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Sample records for wildlife refuge background

  1. National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: National Wildlife Refuge System...

  2. San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge Well 10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Easterly, C.E.; Ketelle, R.H.; Quarles, H.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), at the request of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, evaluated the water production capacity of an artesian well in the San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona. Water from the well initially flows into a pond containing three federally threatened or endangered fish species, and water from this pond feeds an adjacent pond/wetland containing an endangered plant species.

  3. Photo of the Week: Rocky Flats Wildlife Refuge | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rocky Flats Wildlife Refuge Photo of the Week: Rocky Flats Wildlife Refuge December 21, 2012 - 11:27am Addthis The Rocky Flats Plant was first established in 1951 as a nuclear weapons manufacturing facility. Today, almost 4,000 acres make up the Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge. Located just 16 miles northwest of Denver, Colorado, the refuge provides a habitat for migratory birds and mammals. | Photo courtesy of the U.S. Department of Energy. The Rocky Flats Plant was first established in

  4. Analysis of Crude Oil Production in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Ted Stevens that the Energy Information Administration provide an assessment of federal oil and natural gas leasing in the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in Alaska.

  5. Analysis and Mapping of Vegetation and Habitat for the Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tagestad, Jerry D.

    2010-06-01

    The Lakeview, Oregon, office of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) contracted Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to classify vegetation communities on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge in northeastern Nevada. The objective of the mapping project was to provide USFWS refuge biologists and planners with detailed vegetation and habitat information that can be referenced to make better decisions regarding wildlife resources, fuels and fire risk, and land management. This letter report describes the datasets and methods used to develop vegetation cover type and shrub canopy cover maps for the Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge. The two map products described in this report are (1) a vegetation cover classification that provides updated information on the vegetation associations occurring on the refuge and (2) a map of shrub canopy cover based on high-resolution images and field data.

  6. Air Quality Scoping Study for Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada (EMSI April 2007)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Kavouras, Ilias; Campbell, Dave; Campbell, Scott; Kohl, Steven; Shafer, David

    2007-04-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S.Department of Energys Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at seven sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Sarcobatus Flat, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and Crater Flat, and at four sites on the NTS. The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. Letter reports provide summaries of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of each sites sampling program.

  7. Analysis of Oil and Gas Production in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2004-01-01

    This study analyzed the impact on future oil imports and expenditures of opening the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) to petroleum development. High, low, and mean ANWR oil resource case projections were compared to the Annual Energy Outlook 2004 reference case. The study also examined whether potential synergies exist in opening ANWR to petroleum development and the construction of an Alaska gas pipeline from the North Slope to the lower 48 states.

  8. Potential Oil Production from Coastal Plain of Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) received a letter (dated March 10, 2000) from Senator Frank H. Murkowski as Chairman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources requesting an EIA Service Report with plausible scenarios for the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) supply development consistent with the most recent U.S. Geological Survey resource assessments. This service report is prepared in response to the request of Senator Murkowski. It focuses on the ANWR coastal plain, a region currently restricted from exploration and development, and updates EIA's 1987 ANWR assessment.

  9. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, Lincoln County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Pahranagat NWR, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data on completion of the site's sampling program.

  10. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, Lincoln County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Englebrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Pahranagat NWR, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data on completion of the site's sampling program.

  11. Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring and Habitat Assessment in theSan Luis National Wildlife Refuge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Hanlon, Jeremy S.; Burns, Josephine R.; Stromayer, Karl A.K.; Jordan, Brandon M.; Ennis, Mike J.; Woolington,Dennis W.

    2005-08-28

    The project report describes a two year experiment to control wetland drainage to the San Joaquin River of California from the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge using a decision support system for real-time water quality management. This system required the installation and operation of one inlet and three drainage flow and water quality monitoring stations which allowed a simple mass balance model to be developed of the seasonally managed wetlands in the study area. Remote sensing methods were developed to document long-term trends in wetland moist soil vegetation and soil salinity in response to management options such as delaying the initiation of seasonal wetland drainage. These environmental management tools provide wetland managers with some of the tools necessary to improve salinity conditions in the San Joaquin River and improve compliance with State mandated salinity objectives without inflicting long-term harm on the wild fowl habitat resource.

  12. wildlife

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    between Pantex, West Texas A&M University, and the U.S. Geological Survey's Fish and Wildlife Research Unit at Texas Tech University.

  13. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FY 2013 FY-2014 Rate Cases Rate Information Residential Exchange Program Surplus Power Sales Reports Cost Verification Background The Cost Verification Process for the Slice...

  14. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 Background Highway construction workers, airport maintenance personnel, and film crews use small, portable lighting systems known as "mobile lighting." Traditionally, mobile...

  15. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tech Transfer Success Stories * 2010 Background Renewable energy sources are critical to the nation's future, and hydrogen-powered fuel cells offer an attractive alternative to ...

  16. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Background The 17 element group known as rare earth elements (REEs) provides significant value to our national security, energy independence, environmental future, and economic growth. The REE Program is focused on developing technologies for the recovery of REEs from Coal and Coal By-Products. Rare Earth Elements Background Infographic of Rare Earth Element's technology uses REE application infographic (click to view larger) While comprising just 17 elements of the periodic table, the group

  17. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tech Transfer Success Stories * 2010 Background MODE (MicroOptical Devices) was an Albuquerque-based start-up company founded by a group of Sandians who left Sandia under a special entrepreneurial program. MODE was purchased in 1997 by EMCORE, a New Jersey company that has worked with Sandia since the early 1990s. MODE technology was based on Sandia-licensed compound semiconductors used in manufacturing vertical cavity surface- emitting laser components. Upon acquiring MODE, EMCORE became the

  18. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tech Transfer Success Stories * 2010 Background Renewable energy sources are critical to the nation's future, and hydrogen-powered fuel cells offer an attractive alternative to current technologies. However, fuel cell catalysts must become more durable, effcient, and inexpensive before they are practical and cost-effective. Most fuel cells use platinum or platinum alloys as catalysts, but the limited supply of platinum is a potential barrier to widespread fuel cell use. Innovative Edge Sandia

  19. Wildlife Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giffen, Neil R; Evans, James W.; Parr, Patricia Dreyer

    2007-10-01

    This document outlines a plan for management of the wildlife resources on the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation. Management includes wildlife population control through hunting, trapping, removal, and habitat manipulation; wildlife damage control; restoration of wildlife species; preservation, management, and enhancement of wildlife habitats; coordination of wildlife studies and characterization of areas; and law enforcement. Wildlife resources are divided into several categories, each with a specific set of objectives and procedures for attaining them. These objectives are management of (1) wildlife habitats to ensure that all resident wildlife species exist on the Reservation in viable numbers; (2) featured species to produce selected species in desired numbers on designated land units; (3) game species for research, education, recreation, and public safety; (4) the Three Bend Scenic and Wildlife Management Refuge Area; (5) nuisance wildlife, including nonnative species, to achieve adequate population control for the maintenance of health and safety on the Reservation; (6) sensitive species (i.e., state or federally listed as endangered, threatened, of special concern, or in need of management) through preservation and protection of both the species and habitats critical to the survival of those species; and (7) wildlife disease. Achievement of the objectives is a joint effort between the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency (TWRA) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory through agreements between TWRA and DOE and between DOE and UT-Battelle, LLC.

  20. Protecting Wildlife

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protecting Wildlife Protecting Wildlife We monitor and protect the wildlife and their habitats on Laboratory property. February 2, 2015 Mule deer on LANL property LANL has been home to mule deer since its creation in 1942 and has seasonally been home to elk since their reintroduction to New Mexico in the 1960s. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Protecting our wildlife Since the early 1940s, LANL's

  1. Analysis and Mapping of Vegetation and Habitat for the Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tagestad, Jerry D.

    2010-06-01

    The Lakeview, Oregon, office of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) contracted Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to classify vegetation communities on Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge in northeastern Nevada. The objective of the mapping project was to provide USFWS refuge biologists and planners with detailed vegetation and habitat information that can be referenced to make better decisions regarding wildlife resources, fuels and fire risk, and land management. This letter report describes the datasets and methods used to develop vegetation cover type and shrub canopy cover maps for the Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge. The two map products described in this report are 1) a vegetation cover classification that provides updated information on the vegetation associations occurring on the refuge and 2) a map of shrub canopy cover based on high-resolution images and field data.

  2. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Moves toward Net-Zero Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-12-03

    First they had a vision: welcome people into a building embracing environmental stewardship on land that is steeped in history. The designers of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service took this vision and designed a new energy-efficient and environmentally friendly visitor center for the Assabet River National Wildlife Refuge located in Sudbury, Massachusetts.

  3. Wildlife Studies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wildlife Studies Studying Our Environment A rich diversity of plants and animals call this area home. Through their studies, biologists help the Lab understand and protect the diversity of the land. Elk on Laboratory Land Taking Care of the Land The Lab's scientific work is balanced with our responsibility to take care of the land we're on. READ MORE Lab Biologist, Chuck Hathcock Studying the Land and Wildlife Biologists conduct annual and multi-year studies of animals and plants on Lab land.

  4. Report Wildlife Encounters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wildlife Encounters Report Wildlife Encounters Report any encounters with wildlife in the Los Alamos area. April 12, 2012 A mama black bear and her cub A mama black bear and her cub in Los Alamos. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email If you find an injured bird, contact the Santa Fe Raptor Center. Have a close encounter? Report the following Any wildlife incidents or encounters Migratory bird injury or

  5. Fish and Wildlife Administrator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located in the Planning and Policy organization (EWP) in the Division of Environment, Fish & Wildlife, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and reports to the EWP manager....

  6. Wind Wildlife Research Meeting X

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The biennial Wind Wildlife Research Meeting provides an internationally recognized forum for researchers and wind-wildlife stakeholders to hear contributed papers, view research posters, and listen...

  7. Report Wildlife Encounters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Encounters Report any encounters with wildlife in the Los Alamos area. April 12, 2012 A mama black bear and her cub A mama black bear and her cub in Los Alamos. Contact...

  8. Breaking Barriers Wildlife Refreshment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Barriers Wildlife Refreshment Walker becomes first black battalion commander. NSTec Aviation Safety Officer, RSL team honored by DOE. NNSS helping wildlife with new watering holes. See pages 8. See page 4. NSTec and UNLV Bring Technology Community Together at PDV Workshop In June 2014, National Security Technologies (NSTec) and University Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) co- hosted a Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) Workshop at the UNLV Science and Engineering Building (SEB). More than 125 attendees

  9. Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fish, Wildlife & Parks Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks Name: Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks Address: 1420 East 6th Ave, PO Box 200701 Place:...

  10. Fish and Wildlife Service | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wildlife Service Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Fish and Wildlife Service Name: Fish and Wildlife Service Place: Washington, DC Year Founded: 1940 Phone Number: (303) 275-2370...

  11. wildlife | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    wildlife NNSA's Pantex Plant recognized for bird conservation The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service's Council for the Conservation of Migratory Birds named NNSA's Pantex Plant one of five finalists for the 2016 Presidential Migratory Bird Federal Stewardship Award for its excellence in conservation of migratory birds through research collaboration. The... A look at wildlife around the Pantex Plant The Pantex Plant's wildlife monitoring program Approximately 17 miles northeast of Amarillo, Texas,

  12. Wildlife Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resources Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWildlifeResources&oldid612286" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs...

  13. Cosmic Microwave Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cosmic Microwave Background Cosmic Microwave Background CMB.jpg The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is relic radiation from a very early stage in the universe -- essentially a...

  14. Nevada Department of Wildlife | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wildlife (NDOW) is the state agency responsible for the restoration and management of fish and wildlife resources, and the promotion of boating safety on Nevada's waters. NDOW is...

  15. Colorado Division of Wildlife | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wildlife Jump to: navigation, search Name: Colorado Parks and Wildlife Address: 1313 Sherman Street, Suite 618 Place: Denver, Colorado Zip: 80203 Phone Number: (303) 866-3437...

  16. Microsoft PowerPoint - SWL HPConf2012

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ROCK FORREST CITY CACHE RIVER LEGEND WILDLIFE REFUGE AUGUSTA LITTLE ROCK 10 EXISTING RESERVOIR OR LAKE WHITE RIVER NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE CACHE RIVER WILDLIFE REFUGE WHITE...

  17. LTS Background - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Background About Us LTS Home Page LTS Project Management LTS Transition and Timeline LTS Execution LTS Background LTS Information Management LTS Fact Sheets Briefings LTS In The ...

  18. Issue Backgrounder : Downstream Fish Migration : Improving the Odds of Survival.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-05-01

    Background information is given on the problems caused to anadromous fish migrations, especially salmon and steelhead trout, by the development of hydroelectric power dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Programs arising out of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and conservation Act of 1980 to remedy these problems and restore fish and wildlife populations are described. (ACR)

  19. Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fish and Wildlife Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife Name: Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife Abbreviation: WDFW...

  20. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fish and Wildlife Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Name: Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Address: 3406 Cherry Ave. NE Place: Salem,...

  1. California Department of Fish & Wildlife | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    & Wildlife Jump to: navigation, search Logo: California Department of Fish & Wildlife Name: California Department of Fish & Wildlife Address: 1416 9th St, 12th Floor Place:...

  2. ARM - Campaign Backgrounders

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MaterialsCampaign Backgrounders Publications Journal Articles Conference Documents Program Documents Technical Reports Publications Database Public Information Materials Image Library Videos Publication Resources Submit a Publication Publishing Procedures Acronyms Glossary Logos Contacts RSS for Publications Information Materials Annual Reports Program Fact Sheets Campaign Backgrounders Education and Outreach Posters Brochures Research Highlights Summaries Campaign Backgrounders Please contact

  3. Fish & Wildlife Annual Project Summary, 1983.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-07-01

    BPA's Division of Fish and Wildlife was created in 1982 to develop, coordinate and manage BPA's fish and wildlife program. Division activities protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife resources impacted by hydroelectric development and operation in the Columbia River Basin. At present the Division spends 95% of its budget on restoration projects. In 1983, 83 projects addressed all aspects of the anadromous fish life cycle, non-migratory fish problems and the status of wildlife living near reservoirs.

  4. Extragalactic Background Light

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Extragalactic Background Light from Hierarchical Galaxy Formation: Gamma-ray Attenuation up to the Epoch of Cosmic Reionization and the First Stars Yoshiyuki Inoue 1 , Susumu Inoue...

  5. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment 1. Overview of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Background The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) 1002 Area of the Alaska North Slope represents an area of 1.5 million acres. The ANWR Coastal Plain Area includes the 1002 Area, State of Alaska lands to the 3-mile limit from the coast line, and approximately 92,000 acres of Native Inupiat lands.

  6. Supplement Analysis for the Wildlife Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0246/SA-17)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2001-09-13

    BPA proposes to partially fund the acquisition of 7,630 acres of shrub-steppe, riparian, and wetland habitat in northern Franklin County, Washington. Title to the land will be transferred initially to The Conservation Fund and ultimately for inclusion as part of the National Wildlife Refuge System. Passive management practices will take place on the land until an official management plan is developed and approved for the property. Some short-term control of invasive, exotic plant species may occur as necessary prior to the approval of a management plan. The compliance checklist for this project was completed by Randy Hill with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Columbia National Wildlife Refuge and meets the standards and guidelines for the Wildlife Mitigation Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). A comprehensive management plan will be prepared for the property after it is acquired and will follow the guidelines and mitigation measures detailed in the Wildlife Mitigation Program EIS and ROD. No plant or animal species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) will be affected by the fee-title purchase of the subject property. Mark Miller with the Eastern Washington Ecological Services Office of USFWS concurred with this finding on August 3, 2001. Section 7 consultation will be conducted by BPA and USFWS, as necessary, prior to the implementation of any restoration or enhancement activities on the site. In accordance with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA) and USFWS policy, the addition of the Eagle Lakes property to the National Wildlife Refuge System does not constitute an undertaking as defined by the NHPA, or require compliance with Section 106 of the NHPA. Anan Raymond, Regional Archaeologist with USFWS Region 1 Cultural Resource Team, concurred with this finding on May 4, 2001. Compliance with NHPA, including cultural resources surveys, will be implemented, as necessary, once specific management activities are proposed for the property. In the unlikely event that archaeological material is encountered during developments that might occur prior to a cultural resource survey, an archeologist will immediately be notified and work halted in the vicinity of the finds until they can be inspected and assessed. A Level I Contaminants Survey was completed on April 3, 2000 by Toni Davidson, Environmental Contaminants Specialist with the USFWS Upper Columbia River Basin Field Office. The survey found that overall the lakes, wetlands, and terrestrial habitats on the site appear to be in a healthy condition. The only concern expressed in the survey report was over the presence of two household/farm dumps. As a requirement of the Eagle Lakes sale, the landowner agreed to remove the dumps to the satisfaction of the USFWS contaminant specialist before the title to the land is transferred. A follow-up survey will be conducted to confirm compliance with this requirement of sale. Public involvement associated with this project has included written notification and solicitation of comments to interested parties, adjacent landowners, local tribes, government agencies, non-governmental organizations, and sports clubs. Public response from the mail-out indicated general support for the project, although some questions were raised about the provision of seasonal hunting and fishing on the property. These types of questions will be addressed in the development of a management plan for the Eagle Lakes land. Because of initial favorable comments on this project, it was decided that subsequent public meetings and/or workshops were not warranted.

  7. QER- Comment of National Wildlife Foundation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mollie Simon Climate and Energy National Wildlife Federation - National Advocacy Center 901 E. Street, NW Suite 400 Washington, DC 20004 +1 202.797.6651

  8. More About Inversions Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About Inversions Background Inversions occur in fluids when a more dense fluid lies beneath a less dense fluid. In the atmosphere, the density is linked to temperature variations with warmer air lying atop colder air. Sounding Analysis - Inversions (Activity) Objective To evaluate radiosonde soundings for inversions. Materials  Soundings for the same date and synoptic time (provided or obtained online) Important Points to Understand The soundings here appear on a Stuve diagram. Because the

  9. OAR 635-100 - Wildlife Diversity Plans | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for Wildlife Diversity Plans used to guide the State of Oregon's Department of Fish and Wildlife when managing non-game wildlife. Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect...

  10. US Fish and Wildlife Service lands biomonitoring operations manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rope, R.C.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    1993-08-01

    This is Volume 1 of an operations manual designed to facilitate the development of biomonitoring strategies for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lands. It is one component of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lands Biomonitoring Operations Manual. The Volume contains the Introduction to the Manual, background information on monitoring, and procedures for developing a biomonitoring strategy for Service lands. The purpose of the Biomonitoring Operations Manual is to provide an approach to develop and implement biomonitoring activities to assess the status and trends of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service trust resources. It also provides field sampline methods and documentation protocols for contaminant monitoring activities. The strategy described in the Manual has been designed as a stand alone process to characterize the presence of contaminants on lands managed by the Service. This process can be sued to develop a monitoring program for any tract of real estate with potential threats from on- or off-site contaminants. Because the process was designed to address concerns for Service lands that span the United States from Alaska to the Tropical Islands, it has a generic format that can be used in al types of ecosystems, however, significant site specific informtion is required to complete the Workbook and make the process work successfully.

  11. ARM - Radar Backgrounder

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CenterRadar Backgrounder Media Contact Hanna Goss hanna-dot-goss-at-pnnl-dot-gov @armnewsteam Field Notes Blog Topics Field Notes110 AGU 3 AMIE 10 ARM Aerial Facility 2 ARM Mobile Facility 1 6 ARM Mobile Facility 2 47 ARM Mobile Facility 3 1 BAECC 1 BBOP 4 ENA 1 GOAMAZON 7 HI-SCALE 3 MAGIC 15 MC3E 17 PECAN 3 SGP 7 STORMVEX 29 TCAP 3 Search News Search Blog News Center All Categories What's this? Social Media Guidance News Center All Categories Features and Releases Facility News Field Notes Blog

  12. UNDERSTANDING INVERSIONS Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UNDERSTANDING INVERSIONS Background When placing any two fluids (either two liquids or two gases) in proximity, the fluids will want to stratify or layer according to their densities (mass per volume). The variation in density can be linked to either what is dissolved in each liquid or the temperature of the two liquids or gases. The denser fluid will settle to the bottom; the warmer fluid will rise to the top, creating an inversion because it is opposite or inverted from what a typical

  13. Bioenergy Technologies Office: Association of Fish and Wildlife...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office: Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies Agricultural Conservation Committee Meeting Bioenergy Technologies Office: Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies Agricultural ...

  14. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Conservation Training...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fish and Wildlife Service National Conservation Training Center, Shepherdstown, West Virginia U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Conservation Training Center, Shepherdstown, ...

  15. Bioenergy Technologies Office: Association of Fish and Wildlife...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bioenergy Technologies Office: Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies Agricultural Conservation Committee Meeting Bioenergy Technologies Office: Association of Fish and Wildlife ...

  16. Final Department of Energy US Fish & Wildlife Service Migratory...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY and THE UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE Regarding ... Department of Energy and United States Fish and Wildlife Service September 12, 2013 ...

  17. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Parks and Wildlife Department Name: Texas Parks and Wildlife Department Address: 4200 Smith School Rd Place: Austin, TX Zip: 78744 Phone Number: (512) 389-4800 Website:...

  18. Nevada Fish & Wildlife Habitat Conservation Plans | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nevada Fish & Wildlife Habitat Conservation Plans Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Nevada Fish & Wildlife Habitat Conservation Plans...

  19. Oregon Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Policy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Policy Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Reference: Oregon Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Policy Published Publisher Not...

  20. Montana Building with Wildlife Guide | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Provides guidance on conservation oriented development. Authors State of Montana Fish and Wildlife & Parks Organizations State of Montana Fish and Wildlife & Parks Published...

  1. Wind-Wildlife Impacts Literature Database (WILD)(Fact Sheet)...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind-Wildlife Impacts Literature Database (WILD) What is WILD? The Wind-Wildlife Impacts Literature Database (WILD), developed and main- tained by the National Wind Technology ...

  2. Hellsgate Big Game Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Site Specific Management Plan for the Hellsgate Project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berger, Matthew T.; Judd, Steven L.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains a detailed site-specific management plan for the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project. The report provides background information about the mitigation process, the review process, mitigation acquisitions, Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) and mitigation crediting, current habitat conditions, desired future habitat conditions, restoration/enhancements efforts and maps.

  3. Post-Closure Land Jurisdiction Transfer to the US Fish and Wildlife Service at Rocky Flats: Surviving the Safari Through Old Records and Other Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiesswohl, S.; Hanson, M.

    2008-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Rocky Flats Site (Rocky Flats), located near Denver, Colorado, was listed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989. Subsequent cleanup and closure activities were completed in October 2005 and the final remedy was selected in September 2006. The remedy is 'no further action' for the generally un-impacted Peripheral Operable Unit (OU), formerly known as the Buffer Zone, and institutional and physical controls with continued monitoring for the Central OU, formerly the industrialized area. The Peripheral OU has been deleted from the NPL and jurisdiction over the majority of land in that OU (3,953 acres) was transferred to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) on July 12, 2007, to establish the Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge. The remaining approximately 929 acres in the Peripheral OU were retained by DOE's Office of Legacy Management where outstanding mineral leases and mining operations exist. As mineral rights are purchased or mining operations and mineral leases are completed and fully reclaimed, jurisdiction of portions of the 929 acres will also be transferred to USFWS for inclusion into the refuge. During the almost 2 years since cleanup and closure work was completed at Rocky Flats, DOE and USFWS have worked the specific legal parameters, timing, and constraints of the 3,953-acre transfer. Many lessons have been learned, based on these early experiences. (authors)

  4. The Wildlife Society 22nd Annual Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Wildlife Society’s 22nd Annual Conference will be held Oct. 17–21, 2015, in Winnipeg, Canada. Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Sustainability Manager Kristen Johnson will be speaking on how partnerships with key stakeholders lead to the research, development, and demonstration of technologies that produce advanced bioenergy and bioproducts from lignocellulosic and algal biomass. Several activities supported by BETO provide insights into how habitat and wildlife can be considered when designing bioenergy systems. Strong public and private collaboration can help meet simultaneous goals of expanding the bioeconomy while also incorporating the needs of wildlife, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and providing other environmental and socio-economic benefits.

  5. OpenEI Community - Fish and Wildlife

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    http:en.openei.orgcommunityblogidaho-meeting-2comments endangered species Fauna Fish and Wildlife Flora FWS Section 12 Section 7 Wed, 05 Sep 2012 04:36:43 +0000 Kyoung 488...

  6. Wildlife and Wind Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the wind industry receives a lot of attention for avian impacts, research shows that nuclear and fossil-fueled plants have a greater impact. The Avian and Wildlife Costs of...

  7. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by large bluff bodies upstream of the turbine, e.g. piers, commonly found in river and tidal channels. Vincent S. Neary, Ph.D., P. E. Email: nearyvs@ornl.gov http:...

  8. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the establishment of the Nevada Test Site (now known as the Nevada National Security Site - NNSS) in 1951, thousands of people from around the world continue to visit this vast outdoor laboratory. Larger than the state of Rhode Island, the site features artifacts and archaeological sites from the early settlers, as well as the many relics remaining from nuclear weapons tests, nuclear rocket experiments, and a variety of other defense, environmental, and energy-related programs. Taking a Tour The

  9. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AGENCY RECORD OF DECISION: AMENDMENT NO. 1 TO FIRM POWER SALES AGREEMENT WITH PORT TOWNSEND PAPER CORPORATION, CONTRACT NO. 11PB-12330 AUTHENTICATED June 28, 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS...

  10. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    marketing and operating arrangement efforts. Flexible contracts responding to the pricing and unbundling forces emerging with the opening of the wholesale power market will...

  11. Background

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... The relative spectral response of the system is the ratio of the standard spectral data of the lamp to that of scanned data (the software program does the math automatically) for ...

  12. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technology, all of which support its national security mission. Sandia & EMCORE Solar Photovoltaics, Fiber Optics, MODE, and Energy Efficiency S a n d i a S t r a t e g i c P a...

  13. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data, and Approach Used in the EBT for the Amendment ... 1 b. IP Rate and Revenue Forecast Used in the EBT for the Amendment ... 2 c. BPA expects to have...

  14. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 5 2. The Agreement will guarantee a revenue stream based on the IP rate, the statutorily defined rate for DSI sales....

  15. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    People in the Pacific Northwest are concerned about what happens at Hanford. The involvement of our citizens is important to Hanford cleanup, because it helps the TPA agencies...

  16. Background:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TABLE OF CONTENTS Recommended Browsers for iSupplier Portal Recommended Microsoft Internet Explorer Browser Settings (MSIE) Recommended Firefox Browser Settings Recommended...

  17. Background

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    potential health hazards associated with air quality related to the removal and storage ... Air goes through the holes in the top of the cup, then through a filter paper behind the ...

  18. BACKGROUND

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    -12 NNSA Delivers Annual Reports to Congress on Progress for Stockpile Stewardship and Nuclear Nonproliferation WASHINGTON, D.C.-The Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) today released the annual reports outlining the strategic direction for two of its vital and enduring missions-maintaining a safe, secure and effective nuclear deterrent and reducing the threat of

    B:REPORT97.PDF B:REPORT97.PDF PDF icon B:REPORT97.PDF More Documents & Publications

  19. Pesticides and their effects on wildlife

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-07-01

    About 560 active ingredients are currently used as pesticides. Applications of these pesticides are made to agricultural lands and other areas inhabited by wildlife. Unfortunately, many agricultural-use pesticides also entail some measure of risk to organisms other than the pest species. Because testing of pesticides prior to registration cannot evaluate all the potential environmental-pesticide-wildlife/fish interactions, current methods of risk assessment do not always provide sufficient safety to nontarget organisms. This is evidenced by die-offs of fish and wildlife from applications of pesticides at environmentally {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} rates, the linking of population declines of some species with agrochemical use, and observations of survival-threatening behavioral changes in laboratory and field animals exposed to typical field levels of pesticides. It is important to note, however, that the majority of pesticides, when properly applied, have not caused significant injury to wildlife. A brief summary of pesticide effects on wildlife and fish are presented for the common classes of pesticides in use today.

  20. Estimating exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-09-01

    This report describes generalized models for the estimation of contaminant exposure experienced by wildlife on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The primary exposure pathway considered is oral ingestion, e.g. the consumption of contaminated food, water, or soil. Exposure through dermal absorption and inhalation are special cases and are not considered hereIN. Because wildlife mobile and generally consume diverse diets and because environmental contamination is not spatial homogeneous, factors to account for variation in diet, movement, and contaminant distribution have been incorporated into the models. To facilitate the use and application of the models, life history parameters necessary to estimate exposure are summarized for 15 common wildlife species. Finally, to display the application of the models, exposure estimates were calculated for four species using data from a source operable unit on the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  1. ITEP Webinar: Climate Change Impacts on Fish and Wildlife

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Attend this Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) webinar and learn the climate change challenges for fish and wildlife and what can be done to help safeguard fish, wildlife, and plants and the communities and economies that depend on them.

  2. 2 CCR 406-9 - Wildlife Properties | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: 2 CCR 406-9 - Wildlife PropertiesLegal Abstract Regulations governing all wildlife...

  3. TPWC 68 - Parks and Wildlife Code Endangered Species | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TPWC 68 - Parks and Wildlife Code Endangered Species Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: TPWC 68 - Parks and Wildlife...

  4. Energy Department Announces New Projects to Help Protect Wildlife...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Projects to Help Protect Wildlife at Wind Energy Plants Energy Department Announces New Projects to Help Protect Wildlife at Wind Energy Plants April 14, 2015 - 1:08pm Addthis ...

  5. US Fish and Wildlife Service Hydropower Licensing webpage | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service Hydropower Licensing webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: US Fish and Wildlife Service Hydropower...

  6. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Preliminary Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration proposes funding the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project in cooperation with the Colville Convederated Tribes and Bureau of Indian Affairs. This Preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. The Propose action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wild life habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  7. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: World Wildlife Fund | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Wildlife Fund Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: World Wildlife Fund Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: World Wildlife Fund Joined the Challenge: April 2014 Headquarters: Washington, DC Charging Location: Washington, DC Domestic Employees: 470 World Wildlife Fun (WWF) works in 100 countries and is supported by 1.2 million members in the United States and close to 5 million globally in their conservation efforts. WWF's unique way of working combines global reach with a foundation

  8. Innovative Study Helps Offshore Wind Developers Protect Wildlife |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Study Helps Offshore Wind Developers Protect Wildlife Innovative Study Helps Offshore Wind Developers Protect Wildlife October 27, 2015 - 9:33am Addthis Innovative Study Helps Offshore Wind Developers Protect Wildlife Jocelyn Brown-Saracino Jocelyn Brown-Saracino Environmental Research Manager, Wind and Water Power Technologies Office Thanks to a first-of-its-kind in-depth study of wildlife distribution and movements, the nation's Eastern Seaboard is better prepared than

  9. Southern Idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bottum, Edward; Mikkelsen, Anders

    2001-03-01

    This report covers calendar year 2000 activities for the Southern Idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation project. This project, implemented by Idaho Department of Fish and Game and Shoshone Bannock Tribes wildlife mitigation staff, is designed to protect, enhance and maintain wildlife habitats to mitigate construction losses for Palisades, Anderson Ranch, Black Canyon and Minidoka hydroelectric projects. Additional project information is available in the quarterly reports.

  10. Southern idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bottum, Edward; Mikkelsen, Anders

    2000-04-01

    This report is for the Southern Idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation project. This project, implemented by IDFG and SBT wildlife mitigation staff, is designed to protect, enhance and maintain wildlife habitats to mitigate construction losses for Palisades, Anderson Ranch, Black Canyon and Minidoka hydroelectric projects. Additional project information is available in the quarterly reports.

  11. Micrometeorological data for energy-budget studies near Rogers Spring, Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nye County, Nevada, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, W.D.; Rapp, T.R.

    1996-05-01

    The data were collected at two sites near Rogers Spring for use in energy-budget studies beginning in 1994. The data collected at each site included net radiation, air temperature at two heights, dew- point temperature at two heights, windspeed at two heights, soil heat flux, and soil temperature in the interval between the land surface and the buried heat-flux plates.

  12. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation Plan for Libby Hydroelectric Project, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mundinger, John

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the proposed mitigation plan for wildlife losses attributable to the construction of the Libby hydroelectric project. Mitigation objectives and alternatives, the recommended mitigation projects, and the crediting system for each project are described by each target species. The report describes mitigation that has already taken place and 8 recommended mitigation projects designed to complete total wildlife mitigation. 8 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. BEDES Background | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Background BEDES Background The Building Energy Data Exchange Specification data dictionary is a response to the need for a standardized system of terms and definitions for building energy performance data. By providing a set of common terms and definitions, BEDES will provide the framework on which to build interoperable data schemas and software tools which reduce the time and expense currently invested in sharing data. HISTORY BEDES was originally developed for internal use to improve

  14. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  15. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1 (2015) 787 - 795 Physics Procedia Low Background Counting at LBNL A.R. Smitha, K.J. Thomasb'a, E.B. Normanb'a, Y.D. Chana, K.T. Leskoc, D.L. Hurleya aNuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 bDepartment of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 cPhysics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 Abstract The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley,

  16. Detector Background at Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

  17. Solar Background Document 3 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    3 Solar Background Document 3 A list of private sector investment in Solyndra. PDF icon Solar Background Document 3.pdf More Documents & Publications Solar Background Document 2...

  18. Solar Background Document 5 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Solar Background Document 5 Graph illustrating Chinese Development Bank financing to Chinese solar companies. PDF icon Solar Background Document 5.pdf More Documents & Publications Solar Background Document 7 National Solar Jobs Census 2014 Solar Background Document 4

  19. The isotropic radio background revisited

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco; Lineros, Roberto A.

    2014-04-01

    We present an extensive analysis on the determination of the isotropic radio background. We consider six different radio maps, ranging from 22 MHz to 2.3 GHz and covering a large fraction of the sky. The large scale emission is modeled as a linear combination of an isotropic component plus the Galactic synchrotron radiation and thermal bremsstrahlung. Point-like and extended sources are either masked or accounted for by means of a template. We find a robust estimate of the isotropic radio background, with limited scatter among different Galactic models. The level of the isotropic background lies significantly above the contribution obtained by integrating the number counts of observed extragalactic sources. Since the isotropic component dominates at high latitudes, thus making the profile of the total emission flat, a Galactic origin for such excess appears unlikely. We conclude that, unless a systematic offset is present in the maps, and provided that our current understanding of the Galactic synchrotron emission is reasonable, extragalactic sources well below the current experimental threshold seem to account for the majority of the brightness of the extragalactic radio sky.

  20. Blue Creek Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project : Preliminary Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs; Spokane Tribe of the Spokane Reservation, Washington

    1994-11-01

    This preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of securing land and conducting wildlife habitat enhancement and long term management activities within the boundaries of the Spokane Indian Reservation. Four proposed activities are analyzed: Habitat protection; Habitat enhancement; Operation and maintenance; and Monitoring and evaluation. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and its reservoir.

  1. NREL: Wind-Wildlife Impacts Literature Database (WILD) Home Page

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL - National Renewable Energy Laboratory Wind-Wildlife Impacts Literature Database (WILD) Wind Research WILD WILD Browse By Reset All Geography Africa (45) Apply Africa filter...

  2. Native American Fish and Wildlife Society Pacific Region Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Native American Fish and Wildlife Society is hosting a two-day conference featuring tribal roundtables on harvest methods, forest service, and more.

