind direction over the depth of the boundary layer in an operating wind farm located in an area of complex terrain. Measurements from propeller and vane anemometers mounted on a 62 m tall tower, Doppler Sodar, and Radar Wind Profiler were combined into a single data product to provide the best estimate of the winds above the site during the first part of CBWES. An additional goal of the study was to provide measurements of Turbulence Kinetic Energy (TKE) near the surface. To address this specific goal, sonic anemometers were mounted at two heights on the 62 m tower on 23 April 2011. Prior to the deployment of the sonic anemometers on the tall tower, a single sonic anemometer was deployed on a short tower 3.1 m tall that was located just to the south of the radar wind profiler. Data from the radar wind profiler, as well as the wind profile data product are available from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Data Archive (http://www.arm.gov/data/campaigns). Data from the sonic anemometers are available from the authors.

  14. Wind Resource Assessment of Gujarat (India)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Draxl, C.; Purkayastha, A.; Parker, Z.

    2014-07-01

    India is one of the largest wind energy markets in the world. In 1986 Gujarat was the first Indian state to install a wind power project. In February 2013, the installed wind capacity in Gujarat was 3,093 MW. Due to the uncertainty around existing wind energy assessments in India, this analysis uses the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the wind at current hub heights for one year to provide more precise estimates of wind resources in Gujarat. The WRF model allows for accurate simulations of winds near the surface and at heights important for wind energy purposes. While previous resource assessments published wind power density, we focus on average wind speeds, which can be converted to wind power densities by the user with methods of their choice. The wind resource estimates in this study show regions with average annual wind speeds of more than 8 m/s.

  15. A doubly-fed permanent magnet generator for wind turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Andrew J. (Andrew Joseph), 1981-

    2004-01-01

    Optimum extraction of energy from a wind turbine requires that turbine speed vary with wind speed. Existing solutions to produce constant-frequency electrical output under windspeed variations are undesirable due to ...

  16. Eos,Vol. 85, No. 15, 13 April 2004 Fig.1.(a) SST and wind speed were observed by buoy 44014 (36.61N,74.84W) atVirginia Beach,Virginia,in July 2003.Averaged GOES SST (shaded)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Donglian

    Eos,Vol. 85, No. 15, 13 April 2004 Fig.1.(a) SST and wind speed were observed by buoy 44014 (36 in the area [Kelly,2003].Satellite data,buoy observations,and weather maps were analyzed to investigate the anomalous cold water along the coast. The sea surface temperature (SST) observations made by buoy 44014 (0

  17. Wind-Shield Display(WSD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kameda, Yoshinari

    AR *1 *2 *2 *2 *1 *2 Wind-Shield Display(WSD) Evaluation of Driver's Speed Sensation by Augmented Reality on Wind-Shield Display Hayato TOUI*1 Yoshinari KAMEDA*2 Kitahara is drawn on optical see-through display called Wind-Shield Display. Spontaneous speed suppression

  18. Development of an Offshore Direct-Drive Wind Turbine Model by Using a Flexible Multibody Simulation (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergua, R.; Jove, J.; Campbell, J.; Guo, Y.; Van Dam, J.

    2014-05-01

    Modern wind turbines are complex, highly-coupled systems. The dynamic interaction between various components is especially pronounced for multi-megawatt wind turbines. As a result, design process is generally split in several phases. First step consists of creating a global aero-elastic model that includes essential dynamics of structural components using the minimum-possible number of degrees of freedom (d.o.f.). The most important simplifications concern drivetrain and rotor-nacelle assembly (RNA). This approach has been shown valid for several wind turbine configurations. Nevertheless, with increasing size of wind turbines, any simplified design approach must be validated. The present work deals with the comparison and validation of the two modeling approaches for directdrive offshore wind turbines. ARNA/drivetrain model idealized as collection of lumped masses and springs is compared to a detailed Finite Element Method (FEM) based model. The comparison between models focuses on dynamic loads concerning drivetrain system. The comparison is performed in several operational conditions in order to explore the range of validity of the simplified model. Finally, the paper proposes a numerical-based workflow to assess the validity of simplified models of RNA/drivetrain in an aero-elastic global WT model.

  19. Dynamic valuation model For wind development in regard to land value, proximity to transmission lines, and capacity factor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikandrou, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Developing a wind farm involves many variables that can make or break the success of a potential wind farm project. Some variables such as wind data (capacity factor, wind rose, wind speed, etc.) are readily available in ...

  20. Analyzing the Effects of Temporal Wind Patterns on the Value of Wind-Generated Electricity at Different Sites in California and the Northwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fripp, Matthias; Wiser, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    a) (b) Effect of Wind Timing with Forecast California Pricesa) (b) Effect of Wind Timing with Forecast Northwest Pricesby TrueWind, to develop a forecast of wind speeds. Or, going

  1. Using satellite data for mapping offshore wind resources and wakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (no wind) Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Blaavandshuk Met. mast N #12;Wind Horns Rev Wind speed map from · Wake near large offshore wind farms is quantified in space and time · Software for usersUsing satellite data for mapping offshore wind resources and wakes Charlotte Bay Hasager, Merete

  2. Analysis of the effects of integrating wind turbines into a conventional utility: a case study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldenblatt, M.K.; Wegley, H.L.; Miller, A.H.

    1982-08-01

    The impact on a utility incorporating wind turbine generation due to wind speed sampling frequency, wind turbine performance model, and wind speed forecasting accuracy is examined. The utility analyzed in the study was the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power and the wind turbine assumed was the MOD-2. The sensitivity of the economic value of wind turbine generation to wind speed sampling frequency and wind turbine modeling technique is examined as well as the impact of wind forecasting accuracy on utility operation and production costs. Wind speed data from San Gorgonio Pass, California during 1979 are used to estimate wind turbine performance using four different simulation methods. (LEW)

  3. Analysis of the effects of integrating wind turbines into a conventional utility: a case study. Revised final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldenblatt, M.K.; Wegley, H.L.; Miller, A.H.

    1983-03-01

    The impact on a utility incorporating wind turbine generation due to wind speed sampling frequency, wind turbine performance model, and wind speed forecasting accuracy is examined. The utility analyzed in this study was the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, and the wind turbine assumed was the MOD-2. The sensitivity of the economic value of wind turbine generation to wind speed sampling frequency and wind turbine modeling technique is examined as well as the impact of wind forecasting accuracy on utility operation and production costs. Wind speed data from San Gorgonio Pass, California during 1979 are used to estimate wind turbine performance using four different simulation methods. (LEW)

  4. Wind Regimes in Complex Terrain of the Great Valley of Eastern Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birdwell, Kevin R [ORNL

    2011-05-01

    This research was designed to provide an understanding of physical wind mechanisms within the complex terrain of the Great Valley of Eastern Tennessee to assess the impacts of regional air flow with regard to synoptic and mesoscale weather changes, wind direction shifts, and air quality. Meteorological data from 2008 2009 were analyzed from 13 meteorological sites along with associated upper level data. Up to 15 ancillary sites were used for reference. Two-step complete linkage and K-means cluster analyses, synoptic weather studies, and ambient meteorological comparisons were performed to generate hourly wind classifications. These wind regimes revealed seasonal variations of underlying physical wind mechanisms (forced channeled, vertically coupled, pressure-driven, and thermally-driven winds). Synoptic and ambient meteorological analysis (mixing depth, pressure gradient, pressure gradient ratio, atmospheric and surface stability) suggested up to 93% accuracy for the clustered results. Probabilistic prediction schemes of wind flow and wind class change were developed through characterization of flow change data and wind class succession. Data analysis revealed that wind flow in the Great Valley was dominated by forced channeled winds (45 67%) and vertically coupled flow (22 38%). Down-valley pressure-driven and thermally-driven winds also played significant roles (0 17% and 2 20%, respectively), usually accompanied by convergent wind patterns (15 20%) and large wind direction shifts, especially in the Central/Upper Great Valley. The behavior of most wind regimes was associated with detectable pressure differences between the Lower and Upper Great Valley. Mixing depth and synoptic pressure gradients were significant contributors to wind pattern behavior. Up to 15 wind classes and 10 sub-classes were identified in the Central Great Valley with 67 joined classes for the Great Valley at-large. Two-thirds of Great Valley at-large flow was defined by 12 classes. Winds flowed on-axis only 40% of the time. The Great Smoky Mountains helped create down-valley pressure-driven winds, downslope mountain breezes, and divergent air flow. The Cumberland Mountains and Plateau were associated with wind speed reductions in the Central Great Valley, Emory Gap Flow, weak thermally-driven winds, and northwesterly down sloping. Ridge-and-valley terrain enhanced wind direction reversals, pressure-driven winds, as well as locally and regionally produced thermally-driven flow.

  5. Aalborg Universitet Flicker Mitigation by Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Weihao

    Aalborg Universitet Flicker Mitigation by Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Synchronous Generator Variable-Speed Wind Turbines. Energies, 6(8), 3807-3821. 10.3390/en6083807 General.mdpi.com/journal/energies Article Flicker Mitigation by Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Variable-Speed Wind

  6. Use of synthetic aperture radar for offshore wind resource assessment and wind farm development in the UK 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cameron, Iain Dickson

    2008-01-01

    The UK has an abundant offshore wind resource with offshore wind farming set to grow rapidly over the coming years. Optimisation of energy production is of the utmost importance and accurate estimates of wind speed distributions are critical...

  7. Near-surface meteorological conditions associated with active resuspension of dust by wind erosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgin, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    The meteorological conditions associated with extreme winds in the lee of the Colorado Rocky Mountains were studied from the viewpoint of dust resuspension and dispersion. Wind, dispersion, temperature, and dew point conditions occurring near the surface were discussed in detail for a selected event. Near-surface wind speeds were compared to observations made at a standard sampling height. These field data were developed to aid in validation and interpretation of wind tunnel observations and application of dispersion models to wind erosion resuspension. Three conclusions can immediately be drawn from this investigation. First, wind storms in nature are quite gusty, with gusts exceeding the mean speed by 50 percent or more. However, wind direction variations are small by comparison. Thus, wind tunnel studies should be able to simulate the large along-flow turbulence, while keeping cross-flow turbulence to a moderate level. This also has an application to the puff modeling of high winds. Puff models normally assume that the along-flow dispersion coefficient is equal to the cross-flow value. This study suggests that the along-flow coefficient should be much larger than its cross-flow counterpart. Another conclusion involves the usual assumption of Pasquill-Gifford stability class D. In the event studied here, the atmosphere was well mixed with near-neutral thermal stability, yet the horizontal dispersion stability class varied from G to A. Thus, an assumption of Class D horizontal dispersion during high winds would not have been valid during this case. A final conclusion involves the widely applied assumption of a logarithmic wind speed profile during high wind events. This study has indicated that such an assumption is appropriate.

  8. The effects of energy storage properties and forecast accuracy on mitigating variability in wind power generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaworsky, Christina A

    2013-01-01

    Electricity generation from wind power is increasing worldwide. Wind power can offset traditional fossil fuel generators which is beneficial to the environment. However, wind generation is unpredictable. Wind speeds have ...

  9. Floating offshore wind farms : demand planning & logistical challenges of electricity generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nnadili, Christopher Dozie, 1978-

    2009-01-01

    Floating offshore wind farms are likely to become the next paradigm in electricity generation from wind energy mainly because of the near constant high wind speeds in an offshore environment as opposed to the erratic wind ...

  10. MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY WIND APPLICATION CENTER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    , be it aerodynamics studies of automobiles or supersonic applications in aerospace. In the design of the KidWind of these was to accurately mimic the wind speed conditions an actual wind turbine in the field would experience. A second as minimum and maximum flow parameters because they mimic actual flow conditions in which wind turbines

  11. Wind farm electrical system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdman, William L.; Lettenmaier, Terry M.

    2006-07-04

    An approach to wind farm design using variable speed wind turbines with low pulse number electrical output. The output of multiple wind turbines are aggregated to create a high pulse number electrical output at a point of common coupling with a utility grid network. Power quality at each individual wind turbine falls short of utility standards, but the aggregated output at the point of common coupling is within acceptable tolerances for utility power quality. The approach for aggregating low pulse number electrical output from multiple wind turbines relies upon a pad mounted transformer at each wind turbine that performs phase multiplication on the output of each wind turbine. Phase multiplication converts a modified square wave from the wind turbine into a 6 pulse output. Phase shifting of the 6 pulse output from each wind turbine allows the aggregated output of multiple wind turbines to be a 24 pulse approximation of a sine wave. Additional filtering and VAR control is embedded within the wind farm to take advantage of the wind farm's electrical impedence characteristics to further enhance power quality at the point of common coupling.

  12. Active control system for high speed windmills

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Avery, D.E.

    1988-01-12

    A pump stroke is matched to the operating speed of a high speed windmill. The windmill drives a hydraulic pump for a control. Changes in speed of a wind driven shaft open supply and exhaust valves to opposite ends of a hydraulic actuator to lengthen and shorten an oscillating arm thereby lengthening and shortening the stroke of an output pump. Diminishing wind to a stall speed causes the valves to operate the hydraulic cylinder to shorten the oscillating arm to zero. A pressure accumulator in the hydraulic system provides the force necessary to supply the hydraulic fluid under pressure to drive the actuator into and out of the zero position in response to the windmill shaft speed approaching and exceeding windmill stall speed. 4 figs.

  13. Active control system for high speed windmills

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Avery, Don E. (45-437 Akimala St., Honolulu, HI 96744)

    1988-01-01

    A pump stroke is matched to the operating speed of a high speed windmill. The windmill drives a hydraulic pump for a control. Changes in speed of a wind driven shaft open supply and exhaust valves to opposite ends of a hydraulic actuator to lengthen and shorten an oscillating arm thereby lengthening and shortening the stroke of an output pump. Diminishing wind to a stall speed causes the valves to operate the hydraulic cylinder to shorten the oscillating arm to zero. A pressure accumulator in the hydraulic system provides the force necessary to supply the hydraulic fluid under pressure to drive the actuator into and out of the zero position in response to the windmill shaft speed approaching and exceeding windmill stall speed.

  14. Direct

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent BondingMeetingDifferences BetweenDirac Charge Dynamcs inDirect

  15. Directions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent BondingMeetingDifferencesPlatinum FuelEnergy InnovationDirections

  16. Bi-Directional Energy Cascades and the Origin of Kinetic Alfv\\'enic and Whistler Turbulence in the Solar Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Che, H; Viñas, A F

    2013-01-01

    The observed sub-proton scale turbulence spectrum in the solar wind raises the question of how that turbulence originates. Observations of keV energetic electrons during solar quite-time suggest them as possible source of free energy to drive the turbulence. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we explore how free energy in energetic electrons, released by an electron two-stream instability drives Weibel-like electromagnetic waves that excite wave-wave interactions. Consequently, both kinetic Alfv\\'enic and whistler waves are excited that evolve through inverse and forward magnetic energy cascades.

  17. Assessing Long-Term Wind Conditions by Combining Different Measure-Correlate-Predict Algorithms: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.; Chowdhury, S.; Messac, A.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-08-01

    This paper significantly advances the hybrid measure-correlate-predict (MCP) methodology, enabling it to account for variations of both wind speed and direction. The advanced hybrid MCP method uses the recorded data of multiple reference stations to estimate the long-term wind condition at a target wind plant site. The results show that the accuracy of the hybrid MCP method is highly sensitive to the combination of the individual MCP algorithms and reference stations. It was also found that the best combination of MCP algorithms varies based on the length of the correlation period.

  18. Uncovering wind turbine properties through two-dimensional stochastic modeling of wind dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raischel, Frank; Lopes, Vitor V; Lind, Pedro G

    2012-01-01

    Using a method for stochastic data analysis, borrowed from statistical physics, we analyze synthetic data from a Markov chain model that reproduces measurements of wind speed and power production in a wind park in Portugal. From the theoretical point of view we argue that our methods can be used to extract unknown functional relations between two variables. We first show that indeed our analysis retrieves the power performance curve, which yields the relationship between wind speed and power production and discuss how such procedure can be extended for extracting functional relationships between pairs of physical variables in general. Second, we show how specific features, such as the turbine rated wind speed or the descriptive wind speed statistics, can be related with the equations describing the evolution of power production and wind speed at single wind turbines.

  19. Aleutian Pribilof Islands Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce A. Wright

    2012-03-27

    Under this project, the Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association (APIA) conducted wind feasibility studies for Adak, False Pass, Nikolski, Sand Point and St. George. The DOE funds were also be used to continue APIA's role as project coordinator, to expand the communication network quality between all participants and with other wind interest groups in the state and to provide continued education and training opportunities for regional participants. This DOE project began 09/01/2005. We completed the economic and technical feasibility studies for Adak. These were funded by the Alaska Energy Authority. Both wind and hydro appear to be viable renewable energy options for Adak. In False Pass the wind resource is generally good but the site has high turbulence. This would require special care with turbine selection and operations. False Pass may be more suitable for a tidal project. APIA is funded to complete a False Pass tidal feasibility study in 2012. Nikolski has superb potential for wind power development with Class 7 wind power density, moderate wind shear, bi-directional winds and low turbulence. APIA secured nearly $1M from the United States Department of Agriculture Rural Utilities Service Assistance to Rural Communities with Extremely High Energy Costs to install a 65kW wind turbine. The measured average power density and wind speed at Sand Point measured at 20m (66ft), are 424 W/m2 and 6.7 m/s (14.9 mph) respectively. Two 500kW Vestas turbines were installed and when fully integrated in 2012 are expected to provide a cost effective and clean source of electricity, reduce overall diesel fuel consumption estimated at 130,000 gallons/year and decrease air emissions associated with the consumption of diesel fuel. St. George Island has a Class 7 wind resource, which is superior for wind power development. The current strategy, led by Alaska Energy Authority, is to upgrade the St. George electrical distribution system and power plant. Avian studies in Nikolski and Sand Point have allowed for proper wind turbine siting without killing birds, especially endangered species and bald eagles. APIA continues coordinating and looking for funding opportunities for regional renewable energy projects. An important goal for APIA has been, and will continue to be, to involve community members with renewable energy projects and energy conservation efforts.

  20. Wind climatology of Schiphol Andrew Stepek, Xueli Wang and Dirk Wolters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    Wind climatology of Schiphol Andrew Stepek, Xueli Wang and Dirk Wolters De Bilt, May 2012 #12;2 Contents Summary 2 Introduction 3 Data 3 Hourly wind measurements 3 Yearly averages of wind speed measurements 4 Quality and sources of error 6 Method 7 Trends in wind speed 7 Definition of cross and tail wind

  1. Evaluation of global wind power Cristina L. Archer and Mark Z. Jacobson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    % of all reporting stations experience annual mean wind speeds ! 6.9 m/s at 80 m (i.e., wind power class 3Evaluation of global wind power Cristina L. Archer and Mark Z. Jacobson Department of Civil the world's wind power potential for the first time from data. Wind speeds are calculated at 80 m, the hub

  2. Analysis of Wind Power Generation of Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Z.; Haberl, J.; Subbarao, K.; Baltazar, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    ? Not appropriate for predicting hourly power using power curve ? On-site wind: ? Measured power vs. on-site wind following well the power curve prediction ? No curtailment at this site ? Green curves showing a band of 5 MW from the power curve WHY NOT Use... APPLICATION ? Indian Mesa Wind Farm Measured MW Plotted Against Hourly NOAA Wind Speed? ANN significantly improves the prediction of on-site wind speed compared to NOAA. ? Green curves showing a band of 5 MW from the power curve Hourly Wind Power...

  3. MSU-Wind Applications Center: Wind Resource Worksheet Theoretical Power Calculation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, Bill

    MSU-Wind Applications Center: Wind Resource Worksheet Theoretical Power Calculation Equations: A= swept area = air density v= velocity R= universal gas constant Steps: 1. Measure wind speed from fan. = ___________/(________*________)= _________kg/m3 5. Theoretical Power a. Low Setting Theoretical Wind Power i. Power= ½*______*______*______*.59

  4. Increasing the High Speed Torque of Bipolar Stepper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Dennis

    the windings of the motor dictates the high speed torque. This application note shows that increasing the slew rates of the winding currents in a bipolar stepper motor pushes the motor to deliver more torque at high°) bipolar currents (Figure 1) energize the windings of a bipolar stepper motor. One step occurs at each

  5. Optimum propeller wind turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanderson, R.J.; Archer, R.D.

    1983-11-01

    The Prandtl-Betz-Theodorsen theory of heavily loaded airscrews has been adapted to the design of propeller windmills which are to be optimized for maximum power coefficient. It is shown that the simpler, light-loading, constant-area wake assumption can generate significantly different ''optimum'' performance and geometry, and that it is therefore not appropriate to the design of propeller wind turbines when operating in their normal range of high-tip-speed-to-wind-speed ratio. Design curves for optimum power coefficient are presented and an example of the design of a typical two-blade optimum rotor is given.

  6. Solar Wind Forecasting with Coronal Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Robbins; C. J. Henney; J. W. Harvey

    2007-01-09

    An empirical model for forecasting solar wind speed related geomagnetic events is presented here. The model is based on the estimated location and size of solar coronal holes. This method differs from models that are based on photospheric magnetograms (e.g., Wang-Sheeley model) to estimate the open field line configuration. Rather than requiring the use of a full magnetic synoptic map, the method presented here can be used to forecast solar wind velocities and magnetic polarity from a single coronal hole image, along with a single magnetic full-disk image. The coronal hole parameters used in this study are estimated with Kitt Peak Vacuum Telescope He I 1083 nm spectrograms and photospheric magnetograms. Solar wind and coronal hole data for the period between May 1992 and September 2003 are investigated. The new model is found to be accurate to within 10% of observed solar wind measurements for its best one-month periods, and it has a linear correlation coefficient of ~0.38 for the full 11 years studied. Using a single estimated coronal hole map, the model can forecast the Earth directed solar wind velocity up to 8.5 days in advance. In addition, this method can be used with any source of coronal hole area and location data.

  7. High speed flux feedback for tuning a universal field oriented controller capable of operating in direct and indirect field orientation modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Doncker, Rik W. A. A.

    1992-01-01

    The direct (d) and quadrature (q) components of flux, as sensed by flux sensors or determined from voltage and current measurements in a direct field orientation scheme, are processed rapidly and accurately to provide flux amplitude and angular position values for use by the vector rotator of a universal field-oriented (UFO) controller. Flux amplitude (linear or squared) is provided as feedback to tune the UFO controller for operation in direct and indirect field orientation modes and enables smooth transitions from one mode to the other.

  8. High speed flux feedback for tuning a universal field oriented controller capable of operating in direct and indirect field orientation modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Doncker, R.W.A.A.

    1992-09-01

    The direct (d) and quadrature (q) components of flux, as sensed by flux sensors or determined from voltage and current measurements in a direct field orientation scheme, are processed rapidly and accurately to provide flux amplitude and angular position values for use by the vector rotator of a universal field-oriented (UFO) controller. Flux amplitude (linear or squared) is provided as feedback to tune the UFO controller for operation in direct and indirect field orientation modes and enables smooth transitions from one mode to the other. 3 figs.

  9. Wind Program: A New Vision for U.S. Wind Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-05-07

    A link to the New Vision for U.S. Wind Power Web page, which enables stakeholders to provide input on the direction of the wind industry.

  10. Characterization of winds through the rotor plane using a phased array SODAR and recommendations for future work.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deola, Regina Anne

    2010-02-01

    Portable remote sensing devices are increasingly needed to cost effectively characterize the meteorology at a potential wind energy site as the size of modern wind turbines increase. A short term project co-locating a Sound Detection and Ranging System (SODAR) with a 200 meter instrumented meteorological tower at the Texas Tech Wind Technology Field Site was performed to collect and summarize wind information through an atmospheric layer typical of utility scale rotor plane depths. Data collected identified large speed shears and directional shears that may lead to unbalanced loads on the rotors. This report identifies suggestions for incorporation of additional data in wind resource assessments and a few thoughts on the potential for using a SODAR or SODAR data to quantify or investigate other parameters that may be significant to the wind industry.

  11. Wind Tunnel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    The increased interest in the offshore wind resource in both industry and academic and the extension of the wind field where offshore wind turbine can be deployed has stimulated quite a number of offshore wind turbines concepts. This thesis presents...

  12. Real time Markov chains: Wind states in anemometric data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanchez, P A; Jaramillo, O A

    2015-01-01

    The description of wind phenomena is frequently based on data obtained from anemometers, which usually report the wind speed and direction only in a horizontal plane. Such measurements are commonly used either to develop wind generation farms or to forecast weather conditions in a geographical region. Beyond these standard applications, the information contained in the data may be richer than expected and may lead to a better understanding of the wind dynamics in a geographical area. In this work we propose a statistical analysis based on the wind velocity vectors, which we propose may be grouped in "wind states" associated to binormal distribution functions. We found that the velocity plane defined by the anemometric velocity data may be used as a phase space, where a finite number of states may be found and sorted using standard clustering methods. The main result is a discretization technique useful to model the wind with Markov chains. We applied such ideas in anemometric data for two different sites in M...

  13. Space and Time: Wind in an Investment Planning Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neuhoff, Karsten; Ehrenmann, A.; Butler, Lucy; Cust, J.; Hoexter, Harriet; Keats, Kim; Kreczko, Adam; Sinden, Graham

    2006-03-14

    is the cross-correlation of wind. We assess wind speeds in 7 zones. It is well understood that wind speeds in a single location follow a Weibull distribution (http://www.windpower.org/en/tour/wres/weibull.htm). We avoided the technical difficulty to fit a...

  14. Observed and CAM3 GCM Sea Surface Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zender, Charles

    Observed and CAM3 GCM Sea Surface Wind Speed Distributions: Characterization, Comparison, and Bias climatological surface wind speed probability density functions (PDFs) estimated from observations and use them to evaluate, for the first time, contemporaneous wind PDFs predicted by a GCM. The ob- servations include NASA

  15. Wind tower service lift

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  16. Value Capture in the Global Wind Energy Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dedrick, Jason; Kraemer, Kenneth L.

    2011-01-01

    of manufacturing. April 18. Wind Directions (2007). SupplyJan/Feb. 27-34. Appendix. Illustrative wind supply chainValue capture n.a. Source: Wind Directions, 2007; authors

  17. Mesoscale Simulations of a Wind Ramping Event for Wind Energy Prediction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, M; Lundquist, J K

    2011-09-21

    Ramping events, or rapid changes of wind speed and wind direction over a short period of time, present challenges to power grid operators in regions with significant penetrations of wind energy in the power grid portfolio. Improved predictions of wind power availability require adequate predictions of the timing of ramping events. For the ramping event investigated here, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was run at three horizontal resolutions in 'mesoscale' mode: 8100m, 2700m, and 900m. Two Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) schemes, the Yonsei University (YSU) and Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) schemes, were run at each resolution as well. Simulations were not 'tuned' with nuanced choices of vertical resolution or tuning parameters so that these simulations may be considered 'out-of-the-box' tests of a numerical weather prediction code. Simulations are compared with sodar observations during a wind ramping event at a 'West Coast North America' wind farm. Despite differences in the boundary-layer schemes, no significant differences were observed in the abilities of the schemes to capture the timing of the ramping event. As collaborators have identified, the boundary conditions of these simulations probably dominate the physics of the simulations. They suggest that future investigations into characterization of ramping events employ ensembles of simulations, and that the ensembles include variations of boundary conditions. Furthermore, the failure of these simulations to capture not only the timing of the ramping event but the shape of the wind profile during the ramping event (regardless of its timing) indicates that the set-up and execution of such simulations for wind power forecasting requires skill and tuning of the simulations for a specific site.

  18. Computational Analysis of Shrouded Wind Turbine Configurations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso, Juan J.

    Computational Analysis of Shrouded Wind Turbine Configurations Aniket C. Aranake Vinod K-dimensional simulations of shrouded wind turbines are performed for selected shroud geometries. The results are compared at the highest wind speed for which the flow over the bare turbine blade stays attached. Flow fields are examined

  19. Offshore wind resource assessment through satellite images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Slide no. 4 Offshore wind resource assessment through satellite images Charlotte Bay Hasager images for offshore wind ressource assessment in lieu of in-situ mast observations #12;4 Slide no Hasager, Dellwik, Nielsen and Furevik, 2004, Validation of ERS-2 SAR offshore wind-speed maps in the North

  20. Geographical and seasonal variability of the global "practical" wind Cristina L. Archer a,*, Mark Z. Jacobson b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keywords: Wind power Wind energy Wind Numerical modeling Capacity factor a b s t r a c t This paper (GATOR-GCMOM) that dynamically calculates the instantaneous wind power of a modern 5 MW wind turbine turbines in high-wind locations (year-average 100-m wind speed ! 7 m/s) over land and near-shore, excluding

  1. Coastal Ohio Wind Project for Reduced Barriers to Deployment of Offshore Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorsevski, Peter; Afjeh, Abdollah; Jamali, Mohsin; Carroll, Michael

    2014-04-09

    The Coastal Ohio Wind Project was created to establish the viability of wind turbines on the coastal and offshore regions of Northern Ohio. The project’s main goal was to improve operational unit strategies used for environmental impact assessment of offshore turbines on lake wildlife by optimizing and fusing data from the multi-instrument surveillance system and providing an engineering analysis of potential design/operational alternatives for offshore wind turbines. The project also developed a general economic model for offshore WTG deployment to quantify potential revenue losses due to wind turbine shutdown related to ice and avian issues. In a previous phase of this project (Award Number: DE-FG36-06GO86096), we developed a surveillance system that was used to collect different parameters such as passage rates, flight paths, flight directions, and flight altitudes of nocturnal migrating species, movements of birds and bats, and bird calls for assessing patterns and peak passage rates during migration. To derive such parameters we used thermal IR imaging cameras, acoustic recorders, and marine radar Furuno (XANK250), which was coupled with a XIR3000B digitizing card from Russell Technologies and open source radR processing software. The integration yielded a development of different computational techniques and methods, which we further developed and optimized as a combined surveillance system. To accomplish this task we implemented marine radar calibration, optimization of processing parameters, and fusion of the multi-sensor data in order to make inferences about the potential avian targets. The main goal of the data fusion from the multi-sensor environment was aimed at reduction of uncertainties while providing acceptable confidence levels with detailed information about the migration patterns. Another component comprised of an assessment of wind resources in a near lake environment and an investigation of the effectiveness of ice coating materials to mitigate adverse effects of ice formation on wind turbine structures. Firstly, a Zephir LiDAR system was acquired and installed at Woodlands School in Huron, Ohio, which is located near Lake Erie. Wind resource data were obtained at ten measurement heights, 200m, 150m, 100m, 80m, 60m, 40m, 38m, 30m, 20m, and 10m. The Woodlands School’s wind turbine anemometer also measured the wind speed at the hub height. These data were collected for approximately one year. The hub anemometer data correlated well with the LiDAR wind speed measurements at the same height. The data also showed that on several days different power levels were recorded by the turbine at the same wind speed as indicated by the hub anemometer. The corresponding LiDAR data showed that this difference can be attributed to variability in the wind over the turbine rotor swept area, which the hub anemometer could not detect. The observation suggests that single point hub wind velocity measurements are inadequate to accurately estimate the power generated by a turbine at all times since the hub wind speed is not a good indicator of the wind speed over the turbine rotor swept area when winds are changing rapidly. To assess the effectiveness of ice coatings to mitigate the impact of ice on turbine structures, a closed-loop icing research tunnel (IRT) was designed and constructed. By controlling the temperature, air speed, water content and liquid droplet size, the tunnel enabled consistent and repeatable ice accretion under a variety of conditions with temperatures between approximately 0°C and -20°C and wind speeds up to 40 miles per hour in the tunnel’s test section. The tunnel’s cooling unit maintained the tunnel temperature within ±0.2°C. The coatings evaluated in the study were Boyd Coatings Research Company’s CRC6040R3, MicroPhase Coatings Inc.’s PhaseBreak TP, ESL and Flex coatings. Similar overall performance was observed in all coatings tested in that water droplets form on the test articles beginning at the stagnation region and spreading in the downstream direction in time. When compari

  2. The Santa Ana Winds of Southern California in the context of Fire Weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    dry, sometimes hot, offshore winds directed from the Greatreported their fastest offshore winds around 1800 UTC 15California, the surface offshore winds weakened and the 700

  3. The Santa Ana Winds of Southern California in the context of Fire Weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    very dry, sometimes hot, offshore winds directed from thereported their fastest offshore winds around 1800 UTC 15California, the surface offshore winds weakened and the 700

  4. A Multispacecraft Analysis of a Small-Scale Transient Entrained by Solar Wind Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    panels show IMPACT observations of solar wind proton speed (Entrained by Solar Wind Streams Figure 8 PLASTIC and IMPACTIMPACT package, are used in the present study. Near-Earth solar wind

  5. Dust Detection by the Wave Instrument on STEREO: Nanoparticles Picked up by the Solar Wind?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    2007, Basics of the Solar Wind, Cambridge University Press,Picked up by the Solar Wind? N. Meyer-Vernet · M. Maksimovicof magnitude of the solar wind speed. Nanoparticles, which

  6. Power Control and Optimization of Photovoltaic and Wind Energy Conversion Systems /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghaffari, Azad

    2013-01-01

    Output power leveling of wind turbine generator for allpower map of Distributed Generators (DG), including Photo- voltaic (PV) and WindGenerator (IG) stator. Introduction A variable speed wind turbine generates power

  7. Power control of a wind farm with active stall wind turbines and AC grid connection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Power control of a wind farm with active stall wind turbines and AC grid connection Anca D. Hansen1 on the wind farm level. The ability of active stall wind farms with AC grid connection to regulate the power, is therefore directed towards optimising the integration of large wind farms within the electrical power grid

  8. Wind driven capillary-gravity waves on Titan's lakes: Hard to detect or non-existent?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Woodward

    to generating wind waves. Cassini observations thus far, however, show no indication of waves. We apply models for wind wave generation and detection to the Titan environment. Results sug- gest wind speed thresholds expected wind speeds and the conditions re- quired for wave generation on Titan and Earth. The physical

  9. Pitfalls of modeling wind power using Markov chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirtley, James L., Jr.