  3. EA-0928: Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Project, Multnomah County, Oregon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the U.S. Department of Energy's Bonneville Power Administration proposal to fund wildlife management and enhancement activities for the Burlington...

  4. OAR - Division 100-Wildlife Diversity Plan | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    availability: http:crossref.org Citation Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleOAR-Division100-WildlifeDiversityPlan&oldid792434" Feedback Contact...

  5. Bioenergy Technologies Office: Association of Fish and Wildlife...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Association of Fish & Wildlife Agencies Agricultural Conservation Committee Meeting March 29, 2013 Kristen Johnson Sustainability ...

  6. India-Legislation on Environment, Forests and Wildlife | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on Environment, Forests and Wildlife1 Overview "Category Name Water Pollution Air Pollution Environment Protection Coastal Regulation Zone Delegation of Powers...

  7. BPA celebrates protection of Lemhi River fish and wildlife habitat

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    celebrates-protection-of-Lemhi-River-fish-and-wildlife-habitat Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives...

  8. United States Fish and Wildlife Service - Habitat Conservation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: United States Fish and Wildlife Service - Habitat Conservation Plans Under the Endangered Species...

  9. California Department of Fish and Wildlife Consistency Determination...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    California Department of Fish and Wildlife Consistency Determination Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: California Department of...

  10. California Department of Fish and Wildlife Environmental Review...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    California Department of Fish and Wildlife Environmental Review and Permitting Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: California...

  11. California Department of Fish and Wildlife: Federal Energy Regulatory...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fish and Wildlife: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Hydroelectric Projects Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: California...

  12. Nevada Department of Wildlife Energy Planning and Conservation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nevada Department of Wildlife Energy Planning and Conservation Fund Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Nevada Department of...

  13. Rainwater Wildlife Area Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report; A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, Allen B.

    2004-01-01

    The 8,768 acre Rainwater Wildlife Area was acquired in September 1998 by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) through an agreement with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to partially offset habitat losses associated with construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the mainstem Columbia River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to BPA for acquired lands. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grassland cover types are evaluated in this study. Targeted wildlife species include downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricopillus), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 65,300, 594m{sup 2}2 plots, and 112 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 153.3 and 7,187.46 acres were evaluated for each target wildlife mitigation species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total baseline habitat units credited to BPA for the Rainwater Wildlife Area and its seven target species is 5,185.3 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing, road de-commissioning/obliteration, reforestation and thinning, control of competing and unwanted vegetation (including noxious weeds), reestablishing displaced or reduced native vegetation species, allowance of normative processes such as fire occurrence, and facilitating development of natural stable stream channels and associated floodplains. Implementation of habitat enhancement and restoration activities could generate an additional 1,850 habitat units in 10 years. Baseline and estimated future habitat units total 7,035.3 for the Rainwater Wildlife Area. Habitat protection, enhancement and restoration will require long-term commitments from managers to increase probabilities of success and meet the goals and objectives of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Program.

  14. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Moves toward Net-Zero Buildings (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-12-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's net-zero energy visitor's center at the Assabet River National Wildlife.

  15. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.; Bounds, John A.

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  16. Low Background Counting At SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

    2011-04-27

    It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

  17. Low background aspects of GERDA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simgen, Hardy [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-04-27

    The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in {sup 76}Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from {sup 222}Rn. The main source of {sup 222}Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq {sup 228}Th.

  18. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1996-06-11

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

  19. Wind-Wildlife Impacts Literature Database (WILD)(Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    The Wind-Wildlife Impacts Literature Database (WILD), developed and maintained by the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is comprised of over 1,000 citations pertaining to the effects of land-based wind, offshore wind, marine and hydrokinetic, power lines, and communication and television towers on wildlife.

  20. Widget:Background-Image | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Edit History Widget:Background-Image Jump to: navigation, search MHK Instrumentation & Sensor Database pages use this widget to load device images as CSS background rather than...

  1. Malheur River Wildlife Mitigation Project, Annual Report 2003.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashley, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Hydropower development within the Columbia and Snake River Basins has significantly affected riparian, riverine, and adjacent upland habitats and the fish and wildlife species dependent upon them. Hydroelectric dams played a major role in the extinction or major loss of both anadromous and resident salmonid populations and altered instream and adjacent upland habitats, water quality, and riparian/riverine function. Hydroelectric facility construction and inundation directly affected fish and wildlife species and habitats. Secondary and tertiary impacts including road construction, urban development, irrigation, and conversion of native habitats to agriculture, due in part to the availability of irrigation water, continue to affect wildlife and fish populations throughout the Columbia and Snake River Basins. Fluctuating water levels resulting from facility operations have created exposed sand, cobble, and/or rock zones. These zones are generally devoid of vegetation with little opportunity to re-establish riparian plant communities. To address the habitat and wildlife losses, the United States Congress in 1980 passed the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Act) (P.L. 96-501), which authorized the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington to create the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The Act directed the Council to prepare a program in conjunction with federal, state, and tribal wildlife resource authorities to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife species affected by the construction, inundation and operation of hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin (NPPC 2000). Under the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program), the region's fish and wildlife agencies, tribes, non-government organizations (NGOs), and the public propose fish and wildlife projects that address wildlife and fish losses resulting from dam construction and subsequent inundation. As directed by the Council, project proposals are subjected to a rigorous review process prior to receiving final approval. An eleven-member panel of scientists referred to as the Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP) examines project proposals. The ISRP recommends project approval based on scientific merit. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority (CBFWA), Council staff, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and subbasin groups also review project proposals to ensure each project meets regional and subbasin goals and objectives. The Program also includes a public involvement component that gives the public an opportunity to provide meaningful input on management proposals. After a thorough review, the Burns Paiute Tribe (BPT) acquired the Malheur River Mitigation Project (Project) with BPA funds to compensate, in part, for the loss of fish and wildlife resources in the Columbia and Snake River Basins and to address a portion of the mitigation goals identified in the Council's Program (NPPC 2000).

  2. Tribal Wildlife Grant (FWS)- Grant Writing Strategy Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Prosper Sustainably is hosting a free webinar on July 23, 2014 at 1pm PST that reviews the FWS Tribal Wildlife Grant funding opportunity. During the webinar Josh Simmons, Prosper Sustainably’s...

  3. EA-1096: Washington Wildlife Mitigation Projects (Programmatic), Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal for the U.S. Department of Energy Bonneville Power Administration to fund the portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement...

  4. Market-Based Wildlife Mitigation in Wyoming | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in Wyoming Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Market-Based Wildlife Mitigation in Wyoming Abstract Covers the basics of mitigation...

  5. Market-based Wildlife Mitigation in Wyoming: A Primer | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A Primer Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Market-based Wildlife Mitigation in Wyoming: A Primer Abstract Covers the basics of...

  6. Nevada Department of Wildlife Application for Energy Projects...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nevada Department of Wildlife Application for Energy Projects "Fund for the Recovery of Costs" Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document-...

  7. Utah Division of Wildlife Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Utah Division of Wildlife Resources Address: 1594 W North Temple, Suite 2110, Box 146301 Place: Salt Lake City, Utah Zip: 84114-6301 Phone Number: 801-538-4745 Website:...

  8. EA-1023: Willow Creek Wildlife Mitigation Project, Eugene, Oregon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the U.S. Department of Energy's Bonneville Power Administration's proposal to fund habitat acquisition (of land or a conservation easement), wildlife...

  9. Title 50 CFR 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Federal RegulationFederal Regulation: Title 50...

  10. Colorado Parks and Wildlife Rules and Regulations | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rules and Regulations Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Colorado Parks and Wildlife Rules and Regulations Abstract This web page lists...

  11. WAC - 232-12-014 Wildlife Classified as Endangered Species |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    WAC - 232-12-014 Wildlife Classified as Endangered Species Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: WAC - 232-12-014...

  12. EA-0939: Blue Creek Winter Range: Wildlife Mitigation Project, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal for the U.S. Department of Energy's Bonneville Power Administration to secure land and conduct wildlife habitat enhancement and long term...

  13. United States Fish and Wildlife Service - Endangered Species...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: United States Fish and Wildlife Service - Endangered Species Act of 1973Legal Abstract This page links to...

  14. Native American Fish and Wildlife Society Pacific Region Conference...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Montana Kwa-Taq-Nuk Casino Resort 49708 US-93 Polson, MT 59860 The Native American Fish and Wildlife Society is hosting a two-day conference featuring tribal roundtables on...

  15. FSM 2600 Wildlife, Fish, and Sensitive Plan Habitat Management...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FSM 2600 Wildlife, Fish, and Sensitive Plan Habitat Management Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: FSM 2600...

  16. Wildlife studies on the Hanford Site: 1993 Highlights report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadwell, L.L.

    1994-04-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Wildlife Resources Monitoring Project was initiated by DOE to track the status of wildlife populations to determine whether Hanford operations affected them. The project continues to conduct a census of wildlife populations that are highly visible, economically or aesthetically important, and rare or otherwise considered sensitive. Examples of long-term data collected and maintained through the Wildlife Resources Monitoring Project include annual goose nesting surveys conducted on islands in the Hanford Reach, wintering bald eagle surveys, and fall Chinook salmon redd (nest) surveys. The report highlights activities related to salmon and mollusks on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River; describes efforts to map vegetation on the Site and efforts to survey species of concern; provides descriptions of shrub-steppe bird surveys, including bald eagles, Canada geese, and hawks; outlines efforts to monitor mule deer and elk populations on the Site; and describes development of a biological database management system.

  17. PNNL Reviews Wildlife-Interaction Monitoring for Offshore Wind Farms -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Hybrids Show Best Potential | Department of Energy Reviews Wildlife-Interaction Monitoring for Offshore Wind Farms - Technology Hybrids Show Best Potential PNNL Reviews Wildlife-Interaction Monitoring for Offshore Wind Farms - Technology Hybrids Show Best Potential February 24, 2012 - 11:30am Addthis This is an excerpt from the First Quarter 2012 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. Adding offshore wind to the U.S. renewable energy portfolio promises access to a large,

  18. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-03-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Colville Confederated Tribes and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The proposed action would allow the sponsors to secure property and conduct wildlife management activities within the boundaries of the Colville Indian Reservation. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. This area consists of several separated land parcels, of which 2,000 hectares (4,943 acres) have been purchased by BPA and an additional 4,640 hectares (11,466 acres) have been identified by the Colville Confederated Tribes for inclusion in the Project. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  19. Blue Creek Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs; Spokane Tribe of the Spokane Reservation, Washington

    1994-11-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund that portion of the Washington Wildlife Agreement pertaining to the Blue Creek Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Spokane Tribe, Upper Columbia United Tribes, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). If fully implemented, the proposed action would allow the sponsors to protect and enhance 2,631 habitat units of big game winter range and riparian shrub habitat on 2,185 hectares (5,400 acres) of Spokane Tribal trust lands, and to conduct long term wildlife management activities within the Spokane Indian Reservation project area. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of securing land and conducting wildlife habitat enhancement and long term management activities within the boundaries of the Spokane Indian Reservation. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and its reservoir.

  20. Solar Background Document 6 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 Solar Background Document 6 Graph illustrating solar cell production in the United States and China from 2002 to 2010. PDF icon Solar Background Document 6.pdf More Documents & ...

  1. Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project : Rainwater Wildlife Area Final Management Plan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, Allen

    2002-03-01

    This Draft Management Plan has been developed by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) to document how the Rainwater Wildlife Area (formerly known as the Rainwater Ranch) will be managed. The plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Appendix A and Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus our management actions and prioritize funding during the Fiscal 2001-2005 planning period. This plan is a product of nearly two years of field studies and research, public scoping, and coordination with the Rainwater Advisory Committee. The committee consists of representatives from tribal government, state agencies, local government, public organizations, and members of the public. The plan is organized into several sections with Chapter 1 providing introductory information such as project location, purpose and need, project goals and objectives, common elements and assumptions, coordination efforts and public scoping, and historical information about the project area. Key issues are presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 discusses existing resource conditions within the wildlife area. Chapter 4 provides a detailed presentation on management activities and Chapter 5 outlines a monitoring and evaluation plan for the project that will help assess whether the project is meeting the intended purpose and need and the goals and objectives. Chapter 6 displays the action plan and provides a prioritized list of actions with associated budget for the next five year period. Successive chapters contain appendices, references, definitions, and a glossary.

  2. Paducah Background Factsheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Paducah Background Factsheet Paducah Background Factsheet Background Fact Sheet Transfer of Depleted Uranium and Subsequent Transactions, May 15, 2012 PDF icon Paducah Background Factsheet_0.pdf More Documents & Publications Excess Uranium Inventory Management Plan 2008 2014 Review of the Potential Impact of DOE Excess Uranium Inventory On the Commercial Markets Quantification of the Potential Impact on Commercial Markets of Introduction of the Enrichment Services Component of DOE Low

  3. Bonneville Power Administration Wildlife Mitigation Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is responsible for mitigating the loss of wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian Tribes, state agencies, property owners, private conservation groups, and other Federal agencies. Future wildlife mitigation actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include land acquisition and management, water rights acquisition and management, habitat restoration and enhancement, installation of watering devices, riparian fencing, and similar wildlife conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual wildlife mitigation projects are planned and managed with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as across time. BPA proposes to standardize the planning and implementation of individual wildlife mitigation projects funded by BPA. Alternative 1 is the No Action alternative. Five standardizing alternatives are identified to represent the range of possible strategies, goals, and procedural requirements reasonably applicable to BPA-funded projects under a standardized approach to project planning and implementation. All action alternatives are based on a single project planning process designed to resolve site-specific issues in an ecosystem context and to adapt to changing conditions and information.

  4. Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Project, 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soults, Scott

    2009-08-05

    The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group (AFIWG) was actively involved in implementing wildlife mitigation activities in late 2007, but due to internal conflicts, the AFIWG members has fractionated into a smaller group. Implementation of the monitoring and evaluation program continued across protected lands. As of 2008, The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group (Work Group) is a coalition comprised of wildlife managers from three tribal entities (Kalispel Tribe, Kootenai Tribe, Coeur d Alene Tribe) and the US Army Corps of Engineers. The Work Group directs where wildlife mitigation implementation occurs in the Kootenai, Pend Oreille and Coeur d Alene subbasins. The Work Group is unique in the Columbia Basin. The Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority (CBFWA) wildlife managers in 1995, approved what was one of the first two project proposals to implement mitigation on a programmatic basis. The maintenance of this kind of approach through time has allowed the Work Group to implement an effective and responsive habitat protection program by reducing administrative costs associated with site-specific project proposals. The core mitigation entities maintain approximately 9,335 acres of wetland/riparian habitats in 2008.

  5. Willow Creek Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    Today`s notice announces BPA`s proposal to fund land acquisition or acquisition of a conservation easement and a wildlife management plan to protect and enhance wildlife habitat at the Willow Creek Natural Area in Eugene, Oregon. This action would provide partial mitigation for wildlife and wildlife habitat lost by the development of Federal hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin. The project is consistent with BPA`s obligations under provisions of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 as outlined by the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1023) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  6. High frequency background quantization of gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    von Borzeszkowski, H.

    1982-06-01

    Considering background quantization of gravitational fields, it is generally assumed that the classical background satisfies Einstein's gravitational equations. However, there exist arguments showing that, for high frequency (quantum) fluctuations, this assumption has to be replaced by a condition describing the back reaction of fluctuations on the background. It is shown that such an approach leads to limitations for the quantum procedure which occur at distances larger than Planck's elementary length 1 = (Gh/c/sup 3/)/sup 1/2/.

  7. Solar Background Document 1 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar loan guarantee application from 2006 to 2009. PDF icon Solar Background Document 1.pdf More Documents & Publications Special Report: 11-0078-I Before the House ...

  8. Background Information for Independent Review Team. Lifecycle...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Background Information for Independent Review Team. Lifecycle Plan and FY14 Quarterly ... Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ...

  9. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site.

  10. Final Report of the Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Management Scott Johnston U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Brian Kinlan ... Division of Migratory Bird Management U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Daniel Martin I.M. ...

  11. File:03-TX-e - Lease of Texas Parks & Wildlife Department Land...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    3-TX-e - Lease of Texas Parks & Wildlife Department Land (1).pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:03-TX-e - Lease of Texas Parks & Wildlife...

  12. I.C. 36-103 - Wildlife Property of State--Preservation | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    I.C. 36-103 - Wildlife Property of State--Preservation Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: I.C. 36-103 - Wildlife...

  13. EIS-0246: Wildlife Mitigation Program, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Washington, Oregon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    BPA has decided to adopt the set of prescriptions (goals, strategies, and procedural requirements) identified in the final EIS as “Alternative 6, Balanced Action (BPA’s Preferred Alternative).” This decision will standardize the planning and implementation process, while achieving balance among all decision factors: (1) meeting the biological objectives of wildlife mitigation projects, (2) achievement of cost and administrative efficiency, (3) compliance with all applicable laws and regulations, and (4) protection and improvement of other environmental resources when such actions would support wildlife mitigation.

  14. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Conservation Training Center,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Shepherdstown, West Virginia | Department of Energy Fish and Wildlife Service National Conservation Training Center, Shepherdstown, West Virginia U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Conservation Training Center, Shepherdstown, West Virginia Photo of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Conservation Training Center Shepherdstown, West Virginia, is the home of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) National Conservation Training Center (NCTC). The 500-acre site includes 16 buildings

  15. Background considerations for SuperCDMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooley, J.; Collaboration: SuperCDMS Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    Rejection and protection from background is a key issue for the next generation SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment that will have a cross-section sensitivity of better than 8 × 10{sup −46} cm{sup 2} for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interactions. This paper presents the details of the methods used to reject electromagnetic backgrounds using the new iZIP detectors that are currently operated in the Soudan Underground Laboratory, MN and the methods the collaboration is investigating to protect against neutron background in the next generation SuperCDMS experiment.

  16. Low background counting techniques at SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)] [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

    2013-08-08

    Many of the experiments currently searching for dark matter, studying properties of neutrinos or searching for neutrinoless double beta decay require very low levels of radioactive backgrounds both in their own construction materials and in the surrounding environment. These low background levels are required so that the experiments can achieve the required sensitivities for their searches. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to directly measure these radioactive backgrounds. This proceedings will describe SNOLAB's High Purity Germanium Detectors, one of which has been in continuous use for the past seven years measuring materials for many experiments in operation or under construction at SNOLAB. A description of the characterisation of SNOLAB's new germanium well detector will be presented. In addition, brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be presented and a description of SNOLAB's future low background counting laboratory will be given.

  17. Lighting Choices - White Background | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Choices - White Background Image icon All of these lightbulbs-CFLs, LEDs, and energy-saving incandescents-meet the new energy standards that take effect from 2012-2014. More...

  18. TEC Working Group Background | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Background TEC Working Group Background Through the TEC/WG, DOE interacted with representatives of organizations at the state, tribal, and local levels to obtain input for program needs assessment, development and management, and to enhance their capability to carry out transportation emergency preparedness and safety activities specifically related to radioactive materials shipments. TEC membership included representatives from national, state, tribal and local government organizations, labor,

  19. Network Requirements Workshop - Documents and Background Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Requirements Review Reports Case Studies News & Publications ESnet News Publications and Presentations Galleries ESnet Awards and Honors Blog ESnet Live Home » Science Engagement » Science Requirements Reviews » Network Requirements Reviews » Documents and Background Materials Science Engagement Move your data Programs & Workshops Science Requirements Reviews Network Requirements Reviews Documents and Background Materials FAQ for Case Study Authors BER Requirements Review 2015 ASCR

  20. EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT FROM HIERARCHICAL GALAXY FORMATION:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GAMMA-RAY ATTENUATION UP TO THE EPOCH OF COSMIC REIONIZATION AND THE FIRST STARS (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT FROM HIERARCHICAL GALAXY FORMATION: GAMMA-RAY ATTENUATION UP TO THE EPOCH OF COSMIC REIONIZATION AND THE FIRST STARS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT FROM HIERARCHICAL GALAXY FORMATION: GAMMA-RAY ATTENUATION UP TO THE EPOCH OF COSMIC REIONIZATION AND THE FIRST STARS We present a new model of the

  1. Extragalactic Background Light from Hierarchical Galaxy Formation:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Gamma-ray Attenuation up to the Epoch of Cosmic Reionization and the First Stars (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Extragalactic Background Light from Hierarchical Galaxy Formation: Gamma-ray Attenuation up to the Epoch of Cosmic Reionization and the First Stars Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Extragalactic Background Light from Hierarchical Galaxy Formation: Gamma-ray Attenuation up to the Epoch of Cosmic Reionization and the First Stars Authors: Inoue,

  2. Scotch Creek Wildlife Area 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, Jim

    2008-11-03

    The Scotch Creek Wildlife Area is a complex of 6 separate management units located in Okanogan County in North-central Washington State. The project is located within the Columbia Cascade Province (Okanogan sub-basin) and partially addresses adverse impacts caused by the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee hydroelectric dams. With the acquisition of the Eder unit in 2007, the total size of the wildlife area is now 19,860 acres. The Scotch Creek Wildlife Area was approved as a wildlife mitigation project in 1996 and habitat enhancement efforts to meet mitigation objectives have been underway since the spring of 1997 on Scotch Creek. Continuing efforts to monitor the threatened Sharp-tailed grouse population on the Scotch Creek unit are encouraging. The past two spring seasons were unseasonably cold and wet, a dangerous time for the young of the year. This past spring, Scotch Creek had a cold snap with snow on June 10th, a critical period for young chicks just hatched. Still, adult numbers on the leks have remained stable the past two years. Maintenance of BPA funded enhancements is necessary to protect and enhance shrub-steppe and to recover and sustain populations of Sharp-tailed grouse and other obligate species.

  3. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    REFUGE AUGUSTA STUTTGART HELENA WHITE RIVER NATIONAL0 WILDLIFE REFUGE GREERS FERRY RESERVOIR N Little Rock District, Southwestern Division * Watershed Comprises -...

  4. Microsoft PowerPoint - SWL HPConf2009 (final).ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    REFUGE AUGUSTA STUTTGART HELENA WHITE RIVER NATIONAL0 WILDLIFE REFUGE GREERS FERRY RESERVOIR N Little Rock District, Southwestern Division *Watershed Comprises -...

  5. Enhancements to the MCNP6 background source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McMath, Garrett E.; McKinney, Gregg W.

    2015-10-19

    The particle transport code MCNP has been used to produce a background radiation data file on a worldwide grid that can easily be sampled as a source in the code. Location-dependent cosmic showers were modeled by Monte Carlo methods to produce the resulting neutron and photon background flux at 2054 locations around Earth. An improved galactic-cosmic-ray feature was used to model the source term as well as data from multiple sources to model the transport environment through atmosphere, soil, and seawater. A new elevation scaling feature was also added to the code to increase the accuracy of the cosmic neutronmore » background for user locations with off-grid elevations. Furthermore, benchmarking has shown the neutron integral flux values to be within experimental error.« less

  6. Background model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuesta, C. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Abgrall, N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Aguayo, E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Avignone, F. T. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Barabash, A. S. [Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow (Russian Federation); Bertrand, F. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boswell, M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brudanin, V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Busch, M. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Byram, D. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Caldwell, A. S. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Chan, Y -D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Christofferson, C. D. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Combs, D. C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Detwiler, J. A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Doe, P. J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Efremenko, Yu. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Egorov, V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Ejiri, H. [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics and Dept. of Physics; Elliott, S. R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fast, J. E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Finnerty, P. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Fraenkle, F. M. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Galindo-Uribarri, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Giovanetti, G. K. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Goett, J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Green, M. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gruszko, J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Guiseppe, V. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Gusev, K. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Hallin, A. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Hazama, R. [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics and Dept. of Physics; Hegai, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Henning, R. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Hoppe, E. W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Howard, S. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Howe, M. A. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Keeter, K. J. [Black Hills State Univ., Spearfish, SD (United States); Kidd, M. F. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Kochetov, O. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Konovalov, S. I. [Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow (Russian Federation); Kouzes, R. T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); LaFerriere, B. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leon, J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Leviner, L. E. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Loach, J. C. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China)

    2015-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  7. Background compensation for a radiation level monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keefe, D.J.

    1975-12-01

    Background compensation in a device such as a hand and foot monitor is provided by digital means using a scaler. With no radiation level test initiated, a scaler is down-counted from zero according to the background measured. With a radiation level test initiated, the scaler is up-counted from the previous down-count position according to the radiation emitted from the monitored object and an alarm is generated if, with the scaler having crossed zero in the positive going direction, a particular number is exceeded in a specific time period after initiation of the test. If the test is initiated while the scale is down-counting, the background count from the previous down- count stored in a memory is used as the initial starting point for the up-count.

  8. Background model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example usingmore » powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.« less

  9. Enhancements to the MCNP6 background source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMath, Garrett E.; McKinney, Gregg W.

    2015-10-19

    The particle transport code MCNP has been used to produce a background radiation data file on a worldwide grid that can easily be sampled as a source in the code. Location-dependent cosmic showers were modeled by Monte Carlo methods to produce the resulting neutron and photon background flux at 2054 locations around Earth. An improved galactic-cosmic-ray feature was used to model the source term as well as data from multiple sources to model the transport environment through atmosphere, soil, and seawater. A new elevation scaling feature was also added to the code to increase the accuracy of the cosmic neutron background for user locations with off-grid elevations. Furthermore, benchmarking has shown the neutron integral flux values to be within experimental error.

  10. Compensatable muon collider calorimeter with manageable backgrounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raja, Rajendran

    2015-02-17

    A method and system for reducing background noise in a particle collider, comprises identifying an interaction point among a plurality of particles within a particle collider associated with a detector element, defining a trigger start time for each of the pixels as the time taken for light to travel from the interaction point to the pixel and a trigger stop time as a selected time after the trigger start time, and collecting only detections that occur between the start trigger time and the stop trigger time in order to thereafter compensate the result from the particle collider to reduce unwanted background detection.

  11. Microsoft Word - Appendix A_Background.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Background Information, Remedial Action Histories, Present Site Conditions U.S. Department of Energy Weldon Spring Site LTS&M Plan July 2005 Doc. No. S0079000 Page A-iii Contents A1.1 Location and Property Ownership ................................................................................1 A1.2 Physiography and Topography.....................................................................................4 A1.3 Hydrogeology

  12. Wildlife Protection, Mitigation, and Enhancement Planning Phase II, Dworshak Reservoir, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, H. Jerome; Martin, Robert C.

    1989-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 directed that measures be implemented to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife to the extent affected by development and operation of hydropower projects on the Columbia River System. This Act created the Northwest Power Planning Council, which in turn developed the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. This program established a four-part process: wildlife mitigation status reports; wildlife impact assessments; wildlife protection, mitigation, and enhancement plans; and implementation of protection, mitigation, and enhancement projects. This mitigation plan for the Dworshak Reservoir Hydroelectric Facility was developed to fulfill requirements of Sections 1003(b)(2) and (3) of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Specific objectives of wildlife protection, mitigation, and enhancement planning for Dworshak Reservoir included: quantify net impacts to target wildlife species affected by hydroelectric development and operation of Dworshak Dam and Reservoir; develop protection, mitigation, and enhancement goals and objectives for the target wildlife species; recommend protection, mitigation, and enhancement actions for the target wildlife species; and coordination of project activities. 46 refs., 4 figs., 31 tabs.

  13. Wanaket Wildlife Area Management Plan : Five-Year Plan for Protecting, Enhancing, and Mitigating Wildlife Habitat Losses for the McNary Hydroelectric Facility.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Wildlife Program

    2001-09-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) propose to continue to protect, enhance, and mitigate wildlife and wildlife habitat at the Wanaket Wildlife Area. The Wanaket Wildlife Area was approved as a Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) in 1993. This management plan will provide an update of the original management plan approved by BPA in 1995. Wanaket will contribute towards meeting BPA's obligation to compensate for wildlife habitat losses resulting from the construction of the McNary Hydroelectric facility on the Columbia River. By funding the enhancement and operation and maintenance of the Wanaket Wildlife Area, BPA will receive credit towards their mitigation debt. The purpose of the Wanaket Wildlife Area management plan update is to provide programmatic and site-specific standards and guidelines on how the Wanaket Wildlife Area will be managed over the next five years. This plan provides overall guidance on both short and long term activities that will move the area towards the goals, objectives, and desired future conditions for the planning area. The plan will incorporate managed and protected wildlife and wildlife habitat, including operations and maintenance, enhancements, and access and travel management. Specific project objectives are related to protection and enhancement of wildlife habitats and are expressed in terms of habitat units (HU's). Habitat units were developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP), and are designed to track habitat gains and/or losses associated with mitigation and/or development projects. Habitat Units for a given species are a product of habitat quantity (expressed in acres) and habitat quality estimates. Habitat quality estimates are developed using Habitat Suitability Indices (HSI). These indices are based on quantifiable habitat features such as vegetation height, shrub cover, or other parameters, which are known to provide life history requisites for mitigation species. Habitat Suitability Indices range from 0 to 1, with an HSI of 1 providing optimum habitat conditions for the selected species. One acre of optimum habitat provides one Habitat Unit. The objective of continued management of the Wanaket Wildlife Mitigation Area, including protection and enhancement of upland and wetland/wetland associated cover types, is to provide and maintain 2,334 HU's of protection credit and generate 2,495 HU's of enhancement credit by the year 2004.

  14. Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

  15. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affleck, Rhett L.; Ambrose, W. Patrick; Demas, James N.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Johnson, Mitchell E.; Keller, Richard A.; Petty, Jeffrey T.; Schecker, Jay A.; Wu, Ming

    1998-01-01

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

  16. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

    1998-11-10

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

  17. DOE Vendor Communication Plan I. Background

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vendor Communication Plan I. Background On February 2, 2011, the Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP) issued a memorandum entitled "Myth-Busting: Addressing Misconceptions to Improve Communication with Industry during the Acquisition Process." In addition to identifying and refuting common misconceptions about vendor engagement, the memorandum directed agencies to develop high-level vendor communication plans to discuss how each agency will reduce unnecessary barriers, publicize

  18. Background Model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, Estanislao; Avignone, Frank T.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Combs, Dustin C.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, James E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, Reyco; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, Werner; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; White, Brandon R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a prototype system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment to search for neutrinoless double-beta (0v BB) decay in 76Ge. In view of the requirement that the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0vBB-decay experiment be capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of theMajorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using Geant4 simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  19. Shillapoo Wildlife Area 2007 Follow-up HEP Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashley, Paul R.

    2008-03-01

    In April and May 2007 the Regional HEP Team (RHT) conducted a follow-up HEP analysis on the Egger (612 acres) and Herzog (210 acres) parcels located at the north end of the Shillapoo Wildlife Area. The Egger and Herzog parcels have been managed with Bonneville Power Administration funds since acquired in 1998 and 2001 respectively. Slightly more than 936 habitat units (936.47) or 1.14 HUs per acre was generated as an outcome of the 2007 follow-up HEP surveys. Results included 1.65 black-capped chickadee HUs, 280.57 great blue heron HUs, 581.45 Canada goose HUs, 40 mallard HUs, and 32.80 mink HUs. Introduction A follow-up Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) (USFWS 1980) analysis was conducted by the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority's (CBFWA) Regional HEP Team (RHT) during April and May 2007 to document changes in habitat quality and to determine the number of habitat units (HUs) to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for providing operation and maintenance (O&M) funds since WDFW acquired the parcels. The 2007 follow-up HEP evaluation was limited to Shillapoo Wildlife Area (SWA) parcels purchased with Bonneville Power Administration funds. D. Budd (pers. comm.) reported WDFW purchased the 612 acre Egger Farms parcel on November 2, 1998 for $1,737,0001 and the 210 acre Herzog acquisition on June 21, 2001 for $500,000 with Memorandum of Agreement funds (BPA and WDFW 1996) as partial fulfillment of BPA's wildlife mitigation obligation for construction of Bonneville and John Day Dams (Rasmussen and Wright 1989). Anticipating the eventual acquisition of the Egger and Herzog properties, WDFW conducted HEP surveys on these lands in 1994 to determine the potential number of habitat units to be credited to BPA. As a result, HEP surveys and habitat unit calculations were completed as much as seven years prior to acquiring the sites. The term 'Shillapoo Wildlife Area' will be used to describe only the Herzog and Egger parcels in this document. Details and results of the HEP analysis are included in this report.

  20. Wildlife Mitigation and Restoration for Grand Coulee Dam: Blue Creek Project, Phase 1.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merker, Christopher

    1993-04-01

    This report is a recommendation from the Spokane Tribe to the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) for partial mitigation for the extensive wildlife and wildlife habitat losses on the Spokane Indian Reservation caused by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. NPPC`s interim wildlife goal over the next 7 years for the Columbia hydropower system, is to protect, mitigate and enhance approximately 35% basin wide of the lost habitat units. Grand Coulee Dam had the greatest habitat losses of any Dams of the Wildlife Rule.

  1. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Moves toward Net-Zero Buildings | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Fish and Wildlife Service Moves toward Net-Zero Buildings U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Moves toward Net-Zero Buildings This fact sheet is an overview of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's net-zero energy visitor's center at the Assabet River National Wildlife. PDF icon usfws_netzerobuildings.pdf More Documents & Publications Federal Energy and Water Management Award winner poster Microsoft PowerPoint - 06 Crawley Drive for Net Zero Energy Commercial Buildings Kaupuni

  2. Bioenergy Technologies Office: Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies Agricultural Conservation Committee Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given on March 29, 2013, by Kristen Johnson to the Association of Fish & Wildlife Agencies and addresses BETO's work and sustainability efforts.

  3. DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caldwell, K.D.; Chu, T.J.; Pitt, W.G.

    1992-05-12

    A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through amino groups contained on the surface. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to the target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membranes may be reprobed numerous times. No Drawings

  4. DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caldwell, Karin D.; Chu, Tun-Jen; Pitt, William G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through said smino groups contained on the surface thereof. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to said target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membrances may be reprobed numerous times.

  5. Great Lakes water quality initiative criteria documents for the protection of wildlife (proposed): DDT, mercury 2,3,7,8-TCDD and PCBs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradbury, S.; Nolt, C.; Goodman, B.; Stromborg, K.; Sullivan, J.

    1993-04-01

    The document outlines, for each category of contaminant listed in the title, the relevant literature, the calculation of mammalian wildlife value, the calculation of Avian Wildlife Value, and the Great Lakes Wildlife criterion.

  6. Polarization of the cosmic background radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lubin, P.M.

    1980-03-01

    The results and technique of a measurement of the linear polarization of the Cosmic Background Radiation are discussed. The ground-based experiment utilizes a single horn (7/sup 0/ beam width) Dicke-type microwave polarimeter operating at 33 GHz (9.1 mm). Data taken between May 1978 and February 1980 from both the northern hemisphere (Berkeley Lat. = 38/sup 0/N) and the southern hemisphere (Lima Lat. = 12/sup 0/S) show the radiation to be essentially unpolarized over all areas surveyed. For the 38/sup 0/ declination data the 95% confidence level limit on a linearly polarized component is 0.3 mK for the average and 12 and 24 hour periods. Fitting all data gives the 95% confidence level limit on a linearly polarized component of 0.3 mK for spherical harmonics through third order. Constraints on various cosmological models are discussed in light of these limits.

  7. Federal Energy and Water Management Awards 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Debbie Beck, Tiffany Breske, Andrew McDermott, James Nissen, Craig Swedenborg U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service | Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge ...