    An increased penetration of wind turbines have given rise to a need for wind speed/power models that generate realistic synthetic data. Such data, for example, might be used in simulations to size energy storage or spinning ...

  10. Collegiate Wind Competition Wind Tunnel Specifications | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Wind Tunnel Specifications Collegiate Wind Competition Wind Tunnel Specifications Collegiate Wind Competition Wind Tunnel Specifications Teams competing in the U.S. Department of...

  11. Wind resource assessment with a mesoscale non-hydrostatic model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Wind resource assessment with a mesoscale non- hydrostatic model Vincent Guénard, Center for Energy is developed for assessing the wind resource and its uncertainty. The work focuses on an existing wind farm mast measurements. The wind speed and turbulence fields are discussed. It is shown that the k

  12. Dynamic Simulation of DFIG Wind Turbines on FPGA Boards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zambreno, Joseph A.

    Dynamic Simulation of DFIG Wind Turbines on FPGA Boards Hao Chen, Student Member, IEEE, Song Sun is a friction coefficient. The wind turbine model is based on the relation between the upstream wind speed V w + 1 where p is the air density; Rw is the wind turbine radius; cp (A, (3) is the performance

  13. Nonlinear Control of a Wind Turbine Sven Creutz Thomsen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ratio P e [W ] ­ Power generated by generator P r [W ] ­ Mechanical power absorbed from the wind R r [mNonlinear Control of a Wind Turbine Sven Creutz Thomsen Kongens Lyngby 2006 #12; Technical describes analysis of various nonlinear control methods for controlling a wind turbine. High speed wind

  14. Ris National Laboratory Satellite SAR applied in offshore wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø National Laboratory Satellite SAR applied in offshore wind ressource mapping: possibilities is to quantify the regional offshore wind climate for wind energy application based on satellite SAR ·Study of 85SAR(m/s) Hasager, Dellwik, Nielsen and Furevik, 2004, Validation of ERS-2 SAR offshore wind-speed maps

  15. Wind Spires as an Alternative Energy Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majid Rashidi, Ph.D., P.E.

    2012-10-30

    This report discloses the design and development of an innovative wind tower system having an axisymmetric wind deflecting structure with a plurality of symmetrically mounted rooftop size wind turbines near the axisymmetric structure. The purpose of the wind deflecting structure is to increase the ambient wind speed that in turn results in an overall increase in the power capacity of the wind turbines. Two working prototypes were constructed and installed in the summer of 2009 and 2012 respectively. The system installed in the Summer of 2009 has a cylindrical wind deflecting structure, while the tower installed in 2012 has a spiral-shape wind deflecting structure. Each tower has 4 turbines, each rated at 1.65 KW Name-Plate-Rating. Before fabricating the full-size prototypes, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses and scaled-down table-top models were used to predict the performance of the full-scale models. The performance results obtained from the full-size prototypes validated the results obtained from the computational models and those of the scaled-down models. The second prototype (spiral configuration) showed at a wind speed of 11 miles per hour (4.9 m/s) the power output of the system could reach 1,288 watt, when a typical turbine installation, with no wind deflecting structure, could produce only 200 watt by the same turbines at the same wind speed. At a wind speed of 18 miles per hour (8 m/sec), the spiral prototype produces 6,143 watt, while the power generated by the same turbines would be 1,412 watt in the absence of a wind deflecting structure under the same wind speed. Four US patents were allowed, and are in print, as the results of this project (US 7,540,706, US 7,679,209, US 7,845,904, and US 8,002,516).

  16. Torque on an exoplanet from an anisotropic evaporative wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teyssandier, Jean; Adams, Fred C; Quillen, Alice C

    2015-01-01

    Winds from short-period Earth and Neptune mass exoplanets, driven by high energy radiation from a young star, may evaporate a significant fraction of a planet's mass. If the momentum flux from the evaporative wind is not aligned with the planet/star axis, then it can exert a torque on the planet's orbit. Using steady-state one-dimensional evaporative wind models we estimate this torque using a lag angle that depends on the product of the speed of the planet's upper atmosphere and a flow timescale for the wind to reach its sonic radius. We also estimate the momentum flux from time-dependent one-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. We find that only in a very narrow regime in planet radius, mass and stellar radiation flux is a wind capable of exerting a significant torque on the planet's orbit. Similar to the Yarkovsky effect, the wind causes the planet to drift outward if atmospheric circulation is prograde (super-rotating) and in the opposite direction if the circulation is retrograde. A close-in super Ear...

  17. Turbine Reliability and Operability Optimization through the use of Direct Detection Lidar Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, David K; Lewis, Matthew J; Pavlich, Jane C; Wright, Alan D; Johnson, Kathryn E; Pace, Andrew M

    2013-02-01

    The goal of this Department of Energy (DOE) project is to increase wind turbine efficiency and reliability with the use of a Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system. The LIDAR provides wind speed and direction data that can be used to help mitigate the fatigue stress on the turbine blades and internal components caused by wind gusts, sub-optimal pointing and reactionary speed or RPM changes. This effort will have a significant impact on the operation and maintenance costs of turbines across the industry. During the course of the project, Michigan Aerospace Corporation (MAC) modified and tested a prototype direct detection wind LIDAR instrument; the resulting LIDAR design considered all aspects of wind turbine LIDAR operation from mounting, assembly, and environmental operating conditions to laser safety. Additionally, in co-operation with our partners, the National Renewable Energy Lab and the Colorado School of Mines, progress was made in LIDAR performance modeling as well as LIDAR feed forward control system modeling and simulation. The results of this investigation showed that using LIDAR measurements to change between baseline and extreme event controllers in a switching architecture can reduce damage equivalent loads on blades and tower, and produce higher mean power output due to fewer overspeed events. This DOE project has led to continued venture capital investment and engagement with leading turbine OEMs, wind farm developers, and wind farm owner/operators.

  18. South Carolina Opens Nation's Largest Wind Drivetrain Testing...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the facility will help test and validate new turbines, particularly for offshore wind-helping to speed deployment of next generation energy technology, reduce costs for...

  19. South Carolina Opens Nation's Largest Wind Drivetrain Testing...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    South Carolina. The facility will help test and validate new turbines, particularly for offshore wind- helping to speed deployment of next generation energy technology,...

  20. Simulations of an offshore wind farm using large eddy simulation and a torque-controlled actuator disc model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Creech, Angus; Maguire, A Eoghan

    2014-01-01

    We present here a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of Lillgrund offshore wind farm, which is located in the {\\O}resund Strait between Sweden and Denmark. The simulation combines a dynamic representation of wind turbines embedded within a Large-Eddy Simulation CFD solver, and uses hr-adaptive meshing to increase or decrease mesh resolution where required. This allows the resolution of both large scale flow structures around the wind farm, and local flow conditions at individual turbines; consequently, the response of each turbine to local conditions can be modelled, as well as the resulting evolution of the turbine wakes. This paper provides a detailed description of the turbine model which simulates interactions between the wind, turbine rotors, and turbine generators by calculating the forces on the rotor, the body forces on the air, and instantaneous power output. This model was used to investigate a selection of key wind speeds and directions, investigating cases where a row of turbines would ...

  1. WIND ENERGY Wind Energ. (2014)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    , wind power has been expanding globally in recent years and it has become a dominant renewable energy the turbulent atmosphere and the wind turbine wake in order to optimize the design of the wind turbine as wellWIND ENERGY Wind Energ. (2014) Published online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary

  2. Effects of Temporal Wind Patterns on the Value of Wind-Generated Electricity in California and the Northwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan H

    2008-01-01

    value of re- newable electricity; and customer surveys ofCalifornia or Northwestern electricity demand. This may bebetween wind speed and electricity demand," Solar Energy,

  3. Fuel Effects on Combustion and Emissions of a Direct-Inection Diesel Engine Operating at Moderate to High Engine Speed and Load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL; Szymkowicz, Patrick G. [General Motors Corporation; Northrop, William F [General Motors Corporation

    2012-01-01

    It is advantageous to increase the specific power output of diesel engines and to operate them at higher load for a greater portion of a driving cycle to achieve better thermal efficiency and thus reduce vehicle fuel consumption. Such operation is limited by excessive smoke formation at retarded injection timing and high rates of cylinder pressure rise at more advanced timing. Given this window of operation, it is desired to understand the influence of fuel properties such that optimum combustion performance and emissions can be retained over the range of fuels commonly available in the marketplace. It has been shown in previous studies that varying cetane number (CN) of diesel fuel has little effect on ignition delay at high engine load due to the domination of high cylinder temperature on ignition kinetics. The work here experimentally confirms that finding but also shows that emissions and combustion performance vary according to fuel reactivity. Data are examined from a direct-injection single cylinder research engine for eight common diesel fuels including soy-based biodiesel blends at two high load operating points with no exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and at a moderate load with four levels of EGR. It is shown in the work that at high engine load where combustion is controlled by mixing processes, CN and other fuel properties have little effect on engine performance, although lower CN fuels produce a small increase in noise, smoke and CO emissions. Biodiesel blends increase NOX emissions and decreases CO and smoke emissions at high load, but otherwise have little effect on performance. At moderate load, higher CN fuels are more tolerant to EGR due to their better chemical reactivity at retarded injection timing, but all fuels produce comparable thermal efficiency at advanced combustion phasing regardless of EGR. In contrast to the high load conditions, there was no increase in NOX emissions for biodiesel at the moderate load condition. It is concluded that although higher CN does not significantly alter ignition delay at moderate to high loads it has a dominant influence on the acceptable injection timing range. Apart from CN effects, fuel oxygen content plays an independent role in reducing some emissions. It is therefore recommended that compensation for fuel ignitability and oxygen content be included in combustion control strategies to optimize emissions and performance of future diesel engines.

  4. wind energy

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    5%2A en Pantex to Become Wind Energy Research Center http:nnsa.energy.govfieldofficesnponpopressreleasespantex-become-wind-energy-research-center

  5. Measurement of turbulent wind velocities using a rotating boom apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandborn, V.A.; Connell, J.R.

    1984-04-01

    The present report covers both the development of a rotating-boom facility and the evaluation of the spectral energy of the turbulence measured relative to the rotating boom. The rotating boom is composed of a helicopter blade driven through a pulley speed reducer by a variable speed motor. The boom is mounted on a semiportable tower that can be raised to provide various ratios of hub height to rotor diameter. The boom can be mounted to rotate in either the vertical or horizontal plane. Probes that measure the three components of turbulence can be mounted at any location along the radius of the boom. Special hot-film sensors measured two components of the turbulence at a point directly in front of the rotating blade. By using the probe rotated 90/sup 0/ about its axis, the third turbulent velocity component was measured. Evaluation of the spectral energy distributions for the three components of velocity indicates a large concentration of energy at the rotational frequency. At frequencies slightly below the rotational frequency, the spectral energy is greatly reduced over that measured for the nonrotating case measurements. Peaks in the energy at frequencies that are multiples of the rotation frequency were also observed. We conclude that the rotating boom apparatus is suitable and ready to be used in experiments for developing and testing sensors for rotational measurement of wind velocity from wind turbine rotors. It also can be used to accurately measure turbulent wind for testing theories of rotationally sampled wind velocity.

  6. 756 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, VOL. 4, NO. 3, JULY 2013 Minimization of Wind Farm Operational

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    turbines installed at a wind farm. Wind turbine index. Grid demand at time . Power generated by wind turbine at time . Expected power generated by wind turbine at time window . Average wind speed at time price at time . Power shortage (demand minus generated wind power) at time . Levelized unit operations

  7. Wind/Hybrid Electricity Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDaniel, Lori

    2001-03-31

    Wind energy is widely recognized as the most efficient and cost effective form of new renewable energy available in the Midwest. New utility-scale wind farms (arrays of large turbines in high wind areas producing sufficient energy to serve thousands of homes) rival the cost of building new conventional forms of combustion energy plants, gas, diesel and coal power plants. Wind energy is not subject to the inflationary cost of fossil fuels. Wind energy can also be very attractive to residential and commercial electric customers in high wind areas who would like to be more self-sufficient for their energy needs. And wind energy is friendly to the environment at a time when there is increasing concern about pollution and climate change. However, wind energy is an intermittent source of power. Most wind turbines start producing small amounts of electricity at about 8-10 mph (4 meters per second) of wind speed. The turbine does not reach its rated output until the wind reaches about 26-28 mph (12 m/s). So what do you do for power when the output of the wind turbine is not sufficient to meet the demand for energy? This paper will discuss wind hybrid technology options that mix wind with other power sources and storage devices to help solve this problem. This will be done on a variety of scales on the impact of wind energy on the utility system as a whole, and on the commercial and small-scale residential applications. The average cost and cost-benefit of each application along with references to manufacturers will be given. Emerging technologies that promise to shape the future of renewable energy will be explored as well.

  8. Field Wind Tunnel Assessment of the Potential for Wind Transport of Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lancaster, Nicholas [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Metzger, Steve [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2005-02-01

    This report documents a series of field experiments carried out in the Double Tracks area of the Tonopah Test Range in June, July, and August 1996 and March and July 1997. The aim of the experiments was to: (1) determine the wind speeds necessary to entrain surface particles from excavated surfaces in the study area and (2) determine dust emissions from surfaces that had been stabilized permanently by planted natural vegetation. This investigation assessed the potential for wind transport of surface soils, including resuspension and emission of dust sized particles from areas of surface heavy metal contamination, following site remediation, as well as the actual emissions from these areas. The remediation site is located in Area 73 of the Tonopah Test Range. The goal of the field experiments was to measure the velocities with which boundary layer winds might initiate dust emissions from the affected site, and to gage the effectiveness of surface stabilization procedures to prevent such emissions. Particle movement measurements were generated through the use of a portable wind tunnel laid directly on the excavated surface.

  9. Systems Performance Analyses of Alaska Wind-Diesel Projects; Selawik, Alaska (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2009-04-01

    This fact sheet summarizes a systems performance analysis of the wind-diesel project in Selawik, Alaska. Data provided for this project include community load data, wind turbine output, diesel plant output, thermal load data, average wind speed, average net capacity factor, optimal net capacity factor based on Alaska Energy Authority wind data, average net wind penetration, and estimated fuel savings.

  10. Systems Performance Analyses of Alaska Wind-Diesel Projects; Kotzebue, Alaska (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2009-04-01

    This fact sheet summarizes a systems performance analysis of the wind-diesel project in Kotzebue, Alaska. Data provided for this project include wind turbine output, average wind speed, average net capacity factor, and optimal net capacity factor based on Alaska Energy Authority wind data, estimated fuel savings, and wind system availability.

  11. On the study of wind energy at great heights using remote sensing techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    On the study of wind energy at great heights using remote sensing techniques Alfredo Pe~na1 for a wind assessment campaign on the transformer/platform of Horns Rev, the world's largest offshore wind masts surrounding the wind farm. LiDAR and SoDAR observations of mean wind speed agree for the first

  12. Prediction, operations, and condition monitoring in wind energy Andrew Kusiak a,*, Zijun Zhang b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    Review Prediction, operations, and condition monitoring in wind energy Andrew Kusiak a,*, Zijun 2013 Available online 23 August 2013 Keywords: Wind energy Wind speed prediction Wind turbine control Condition monitoring and fault detection a b s t r a c t Recent developments in wind energy research

  13. Impact of DFIG wind turbines on transient stability of power systems a review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Impact of DFIG wind turbines on transient stability of power systems ­ a review Authors Na Abstract of wind farms are using variable speed wind turbines equipped with doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG) due to their advantages over other wind turbine generators. Therefore, the analysis of wind power

  14. Abstract--This paper addresses the problem of controlling wind energy conversion systems (WECS) which involve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Abstract-- This paper addresses the problem of controlling wind energy conversion systems (WECS-inverter. The goal of control is to maximize wind energy extraction and this needs letting the wind turbine rotor wind energy extraction) only for one wind speed value depending on the considered value of turbine

  15. RAIN AND WIND ESTIMATION FROM SEAWINDS IN HURRICANES AT ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    RAIN AND WIND ESTIMATION FROM SEAWINDS IN HURRICANES AT ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION Brent A. Williams method for estimating wind and rain in hurricanes from SeaWinds at ultra-high resolution is developed. We use a hurricane model to generate prior distributions for the wind speed, wind di- rection, and rain

  16. Illinois Wind Workers Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David G. Loomis

    2012-05-28

    The Illinois Wind Working Group (IWWG) was founded in 2006 with about 15 members. It has grown to over 200 members today representing all aspects of the wind industry across the State of Illinois. In 2008, the IWWG developed a strategic plan to give direction to the group and its activities. The strategic plan identifies ways to address critical market barriers to the further penetration of wind. The key to addressing these market barriers is public education and outreach. Since Illinois has a restructured electricity market, utilities no longer have a strong control over the addition of new capacity within the state. Instead, market acceptance depends on willing landowners to lease land and willing county officials to site wind farms. Many times these groups are uninformed about the benefits of wind energy and unfamiliar with the process. Therefore, many of the project objectives focus on conferences, forum, databases and research that will allow these stakeholders to make well-educated decisions.