  8. Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Project Abstracts; May 25-27, Portland, Oregon, 1997 Annual Review.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allee, Brian J.

    1997-06-26

    Abstracts are presented from the 1997 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Review of Projects. The purpose was to provide information and education on the approximate 127 million dollars in Northwest electric ratepayer fish and wildlife mitigation projects funded annually.

  9. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation at Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Oregon Facilities, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedrossian, Karen L.

    1984-08-01

    The report presents a review and documentation of existing information on wildlife resources at Columbia River Basin hydroelectric facilities within Oregon. Effects of hydroelectric development and operation; existing agreements; and past, current and proposed wildlife mitigation, enhancement, and protection activities were considered. (ACR)

  10. An ecosystem approach to fish and wildlife conservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roeper, N.

    1995-12-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife (Service) has embraced an ecosystem approach as a more effective way to protect and conserve the nation`s wildlife and the habitat upon which it depends. This does not represent a sharp reversal in our past policies. Rather, it formalizes, builds upon, and expands past efforts that were already moving away from short-term fixes and toward long-term solutions; away from artificially mimicking natural processes and towards restoration of natural processes. The Service reorganized nationwide and established cross-program watershed-based teams to overcome internal barriers and to better incorporate input from our partners. Although watershed are an important way to delineate boundaries, boundaries are actually issue-dependent and therefore quite fluid. Two examples of an ecosystem approach demonstrate the Service`s commitment to policies, decisions, and actions that are based on ecological principles, stress prevention over restoration, support long-term solutions based on natural time scales and over large geographic areas, and consider input from our partners.

  11. Characterization of background reflectivity for MEDUSA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenborg, R. C.; Tiee, J. J.; Foy, B. R.; Petrin, R. R.; Wilson, C. W.

    2003-01-01

    The DARPA MEDUSA program goal is to detect, locate, and identify electro-optical threats in the vicinity of a moving platform. Laser sensing will be employed to find these threats by looking for anomalous reflections from threat sensors. However, the reflectivity variability (clutter) in both natural and manmade backgrounds will inherently limit target detection levels. In parallel with advanced component development by several aerospace contractors, a study of this clutter limitation was initiated in the long-wave (LW) and midwave (MW) infrared spectral regions to properly drive system design parameters. The analysis of clutter and associated limits on detection has been a major component of LANL efforts in laser remote sensing for non-proliferation. LANL is now analyzing existing data and conducting additional selected measurements in both the LWIR (9 and 10.6 pm) and MWIR (4.6 pm) in support of the DARPA program to increase our understanding of these clutter limitations and, thereby aid in the design and development of the MEDUSA system. The status of the LANL effort will be discussed. A variety of different natural and manmade target types have been investigated. Target scenes range from relatively low clutter sites typical of a southwestern desert to higher clutter downtown urban sites. Images are created by conducting raster scans across a scene interest. These images are then analyzed using data clustering techniques (e g K-means) to identify regions within the scene that contain similar reflectivity profiles. Data will be presented illustrating the reflectivity variability among different samples of the same target type, Le. within the same cluster, and among different data clusters. In general, it is found that the variability of reflectivities among similar targets is well represented by a log-normal distribution. Furthermore, manmade target tend to have higher reflectivities and more variability than natural targets. The implications of this observation for MEDUSA systems designed to locate and identify threat sensors will be discussed. The implications for chemical sensing applications will also be addressed.

  12. Low Background Counting at LBNL (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Low Background Counting at LBNL « Prev Next » Title: Low Background Counting at LBNL The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in

  13. Washington Wildlife Mitigation Projects : Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington . Dept. of Fish and Wildlife.

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement (Agreement) pertaining to wildlife habitat mitigation projects to be undertaken in a cooperative effort with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). This Agreement serves to establish a monetary budget funded by BPA for projects proposed by Washington Wildlife Coalition members and approved by BPA to protect, mitigate, and improve wildlife and/or wildlife habitat within the State of Washington that has been affected by the construction of Federal dams along the Columbia River. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and/or improving wildlife habitat within five different project areas. These project areas are located throughout Grant County and in parts of Okanogan, Douglas, Adams, Franklin, Kittias, Yakima, and Benton Counties. The multiple projects would involve varying combinations of five proposed site-specific activities (habitat improvement, operation and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, access and recreation management, and cultural resource management). All required Federal, State, and tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground-disturbing activities.

  14. 1995 Annual wildlife survey report. Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-25

    This report summarizes the results of wildlife surveys performed at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) from January through December of 1995 as compared with results from previous years. These surveys were performed as part of a long-term ecological monitoring program conducted under the Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program (NRPCP). This program is essential in identifying and describing fluctuations of wildlife populations, wildlife habitat use, and changes in species using RFETS. The NRPCP provides support to the Department of Energy (DOE) in its role as Natural Resource Trustee, and provides data essential to accomplishing the goal of preserving the unique ecological values of RFETS in keeping with the Rocky Flats Vision presented in the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement Public Comment Draft. Wildlife population densities vary due to natural pressures and human influences, and only long-term monitoring can verify which factors influencing wildlife populations are the consequence of natural fluctuations, and which are due to human influences. The wildlife monitoring described in this report provides qualitative data that give an indication of the ecological health of RFETS. Monitoring numbers, habitat affinities, and apparent health of the wildlife populations makes it possible to evaluate the overall ecological health of the site. Monitoring and surveys such as those carried out by the NRPCP can indicate trends of this sort, and act as an {open_quotes}early warning system{close_quotes} for impending ecological problems.

  15. 1994 Annual wildlife survey report. Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-24

    This report summarizes the results of wildlife surveys and other wildlife monitoring performed from January through December 1994. These surveys are part of a long-term ecological monitoring program conducted under the Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program (NRPCP). This program is essential in identifying and quantifying fluctuations of wildlife populations, wildlife habitat use, and changes in the species using the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) as year-round or seasonal habitat. Wildlife population densities vary constantly due to natural pressures, and only well-integrated, long-term monitoring can identify which factors influencing wildlife populations are a consequence of natural causes, and which are due to human activities. An integrated monitoring program that gathers data on ecologically interactive species is essential in evaluating population fluctuations. Such data can be an invaluable tool in predicting and avoiding impacts on the ecology of an area due to projected human activities. With 167 species of birds, three big game species, nine species of carnivores, nine species of mid-sized mammals, and 15 small mammal species, the Site provides habitat to a surprising variety of wildlife. Many of these species are sensitive species or indicator organisms that by their presence or, more significantly, by their absence can indicate the ecological health of an area. Their presence at the Site indicates a very healthy ecosystem.

  16. Final Report of the Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Data | Department of Energy Final Report of the Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data Final Report of the Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data The Wind Program hosted a two-day workshop on July 24-25, 2012 with scientists and regulators engaged in marine ecological survey, modeling, and database efforts pertaining to the waters of the Mid-Atlantic region. PDF icon Final Report of the Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data: Workshop to

  17. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Work Plan for Fiscal Year 1988.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Northwest Power Planning Council; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority

    1987-10-01

    The FY 1988 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Work Plan (Work Plan) presents Bonneville Power Administration's plans for implementing the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) in FY 1988. The Work Plan focuses on individual Action Items found in the amended Program for which Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has determined it has authority and responsibility to implement. The FY 1988 Work Plan emphasizes continuation of 95 ongoing projects, most of which involve protection, mitigation, or enhancement of anadromous fishery resources. These continuing activities are summarized briefly by Program area: (1) mainstem passage; (2) artificial propagation; (3) natural propagation; (4) resident fish and wildlife; and (5) planning activities.

  18. The COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment search for thecosmic infrared background. I. Limits and detections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, M.G.; Arendt, R.G.; Kelsall, T.; Dwek, E.; Odegard, N.; Weiland, J.L.; Freudenreich, H.T.; Reach, W.T.; Silverberg, R.F.; Moseley, S.H.; Pei, Y.C.; Lubin, P.; Mather, J.C.; Shafer, R.A.; Smoot,G.F.; Weiss, R.; Wilkinson, D.T.; Wright, E.L.

    1998-01-06

    The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft was designed primarily to conduct a systematic search for an isotropic cosmic infrared background (CIB) in 10 photometric bands from 1.25 to 240 mu m. The results of that search are presented here. Conservative limits on the CIB are obtained from the minimum observed brightness in all-sky maps at each wavelength, with the faintest limits in the DIRBE spectral range being at 3.5 mu m(nu l nu<64 nW m-2 sr-1, 95 percent confidence level) and at 240 mu m (nu l nu < 28 nW m-1 sr-1, 95 percent confidence level). The bright foregrounds from interplanetary dust scattering and emission, stars, and interstellar dust emission are the principal impediments to the DIRBE measurements of the CIB. These foregrounds have been modeled and removed from the sky maps. Assessment of the random and systematic uncertainties in the residuals and tests for isotropy show that only the 140 and 240 mum data provide candidate detections of the CIB. The residuals and their uncertainties provide CIB upper limits more restrictive than the dark sky limits at wavelengths from 1.25 to 100 mu m. No plausible solar system or Galactic source of the observed 140 and 240 mu m residuals can be identified, leading to the conclusion that the CIB has been detected at levels of nu l nu = 25 +- 7 and 14 +- 3 nW m-2 sr-1 at 140 and 240 mu m, respectively. The integrated energy from 140 to 240 mu m, 10.3 nW m-2sr-1, is about twice the integrated optical light from the galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field, suggesting that star formation might have been heavily enshrouded by dust at high redshift. The detections and upper limits reported here provide new constraints on models of the history of energy-releasing processes and dust production since the decoupling of the cosmic microwave background from matter.

  19. Passive background correction method for spatially resolved detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, Randal L.; Hargis, Jr., Philip J.

    2011-05-10

    A method for passive background correction during spatially or angularly resolved detection of emission that is based on the simultaneous acquisition of both the passive background spectrum and the spectrum of the target of interest.

  20. Effects of Cosmic Infrared Background on High Energy Delayed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effects of Cosmic Infrared Background on High Energy Delayed Gamma-Rays From Gamma-Ray Bursts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects of Cosmic Infrared Background on...

  1. Annual Report on Wildlife Activities, September 1985-April 1986, Action Item 40.1, Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1986-04-01

    This annual report addresses the status of wildlife projects Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has implemented from September 1985 to April 1986. This report provides a brief synopsis, review, and discussion of wildlife activities BPA has undertaken. BPA's effort has gone towards implementing wildlife planning. This includes measure 1004 (b)(2), loss statements and measure 1004 (b)(3), mitigation plans. Loss statements have been completed for 14 facilities in the Basin with 4 additional ones to be completed shortly. Mitigation plans have been completed for 5 hydroelectric facilities in Montana. The Northwest Power Planning Council is presently considering two mitigation plans (Hungry Horse and Libby) for amendment into the Program. Currently, mitigation plans are being prepared for the 8 Federal hydroelectric facilities in the Willamette River Basin in Oregon, Grand Coulee Dam in the state of Washington, and Palisades Dam on the Snake River in Idaho.

  2. Division of Fish and Wildlife Program Summary, 1985-1986 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiilsgaard, Chris

    1986-12-01

    This report describes the organization of the Division of Fish and Wildlife programs of Bonneville Power Administration, its budget, and research programs funded by it during FY 1986. (ACR)

  3. Landscape ecological planning: Integrating land use and wildlife conservation for biomass crops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiller, A.

    1995-12-31

    What do a mussel shoat, a zoo, and a biomass plantation have in common? Each can benefit from ecology-based landscape planning. This paper provides examples of landscape ecological planning from some diverse projects the author has worked on, and discusses how processes employed and lessons learned from these projects are being used to help answer questions about the effects of biomass plantings (hardwood tree crops and native grasses) on wildlife habitat. Biomass environmental research is being designed to assess how plantings of different acreage, composition and landscape context affect wildlife habitat value, and is addressing the cumulative effect on wildlife habitat of establishing multiple biomass plantations across the landscape. Through landscape ecological planning, answers gleaned from research can also help guide biomass planting site selection and harvest strategies to improve habitat for native wildlife species within the context of economically viable plantation management - thereby integrating the needs of people with those of the environment.

  4. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix N: Wildlife.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River System is a vast and complex combination of Federal and non-Federal facilities used for many purposes including power production, irrigation, navigation, flood control, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat and municipal and industrial water supply. Each river use competes for the limited water resources in the Columbia River Basin. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The environmental impact statement (EIS) itself and some of the other appendices present analyses of the alternative approaches to the other three decisions considered as part of the SOR. This document is the product of the Wildlife Work Group, focusing on wildlife impacts but not including fishes. Topics covered include the following: scope and process; existing and affected environment, including specific discussion of 18 projects in the Columbia river basin. Analysis, evaluation, and alternatives are presented for all projects. System wide impacts to wildlife are also included.

  5. WAC - 232-12-064 Live Wildlife-Taking from the wild | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    32-12-064 Live Wildlife-Taking from the wild Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: WAC - 232-12-064 Live...

  6. 516 DM Chapter 8 Managing the NEPA Process U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    8 Managing the NEPA Process U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: 516 DM Chapter 8 Managing...

  7. The Fish and Wildlife Service Manual, Part 603 FW 2 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: The Fish and Wildlife Service Manual, Part 603 FW 2PermittingRegulatory GuidanceGuideHandbook...

  8. The Fish and Wildlife Service Manual, Part 340 FW 3: Rights-of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: The Fish and Wildlife Service Manual, Part 340 FW 3: Rights-of-Way and Road ClosingsPermitting...

  9. OAR 635-415 - Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation Policy | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    OAR 635-415 - Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation Policy Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: OAR 635-415 -...

  10. Background - Madison Dynamo Experiment - Cary Forest Group - UW Plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Background UW Madison Madison Dynamo Experiment Background MDE HomeLinksNewsBackgroundPublicationsPresentationsContactsMDE People CPLA Home Directory Publications Links University of Wisconsin Physics Department Department of Energy National Science Foundation Background The role of magnetic fields in astrophysical processes has gained greater attention in recent times. The plasma physics community is making efforts to create experiments that explore processes which are fundamental

  11. A MEASUREMENT OF SECONDARY COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ANISOTROPIES FROM

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THE 2500 SQUARE-DEGREE SPT-SZ SURVEY (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect MEASUREMENT OF SECONDARY COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ANISOTROPIES FROM THE 2500 SQUARE-DEGREE SPT-SZ SURVEY Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A MEASUREMENT OF SECONDARY COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ANISOTROPIES FROM THE 2500 SQUARE-DEGREE SPT-SZ SURVEY We present measurements of secondary cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and cosmic infrared background (CIB) fluctuations using data from the South

  12. New exhibit highlights the archaeology, wildlife and climate of Los Alamos

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    | National Nuclear Security Administration exhibit highlights the archaeology, wildlife and climate of Los Alamos Friday, September 26, 2014 - 10:00am The Bradbury Science Museum in Los Alamos, N.M., recently unveiled a new interactive exhibit featuring the rich history and current research in archaeology, wildlife biology, local climate and sustainability efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The exhibit, "Environmental Research and Monitoring," shows in posters, interactive

  13. Wildlife mitigation and monitoring report Gunnison, Colorado, site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); its purpose is to cleanup uranium mill tailings and other contaminated material at 24 UMTRA Project sites in 10 states. This report summarizes the wildlife mitigation and monitoring program under way at the Gunnison UMTRA Project, Gunnison, Colorado. Remedial action at the Gunnison site was completed in December 1995 and is described in detail in the Gunnison completion report. The impacts of this activity were analyzed in the Gunnison environmental assessment (EA). These impacts included two important game species: the pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americans) and sage grouse (Wentrocerus urophasianus). Haul truck traffic was predicted to limit antelope access to water sources north of the Tenderfoot Mountain haul road and that truck traffic along this and other haul roads could result in antelope road kills. Clearing land at the disposal cell, haul road and borrow site activities, and the associated human activities also were predicted to negatively impact (directly and indirectly) sage grouse breeding, nesting, loafing, and wintering habitat. As a result, an extensive mitigation and monitoring plan began in 1992. Most of the monitoring studies are complete and the results of these studies, written by different authors, appear in numerous reports. This report will: (1) Analyze existing impacts and compare them to predicted impacts. (2) Summarize mitigation measures. (3) Summarize all existing monitoring data in one report. (4) Analyze the effectiveness of the mitigation measures.

  14. Threatened and endangered fish and wildlife of the midwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schafer, D.W.; Robeck, K.E.

    1980-06-01

    This report contains information of federally-listed endangered and/or threatened fish and wildlife occurring in the midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, and Wisconsin. The information was compiled as a support document for the Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) project sponsored by the Regional Assessments Division of the Office of Technology Impacts within the Department of Energy. The information on midwestern endangered species distribution, habitats, and reasons for population decline included in this document are designed to help assess the potential for adverse impacts if energy activities are sited within the general range of an endangered species. It is hoped that this document will thereby enhance the reliability of one portion of energy-related assessments performed in the Midwest. This report considers only those species listed prior to October 1979 as endangered and/or threatened in the federal endangered species list published in the Federal Register and that have been known to occur in the region in the last 20 years.

  15. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation at 14 of 27 Major Hydroelectric Projects in Idaho, 1983-1984 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Robert C.; Mehrhoff, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act and wildlife and their habitats in the Columbia River Basin and to compliance with the Program, the wildlife mitigation status reports coordination with resource agencies and Indian Tribes. developed the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program development, operation, and maintenance of hydroelectric projects on existing agreements; and past, current, and proposed wildlife factual review and documentation of existing information on wildlife meet the requirements of Measure 1004(b)(l) of the Program. The mitigation, enhancement, and protection activities were considered. In mitigate for the losses to those resources resulting from the purpose of these wildlife mitigation status reports is to provide a resources at some of the Columbia River Basin hydroelectric projects the river and its tributaries. To accomplish this goal, the Council were written with the cooperation of project operators, and in within Idaho.

  16. Low Background Signal Readout Electronics for the Majorana Demonstrator

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Low Background Signal Readout Electronics for the Majorana Demonstrator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low Background Signal Readout Electronics for the Majorana Demonstrator The MAJORANA Collaboration will seek neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in 76Ge using isotopically enriched p-type point contact (PPC) high purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. A tonne-scale array of HPGe detectors would require background levels below 1

  17. Analysis techniques for background rejection at the Majorana Demonstrator

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Analysis techniques for background rejection at the Majorana Demonstrator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analysis techniques for background rejection at the Majorana Demonstrator The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular HPGe detector array to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0νββ-decay searches that will

  18. Muon-induced backgrounds in the CUORICINO experiment (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    c.l.) was obtained on the cosmicray induced background in the neutrinoless double beta decay region of interest. The measurements were also compared to Geant4 simulations....

  19. Neutron Spallation Measurements And Impacts On Low Background Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2014-09-01

    Ultra-low background experiments, such as neutrinoless double beta decay, carried out deep underground to escape cosmic ray backgrounds can nonetheless be limited in sensitivity by cosmogenically induced signals. This limit can either be produced directly during operation from cosmic muon events in the detector volume, or can be produced by radioactive decay of cosmogenically generated radionuclides created while the detector materials were above ground. An accurate knowledge of the production of the latter source of background is of paramount importance in order to be able to interpret the results of low-background experiments.

  20. No increase in background, manmade radioactivity for Los Alamos...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Man-Made Radioactivity For Los Alamos area No increase in background, manmade radioactivity for Los Alamos area Two aerial flyovers found that radioisotopes and their associated...

  1. ESnet supports Sandia and APNIC IPv6 Background Radiation research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia and APNIC IPv6 Background Radiation research ESnet is currently supporting the Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre (APNIC) and Sandia National Laboratories in their...

  2. Diffraction Dissociation at the LHC; Role of the Background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkovszky, L. L.; Kuprash, O. E.; Magas, V. K.

    2011-07-15

    We discuss two topical problems of diffraction dissociation at the LHC, namely the role of the background and the elastic contribution.

  3. Malheur River Wildlife Mitigation Project : 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kesling, Jason; Abel, Chad; Schwabe, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    In 1998, the Burns Paiute Tribe (BPT) submitted a proposal to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for the acquisition of the Malheur River Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project). The proposed mitigation site was for the Denny Jones Ranch and included Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and Oregon Division of State Lands (DSL) leases and grazing allotments. The Project approval process and acquisition negotiations continued for several years until the BPT and BPA entered into a Memorandum of Agreement, which allowed for purchase of the Project in November 2000. The 31,781 acre Project is located seven miles east of Juntura, Oregon and is adjacent to the Malheur River (Figure 1). Six thousand three hundred eighty-five acres are deeded to BPT, 4,154 acres are leased from DSL, and 21,242 acres are leased from BLM (Figure 2). In total 11 grazing allotments are leased between the two agencies. Deeded land stretches for seven miles along the Malheur River. It is the largest private landholding on the river between Riverside and Harper, Oregon. Approximately 938 acres of senior water rights are included with the Ranch. The Project is comprised of meadow, wetland, riparian and shrub-steppe habitats. The BLM grazing allotment, located south of the ranch, is largely shrub-steppe habitat punctuated by springs and seeps. Hunter Creek, a perennial stream, flows through both private and BLM lands. Similarly, the DSL grazing allotment, which lies north of the Ranch, is predominantly shrub/juniper steppe habitat with springs and seeps dispersed throughout the upper end of draws (Figure 2).

  4. Hellsgate Big Game Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project : Annual Report 2008.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, Richard P.; Berger, Matthew T.; Rushing, Samuel; Peone, Cory

    2009-01-01

    The Hellsgate Big Game Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Hellsgate Project) was proposed by the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (CTCR) as partial mitigation for hydropower's share of the wildlife losses resulting from Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. At present, the Hellsgate Project protects and manages 57,418 acres (approximately 90 miles2) for the biological requirements of managed wildlife species; most are located on or near the Columbia River (Lake Rufus Woods and Lake Roosevelt) and surrounded by Tribal land. To date we have acquired about 34,597 habitat units (HUs) towards a total 35,819 HUs lost from original inundation due to hydropower development. In addition to the remaining 1,237 HUs left unmitigated, 600 HUs from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife that were traded to the Colville Tribes and 10 secure nesting islands are also yet to be mitigated. This annual report for 2008 describes the management activities of the Hellsgate Big Game Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Hellsgate Project) during the past year.

  5. Radon-related backgrounds in the LUX dark matter search

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bradley, A.; Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Bernard, E.; Bernstein, A.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The LUX detector is currently in operation at the Davis Campus at the 4850’ level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD to directly search for WIMP dark matter. Knowing the type and rate of backgrounds is critical in a rare, low energy event search, and LUX was designed, constructed, and deployed to mitigate backgrounds, both internal and external. An important internal background are decays of radon and its daughters. These consist of alpha decays, which are easily tagged and are a tracer of certain backgrounds, and beta decays, some of which are not as readily taggedmore » and present a background for the WIMP search. We report on studies of alpha decay and discuss implications for the WIMP search.« less

  6. Radon-related backgrounds in the LUX dark matter search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, A. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Akerib, D. S. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Arajo, H. M. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Bai, X. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Bailey, A. J. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Balajthy, J. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Bernard, E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Byram, D. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Cahn, S. B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Carmona-Benitez, M. C. [Univ. of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Chan, C. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Chapman, J. J. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Chiller, A. A. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Chiller, C. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Coffey, T. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Currie, A. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); de Viveiros, L. [Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Dobi, A. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Dobson, J. [Univ. of Edingburg, Edinburg (United Kingdom); Druszkiewicz, E. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Edwards, B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Faham, C. H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fiorucci, S. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Flores, C. [Univ. of California, Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Gaitskell, R. J. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Gehman, V. M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ghag, C. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Gibson, K. R. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Gilchriese, M. G.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hall, C. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Hertel, S. A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Horn, M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Huang, D. Q. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Ihm, M. [Univ. of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Jacobsen, R. G. [Univ. of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kazkaz, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Knoche, R. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Larsen, N. A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Lee, C. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Lindote, A. [Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Lopes, M. I. [Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Malling, D. C. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Mannino, R. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); McKinsey, D. N. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Mei, D. -M. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Mock, J. [Univ. of California, Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Moongweluwan, M. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Morad, J. [Univ. of California, Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Murphy, A. St.J. [Univ. of Edingburg, Edinburg (United Kingdom); Nehrkorn, C. [Univ. of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Nelson, H. [Univ. of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Neves, F. [Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Ott, R. A. [Univ. of California, Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Pangilinan, M. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Parker, P. D. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Pease, E. K. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Pech, K. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Phelps, P. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Reichhart, L. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Shutt, T. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Silva, C. [Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)

    2015-01-01

    The LUX detector is currently in operation at the Davis Campus at the 4850 level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD to directly search for WIMP dark matter. Knowing the type and rate of backgrounds is critical in a rare, low energy event search, and LUX was designed, constructed, and deployed to mitigate backgrounds, both internal and external. An important internal background are decays of radon and its daughters. These consist of alpha decays, which are easily tagged and are a tracer of certain backgrounds, and beta decays, some of which are not as readily tagged and present a background for the WIMP search. We report on studies of alpha decay and discuss implications for the WIMP search.

  7. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashenfelter, J.; Yeh, M.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, R.; Classen, T.; Davee, D.; Dean, D.; Deichert, G.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dolph, J.; Dwyer, D. A.; Fan, S.; Gaison, J. K.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilje, K.; Glenn, A.; Green, M.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heffron, B.; Jaffe, D. E.; Kettell, S.; Langford, T. J.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Martinez, D.; McKeown, R. D.; Morrell, S.; Mueller, P. E.; Mumm, H. P.; Napolitano, J.; Norcini, D.; Pushin, D.; Romero, E.; Rosero, R.; Saldana, L.; Seilhan, B. S.; Sharma, R.; Stemen, N. T.; Surukuchi, P. T.; Thompson, S. J.; Varner, R. L.; Wang, W.; Watson, S. M.; White, B.; White, C.; Wilhelmi, J.; Williams, C.; Wise, T.; Yao, H.; Yen, Y. -R.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, X.

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the background fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.

  8. Colville Confederated Tribes' Performance Project Wildlife Mitigation Acquisitions, Annual Report 2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, Richard; Berger, Matthew; Tonasket, Patrick

    2006-12-01

    The Colville Confederated Tribes Wildlife Mitigation Project is protecting lands as partial mitigation for hydropower's share of the wildlife losses resulting from Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. The Mitigation Project protects and manages 54,606 acres for the biological requirements of managed wildlife species that are important to the Colville Tribes. With the inclusion of 2006 acquisitions, the Colville Tribes have acquired approximately 32,018 habitat units (HUs) towards a total 35,819 HUs lost from original inundation due to hydropower development. This annual report for 2006 briefly describes that four priority land acquisitions that were considered for enrollment into the Colville Tribes Mitigation Project during the 2006 contract period.

  9. Supplement Analysis for the Wildlife Mitigation Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0246/SA-39)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2004-02-02

    BPA funds the Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Program, which is tasked with the acquisition and restoration of key habitats within the Pend Oreille Watershed. This mitigation program purchases private land to be owned and managed by program participants for the protection, mitigation, and enhancement of wildlife affected by the construction and operation of the Federal hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River. BPA is currently working with the Kalispel Tribe of Indians to acquire and manage three parcels that total approximately 890 acres of land within Pend Oreille County, Washington. The properties proposed for acquisition contain habitats or potential habitats that will provide BPA with credits for partial mitigation of wildlife habitat losses due to the construction of Albeni Falls Dam. The current proposal includes only the fee title acquisition of these parcels; habitat enhancement activities will likely be carried out by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in the future following the development of a management plan(s) for the lands.

  10. Automated video screening for unattended background monitoring in dynamic environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2004-03-01

    This report addresses the development of automated video-screening technology to assist security forces in protecting our homeland against terrorist threats. A threat of specific interest to this project is the covert placement and subsequent remote detonation of bombs (e.g., briefcase bombs) inside crowded public facilities. Different from existing video motion detection systems, the video-screening technology described in this report is capable of detecting changes in the static background of an otherwise, dynamic environment - environments where motion and human activities are persistent. Our goal was to quickly detect changes in the background - even under conditions when the background is visible to the camera less than 5% of the time. Instead of subtracting the background to detect movement or changes in a scene, we subtracted the dynamic scene variations to produce an estimate of the static background. Subsequent comparisons of static background estimates are used to detect changes in the background. Detected changes can be used to alert security forces of the presence and location of potential threats. The results of this research are summarized in two MS Power-point presentations included with this report.

  11. Initial Beta-Gamma Nuclear Detector Background Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Matthew W.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.

    2011-09-12

    Detection of underground nuclear explosions and, more recently, nuclear reactor events is of great national interest. These measurements are most often made by determining the concentration of radioactive noble gases in the atmosphere. Currently there are several ground-based systems capable of making radioxenon gas measurements. The measurement is often close to the detection limit, so understanding the parameters and features that limit the measurement is very important. A preliminary study of the detection limit has been performed using a ?-? Quad detector designed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The initial study has concentrated on the measuring the ambient radioactive background. By making several background measurements while varying the detector, shielding it is possible to identify whether the ambient background is internal or external to the detector. Furthermore, internal background contributions can be potentially reduced by selecting alternative low-background materials, while external background can be reduced by increasing the active or passive shielding present. By reducing the background contributions, it is possible to improve the detection limit and therefore the likelihood of positively identifying a nuclear test.

  12. Constraints on cosmology from the cosmic microwave background power

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    spectrum of the 2500 deg{sup 2} SPT-SZ survey (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Constraints on cosmology from the cosmic microwave background power spectrum of the 2500 deg{sup 2} SPT-SZ survey Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Constraints on cosmology from the cosmic microwave background power spectrum of the 2500 deg{sup 2} SPT-SZ survey We explore extensions to the ΛCDM cosmology using measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the recent SPT-SZ survey, along

  13. Energy Department Announces New Projects to Help Protect Wildlife at Wind

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Plants | Department of Energy New Projects to Help Protect Wildlife at Wind Energy Plants Energy Department Announces New Projects to Help Protect Wildlife at Wind Energy Plants April 14, 2015 - 1:08pm Addthis The Energy Department today announced more than $1.75 million for five projects that will develop and demonstrate technologies to reduce the potential impacts of wind farms on sensitive bat species. A current challenge facing wind energy developers in the United States is how to

  14. Assessment of Technologies Used to Characterize Wildlife Populations in the Offshore Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duberstein, Corey A.; Tagestad, Jerry D.; Larson, Kyle B.

    2011-12-09

    Wind energy development in the offshore environment can have both direct and indirect effects on wildlife, yet little is known about most species that use near-shore and offshore waters due in part to the difficulty involved in studying animals in remote, challenging environments. Traditional methods to characterize offshore wildlife populations include shipboard observations. Technological advances have provided researches with an array of technologies to gather information about fauna from afar. This report describes the use and application of radar, thermal and optical imagery, and acoustic detection technologies for monitoring birds, bats, and marine mammals in offshore environments.

  15. Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Project; Idaho Department of Fish and Game 2007 Final Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cousins, Katherine

    2009-04-03

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game maintained a total of about 2,743 acres of wildlife mitigation habitat in 2007, and protected another 921 acres. The total wildlife habitat mitigation debt has been reduced by approximately two percent (598.22 HU) through the Department's mitigation activities in 2007. Implementation of the vegetative monitoring and evaluation program continued across protected lands. For the next funding cycle, the IDFG is considering a package of restoration projects and habitat improvements, conservation easements, and land acquisitions in the project area.

  16. Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment/Management Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund wildlife management and enhancement activities for the Burlington bottoms wetlands mitigation site. Acquired by BPA in 1991, wildlife habitat at Burlington bottoms would contribute toward the goal of mitigation for wildlife losses and inundation of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal dams in the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins. Target wildlife species identified for mitigation purposes are yellow warbler, great blue heron, black-capped chickadee, red-tailed hawk, valley quail, spotted sandpiper, wood duck, and beaver. The Draft Management Plan/Environmental Assessment (EA) describes alternatives for managing the Burlington Bottoms area, and evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives. Included in the Draft Management Plan/EA is an implementation schedule, and a monitoring and evaluation program, both of which are subject to further review pending determination of final ownership of the Burlington Bottoms property.

  17. Constraints on Cosmology from the Cosmic Microwave Background...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Power Spectrum of the 2500-square degree SPT-SZ Survey Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Constraints on Cosmology from the Cosmic Microwave Background Power Spectrum of ...

  18. Constraints on Cosmology from the Cosmic Microwave Background...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from the Cosmic Microwave Background Power Spectrum of the 2500-square degree SPT-SZ Survey Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Constraints on Cosmology from the Cosmic...

  19. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ashenfelter, J.; Yeh, M.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; et al

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the backgroundmore » fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.« less

  20. BACKGROUND GLOBAL STEEL OVERCAPACITY and OIL COUNTRY TUBULAR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BACKGROUND GLOBAL STEEL OVERCAPACITY and OIL COUNTRY TUBULAR GOODS In the aftermath of the ... poses a serious threat to domestic steel producers and the half million jobs they support. ...

  1. Modeling surface backgrounds from radon progeny plate-out

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perumpilly, G.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Snyder, N. [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 (United States)] [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 (United States)

    2013-08-08

    The next generation low-background detectors operating deep underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. The surface deposition and subsequent implantation of radon progeny in detector materials will be a source of energetic background events. We investigate Monte Carlo and model-based simulations to understand the surface implantation profile of radon progeny. Depending on the material and region of interest of a rare event search, these partial energy depositions can be problematic. Motivated by the use of Ge crystals for the detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay, we wish to understand the detector response of surface backgrounds from radon progeny. We look at the simulation of surface decays using a validated implantation distribution based on nuclear recoils and a realistic surface texture. Results of the simulations and measured ? spectra are presented.

  2. Reduction of background clutter in structured lighting systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Jeffrey J.; Giles, Michael K.; Padilla, Denise D.; Davidson, Jr., Patrick A.; Novick, David K.; Wilson, Christopher W.

    2010-06-22

    Methods for segmenting the reflected light of an illumination source having a characteristic wavelength from background illumination (i.e. clutter) in structured lighting systems can comprise pulsing the light source used to illuminate a scene, pulsing the light source synchronously with the opening of a shutter in an imaging device, estimating the contribution of background clutter by interpolation of images of the scene collected at multiple spectral bands not including the characteristic wavelength and subtracting the estimated background contribution from an image of the scene comprising the wavelength of the light source and, placing a polarizing filter between the imaging device and the scene, where the illumination source can be polarized in the same orientation as the polarizing filter. Apparatus for segmenting the light of an illumination source from background illumination can comprise an illuminator, an image receiver for receiving images of multiple spectral bands, a processor for calculations and interpolations, and a polarizing filter.

  3. George Smoot, Blackbody, and Anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation George Smoot, Blackbody, and Anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Resources with Additional Information * Videos 'George Smoot, ... has been awarded the 2006 Nobel Prize for physics. He shares the award with John C. Mather of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The citation reads "for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation." '1 Smoot previously won the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award. 'Smoot has

  4. Ion Beam Neutralization by a Tenuous Background Plasma ---- Inventors Igor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kaganovich and William Berdanier | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Ion Beam Neutralization by a Tenuous Background Plasma ---- Inventors Igor Kaganovich and William Berdanier The neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by electrons form the basis for a wide range of applications for accelerators, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. This invention shows that for intense ion beam pulses, a background plasma with a low relative density can be used to effectively

  5. Inelastic neutron scattering as a possible background for neutrinoless

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    double-beta decay experiments (Conference) | SciTech Connect Inelastic neutron scattering as a possible background for neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Inelastic neutron scattering as a possible background for neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments Authors: Boswell, Melissa S [1] ; Devlin, Matthew J. [1] ; Elliott, Steven R [1] ; Fotiadis, Nikolaos [1] ; Hime, Andrew [1] ; Nelson, Ronald O. [1] ; Guiseppe, Vincente E. [2] ; Mei, D. M.