  17. The solar wind in the outer heliosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John D.

    The solar wind evolves as it moves outward due to interactions with both itself and with the circum-heliospheric interstellar medium. The speed is, on average, constant out to 30 AU, then starts a slow decrease due to the ...

  18. Dual power, constant speed electric motor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirschbaum, Herbert S. (Asheville, NC)

    1984-01-01

    A dual capacity permanent split capacitor electric motor system is provided with a stator having main and auxiliary windings. The main stator winding includes two winding sections which are connected in parallel with each other and across a pair of line terminals while the auxiliary winding is connected in series with a capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals for operation at a first output power level. Switching means are provided to reconnect the main stator winding sections in series with each other and in series with a second capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals while the stator auxiliary winding is connected directly between the line terminals for operation at a second output power level. Automatic rotation reversal occurs when the motor switches from the first to the second output power level.

  19. Dual power, constant speed electric motor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirschbaum, H.S.

    1984-07-31

    A dual capacity permanent split capacitor electric motor system is provided with a stator having main and auxiliary windings. The main stator winding includes two winding sections which are connected in parallel with each other and across a pair of line terminals while the auxiliary winding is connected in series with a capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals for operation at a first output power level. Switching means are provided to reconnect the main stator winding sections in series with each other and in series with a second capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals while the stator auxiliary winding is connected directly between the line terminals for operation at a second output power level. Automatic rotation reversal occurs when the motor switches from the first to the second output power level. 6 figs.

  20. Wind extremes in the North Sea Basin under climate change: An ensemble study of 12 CMIP5 GCMs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    Wind extremes in the North Sea Basin under climate change: An ensemble study of 12 CMIP5 GCMs R. C levels and waves are generated by low atmospheric pressure and severe wind speeds during storm events. As a result of the geometry of the North Sea, not only the maximum wind speed is relevant, but also wind

  1. ACOUSTIC STUDY OF THE UD / GAMESA WIND TURBINE PROJECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    /s). Maximum sound power is first produced by the wind turbine at the design wind speed. The study at or above 4.2 m/s) and 108.4 dBA for the design wind condition (hub height winds at or above 9.7 m average sound levels are in the range of 34 to 56 dBA. · The maximum wind turbine sound level under design

  2. Effectiveness of speed trailers on low-speed urban roadways 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perrillo, Kerry Victoria

    1997-01-01

    Efforts are being made to use speed management methods to match operating speeds to posted speeds and to reduce the variability in vehicle speeds. The effectiveness of many different methods of speed management has not been documented. This thesis...

  3. Understanding Inertial and Frequency Response of Wind Power Plants: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.; Singh, M.; Santoso, S.

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze and quantify the inertia and frequency responses of wind power plants with different wind turbine technologies (particularly those of fixed speed, variable slip with rotor-resistance controls, and variable speed with vector controls).

  4. Response of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine to Time Varying Wind Conditions found within the Urban

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullis, Stephen

    Response of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine to Time Varying Wind Conditions found within the Urban, 2010 PP 389­401 389 ABSTRACT Experimental testing of a vertical axis wind turbine within the urban of the turbine. Temporal variation of the wind with respect to the direction and velocity fluctuations

  5. Previous Wind Power Announcements (generation/wind)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines ThisHENPDepartment'sPrestonPreviousMembers | HomeWind

  6. ISU Wind Energy Laboratory Nicholas David

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    , Dynamometers, Power Electronics Blades, Gearboxes, Structures Sensors & Actuators Design and Analysis Tools Speed Aerodynamics M2I lab - Design and Fabrication Industrial & Manufacturing Systems Engineering: Wind & Characterization U.S. Dept. of Energy - 3D Metals Printing ISU Power Plant - 100 kW Wind Turbine N. David & J. Mc

  7. Method and apparatus for reducing rotor blade deflections, loads, and/or peak rotational speed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw; Pierce, Kirk Gee

    2006-10-17

    A method for reducing at least one of loads, deflections of rotor blades, or peak rotational speed of a wind turbine includes storing recent historical pitch related data, wind related data, or both. The stored recent historical data is analyzed to determine at least one of whether rapid pitching is occurring or whether wind speed decreases are occurring. A minimum pitch, a pitch rate limit, or both are imposed on pitch angle controls of the rotor blades conditioned upon results of the analysis.

  8. Wind Farm

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The wind farm in Greensburg, Kansas, was completed in spring 2010, and consists of ten 1.25 megawatt (MW) wind turbines that supply enough electricity to power every house, business, and municipal...

  9. Rotationally sampled wind characteristics and correlations with MOD-OA wind turbine response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, R.L.; Connell, J.R.

    1984-09-01

    This report presents results of a comprehensive wind and wind turbine measurement program: the Clayton, New Mexico, vertical plane array/MOD-OA project. In this experiment, the turbulent wind was measured for a large array of fixed anemometers located two blade diameters upwind of a 200-kW horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT). Simultaneously, key wind turbine response parameters were also measured. The first of two major objectives of this experiment was to determine the turbulent wind, rotationally sampled to emulate the motion of the wind turbine blade, for the range of different wind speeds and stability classes actually experienced by the wind turbine. The second major objective was to correlate this rotationally sampled wind with the wind turbine blade stress and power, in order to assess the usefulness of the wind measurements for wind turbine loads testing a prediction. Time series of rotationally sampled winds and wind turbine blade bending moments and power were converted to frequency spectra using Fourier transform techniques. These spectra were used as the basis for both qualitative and quantitative comparisons among the various cases. A quantitative comparison between the rotationally sampled wind input and blade bending response was made, using the Fourier spectra to estimate the blade transfer function. These transfer functions were then used to calculate an approximate damping coefficient for the MOD-OA fiberglass blade.

  10. Dynamic control of wind turbines Andrew Kusiak*, Wenyan Li, Zhe Song

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    . It is known that smoothing the turbine power output is important in its integration with the electricity grid on wind turbine control have focused on maxi- mizing power [2,4,15,17,18,27] for wind speed in the range torque so that the rotor speed producing the optimum power coefficient is attained. The wind power

  11. Session: Poster Session + Poster Award + Scientific Award + Excellent young wind doctor award (PO.139) Track: Technical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Session: Poster Session + Poster Award + Scientific Award + Excellent young wind doctor award (PO.139) Track: Technical VARIABLE SPEED WIND TURBINES ­ FAULT RIDE-THROUGH AND GRID SUPPORT CAPABILITIES is on the fault ride through and grid support capability of variable speed wind turbines. The paper focuses

  12. Quantifying Errors Associated with Satellite Sampling of Offshore Wind S.C. Pryor1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Quantifying Errors Associated with Satellite Sampling of Offshore Wind Speeds S.C. Pryor1,2 , R, Bloomington, IN47405, USA. Tel: 1-812-855-5155. Fax: 1-812-855-1661 Email: spryor@indiana.edu 2 Dept. of Wind an attractive proposition for measuring wind speeds over the oceans because in principle they also offer

  13. Discrepancies in the Prediction of Solar Wind using Potential Field Source Surface Model: An

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Xuepu

    Discrepancies in the Prediction of Solar Wind using Potential Field Source Surface Model. This inverse relation has been made use of in the prediction of solar wind speed at 1 AU using a potential between the magnetic flux tube expansion factor (FTE) at the source surface and the solar wind speed

  14. Performance of a stand-alone wind-electric ice maker for remote villages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, H.C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Brandemuehl, M.J. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Joint Center for Energy Management; Bergey, M.L.S. [Bergey Windpower Co., Norman, OK (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Two ice makers in the 1.1 metric tons per 24 hours (1.2 tons per day) size range were tested to determine their performance when directly coupled to a variable-frequency wind turbine generator. Initial tests were conducted using a dynamometer to simulate to wind to evaluate whether previously determined potential problems were significant and to define basic performance parameters. Field testing in Norman, Oklahoma, was completed to determine the performance of one of the ice makers under real wind conditions. As expected, the ice makers produced more ice at a higher speed than rated, and less ice at a lower speed. Due to the large start-up torque requirement of reciprocating compressors, the ice making system experienced a large start-up current and corresponding voltage drop which required a larger wind turbine that expected to provide the necessary current and voltage. Performance curves for ice production and power consumption are presented. A spreadsheet model was constructed to predict ice production at a user-defined site given the wind conditions for that location. Future work should include long-term performance tests and research on reducing the large start-up currents the system experiences when first coming on line.

  15. Hurricane Katrina Wind Investigation Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desjarlais, A. O.

    2007-08-15

    This investigation of roof damage caused by Hurricane Katrina is a joint effort of the Roofing Industry Committee on Weather Issues, Inc. (RICOWI) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory/U.S. Department of Energy (ORNL/DOE). The Wind Investigation Program (WIP) was initiated in 1996. Hurricane damage that met the criteria of a major windstorm event did not materialize until Hurricanes Charley and Ivan occurred in August 2004. Hurricane Katrina presented a third opportunity for a wind damage investigation in August 29, 2005. The major objectives of the WIP are as follows: (1) to investigate the field performance of roofing assemblies after major wind events; (2) to factually describe roofing assembly performance and modes of failure; and (3) to formally report results of the investigations and damage modes for substantial wind speeds The goal of the WIP is to perform unbiased, detailed investigations by credible personnel from the roofing industry, the insurance industry, and academia. Data from these investigations will, it is hoped, lead to overall improvement in roofing products, systems, roofing application, and durability and a reduction in losses, which may lead to lower overall costs to the public. This report documents the results of an extensive and well-planned investigative effort. The following program changes were implemented as a result of the lessons learned during the Hurricane Charley and Ivan investigations: (1) A logistics team was deployed to damage areas immediately following landfall; (2) Aerial surveillance--imperative to target wind damage areas--was conducted; (3) Investigation teams were in place within 8 days; (4) Teams collected more detailed data; and (5) Teams took improved photographs and completed more detailed photo logs. Participating associations reviewed the results and lessons learned from the previous investigations and many have taken the following actions: (1) Moved forward with recommendations for new installation procedures; (2) Updated and improved application guidelines and manuals from associations and manufacturers; (3) Launched certified product installer programs; and (4) Submitted building code changes to improve product installation. Estimated wind speeds at the damage locations came from simulated hurricane models prepared by Applied Research Associates of Raleigh, North Carolina. A dynamic hurricane wind field model was calibrated to actual wind speeds measured at 12 inland and offshore stations. The maximum estimated peak gust wind speeds in Katrina were in the 120-130 mph range. Hurricane Katrina made landfall near Grand Isle, Louisiana, and traveled almost due north across the city of New Orleans. Hurricane winds hammered the coastline from Houma, Louisiana, to Pensacola, Florida. The severe flooding problems in New Orleans made it almost impossible for the investigating teams to function inside the city. Thus the WIP investigations were all conducted in areas east of the city. The six teams covered the coastal areas from Bay Saint Louis, Mississippi, on the west to Pascagoula, Mississippi, on the east. Six teams involving a total of 25 persons documented damage to both low slope and steep slope roofing systems. The teams collected specific information on each building examined, including type of structure (use or occupancy), wall construction, roof type, roof slope, building dimensions, roof deck, insulation, construction, and method of roof attachment. In addition, the teams noted terrain exposure and the estimated wind speeds at the building site from the Katrina wind speed map. With each team member assigned a specific duty, they described the damage in detail and illustrated important features with numerous color photos. Where possible, the points of damage initiation were identified and damage propagation described. Because the wind speeds in Katrina at landfall, where the investigations took place, were less than code-specified design speeds, one would expect roof damage to be minimal. One team speculated that damage to all roofs in the area they examined was les

  16. Grid Operation and Coordination with Wind -2 1.0 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) states in [2], "As a minimum, the Balancing Authority or Reserve), will generally differ from the wind speed for turbine k at time t2, vk(t2), where t2>t1. For fixed speed machines, because the mechanical power into a turbine depends on the wind speed, and because electric power out

  17. Dynamic Response of Large Wind Power Plant Affected by Diverse Conditions at Individual Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Lu, Shuai; Lin, Guang; Wang, Shaobu

    2014-07-31

    Diverse operating conditions at individual wind turbine generators (WTG) within wind power plants (WPPs) can affect the WPP dynamic response to system faults. For example, individual WTGs can experience diverse terminal voltage and power output caused by different wind direction and speed, affecting the response of protection and control limiters. In this paper, we present a study to investigate the dynamic response of a detailed WPP model under diverse power outputs of its individual WTGs. Wake effect is considered as the reason for diverse power outputs. The diverse WTG power output is evaluated in a test system where a large 168-machine test WPP is connected to the IEEE-39-bus system. The power output from each WTG is derived from a wake effect model that uses realistic statistical data for incoming wind speed and direction. The results show that diverse WTG output due to wake effect can affect the WPP dynamic response activating specialized control in some turbines. In addition, transient stability is affected by exhibiting uncertainty in critical clearing time calculation.

  18. Effects of Changing Atmospheric Conditions on Wind Turbine Performance (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifton, A.

    2012-12-01

    Multi-megawatt, utility-scale wind turbines operate in turbulent and dynamic winds that impact turbine performance in ways that are gradually becoming better understood. This poster presents a study made using a turbulent flow field simulator (TurbSim) and a Turbine aeroelastic simulator (FAST) of the response of a generic 1.5 MW wind turbine to changing inflow. The turbine power output is found to be most sensitive to wind speed and turbulence intensity, but the relationship depends on the wind speed with respect to the turbine's rated wind speed. Shear is found to be poorly correlated to power. A machine learning method called 'regression trees' is used to create a simple model of turbine performance that could be used as part of the wind resource assessment process. This study has used simple flow fields and should be extended to more complex flows, and validated with field observations.

  19. Fast Verification of Wind Turbine Power Summary of Project Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fast Verification of Wind Turbine Power Curves: Summary of Project Results by: Cameron Brown ­ s in the FastWind project. Several methods of estimating the power curve uncertainty were developed, it was found to be sensitive to the coherence of high frequency wind speed and power measurements

  20. Maximum power tracking control scheme for wind generator systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mena Lopez, Hugo Eduardo

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of this work is to develop a maximum power tracking control strategy for variable speed wind turbine systems. Modern wind turbine control systems are slow, and they depend on the design parameters of the turbine and use wind and/or rotor...

  1. Model Predictive Control of a Wind Aleksander Gosk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are aiming for maximizing the produced electric power for some range of wind speeds and keeping it constant. This work focuses on one of the most common wind energy conversion systems: horizontal axis wind turbine It's efficiency and longevity relies heavily on the quality of the control approach used. Controller designers

  2. Cambridge Danehy Park Wind Turbine Preliminary Project Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge Danehy Park Wind Turbine Preliminary Project Assessment Overview MIT Wind Energy Projects Impact Community Impact Financial Analysis Turbine Evaluation Set For the full report, please visit: http 4 / 25 2.5 / 25 Rated Wind Speed (m/s) 13 10 14.5 ~15 12 The above turbines were chosen to provide

  3. The Solar Wind, CMEs and the Origins of Heliospheric Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    release o Coronal holes o Source of high-speed solar wind #12;peter.gallagher@tcd.ie #12;#12;peter Parker => Parker Spiral: r - r0 = -(v/ )( - 0) o Winding angle: o Inclined at ~45º at 1 AU and ~90º by 10The Solar Wind, CMEs and the Origins of Heliospheric Activity Peter T. Gallagher School of Physics

  4. Large fully retractable telescope enclosures still closable in strong wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutten, Rob

    are too small to deteriorate the image in normal observing situations with wind speeds up to 20 mLarge fully retractable telescope enclosures still closable in strong wind Felix C.M. Bettonvil a the telescopes are in operation. The telescopes and enclosures also operate in hard wind. The prototypes

  5. Taming Hurricanes With Arrays of Offshore Wind Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Taming Hurricanes With Arrays of Offshore Wind Turbines Mark Z. Jacobson Cristina Archer, Willet #12;Representation of a vertically-resolved wind turbine in model Lines are model layers) or 50 m/s (destruction) speed. Can Walls of Offshore Wind Turbines Dissipate Hurricanes? #12;Katrina

  6. WREF 2012: THE PAST AND FUTURE COST OF WIND ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Low Wind Speed Turbines and Implications for Cost of EnergyCOST OF WIND ENERGY by as much as 270% when comparing today’s turbinescosts observed in most markets from 2004 and 2009 has been largely tied to increases in the price of wind turbines [

  7. Nonlinear Control of a Wind Turbine Sven Creutz Thomsen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    generated by generator Pr [W] - Mechanical power absorbed from the wind Rr [m] - Radius of rotors Tg [Nm to generator Tsr [Nm] - Generator torque transfered to rotor v [m/s] - Effective wind speed vf [mNonlinear Control of a Wind Turbine Sven Creutz Thomsen Kongens Lyngby 2006 #12;Technical

  8. Maximum power tracking control scheme for wind generator systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mena Lopez, Hugo Eduardo

    2008-10-10

    The purpose of this work is to develop a maximum power tracking control strategy for variable speed wind turbine systems. Modern wind turbine control systems are slow, and they depend on the design parameters of the turbine and use wind and/or rotor...

  9. Simultaneous Wind and Rain Retrieval for ERS Scatterometer Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    Simultaneous Wind and Rain Retrieval for ERS Scatterometer Measurements Congling Nie and David G on the ESCAT wind-only retrieval has been evaluated. For high incidence angle measurements, the additional scattering of rain causes estimated wind speeds to appear higher than expected. It is also noted

  10. Wind turbine with automatic pitch and yaw control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin Chapin (Glastonbury, CT); Spierings, Petrus A. M. (Middletown, CT)

    1978-01-01

    A wind turbine having a flexible central beam member supporting aerodynamic blades at opposite ends thereof and fabricated of uni-directional high tensile strength material bonded together into beam form so that the beam is lightweight, and has high tensile strength to carry the blade centrifugal loads, low shear modulus to permit torsional twisting thereof for turbine speed control purposes, and adequate bending stiffness to permit out-of-plane deflection thereof for turbine yard control purposes. A selectively off-set weighted pendulum member is pivotally connected to the turbine and connected to the beam or blade so as to cause torsional twisting thereof in response to centrifugal loading of the pendulum member for turbine speed control purposes.

  11. Stochastic model for indirect estimation of instantaneous and cumulative loads in wind turbines: a systematic approach for off-shore wind farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peinke, Joachim

    Stochastic model for indirect estimation of instantaneous and cumulative loads in wind turbines present our recent findings for estimating instantaneous and cumulative loads in singles wind turbines at single wind turbines, driven by wind speed measurements. Through a standard fatigue analysis of data

  12. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (2004), 130, pp. 120 Using mesocale model winds for correcting wind-drift errors in radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reading, University of

    2004-01-01

    itself moving horizontally with the speed of the wind at the height of the generating level. More recenQ. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (2004), 130, pp. 1­20 Using mesocale model winds for correcting wind are inferred from measurements made in the snow and ice. Snow and ice are more susceptible to wind-drift than

  13. Performance Indicators of Wind Energy Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Amico, G; Prattico, F

    2015-01-01

    Modeling wind speed is one of the key element when dealing with the production of energy through wind turbines. A good model can be used for forecasting, site evaluation, turbines design and many other purposes. In this work we are interested in the analysis of the future financial cash flows generated by selling the electrical energy produced. We apply an indexed semi-Markov model of wind speed that has been shown, in previous investigation, to reproduce accurately the statistical behavior of wind speed. The model is applied to the evaluation of financial indicators like the Internal Rate of Return, semi-Elasticity and relative Convexity that are widely used for the assessment of the profitability of an investment and for the measurement and analysis of interest rate risk. We compare the computation of these indicators for real and synthetic data. Moreover, we propose a new indicator that can be used to compare the degree of utilization of different power plants.

  14. PowerJet Wind Turbine Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartlett, Raymond J

    2008-11-30

    PROJECT OBJECTIVE The PowerJet wind turbine overcomes problems characteristic of the small wind turbines that are on the market today by providing reliable output at a wide range of wind speeds, durability, silent operation at all wind speeds, and bird-safe operation. Prime Energy�s objective for this project was to design and integrate a generator with an electrical controller and mechanical controls to maximize the generation of electricity by its wind turbine. The scope of this project was to design, construct and test a mechanical back plate to control rotational speed in high winds, and an electronic controller to maximize power output and to assist the base plate in controlling rotational speed in high winds. The test model will continue to operate beyond the time frame of the project, with the ultimate goal of manufacturing and marketing the PowerJet worldwide. Increased Understanding of Electronic & Mechanical Controls Integrated With Electricity Generator The PowerJet back plate begins to open as wind speed exceeds 13.5 mps. The pressure inside the turbine and the turbine rotational speed are held constant. Once the back plate has fully opened at approximately 29 mps, the controller begins pulsing back to the generator to limit the rotational speed of the turbine. At a wind speed in excess of 29 mps, the controller shorts the generator and brings the turbine to a complete stop. As the wind speed subsides, the controller releases the turbine and it resumes producing electricity. Data collection and instrumentation problems prevented identification of the exact speeds at which these events occur. However, the turbine, controller and generator survived winds in excess of 36 mps, confirming that the two over-speed controls accomplished their purpose. Technical Effectiveness & Economic Feasibility Maximum Electrical Output The output of electricity is maximized by the integration of an electronic controller and mechanical over-speed controls designed and tested during the course of this project. The output exceeds that of the PowerJet�s 3-bladed counterparts (see Appendix). Durability All components of the PowerJet turbine assembly�including the electronic and mechanical controls designed, manufactured and field tested during the course of this project�proved to be durable through severe weather conditions, with constant operation and no interruption in energy production. Low Cost Materials for the turbine, generator, tower, charge controllers and ancillary parts are available at reasonable prices. Fabrication of these parts is also readily available worldwide. The cost of assembling and installing the turbine is reduced because it has fewer parts and requires less labor to manufacture and assemble, making it competitively priced compared with turbines of similar output manufactured in the U.S. and Europe. The electronic controller is the unique part to be included in the turbine package. The controllers can be manufactured in reasonably-sized production runs to keep the cost below $250 each. The data logger and 24 sensors are for research only and will be unnecessary for the commercial product. Benefit To Public The PowerJet wind-electric system is designed for distributed wind generation in 3 and 4 class winds. This wind turbine meets DOE�s requirements for a quiet, durable, bird-safe turbine that eventually can be deployed as a grid-connected generator in urban and suburban settings. Results As described more fully below and illustrated in the Appendices, the goals and objectives outlined in 2060 SOPO were fully met. Electronic and mechanical controls were successfully designed, manufactured and integrated with the generator. The turbine, tower, controllers and generators operated without incident throughout the test period, surviving severe winter and summer weather conditions such as extreme temperatures, ice and sustained high winds. The electronic controls were contained in weather-proof electrical boxes and the elec

  15. Wind Siting Rules and Model Small Wind Ordinance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In September 2009, the Governor of Wisconsin signed S.B. 185 (Act 40) directing the Wisconsin Public Service Commission (PSC) to establish statewide wind energy siting rules. PSC Docket 1-AC-231...

  16. Final Technical Report Recovery Act: Online Nonintrusive Condition Monitoring and Fault Detection for Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei Qiao

    2012-05-29

    The penetration of wind power has increased greatly over the last decade in the United States and across the world. The U.S. wind power industry installed 1,118 MW of new capacity in the first quarter of 2011 alone and entered the second quarter with another 5,600 MW under construction. By 2030, wind energy is expected to provide 20% of the U.S. electricity needs. As the number of wind turbines continues to grow, the need for effective condition monitoring and fault detection (CMFD) systems becomes increasingly important [3]. Online CMFD is an effective means of not only improving the reliability, capacity factor, and lifetime, but it also reduces the downtime, energy loss, and operation and maintenance (O&M) of wind turbines. The goal of this project is to develop novel online nonintrusive CMFD technologies for wind turbines. The proposed technologies use only the current measurements that have been used by the control and protection system of a wind turbine generator (WTG); no additional sensors or data acquisition devices are needed. Current signals are reliable and easily accessible from the ground without intruding on the wind turbine generators (WTGs) that are situated on high towers and installed in remote areas. Therefore, current-based CMFD techniques have great economic benefits and the potential to be adopted by the wind energy industry. Specifically, the following objectives and results have been achieved in this project: (1) Analyzed the effects of faults in a WTG on the generator currents of the WTG operating at variable rotating speed conditions from the perspective of amplitude and frequency modulations of the current measurements; (2) Developed effective amplitude and frequency demodulation methods for appropriate signal conditioning of the current measurements to improve the accuracy and reliability of wind turbine CMFD; (3) Developed a 1P-invariant power spectrum density (PSD) method for effective signature extraction of wind turbine faults with characteristic frequencies in the current or current demodulated signals, where 1P stands for the shaft rotating frequency of a WTG; (4) Developed a wavelet filter for effective signature extraction of wind turbine faults without characteristic frequencies in the current or current demodulated signals; (5) Developed an effective adaptive noise cancellation method as an alternative to the wavelet filter method for signature extraction of wind turbine faults without characteristic frequencies in the current or current demodulated signals; (6) Developed a statistical analysis-based impulse detection method for effective fault signature extraction and evaluation of WTGs based on the 1P-invariant PSD of the current or current demodulated signals; (7) Validated the proposed current-based wind turbine CMFD technologies through extensive computer simulations and experiments for small direct-drive WTGs without gearboxes; and (8) Showed, through extensive experiments for small direct-drive WTGs, that the performance of the proposed current-based wind turbine CMFD technologies is comparable to traditional vibration-based methods. The proposed technologies have been successfully applied for detection of major failures in blades, shafts, bearings, and generators of small direct-drive WTGs. The proposed technologies can be easily integrated into existing wind turbine control, protection, and monitoring systems and can be implemented remotely from the wind turbines being monitored. The proposed technologies provide an alternative to vibration-sensor-based CMFD. This will reduce the cost and hardware complexity of wind turbine CMFD systems. The proposed technologies can also be combined with vibration-sensor-based methods to improve the accuracy and reliability of wind turbine CMFD systems. When there are problems with sensors, the proposed technologies will ensure proper CMFD for the wind turbines, including their sensing systems. In conclusion, the proposed technologies offer an effective means to achieve condition-based smart maintenance for wind turbines and have a gre

  17. Speed control system for an access gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-03-20

    An access control apparatus for an access gate. The access gate typically has a rotator that is configured to rotate around a rotator axis at a first variable speed in a forward direction. The access control apparatus may include a transmission that typically has an input element that is operatively connected to the rotator. The input element is generally configured to rotate at an input speed that is proportional to the first variable speed. The transmission typically also has an output element that has an output speed that is higher than the input speed. The input element and the output element may rotate around a common transmission axis. A retardation mechanism may be employed. The retardation mechanism is typically configured to rotate around a retardation mechanism axis. Generally the retardation mechanism is operatively connected to the output element of the transmission and is configured to retard motion of the access gate in the forward direction when the first variable speed is above a control-limit speed. In many embodiments the transmission axis and the retardation mechanism axis are substantially co-axial. Some embodiments include a freewheel/catch mechanism that has an input connection that is operatively connected to the rotator. The input connection may be configured to engage an output connection when the rotator is rotated at the first variable speed in a forward direction and configured for substantially unrestricted rotation when the rotator is rotated in a reverse direction opposite the forward direction. The input element of the transmission is typically operatively connected to the output connection of the freewheel/catch mechanism.

  18. A cyclic time-dependent Markov process to model daily patterns in wind turbine power production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scholz, Teresa; Estanqueiro, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Wind energy is becoming a top contributor to the renewable energy mix, which raises potential reliability issues for the grid due to the fluctuating nature of its source. To achieve adequate reserve commitment and to promote market participation, it is necessary to provide models that can capture daily patterns in wind power production. This paper presents a cyclic inhomogeneous Markov process, which is based on a three-dimensional state-space (wind power, speed and direction). Each time-dependent transition probability is expressed as a Bernstein polynomial. The model parameters are estimated by solving a constrained optimization problem: The objective function combines two maximum likelihood estimators, one to ensure that the Markov process long-term behavior reproduces the data accurately and another to capture daily fluctuations. A convex formulation for the overall optimization problem is presented and its applicability demonstrated through the analysis of a case-study. The proposed model is capable of r...

  19. 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, R.; Bolinger, M.

    2015-08-01

    According to the 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report, total installed wind power capacity in the United States grew at a rate of eight percent in 2014, bringing the United States total installed capacity to nearly 66 gigawatts (GW), which ranks second in the world and meets 4.9 percent of U.S. end-use electricity demand in an average year. In total, 4,854 MW of new wind energy capacity were installed in the United States in 2014. The 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report also finds that wind energy prices are at an all-time low and are competitive with wholesale power prices and traditional power sources across many areas of the United States. Additionally, a new trend identified by the 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report shows utility-scale turbines with larger rotors designed for lower wind speeds have been increasingly deployed across the country in 2014. The findings also suggest that the success of the U.S. wind industry has had a ripple effect on the American economy, supporting 73,000 jobs related to development, siting, manufacturing, transportation, and other industries.

  20. ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS FUNDED BY THE DOE SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, J.

    2009-01-01

    Annual Charac- Power Estimates for Wind Turbine Generators,Economy, Power Estimates for Wind Turbine Generators,wind speed, enough power is available to increase torque sufficiently to overcome internal losses in the generator

  1. Wind Power Forecasting Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operations Call 2012 Retrospective Reports 2012 Retrospective Reports 2011 Smart Grid Wind Integration Wind Integration Initiatives Wind Power Forecasting Wind Projects Email...

  2. Idaho_Wind_Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Site Bryans Run Cell Tower Site Wilson Peak Eckert Site Loertscher Boise State's Wind Data Link Wind Power Idaho Wind Data See also: Idaho Energy Resources - Wind, American...

  3. Definition of a 5-MW Reference Wind Turbine for Offshore System Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonkman, J.; Butterfield, S.; Musial, W.; Scott, G.

    2009-02-01

    This report describes a three-bladed, upwind, variable-speed, variable blade-pitch-to-feather-controlled multimegawatt wind turbine model developed by NREL to support concept studies aimed at assessing offshore wind technology.

  4. Quantifying the system balancing cost when wind energy is incorporated into electricity generation system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Issaeva, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    Incorporation of wind energy into the electricity generation system requires a detailed analysis of wind speed in order to minimize system balancing cost and avoid a significant mismatch between supply and demand. Power ...

  5. Stochastic Real-Time Scheduling of Wind-thermal Generation Units ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-11-11

    time t (MW) wps,t. Percent of wind farm capacity available at scenario s and time t .... speeds at foreseen onshore and offshore wind farms locations is proposed.

  6. Influence of large scale oscillations on upwelling-favorable coastal wind off central Chile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahn, David A.

    2012-10-16

    Along the central coast of Chile is typically equatorward, upwelling-favorable wind associated with the southeast Pacific anticyclone. A coastal low-level jet often develops, and its wind speed is mostly controlled by the meridional pressure...

  7. Coordination of Voltage and Frequency Feedback in Load-Frequency Control Capability of Wind Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silva, Filipe Faria Da

    Coordination of Voltage and Frequency Feedback in Load-Frequency Control Capability of Wind Turbine-Frequency Control (LFC) is gradually shifted to Variable Speed Wind Turbines (VSWTs). In order to equip VSWT

  8. Method and system for controlling a rotational speed of a rotor of a turbogenerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahlhut, Ronnie Dean; Vuk, Carl Thomas

    2008-12-30

    A system and method controls a rotational speed of a rotor or shaft of a turbogenerator in accordance with a present voltage level on a direct current bus. A lower threshold and a higher threshold are established for a speed of a rotor or shaft of a turbogenerator. A speed sensor determines speed data or a speed signal for the rotor or shaft associated with a turbogenerator. A voltage regulator adjusts a voltage level associated with a direct current bus within a target voltage range if the speed data or speed signal indicates that the speed is above the higher threshold or below the lower threshold.

  9. PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT OF WIND TURBINE POWER REGULATION BY SWITCHED LINEAR CONTROL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Ken

    PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT OF WIND TURBINE POWER REGULATION BY SWITCHED LINEAR CONTROL D.J.Leith W Power regulation of horizontal-axis grid-connected up-wind constant-speed pitch-regulated wind turbines ENHANCEMENT OF WIND TURBINE POWER REGULATION BY SWITCHED LINEAR CONTROL D.J.Leith W.E.Leithead Department

  10. High-frequency P-wave seismic noise driven by ocean winds Jian Zhang,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shearer, Peter

    with the offshore wind speed, demonstrating that these high-frequency P- waves are excited by distant ocean windsHigh-frequency P-wave seismic noise driven by ocean winds Jian Zhang,1 Peter Gerstoft,1 and Peter M, J., P. Gerstoft, and P. M. Shearer (2009), High-frequency P-wave seismic noise driven by ocean winds

  11. Session: Poster Session + Poster Award + Scientific Award + Excellent young wind doctor award (PO.206) Track: Technical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Session: Poster Session + Poster Award + Scientific Award + Excellent young wind doctor award (PO.206) Track: Technical INVESTIGATION OF THE MEASUREMENT OF THE WIND SPEED STANDARD DEVIATION USING) Siemens wind power The LiDAR seems to be an effective alternative to met masts measurements of wind

  12. AIAA-2004-0502 A COMPARISON OF WIND TURBINE DESIGN LOADS IN DIFFERENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    wind speed. For wind turbine generator systems, a similar reliability-based design format is employedAIAA-2004-0502 1 A COMPARISON OF WIND TURBINE DESIGN LOADS IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS USING INVERSE, Austin, TX 78712 ABSTRACT* The influence of turbulence conditions on the design loads for wind turbines

  13. Ris-PhD-24(EN) Stability and Control of Wind Farms in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , wind turbines substitute the power production of conventional power plants. Therefore, wind turbines. The project is based on simulations of wind turbines in a power system simulations tool. Some of the models speed turbine and its controls. To simulate realistic grid operation the wind turbine models

  14. Lidars in Wind Energy Jakob Mann, Ferhat Bingl, Torben Mikkelsen, Ioannis Antoniou, Mike

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lidars in Wind Energy Jakob Mann, Ferhat Bingöl, Torben Mikkelsen, Ioannis Antoniou, Mike Courtney, Gunner Larsen, Ebba Dellwik Juan Jose Trujillo* and Hans E. Jørgensen Wind Energy Department Risø of the presentation · Introduction to wind energy · Accurate profiles of the mean wind speed · Wakes behind turbines

  15. Statistical analysis of wind energy in Chile David Watts a,b,*, Danilo Jara a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    Data Bank Statistical analysis of wind energy in Chile David Watts a,b,*, Danilo Jara December 2010 Keywords: Wind Wind speed Energy Capacity factor Electricity Chile a b s t r a c t Bearing role in any future national energy generation matrix. With a view to understanding the local wind

  16. Calibrated Probabilistic Forecasting at the Stateline Wind Energy Center: The Regime-Switching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genton, Marc G.