  6. Inelastic neutron scattering as a possible background for neutrinoless

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    double-beta decay experiments (Conference) | SciTech Connect Inelastic neutron scattering as a possible background for neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Inelastic neutron scattering as a possible background for neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided

  7. Investigation of radioactivity-induced backgrounds in EXO-200 (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Investigation of radioactivity-induced backgrounds in EXO-200 Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on July 14, 2016 Title: Investigation of radioactivity-induced backgrounds in EXO-200 Authors: Albert, J. B. ; Auty, D. J. ; Barbeau, P. S. ; Beck, D. ; Belov, V. ; Benitez-Medina, C. ; Breidenbach, M. ; Brunner, T. ; Burenkov, A. ; Cao, G. F. ; Chambers, C. ; Cleveland, B. ; Coon, M. ; Craycraft, A. ; Daniels, T. ; Danilov,

  8. Low Background Signal Readout Electronics for the Majorana Demonstrator

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Low Background Signal Readout Electronics for the Majorana Demonstrator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low Background Signal Readout Electronics for the Majorana Demonstrator × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy

  9. Background: Today's Solyndra Solar Hearing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Background: Today's Solyndra Solar Hearing Background: Today's Solyndra Solar Hearing September 14, 2011 - 12:04am Addthis Dan Leistikow Dan Leistikow Former Director, Office of Public Affairs This morning, the House Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations is holding a hearing to discuss Solyndra Solar, the California-based solar manufacturer that declared bankruptcy last week. Jonathan Silver, Executive Director of the Department's Loan Programs Office, will be

  10. Background | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Background High Energy Physics (HEP) HEP Home About Research Science Drivers of Particle Physics Energy Frontier Intensity Frontier Cosmic Frontier Theoretical and Computational Physics Advanced Technology R&D Accelerator Stewardship Background Awards Information for Investigators Test Facility Pilot Program Workshop Reports Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of HEP Funding Opportunities Advisory Committees Community Resources Contact Information High Energy Physics U.S. Department of

  11. Sigma Mesa: Background elemental concentrations in soil and vegetation, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Gladney, E.S.; Brooks, G.H. Jr.

    1990-10-01

    In 1979, soil and vegetation samples were collected on Sigma Mesa to provide background data before construction on the mesa. Elemental data are presented for soil, grass, juniper, pinon pine, and oak. None of the data looks out of the ordinary. The purpose of the sampling program was to acquire, before any disturbance, a set of data to be used as background for future impact analysis. 6 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Analysis techniques for background rejection at the Majorana Demonstrator

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Analysis techniques for background rejection at the Majorana Demonstrator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analysis techniques for background rejection at the Majorana Demonstrator × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy

  13. Home Energy Score Research and Background | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research and Background Home Energy Score Research and Background With the goal of addressing the significant, and yet untapped, potential for saving energy in existing homes, the U.S. Department of Energy, in collaboration with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, developed the Home Energy Score as a low cost and reliable method for estimating the energy use of a home and motivating investment in efficiency improvements. The Home Energy Score

  14. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on October 23, 2016 Title: Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino

  15. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    glossary] (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect energy: a background text. [Includes glossary] Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary] × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy

  16. BACKGROUND REVIEW OF THE BRUSH BERYLLIUM AND DIAMOND MAGNESIUM PLANTS

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    BACKGROUND REVIEW OF THE BRUSH BERYLLIUM AND DIAMOND MAGNESIUM PLANTS IN LUCKEY, OHIO October 27, 1989 Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program Prepared by: R.F. Weston/Office of Technical Services BACKGROUND REVIEW OF THE BRUSH BERYLLIUM AND DIAMOND MAGNESIUM PLANTS IN LUCKEY, OHIO INTRODUCTION The Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a program to identify and examine the radiological conditions at sites used in the early years of nuclear

  17. Wildlife Protection, Mitigation and Enhancement Planning for Grand Coulee Dam, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Creveling, Jennifer

    1986-08-01

    The development and operation of Grand Coulee Dam inundated approximately 70,000 acres of wildlife habitat under the jurisdictions of the Colville Confederated Tribes, the Spokane Tribe, and the State of Washington. Under the provisions of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980, this study reviews losses to wildlife and habitat, and proposes mitigation for those losses. Wildlife loss estimates were developed from information available in the literature. Habitat losses and potential habitat gains through mitigation were estimated by a modified Habitat Evaluation Procedure. The mitigation plan proposes (1) acquisition of sufficient land or management rights to land to protect Habitat Units equivalent to those lost (approximately 73,000 acres of land would be required), (2) improvement and management of those lands to obtain and perpetuate target Habitat Units, and (3) protection and enhancement of suitable habitat for bald eagles. Mitigation is presented as four actions to be implemented over a 10-year period. A monitoring program is proposed to monitor mitigation success in terms of Habitat Units and wildlife population trends.

  18. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation, Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Columbia River Mainstem Facilities, 1984 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howerton, Jack; Hwang, Diana

    1984-11-01

    This report reviews the status of past, present, and proposed future wildlife planning and mitigation programs at existing hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River Basin. The project evaluations will form the basis for determining any needed remedial measures or additional project analysis. Each hydropower facility report is abstracted separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  19. Forestry herbicide influences on biodiversity and wildlife habitats in Southern forests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Karl V.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract In the southern United States, herbicide use continues to increase for timber management in commercial pine (Pinus spp.) plantations, for modifying wildlife habitats, and for invasive plant control. Several studies have reported that single applications of forestry herbicides at stand initiation have minor and temporary impacts on plant communities and wildlife habitat conditions, with some reports of enhanced habitat conditions for both game and nongame species. Due to the high resiliency of floral communities, plant species richness and diversity rebound rapidly after single herbicide treatments, with short- and long-term compositional shifts according to the selectivity and efficacy of the herbicide used. Recently, however, a shift to the Southeast in North American timber supplies has resulted in increased forest management intensity. Current site-preparation techniques rely on herbicide combinations, often coupled with mechanical treatments and >1 years of post-planting applications to enhance the spectrum and duration of vegetation control. This near-total control of associated vegetation at establishment and more rapid pine canopy closure, coupled with shortened and repeated rotations, likely will affect plant diversity and wildlife habitat quality. Development of mitigation methods at the stand and landscape levels will be required to minimize vegetative and wildlife impacts while allowing continued improvement in pine productivity. More uncertain are long-term impacts of increasing invasive plant occupation and the projected increase in herbicide use that will be needed to reverse this worsening situation. In addition, the potential of herbicides to meet wildlife management objectives in areas where traditional techniques have high social costs (e.g., prescribed fire) should be fully explored.

  20. Forestry herbicide influences on biodiversity and wildlife habitat in Southern forests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Karl V.; Miller, James, H.

    2004-07-01

    Abstract In the southern United States, herbicide use continues to increase for timber management in commercial pine (Pinus spp.) plantations, for modifying wildlife habitats, and for invasive plant control. Several studies have reported that single applications of forestry herbicides at stand initiation have minor and temporary impacts on plant communities and wildlife habitat conditions, with some reports of enhanced habitat conditions for both game and nongame species. Due to the high resiliency of floral communities, plant species richness and diversity rebound rapidly after single herbicide treatments, with short- and long-term compositional shifts according to the selectivity and efficacy of the herbicide used. Recently, however, a shift to the Southeast in North American timber supplies has resulted in increased forest management intensity. Current site-preparation techniques rely on herbicide combinations, often coupled with mechanical treatments and >1 years of post-planting applications to enhance the spectrum and duration of vegetation control. This near-total control of associated vegetation at establishment and more rapid pine canopy closure, coupled with shortened and repeated rotations, likely will affect plant diversity and wildlife habitat quality. Development of mitigation methods at the stand and landscape levels will be required to minimize vegetative and wildlife impacts while allowing continued improvement in pine productivity. More uncertain are long-term impacts of increasing invasive plant occupation and the projected increase in herbicide use that will be needed to reverse this worsening situation. In addition, the potential of herbicides to meet wildlife management objectives in areas where traditional techniques have high social costs (e.g., prescribed fire) should be fully explored.

  1. Reducing backgrounds in the higgs factory muon collider detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mokhov, N. V.; Tropin, I. S.

    2014-06-01

    A preliminary design of the 125-GeV Higgs Factory (HF) Muon Collider (MC) has identified an enormous background loads on the HF detector. This is related to the twelve times higher muon decay probability at HF compared to that previously studied for the 1.5-TeV MC. As a result of MARS15 optimization studies, it is shown that with a carefully designed protection system in the interaction region, in the machine-detector interface and inside the detector one can reduce the background rates to a manageable level similar to that achieved for the optimized 1.5-TeV case. The main characteristics of the HF detector background are presented for the configuration found.

  2. Assessment of Radiation Background Variation for Moving Detection Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, James Christopher; Rennie, John Alan; Toevs, James Waldo; Wallace, Darrin J.; Abhold, Mark Edward

    2015-07-13

    The introduction points out that radiation backgrounds fluctuate across very short distances: factors include geology, soil composition, altitude, building structures, topography, and other manmade structures; and asphalt and concrete can vary significantly over short distances. Brief descriptions are given of the detection system, experimental setup, and background variation measurements. It is concluded that positive and negative gradients can greatly reduce the detection sensitivity of an MDS: negative gradients create opportunities for false negatives (nondetection), and positive gradients create a potentially unacceptable FAR (above 1%); the location of use for mobile detection is important to understand; spectroscopic systems provide more information for screening out false alarms and may be preferred for mobile use; and mobile monitor testing at LANL accounts for expected variations in the background.

  3. Reducing 68Ge Background in Dark Matter Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.

    2011-03-01

    Experimental searches for dark matter include experiments with sub-0.5 keV-energy threshold high purity germanium detectors. Experimental efforts, in partnership with the CoGeNT Collaboration operating at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, are focusing on energy threshold reduction via noise abatement, reduction of backgrounds from cosmic ray generated isotopes, and ubiquitous environmental radioactive sources. The most significant cosmic ray produced radionuclide is 68Ge. This paper evaluates reducing this background by freshly mining and processing germanium ore. The most probable outcome is a reduction of the background by a factor of two, and at most a factor of four. A very cost effective alternative is to obtain processed Ge as soon as possible and store it underground for 18 months.

  4. Massive graviton on arbitrary background: derivation, syzygies, applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard, Laura; Deffayet, Cédric; Strauss, Mikael von

    2015-06-23

    We give the detailed derivation of the fully covariant form of the quadratic action and the derived linear equations of motion for a massive graviton in an arbitrary background metric (which were presented in arXiv:1410.8302 [hep-th]). Our starting point is the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) family of ghost free massive gravities and using a simple model of this family, we are able to express this action and these equations of motion in terms of a single metric in which the graviton propagates, hence removing in particular the need for a “reference metric' which is present in the non perturbative formulation. We show further how 5 covariant constraints can be obtained including one which leads to the tracelessness of the graviton on flat space-time and removes the Boulware-Deser ghost. This last constraint involves powers and combinations of the curvature of the background metric. The 5 constraints are obtained for a background metric which is unconstrained, i.e. which does not have to obey the background field equations. We then apply these results to the case of Einstein space-times, where we show that the 5 constraints become trivial, and Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker space-times, for which we correct in particular some results that appeared elsewhere. To reach our results, we derive several non trivial identities, syzygies, involving the graviton fields, its derivatives and the background metric curvature. These identities have their own interest. We also discover that there exist backgrounds for which the dRGT equations cannot be unambiguously linearized.

  5. ESnet supports Sandia and APNIC IPv6 Background Radiation research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    supports Sandia and APNIC IPv6 Background Radiation research Engineering Services The Network OSCARS Fasterdata IPv6 Network IPv6 Implementation Checklist ESnet IPv6 Mirror Servers ESnet IPv6 History ESnet supports Sandia and APNIC IPv6 Background Radiation research Network Performance Tools The ESnet Engineering Team Contact Us Technical Assistance: 1 800-33-ESnet (Inside US) 1 800-333-7638 (Inside US) 1 510-486-7600 (Globally) 1 510-486-7607 (Globally) Report Network Problems: trouble@es.net

  6. Astroparticle physics with a customized low-background broad energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Germanium detector (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Astroparticle physics with a customized low-background broad energy Germanium detector Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Astroparticle physics with a customized low-background broad energy Germanium detector Authors: Aalseth, C. E. [1] ; Amman, M. [2] ; Avignone, F.T. III [3] ; Back, H.O. [4] ; Barabash, A.S. [5] ; Barbeau, P.S. [6] ; Bergevin, M. [2] ; Burritt [7] ; Busch, M. [8]

  7. Constraints on Cosmology from the Cosmic Microwave Background Power

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spectrum of the 2500-square degree SPT-SZ Survey (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Constraints on Cosmology from the Cosmic Microwave Background Power Spectrum of the 2500-square degree SPT-SZ Survey Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Constraints on Cosmology from the Cosmic Microwave Background Power Spectrum of the 2500-square degree SPT-SZ Survey Authors: Hou, Z. ; et al. Publication Date: 2012-12-01 OSTI Identifier: 1156457 Report Number(s): FERMILAB-PUB-13-072-A arXiv eprint

  8. Observation of objects under intense plasma background illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buzhinsky, R. O.; Savransky, V. V.; Zemskov, K. I.; Isaev, A. A.; Buzhinsky, O. I.

    2010-12-15

    Experiments on the observation of a brightness-amplified image of an object through a masking arc discharge are presented. The copper-vapor laser active medium was used as an image brightness amplifier. It is shown that the image quality does not worsen under plasma background illumination.

  9. The Isotropic Radio Background and Annihilating Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooper, Dan; Belikov, Alexander V.; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Linden, Tim; Profumo, Stefano; Slatyer, Tracy R.

    2012-11-01

    Observations by ARCADE-2 and other telescopes sensitive to low frequency radiation have revealed the presence of an isotropic radio background with a hard spectral index. The intensity of this observed background is found to exceed the flux predicted from astrophysical sources by a factor of approximately 5-6. In this article, we consider the possibility that annihilating dark matter particles provide the primary contribution to the observed isotropic radio background through the emission of synchrotron radiation from electron and positron annihilation products. For reasonable estimates of the magnetic fields present in clusters and galaxies, we find that dark matter could potentially account for the observed radio excess, but only if it annihilates mostly to electrons and/or muons, and only if it possesses a mass in the range of approximately 5-50 GeV. For such models, the annihilation cross section required to normalize the synchrotron signal to the observed excess is sigma v ~ (0.4-30) x 10^-26 cm^3/s, similar to the value predicted for a simple thermal relic (sigma v ~ 3 x 10^-26 cm^3/s). We find that in any scenario in which dark matter annihilations are responsible for the observed excess radio emission, a significant fraction of the isotropic gamma ray background observed by Fermi must result from dark matter as well.

  10. Low Background Radiation Experiment Yields Interesting Preliminary Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CARLSBAD, N.M., May 18, 2011 – New Mexico State University‟s Low Background Radiation Experiment (LBRE), which takes place 2,150 feet below the earth‟s surface at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, recently released some results about the project‟s first two years of experimentation.

  11. Virasoro conformal blocks and thermality from classical background fields

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.

    2015-11-30

    We show that in 2d CFTs at large central charge, the coupling of the stress tensor to heavy operators can be re-absorbed by placing the CFT in a non-trivial background metric. This leads to a more precise computation of the Virasoro conformal blocks between heavy and light operators, which are shown to be equivalent to global conformal blocks evaluated in the new background. We also generalize to the case where the operators carry U(1) charges. The refined Virasoro blocks can be used as the seed for a new Virasoro block recursion relation expanded in the heavy-light limit. Furthermore, we commentmore » on the implications of our results for the universality of black hole thermality in AdS3 , or equivalently, the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis for CFT2 at large central charge.« less

  12. Radon induced surface contaminations in low background experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pattavina, L. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy)] [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy)

    2013-08-08

    In neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter searches, one of the main issues is to increase the experimental sensitivity through careful material selection and production, minimizing the background contributions. In order to achieve the required, extremely low, counting rates, very stringent requirements must be fulfilled in terms of bulk material radiopurity. As the experimental sensitivity increases, the bulk impurities in the detector components decrease, and surface contaminations start to play an increasingly significant role In fully active detectors, like cryogenic particle detectors, surface contaminations are a critical issue (as shown by the CUORICINO experiment). {sup 222}Rn is by far the most intense source of airborne radioactivity, and if a radio-pure material is exposed to environment where the Radon concentration is not minimized, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po contaminations can occur. The mechanisms and the dynamics of Radon-induced surface contaminations are reviewed, and specific solutions to prevent and to reject the induced background are presented.

  13. Cosmic microwave background observables of small field models of inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Brustein, Ram E-mail: ramyb@bgu.ac.il

    2010-09-01

    We construct a class of single small field models of inflation that can predict, contrary to popular wisdom, an observable gravitational wave signal in the cosmic microwave background anisotropies. The spectral index, its running, the tensor to scalar ratio and the number of e-folds can cover all the parameter space currently allowed by cosmological observations. A unique feature of models in this class is their ability to predict a negative spectral index running in accordance with recent cosmic microwave background observations. We discuss the new class of models from an effective field theory perspective and show that if the dimensionless trilinear coupling is small, as required for consistency, then the observed spectral index running implies a high scale of inflation and hence an observable gravitational wave signal. All the models share a distinct prediction of higher power at smaller scales, making them easy targets for detection.

  14. Method and apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

    1998-10-27

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

  15. Method and apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affleck, Rhett L.; Ambrose, W. Patrick; Demas, James N.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Johnson, Mitchell E.; Keller, Richard A.; Petty, Jeffrey T.; Schecker, Jay A.; Wu, Ming

    1998-01-01

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

  16. Apparatus for eliminating background interference in fluorescence measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, John C.; Jett, James H.

    1986-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for eliminating background interference during fluorescence measurements in a multiple laser flow cytometer. A biological particle stained with fluorescent dyes is excited by a laser. A fluorescence detector detects the fluorescence. The particle scatters light and a gate signal is generated and delayed until the biological particle reaches the next laser. The delayed signal turns on this next laser, which excites a different stained component of the same biological particle.

  17. Apparatus for eliminating background interference in fluorescence measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, J.C.; Jett, J.H.

    1984-01-06

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for eliminating background interference during fluorescence measurements in a multiple laser flow cytometer. A biological particle stained with fluorescent dyes is excited by a laser. A fluorescence detector detects the fluorescence. The particle scatters light and a gate signal is generated and delayed until the biological particle reaches the next laser. The delayed signal turns on this next laser which excites a different stained component of the same biological particle.

  18. Apparatus for eliminating background interference in fluorescence measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, J.C.; Jett, J.H.

    1986-03-04

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for eliminating background interference during fluorescence measurements in a multiple laser flow cytometer. A biological particle stained with fluorescent dyes is excited by a laser. A fluorescence detector detects the fluorescence. The particle scatters light and a gate signal is generated and delayed until the biological particle reaches the next laser. The delayed signal turns on this next laser, which excites a different stained component of the same biological particle. 8 figs.

  19. Anisotropies in the gravitational-wave stochastic background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ölmez, S.; Mandic, V.; Siemens, X. E-mail: mandic@physics.umn.edu

    2012-07-01

    We consider anisotropies in the stochastic background of gravitational-waves (SBGW) arising from random fluctuations in the number of gravitational-wave sources. We first develop the general formalism which can be applied to different cosmological or astrophysical scenarios. We then apply this formalism to calculate the anisotropies of SBGW associated with the fluctuations in the number of cosmic string loops, considering both cosmic string cusps and kinks. We calculate the anisotropies as a function of angle and frequency.

  20. Method for Reducing Background Clutter in a Camera Image - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Startup America Startup America Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Method for Reducing Background Clutter in a Camera Image Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (832 KB) Technology Marketing SummarySandia has developed an eye-safe, robust, lightweight, and low-cost 3D structured lighting sensor for use in broad

  1. RESOLVING THE RADIO SOURCE BACKGROUND: DEEPER UNDERSTANDING THROUGH CONFUSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Condon, J. J.; Cotton, W. D.; Fomalont, E. B.; Kellermann, K. I.; Miller, N.; Perley, R. A.; Scott, D.; Vernstrom, T.; Wall, J. V.

    2012-10-10

    We used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to image one primary beam area at 3 GHz with 8'' FWHM resolution and 1.0 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} rms noise near the pointing center. The P(D) distribution from the central 10 arcmin of this confusion-limited image constrains the count of discrete sources in the 1 < S({mu}Jy) < 10 range. At this level, the brightness-weighted differential count S {sup 2} n(S) is converging rapidly, as predicted by evolutionary models in which the faintest radio sources are star-forming galaxies; and Almost-Equal-To 96% of the background originating in galaxies has been resolved into discrete sources. About 63% of the radio background is produced by active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the remaining 37% comes from star-forming galaxies that obey the far-infrared (FIR)/radio correlation and account for most of the FIR background at {lambda} Almost-Equal-To 160 {mu}m. Our new data confirm that radio sources powered by AGNs and star formation evolve at about the same rate, a result consistent with AGN feedback and the rough correlation of black hole and stellar masses. The confusion at centimeter wavelengths is low enough that neither the planned Square Kilometre Array nor its pathfinder ASKAP EMU survey should be confusion limited, and the ultimate source detection limit imposed by 'natural' confusion is {<=}0.01 {mu}Jy at {nu} = 1.4 GHz. If discrete sources dominate the bright extragalactic background reported by ARCADE 2 at 3.3 GHz, they cannot be located in or near galaxies and most are {<=}0.03 {mu}Jy at 1.4 GHz.

  2. SolTrace Background | Concentrating Solar Power | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SolTrace Background Since the late 1980s, a number of different optical design codes have been developed at NREL for designing and modeling solar concentrating systems. Each of these codes was written to model a very specific optical geometry, and each one built upon the others in an evolutionary way. Examples of such codes include: OPTDSH, a code written to model circular aperture parabolic dish concentrators; ODMF, a code based on OPTDSH that modeled multifaceted parabolic dish concentrators;

  3. Solar Power Tower Integrated Layout and Optimization Tool Background |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power | NREL Solar Power Tower Integrated Layout and Optimization Tool Background SolarPILOT(tm) offers several unique capabilities compared to other software tools. Unlike exclusively ray-tracing tools, SolarPILOT runs the analytical simulation engine that uses a modified Gaussian series expansion to characterize the image generated by each heliostat. Rather than construct the model of the image using a large number of rays that eventually approach a Gaussian-form image

  4. NNSA to Conduct Background Radiation Testing | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration to Conduct Background Radiation Testing July 20, 2015 The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) under the Nuclear Incident Response Team (NIRT) program will be sponsoring an Aerial Measuring System (AMS) WINGS exercise July 20 - 24, 2015 in conjunction with the national level exercise Southern Exposure to be held in Florence, SC. Local, state and federal agencies will participate in an interoperability exercise using

  5. Low-background tracker development for SuperNEMO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mott, James [University College London, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)] [University College London, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Collaboration: SuperNEMO Collaboration; and others

    2013-08-08

    The SuperNEMO experiment will search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0???) with a target sensitivity of T{sub 1/2}(0?) > 10{sup 26} years, corresponding to an effective neutrino mass of 50-100 meV. At its heart there is a low-background gaseous tracking detector which allows for extremely efficient background rejection and, if 0??? is observed, may provide important insights into the mechanism via which it may be mediated. Radon inside the tracker, which can mimic rare ?? events, is one of the most dangerous backgrounds for SuperNEMO. To reach the target sensitivity the radon concentration inside the tracking volume must be < 0.15 mBq/m{sup 3}. To reach this challengingly-low level of radon, a considerable program of R and D has been undertaken. This includes automation of the tracker-wiring process, development of a dedicated setup to measure radon diffusion and a 'radon concentration line' which will be able to measure levels of radon in the ?Bq/m{sup 3} range.

  6. Design Considerations for Large Mass Ultra-Low Background Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Reid, Douglas J.; Fast, James E.; Orrell, John L.

    2011-07-01

    Summary The objective of this document is to present the designers of the next generation of large-mass, ultra-low background experiments with lessons learned and design strategies from previous experimental work. Design issues divided by topic into mechanical, thermal and electrical requirements are addressed. Large mass low-background experiments have been recognized by the scientific community as appropriate tools to aid in the refinement of the standard model. The design of these experiments is very costly and a rigorous engineering review is required for their success. The extreme conditions that the components of the experiment must withstand (heavy shielding, vacuum/pressure and temperature gradients), in combination with unprecedented noise levels, necessitate engineering guidance to support quality construction and safe operating conditions. Physical properties and analytical results of typical construction materials are presented. Design considerations for achieving ultra-low-noise data acquisition systems are addressed. Five large-mass, low-background conceptual designs for the one-tonne scale germanium experiment are proposed and analyzed. The result is a series of recommendations for future experiments engineering and for the Majorana simulation task group to evaluate the different design approaches.

  7. Oil, Water, and Wildlife: The Gulf of Mexico Disaster and Related Environmental Issues

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Bickman, John W. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States

    2010-09-01

    The BP Macondo oil field spill in the Gulf of Mexico is the largest oil spill in U.S. history and has the potential to impact sea turtle and marine mammal populations, and others. This presentation will review the genotoxic effects of oil exposure in wildlife and discuss the potential for an oil spill to impact wildlife populations. Whereas some aspects of a spill are predictable, each spill is different because oils are highly variable, as are the environments in which they occur. The presentation will discuss what has been learned from previous spills, including the Exxon Valdez and the soviet oil legacy in Azerbaijan, and the potential dangers of offshore oil development in the Arctic. Related Purdue University research efforts in oil-spill related engineering and science also will be highlighted.

  8. Phase I Water Rental Pilot Project : Snake River Resident Fish and Wildlife Resources and Management Recommendations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riggin, Stacey H.; Hansen, H. Jerome

    1992-10-01

    The Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project was implemented as a part of the Non-Treaty Storage Fish and Wildlife Agreement (NTSA) between Bonneville Power Administration and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. The goal of the project is to improve juvenile and adult salmon and steelhead passage in the lower Snake River with the use of rented water for flow augmentation. The primary purpose of this project is to summarize existing resource information and provide recommendations to protect or enhance resident fish and wildlife resources in Idaho with actions achieving flow augmentation for anadromous fish. Potential impacts of an annual flow augmentation program on Idaho reservoirs and streams are modeled. Potential sources of water for flow augmentation and operational or institutional constraints to the use of that water are identified. This report does not advocate flow augmentation as the preferred long-term recovery action for salmon. The state of Idaho strongly believes that annual drawdown of the four lower Snake reservoirs is critical to the long-term enhancement and recovery of salmon (Andrus 1990). Existing water level management includes balancing the needs of hydropower production, irrigated agriculture, municipalities and industries with fish, wildlife and recreation. Reservoir minimum pool maintenance, water quality and instream flows are issues of public concern that will be directly affected by the timing and quantity of water rental releases for salmon flow augmentation, The potential of renting water from Idaho rental pools for salmon flow augmentation is complicated by institutional impediments, competition from other water users, and dry year shortages. Water rental will contribute to a reduction in carryover storage in a series of dry years when salmon flow augmentation is most critical. Such a reduction in carryover can have negative impacts on reservoir fisheries by eliminating shoreline spawning beds, reducing available fish habitat, and exacerbating adverse water quality conditions. A reduction in carry over can lead to seasonal reductions in instream flows, which may also negatively affect fish, wildlife, and recreation in Idaho. The Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project does provide opportunities to protect and enhance resident fish and wildlife habitat by improving water quality and instream flows. Control of point sources, such as sewage and industrial discharges, alone will not achieve water quality goals in Idaho reservoirs and streams. Slow, continuous releases of rented water can increase and stabilize instream flows, increase available fish and wildlife habitat, decrease fish displacement, and improve water quality. Island integrity, requisite for waterfowl protection from mainland predators, can be maintained with improved timing of water releases. Rebuilding Snake River salmon and steelhead runs requires a cooperative commitment and increased flexibility in system operations to increase flow velocities for fish passage and migration. Idaho's resident fish and wildlife resources require judicious management and a willingness by all parties to liberate water supplies equitably.

  9. Oil, Water, and Wildlife: The Gulf of Mexico Disaster and Related Environmental Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickman, John W.

    2010-08-04

    The BP Macondo oil field spill in the Gulf of Mexico is the largest oil spill in U.S. history and has the potential to impact sea turtle and marine mammal populations, and others. This presentation will review the genotoxic effects of oil exposure in wildlife and discuss the potential for an oil spill to impact wildlife populations. Whereas some aspects of a spill are predictable, each spill is different because oils are highly variable, as are the environments in which they occur. The presentation will discuss what has been learned from previous spills, including the Exxon Valdez and the soviet oil legacy in Azerbaijan, and the potential dangers of offshore oil development in the Arctic. Related Purdue University research efforts in oil-spill related engineering and science also will be highlighted.

  10. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Rainwater Wildlife Area, 1998-2001 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, Allen

    2004-01-01

    The 8,768 acre Rainwater Wildlife Area was acquired in September 1998 by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) through an agreement with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to partially offset habitat losses associated with construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the mainstem Columbia River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to BPA for acquired lands. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grassland rover types are evaluated in this study. Targeted wildlife species include downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricopillus), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglects). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 65,300, 594m{sup 2} plots, and 112 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 153.3 and 7,187.46 acres were evaluated for each target wildlife mitigation species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total baseline habitat units credited to BPA for the Rainwater Wildlife Area and its seven target species is 5,185.3 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing, road de-commissioning/obliteration, reforestation and thinning, control of competing and unwanted vegetation (including noxious weeds), reestablishing displaced or reduced native vegetation species, allowance of normative processes such as fire occurrence, and facilitating development of natural stable stream channels and associated floodplains. Implementation of habitat enhancement and restoration activities could generate an additional 1,850 habitat units in 10 years. Baseline and estimated future habitat units total 7,035.3 for the Rainwater Wildlife Area. Habitat protection, enhancement and restoration will require long-term commitments from managers to increase probabilities of success and meet the goals and objectives of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Program. Longer-term benefits of protection and enhancement activities include increases in native species diversity and plant community resiliency in all cover types. Watershed conditions, including floodplain/riparian, and instream habitat quality should improve as well providing multiple benefits for terrestrial and aquatic resources. While such benefits are not necessarily recognized by HEP models and reflected in the number of habitat units generated, they are consistent with the NPPC Fish and Wildlife Program.

  11. Real-Time Active Cosmic Neutron Background Reduction Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Wolff, Ronald; Mitchell, Stephen; Guss, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Neutron counting using large arrays of pressurized 3He proportional counters from an aerial system or in a maritime environment suffers from the background counts from the primary cosmic neutrons and secondary neutrons caused by cosmic ray?induced mechanisms like spallation and charge-exchange reaction. This paper reports the work performed at the Remote Sensing LaboratoryAndrews (RSL-A) and results obtained when using two different methods to reduce the cosmic neutron background in real time. Both methods used shielding materials with a high concentration (up to 30% by weight) of neutron-absorbing materials, such as natural boron, to remove the low-energy neutron flux from the cosmic background as the first step of the background reduction process. Our first method was to design, prototype, and test an up-looking plastic scintillator (BC-400, manufactured by Saint Gobain Corporation) to tag the cosmic neutrons and then create a logic pulse of a fixed time duration (~120 ?s) to block the data taken by the neutron counter (pressurized 3He tubes running in a proportional counter mode). The second method examined the time correlation between the arrival of two successive neutron signals to the counting array and calculated the excess of variance (Feynman variance Y2F)1 in the neutron count distribution from Poisson distribution. The dilution of this variance from cosmic background values ideally would signal the presence of man-made neutrons.2 The first method has been technically successful in tagging the neutrons in the cosmic-ray flux and preventing them from being counted in the 3He tube array by electronic vetofield measurement work shows the efficiency of the electronic veto counter to be about 87%. The second method has successfully derived an empirical relationship between the percentile non-cosmic component in a neutron flux and the Y2F of the measured neutron count distribution. By using shielding materials alone, approximately 55% of the neutron flux from man-made sources like 252Cf or Am-Be was removed.

  12. Supplement Analysis for the Wildlife Mitigation Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0246/SA-37)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2004-01-16

    BPA proposes to fund the purchase of four parcels of land within the boundaries of the Spokane Indian Reservation, totaling approximately 860 acres. Title to the land will pass to the Spokane Tribe of Indians. The goal of the property acquisition is to dedicate the land to the protection, mitigation, and enhancement of fish and wildlife affected by the construction and operation of portions of the Federal Columbia River Power System.

  13. Threatened and endangered wildlife species of the Hanford Site related to CERCLA characterization activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Weiss, S.G.; Stegen, J.A.

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site has been placed on the National Priorities List, which requires that it be remediated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund. Potentially contaminated areas of the Hanford Site were grouped into operable units, and detailed characterization and investigation plans were formulated. The DOE Richland Operations Office requested Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to conduct a biological assessment of the potential impact of these characterization activities on the threatened, endangered, and sensitive wildlife species of the Hanford Site. Additional direction for WHC compliances with wildlife protection can be found in the Environmental Compliance Manual. This document is intended to meet these requirements, in part, for the CERCLA characterization activities, as well as for other work comparable in scope. This report documents the biological assessment and describes the pertinent components of the Hanford Site as well as the planned characterization activities. Also provided are accounts of endangered, threatened, and federal candidate wildlife species on the Hanford Site and information as to how human disturbances can affect these species. Potential effects of the characterization activities are described with recommendations for mitigation measures.

  14. Fall 1994 wildlife and vegetation survey, Norton Air Force Base, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-15

    The fall 1994 wildlife and vegetation surveys were completed October 3-7, 1994, at Norton Air Force Base (AFB), California. Two biologists from CDM Federal Programs, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regional biologist and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) lead biologist conducted the surveys. A habitat assessment of three Installation Restoration Project (IRP) sites at Norton Air Force Base was also completed during the fall survey period. The IRP sites include: Landfill No. 2 (Site 2); the Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant (IWTP) area; and Former Fire Training Area No. 1 (Site 5). The assessments were designed to qualitatively characterize the sites of concern, identify potential ecological receptors, and provide information for Remedial Design/Remedial Action activities. A Reference Area (Santa Ana River Wash) and the base urban areas were also characterized. The reference area assessment was performed to provide a baseline for comparison with the IRP site habitats. The fall 1994 survey is the second of up to four surveys that may be completed. In order to develop a complete understanding of all plant and animal species using the base, these surveys were planned to be conducted over four seasons. Species composition can vary widely during the course of a year in Southern California, and therefore, seasonal surveys will provide the most complete and reliable data to address changes in habitat structure and wildlife use of the site. Subsequent surveys will focus on seasonal wildlife observations and a spring vegetation survey.