    Calibrated Probabilistic Forecasting at the Stateline Wind Energy Center: The Regime at a wind energy site and fits a conditional predictive model for each regime. Geographically dispersed was applied to 2-hour-ahead forecasts of hourly average wind speed near the Stateline wind energy center

  17. Performance and safety of rooftop wind turbines: Use of CFD to gain insight into inflow conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    to overcome, including energy yield reduction due to lower mean wind speeds in urban areas, and environmental method to model wind flows in order to perform a resource assessment for the application of small wind presents the results of research using a CFD code to model wind flows over the roof of a building

  18. Establishing a Comprehensive Wind Energy Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleeter, Sanford

    2012-09-30

    This project was directed at establishing a comprehensive wind energy program in Indiana, including both educational and research components. A graduate/undergraduate course ME-514 - Fundamentals of Wind Energy has been established and offered and an interactive prediction of VAWT performance developed. Vertical axis wind turbines for education and research have been acquired, instrumented and installed on the roof top of a building on the Calumet campus and at West Lafayette (Kepner Lab). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations have been performed to simulate these urban wind environments. Also, modal dynamic testing of the West Lafayette VAWT has been performed and a novel horizontal axis design initiated. The 50-meter meteorological tower data obtained at the Purdue Beck Agricultural Research Center have been analyzed and the Purdue Reconfigurable Micro Wind Farm established and simulations directed at the investigation of wind farm configurations initiated. The virtual wind turbine and wind turbine farm simulation in the Visualization Lab has been initiated.

  19. Amplitude modulation of wind turbine noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makarewicz, Rufin

    2013-01-01

    Due to swish and thump amplitude modulation, the noise of wind turbines cause more annoyance than other environmental noise of the same average level. The wind shear accounts for the thump modulation (van den Berg effect). Making use of the wind speed measurements at the hub height, as well as at the top and the bottom of the rotor disc (Fig.1), the non-standard wind profile is applied. It causes variations in the A-weighted sound pressure level, LpA. The difference between the maximum and minimum of LpA characterizes thump modulation (Fig.2).

  20. Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database is divided into six files, each corresponding to approximately 16 years of simulation. The files are text files with data in columnar format. The 424MB zipped file containing six data files can be downloaded by the public. The files simulate 10-minute maximum loads for the NREL 5MW wind turbine. The details of the loads simulations can be found in the paper: “Decades of Wind Turbine Loads Simulations”, M. Barone, J. Paquette, B. Resor, and L. Manuel, AIAA2012-1288 (3.69MB PDF). Note that the site-average wind speed is 10 m/s (class I-B), not the 8.5 m/s reported in the paper.

  1. NREL National Wind Technology Center (NWTC): M2 Tower; Boulder, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jager, D.; Andreas, A.

    1996-09-24

    The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), located at the foot of the Rocky Mountains near Boulder, Colorado, is a world-class research facility managed by NREL for the U.S. Department of Energy. NWTC researchers work with members of the wind energy industry to advance wind power technologies that lower the cost of wind energy through research and development of state-of-the-art wind turbine designs. NREL's Measurement and Instrument Data Center provides data from NWTC's M2 tower which are derived from instruments mounted on or near an 82 meter (270 foot) meteorological tower located at the western edge of the NWTC site and about 11 km (7 miles) west of Broomfield, and approximately 8 km (5 miles) south of Boulder, Colorado. The data represent the mean value of readings taken every two seconds and averaged over one minute. The wind speed and direction are measured at six heights on the tower and air temperature is measured at three heights. The dew point temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, totalized liquid precipitation, and global solar radiation are also available.

  2. NREL National Wind Technology Center (NWTC): M2 Tower; Boulder, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jager, D.; Andreas, A.

    The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), located at the foot of the Rocky Mountains near Boulder, Colorado, is a world-class research facility managed by NREL for the U.S. Department of Energy. NWTC researchers work with members of the wind energy industry to advance wind power technologies that lower the cost of wind energy through research and development of state-of-the-art wind turbine designs. NREL's Measurement and Instrument Data Center provides data from NWTC's M2 tower which are derived from instruments mounted on or near an 82 meter (270 foot) meteorological tower located at the western edge of the NWTC site and about 11 km (7 miles) west of Broomfield, and approximately 8 km (5 miles) south of Boulder, Colorado. The data represent the mean value of readings taken every two seconds and averaged over one minute. The wind speed and direction are measured at six heights on the tower and air temperature is measured at three heights. The dew point temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, totalized liquid precipitation, and global solar radiation are also available.

  3. Method and apparatus for wind turbine braking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbu, Corneliu (Laguna Hills, CA); Teichmann, Ralph (Nishkayuna, NY); Avagliano, Aaron (Houston, TX); Kammer, Leonardo Cesar (Niskayuna, NY); Pierce, Kirk Gee (Simpsonville, SC); Pesetsky, David Samuel (Greenville, SC); Gauchel, Peter (Muenster, DE)

    2009-02-10

    A method for braking a wind turbine including at least one rotor blade coupled to a rotor. The method includes selectively controlling an angle of pitch of the at least one rotor blade with respect to a wind direction based on a design parameter of a component of the wind turbine to facilitate reducing a force induced into the wind turbine component as a result of braking.

  4. Wind and Wave Extremes over the World Oceans From Very Large Forecast Ensembles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breivik, Øyvind; Abdalla, Saleh; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Global return value estimates of significant wave height and 10-m neutral wind speed are estimated from very large aggregations of archived ECMWF ensemble forecasts at +240-h lead time from the period 2003-2012. The upper percentiles are found to match ENVISAT wind speed better than ERA-Interim (ERA-I), which tends to be biased low. The return estimates are significantly higher for both wind speed and wave height in the extratropics and the subtropics than what is found from ERA-I, but lower than what is reported by Caires and Sterl (2005) and Vinoth and Young (2011). The highest discrepancies between ERA-I and ENS240 are found in the hurricane-prone areas, suggesting that the ensemble comes closer than ERA-I in capturing the intensity of tropical cyclones. The width of the confidence intervals are typically reduced by 70% due to the size of the data sets. Finally, non-parametric estimates of return values were computed from the tail of the distribution. These direct return estimates compare very well with Ge...

  5. Wind Tunnel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    Simulation of Cooling Effect of Wind Tower on Passively Ventilated Building John Seryak Kelly Kissock Project Engineer Associate Professor Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of Dayton... Dayton, Ohio ABSTRACT Traditional buildings are cooled and ventilated by mechanically induced drafts. Natural ventilation aspires to cool and ventilate a building by natural means, such as cross ventilation or wind towers, without mechanical...

  6. Operational risk of a wind farm energy production by Extreme Value Theory and Copulas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Amico, Guglielmo; Prattico, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we use risk management techniques to evaluate the potential effects of those operational risks that affect the energy production of a wind farm. We concentrate our attention on three major risk factors: wind speed uncertainty, wind turbine reliability and interactions of wind turbines due mainly to their placement. As a first contribution, we show that the Weibull distribution, commonly used to fit recorded wind speed data, underestimates rare events. Therefore, in order to achieve a better estimation of the tail of the wind speed distribution, we advance a Generalized Pareto distribution. The wind turbines reliability is considered by modeling the failures events as a compound Poisson process. Finally, the use of Copula able us to consider the correlation between wind turbines that compose the wind farm. Once this procedure is set up, we show a sensitivity analysis and we also compare the results from the proposed procedure with those obtained by ignoring the aforementioned risk factors.

  7. Remote area wind energy harvesting for low-power autonomous sensors Abstract--A growing demand for deployment of autonomous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Remote area wind energy harvesting for low-power autonomous sensors Abstract--A growing demand a wide range of wind speeds. Results show that power harvesting capability using the discussed alternator electronics to be less than the available power for harvest, which varies as a function of wind speed

  8. Discrepancies in the prediction of solar wind using potential field source surface model: An investigation of possible sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Discrepancies in the prediction of solar wind using potential field source surface model expansion factor (FTE) at the source surface and the solar wind speed (SWS) observed at Earth, which has been made use of in the prediction of solar wind speed near the Earth with reasonable accuracy. However

  9. Offshore Wind Power USA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Offshore Wind Power USA conference provides the latest offshore wind market updates and forecasts.

  10. Solar cyclical trend study of the mid-latitude, quiet-time, meridional, neutral winds at winter solstice conditions. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breninger, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Located within the region of the thermosphere is the major portion of the ionosphere. Distribution of the ionospheric plasma within this region is a function of atmospheric mass and energy transport. For the current study, the component of the neutral wind along the magnetic meridian is derived from ground-based ionosonde measurements of the F2 peak layer height. Meridional wind variations with respect to location, universal time, and level of solar activity are the focal points on this investigation. The primary timescale of interest covers a period of one solar cycle, from 1977 to 1987. Data from one station have been extended to 1965 to study the repetitive nature of solar activity on the meridional winds. Results of this study indicate a definite variation of wind speed and direction, which correlates with changing levels of solar activity. It is hoped that the results of this study will aid current efforts to develop ionospheric models and enhance their forecasting capabilities.

  11. Wind Turbines and Health A Rapid Review of the Evidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    1 Wind Turbines and Health A Rapid Review of the Evidence July 2010 #12;2 Wind Turbines and Health of the evidence from current literature on the issue of wind turbines and potential impacts on human health: There are no direct pathological effects from wind farms and that any potential impact on humans can be minimised

  12. Wind Energy Development and its Impacts on Wildlife

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    PotentialWind Energy Resource Potential New U.S. Generating CapacityNew U.S. Generating Capacity Wind energy1 Wind Energy Development and its Impacts on Wildlife Carrie Lowe, M.S. Candidate UniversityOutline · Introduction · Wind energy in the U.S. I t ildlif· Impacts on wildlife · Guidelines · Future directions

  13. Wind Energy Leasing Handbook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Wind Energy Leasing Handbook Wind Energy Leasing Handbook E-1033 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension?..................................................................................................................... 31 What do wind developers consider in locating wind energy projects?............................................................................................ 37 How do companies and individuals invest in wind energy projects?....................................................................

  14. Main Coast Winds - Final Scientific Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason Huckaby; Harley Lee

    2006-03-15

    The Maine Coast Wind Project was developed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of small, distributed wind systems on coastal sites in Maine. The restructuring of Maine's electric grid to support net metering allowed for the installation of small wind installations across the state (up to 100kW). The study performed adds insight to the difficulties of developing cost-effective distributed systems in coastal environments. The technical hurdles encountered with the chosen wind turbine, combined with the lower than expected wind speeds, did not provide a cost-effective return to make a distributed wind program economically feasible. While the turbine was accepted within the community, the low availability has been a negative.

  15. California high speed rail proposal: “High speed rail and wildlife”

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkerson, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    Chapter Wildlife and High Speed Rail C ALIFORNIA H IGH SDan Leavitt, California High Speed Rail Authority) AbstractThe California High Speed Rail (HSR) Proposal is in the

  16. High-Speed Photography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.; Schelev, M.Y.

    1998-08-01

    The applications of high-speed photography to a diverse set of subjects including inertial confinement fusion, laser surgical procedures, communications, automotive airbags, lightning etc. are briefly discussed. (AIP) {copyright} {ital 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.}

  17. A digital video camera for application of particle image velocimetry in high-speed flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willert, C.; Stasicki, B.; Raffel, M.; Kompenhans, J.

    1995-12-31

    A high-speed digital camera based on video technology for application of particle image velocimetry in wind tunnels is described. The camera contains two independently triggerable interline CCD sensors which are mounted on two faces of a cube beam splitter permitting the use of a single lens. Each of the sensors has a minimal exposure time of 0.8 {micro}s with a trigger response time of less than 1 {micro}s. The asynchronous reset capability permits the camera to trigger directly off a pulsed laser with a repetition rate differing from the standard 25 Hz CCIR video frame rate. Captured images are digitized within and stored in RAM the camera which can be read through the parallel port of a computer. The camera is software configurable with the settings being non-volatile. Technical aspects such as sensor alignment and calibration through software are described. Close-up PIV measurements on a free jet illustrate that, in the future, the camera can be successfully utilized at imaging high-speed flows over a small field of view covering several cm{sup 2}, such as the flow between turbine blades. Further, the electronic shutter permits its use in luminous environments such as illuminated laboratories, wind tunnels or flames.

  18. Mathematical and Computational Applications, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 408-420, 2013 MODELING AND CONTROL OF A VARIABLE SPEED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    OF A VARIABLE SPEED VARIABLE PITCH ANGLE PROTOTYPE WIND TURBINE Sanem Evren, Mustafa Ünel and Mahmut F. Akit on modeling, control and simulation of a 500 horizontal axis prototype wind turbine that is being developed in the context of the MILRES (National Wind Energy Systems) Project in Turkey. The prototype turbine is designed

  19. Wind parameters extraction from aircraft trajectories C. Hurtera,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Wind parameters extraction from aircraft trajectories C. Hurtera, , R. Alligiera,b , D. Gianazzaa traffic controllers need to know the current wind magnitude and direction since they impact every flying vessel. The wind may accel- erate or slow down an aircraft, depending on its relative direction

  20. Reinforcement Learning for Autonomous Dynamic Soaring in Shear Winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spletzer, John R.

    a near optimal energy gain. However, wind gusts, tracking errors, or inaccurate sensor measurements can energy from horizontal wind that varies in strength and/or direction to support flight. Typical to extract energy from horizontal winds that vary in strength or direction. Re- cent attention has been paid

  1. Sparkr Blade Test Centre Static tests of wind turbine blades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparkær Blade Test Centre Static tests of wind turbine blades Static blade tests are performed down- and up-wind direction, and in the rotor thrust direction and opposite to that, respectively-4000 Roskilde Denmark www.risoe.dk Wind Energy Department Sparkær Blade test Centre vea@risoe.dk Tel

  2. Planet Migration and Disk Destruction due to Magneto-Centrifugal Stellar Winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. V. E. Lovelace; M. M. Romanova; A. W. Barnard

    2008-06-25

    This paper investigates the influence of magneto-centrifugally driven or simply magnetic winds of rapidly-rotating, strongly-magnetized T Tauri stars in causing the inward or outward migration of close-in giant planets. The azimuthal ram pressure of the magnetized wind acting on the planet tends to increase the planet's angular momentum and cause outward migration if the star's rotation period $P_*$ is less than the planet's orbital period $P_p$. In the opposite case, $P_* > P_p$, the planet migrates inward. Thus, planets orbiting at distances larger (smaller) than $0.06 {\\rm AU}(P_*/5{\\rm d})^{2/3}$ tend to be pushed outward (inward), where $P_*$ is the rotation period of the star assumed to have the mass of the sun. The magnetic winds are likely to occur in T Tauri stars where the thermal speed of the gas close to the star is small, where the star's magnetic field is strong, and where the star rotates rapidly. The time-scale for appreciable radial motion of the planet is estimated as $\\sim 2 - 20$ Myr. A sufficiently massive close-in planet may cause tidal locking and once this happens the radial migration due to the magnetic wind ceases. The magnetic winds are expected to be important for planet migration for the case of a multipolar magnetic field rather than a dipole field where the wind is directed away from the equatorial plane and where a magnetospheric cavity forms. The influence of the magnetic wind in eroding and eventually destroying the accretion disk is analyzed. A momentum integral is derived for the turbulent wind/disk boundary layer and this is used to estimate the disk erosion time-scale as $\\sim 1-10^2$ Myr, with the lower value favored.

  3. Passive aeroelastic tailoring of wind turbine blades : a numerical analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deilmann, Christian

    2009-01-01

    This research aims to have an impact towards a sustainable energy supply. In wind power generation losses occur at tip speed ratios which the rotor was not designed for. Since the ideal blade shape changes nonlinearly with ...

  4. ECO ROTR - The Future of Wind Turbines | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    our domes of different sizes and then stuck these domes on the center of the small wind turbine and ran our experiments at different tunnel air speeds. The picture of the...

  5. On the Patterns of Wind-Power Input to the Ocean Circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roquet, Fabien

    Pathways of wind-power input into the ocean general circulation are analyzed using Ekman theory. Direct rates of wind work can be calculated through the wind stress acting on the surface geostrophic flow. However, because ...

  6. EA-1903: Kansas State University Zond Wind Energy Project, Manhattan, Kansas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to use Congressional Directed funds to develop the Great Plains Wind Energy Consortium aimed at increasing the penetration of wind energy via distributed wind power generation throughout the region.

  7. NREL Develops New Controls that Proactively Adapt to the Wind (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-11-01

    Until now, wind turbine controls that reduce the impacts of wind gusts and turbulence were always reactive-responding to the wind rather than anticipating it. But with today's laser-based sensors that measure wind speed ahead of the turbine, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and their industry partners are developing more intelligent controls. The world's first field tests of these controls are currently underway at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at NREL, with plans for future commercialization.

  8. NREL Develops New Controls that Proactively Adapt to the Wind (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    Until now, wind turbine controls that reduce the impacts of wind gusts and turbulence were always reactive -- responding to the wind rather than anticipating it. But with today's laser-based sensors that measure wind speed ahead of the turbine, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and their industry partners are developing more intelligent controls. The world's first field tests of these controls are currently underway at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at NREL, with plans for future commercialization.

  9. Variability of wind power near Oklahoma City and implications for siting of wind turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kessler, E.; Eyster, R.

    1987-09-01

    Data from five sites near Oklahoma City were examined to assess wind power availability. Wind turbines of identical manufacture were operated at three of the sites, one of which was also equipped with anemometers on a 100-ft tower. Comprehensive anemometric data were available from the other two sites. The study indicates that the average wind speed varies substantially over Oklahoma's rolling plains, which have often been nominally regarded as flat for purposes of wind power generation. Average wind differences may be as much as 5 mph at 20 ft above ground level, and 7 mph at 100 ft above ground level for elevation differences of about 200 ft above mean sea level, even in the absence of substantial features of local terrain. Local altitude above mean sea level seems to be as influential as the shape of local terrain in determining the average wind speed. The wind turbine used at a meteorologically instrumented site in the study produced the power expected from it for the wind regime in which it was situated. The observed variations of local wind imply variations in annual kWh of as much as a factor of four between identical turbines located at similar heights above ground level in shallow valleys and on hilltops or elevated extended flat areas. 17 refs., 39 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Aerodynamic pressure and flow-visualization measurement from a rotating wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butterfield, C.P.

    1988-11-01

    Aerodynamic, load, flow-visualization, and inflow measurements have been made on a 10-m, three-bladed, downwind, horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT). A video camera mounted on the rotor was used to record nighttime and daytime video images of tufts attached to the low-pressure side of a constant-chord, zero-twist blade. Load measurements were made using strain gages mounted at every 10% of the blade's span. Pressure measurements were made at 80% of the blade's span. Pressure taps were located at 32 chordwise positions, revealing pressure distributions comparable with wind tunnel data. Inflow was measured using a vertical-plane array of eight propvane and five triaxial (U-V-W) prop-type anemometers located 10 m upwind in the predominant wind direction. One objective of this comprehensive research program was to study the effects of blade rotation on aerodynamic behavior below, near, and beyond stall. To this end, flow patterns are presented here that reveal the dynamic and steady behavior of flow conditions on the blade. Pressure distributions are compared to flow patterns and two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Separation boundary locations are shown that change as a function of spanwise location, pitch angle, and wind speed. 6 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Wind Tunnel Aerodynamic Tests of Six Airfoils for Use on Small Wind Turbines; Period of Performance: October 31, 2002--January 31, 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selig, M. S.; McGranahan, B. D.

    2004-10-01

    Wind Tunnel Aerodynamic Tests of Six Airfoils for Use on Small Wind Turbinesrepresents the fourth installment in a series of volumes documenting the ongoing work of th University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Low-Speed Airfoil Tests Program. This particular volume deals with airfoils that are candidates for use on small wind turbines, which operate at low Reynolds numbers.

  12. Town of Kill Devil Hills- Wind Energy Systems Ordinance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In October 2007, the town of Kill Devil Hills adopted an ordinance to regulate the use of wind-energy systems. The ordinance directs any individual or organization wishing to install a wind-energy...

  13. The Impulsive Heating Rate in Shocked O Star Winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, David

    The Impulsive Heating Rate in Shocked O Star Winds: Determined Directly from High-Resolution X; no corona #12;Radiation-driven O star winds Pup (O4 supergiant): M ~ few 10-6 Msun/yr UV spectrum: C IV with the stellar wind #12;Radiation-driven O star winds kinetic power in the wind = 1/2 Mv 2 (~10-3 Lbol) typically

  14. Abstract--A novel compressed air energy storage system for wind turbine is proposed. It captures excess power prior to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    in wind speed and solar intensity make integrating wind and solar energy into the electric power grid demand. For example, wind energy tends to be more abundant at night when power demand is low. VariationsAbstract-- A novel compressed air energy storage system for wind turbine is proposed. It captures

  15. Statistical Methods for Quantifying the Effect of the El NioSouthern Oscillation on Wind Power in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    Statistical Methods for Quantifying the Effect of the El Niño­Southern Oscillation on Wind Power­Southern Oscillation on Wind Power in the Northern Great Plains of the United States Bret R. Harper1, Richard W. Katz2 of the United States. In order to determine if ENSO has similar impacts on wind speed and wind power, we applied

  16. 1112 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 25, NO. 4, DECEMBER 2010 Short-Horizon Prediction of Wind Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    of Wind Power: A Data-Driven Approach Andrew Kusiak, Member, IEEE, and Zijun Zhang Abstract--This paper discusses short-horizon prediction of wind speed and power using wind turbine data collected at 10 s inter and data-driven models are developed for wind prediction. Power prediction models are estab- lished, which

  17. Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in moving air into rotational energy, which in turn is converted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in moving air into rotational energy, which in turn is converted to electricity. Since wind speeds vary from month to month and second to second, the amount of electricity wind can make varies constantly. Sometimes a wind turbine will make no power at all

  18. Reliability analysis for wind turbines with incomplete failure data collected from after the date of initial installation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    . Walford outlined the issues relevant to wind turbine reliability for wind turbine power generation generation and wind speed models to analyze power production reliability [3,4]. Others have appliedReliability analysis for wind turbines with incomplete failure data collected from after the date

  19. The unstable behavior of low and high-speed compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day, I.J. . Whittle Lab.); Freeman, C. )

    1994-04-01

    By far the greater part of the understanding about stall and surge in axial compressors comes from work on low-speed laboratory machines. As a general rule, these machines do not model the compressibility effects present in high-speed compressors and therefore doubt has always existed about the application of low-speed results to high-speed machines. In recent years interest in active control has led to a number of studies of compressor stability in engine-type compressors. The instrumentation used in these experiments has been sufficiently detailed that, for the first time, adequate data are available to make direct comparisons between high-speed and low-speed compressors. This paper presents new data from an eight-stage fixed geometry engine compressor and compares then with low-speed laboratory data. The results show remarkable similarities in both the stalling and surging behavior of the two machines, particularly when the engine compressor is run at intermediate speeds. The engine results also show that, as in the laboratory tests, surge is precipitated by the onset of rotating stall. This is true even at very high speeds where it had previously been thought that surge might be the result of a blast wave moving through the compressor. This paper therefore contains new information about high-speed compressors and confirms that low-speed testing is an effective means of obtaining insight into the behavior of high-speed machines.

  20. Wind Vision: Impacts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Vision: Impacts Rich Tusing New West Technologies, LLC For EERE's Wind and Water Power Technologies Office July 15, 2015 2 | Wind and Water Power Technologies Office...

  1. Wind Program News

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-06

    Stay current on the news about the wind side of the Wind and Water Power Program and important wind energy events around the U.S.

  2. Wind Power Link

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Power Links These other web sites may provide additional information of interest: American Wind Energy Association Idaho Department of Energy Wind Power Information Utah...

  3. Energy 101: Wind Turbines

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    See how wind turbines generate clean electricity from the power of the wind. Highlighted are the various parts and mechanisms of a modern wind turbine.

  4. Energy 101: Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-01

    See how wind turbines generate clean electricity from the power of the wind. Highlighted are the various parts and mechanisms of a modern wind turbine.

  5. Vandenberg_Wind_Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Force and other branches of the Department of Defense for several years doing wind data collection and assessment, wind power feasibility studies, and wind farm design....

  6. The Estimated Global Ocean Wind Power Potential from QuikSCAT Observations, Accounting for Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zender, Charles

    The Estimated Global Ocean Wind Power Potential from QuikSCAT Observations, Accounting for Turbine offshore turbine characteristics including hub height, usable portion of the wind speed distri- bution hemisphere extratropics, respectively, between hub heights of 10 m and 100 m. A turbine with a cut-out speed

  7. Power Performance Test Report for the SWIFT Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendoza, I.; Hur, J.

    2012-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of a power performance test that NREL conducted on the SWIFT wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator Systems Part 12: Power Performance Measurements of Electricity Producing Wind Turbines, IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.1.0, 2005-12. However, because the SWIFT is a small turbine as defined by IEC, NREL also followed Annex H that applies to small wind turbines. In these summary results, wind speed is normalized to sea-level air density.

  8. Wind Development on Tribal Lands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Haukaas; Dale Osborn; Belvin Pete

    2008-01-18

    Background: The Rosebud Sioux Tribe (RST) is located in south central South Dakota near the Nebraska border. The nearest community of size is Valentine, Nebraska. The RST is a recipient of several Department of Energy grants, written by Distributed Generation Systems, Inc. (Disgen), for the purposes of assessing the feasibility of its wind resource and subsequently to fund the development of the project. Disgen, as the contracting entity to the RST for this project, has completed all the pre-construction activities, with the exception of the power purchase agreement and interconnection agreement, to commence financing and construction of the project. The focus of this financing is to maximize the economic benefits to the RST while achieving commercially reasonable rates of return and fees for the other parties involved. Each of the development activities required and its status is discussed below. Land Resource: The Owl Feather War Bonnet 30 MW Wind Project is located on RST Tribal Trust Land of approximately 680 acres adjacent to the community of St. Francis, South Dakota. The RST Tribal Council has voted on several occasions for the development of this land for wind energy purposes, as has the District of St. Francis. Actual footprint of wind farm will be approx. 50 acres. Wind Resource Assessment: The wind data has been collected from the site since May 1, 2001 and continues to be collected and analyzed. The latest projections indicate a net capacity factor of 42% at a hub height of 80 meters. The data has been collected utilizing an NRG 9300 Data logger System with instrumentation installed at 30, 40 and 65 meters on an existing KINI radio tower. The long-term annual average wind speed at 65-meters above ground level is 18.2 mph (8.1 mps) and 18.7 mph (8.4 mps) at 80-meters agl. The wind resource is excellent and supports project financing.

  9. Variable diameter wind turbine rotor blades

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jamieson, Peter McKeich; Hornzee-Jones, Chris; Moroz, Emilian M.; Blakemore, Ralph W.

    2005-12-06

    A system and method for changing wind turbine rotor diameters to meet changing wind speeds and control system loads is disclosed. The rotor blades on the wind turbine are able to adjust length by extensions nested within or containing the base blade. The blades can have more than one extension in a variety of configurations. A cable winching system, a hydraulic system, a pneumatic system, inflatable or elastic extensions, and a spring-loaded jack knife deployment are some of the methods of adjustment. The extension is also protected from lightning by a grounding system.

  10. Forecast of solar ejecta arrival at 1 AU from radial speed S. Dasso1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dasso, Sergio

    Forecast of solar ejecta arrival at 1 AU from radial speed S. Dasso1,2 , N. Gopalswamy1 and A. Lara of the major requirements to forecast the space weather conditions in the terrestrial envi- ronment. Several properties, such as the background solar wind speed, and the density of the ejecta. However, only a few

  11. Design of an ambient aerosol sampling system for high and medium speed applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irshad, Hammad

    2002-01-01

    Two ambient sampling systems were designed and tested for high speed sampling application for a wind speed range of 4.47 m/s to 26.82 m/s. These systems will be used as inlets for sampling of bioaerosol from air. These systems consist of shrouded...

  12. Vibration and Structural Response of Hybrid Wind Turbine Blades 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanami, Norimichi

    2011-02-22

    to the square of the blade length and the cube of the wind speed, wind turbine size has grown rapidly in the last two decades to match the increase in power output. As the blade length increases, so does its weight opening up design possibilities to introduce...

  13. Control of Wind Turbines for Power Regulation and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Control of Wind Turbines for Power Regulation and Load Reduction Juan Jose Garcia Quirante Kongens@imm.dtu.dk www.imm.dtu.dk #12;#12;#12;Abstract This thesis describes the design of controllers for power regulation and load reduction and their ensemble in a variable-speed wind turbine. The power regulation

  14. High speed door assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shapiro, C.

    1993-04-27

    A high speed door assembly is described, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

  15. High speed door assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Carolyn (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01

    A high speed door assembly, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

  16. Wind Program: Wind Vision | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Wind Vision: A New Era for Wind Power in the United States With more than 4.5% of the nation's electricity supplied by wind energy today, the Department of Energy has collaborated...

  17. Wind | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Science & Innovation Energy Sources Renewable Energy Wind Wind Wind The United States is home to one of the largest and fastest growing wind markets in the world. To stay...

  18. Distributed Wind Diffusion Model Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preus, R.; Drury, E.; Sigrin, B.; Gleason, M.

    2014-07-01

    Distributed wind market demand is driven by current and future wind price and performance, along with several non-price market factors like financing terms, retail electricity rates and rate structures, future wind incentives, and others. We developed a new distributed wind technology diffusion model for the contiguous United States that combines hourly wind speed data at 200m resolution with high resolution electricity load data for various consumer segments (e.g., residential, commercial, industrial), electricity rates and rate structures for utility service territories, incentive data, and high resolution tree cover. The model first calculates the economics of distributed wind at high spatial resolution for each market segment, and then uses a Bass diffusion framework to estimate the evolution of market demand over time. The model provides a fundamental new tool for characterizing how distributed wind market potential could be impacted by a range of future conditions, such as electricity price escalations, improvements in wind generator performance and installed cost, and new financing structures. This paper describes model methodology and presents sample results for distributed wind market potential in the contiguous U.S. through 2050.

  19. Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    For utility companies, grid operators and other stakeholders interested in wind energy integration, collecting large quantities of high quality data on wind energy resources is vitally important....

  20. Matter & Energy Wind Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shepelyansky, Dima

    intuitive experience of a small wind not creating a storm, and that wind needs to reach a certain threshold

  1. Improved Wind Turbine Drivetrain Reliability using a Combined Experimental, Computational, and Analytical Approach (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Yi; Bergua, R.; van Dam, J.; Jove, J.; Campbell, J.

    2014-08-01

    Nontorque loads induced by the wind turbine rotor overhang weight and aerodynamic forces can greatly affect drivetrain loads and responses. If not addressed properly, these loads can result in a decrease in gearbox component life. This work uses analytical modeling, computational modeling, and experimental data to evaluate a unique drivetrain design that minimize the effects of nontorque loads on gearbox reliability: the Pure Torque drivetrain developed by Alstom. The drivetrain has a hub-support configuration that transmits nontorque loads directly into the tower rather than through the gearbox as in other design approaches. An analytical model of Alstom's Pure Torque drivetrain provides insight into the relationships among turbine component weights, aerodynamic forces, and the resulting drivetrain loads. Main shaft bending loads are orders of magnitude lower than the rated torque and are hardly affected by wind speed and turbine operations.

  2. Methods and apparatus for twist bend coupled (TCB) wind turbine blades

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw; LeMieux, David Lawrence; Pierce, Kirk Gee

    2006-10-10

    A method for controlling a wind turbine having twist bend coupled rotor blades on a rotor mechanically coupled to a generator includes determining a speed of a rotor blade tip of the wind turbine, measuring a current twist distribution and current blade loading, and adjusting a torque of a generator to change the speed of the rotor blade tip to thereby increase an energy capture power coefficient of the wind turbine.

  3. Twin Groves Wind Energy Facility Cut-in Speeds

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Karin Sinclair (National Renewable Energy Laboratory), Christy Johnson-Hughes (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service), and Laurie K. Allen (U.S. Geological Survey) for providing...

  4. Microsoft Word - idaho_wind_speed_summary.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    November 2003 17.6 mph December 2003 (1 day of iced data taken out) 16.8 mph January 2004 (1 day of iced data taken out) 18.4 mph February 2004 (5 days of iced data taken out)...