  15. Management of wildlife causing damage at Argonne National Laboratory-East, DuPage County, Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    The DOE, after an independent review, has adopted an Environmental Assessment (EA) prepared by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) which evaluates use of an Integrated Wildlife Damage Management approach at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) in DuPage County, Illinois (April 1995). In 1994, the USDA issued a programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) that covers nationwide animal damage control activities. The EA for Management of Wildlife Causing Damage at ANL-E tiers off this programmatic EIS. The USDA wrote the EA as a result of DOE`s request to USDA to prepare and implement a comprehensive Wildlife Management Damage Plan; the USDA has authority for animal damage control under the Animal Damage Control Act of 1931, as amended, and the Rural Development, Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriations Act of 1988. DOE has determined, based on the analysis in the EA, that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an EIS is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  16. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment 2. Analysis Discussion Resource Assessment The USGS most recent assessment of oil and gas resources of ANWR Coastal Plain (The Oil and Gas Resource Potential of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 1002 Area, Alaska, Open File Report 98-34, 1999) provided basic information used in this study. A prior assessment was completed in 1987 by the USGS.

  17. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Executive Summary This Service Report, Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment, was prepared for the U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources at the request of Chairman Frank H. Murkowski in a letter dated March 10, 2000. The request asked the Energy Information

  18. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Glossary ANILCA: Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act ANS: Alaskan North Slope ANWR: Arctic National Wildlife Refuge BBbls: billion barrels Bbls: barrels Daily Petroleum Production Rate: The amount of petroleum extracted per day from a well, group of wells, region, etc. (usually expressed in barrels per day) EIA: Energy Information

  19. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Preface Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment is a product of the Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) Reserves and Production Division. EIA, under various programs, has assessed foreign and domestic oil and gas resources, reserves, and production potential. As a policy-neutral

  20. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment References Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2000, DOE/EIA-0383(2000) (Washington, DC, December 1999), Table A11. Energy Information Administration, Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, SR/RNGD/87-01 (Washington, DC, September 1987). U.S. Department of Interior, Arctic National

  1. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment 3. Summary The 1.5 million-acre coastal plain of the 19 million-acre Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is the largest unexplored, potentially productive geologic onshore basin in the United States. The primary area of the coastal plain is the 1002 Area of ANWR established when ANWR was created. A decision on permitting the exploration and development

  2. PowerPoint Presentation

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment 2. Analysis Discussion Resource Assessment The USGS most recent assessment of oil and gas resources of ANWR Coastal Plain (The Oil and Gas Resource Potential of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 1002 Area, Alaska, Open File Report 98-34, 1999) provided basic information used in this study. A prior assessment was completed in 1987 by the USGS.

  3. Structural Automotive Components from Composite Materials | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy The 112-panel solar photovoltaic system at Parker River National Wildlife Refuge's visitor center and administrative building generates about 35% of the facility’s average electricity needs. | Photo courtesy of Parker River National Wildlife Refuge The 112-panel solar photovoltaic system at Parker River National Wildlife Refuge's visitor center and administrative building generates about 35% of the facility's average electricity needs. | Photo courtesy of Parker River National

  4. PROBING THE UNIVERSE'S TILT WITH THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND DIPOLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fixsen, D. J.; Kashlinsky, A. E-mail: alexander.kashlinsky@nasa.gov

    2011-06-10

    Conventional interpretation of the observed cosmic microwave background (CMB) dipole is that all of it is produced by local peculiar motions. Alternative explanations requiring part of the dipole to be primordial have received support from measurements of large-scale bulk flows. A test of the two hypotheses is whether other cosmic dipoles produced by collapsed structures later than the last scattering coincide with the CMB dipole. One background is the cosmic infrared background (CIB) whose absolute spectrum was measured to {approx}30% by the COBE satellite. Over the 100-500 {mu}m wavelength range its spectral energy distribution can provide a probe of its alignment with the CMB. This is tested with the COBE FIRAS data set which is available for such a measurement because of its low noise and frequency resolution which are important for Galaxy subtraction. Although the FIRAS instrument noise is in principle low enough to determine the CIB dipole, the Galactic foreground is sufficiently close spectrally to keep the CIB dipole hidden. A similar analysis is performed with DIRBE, which-because of the limited frequency coverage-provides a poorer data set. We discuss strategies for measuring the CIB dipole with future instruments to probe the tilt and apply it to the Planck, Herschel, and the proposed Pixie missions. We demonstrate that a future FIRAS-like instrument with instrument noise a factor of {approx}10 lower than FIRAS would make a statistically significant measurement of the CIB dipole. We find that the Planck and Herschel data sets will not allow a robust CIB dipole measurement. The Pixie instrument promises a determination of the CIB dipole and its alignment with either the CMB dipole or the dipole galaxy acceleration vector.

  5. Pion Form Factor in Improved Holographic QCD Backgrounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwee, Herry J.

    2010-08-05

    We extend our recent numerical calculation of the pion electromagnetic form factor F{sub {pi}}(Q{sup 2}) in holographic QCD with a background field that interpolates between 'hard-wall' and 'soft-wall' models to obtain an improved model that reproduces the desirable phenomenological features of both. In all cases, F{sub {pi}}for large Q{sup 2} is shallower than data, an effect that can be cured by relaxing the fit to one of the static observables, particularly the decay constant f{sub {pi}}.

  6. Central Plateau Principles Public Involvement Advice DETAILED BACKGROUND

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    v0, 12/9/14 Central Plateau Principles Public Involvement Advice DETAILED BACKGROUND Cleanup of Hanford's Central Plateau is expected to take another four decades or longer, and cost tens of billions of dollars. The Central Plateau includes the 200 East and 200 West Areas with all of Hanford's High-Level Nuclear Waste Tank Farms, processing plants, sites where over a million gallons of High-Level Nuclear Waste has leaked from Single Shell Tanks (SSTs), and billions of gallons of waste was

  7. FINGERPRINTS OF GALACTIC LOOP I ON THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Hao; Mertsch, Philipp

    2014-07-10

    We investigate possible imprints of galactic foreground structures such as the ''radio loops'' in the derived maps of the cosmic microwave background. Surprisingly, there is evidence for these not only at radio frequencies through their synchrotron radiation, but also at microwave frequencies where emission by dust dominates. This suggests the mechanism is magnetic dipole radiation from dust grains enriched by metallic iron or ferrimagnetic molecules. This new foreground we have identified is present at high galactic latitudes, and potentially dominates over the expected B-mode polarization signal due to primordial gravitational waves from inflation.

  8. Significance of Cytochrome P450 System Responses and Levels of Bile Fluorescent Aromatic Compounds in Marine Wildlife Following Oil Spills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Richard F.; Anderson, Jack W.

    2005-07-01

    The relationships among cytochrome P450 induction in marine wildlife species, levels of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FAC) in their bile, the chemical composition of the inducing compounds, the significance of the exposure pathway, and any resulting injury, as a consequence of exposure to crude oil following a spill, are reviewed. Fish collected after oil spills often show increases in cytochrome P450 system activity, cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and bile fluorescent aromatic compounds (FAC), that are correlated with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the oil. There is also some evidence for increases in bile FAC and induction of cytochrome P450 in marine birds and mammals after oil spills. However, when observed, increases in these exposure indicators are transitory and generally decrease to background levels within one year after the exposure. Laboratory studies have shown induction of cytochrome P450 systems occurs after exposure of fish to crude oil in water, sediment or food. Most of the PAH found in crude oil (dominantly 2- and 3-ring PAH) are not strong inducers of cytochrome P450. Exposure to the 4-ring chrysenes or the photooxidized products of the PAH may account for the cytochrome P450 responses in fish collected from oil-spill sites. The contribution of non-spill background PAH, particularly combustion-derived (pyrogenic) PAH, to bile FAC and cytochrome P450 system responses can be confounding and needs to be considered when evaluating oil spill effects. The ubiquity of pyrogenic PAH makes it important to fully characterize all sources of PAH, including PAH from natural resources, e.g. retene, in oil spill studies. In addition, such parameters as species, sex, age, ambient temperature and season need to be taken into account. While increases in fish bile FAC and cytochrome P450 system responses, can together, be sensitive general indicators of PAH exposure after an oil spill, there is little unequivocal evidence to suggest a linkage to higher order biological effects, e.g. toxicity, lesions, reproductive failure.

  9. Measurements of Worldwide Radioxenon Backgrounds - The "EU" Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowyer, Ted W.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Hayes, James C.; Forrester, Joel B.; Haas, Derek A.; Hansen, Randy R.; Keller, Paul E.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Lidey, Lance S.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Payne, Rosara F.; Saey, Paul R.; Thompson, Robert C.; Woods, Vincent T.; Williams, Richard M.

    2009-09-24

    Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), radioactive xenon (radioxenon) measurements are one of the principle techniques used to detect nuclear underground nuclear explosions, and specifically, the presence of one or more radioxenon isotopes allows one to determine whether a suspected event was a nuclear explosion or originated from an innocent source. During the design of the International Monitoring System (IMS), which was designed as the verification mechanism for the Treaty, it was determined that radioxenon measurements should be performed at 40 or more stations worldwide. At the time of the design of the IMS, however, very few details about the background of the xenon isotopes was known and it is now recognized that the backgrounds were probably evolving anyhow. This paper lays out the beginning of a study of the worldwide concentrations of xenon isotopes that can be used to detect nuclear explosions and several sources that also release radioxenons, and will have to be accounted for during analysis of atmospheric levels. Although the global concentrations of the xenon isotopes are the scope of a much larger activity that could span over several years, this study measures radioxenon concentrations in locations where there was either very little information or there was a unique opportunity to learn more about emissions from known sources. The locations where radioxenon levels were measured and reported are included.

  10. Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 - Abbreviations

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AEO: Annual Energy Outlook AEO2012: Annual Energy Outlook 2012 AFUE: Average Fuel Use Efficiency ANWR: Artic National Wildlife Refuge ARRA2009: American Recovery and...

  11. Microsoft PowerPoint - SWL HPConf2010 (final).pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... WHITE RIVER NATIONAL0 WILDLIFE REFUGE Lock and Dam No 1 Little Rock District, Southwestern ... Pine Mountain Dam * Authorized in 1965 and reevaluated in 1980 * Authorized plan includes ...

  12. The {ital COBE} Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment Search for the Cosmic Infrared Background. I. Limits and Detections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, M.G.; Arendt, R.G.; Kelsall, T.; Dwek, E.; Odegard, N.; Weiland, J.L.; Freudenreich, H.T.; Reach, W.T.; Pei, Y.C.; Lubin, P.; Mather, J.C.; Shafer, R.A.; Smoot, G.F.; Weiss, R.; Wilkinson, D.T.; Wright, E.L.

    1998-11-01

    The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) on the Cosmic Background Explorer ({ital COBE}) spacecraft was designed primarily to conduct a systematic search for an isotropic cosmic infrared background (CIB) in 10 photometric bands from 1.25 to 240 {mu}m. The results of that search are presented here. Conservative limits on the CIB are obtained from the minimum observed brightness in all-sky maps at each wavelength, with the faintest limits in the DIRBE spectral range being at 3.5 {mu}m ({nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} {lt} 64 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, 95{percent} confidence level) and at 240 {mu}m ({nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} {lt} 28 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, 95{percent} confidence level). The bright foregrounds from interplanetary dust scattering and emission, stars, and interstellar dust emission are the principal impediments to the DIRBE measurements of the CIB. These foregrounds have been modeled and removed from the sky maps. Assessment of the random and systematic uncertainties in the residuals and tests for isotropy show that only the 140 and 240 {mu}m data provide candidate detections of the CIB. The residuals and their uncertainties provide CIB upper limits more restrictive than the dark sky limits at wavelengths from 1.25 to 100 {mu}m. No plausible solar system or Galactic source of the observed 140 and 240 {mu}m residuals can be identified, leading to the conclusion that the CIB has been detected at levels of {nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} = 25 {plus_minus} 7 and 14 {plus_minus} 3 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1} at 140 and 240 {mu}m, respectively. The integrated energy from 140 to 240 {mu}m, 10.3 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, is about twice the integrated optical light from the galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field, suggesting that star formation might have been heavily enshrouded by dust at high redshift. The detections and upper limits reported here provide new constraints on models of the history of energy-releasing processes and dust production since the decoupling of the cosmic microwave background from matter. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  13. Plasma tomographic reconstruction from tangentially viewing camera with background subtraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odstr?il, M.; Mlyn?, J.; Weinzettl, V.; H?ek, P.; Verdoolaege, G.; Berta, M.

    2014-01-15

    Light reflections are one of the main and often underestimated issues of plasma emissivity reconstruction in visible light spectral range. Metallic and other specular components of tokamak generate systematic errors in the optical measurements that could lead to wrong interpretation of data. Our analysis is performed at data from the tokamak COMPASS. It is a D-shaped tokamak with specular metallic vessel and possibility of the H-mode plasma. Data from fast visible light camera were used for tomographic reconstruction with background reflections subtraction to study plasma boundary. In this article, we show that despite highly specular tokamak wall, it is possible to obtain a realistic reconstruction. The developed algorithm shows robust results despite of systematic errors in the optical measurements and calibration. The motivation is to obtain an independent estimate of the plasma boundary shape.

  14. Background-reducing X-ray multilayer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bloch, Jeffrey J.; Roussel-Dupre', Diane; Smith, Barham W.

    1992-01-01

    Background-reducing x-ray multilayer mirror. A multiple-layer "wavetrap" deposited over the surface of a layered, synthetic-microstructure soft x-ray mirror optimized for reflectivity at chosen wavelengths is disclosed for reducing the reflectivity of undesired, longer wavelength incident radiation incident thereon. In three separate mirror designs employing an alternating molybdenum and silicon layered, mirrored structure overlaid by two layers of a molybdenum/silicon pair anti-reflection coating, reflectivities of near normal incidence 133, 171, and 186 .ANG. wavelengths have been optimized, while that at 304 .ANG. has been minimized. The optimization process involves the choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs as well as the number thereof, and the distance therebetween for the mirror, and the simultaneous choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs, and their number and distance for the "wavetrap."

  15. Intersecting nonextreme p-branes and linear dilaton background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C.-M.; Gal'tsov, Dmitri V.; Ohta, Nobuyoshi

    2005-08-15

    We construct the general static solution to the supergravity action containing gravity, the dilaton and a set of antisymmetric forms describing the intersecting branes delocalized in the relative transverse dimensions. The solution is obtained by reducing the system to a set of separate Liouville equations (the intersection rules implying the separability); it contains the maximal number of free parameters corresponding to the rank of the differential equations. Imposing the requirement of the absence of naked singularities, we show that the general configurations are restricted to two and only two classes: the usual asymptotically flat intersecting branes, and the intersecting branes some of which are asymptotically flat and some approach the linear dilaton background at infinity. In both cases the configurations are black. These are supposed to be relevant for the description of the thermal phase of the QFT's in the corresponding Domain-Wall/QFT duality.

  16. Regeneration of kaolin mined lands to maximize loblolly pine growth and wildlife habitat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McEvoy, K.E.; Morris, L.A.; Hendrick, R.L.; Ogden, E.A.

    1999-07-01

    Compliance with the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 and Georgia Surface Mining Act of 1968 requires that land equal in area to each year's disturbance by reclaimed and a vegetative cover established. Approximately 60% of kaolin mined areas are reclaimed to pine forest. Current methods of reclamation after grading involve fertilization, seeding with a cover crop of grass and legumes, followed by planting of tree seedlings. Restrictive soil physical conditions, a lack of organic matter and nutrients, and competition by cover crop species can reduce survival and growth of loblolly pine seedlings. Also, current cover crop species have only marginal value for wildlife. In this research, the authors evaluated alternative methods of reforestation that (1) control erosion while providing greater benefits for wildlife and reduced competition with loblolly pine seedlings, (2) ameliorate adverse soil physical conditions through deeper tillage (subsoiling vs. disk harrowing), and (3) improve spoil fertility and structure by application of a composted paper mill by-product. Results from field trials indicate control of erosion by wildlife grasses is comparable to seed mixtures currently used in the industry. Subsoiling and disking both had ameliorative effects on soil physical properties with seedling survival at 92% and 88% respectively, compared to 45% of the surrounding area. Composted paper mill by-product served as an additional source of organic matter, nutrients, and protective mulch, thereby enhancing seedling growth as well as ameliorating pine seedlings mulched with the paper mill compost was greater than twice the size of seedlings grown under current reclamation practices.

  17. Spring 1995 wildlife and vegetation survey, Norton Air Force Base, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-18

    The objectives of the 1994 and 1995 wildlife and vegetation surveys were to gather data to be used for various applications including: (1) basewide Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) Work Plan (Scoping Document), (2) the completion of the basewide ERA, (3) determining remedial activities, and (4) determining the distribution of state and federal list plant and animal species on Norton AFB. Data gathering included an inventory of plant and animal species present, the identification of potential ecological receptors, mapping of habitats, and constructing the ecological food web present on or near the IRP sites of concern.

  18. Are flying wildlife attracted to (or do they avoid) wind turbines?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larkin, Ronald

    2010-03-31

    A DOE-sponsored research project found strong evidence that flying wildlife avoid or are attracted to commercial-scale wind turbines from a distance. Some nocturnally migrating birds avoid flying near turbines and few or none change flight paths to approach them. High-flying bats less often avoid flying near turbines and some are attracted to them from a distance, although bats’ flight paths were often complex and convoluted. The findings are being prepared for submission to a peer-reviewed scientific journal (Larkin, in prep 2013).

  19. Supplement Analysis for the Wildlife Mitigation Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0246/SA-40)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2004-07-16

    BPA proposes to fund the acquisition of two parcels in Benewah County, Idaho with the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. These parcels encompass approximately 475 acres of riparian and potential riparian habitat along Hangman Creek on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation. The goal of this project is to protect, mitigate, and enhance wildlife affected by the construction and operation of the Federal hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River. The current proposal includes only the fee title acquisition of these parcels; habitat enhancement activities will likely be carried out by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe in the future following the development of a management plan(s) for the lands.

  20. Physics validation studies for muon collider detector background simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Aaron Owen; /Northern Illinois U.

    2011-07-01

    Within the broad discipline of physics, the study of the fundamental forces of nature and the most basic constituents of the universe belongs to the field of particle physics. While frequently referred to as 'high-energy physics,' or by the acronym 'HEP,' particle physics is not driven just by the quest for ever-greater energies in particle accelerators. Rather, particle physics is seen as having three distinct areas of focus: the cosmic, intensity, and energy frontiers. These three frontiers all provide different, but complementary, views of the basic building blocks of the universe. Currently, the energy frontier is the realm of hadron colliders like the Tevatron at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) or the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. While the LHC is expected to be adequate for explorations up to 14 TeV for the next decade, the long development lead time for modern colliders necessitates research and development efforts in the present for the next generation of colliders. This paper focuses on one such next-generation machine: a muon collider. Specifically, this paper focuses on Monte Carlo simulations of beam-induced backgrounds vis-a-vis detector region contamination. Initial validation studies of a few muon collider physics background processes using G4beamline have been undertaken and results presented. While these investigations have revealed a number of hurdles to getting G4beamline up to the level of more established simulation suites, such as MARS, the close communication between us, as users, and the G4beamline developer, Tom Roberts, has allowed for rapid implementation of user-desired features. The main example of user-desired feature implementation, as it applies to this project, is Bethe-Heitler muon production. Regarding the neutron interaction issues, we continue to study the specifics of how GEANT4 implements nuclear interactions. The GEANT4 collaboration has been contacted regarding the minor discrepancies in the neutron interaction cross sections for boron. While corrections to the data files themselves are simple to implement and distribute, it is quite possible, however, that coding changes may be required in G4beamline or even in GEANT4 to fully correct nuclear interactions. Regardless, these studies are ongoing and future results will be reflected in updated releases of G4beamline.

  1. THE COSMIC NEAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND. II. FLUCTUATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, Elizabeth R.; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Shapiro, Paul R.; Iliev, Ilian T.

    2010-02-20

    The near-infrared background (NIRB) is one of a few methods that can be used to observe the redshifted light from early stars at a redshift of 6 and above, and thus it is imperative to understand the significance of any detection or nondetection of the NIRB. Fluctuations of the NIRB can provide information on the first structures, such as halos and their surrounding ionized regions in the intergalactic medium (IGM). We combine, for the first time, N-body simulations, radiative transfer code, and analytic calculations of luminosity of early structures to predict the angular power spectrum (C{sub l} ) of fluctuations in the NIRB. We study in detail the effects of various assumptions about the stellar mass, the initial mass spectrum of stars, the metallicity, the star formation efficiency (f{sub *}), the escape fraction of ionizing photons (f{sub esc}), and the star formation timescale (t{sub SF}), on the amplitude as well as the shape of C{sub l} . The power spectrum of NIRB fluctuations is maximized when f{sub *} is the largest (as C{sub l} {proportional_to} f {sup 2}{sub *}) and f{sub esc} is the smallest (as more nebular emission is produced within halos). A significant uncertainty in the predicted amplitude of C{sub l} exists due to our lack of knowledge of t{sub SF} of these early populations of galaxies, which is equivalent to our lack of knowledge of the mass-to-light ratio of these sources. We do not see a turnover in the NIRB angular power spectrum of the halo contribution, which was claimed to exist in the literature, and explain this as the effect of high levels of nonlinear bias that was ignored in the previous calculations. This is partly due to our choice of the minimum mass of halos contributing to NIRB ({approx}2 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}), and a smaller minimum mass, which has a smaller nonlinear bias, may still exhibit a turnover. Therefore, our results suggest that both the amplitude and shape of the NIRB power spectrum provide important information regarding the nature of sources contributing to the cosmic reionization. The angular power spectrum of the IGM, in most cases, is much smaller than the halo angular power spectrum, except when f{sub esc} is close to unity, t{sub SF} is longer, or the minimum redshift at which the star formation is occurring is high. In addition, low levels of the observed mean background intensity tend to rule out high values of f{sub *} {approx}> 0.2.

  2. Experiments with background gas in a vacuum arc centrifuge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dallaqua, R.S.; Simpson, S.W.; Del Bosco, E.

    1996-04-01

    Since promising isotope separation results were first reported by Krishnan et al. in 1981, a range of vacuum arc centrifuge experiments have been conducted in laboratories around the world. The PCEN (Plasma CENtrifuge) vacuum arc centrifuge at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research has been used for isotope separation studies with cathode materials of carbon and magnesium and also to investigate the performance in terms of the rotational velocity attained for different cathode materials. Here, a vacuum arc centrifuge has been operated with an initial filling gas of either argon or hydrogen for pressures ranging from 10{sup {minus}3} to 10{sup {minus}1} Pa. The angular velocity {omega} of the plasma has been determined by cross-correlating the signals from potential probes, and the electron temperature T has been deduced from Langmuir probe data. At high gas pressures and early times during the 14 ms plasma lifetime, high-frequency nonuniformities frequently observed in the vacuum discharge disappear, suggesting that the associated instability is suppressed. Under the same conditions, nonuniformities rotating with much lower angular velocities are observed in the plasma. Temperatures are reduced in the presence of the background gas, and the theoretical figure of merit for separation proportional to {omega}{sup 2}/T is increased compared to its value in the vacuum discharge for both argon and hydrogen gas fillings.

  3. Cosmic acceleration without dark energy: background tests and thermodynamic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lima, J.A.S.; Graef, L.L.; Pavn, D.; Basilakos, Spyros E-mail: leilagraef@usp.br E-mail: svasil@academyofathens.gr

    2014-10-01

    A cosmic scenario with gravitationally induced particle creation is proposed. In this model the Universe evolves from an early to a late time de Sitter era, with the recent accelerating phase driven only by the negative creation pressure associated with the cold dark matter component. The model can be interpreted as an attempt to reduce the so-called cosmic sector (dark matter plus dark energy) and relate the two cosmic accelerating phases (early and late time de Sitter expansions). A detailed thermodynamic analysis including possible quantum corrections is also carried out. For a very wide range of the free parameters, it is found that the model presents the expected behavior of an ordinary macroscopic system in the sense that it approaches thermodynamic equilibrium in the long run (i.e., as it nears the second de Sitter phase). Moreover, an upper bound is found for the GibbonsHawking temperature of the primordial de Sitter phase. Finally, when confronted with the recent observational data, the current 'quasi'-de Sitter era, as predicted by the model, is seen to pass very comfortably the cosmic background tests.

  4. Optical emission line monitor with background observation and cancellation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goff, David R.; Notestein, John E.

    1986-01-01

    A fiber optics based optical emission line monitoring system is provided in which selected spectral emission lines, such as the sodium D-line emission in coal combustion, may be detected in the presence of interferring background or blackbody radiation with emissions much greater in intensity than that of the emission line being detected. A bifurcated fiber optic light guide is adapted at the end of one branch to view the combustion light which is guided to a first bandpass filter, adapted to the common trunk end of the fiber. A portion of the light is reflected back through the common trunk portion of the fiber to a second bandpass filter adapted to the end of the other branch of the fiber. The first filter bandpass is centered at a wavelength corresponding to the emission line to be detected with a bandwidth of about three nanometers (nm). The second filter is centered at the same wavelength but having a width of about 10 nm. First and second light detectors are located to view the light passing through the first and second filters respectively. Thus, the second detector is blind to the light corresponding to the emission line of interest detected by the first detector and the difference between the two detector outputs is uniquely indicative of the intensity of only the combustion flame emission of interest. This instrument can reduce the effects of interferring blackbody radiation by greater than 20 dB.

  5. Optical emission line monitor with background observation and cancellation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goff, D.R.; Notestein, J.E.

    1985-01-04

    A fiber optics based optical emission line monitoring system is provided in which selected spectral emission lines, such as the sodium D-line emission in coal combustion, may be detected in the presence of interferring background or blackbody radiation with emissions much greater in intensity than that of the emission line being detected. A bifurcated fiber optic light guide is adapted at the end of one branch to view the combustion light which is guided to a first bandpass filter, adapted to the common trunk end of the fiber. A portion of the light is reflected back through the common trunk portion of the fiber to a second bandpass filter adapted to the end of the other branch of the fiber. The first filter bandpass is centered at a wavelength corresponding to the emission line to be detected with a bandwidth of about three nanometers (nm). The second filter is centered at the same wavelength but having a width of about 10 nm. First and second light detectors are located to view the light passing through the first and second filters respectively. Thus, the second detector is blind to the light corresponding to the emission line of interest detected by the first detector and the difference between the two detector outputs is uniquely indicative of the intensity of only the combustion flame emission of interest. This instrument can reduce the effects of interfering blackbody radiation by greater than 20 dB.

  6. Gravitational wave background from Standard Model physics: qualitative features

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghiglieri, J.; Laine, M.

    2015-07-16

    Because of physical processes ranging from microscopic particle collisions to macroscopic hydrodynamic fluctuations, any plasma in thermal equilibrium emits gravitational waves. For the largest wavelengths the emission rate is proportional to the shear viscosity of the plasma. In the Standard Model at T>160 GeV, the shear viscosity is dominated by the most weakly interacting particles, right-handed leptons, and is relatively large. We estimate the order of magnitude of the corresponding spectrum of gravitational waves. Even though at small frequencies (corresponding to the sub-Hz range relevant for planned observatories such as eLISA) this background is tiny compared with that from non-equilibrium sources, the total energy carried by the high-frequency part of the spectrum is non-negligible if the production continues for a long time. We suggest that this may constrain (weakly) the highest temperature of the radiation epoch. Observing the high-frequency part directly sets a very ambitious goal for future generations of GHz-range detectors.

  7. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Rocky Flats External Resources

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    External Resources Rocky Flats Site, Colorado External Resources Rocky Flats Stewardship Council Disclaimer Rocky Flats Cold War Museum Disclaimer U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge Disclaimer Last Updated: 5/1/2013

  8. DOE's Former Rocky Flats Weapons Production Site to Become National...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    July 12, 2007 - 2:54pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today ... (DOI) U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) for use as a National Wildlife Refuge. ...

  9. Microsoft Word - ROD.FinalEdit.doc

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    The U.S. Air Force, Nellis Air Force Base; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Desert National Wildlife Refuge Complex; Clark County Regional Flood Control District; Clark County ...

  10. Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance at the Rocky Flats Site...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    as a buffer zone surrounding the former industrial area, was transferred to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in July 2007 for a national wildlife refuge. DOE's Office of...

  11. 10:30AM TODAY: Senior Administration Officials to Hold a Background...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    :30AM TODAY: Senior Administration Officials to Hold a Background Conference Call Regarding Oil 10:30AM TODAY: Senior Administration Officials to Hold a Background Conference Call ...

  12. Binary electrokinetic separation of target DNA from background DNA primers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, Conrad D.; Derzon, Mark Steven

    2005-10-01

    This report contains the summary of LDRD project 91312, titled ''Binary Electrokinetic Separation of Target DNA from Background DNA Primers''. This work is the first product of a collaboration with Columbia University and the Northeast BioDefense Center of Excellence. In conjunction with Ian Lipkin's lab, we are developing a technique to reduce false positive events, due to the detection of unhybridized reporter molecules, in a sensitive and multiplexed detection scheme for nucleic acids developed by the Lipkin lab. This is the most significant problem in the operation of their capability. As they are developing the tools for rapidly detecting the entire panel of hemorrhagic fevers this technology will immediately serve an important national need. The goal of this work was to attempt to separate nucleic acid from a preprocessed sample. We demonstrated the preconcentration of kilobase-pair length double-stranded DNA targets, and observed little preconcentration of 60 base-pair length single-stranded DNA probes. These objectives were accomplished in microdevice formats that are compatible with larger detection systems for sample pre-processing. Combined with Columbia's expertise, this technology would enable a unique, fast, and potentially compact method for detecting/identifying genetically-modified organisms and multiplexed rapid nucleic acid identification. Another competing approach is the DARPA funded IRIS Pharmaceutical TIGER platform which requires many hours for operation, and an 800k$ piece of equipment that fills a room. The Columbia/SNL system could provide a result in 30 minutes, at the cost of a few thousand dollars for the platform, and would be the size of a shoebox or smaller.

  13. Supplement Analysis for the Wildlife Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0246/SA-38)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2004-01-14

    BPA proposes to purchase the conservation easements on the Sanders (307 acres) and Seabaugh (449 acres) parcels of the Weaver Slough to ensure that current fisheries and natural resource values remain protected, and that no development or human encroachment would occur on these parcels, in perpetuity. No planned construction or improvements are currently proposed and the project does not involve fee title land acquisition. Protection will sustain quality aquatic habitats, water quality, and fish and wildlife habitat. Wetlands protected by this easement are priority wetlands in the basin, according to the Flathead Lakers Critical Lands Study. A ''Grant of Agricultural Conservation Easement'' has been prepared for both the Sanders parcel (Nov. 21, 2003) and Seabaugh parcel (December 4, 2003) which provide the parameters, rights and responsibilities, prohibitions, contingencies, and other provisions for the granting these properties for the above purpose and intent. In addition, a Memorandum of Agreement (among the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks; Flathead Land Trust; and BPA) has also been established to protect and conserve the Sanders and Seabaugh parcels.

  14. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Precious Lands Wildlife Management Area, Technical Report 2000-2003.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozusko, Shana

    2003-12-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) currently manages a 15,325 acre parcel of land known as the Precious Lands Wildlife Management Area that was purchased as mitigation for losses incurred by construction of the four lower Snake River dams. The Management Area is located in northern Wallowa County, Oregon and southern Asotin County, Washington (Figure 1). It is divided into three management parcels--the Buford parcel is located on Buford Creek and straddles the WA-OR state line, and the Tamarack and Basin parcels are contiguous to each other and located between the Joseph Creek and Cottonwood Creek drainages in Wallowa County, OR. The project was developed under the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P.L. 96-501), with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The acreage protected under this contract will be credited to BPA as habitat permanently dedicated to wildlife and wildlife mitigation. A modeling strategy known as Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and adopted by BPA as a habitat equivalency accounting system. Nine wildlife species models were used to evaluate distinct cover type features and provide a measure of habitat quality. Models measure a wide range of life requisite variables for each species and monitor overall trends in vegetation community health and diversity. One product of HEP is an evaluation of habitat quality expressed in Habitat Units (HUs). This HU accounting system is used to determine the amount of credit BPA receives for mitigation lands. After construction of the four lower Snake River dams, a HEP loss assessment was conducted to determine how many Habitat Units were inundated behind the dams. Twelve target species were used in that evaluation: Canada goose, mallard, river otter, downy woodpecker, song sparrow, yellow warbler, marsh wren, western meadowlark, chukar, ring-necked pheasant, California quail, and mule deer. The U.S. Army Corp of Engineers and the Washington Department of fish and Wildlife subsequently purchased numerous properties to mitigate for the identified Snake River losses. These projects, however, were not sufficient to mitigate for all the HU's lost. The Northwest Power Planning Council amended the remaining 26,774 HU's into their 1994-1995 Fish and Wildlife Program as being unmitigated (NPPC 2000), which allowed the Nez Perce Tribe to contract with BPA to provide HU's through the Precious Lands Project. The Precious Lands project contains a different composition of cover types than those assessed during the lower Snake loss assessment. For example, no mallard or Canada goose habitat exists on Precious Lands but the area does contain conifer forest, which was not present on the area inundated by dam construction. These cover type differences have resulted in a slightly different suite of species for the current HEP assessment. Target species for Precious Lands are downy woodpecker, yellow warbler, song sparrow, California Quail, mule deer, sharp-tailed grouse (brood rearing), west em meadowlark, beaver, and black-capped chickadee. This list is a reflection of the available cover types and the management objectives of the Nez Perce Tribe. For example, chukar was not used in the present assessment because it is an introduced Eurasian game bird that does not provide an accurate representation of the ecological health of the native grasslands it was supposed to represent. Initial model runs using the chukar confirmed this suspicion so the brood-rearing section of the sharp-tailed grouse model was used instead. Additionally, the beaver model was used in place of the river otter model because the otter model used in the loss assessment was not a published model, was overly simplistic, and did not provide an accurate assessment of riparian condition. The beaver model, however, provides a detailed evaluation of overstory class structure that the NPT felt was a good compliment to the yellow warbler and song sparrow models that evaluated understory shrub layers. Overall, such substitutions should result in a more accurate evaluation of the ecological conditions on Precious Lands, and provide better information for decision making. A baseline HEP analysis was initiated on the Precious Lands in 2000, and data collection continued throughout the 2001 and 2002 field seasons. In the future, HEP analysis will be used to evaluate habitat changes resulting from management activities. Repeat surveys will be useful in assessing long-term trends in plant community health, weed encroachment, wildlife limiting factors, habitat degradation, and establishing desired future condition guidelines for the management program.

  15. Sharp-tailed Grouse and Pygmy Rabbit Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The Proposed Action is needed to protect and enhance shrub-steppe and riparian habitat for sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus), Pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis), and other indigenous wildlife species. The purpose of the Proposed Action is to compensate, in part, for wildlife habitat lost from the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and the inundation of Lake Roosevelt. Bonneville Power Administration proposes to fund management agreements, conservation easements, acquisition of fee title, or a combination of these on as many as 29,000 acres in Lincoln and Douglas Counties to improve shrub-steppe and riparian habitat for sharp-tailed grouse and pygmy rabbits. The BPA also proposes to fund habitat improvements (enhancements) on project lands including existing public lands. Proposed habitat treatments would include control of grazing; planting of native trees, shrubs, forbs and grasses; protection of wetlands and streambanks; herbicide use; fire prescriptions; and wildfire suppression. Proposed management activities may include predator control, population introductions, and control of crop depredation.

  16. Sharp-Tailed Grouse and Pygmy Rabbit Wildlife Mitigation Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Untied States. Bonneville Power Adminsitration.