  5. File:CV WindSpeed.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New Pages Recent Changes AllApschem.pdf Jump to: navigation,Boiler permitCV

  6. ARM - Lesson Plans: Observing Wind Speed and Cloudiness

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Room News PublicationsClimate inMakingMoving

  7. Twin Groves Wind Energy Facility Cut-in Speeds

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternational Affairs,Department ofARPA-E TopDepartmentTribalSYNTHESIS OF OPERATIONAL

  8. Haiti - Annual Average Wind Speed at 80 meters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journalvivo Low-Dose Low34 Revision 0August 9, 74° 73° 72° 20° "

  9. Dominican Republic - Annual Average Wind Speed at 80 meters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalentLaboratory |Sector Full reportTown2008 Final May1.3.1.4.

  10. Neutrino-driven wind and wind termination shock in supernova cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Arcones; L. Scheck; H. -Th. Janka

    2006-12-22

    The neutrino-driven wind from a nascent neutron star at the center of a supernova expands into the earlier ejecta of the explosion. Upon collision with this slower matter the wind material is decelerated in a wind termination shock. By means of hydrodynamic simulations in spherical symmetry we demonstrate that this can lead to a large increase of the wind entropy, density, and temperature, and to a strong deceleration of the wind expansion. The consequences of this phenomenon for the possible r-process nucleosynthesis in the late wind still need to be explored in detail. Two-dimensional models show that the wind-ejecta collision is highly anisotropic and could lead to a directional dependence of the nucleosynthesis even if the neutrino-driven wind itself is spherically symmetric.

  11. The Mystery of Foehn Winds Alexander Gohm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gohm, Alexander

    the Mesoscale Alpine Programme (MAP): (1) The target area (Wipp valley). (2) Surface observations along the Wipp), Wipp valley cross-section (b), Patscherkofel cross-section (c). (4) NOAA/ETL Doppler lidar: wind speed along the Wipp valley (5) Airborne aerosol lidar SABL on NCAR/Electra: backscatter intensity and AML

  12. APPROPRIATE REALISATION OF GAIN-SCHEDULED CONTROLLERS WITH APPLICATION TO WIND TURBINE REGULATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Ken

    1 1QE, U.K. Abstract Power regulation of horizontal-axis grid-connected up-wind constant-speed pitch of wind turbine technology. The standard commercial design of turbine is a horizontal-axis grid that the next generation of wind turbines which are presently being developed will include large-scale designs

  13. Supplying Baseload Power and Reducing Transmission Requirements by Interconnecting Wind Farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supplying Baseload Power and Reducing Transmission Requirements by Interconnecting Wind Farms is not used to supply baseload electric power today. Interconnecting wind farms through the transmission grid farms are interconnected in an array, wind speed correlation among sites decreases and so does

  14. Dynamic behaviour of a DFIG wind turbine subjected to power system faults

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dynamic behaviour of a DFIG wind turbine subjected to power system faults Gabriele Michalke+, Anca Laboratory, Wind Energy Department, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark Email: gmichalke of the dynamic interaction between variable speed DFIG wind turbines and the power system subjected

  15. Developing a Practical Wind Tunnel Test Engineering Course for Undergraduate Aerospace Engineering Students 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recla, Benjamin Jeremiah

    2013-04-19

    This thesis describes the development and assessment of an undergraduate wind tunnel test engineering course utilizing the 7ft by 10ft Oran W. Nicks Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT). Only 5 other universities in the United States have a wind tunnel...

  16. Modeling the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Response to Mesoscale Sea Surface Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Modeling the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Response to Mesoscale Sea Surface Temperature The wind speed response to mesoscale SST variability is investigated over the Agulhas Return Current region-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) atmospheric models. The SST-induced wind response is assessed from

  17. High-Order Sliding Mode Control of a DFIG-Based Wind Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    High-Order Sliding Mode Control of a DFIG-Based Wind Turbine for Power Maximization and Grid Fault tolerance of a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG)-based Wind Turbine (WT). These variable speed systems have several advantages over the traditional wind turbine operating methods, such as the reduction

  18. A Comparative Study of Time-Frequency Representations for Fault Detection in Wind Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Comparative Study of Time-Frequency Representations for Fault Detection in Wind Turbine El of wind energy, minimization and prediction of maintenance operations in wind turbine is of key importance. In variable speed turbine generator, advanced signal processing tools are required to detect and diagnose

  19. LQG control of horizontal wind turbines for blades and tower loads alleviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    LQG control of horizontal wind turbines for blades and tower loads alleviation A. Pintea*, N of power produced by two bladed horizontal variable speed wind turbines. The proposed controller ensures oscillations and with the tower bending tendency. Keywords: LQG control, Wind turbines, Multi-objective control

  20. | | | | |Monday, July 16, 2012 Three Northeast Ohio offshore wind power projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    | | | | |Monday, July 16, 2012 Home Three Northeast Ohio offshore wind power projects secure federal money By SCOTT SUTTELL 1:52 pm, September 9, 2011 Three Northeast Ohio offshore wind power to "speed technical innovations, lower costs, and shorten the timeline for deploying offshore wind energy

  1. A Note on the Estimation of Eddy Diffusivity and Dissipation Length in Low Winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raman, Sethu

    poses a challenge for modeling air pollutant diffusion. In tropics, because of the dominant low wind atmosphere in low­wind speeds. Turbulence measurements at 1 Hz were made at 4-m level over an urban terrainA Note on the Estimation of Eddy Diffusivity and Dissipation Length in Low Winds over a Tropical

  2. The National Wind Technology Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thresher, R.W.; Hock, S.M.; Loose, R.R.; Cadogon, J.B.

    1994-07-01

    Wind energy research began at the Rocky Flats test site in 1976 when Rockwell International subcontracted with the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). The Rocky Flats Plant was competitively selected from a number of ERDA facilities primarily because it experienced high instantaneous winds and provided a large, clear land area. By 1977, several small wind turbines were in place. During the facility`s peak of operation, in 1979-1980, researchers were testing as many as 23 small wind turbines of various configurations, including commercially available machines and prototype turbines developed under subcontract to Rocky Flats. Facilities also included 8-kW, 40-kW, and 225-kW dynamometers; a variable-speed test bed; a wind/hybrid test facility; a controlled velocity test facility (in Pueblo, Colorado); a modal test facility, and a multimegawatt switchgear facility. The main laboratory building was dedicated in July 1981 and was operated by the Rocky Flats Plant until 1984, when the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) and Rocky Flats wind energy programs were merged and transferred to SERI. SERI and now the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) continued to conduct wind turbine system component tests after 1987, when most program personnel were moved to the Denver WEst Office Park in Golden and site ownership was transferred back to Rocky Flats. The Combined Experiment test bed was installed and began operation in 1988, and the NREL structural test facility began operation in 1990. In 1993, the site`s operation was officially transferred to the DOE Golden Field Office that oversees NREL. This move was in anticipation of NREL`s renovation and reoccupation of the facility in 1994.

  3. Wind energy systems: program summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-05-01

    The Federal Wind Energy Program (FWEP) was initiated to provide focus, direction and funds for the development of wind power. Each year a summary is prepared to provide the American public with an overview of government sponsored activities in the FWEP. This program summary describes each of the Department of Energy's (DOE) current wind energy projects initiated or renewed during FY 1979 (October 1, 1978 through September 30, 1979) and reflects their status as of April 30, 1980. The summary highlights on-going research, development and demonstration efforts and serves as a record of progress towards the program objectives. It also provides: the program's general management structure; review of last year's achievements; forecast of expected future trends; documentation of the projects conducted during FY 1979; and list of key wind energy publications.

  4. Two-speed transaxle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalns, Ilmars (Northville, MI)

    1981-01-01

    Disclosed is a drive assembly (10) for an electrically powered vehicle (12). The assembly includes a transaxle (16) having a two-speed transmission (40) and a drive axle differential (46) disposed in a unitary housing assembly (38), an oil-cooled prime mover or electric motor (14) for driving the transmission input shaft (42), an adapter assembly (24) for supporting the prime mover on the transaxle housing assembly, and a hydraulic system (172) providing pressurized oil flow for cooling and lubricating the electric motor and transaxle and for operating a clutch (84) and a brake (86) in the transmission to shift between the two-speed ratios of the transmission. The adapter assembly allows the prime mover to be supported in several positions on the transaxle housing. The brake is spring-applied and locks the transmission in its low-speed ratio should the hydraulic system fail. The hydraulic system pump is driven by an electric motor (212) independent of the prime mover and transaxle.

  5. Balancing of high speed, flexible rotating shafts across critical speeds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Gary Paul

    1977-01-01

    BALANCING OF HIGH SPEED, FLEXIBLE ROTATING SHAFTS ACROSS CRITICAL SPEEDS A Thesis by Gary Paul White Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1977 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering Gary Paul White 1977 BALANCING OF HIGH SPEED, FLEXIBLE ROTATING SHAFTS ACROSS CRITICAL SPEEDS A Thesis by GARY PAUL WHITE Approved as to style and content by: Head of Department Member August...

  6. STATIONARITY IN SOLAR WIND FLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perri, S.; Balogh, A. E-mail: a.balogh@imperial.ac.u

    2010-05-01

    By using single-point measurements in space physics it is possible to study a phenomenon only as a function of time. This means that we cannot have direct access to information about spatial variations of a measured quantity. However, the investigation of the properties of turbulence and of related phenomena in the solar wind widely makes use of an approximation frequently adopted in hydrodynamics under certain conditions, the so-called Taylor hypothesis; indeed, the solar wind flow has a bulk velocity along the radial direction which is much higher than the velocity of a single turbulent eddy embedded in the main flow. This implies that the time of evolution of the turbulent features is longer than the transit time of the flow through the spacecraft position, so that the turbulent field can be considered frozen into the solar wind flow. This assumption allows one to easily associate time variations with spatial variations and stationarity to homogeneity. We have investigated, applying criteria for weak stationarity to Ulysses magnetic field data in different solar wind regimes, at which timescale and under which conditions the hypothesis of stationarity, and then of homogeneity, of turbulence in the solar wind is well justified. We extend the conclusions of previous studies by Matthaeus and Goldstein to different parameter ranges in the solar wind. We conclude that the stationarity assumption in the inertial range of turbulence on timescales of 10 minutes to 1 day is reasonably satisfied in fast and uniform solar wind flows, but that in mixed, interacting fast, and slow solar wind streams the assumption is frequently only marginally valid.

  7. Wind Technologies & Evolving Opportunities (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robichaud, R.

    2014-07-01

    This presentation covers opportunities for wind technology; wind energy market trends; an overview of the National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado; wind energy price and cost trends; wind turbine technology improvements; and wind resource characterization improvements.

  8. Sandia Energy - Grid System Planning for Wind: Wind Generator...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grid System Planning for Wind: Wind Generator Modeling Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Wind Energy Siting and Barrier Mitigation Grid System Planning for Wind:...

  9. 2015 Iowa Wind Power Conference and Iowa Wind Energy Association...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2015 Iowa Wind Power Conference and Iowa Wind Energy Association Midwest Regional Energy Job Fair 2015 Iowa Wind Power Conference and Iowa Wind Energy Association Midwest Regional...

  10. Wind tunnel performance data for the Darrieus wind turbine with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Wind tunnel performance data for the Darrieus wind turbine with NACA 0012 blades Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Wind tunnel performance data for the Darrieus wind...

  11. A National Offshore Wind Strategy: Creating an Offshore Wind...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A National Offshore Wind Strategy: Creating an Offshore Wind Energy Industry in the United States A National Offshore Wind Strategy: Creating an Offshore Wind Energy Industry in...

  12. 20% Wind Energy by 2030 - Chapter 2: Wind Turbine Technology...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    - Chapter 2: Wind Turbine Technology Summary Slides 20% Wind Energy by 2030 - Chapter 2: Wind Turbine Technology Summary Slides Summary slides for wind turbine technology, its...

  13. Wind Resource Assessment in Europe Using Emergy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paudel, Subodh; Martin, Viktoria; Lacarriere, Bruno; Corre, Olivier Le

    2015-01-01

    In context of increasing use of renewable sources, it is of importance to correctly evaluate the actual sustainability of their implementation. Emergy analysis is one of the possible methods useful for such an assessment. This work aims to demonstrate how the emergy approach can be used to assess the sustainability of wind energy resource in Europe. The Emergy Index of Sustainability (EIS) and the Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR) are used to analyze 90 stations of European regions for three types of wind turbines. To do so, the simplified Chou wind turbine model is used for different set of parameters as: nominal power and size of the wind turbines, and cut-in and cut-out wind speeds. Based on the calculation of the emergy indices, a mapping is proposed to identify the most appropriate locations for an implementation of wind turbines in European regions. The influence of the wind turbine type on the sustainability is also analyzed, in link with the local wind resource. Thus, it is concluded that the emergy sustainabi...

  14. Framework for assessing impacts of pile-driving noise from offshore wind farm construction on a harbour seal population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aberdeen, University of

    Framework for assessing impacts of pile-driving noise from offshore wind farm construction Keywords: EU habitats directive Appropriate assessment Population consequences Disturbance Offshore wind farm Marine mammal Offshore wind farm developments may impact protected marine mammal populations

  15. Part of the Climate Change Problem . . . and the Solution? Chinese-Made Wind Power Technology and Opportunities for Dissemination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Joanna I.

    2005-01-01

    was  directly  tied  to  wind  turbine  cost.  Goldwind’s countries where  the cost of wind power technology had bringing  down  the  cost  of  wind?powered  electricity.  

  16. Part of the Climate Change Problem . . . and the Solution? Chinese-Made Wind Power Technology and Opportunities for Dissemination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Joanna I.

    2005-01-01

    that  transport  costs  for  wind  turbines,  composed  of was  directly  tied  to  wind  turbine  cost.  Goldwind’s production of wind turbines could reduce the cost of the 

  17. 2008 WIND TECHNOLOGIES MARKET REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark

    2010-01-01

    AWEA). 2009b. AWEA Small Wind Turbine Global Market Study:will ultimately benefit wind. Small Wind ITC: EESA 2008

  18. High speed flywheel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGrath, Stephen V. (Knoxville, TN)

    1991-01-01

    A flywheel for operation at high speeds utilizes two or more ringlike coments arranged in a spaced concentric relationship for rotation about an axis and an expansion device interposed between the components for accommodating radial growth of the components resulting from flywheel operation. The expansion device engages both of the ringlike components, and the structure of the expansion device ensures that it maintains its engagement with the components. In addition to its expansion-accommodating capacity, the expansion device also maintains flywheel stiffness during flywheel operation.

  19. High-speed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energy neutronHigh-PressureLaboratoryspeed three-wave

  20. Wind Generation on Winnebago Tribal Lands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Multiple

    2009-09-30

    The Winnebago Wind Energy Study evaluated facility-scale, community-scale and commercial-scale wind development on Winnebago Tribal lands in northeastern Nebraska. The Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska has been pursuing wind development in various forms for nearly ten years. Wind monitoring utilizing loaned met towers from NREL took place during two different periods. From April 2001 to April 2002, a 20-meter met tower monitored wind data at the WinnaVegas Casino on the far eastern edge of the Winnebago reservation in Iowa. In late 2006, a 50-meter tower was installed, and subsequently monitored wind data at the WinnaVegas site from late 2006 through late 2008. Significant challenges with the NREL wind monitoring equipment limited the availability of valid data, but based on the available data, average wind speeds between 13.6 – 14.3 miles were indicated, reflecting a 2+/3- wind class. Based on the anticipated cost of energy produced by a WinnaVegas wind turbine, and the utility policies and rates in place at this time, a WinnaVegas wind project did not appear to make economic sense. However, if substantial grant funding were available for energy equipment at the casino site, and if either Woodbury REC backup rates were lower, or NIPCO was willing to pay more for wind power, a WinnaVegas wind project could be feasible. With funding remaining in the DOE-funded project budget,a number of other possible wind project locations on the Winnebago reservation were considered. in early 2009, a NPPD-owned met tower was installed at a site identified in the study pursuant to a verbal agreement with NPPD which provided for power from any ultimately developed project on the Western Winnebago site to be sold to NPPD. Results from the first seven months of wind monitoring at the Western Winnebago site were as expected at just over 7 meters per second at 50-meter tower height, reflecting Class 4 wind speeds, adequate for commercial development. If wind data collected in the remaining months of the twelve-month collection period is consistent with that collected in the first seven months, the Western Winnebago site may present an interesting opportunity for Winnebago. Given the distance to nearby substations, and high cost of interconnection at higher voltage transmission lines, Winnebago would likely need to be part of a larger project in order to reduce power costs to more attractive levels. Another alternative would be to pursue grant funding for a portion of development or equipment costs, which would also help reduce the cost of power produced. The NREL tower from the WinnaVegas site was taken down in late 2008, re-instrumented and installation attempted on the Thunderway site south of the Winnebago community. Based on projected wind speeds, current equipment costs, and the project’s proximity to substations for possible interconnection, a Thunderway community-scale wind project could also be feasible.