    1992-10-01

    The Proposed Action is needed to protect and enhance shrub-steppe and riparian habitat for sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus), Pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis), and other indigenous wildlife species. The purpose of the Proposed Action is to compensate, in part, for wildlife habitat lost from the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and the inundation of Lake Roosevelt. Bonneville Power Administration proposes to fund management agreements, conservation easements, acquisition of fee title, or a combination of these on as many as 29,000 acres in Lincoln and Douglas Counties to improve shrub-steppe and riparian habitat for sharp-tailed grouse and pygmy rabbits. The BPA also proposes to fund habitat improvements (enhancements) on project lands including existing public lands. Proposed habitat treatments would include control of grazing; planting of native trees, shrubs, forbs and grasses; protection of wetlands and streambanks; herbicide use; fire prescriptions; and wildfire suppression. Proposed management activities may include predator control, population introductions, and control of crop depredation.

  17. Wildlife Protection, Mitigation, and Enhancement Planning Phase I, Dworshak Reservoir, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, H. Jerome

    1988-02-01

    Under direction of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980, and the subsequent Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, impacts to wildlife due to the development and operation of the US Army Corps of Engineers Dworshak Project have been examined. Using existing information, it has been determined that the project has resulted in the loss of 15,316 acres of elk habitat, 15,286 acres of white-tailed deer habitat, 16,986 acres of black bear habitat, 14,776 acres of ruffed grouse habitat, 13,616 acres of pileated woodpecker habitat, and 66 acres of yellow warbler habitat (scrub-shrub/red alder). Acreages of mallard, Canada goose, river otter, and beaver habitat could not be determined from existing information. The interagency work group has recommended that a HEP (Habitat Evaluation Procedure) be used to determine changes in the quantity and quality of target species habitat in the study area, due to the development and operation of Dworshak Reservoir. 60 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Protecting Wildlife

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Found in Pellets of Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) from Los Alamos, New Mexico Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Predator and Bottom-Feeding Fish from Abiquiu...

  19. Basin-Scale Opportunity Assessment Initiative Background Literature Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saulsbury, Bo; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Cada, Glenn F; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2010-10-01

    As called for in the March 24, 2010, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental stakeholders, and the hydropower industry are collaborating to identify opportunities to simultaneously increase electricity generation and improve environmental services in river basins of the United States. New analytical tools provide an improved ability to understand, model, and visualize environmental and hydropower systems. Efficiencies and opportunities that might not be apparent in site-by-site analyses can be revealed through assessments at the river-basin scale. Information from basin-scale assessments could lead to better coordination of existing hydropower projects, or to inform siting decisions (e.g., balancing the removal of some dams with the construction of others), in order to meet renewable energy production and environmental goals. Basin-scale opportunity assessments would inform energy and environmental planning and address the cumulative effects of hydropower development and operations on river basin environmental quality in a way that quantifies energy-environment tradeoffs. Opportunity assessments would create information products, develop scenarios, and identify specific actions that agencies, developers, and stakeholders can take to locate new sustainable hydropower projects, increase the efficiency and environmental performance of existing projects, and restore and protect environmental quality in our nation's river basins. Government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO) have done significant work to understand and assess opportunities for both hydropower and environmental protection at the basin scale. Some initiatives have been successful, others less so, and there is a need to better understand the legacy of work on which this current project can build. This background literature review is intended to promote that understanding. The literature review begins with a discussion in Section 2.0 of the Federal regulatory processes and mission areas pertaining to hydropower siting and licensing at the basin scale. This discussion of regulatory processes and mission areas sets the context for the next topic in Section 3.0, past and ongoing basin-scale hydropower planning and assessment activities. The final sections of the literature review provide some conclusions about past and ongoing basin-scale activities and their relevance to the current basin-scale opportunity assessment (Section 4.0), and a bibliography of existing planning and assessment documents (Section 5.0).

  20. A JOINT MODEL OF X-RAY AND INFRARED BACKGROUNDS. II. COMPTON...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-RAY AND INFRARED BACKGROUNDS. II. COMPTON-THICK ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ABUNDANCE Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A JOINT MODEL OF X-RAY AND INFRARED BACKGROUNDS. II. ...

  1. Systematic Assessment of Neutron and Gamma Backgrounds Relevant to Operational Modeling and Detection Technology Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archer, Daniel E.; Hornback, Donald Eric; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Nicholson, Andrew D.; Patton, Bruce W.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Miller, Thomas Martin; Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a two year effort to systematically assess neutron and gamma backgrounds relevant to operational modeling and detection technology implementation. The first year effort focused on reviewing the origins of background sources and their impact on measured rates in operational scenarios of interest. The second year has focused on the assessment of detector and algorithm performance as they pertain to operational requirements against the various background sources and background levels.

  2. Establishment of a Background Environmental Monitoring Station for the PNNL Campus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. M.; Bisping, Lynn E.; Rishel, Jeremy P.

    2014-12-18

    The environmental surveillance of background levels of radionuclides and, in particular, the siting of a background environmental surveillance (monitoring) station are examined. Many published works identify and stress the need for background monitoring; however, little definitive and comprehensive information for siting a station exists. A definition of an ideal background monitoring location and the generic criteria recommended for use in establishing such a background monitoring location are proposed. There are seven primary (mandatory) criteria described with two additional, optional criteria. The criteria are applied to the Richland, Washington (WA), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Campus, which currently uses background monitoring data from the nearby Hanford Site. Eleven potential background monitoring sites were identified, with one location in Benton City, WA found to meet all of the mandatory and optional criteria. It is expected that the new sampler will be installed and operating by the end of June, 2015.

  3. DOE's Former Rocky Flats Weapons Production Site to Become National

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wildlife Refuge | Department of Energy Former Rocky Flats Weapons Production Site to Become National Wildlife Refuge DOE's Former Rocky Flats Weapons Production Site to Become National Wildlife Refuge July 12, 2007 - 2:54pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced the transfer of nearly 4,000 acres of its former Rocky Flats nuclear weapons production site to the Department of the Interior's (DOI) U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) for use as a National

  4. CAMD Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CAMD's Research Funding Impact CAMD is a synchrotron facility supporting the science and engineering research of the LSU faculty as well as other State and Regional stakeholders....

  5. Background F

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    F rom 1951 to 1992, the United States government conducted 828 underground nuclear tests at the Nevada National Security Site. About one-third of these tests occurred near, below, or within the water tablethe very top portion of the groundwater layer where rock and soil are completely saturated with water. As a result, some groundwater was contaminated. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began exploring the effects of groundwater contamination in the 1970s. Though contamination from

  6. Legal Background

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    of the Program Manager 5 Land Use Government-Furnished ... Interest i n increasing natural gas reserves and making ... forecasts and requirements provided by the ...

  7. Legal Background

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... Such decisions cannot be indefinitely postponed if the bf atomic energy arc to be fully ... Absolute certainty is neither required nor possible. See Green v. American Tobacco ...

  8. Legal Background

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... C o l l b r a n , Colorado TedIKathleen Smith C o l l b r a n , Colorado Aaron H & V i r ... a l l e y , Colorado Malcolm & Martha K. Smith Route i k l Grand V a l l e y , Colorado ...

  9. Final Report of the Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data: Workshop to Establish Coordination & Communication

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    July 24-25, 2012 July 2013 Final Report Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data: Workshop to Establish Coordination & Communication July 24 - 25, 2012 Silver Spring, Maryland Workshop and report sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind and Water Power Technologies Office Publication Date: July 2013 Jocelyn Brown-Saracino 1 , Courtney Smith 2 , and Patrick Gilman 3 New West Technologies 1 Wind and Water Power

  10. 10:30AM TODAY: Senior Administration Officials to Hold a Background

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conference Call Regarding Oil | Department of Energy :30AM TODAY: Senior Administration Officials to Hold a Background Conference Call Regarding Oil 10:30AM TODAY: Senior Administration Officials to Hold a Background Conference Call Regarding Oil June 23, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - Today, Thursday, June 23 at 10:30AM ET, Senior Administration Officials will hold a background conference call regarding the ongoing oil supply disruptions in the Middle East and North Africa and the

  11. Subject Heading: Cosmic Background Radiation - Cosmology LARGE-ANGULAR-SCALE ANISOTROPY IN THE COSMIC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Subject Heading: Cosmic Background Radiation - Cosmology LARGE-ANGULAR-SCALE ANISOTROPY IN THE COSMIC BACKGROUND RADIATION M. V. GORENSTEIN and G. F. SMOOT Space Sciences Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory University of California, Berkeley California 94720 Received: May 25,1980 A RSTRACT We report the results of an extended series of airborne measurements of large-angular-scale anisotropy in the 3 K cosmic background radiation. Observa- tions were carried out with a dual-antenna

  12. SREL Reprint #3191

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Use of an Artificial Nesting Mound by Wood Turtles (Glyptemys insculpta): A Tool for Turtle Conservation Kurt A. Buhlmann1 and Colin P. Osborn2 1University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29802 2US Fish and Wildlife Service, Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, 241 Pleasant Plains Road, Basking Ridge, NJ 07920 Abstract: We constructed an artificial nesting mound for Glyptemys insculpta (Wood Turtle) in the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, NJ. The original nesting

  13. Scientific results from the cosmic background explorer (COBE). [Information on cosmic radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, C.L.; Boggess, N.W.; Cheng, E.S.; Hauser, M.G.; Kelsall, T.; Mather, J.C.; Moseley, S.H. Jr.; Shafer, R.A.; Silverberg, R.F. ); Murdock, T.L. ); Smoot, G.F. ); Weiss, R. ); Wright, E.L. )

    1993-06-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has flown the COBE satellite to observe the Big Bang and the subsequent formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Data from the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) show that the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background is that of a black body of temperature T = 2.73 [+-] 0.06 K, with no deviation from a black-body spectrum greater than 0.25% of the peak brightness. The data from the Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) show statistically significant cosmic microwave background anisotropy, consistent with a scale-invariant primordial density fluctuation spectrum. Measurements from the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) provide new conservation upper limits to the cosmic infrared background. Extensive modeling of solar system and galactic infrared foregrounds is required for further improvement in the cosmic infrared background limits. 104 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Oregon Trust Agreement Planning Project : Potential Mitigations to the Impacts on Oregon Wildlife Resources Associated with Relevant Mainstem Columbia River and Willamette River Hydroelectric Projects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-10-01

    A coalition of the Oregon wildlife agencies and tribes (the Oregon Wildlife Mitigation Coalition) have forged a cooperative effort to promote wildlife mitigation from losses to Oregon wildlife resources associated with the four mainstream Columbia River and the eight Willamette River Basin hydroelectric projects. This coalition formed a Joint Advisory Committee, made up of technical representatives from all of the tribes and agencies, to develop this report. The goal was to create a list of potential mitigation opportunities by priority, and to attempt to determine the costs of mitigating the wildlife losses. The information and analysis was completed for all projects in Oregon, but was gathered separately for the Lower Columbia and Willamette Basin projects. The coalition developed a procedure to gather information on potential mitigation projects and opportunities. All tribes, agencies and interested parties were contacted in an attempt to evaluate all proposed or potential mitigation. A database was developed and minimum criteria were established for opportunities to be considered. These criteria included the location of the mitigation site within a defined area, as well as other criteria established by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Costs were established for general habitats within the mitigation area, based on estimates from certified appraisers. An analysis of the cost effectiveness of various types of mitigation projects was completed. Estimates of operation and maintenance costs were also developed. The report outlines strategies for gathering mitigation potentials, evaluating them, determining their costs, and attempting to move towards their implementation.

  15. Development of criteria used to establish a background environmental monitoring station

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Snyder, Sandra F.; Bisping, Lynn E.; Rishel, Jeremy P.

    2015-03-02

    It is generally considered necessary to measure concentrations of contaminants-of-concern at a background location when conducting atmospheric environmental surveillance. This is because it is recognized that measurements of background concentrations can enhance interpretation of environmental monitoring data. Despite the recognized need for background measurements, there is little published guidance available that describes how to identify an appropriate atmospheric background monitoring location. This paper develops generic criteria that can guide the decision making process for identifying suitable locations for background atmospheric monitoring station. Detailed methods for evaluating some of these criteria are also provided and a case study for establishment ofmore » an atmospheric background surveillance station as part of an environmental surveillance program is described. While the case study focuses on monitoring for radionuclides, the approach is equally valid for any airborne constituent being monitored. The case study shows that implementation of the developed criteria can result in a good, defensible choice for a background atmospheric monitoring location.« less

  16. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish, Water and Wildlife Program : Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility Master Plan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, Ronald L.; Woodward-Lilengreen, Kelly L.; Vitale, Angelo J.

    1999-09-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) receives and reviews proposals to mitigate for fish and wildlife losses and refers approved measures to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for funding. The Northwest Power Act (Act) calls on the Council to include measures in its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses. The Act further states that the Council may include in its Program measures that provide off-site mitigation--mitigation physically removed from the hydro project(s) that caused the need to mitigate. The Program includes a goal ''to recover and preserve the health of native resident fish injured by the hydropower system, where feasible, and, where appropriate, to use resident fish to mitigate for anadromous fish losses in the system.'' Among those recommended measures are off-site mitigation for losses of anadromous fisheries including the measure under analysis in this Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility Master Plan, proposed by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. To meet the need for off-site mitigation for anadromous fish losses in the Columbia River Basin in a manner consistent with the objectives of the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, the Coeur d'Alene Tribe is proposing that the BPA fund the design, construction, operations and maintenance of a trout production facility on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation. Measures for establishing a Coeur d'Alene fish production facility have been a part of the Council's Program since 1987. The Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility is intended to rear and release westslope cutthroat trout into rivers and streams with the express purpose of increasing the numbers of fish spawning, incubating and rearing in the natural environment. It will use the modern technology that hatcheries offer to overcome the mortality resulting from habitat degradation in lakes, rivers, and streams after eggs are laid in the gravel. Supplementation of native fish stocks in conjunction with effective habitat restoration will be the primary means of achieving these biological goals. Overarching goals for the program include: (1) Protection, mitigation, and enhancement of Columbia River Basin native resident fish resources. (2) Develop, increase, and/or reintroduce natural spawning populations of westslope cutthroat trout into reservation waters. (3) Provide both short and long-term harvest opportunities for the reservation community. (4) Sustain long-term fitness and genetic integrity of targeted fish populations. (5) Keep ecological and genetic impacts to non-targeted fish populations to a minimum.

  17. Hard thermal loops, to quadratic order, in the background of a spatial 't

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hooft loop (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Hard thermal loops, to quadratic order, in the background of a spatial 't Hooft loop Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hard thermal loops, to quadratic order, in the background of a spatial 't Hooft loop We compute the simplest hard thermal loops for a spatial 't Hooft loop in the deconfined phase of a SU(N) gauge theory. We expand to quadratic order about a constant background field A{sub 0}=Q/g, where Q is a diagonal, color matrix and

  18. Resonant holographic measurements of laser ablation plume expansion in vacuum and argon gas backgrounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindley, R.A.

    1993-10-01

    This thesis discusses the following on resonant holographic measurements of laser ablation plume expansion: Introduction to laser ablation; applications of laser ablation; The study of plume expansion; holographic interferometry; resonant holographic interferometry; accounting for finite laser bandwidth; The solution for doppler broadening and finite bandwidth; the main optical table; the lumonics laser spot shape; developing and reconstructing the holograms; plume expansion in RF/Plasma Environments; Determining {lambda}{sub o}; resonant refraction effects; fringe shift interpretation; shot-to-shot consistency; laser ablation in vacuum and low pressure, inert, background gas; theoretically modeling plume expansion in vacuum and low pressure, inert, background gas; and laser ablation in higher pressure, inert, background gas.

  19. A JOINT MODEL OF THE X-RAY AND INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUNDS. I. MODEL

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CONSTRUCTION AND FIRST RESULTS (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect THE X-RAY AND INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUNDS. I. MODEL CONSTRUCTION AND FIRST RESULTS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A JOINT MODEL OF THE X-RAY AND INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUNDS. I. MODEL CONSTRUCTION AND FIRST RESULTS We present an extragalactic population model of the cosmic background light to interpret the rich high-quality survey data in the X-ray and IR bands. The model incorporates star formation

  20. A JOINT MODEL OF X-RAY AND INFRARED BACKGROUNDS. II. COMPTON-THICK ACTIVE

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GALACTIC NUCLEUS ABUNDANCE (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect X-RAY AND INFRARED BACKGROUNDS. II. COMPTON-THICK ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ABUNDANCE Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A JOINT MODEL OF X-RAY AND INFRARED BACKGROUNDS. II. COMPTON-THICK ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ABUNDANCE We estimate the abundance of Compton-thick (CT) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) based on our joint model of X-ray and infrared backgrounds. At L{sub rest2-10{sub keV}} > 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}, the CT

  1. A measurement of the cosmic microwave background damping tail from the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2500-square-degree SPT-SZ survey (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A measurement of the cosmic microwave background damping tail from the 2500-square-degree SPT-SZ survey Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A measurement of the cosmic microwave background damping tail from the 2500-square-degree SPT-SZ survey We present a measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature power spectrum using data from the recently completed South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich

  2. Next-Generation Germanium Spectrometer Background Reduction Techniques at 2 MeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodzinski, Ronald L.

    2005-04-01

    The Majorana project, a next-generation 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment being undertaken by a large international collaboration, has the goal of measuring the neutrinoless double-beta decay rate by observing monochromatic events at 2039 keV in 500 kg of isotopically enriched 76Ge gamma-ray spectrometers. In order to achieve the desired sensitivity limit, the background in the 2037-2041 keV region must be reduced to <1 event per year in the entire germanium array. The effects of various background reduction techniques, and the combination thereof, to produce a huge 76Ge spectrometer array with virtually zero background are discussed.

  3. The number counts and infrared backgrounds from infrared-bright galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacking, P.B.; Soifer, B.T. California Institute of Technology, Pasadena )

    1991-02-01

    Extragalactic number counts and diffuse backgrounds at 25, 60, and 100 microns are predicted using new luminosity functions and improved spectral-energy distribution density functions derived from IRAS observations of nearby galaxies. Galaxies at redshifts z less than 3 that are like those in the local universe should produce a minimum diffuse background of 0.0085, 0.038, and 0.13 MJy/sr at 25, 60, and 100 microns, respectively. Models with significant luminosity evolution predict backgrounds about a factor of 4 greater than this minimum. 22 refs.

  4. Probing the Cosmic X-ray and MeV Gamma-ray Background Radiation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Probing the Cosmic X-ray and MeV Gamma-ray Background Radiation through the Anisotropy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Probing the Cosmic X-ray and MeV...

  5. Probing the Cosmic X-ray and MeV Gamma-ray Background Radiation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Probing the Cosmic X-ray and MeV Gamma-ray Background Radiation through the Anisotropy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Probing the Cosmic X-ray and MeV Gamma-ray ...

  6. PROBING THE COSMIC X-RAY AND MeV GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND RADIATION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PROBING THE COSMIC X-RAY AND MeV GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND RADIATION THROUGH THE ANISOTROPY Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PROBING THE COSMIC X-RAY AND MeV GAMMA-RAY ...

  7. Sherman Creek Hatchery; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program, 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lovrak, Jon; Combs, Mitch

    2004-01-01

    Sherman Creek Hatchery's primary objective is the restoration and enhancement of the recreational and subsistence fishery in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operation and evaluation. Since the start of this program, the operations on Lake Roosevelt have been modified to better achieve program goals. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Spokane Tribe of Indians and the Colville Confederated Tribes form the interagency Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) which sets goals and objectives for both Sherman Creek and the Spokane Tribal Hatchery. The LRHCT also serves to coordinate enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. Since 1994 the kokanee fingerling program has changed to yearling releases. By utilizing both the hatcheries and additional net pens, up to 1,000,000 kokanee yearlings can be reared and released. The construction and operation of twenty net pens in 2001 enabled the increased production. Another significant change has been to rear up to 300,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October, for stocking into the volunteer net pens. This enables the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee to further the enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt. Current objectives include increased use of native tributary stocks where available for propagation into Upper Columbia River Basin waters. The Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program (LRFEP) is responsible for monitoring and evaluation on the Lake Roosevelt Projects. From 1988 to 1998, the principal sport fishery on Lake Roosevelt has shifted from walleye to include rainbow trout and kokanee salmon (Underwood et al. 1997, Tilson and Scholz 1997). The angler use, harvest rates for rainbow and kokanee and the economic value of the fishery has increased substantially during this 10-year period. The investigations on the lake also suggest that the hatchery and net pen programs have enhanced the Lake Roosevelt fishery while not negatively impacting wild and native stocks within the lake. The 2003 Fourth Annual Two Rivers Trout Derby was again a great success. The harvest and data collection were the highest level to date with 1,668 rainbow trout and 416 kokanee salmon caught. The fishermen continue to praise the volunteer net pen program and the hatchery efforts as 90% of the rainbows and 93% of the kokanee caught were of hatchery origin (Lee, 2003).

  8. Ford Hatchery; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program, Hatcheries Division, Annual Report 2003.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lovrak, Jon; Ward, Glen

    2004-01-01

    Bonneville Power Administration's participation with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Ford Hatchery, provides the opportunity for enhancing the recreational and subsistence kokanee fisheries in Banks Lake. The artificial production and fisheries evaluation is done cooperatively through the Spokane Hatchery, Sherman Creek Hatchery (WDFW), Banks Lake Volunteer Net Pen Project, and the Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program. Ford Hatchery's production, together with the Sherman Creek and the Spokane Tribal Hatchery, will contribute to an annual goal of one million kokanee yearlings for Lake Roosevelt and 1.4 million kokanee fingerlings and fry for Banks Lake. The purpose of this multi-agency program is to restore and enhance kokanee salmon and rainbow trout populations in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake due to Grand Coulee Dam impoundments. The Ford Hatchery will produce 9,533 lbs. (572,000) kokanee annually for release as fingerlings into Banks Lake in October. An additional 2,133 lbs. (128,000) kokanee will be transferred to net pens on Banks Lake at Electric City in October. The net pen raised kokanee will be reared through the fall, winter, and early spring to a total of 8,533 lbs and released in May. While the origin of kokanee comes from Lake Whatcom, current objectives will be to increase the use of native (or, indigenous) stocks for propagation in Banks Lake and the Upper Columbia River. Additional stocks planned for future use in Banks Lake include Lake Roosevelt kokanee and Meadow Creek kokanee. The Ford Hatchery continues to produce resident trout (80,584 lb. per year) to promote the sport fisheries in trout fishing lakes in eastern Washington (WDFW Management, Region 1). Operation and maintenance funding for the increased kokanee program was implemented in FY 2001 and scheduled to continue through FY 2010. Funds from BPA allow for an additional employee at the Ford Hatchery to assist in the operations and maintenance associated with kokanee production. Fish food, materials, and other supplies associated with this program are also funded by BPA. Other funds from BPA will also improve water quality and supply at the Ford Hatchery, enabling the increased fall kokanee fingerling program. Monitoring and evaluation of the Ford stocking programs will include existing WDFW creel and lake survey programs to assess resident trout releases in trout managed waters. BPA is also funding a creel survey to assess the harvest of hatchery kokanee in Banks Lake.

  9. Sherman Creek Hatchery; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Combs, Mitch

    2002-01-01

    Sherman Creek Hatchery's primary objective is the restoration and enhancement of the recreational and subsistence fishery in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operations and evaluations. Since the start of this program, the operations on Lake Roosevelt have been modified to better achieve program goals. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Spokane Tribe of Indians and the Colville Confederated Tribe form the interagency Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) which sets goals and objectives for both Sherman Creek and the Spokane Tribal Hatchery and serves to coordinate enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The primary changes have been to replace the kokanee fingerling program with a yearling (post smolt) program of up to 1,000,000 fish. To construct and operate twenty net pens to handle the increased production. The second significant change was to rear up to 300,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October, for stocking into the volunteer net pens. This enables the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee to further the enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt. Current objectives include increased use of native/indigenous stocks where available for propagation into Upper Columbia River Basin Waters. Monitoring and evaluation is preformed by the Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program. From 1988 to 1998, the principle sport fishery on Lake Roosevelt has shifted from walleye to include rainbow trout and kokanee salmon (Underwood et al. 1997, Tilson and Scholz 1997). The angler use, harvest rates for rainbow and kokanee and the economic value of the fishery has increased substantially during this 10-year period. The most recent information from the monitoring program also suggests that the hatchery and net pen rearing programs have been beneficial to enhancing the Lake Roosevelt fishery while not negatively impacting wild and native stocks within the lake. The 2001 fishing season has been especially successful with great fishing for both rainbow and kokanee throughout Lake Roosevelt. The results of the Two Rivers Fishing Derby identified 100 percent of the rainbow and 47 percent of the kokanee caught were of hatchery origin.

  10. Sherman Creek Hatchery; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program; 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Combs, Mitch

    2003-01-01

    Sherman Creek Hatchery's primary objective is the restoration and enhancement of the recreational and subsistence fishery in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operations and evaluations. Since the start of this program, the operations on Lake Roosevelt have been modified to better achieve program goals. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Spokane Tribe of Indians and the Colville Confederated Tribe form the interagency Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) which sets goals and objectives for both Sherman Creek and the Spokane Tribal Hatchery and serves to coordinate enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The primary changes have been to replace the kokanee fingerling program with a yearling (post smolt) program of up to 1,000,000 fish. To construct and operate twenty net pens to handle the increased production. The second significant change was to rear up to 300,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October, for stocking into the volunteer net pens. This enables the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee to further the enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt. Current objectives include increased use of native/indigenous stocks where available for propagation into Upper Columbia River Basin Waters. The Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program (LRFEP) is responsible for monitoring and evaluation on the Lake Roosevelt Projects. From 1988 to 1998, the principal sport fishery on Lake Roosevelt has shifted from walleye to include rainbow trout and kokanee salmon (Underwood et al. 1997, Tilson and Scholz 1997). The angler use, harvest rates for rainbow and kokanee and the economic value of the fishery has increased substantially during this 10-year period. The investigations on the lake also suggest that the hatchery and net pen programs have enhanced the Lake Roosevelt fishery while not negatively impacting wild and native stocks within the lake. The 2002 Third Annual Two Rivers Trout Derby was again a great success with 529 rainbow trout and 80 kokanee salmon caught. The fishermen had a lot of praise for the volunteer net pen program and the hatchery efforts as 84% of the rainbows and 62% of the kokanee caught were of hatchery origin (Lee, 2002).

  11. Neutron inelastic scattering in natural Pb as a background in neutrinoless

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    double-beta decay experiments (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Neutron inelastic scattering in natural Pb as a background in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron inelastic scattering in natural Pb as a background in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments Inelastic neutron scattering on Pb isotopes can result in {gamma} rays near the signature endpoint energy in a number of

  12. Luminosity distance for Born-Infeld electromagnetic waves propagating in a cosmological magnetic background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aiello, Matias; Bengochea, Gabriel R; Ferraro, Rafael E-mail: gabriel@iafe.uba.ar; Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires

    2008-06-15

    Born-Infeld electromagnetic waves interacting with a static magnetic background in an expanding universe are studied. The non-linear character of Born-Infeld electrodynamics modifies the relation between the energy flux and the distance to the source, which gains a new dependence on the redshift that is governed by the background field. We compute the luminosity distance as a function of the redshift and compare with Maxwellian curves for supernovae type Ia.

  13. Neutron inelastic scattering in natural Pb as a background in neutrinoless

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    double-beta decay experiments (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Neutron inelastic scattering in natural Pb as a background in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron inelastic scattering in natural Pb as a background in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and

  14. Background Information for Independent Review Team. Lifecycle Plan and FY14

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Quarterly Reports (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Background Information for Independent Review Team. Lifecycle Plan and FY14 Quarterly Reports Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Background Information for Independent Review Team. Lifecycle Plan and FY14 Quarterly Reports Abstract not provided. Authors: Lordi, V. [1] + Show Author Affiliations Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States) Publication Date: 2014-10-24 OSTI Identifier: 1178415 Report

  15. Geochemistry of Background Sediment Samples at Technical Area 39, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric V. McDonald; Katherine Campbell; Patrick A. Longmire; Steven L. Reneau

    1998-11-01

    This report presents results of chemical analyses of 24 analytes in 16 background sediment samples collected from Ancho Canyon and Indio Canyon at Technical Area (TA) 39, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Preliminary upper tolerance limits (UTLS) for sediments are calculated from this data set but, because of the small sample size, these UTLs exceed the maximum values in the data set by up to 50'ZO and will require revision as more background sediment data are obtained.

  16. The MAJORANA experiment: an ultra-low background search for neutrinoless

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    double-beta decay (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The MAJORANA experiment: an ultra-low background search for neutrinoless double-beta decay Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The MAJORANA experiment: an ultra-low background search for neutrinoless double-beta decay The observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay would resolve the Majorana nature of the neutrino and could provide information on the absolute scale of the neutrino mass. The initial phase of the Majorana

  17. NIOSH tests refuge chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-04-15

    A NIOSH report questions the viability of the shelters already certified by West Virginia. 1 tab., 6 photos.

  18. Preliminary assessment of the ecological risks to wide-ranging wildlife species on the Oak Ridge Reservation. 1996 update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sample, B.E.; Hinzman, R.L.; Jackson, B.L.; Baron, L.

    1996-09-01

    More than approximately 50 years of operations, storage, and disposal of wastes generated by the three facilities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant) has resulted in a mosaic of uncontaminated property and lands that are contaminated to varying degrees. This contaminated property includes source areas and the terrestrial and aquatic habitats down gradient from these source areas. Although the integrator OUs generally contain considerable habitat for biota, the source OUs provide little or no suitable habitat. Historically, ecological risk assessment at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites has focused on species that may be definitively associated with a contaminated area or source OU. Endpoints considered in source OUs include plants, soil/litter invertebrates and processes, aquatic biota found in on-OU sediments and surface waters, and small herbivorous, omnivorous, and vermivorous (i.e., feeding on ground, litter, or soil invertebrates) wildlife. All of these endpoints have limited spatial distributions or home ranges such that numerous individuals or a distinct population can be expected to reside within the boundaries of the source OU. Most analyses are not adequate for large sites with multiple, spatially separated contaminated areas such as the ORR that provide habitat for wide-ranging wildlife species. This report is a preliminary response to a plan for assessing risks to wide-ranging species.

  19. Preliminary assessment of the ecological risks to wide-ranging wildlife species on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sample, B.E.; Baron, L.A.; Jackson, B.L.

    1995-08-01

    Historically, ecological risk assessment at CERCLA sites [such as the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR)], has focused on species that may be definitively associated with a contaminated area or source operable unit. Consequently the species that are generally considered are those with home ranges small enough such that multiple individuals or a distinct population can be expected to reside within the boundaries of the contaminated site. This approach is adequate for sites with single, discrete areas of contamination that only provide habitat for species with limited requirements. This approach is not adequate however for large sites with multiple, spatially separated contaminated areas that provide habitat for wide-ranging wildlife species. Because wide-ranging wildlife species may travel between and use multiple contaminated sites they may be exposed to and be at risk from contaminants from multiple locations. Use of a particular contaminated site by wide-ranging species will be dependent upon the amount of suitable habitat available at that site. Therefore to adequately evaluate risks to wide-ranging species at the ORR-wide scale, the use of multiple contaminated sites must be weighted by the amount of suitable habitat on OUs. This reservation-wide ecological risk assessment is intended to identify which endpoints are significantly at risk; which contaminants are responsible for this risk; and which OUs significantly contribute to risk.

  20. Detection of Enhancement in Number Densities of Background Galaxies due to Magnification by Massive Galaxy Clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, I.

    2015-10-06

    We present a detection of the enhancement in the number densities of background galaxies induced from lensing magnification and use it to test the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) inferred masses in a sample of 19 galaxy clusters with median redshift z?0.42 selected from the South Pole Telescope SPT-SZ survey. Two background galaxy populations are selected for this study through their photometric colours; they have median redshifts zmedian?0.9 (low-z background) and zmedian?1.8 (high-z background). Stacking these populations, we detect the magnification bias effect at 3.3? and 1.3? for the low- and high-z backgrounds, respectively. We fit NFW models simultaneously to all observed magnification bias profiles to estimate the multiplicative factor ? that describes the ratio of the weak lensing mass to the mass inferred from the SZE observable-mass relation. We further quantify systematic uncertainties in ? resulting from the photometric noise and bias, the cluster galaxy contamination and the estimations of the background properties. The resulting ? for the combined background populations with 1? uncertainties is 0.830.24(stat)0.074(sys), indicating good consistency between the lensing and the SZE-inferred masses. We also use our best-fit ? to predict the weak lensing shear profiles and compare these predictions with observations, showing agreement between the magnification and shear mass constraints. Our work demonstrates the promise of using the magnification as a complementary method to estimate cluster masses in large surveys.

  1. Systematic measurement of fast neutron background fluctuations in an urban area using a mobile detection system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Iyengar, Anagha; Beach, Matthew; Newby, Robert J.; Fabris, Lorenzo; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Hayward, Jason P.

    2015-11-12

    Neutron background measurements using a mobile trailer-based system were conducted in Knoxville, Tennessee. The 0.5 m2 system consisting of 8 EJ-301 liquid scintillation detectors was used to collect neutron background measurements in order to better understand the systematic background variations that depend solely on the street-level measurement position in a local, downtown area. Data was collected along 5 different streets in the downtown Knoxville area, and the measurements were found to be repeatable. Using 10-min measurements, fractional uncertainty in each measured data point was <2%. Compared with fast neutron background count rates measured away from downtown Knoxville, a reduction inmore » background count rates ranging from 10-50% was observed in the downtown area, sometimes varying substantially over distances of tens of meters. These reductions are attributed to the shielding of adjacent buildings, quantified in part here by the metric angle-of-open-sky. The adjacent buildings may serve to shield cosmic ray neutron flux.« less

  2. Development of a low background liquid scintillation counter for a shallow underground laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erchinger, Jennifer L.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Douglas, Matthew; Fuller, Erin S.; Keillor, Martin E.; Morley, Shannon M.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Orrell, John L.; Panisko, Mark E.; Warren, Glen A.; Williams, Russell O.; Wright, Michael E.

    2015-08-20

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has recently opened a shallow underground laboratory intended for measurement of lowconcentration levels of radioactive isotopes in samples collected from the environment. The development of a low-background liquid scintillation counter is currently underway to further augment the measurement capabilities within this underground laboratory. Liquid scintillation counting is especially useful for measuring charged particle (e.g., B, a) emitting isotopes with no (orvery weak) gamma-ray yields. The combination of high-efficiency detection of charged particle emission in a liquid scintillation cocktail coupled with the low-background environment of an appropriately-designed shield located in a clean underground laboratory provides the opportunity for increased-sensitivity measurements of a range of isotopes. To take advantage of the 35-meter water-equivalent overburden of the underground laboratory, a series of simulations have evaluated the instrumental shield design requirements to assess the possible background rate achievable. This report presents the design and background evaluation for a shallow underground, low background liquid scintillation counter design for sample measurements.

  3. Systematic measurement of fast neutron background fluctuations in an urban area using a mobile detection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iyengar, Anagha; Beach, Matthew; Newby, Robert J.; Fabris, Lorenzo; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Hayward, Jason P.

    2015-11-12

    Neutron background measurements using a mobile trailer-based system were conducted in Knoxville, Tennessee. The 0.5 m2 system consisting of 8 EJ-301 liquid scintillation detectors was used to collect neutron background measurements in order to better understand the systematic background variations that depend solely on the street-level measurement position in a local, downtown area. Data was collected along 5 different streets in the downtown Knoxville area, and the measurements were found to be repeatable. Using 10-min measurements, fractional uncertainty in each measured data point was <2%. Compared with fast neutron background count rates measured away from downtown Knoxville, a reduction in background count rates ranging from 10-50% was observed in the downtown area, sometimes varying substantially over distances of tens of meters. These reductions are attributed to the shielding of adjacent buildings, quantified in part here by the metric angle-of-open-sky. The adjacent buildings may serve to shield cosmic ray neutron flux.

  4. Systematic Fast Neutron Background Measurement Fluctuations in an Urban Area Using a Mobile Detection System

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Iyengar, Anagha S; Beach, Matthew R; Newby, Jason; Fabris, Lorenzo; Heilbronn, Lawrence; Hayward, J P

    2014-01-01

    Neutron background measurements using a mobile trailer-based system were conducted in Knoxville, Tennessee. The 0.5 m2 system consisting of 8 EJ-301 liquid scintillation detectors was used to collect neutron background measurements in order to better understand the systematic background variations that depend solely on the street-level measurement position in a local, downtown area. Data was collected along 5 different streets in the downtown Knoxville area, and the measurements were found to be repeatable. Using 10 min measurements, fractional uncertainty in each measured data point was <2%. Compared with fast neutron background count rates measured away from downtown Knoxville, a reductionmore » in background count rates ranging from 10-50% was observed in the downtown area, sometimes varying substantially over distances of tens of meters. These reductions are attributed to the shielding of adjacent buildings, quantified in part here by the metric angle-of-open-sky. The adjacent buildings may serve to shield cosmic ray neutron flux.« less

  5. Dissecting the Gamma-Ray Background in Search of Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cholis, Ilias; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D.

    2014-02-01

    Several classes of astrophysical sources contribute to the approximately isotropic gamma-ray background measured by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. In this paper, we use Fermi's catalog of gamma-ray sources (along with corresponding source catalogs at infrared and radio wavelengths) to build and constrain a model for the contributions to the extragalactic gamma-ray background from astrophysical sources, including radio galaxies, star-forming galaxies, and blazars. We then combine our model with Fermi's measurement of the gamma-ray background to derive constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section, including contributions from both extragalactic and galactic halos and subhalos. The resulting constraints are competitive with the strongest current constraints from the Galactic Center and dwarf spheroidal galaxies. As Fermi continues to measure the gamma-ray emission from a greater number of astrophysical sources, it will become possible to more tightly constrain the astrophysical contributions to the extragalactic gamma-ray background. We project that with 10 years of data, Fermi's measurement of this background combined with the improved constraints on the astrophysical source contributions will yield a sensitivity to dark matter annihilations that exceeds the strongest current constraints by a factor of ~ 5 - 10.

  6. Invited Article: Characterization of background sources in space-based time-of-flight mass spectrometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbert, J. A.; Gershman, D. J.; Gloeckler, G.; Lundgren, R. A.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Orlando, T. M.; McLain, J.; Steiger, R. von

    2014-09-15

    For instruments that use time-of-flight techniques to measure space plasma, there are common sources of background signals that evidence themselves in the data. The background from these sources may increase the complexity of data analysis and reduce the signal-to-noise response of the instrument, thereby diminishing the science value or usefulness of the data. This paper reviews several sources of background commonly found in time-of-flight mass spectrometers and illustrates their effect in actual data using examples from ACE-SWICS and MESSENGER-FIPS. Sources include penetrating particles and radiation, UV photons, energy straggling and angular scattering, electron stimulated desorption of ions, ion-induced electron emission, accidental coincidence events, and noise signatures from instrument electronics. Data signatures of these sources are shown, as well as mitigation strategies and design considerations for future instruments.

  7. Heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering by the phase control of its intrinsic background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Xi; Wang Kai; Welch, George R.; Sokolov, Alexei V.

    2011-08-15

    We demonstrate the use of femtosecond laser pulse shaping for precise control of the interference between the coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signal and the coherent nonresonant background generated within the same sample volume. Our technique is similar to heterodyne detection with the coherent background playing the role of the local oscillator field. In our experiment, we first apply two ultrashort (near-transform-limited) femtosecond pump and Stokes laser pulses to excite coherent molecular oscillations within a sample. After a short and controllable delay, we then apply a laser pulse that scatters off of these oscillations to produce the CARS signal. By making fine adjustments to the probe field spectral profile, we vary the relative phase between the Raman-resonant signal and the nonresonant background, and we observe a varying spectral interference pattern. These controlled variations of the measured pattern reveal the phase information within the Raman spectrum.

  8. Annual Report on Resident Fish Activities, 1985 Fiscal Year, Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, Action Item 41.8.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-09-01

    This report addresses the status for resident fish projects currently implemented by the Bonneville Power Administration under the amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Projects that have been in place for a sufficient length of time are discussed in greater detail with a brief evaluation presented.

  9. The MAJORANA experiment: an ultra-low background search for neutrinoless double-beta decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, D.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Collar, J. I.; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, Matthew P.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keller, C.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Poon, Alan; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.

    2012-12-01

    The observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay would resolve the Majorana nature of the neutrino and could provide information on the absolute scale of the neutrino mass. The initial phase of the Majorana Experiment, known as the Demonstrator, will house 40 kg of Ge in an ultra-low background shielded environment at the 4850' level of the Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, SD. The objective of the Demonstrator is to validate whether a future 1-tonne experiment can achieve a background goal of one count per tonne-year in a narrow region of interest around the 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay peak.

  10. Trends in radionuclide concentrations for selected wildlife and food products near the Hanford Site from 1971 through 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberhardt, L.E.; Cadwell, L.L.; Price, K.R.; Carlile, D.W.; Alaska Dept. of Fish and Game, Juneau, AK )

    1989-09-01

    From 1971 through 1988 at least 40 species of wildlife and 27 different types of food products were collected and analyzed for radionuclides as part of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Environmental Monitoring Program. This report summarizes the results of these analyses for sample types collected for all or most of the 18-year period. The objectives of this summary investigation were to identify long-term trends or significant year-to-year changes in radionuclide concentrations and, if possible, relate any observed changes in radionuclide concentrations to their sources and probable causes. Statistical techniques were employed to test for long-term trends. Conspicuous short-term changes in radionuclide concentrations were identified from inspection of the data. 30 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. A background correction algorithm for Van Allen Probes MagEIS electron flux measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Claudepierre, S. G.; O'Brien, T. P.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Roeder, J. L.; Clemmons, J. H.; Looper, M. D.; Mazur, J. E.; Mulligan, T. M.; Spence, H. E.; et al

    2015-07-14

    We describe an automated computer algorithm designed to remove background contamination from the Van Allen Probes Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) electron flux measurements. We provide a detailed description of the algorithm with illustrative examples from on-orbit data. We find two primary sources of background contamination in the MagEIS electron data: inner zone protons and bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by energetic electrons interacting with the spacecraft material. Bremsstrahlung X-rays primarily produce contamination in the lower energy MagEIS electron channels (~30–500 keV) and in regions of geospace where multi-M eV electrons are present. Inner zone protons produce contamination in all MagEIS energymore » channels at roughly L < 2.5. The background-corrected MagEIS electron data produce a more accurate measurement of the electron radiation belts, as most earlier measurements suffer from unquantifiable and uncorrectable contamination in this harsh region of the near-Earth space environment. These background-corrected data will also be useful for spacecraft engineering purposes, providing ground truth for the near-Earth electron environment and informing the next generation of spacecraft design models (e.g., AE9).« less

  12. Investigation of the hard x-ray background in backlit pinhole imagers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fein, J. R. Holloway, J. P.; Peebles, J. L.; Keiter, P. A.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Drake, R. P.

    2014-11-15

    Hard x-rays from laser-produced hot electrons (>10 keV) in backlit pinhole imagers can give rise to a background signal that decreases signal dynamic range in radiographs. Consequently, significant uncertainties are introduced to the measured optical depth of imaged plasmas. Past experiments have demonstrated that hard x-rays are produced when hot electrons interact with the high-Z pinhole substrate used to collimate the softer He-? x-ray source. Results are presented from recent experiments performed on the OMEGA-60 laser to further study the production of hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate and how these x-rays contribute to the background signal in radiographs. Radiographic image plates measured hard x-rays from pinhole imagers with Mo, Sn, and Ta pinhole substrates. The variation in background signal between pinhole substrates provides evidence that much of this background comes from x-rays produced in the pinhole substrate itself. A Monte Carlo electron transport code was used to model x-ray production from hot electrons interacting in the pinhole substrate, as well as to model measurements of x-rays from the irradiated side of the targets, recorded by a bremsstrahlung x-ray spectrometer. Inconsistencies in inferred hot electron distributions between the different pinhole substrate materials demonstrate that additional sources of hot electrons beyond those modeled may produce hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate.

  13. Alpha Backgrounds for HPGe Detectors in Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R. A. [University of Washington, Seattle; Burritt, T. H. [University of Washington, Seattle; Elliott, S. R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Gehman, V. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Guiseppe, V.E. [University of South Dakota; Wilkerson, J. F. [UNC/Triangle Univ. Nucl. Lab, Durham, NC/ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The Majorana Experiment will use arrays of enriched HPGe detectors to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge. Such a decay, if found, would show lepton-number violation and confirm the Majorana nature of the neutrino. Searches for such rare events are hindered by obscuring backgrounds which must be understood and mitigated as much as possible. A potentially important background contribution to this and other double-beta decay experiments could come from decays of alpha-emitting isotopes in the 232Th and 238U decay chains on or near the surfaces of the detectors. An alpha particle emitted external to an HPGe crystal can lose energy before entering the active region of the detector, either in some external-bulk material or within the dead region of the crystal. The measured energy of the event will only correspond to a partial amount of the total kinetic energy of the alpha and might obscure the signal from neutrinoless double-beta decay. A test stand was built and measurements were performed to quantitatively assess this background. We present results from these measurements and compare them to simulations using Geant4. These results are then used to measure the alpha backgrounds in an underground detector in situ. We also make estimates of surface contamination tolerances for double-beta decay experiments using solid-state detectors.

  14. Development of an Ultra-Low Background Liquid Scintillation Counter for Trace Level Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erchinger, Jennifer L.; Orrell, John L.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Douglas, Matthew; Finn, Erin C.; Fuller, Erin S.; Keillor, Martin E.; Morley, Shannon M.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Panisko, Mark E.; Shaff, Sarah M.; Warren, Glen A.; Wright, Michael E.

    2015-09-01

    Low-level liquid scintillation counting (LSC) has been established as one of the radiation detection techniques useful in elucidating environmental processes and environmental monitoring around nuclear facilities. The Ultra-Low Background Liquid Scintillation Counter (ULB-LSC) under construction in the Shallow Underground Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory aims to further reduce the MDAs and/or required sample processing. Through layers of passive shielding in conjunction with an active veto and 30 meters water equivalent overburden, the background reduction is expected to be 10 to 100 times below typical analytic low-background liquid scintillation systems. Simulations have shown an expected background of around 14 counts per day. A novel approach to the light collection will use a coated hollow light guide cut into the inner copper shielding. Demonstration LSC measurements will show low-energy detection, spectral deconvolution, and alpha/beta discrimination capabilities, from trials with standards of tritium, strontium-90, and actinium-227, respectively. An overview of the system design and expected demonstration measurements will emphasize the potential applications of the ULB-LSC in environmental monitoring for treaty verification, reach-back sample analysis, and facility inspections.

  15. Project plan for the background soils project for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The Background Soils Project for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (BSPP) will determine the background concentration levels of selected naturally occurring metals, other inorganics, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated areas in proximity to the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. The data will be used for comparison with characterization and compliance data for soils, with significant differences being indicative of contamination. All data collected as part of this project will be in addition to other background databases established for the PGDP. The BSPP will address the variability of surface and near-surface concentration levels with respect to (1) soil taxonomical types (series) and (2) soil sampling depths within a specific soil profile. The BSPP will also address the variability of concentration levels in deeper geologic formations by collecting samples of geologic materials. The BSPP will establish a database, with recommendations on how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide data to estimate the potential human and health and ecological risk associated with background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. BSPP data will be used or applied as follows.

  16. Astroparticle physics with a customized low-background broad energy Germanium detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Amman, M.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Barbeau, P. S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Bugg, William; Burritt, Tom H.; Busch, Matthew; Capps, Greg L.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, R. J.; Creswick, R.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Diaz, J.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Ely, James H.; Esterline, James H.; Farach, H. A.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fujikawa, Brian; Fuller, Erin S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Harper, Gregory; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Miley, Harry S.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Myers, Allan W.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Peterson, David; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Qian, J.; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rodriguez, Larry; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof P.; Salazar, Harold; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Swift, Gary; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Xiang, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, Harold; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.; Zimmerman, S.

    2011-10-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is building the Majorana Demonstrator, a 60 kg array of high purity germanium detectors housed in an ultra-low background shield at the Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, SD. The Majorana Demonstrator will search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge while demonstrating the feasibility of a tonne-scale experiment. It may also carry out a dark matter search in the 1-10 GeV/c² mass range. We have found that customized Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors produced by Canberra have several desirable features for a neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment, including low electronic noise, excellent pulse shape analysis capabilities, and simple fabrication. We have deployed a customized BEGe, the Majorana Low-Background BEGe at Kimballton (MALBEK), in a low-background cryostat and shield at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility in Virginia. This paper will focus on the detector characteristics and measurements that can be performed with such a radiation detector in a low-background environment.

  17. Evaluation of Ultra-Low Background Materials for Uranium and Thorium Using ICP-MS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; Overman, Nicole R.; LaFerriere, Brian D.

    2013-08-08

    An increasing number of physics experiments require low background materials for their construction. The presence of Uranium and Thorium and their progeny in these materials present a variety of unwanted background sources for these experiments. The sensitivity of the experiments continues to drive the necessary levels of detection ever lower as well. This requirement for greater sensitivity has rendered direct radioassay impractical in many cases requiring large quantities of material, frequently many kilograms, and prolonged counting times, often months. Other assay techniques have been employed such as Neutron Activation Analysis but this requires access to expensive facilities and instrumentation and can be further complicated and delayed by the formation of unwanted radionuclides. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a useful tool and recent advancements have increased the sensitivity particularly in the elemental high mass range of U and Th. Unlike direct radioassay, ICP-MS is a destructive technique since it requires the sample to be in liquid form which is aspirated into a high temperature plasma. But it benefits in that it usually requires a very small sample, typically about a gram. Here we will discuss how a variety of low background materials such as copper, polymers, and fused silica are made amenable to ICP-MS assay and how the arduous task of maintaining low backgrounds of U and Th is achieved.

  18. Evaluation of ultra-low background materials for uranium and thorium using ICP-MS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, E. W.; Overman, N. R.; LaFerriere, B. D.

    2013-08-08

    An increasing number of physics experiments require low background materials for their construction. The presence of Uranium and Thorium and their progeny in these materials present a variety of unwanted background sources for these experiments. The sensitivity of the experiments continues to drive the necessary levels of detection ever lower as well. This requirement for greater sensitivity has rendered direct radioassay impractical in many cases requiring large quantities of material, frequently many kilograms, and prolonged counting times, often months. Other assay techniques have been employed such as Neutron Activation Analysis but this requires access to expensive facilities and instrumentation and can be further complicated and delayed by the formation of unwanted radionuclides. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a useful tool and recent advancements have increased the sensitivity particularly in the elemental high mass range of U and Th. Unlike direct radioassay, ICP-MS is a destructive technique since it requires the sample to be in liquid form which is aspirated into a high temperature plasma. But it benefits in that it usually requires a very small sample, typically about a gram. This paper discusses how a variety of low background materials such as copper, polymers, and fused silica are made amenable to ICP-MS assay and how the arduous task of maintaining low backgrounds of U and Th is achieved.

  19. A background correction algorithm for Van Allen Probes MagEIS electron flux measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claudepierre, S. G.; O'Brien, T. P.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Roeder, J. L.; Clemmons, J. H.; Looper, M. D.; Mazur, J. E.; Mulligan, T. M.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Friedel, R. H. W.; Henderson, M. G.; Larsen, B. A.

    2015-07-14

    We describe an automated computer algorithm designed to remove background contamination from the Van Allen Probes Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) electron flux measurements. We provide a detailed description of the algorithm with illustrative examples from on-orbit data. We find two primary sources of background contamination in the MagEIS electron data: inner zone protons and bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by energetic electrons interacting with the spacecraft material. Bremsstrahlung X-rays primarily produce contamination in the lower energy MagEIS electron channels (~30–500 keV) and in regions of geospace where multi-M eV electrons are present. Inner zone protons produce contamination in all MagEIS energy channels at roughly L < 2.5. The background-corrected MagEIS electron data produce a more accurate measurement of the electron radiation belts, as most earlier measurements suffer from unquantifiable and uncorrectable contamination in this harsh region of the near-Earth space environment. These background-corrected data will also be useful for spacecraft engineering purposes, providing ground truth for the near-Earth electron environment and informing the next generation of spacecraft design models (e.g., AE9).

  20. Rain-Induced Increase in Background Radiation Detected by Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hausladen, Paul; Blessinger, Christopher S; Guzzardo, Tyler; Livesay, Jake

    2012-07-01

    A complete understanding of both the steady state and transient background measured by Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs) is essential to predictable system performance, as well as maximization of detection sensitivity. To facilitate this understanding, a test bed for the study of natural background in RPMs has been established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This work was performed in support of the Second Line of Defense Program's mission to detect the illicit movement of nuclear material. In the present work, transient increases in gamma ray counting rates in RPMs due to rain are investigated. The increase in background activity associated with rain, which has been well documented in the field of environmental radioactivity, originates from the atmospheric deposition of two radioactive daughters of radon-222, namely lead-214 and bismuth-214 (henceforth {sup 222}Rn, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi). In this study, rainfall rates recorded by a co-located weather station are compared with RPM count rates and High Purity Germanium spectra. The data verifies these radionuclides are responsible for the dominant transient natural background fluctuations in RPMs. Effects on system performance and potential mitigation strategies are discussed.

  1. Slowing of Femtosecond Laser-Generated Nanoparticles in a Background Gas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rouleau, Christopher M; Puretzky, Alexander A; Geohegan, David B

    2014-01-01

    The slowing of Pt nanoparticles in argon background gas was characterized by Rayleigh scattering imaging using a plume of nanoparticles generated by femtosecond laser through thin film ablation (fs-TTFA) of 20 nanometers-thick Pt films. The ablation was performed at threshold laser energy fluences for complete film removal to provide a well-defined plume consisting almost entirely of nanoparticles traveling with a narrow velocity distribution, providing a unique system to unambiguously characterize the slowing of nanoparticles during interaction with background gases. Nanoparticles of ~200 nm diameter were found to decelerate in background Ar gas with pressures less than 50 Torr in goodmore » agreement with a linear drag model in the Epstein regime. Based on this model, the stopping distance of small nanoparticles in the plume was predicted and tested by particle collection in an off-axis geometry, and size distribution analysis by transmission electron microscopy. These results permit a basis to interpret nanoparticle propagation through background gases in laser ablation plumes that contain mixed components.« less

  2. Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

    1982-03-01

    This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

  3. Estimation of Cosmic Induced Contamination in Ultra-low Background Detector Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Greene, Austen T.

    2012-08-01

    Executive Summary This document presents the result of investigating a way to reliably determine cosmic induced backgrounds for ultra-low background materials. In particular, it focuses on those radioisotopes produced by the interactions with cosmic ray particles in the detector materials that act as a background for experiments looking for neutrinoless double beta decay. This investigation is motivated by the desire to determine background contributions from cosmic ray activation of the electroformed copper that is being used in the construction of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The most important radioisotope produced in copper that contributes to the background budget is 60Co, which has the potential to deposit energy in the region of interest of this experiment. Cobalt-60 is produced via cosmic ray neutron collisions in the copper. This investigation aims to provide a method for determining whether or not the copper has been exposed to cosmic radiation beyond the threshold which the Majorana Project has established as the maximum exposure. This threshold is set by the Project as the expected contribution of this source of background to the overall background budget. One way to estimate cosmic ray neutron exposure of materials on the surface of the Earth is to relate it to the cosmic ray muon exposure. Muons are minimum-ionizing particles and the available technologies to detect muons are easier to implement than those to detect neutrons. We present the results of using a portable, ruggedized muon detector, the µ-Witness made by our research group, for determination of muon exposure of materials for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. From the muon flux measurement, this report presents a method to estimate equivalent sea-level exposure, and then infer the neutron exposure of the tracked material and thus the cosmogenic activation of the copper. This report combines measurements of the muon flux taken by the µ-Witness detector with Geant4 simulations in order to assure our understanding of the µ-Witness prototype. As a proof of concept, we present the results of using this detector with electroformed copper during its transport from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, where the copper is grown, to the underground lab in Lead, South Dakota, where the experiment is being deployed. The development of a code to be used with the Majorana parts tracking database, designed to aid in estimating the cosmogenic activation, is also presented.

  4. US Fish and Wildlife Service biomonitoring operations manual, Appendices A--K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gianotto, D.F.; Rope, R.C.; Mondecar, M.; Breckenridge, R.P.; Wiersma, G.B.; Staley, C.S.; Moser, R.S.; Sherwood, R.; Brown, K.W.

    1993-04-01

    Volume 2 contains Appendices and Summary Sheets for the following areas: A-Legislative Background and Key to Relevant Legislation, B- Biomonitoring Operations Workbook, C-Air Monitoring, D-Introduction to the Flora and Fauna for Biomonitoring, E-Decontamination Guidance Reference Field Methods, F-Documentation Guidance, Sample Handling, and Quality Assurance/Quality Control Standard Operating Procedures, G-Field Instrument Measurements Reference Field Methods, H-Ground Water Sampling Reference Field Methods, I-Sediment Sampling Reference Field Methods, J-Soil Sampling Reference Field Methods, K-Surface Water Reference Field Methods. Appendix B explains how to set up strategy to enter information on the ``disk workbook``. Appendix B is enhanced by DE97006389, an on-line workbook for users to be able to make revisions to their own biomonitoring data.

  5. THE HIGH BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA IN RAMSAR IRAN: GEOLOGY, NORM, BIOLOGY, LNT, AND POSSIBLE REGULATORY FUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karam, P. A.

    2002-02-25

    The city of Ramsar Iran hosts some of the highest natural radiation levels on earth, and over 2000 people are exposed to radiation doses ranging from 1 to 26 rem per year. Curiously, inhabitants of this region seem to have no greater incidence of cancer than those in neighboring areas of normal background radiation levels, and preliminary studies suggest their blood cells experience fewer induced chromosomal abnormalities when exposed to 150 rem ''challenge'' doses of radiation than do the blood cells of their neighbors. This paper will briefly describe the unique geology that gives Ramsar its extraordinarily high background radiation levels. It will then summarize the studies performed to date and will conclude by suggesting ways to incorporate these findings (if they are borne out by further testing) into future radiation protection standards.

  6. Touschek Background and Lifetime Studies for the SuperB Factory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boscolo, M.; Biagini, M.; Raimondi, P.; Sullivan, M.; Paoloni, E.; /INFN, Pisa

    2010-08-26

    The novel crab waist collision scheme under test at the DA{Phi}NE Frascati {Phi}-factory finds its natural application to the SuperB project, the asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} flavour factory at very high luminosity with relatively low beam currents and reduced backgrounds. The SuperB accelerator design requires a careful choice of beam parameters to reach a good trade-off between different effects. We present here simulation results for the Touschek backgrounds and lifetime obtained for both the low and high energy rings for different machine designs. A first set of horizontal collimators has been studied to stop Touschek particles. A study of the distributions of the Touschek particle losses at the interaction region into the detectors for further investigations is underway.

  7. Origin of background electron concentration in InxGa1-xN alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pantha, B. N.; Wang, H.; Khan, N.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2011-08-15

    The origin of high background electron concentration (n) in InxGa1-xN alloys has been investigated. A shallow donor was identified as having an energy level (ED1) that decreases with x (ED1 = 16 meV at x = 0 and ED1 = 0 eV at x ~ 0.5) and that crossover the conduction band at x ~ 0.5. This shallow donor is believed to be the most probable cause of high n in InGaN. This understanding is consistent with the fact that n increases sharply with an increase in x and becomes constant for x > 0.5. A continuous reduction in nmore » was obtained by increasing the V/III ratio during the epilayer growth, suggesting that nitrogen vacancy-related impurities are a potential cause of the shallow donors and high background electron concentration in InGaN« less

  8. SEARCH F O R LINEAR POLARIZATION O F THE COSMIC BACKGROUND RADIATION

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SEARCH F O R LINEAR POLARIZATION O F THE COSMIC BACKGROUND RADIATION P h i l M. Lubin and George F. Smoot Space Sciences L a b o r a t o r y and Lawrence Berkeley L a b o r a t o r y U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a 94720 Received ABSTRACT W e p r e s e n t p r e l i m i n a r y measurements of t h e l i n e a r p o l a r i z a t i o n of t h e cosmic microwave background ( 3 ° K blackbody) r a d i a t i o n . These ground-based measurements a r e made a

  9. Apparatus having reduced background for measuring radiation activity in aerosol particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodgers, John C.; McFarland, Andrew R.; Oritz, Carlos A.; Marlow, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus having reduced background for measuring radiation activity in aerosol particles. A continuous air monitoring sampler is described for use in detecting the presence of alpha-emitting aerosol particles. An inlet fractionating screen has been demonstrated to remove about 95% of freshly formed radon progeny from the aerosol sample, and approximately 33% of partially aged progeny. Addition of an electrical condenser and a modified dichotomous virtual impactor are expected to produce considerable improvement in these numbers, the goal being to enrich the transuranic (TRU) fraction of the aerosols. This offers the possibility of improving the signal-to-noise ratio for the detected alpha-particle energy spectrum in the region of interest for detecting TRU materials associated with aerosols, thereby enhancing the performance of background-compensation algorithms for improving the quality of alarm signals intended to warn personnel of potentially harmful quantities of TRU materials in the ambient air.

  10. DOE Data ID Service Background | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scientific and Technical Information Background DataCite | Contact DOE Data ID Service In 2011, the DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) joined DataCite to facilitate citing, accessing, and reusing publicly available scientific research datasets produced by DOE-funded researchers. DataCite is an international organization that supports data visibility, ease of data citation in scholarly publications, data preservation and future re-use, and data access and

  11. Identification and summary characterization of materials potentially requiring vitrification: Background information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croff, A.G.

    1996-05-13

    This document contains background information for the Workshop in general and the presentation entitled `Identification and Summary Characterization of Materials Potentially Requiring Vitrification` that was given during the first morning of the workshop. summary characteristics of 9 categories of US materials having some potential to be vitrified are given. This is followed by a 1-2 page elaborations for each of these 9 categories. References to more detailed information are included.

  12. Background cosmological dynamics in f(R) gravity and observational constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Amna; Sami, M.; Sen, Anjan A.; Gannouji, Radouane

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, we carry out a study of viable cosmological models in f(R) gravity at the background level. We use observable parameters like {Omega} and {gamma} to form an autonomous system of equations and show that the models under consideration exhibit two different regimes in their time evolution, namely, a phantom phase followed by a quintessencelike behavior. We employ state finder parameters to emphasize a characteristic discriminative signature of these models.

  13. New acceptor centers of the background impurities in p-CdZnTe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plyatsko, S. V. Rashkovetskyi, L. V.

    2013-07-15

    Low-temperature photoluminescence data are used to study the redistribution of the background impurities and host components of p-CdZnTe single crystals with a resistivity of 1-50 {Omega} cm upon their interaction with infrared laser radiation. The effect of widening of the band gap and the formation of new acceptor centers in response to laser-stimulated changes in the system of intrinsic defects are established. The activation energy of the new acceptor centers is determined.

  14. The Majorana low-noise low-background front-end electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y. -D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Phillips, II, D. G.; Poon, A. W.P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G.H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.

    2015-03-24

    The Majorana Demonstrator will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay (??(0?)) of the isotope ??Ge with a mixed array of enriched and natural germanium detectors. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale germanium-based ??(0?)-decay searches, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039-keV Q-value of the ??Ge ??(0?)-decay. Such a requirement on the background level significantly constrains the design of the readout electronics, which is further driven by noise and energy resolution performances. We present here the low-noise low-background front-end electronics developed for the low-capacitance p-type point contact (P-PC) germanium detectors of the Majorana Demonstrator. This resistive-feedback front-end, specifically designed to have low mass, is fabricated on a radioassayed fused-silica substrate where the feedback resistor consists of a sputtered thin film of high purity amorphous germanium and the feedback capacitor is based on the capacitance between gold conductive traces.

  15. Conditions for Debris-Background Ion Interactions and Collisionless Shock Wave Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winske, Dan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cowee, Misa [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-10

    We use hybrid simulations and simple theoretical arguments to determine when debris ions streaming relative to background ions in a collisionless, magnetized plasma couple strongly enough to generate a magnetosonic shock wave. We consider three types of configurations: one-dimensional, the two-dimensional extension of the 1-D case, and a more complex 2-D geometry that contains some effects that would be found in a laser-produced, laboratory plasma. We show that the simulation results as well as previous Russian and LLNL results reduce to a simple condition (R{sub m}/{rho}{sub d} = equal mass radius/debris ion gyroradius {ge} 0.7) for the generation of a shock wave. Strong debris interaction with the background is characterized by the formation of a magnetic pulse that steepens and speeds up as it encounters the debris ions deflected by the magnetic field. The pulse further evolves into a shock. As the earlier work has indicated, the process also involves the generation of a transverse electric field perpendicular to the flow and the magnetic field that accelerates the background ions radially outward, which in turn causes the speedup of the pulse. With electric and magnetic field probes, the UCLA laser experiments should be able to detect these signatures of coupling as well as the generation of the shock wave.

  16. Ship Effect Neutron Measurements And Impacts On Low-Background Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2013-10-01

    The primary particles entering the upper atmosphere as cosmic rays create showers in the atmosphere that include a broad spectrum of secondary neutrons, muons and protons. These cosmic-ray secondaries interact with materials at the surface of the Earth, yielding prompt backgrounds in radiation detection systems, as well as inducing long-lived activities through spallation events, dominated by the higher-energy neutron secondaries. For historical reasons, the multiple neutrons produced in spallation cascade events are referred to as “ship effect” neutrons. Quantifying the background from cosmic ray induced activities is important to low-background experiments, such as neutrino-less double beta decay. Since direct measurements of the effects of shielding on the cosmic-ray neutron spectrum are not available, Monte Carlo modeling is used to compute such effects. However, there are large uncertainties (orders of magnitude) in the possible cross-section libraries and the cosmic-ray neutron spectrum for the energy range needed in such calculations. The measurements reported here were initiated to validate results from Monte Carlo models through experimental measurements in order to provide some confidence in the model results. The results indicate that the models provide the correct trends of neutron production with increasing density, but there is substantial disagreement between the model and experimental results for the lower-density materials of Al, Fe and Cu.

  17. The Majorana low-noise low-background front-end electronics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; et al

    2015-03-24

    The Majorana Demonstrator will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay (ββ(0ν)) of the isotope ⁷⁶Ge with a mixed array of enriched and natural germanium detectors. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale germanium-based ββ(0ν)-decay searches, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039-keV Q-value of the ⁷⁶Ge ββ(0ν)-decay. Such a requirement on the background level significantly constrains the design of the readout electronics, which is further driven by noise and energy resolutionmore » performances. We present here the low-noise low-background front-end electronics developed for the low-capacitance p-type point contact (P-PC) germanium detectors of the Majorana Demonstrator. This resistive-feedback front-end, specifically designed to have low mass, is fabricated on a radioassayed fused-silica substrate where the feedback resistor consists of a sputtered thin film of high purity amorphous germanium and the feedback capacitor is based on the capacitance between gold conductive traces.« less

  18. Effects of background neutral particles on a field-reversed configuration plasma in the translation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuzawa, Yoshiki; Asai, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Toshiki

    2008-08-15

    A field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma was translated into a weakly ionized plasma and the effects of heating and particle buildup of the FRC plasma due to the background neutral particles and plasma injection in the translation process were investigated. Improvement of the particle and poloidal flux confinements and delay of onset of n=2 rotational instability were observed in the translation process. It was found that the internal structure of the plasma pressure (plasma temperature and density) at the separatrix and field null was deformed by the particle injection. FRC plasma translation through the background particles was equivalent to an end-on particle beam injection to the FRC plasma. Particles and energy were supplied during the translation. The results obtained for the phenomena of particle supply and plasma heating were also supported by the results of two-dimensional particle simulation. The effects of background particle injection appear to be a promising process for the regeneration of translation kinetic energy to plasma internal energy.

  19. NEW OBSERVATION OF FAILED FILAMENT ERUPTIONS: THE INFLUENCE OF ASYMMETRIC CORONAL BACKGROUND FIELDS ON SOLAR ERUPTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Su, J.; Lin, H.; Shibata, K.; Kurokawa, H.

    2009-05-01

    Failed filament eruptions not associated with a coronal mass ejection (CME) have been observed and reported as evidence for solar coronal field confinement on erupting flux ropes. In those events, each filament eventually returns to its origin on the solar surface. In this Letter, a new observation of two failed filament eruptions is reported which indicates that the mass of a confined filament can be ejected to places far from the original filament channel. The jetlike mass motions in the two failed filament eruptions are thought to be due to the asymmetry of the background coronal magnetic fields with respect to the locations of the filament channels. The asymmetry of the coronal fields is confirmed by an extrapolation based on a potential field model. The obvious imbalance between the positive and negative magnetic flux (with a ratio of 1:3) in the bipolar active region is thought to be the direct cause of the formation of the asymmetric coronal fields. We think that the asymmetry of the background fields can not only influence the trajectories of ejecta, but also provide a relatively stronger confinement for flux rope eruptions than the symmetric background fields do.

  20. File:EIA-AK-NPRA-ANWR-GAS.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GAS.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska and Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 1002 Area By 2001 Gas Reserve Class Size of...

  1. Effects of Alaska Oil and Natural Gas Provisions of H. R. 4 and S. 1766 on U.S. Energy Markets, Addendum

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    This addendum provides projections on the increase in U.S. oil production from opening the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, the decease in net petroleum imports, and the change in net petroleum expenditures across a range of cases.

  2. igure 1. Map of N. Alaska and NW Canada Showing the Locations...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    bytes) Source: Edited from U.S. Geological Survey, "The Oil and Gas Resource Potential of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 1002 Area, Alaska," Open File Report 98-34, 1999.

  3. Figure 2. Stratigraphic Summary of Ages, Names and Rock Types...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    bytes) Source: Edited from U.S. Geological Survey, "The Oil and Gas Resource Potential of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 1002 Area, Alaska," Open File Report 98-34, 1999.

  4. Figure ES1. Map of Northern Alaska

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Geological Survey, "The Oil and Gas Resource Potential of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 1002 Area, Alaska," Open File Report 98-34, 1999. Return to the Executive Summary.

  5. Mineralogical characterization of saprolite at the FRC background site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Young-Jin; Moon, Ji Won; Roh, Yul; Brooks, Scott C

    2008-12-01

    The Field Research Center (FRC) including five contaminated sites and a clean background area was established in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, as a part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program. This study investigates the mineralogy and mineralogical pathways of saprolite at the FRC background site to provide a fundamental basis for the remediation strategy for contaminated sites. The background site is underlain interbedded shales, siltstones, and limestones with nearly identical characteristics to the contaminated sites. Bulk samples of saprolite were collected by hand picking approximately at 1 m depth (C horizon) from the soil surface. The soil pH of 4.3 and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of 10.5 cmol/kg measured are in the range of the typical shallow depth saprolite layer in this area. Total Fe by citrate-bicarbonate-dithionate (CBD) and ammonium oxalate extractable (amorphous) were 17.6 and 0.61 g/kg, respectively. Total Mn extracted by NH{sub 2}OH{center_dot}HCl was 0.17 g/kg. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses indicate that quartz, illite, and microcline (K-feldspar) are the dominant minerals, occupying 95% of mineral composition. The saprolite samples analyzed have shown characteristics of oxic conditions overall, and the degrees of weathering for three sampling locations were various, most for S1 and least for S3, likely influenced either by the flow channels developed through saprolite or by seasonal fluctuation of the groundwater table. The source of the manganese oxide that observed from the site is likely to be Mn-rich muscovite in the shale or Mn-rich biotite in the blackish band in the limestone. The results such as abundant Mn and Fe contents identified encouraging prospects for conducting remediation projects in FRC sites.

  6. Background Information for the Nevada National Security Site Integrated Sampling Plan, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farnham, Irene; Marutzky, Sam

    2014-12-01

    This document describes the process followed to develop the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan). It provides the Plan’s purpose and objectives, and briefly describes the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity, including the conceptual model and regulatory requirements as they pertain to groundwater sampling. Background information on other NNSS groundwater monitoring programs—the Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan (RREMP) and Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP)—and their integration with the Plan are presented. Descriptions of the evaluations, comments, and responses of two Sampling Plan topical committees are also included.

  7. Wave breaking phenomenon of lower-hybrid oscillations induced by a background inhomogeneous magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maity, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Sengupta, Sudip [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2012-10-15

    In a fluid description, we study space-time evolution of lower hybrid modes in a cold quasi-neutral homogeneous plasma in presence of a background inhomogeneous magnetic field. Within a linear analysis, a dispersion relation with inhomogeneous magnetic field shows 'phase mixing' of such oscillations. A manifestation of 'phase mixing' is shown in 'mode coupling.' By using Lagrangian variables, an exact solution is presented in parametric form of this nonlinear time dependent problem. It is demonstrated that initially excited lower hybrid modes always break via phase mixing phenomenon in presence of an inhomogeneous magnetic field. Breaking of such oscillations is revealed by the appearance of spikes in the plasma density profile.

  8. Quantum noise properties of CT images with anatomical textured backgrounds across reconstruction algorithms: FBP and SAFIRE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, Justin; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Quantum noise properties of CT images are generally assessed using simple geometric phantoms with uniform backgrounds. Such phantoms may be inadequate when assessing nonlinear reconstruction or postprocessing algorithms. The purpose of this study was to design anatomically informed textured phantoms and use the phantoms to assess quantum noise properties across two clinically available reconstruction algorithms, filtered back projection (FBP) and sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE). Methods: Two phantoms were designed to represent lung and soft-tissue textures. The lung phantom included intricate vessel-like structures along with embedded nodules (spherical, lobulated, and spiculated). The soft tissue phantom was designed based on a three-dimensional clustered lumpy background with included low-contrast lesions (spherical and anthropomorphic). The phantoms were built using rapid prototyping (3D printing) technology and, along with a uniform phantom of similar size, were imaged on a Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash CT scanner and reconstructed with FBP and SAFIRE. Fifty repeated acquisitions were acquired for each background type and noise was assessed by estimating pixel-value statistics, such as standard deviation (i.e., noise magnitude), autocorrelation, and noise power spectrum. Noise stationarity was also assessed by examining the spatial distribution of noise magnitude. The noise properties were compared across background types and between the two reconstruction algorithms. Results: In FBP and SAFIRE images, noise was globally nonstationary for all phantoms. In FBP images of all phantoms, and in SAFIRE images of the uniform phantom, noise appeared to be locally stationary (within a reasonably small region of interest). Noise was locally nonstationary in SAFIRE images of the textured phantoms with edge pixels showing higher noise magnitude compared to pixels in more homogenous regions. For pixels in uniform regions, noise magnitude was reduced by an average of 60% in SAFIRE images compared to FBP. However, for edge pixels, noise magnitude ranged from 20% higher to 40% lower in SAFIRE images compared to FBP. SAFIRE images of the lung phantom exhibited distinct regions with varying noise texture (i.e., noise autocorrelation/power spectra). Conclusions: Quantum noise properties observed in uniform phantoms may not be representative of those in actual patients for nonlinear reconstruction algorithms. Anatomical texture should be considered when evaluating the performance of CT systems that use such nonlinear algorithms.

  9. Federal Facility Compliance Act, Proposed Site Treatment Plan: Background Volume. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-24

    This Federal Facility Compliance Act Site Treatment Plan discusses the options of radioactive waste management for Ames Laboratory. This is the background volume which discusses: site history and mission; framework for developing site treatment plans; proposed plan organization and related activities; characterization of mixed waste and waste minimization; low level mixed waste streams and the proposed treatment approach; future generation of TRU and mixed wastes; the adequacy of mixed waste storage facilities; and a summary of the overall DOE activity in the area of disposal of mixed waste treatment residuals.

  10. Background and Derivation of ANS-5.4 Standard Fission Product Release Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beyer, Carl E.; Turnbull, Andrew J.

    2010-01-29

    This background report describes the technical basis for the newly proposed American Nuclear Society (ANS) 5.4 standard, Methods for Calculating the Fractional Release of Volatile Fission Products from Oxide Fuels. The proposed ANS 5.4 standard provides a methodology for determining the radioactive fission product releases from the fuel for use in assessing radiological consequences of postulated accidents that do not involve abrupt power transients. When coupled with isotopic yields, this method establishes the 'gap activity,' which is the inventory of volatile fission products that are released from the fuel rod if the cladding are breached.

  11. Investigations of 2? decay measured by low background HPGe spectrometer OBELIX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rukhadze, Ekaterina [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, CTU in Prague, Horska 3a Collaboration: OBELIX Collaboration; SuperNEMO Collaboration

    2013-12-30

    A low background high sensitive HPGe spectrometer OBELIX was installed at the Modane Underground Laboratory (LSM, France, 4800 m w.e.). The detector was designed to measure a contamination of enriched isotopes and radio-impurities in construction materials, to investigate rare nuclear processes such as resonance neutrinoless double electron capture and two-neutrino double beta decay to excited states of daughter nuclei. Spectrometer sensitivity, contamination of NEMO-3 sources and results of 2?2?{sup ?} decay of {sup 100}Mo to the 0{sup +} (1130 keV) and 2{sup +} (540 keV) excited states as well as future plans for OBELIX detector are given.

  12. Comparison of estimated and background subsidence rates in Texas-Louisiana geopressured geothermal areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, L.M.; Clayton, M.; Everingham, J.; Harding, R.C.; Massa, A.

    1982-06-01

    A comparison of background and potential geopressured geothermal development-related subsidence rates is given. Estimated potential geopressured-related rates at six prospects are presented. The effect of subsidence on the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast is examined including the various associated ground movements and the possible effects of these ground movements on surficial processes. The relationships between ecosystems and subsidence, including the capability of geologic and biologic systems to adapt to subsidence, are analyzed. The actual potential for environmental impact caused by potential geopressured-related subsidence at each of four prospects is addressed. (MHR)

  13. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for best available radionuclide control technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, A.B.; Skone, S.S.; Rodenhizer, D.G.; Marusich, M.V. )

    1990-10-01

    This report provides the background documentation to support applications for approval to construct and operate new radionuclide emission sources at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) near Richland, Washington. The HWVP is required to obtain permits under federal and state statutes for atmospheric discharges of radionuclides. Since these permits must be issued prior to construction of the facility, draft permit applications are being prepared, as well as documentation to support these permits. This report addresses the applicable requirements and demonstrates that the preferred design meets energy, environmental, and economic criteria for Best Available Radionuclide Control Technology (BARCT) at HWVP. 22 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  14. Extending the radial diffusion model of Falthammar to non-dipole background field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunningham, Gregory Scott

    2015-05-26

    A model for radial diffusion caused by electromagnetic disturbances was published by Falthammar (1965) using a two-parameter model of the disturbance perturbing a background dipole magnetic field. Schulz and Lanzerotti (1974) extended this model by recognizing the two parameter perturbation as the leading (non--dipole) terms of the Mead Williams magnetic field model. They emphasized that the magnetic perturbation in such a model induces an electric ield that can be calculated from the motion of field lines on which the particles are ‘frozen’. Roederer and Zhang (2014) describe how the field lines on which the particles are frozen can be calculated by tracing the unperturbed field lines from the minimum-B location to the ionospheric footpoint, and then tracing the perturbed field (which shares the same ionospheric footpoint due to the frozen -in condition) from the ionospheric footpoint back to a perturbed minimum B location. The instantaneous change n Roederer L*, dL*/dt, can then be computed as the product (dL*/dphi)*(dphi/dt). dL*/Dphi is linearly dependent on the perturbation parameters (to first order) and is obtained by computing the drift across L*-labeled perturbed field lines, while dphi/dt is related to the bounce-averaged gradient-curvature drift velocity. The advantage of assuming a dipole background magnetic field, as in these previous studies, is that the instantaneous dL*/dt can be computed analytically (with some approximations), as can the DLL that results from integrating dL*/dt over time and computing the expected value of (dL*)^2. The approach can also be applied to complex background magnetic field models like T89 or TS04, on top of which the small perturbations are added, but an analytical solution is not possible and so a numerical solution must be implemented. In this talk, I discuss our progress in implementing a numerical solution to the calculation of DL*L* using arbitrary background field models with simple electromagnetic perturbations.

  15. The Herschel cold debris disks: Confusion with the extragalactic background at 160 ?m

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gspr, Andrs; Rieke, George H. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    The Herschel 'DUst around NEarby Stars' (DUNES) survey has found a number of debris disk candidates that are apparently very cold, with temperatures near 22 K. It has proven difficult to fit their spectral energy distributions with conventional models for debris disks. Given this issue, we carefully examine the alternative explanation that the detections arise from confusion with infrared cirrus and/or background galaxies that are not physically associated with the foreground stars. We find that such an explanation is consistent with all of these detections.

  16. Neutrino Physics from the Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abazajian, K. N.; Arnold, K.; Austermann, J.; Benson, B. A.; Bischoff, C.; Bock, J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Calabrese, E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Carvalho, C. S.; Chang, C. L.; Chiang, H. C.; Church, S.; Cooray, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Dawson, K. S.; Das, S.; Devlin, M. J.; Dobbs, M.; Dodelson, S.; Dore, O.; Dunkley, J.; Errard, J.; Fraisse, A.; Gallicchio, J.; Halverson, N. W.; Hanany, S.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hincks, A.; Hlozek, R.; Holder, G.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Honscheid, K.; Hu, W.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K.; Jones, W. C.; Kamionkowski, M.; Keating, B.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Komatsu, E.; Kovac, J.; Kuo, C. -L.; Lawrence, C.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E.; Linder, E.; Lubin, P.; McMahon, J.; Miller, A.; Newburgh, L.; Niemack, M. D.; Nguyen, H.; Nguyen, H. T.; Page, L.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ruhl, J. E.; Sehgal, N.; Seljak, U.; Sievers, J.; Silverstein, E.; Slosar, A.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D.; Staggs, S. T.; Stark, A.; Stompor, R.; Wang, G.; Watson, S.; Wollack, E. J.; Wu, W. L.K.; Yoon, K. W.; Zahn, O.

    2014-03-15

    This is a report on the status and prospects of the quantification of neutrino properties through the cosmological neutrino background for the Cosmic Frontier of the Division of Particles and Fields Community Summer Study long-term planning exercise. Experiments planned and underway are prepared to study the cosmological neutrino background in detail via its influence on distance-redshift relations and the growth of structure. The program for the next decade described in this document, including upcoming spectroscopic galaxy surveys eBOSS and DESI and a new Stage-IV CMB polarization experiment CMB-S4, will achieve ? (?mv) = 16 meV and ? (Neff)(Neff) = 0.020. Such a mass measurement will produce a high significance detection of non-zero ?m??m?, whose lower bound derived from atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillation data is about 58 meV. If neutrinos have a minimal normal mass hierarchy, this measurement will definitively rule out the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, shedding light on one of the most puzzling aspects of the Standard Model of particle physics the origin of mass. This precise a measurement of Neff will allow for high sensitivity to any light and dark degrees of freedom produced in the big bang and a precision test of the standard cosmological model prediction that Neff = 3.046.

  17. Neutrino physics from the cosmic microwave background and large scale structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abazajian, K. N.; Arnold, K.; Austermann, J. E.; Benson, B. A.; Bischoff, C.; Brock, J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Calabrese, E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.

    2015-03-15

    This is a report on the status and prospects of the quantification of neutrino properties through the cosmological neutrino background for the Cosmic Frontier of the Division of Particles and Fields Community Summer Study long-term planning exercise. Experiments planned and underway are prepared to study the cosmological neutrino background in detail via its influence on distance-redshift relations and the growth of structure. The program for the next decade described in this document, including upcoming spectroscopic galaxy surveys eBOSS and DESI and a new Stage-IV CMB polarization experiment CMB-S4, will achieve σ (σmν)(σmν) = 16 meV and σ (Neff)(Neff) = 0.020. Such a mass measurement will produce a high significance detection of non-zero σmνσmν, whose lower bound derived from atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillation data is about 58 meV. If neutrinos have a minimal normal mass hierarchy, this measurement will definitively rule out the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, shedding light on one of the most puzzling aspects of the Standard Model of particle physics — the origin of mass. This precise a measurement of NeffNeff will allow for high sensitivity to any light and dark degrees of freedom produced in the big bang and a precision test of the standard cosmological model prediction that View the MathML sourceNeff=3.046.

  18. State background-radiation levels: results of measurements taken during 1975-1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myrick, T.E.; Berven, B.A.; Haywood, F.F.

    1981-11-01

    Background radiation levels across the United States have been measured by the Off-Site Pollutant Measurements Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These measurements have been conducted as part of the ORNL program of radiological surveillance at inactive uranium mills and sites formerly utilized during Manhattan Engineer District and early Atomic Energy Commission projects. The measurements included determination of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U concentrations in surface soil samples and measurement of external gamma-ray exposure rates at 1 m above the ground surface at the location of soil sampling. This information is being utilized for comparative purposes to determine the extent of contamination present at the survey sites and surrounding off-site areas. The sampling program to date has provided background information at 356 locations in 33 states. External gamma-ray exposure rates were found to range from less than 1 to 34 ..mu..R/h, with an US average of 8.5 ..mu..R/h. The nationwide average concentrations of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U in surface soil were determined to be 1.1, 0.98, and 1.0 pCi/g, respectively.

  19. Large-Angular-Scale Anisotropy in the Cosmic BackgroundRadiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorenstein, M.V.; Smoot, G.F.

    1980-05-01

    We report the results of an extended series of airborne measurements of large-angular-scale anisotropy in the 3 K cosmic background radiation. Observations were carried out with a dual-antenna microwave radiometer operating at 33 GHz (0.89 cm wavelength) flown on board a U-2 aircraft to 20 km altitude. In eleven flights, between December 1976 and May 1978, the radiometer measured differential intensity between pairs of directions distributed over most of the northern hemisphere with an rms sensitivity of 47 mK Hz{sup -1/2}. The measurements show clear evidence of anisotropy that is readily interpreted as due to the solar motion relative to the sources of the radiation. The anisotropy is well fit by a first order spherical harmonic of amplitude 360 {+-} 50km sec{sup -1} toward the direction 11.2 {+-} 0.5 hours of right ascension and 19 {+-} 8 degrees declination. A simultaneous fit to a combined hypothesis of dipole and quadrupole angular distributions places a 1 mK limit on the amplitude of most components of quadrupole anisotropy with 90% confidence. Additional analysis places a 0.5 mK limit on uncorrelated fluctuations (sky-roughness) in the 3 K background on an angular scale of the antenna beam width, about 7 degrees.

  20. An Analysis of Recent Measurements of the Temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Smoot, G.; Levin, S. M.; Witebsky, C.; De Amici, G.; Rephaeli, Y.

    1987-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the results of recent temperature measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). The observations for wavelengths longer than 0.1 cum are well fit by a blackbody spectrum at 2.74{+ or -}0.0w K; however, including the new data of Matsumoto et al. (1987) the result is no longer consistent with a Planckian spectrum. The data are described by a Thomson-distortion parameter u=0.021{+ or -}0.002 and temperature 2.823{+ or -}0.010 K at the 68% confidence level. Fitting the low-frequency data to a Bose-Einstein spectral distortion yields a 95% confidence level upper limit of 1.4 x 10{sup -2} on the chemical potential mu{sub 0}. These limits on spectral distortions place restrictions on a number of potentially interesting sources of energy release to the CMBR, including the hot intergalactic medium proposed as the source of the X-ray background.

  1. H-ATLAS: THE COSMIC ABUNDANCE OF DUST FROM THE FAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND POWER SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thacker, Cameron; Cooray, Asantha; Smidt, Joseph; De Bernardis, Francesco; Mitchell-Wynne, K.; Amblard, A.; Auld, R.; Eales, S.; Pascale, E.; Baes, M.; Michalowski, M. J.; Clements, D. L.; Dariush, A.; Hopwood, R.; De Zotti, G.; Dunne, L.; Maddox, S.; Hoyos, C.; Ibar, E.; Jarvis, M.; and others

    2013-05-01

    We present a measurement of the angular power spectrum of the cosmic far-infrared background (CFIRB) anisotropies in one of the extragalactic fields of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m bands. Consistent with recent measurements of the CFIRB power spectrum in Herschel-SPIRE maps, we confirm the existence of a clear one-halo term of galaxy clustering on arcminute angular scales with large-scale two-halo term of clustering at 30 arcmin to angular scales of a few degrees. The power spectrum at the largest angular scales, especially at 250 {mu}m, is contaminated by the Galactic cirrus. The angular power spectrum is modeled using a conditional luminosity function approach to describe the spatial distribution of unresolved galaxies that make up the bulk of the CFIRB. Integrating over the dusty galaxy population responsible for the background anisotropies, we find that the cosmic abundance of dust, relative to the critical density, to be between {Omega}{sub dust} = 10{sup -6} and 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} in the redshift range z {approx} 0-3. This dust abundance is consistent with estimates of the dust content in the universe using quasar reddening and magnification measurements in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

  2. Multi-wavelength emission from the Fermi bubbles. I. Stochastic acceleration from background plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, K. S.; Chernyshov, D. O.; Dogiel, V. A.; Ko, C. M.

    2014-07-20

    We analyze processes of electron acceleration in the Fermi bubbles in order to define parameters and restrictions of the models, which are suggested for the origin of these giant radio and gamma-ray structures. In the case of the leptonic origin of the nonthermal radiation from the bubbles, these electrons should be produced somehow in situ because of the relatively short lifetime of high-energy electrons, which lose their energy by synchrotron and inverse-Compton processes. It has been suggested that electrons in bubbles may be accelerated by shocks produced by tidal disruption of stars accreting onto the central black hole or a process of re-acceleration of electrons ejected by supernova remnants. These processes will be investigated in subsequent papers. In this paper, we focus on in situ stochastic (Fermi) acceleration by a hydromagnetic/supersonic turbulence, in which electrons can be directly accelerated from the background plasma. We showed that the acceleration from the background plasma is able to explain the observed fluxes of radio and gamma-ray emission from the bubbles, but the range of permitted parameters of the model is strongly restricted.

  3. Reduction of Radioactive Backgrounds in Electroformed Copper for Ultra-Sensitive Radiation Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Farmer, Orville T.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Liezers, Martin; Miley, Harry S.; Overman, Nicole R.; Reeves, James H.

    2014-07-07

    Abstract Ultra-pure construction materials are required for the next generation of neutrino physics, dark matter and environmental science applications. These new efforts require materials with purity levels at or below 1 uBq/kg 232Th and 238U. Yet radiometric analysis lacks sensitivity below ~10 uBq/kg for the U and Th decay chains. This limits both the selection of clean materials and the validation of purification processes. Copper is an important high-purity material for low-background experiments due to the ease with which it can be purified by electrochemical methods. Electroplating for purification into near-final shapes, known as electroforming, is one such method. Continued refinement of the copper electroforming process is underway, for the first time guided by an ICP-MS based assay method that can measure 232Th and 238U near the desired purity levels. An assay of electroformed copper at 10 uBq/kg for 232Th has been achieved and is described. The implications of electroformed copper at or better than this purity on next-generation low-background experiments are discussed.

  4. ON MEASURING THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND TEMPERATURE AT REDSHIFT 0.89

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sato, M.; Menten, K. M.; Reid, M. J.; Carilli, C. L.

    2013-02-20

    We report on a measurement of the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation field, T {sub CMB}, at z = 0.88582 by imaging HC{sub 3}N(3 <- 2) and (5 <- 4) absorption in the foreground galaxy of the gravitationally lens magnified radio source PKS 1830-211 using the Very Long Baseline Array and the phased Very Large Array. Low-resolution imaging of the data yields a value of T {sub rot} = 5.6{sup +2.5} {sub -0.9} K for the rotational temperature, T {sub rot}, which is consistent with the temperature of the cosmic microwave background at the absorber's redshift of 2.73(1 + z) K. However, our high-resolution imaging reveals that the absorption peak position of the foreground gas is offset from the continuum peak position of the synchrotron radiation from PKS 1830-211SW, which indicates that the absorbing cloud is covering only part of the emission from PKS 1830-211, rather than the entire core-jet region. This changes the line-to-continuum ratios, and we find T {sub rot} between 1.1 and 2.5 K, which is lower than the expected value. This shows that previous T {sub rot} measurements could be biased due to unresolved structure.

  5. US--EC fuel cycle study: Background document to the approach and issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantor, Robin; Russell, Lee; Krupnick, Alan; Smith, Hilary; Schaffhauser, Jr., A.; Barnthouse, Larry; Cada, Glen; Kroodsma, Roger; Turner, Robb; Easterly, Clay; Jones, Troyce; Burtraw, Dallas; Harrington, Winston; Freeman, A. Myrick

    1992-11-01

    In February 1991, DOE and the Commission of the European Communities (EC), signed a joint statement regarding the external costs of fuel cycles. This 18-month agreement committed their respective organizations to develop a comparative analytical methodology and to develop the best range of estimates of external costs from secondary sources'' for eight fuel cycles and four conservation options. In our study, a fuel cycle is defined as the series of physical and chemical processes and activities that are required to generate electricity from a specific fuel or resource. This foundation phase of the study is primarily limited to developing and demonstrating methods for estimating impacts and their monetized value, what we term damages'' or benefits,'' leaving aside the extent to which such damages have been internalized. However, Appendix C provides the conceptual framework for evaluating the extent of internalization. This report is a background document to introduce the study approach and to discuss the major conceptual and practical issues entailed by the incremental damage problem. As a background document, the report seeks to communicate an overview of the study and the important methodological choices that were made to conduct the research. In successive sections of the report, the methodological tools used in the study are discussed; the ecological and health impacts are reviewed using the coal fuel cycle as a reference case; and, in the final chapter, the methods for valuing impacts are detailed.

  6. Neutrino Physics from the Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abazajian, K. N.; Arnold, K.; Austermann, J.; Benson, B. A.; Bischoff, C.; Bock, J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Calabrese, E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; et al

    2014-03-15

    This is a report on the status and prospects of the quantification of neutrino properties through the cosmological neutrino background for the Cosmic Frontier of the Division of Particles and Fields Community Summer Study long-term planning exercise. Experiments planned and underway are prepared to study the cosmological neutrino background in detail via its influence on distance-redshift relations and the growth of structure. The program for the next decade described in this document, including upcoming spectroscopic galaxy surveys eBOSS and DESI and a new Stage-IV CMB polarization experiment CMB-S4, will achieve σ (σmv) = 16 meV and σ (Neff)(Neff) = 0.020.more » Such a mass measurement will produce a high significance detection of non-zero σmνσmν, whose lower bound derived from atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillation data is about 58 meV. If neutrinos have a minimal normal mass hierarchy, this measurement will definitively rule out the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, shedding light on one of the most puzzling aspects of the Standard Model of particle physics — the origin of mass. This precise a measurement of Neff will allow for high sensitivity to any light and dark degrees of freedom produced in the big bang and a precision test of the standard cosmological model prediction that Neff = 3.046.« less

  7. US--EC fuel cycle study: Background document to the approach and issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantor, Robin; Lee, Russell

    1992-11-01

    In February 1991, DOE and the Commission of the European Communities (EC), signed a joint statement regarding the external costs of fuel cycles. This 18-month agreement committed their respective organizations to ``develop a comparative analytical methodology and to develop the best range of estimates of external costs from secondary sources`` for eight fuel cycles and four conservation options. In our study, a fuel cycle is defined as the series of physical and chemical processes and activities that are required to generate electricity from a specific fuel or resource. This foundation phase of the study is primarily limited to developing and demonstrating methods for estimating impacts and their monetized value, what we term ``damages`` or ``benefits,`` leaving aside the extent to which such damages have been internalized. However, Appendix C provides the conceptual framework for evaluating the extent of internalization. This report is a background document to introduce the study approach and to discuss the major conceptual and practical issues entailed by the incremental damage problem. As a background document, the report seeks to communicate an overview of the study and the important methodological choices that were made to conduct the research. In successive sections of the report, the methodological tools used in the study are discussed; the ecological and health impacts are reviewed using the coal fuel cycle as a reference case; and, in the final chapter, the methods for valuing impacts are detailed.

  8. PROBING THE COSMIC X-RAY AND MeV GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND RADIATION THROUGH THE

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ANISOTROPY (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect PROBING THE COSMIC X-RAY AND MeV GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND RADIATION THROUGH THE ANISOTROPY Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PROBING THE COSMIC X-RAY AND MeV GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND RADIATION THROUGH THE ANISOTROPY While the cosmic soft X-ray background is very likely to originate from individual Seyfert galaxies, the origin of the cosmic hard X-ray and MeV gamma-ray background is not fully understood. It is expected that Seyferts including

  9. Low-frequency measurements of the CMB (cosmic microwave background) spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kogut, A.; Bensadoun, M.; De Amici, G.; Levin, S.; Limon, M.; Smoot, G. ); Sironi, G. . Dipt. di Fisica); Bersanelli, M.; Bonelli, G. )

    1989-10-01

    As part of an extended program to characterize the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at low frequencies, we have performed multiple measurements from a high-altitude site in California. On average, these measurements suggest a CMB temperature slightly lower than measurements at higher frequencies. Atmospheric conditions and the encroachment of civilization are now significant limitations from our present observing site. In November 1989, we will make new measurements from the South Pole Amnudsen-Scott Station at frequencies 0.82 1.5, 2.5, 3.8, 7.5, and 90 GHz. We discuss recent measurements and indicate improvements from a polar observing site. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Quenching methods for background reduction in luminescence-based probe-target binding assays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cai, Hong; Goodwin, Peter M; Keller, Richard A.; Nolan, Rhiannon L.

    2007-04-10

    Background luminescence is reduced from a solution containing unbound luminescent probes, each having a first molecule that attaches to a target molecule and having an attached luminescent moiety, and luminescent probe/target adducts. Quenching capture reagent molecules are formed that are capable of forming an adduct with the unbound luminescent probes and having an attached quencher material effective to quench luminescence of the luminescent moiety. The quencher material of the capture reagent molecules is added to a solution of the luminescent probe/target adducts and binds in a proximity to the luminescent moiety of the unbound luminescent probes to quench luminescence from the luminescent moiety when the luminescent moiety is exposed to exciting illumination. The quencher capture reagent does not bind to probe molecules that are bound to target molecules and the probe/target adduct emission is not quenched.

  11. IS THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ASYMMETRY DUE TO THE KINEMATIC DIPOLE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naselsky, P.; Zhao, W.; Kim, J.; Chen, S.

    2012-04-10

    Parity violation found in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation is a crucial clue for the non-standard cosmological model or the possible contamination of various foreground residuals and/or calibration of the CMB data sets. In this paper, we study the directional properties of the CMB parity asymmetry by excluding the m = 0 modes in the definition of parity parameters. We find that the preferred directions of the parity parameters coincide with the CMB kinematic dipole, which implies that the CMB parity asymmetry may be connected with the possible contamination of the residual dipole component. We also find that such tendency is not only localized at l = 2, 3, but in the extended multipole ranges up to l {approx} 22.

  12. Measurement of the large-scale anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation at 3mm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, G.L.

    1983-12-01

    A balloon-borne differential radiometer has measured the large-scale anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) with high sensitivity. The antenna temperature dipole anistropy at 90 GHz (3 mm wavelength) is 2.82 +- 0.19 mK, corresponding to a thermodynamic anistropy of 3.48 +- mK for a 2.7 K blackbody CBR. The dipole direction, 11.3 +- 0.1 hours right ascension and -5.7/sup 0/ +- 1.8/sup 0/ declination, agrees well with measurements at other frequencies. Calibration error dominates magnitude uncertainty, with statistical errors on dipole terms being under 0.1 mK. No significant quadrupole power is found, placing a 90% confidence-level upper limit of 0.27 mK on the RMS thermodynamic quadrupolar anistropy. 22 figures, 17 tables.

  13. Estimation of Equivalent Sea Level Cosmic Ray Exposure for Low Background Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, Austen T.; Orrell, John L.

    2012-08-25

    While scientists at CERN and other particle accelerators around the world explore the boundaries of high energy physics, the Majorana project investigates the other end of the spectrum with its extremely sensitive, low background, low energy detector. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR aims to detect neutrinoless double beta decay (0???), a rare theoretical process in which two neutrons decay into two protons and two electrons, without the emission of the two antineutrinos that are a product of a normal double beta decay. This process is only possible if and therefore a detection would prove the neutrino is a Majorana particle, meaning that it is its own antiparticle [Aaselth et al. 2004] . The existence of such a decay would also disprove lepton conservation and give information about the neutrino's mass.

  14. The Design of an Ultra-Low Background Thermosyphon for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Busch, Matthew; Daniels, Randy; Fast, James E.; Green, Matthew P.; Reid, Douglas J.

    2013-05-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR (MJD) is an ultra-low background neutrinoless double-beta decay (0???) experiment that will deploy up to 40 kg of high purity germanium detectors (HPGe). The goal of this experiment is to demonstrate the feasibility of building a detector array with less than 1 event/ton-year in a 4 keV region of interest around the 0??? signal. HPGe diodes, when used as ionizing radiation detectors, need to be maintained at a temperature close to that of liquid nitrogen (77 K). This work describes the R&D results of a cryogenic system capable of meeting the requirements of low background and the cooling capacity required to successfully operate such a detector system. The MJD germanium detector modules will operate at liquid nitrogen temperature to provide adequate cooling for a full range of HPGe impurity concentrations. This paper shows the experimental results obtained using a two-phase horizontal thermosyphon using liquid nitrogen as the MJDs cooling system. The cold test shows that the proposed thermosyphon has sufficient cooling power to handle the heat load of an MJD module. Results for the temperature gradient across the thermosyphon, cooling capacity, and design considerations demonstrate that the thermosyphon can effectively remove the calculated heat load of each module of the experiment. The thermosyphon will be bolted to a cold plate from which detector strings will hang. The thermal conductivity of a mockup of the MJD bolted thermal joint is experimentally determined to be below 0.1 K/W.

  15. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search and Background Rejection with Event Position Information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Gen-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Evidence from observational cosmology and astrophysics indicates that about one third of the universe is matter, but that the known baryonic matter only contributes to the universe at 4%. A large fraction of the universe is cold and non-baryonic matter, which has important role in the universe structure formation and its evolution. The leading candidate for the non-baryonic dark matter is Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), which naturally occurs in the supersymmetry theory in particle physics. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is searching for evidence of a WIMP interaction off an atomic nucleus in crystals of Ge and Si by measuring simultaneously the phonon energy and ionization energy of the interaction in the CDMS detectors. The WIMP interaction energy is from a few keV to tens of keV with a rate less than 0.1 events/kg/day. To reach the goal of WIMP detection, the CDMS experiment has been conducted in the Soudan mine with an active muon veto and multistage passive background shields. The CDMS detectors have a low energy threshold and background rejection capabilities based on ionization yield. However, betas from contamination and other radioactive sources produce surface interactions, which have low ionization yield, comparable to that of bulk nuclear interactions. The low-ionization surface electron recoils must be removed in the WIMP search data analysis. An emphasis of this thesis is on developing the method of the surface-interaction rejection using location information of the interactions, phonon energy distributions and phonon timing parameters. The result of the CDMS Soudan run118 92.3 live day WIMP search data analysis is presented, and represents the most sensitive search yet performed.

  16. The Evolution of Swift/BAT blazars and the origin of the MeV background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajello, M.; Costamante, L.; Sambruna, R.M.; Gehrels, N.; Chiang, J.; Rau, A.; Escala, A.; Greiner, J.; Tueller, J.; Wall, J.V.; Mushotzky, R.F.; /NASA, Goddard

    2009-10-17

    We use 3 years of data from the Swift/BAT survey to select a complete sample of X-ray blazars above 15 keV. This sample comprises 26 Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs) and 12 BL Lac objects detected over a redshift range of 0.03 < z < 4.0. We use this sample to determine, for the first time in the 15-55 keV band, the evolution of blazars. We find that, contrary to the Seyfert-like AGNs detected by BAT, the population of blazars shows strong positive evolution. This evolution is comparable to the evolution of luminous optical QSOs and luminous X-ray selected AGNs. We also find evidence for an epoch-dependence of the evolution as determined previously for radio-quiet AGNs. We interpret both these findings as a strong link between accretion and jet activity. In our sample, the FSRQs evolve strongly, while our best-fit shows that BL Lacs might not evolve at all. The blazar population accounts for 10-20% (depending on the evolution of the BL Lacs) of the Cosmic X-ray background (CXB) in the 15-55 keV band. We find that FSRQs can explain the entire CXB emission for energies above 500 keV solving the mystery of the generation of the MeV background. The evolution of luminous FSRQs shows a peak in redshift (z{sub c} = 4.3 {+-} 0.5) which is larger than the one observed in QSOs and X-ray selected AGNs. We argue that FSRQs can be used as tracers of massive elliptical galaxies in the early Universe.

  17. Durability-Based Design Guide for an Automotive Structural Composite: Part 2. Background Data and Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corum, J.M.; Battiste, R.L.; Brinkman, C.R.; Ren, W.; Ruggles, M.B.; Weitsman, Y.J.; Yahr, G.T.

    1998-02-01

    This background report is a companion to the document entitled ''Durability-Based Design Criteria for an Automotive Structural Composite: Part 1. Design Rules'' (ORNL-6930). The rules and the supporting material characterization and modeling efforts described here are the result of a U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Automotive Materials project entitled ''Durability of Lightweight Composite Structures.'' The overall goal of the project is to develop experimentally based, durability-driven design guidelines for automotive structural composites. The project is closely coordinated with the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC). The initial reference material addressed by the rules and this background report was chosen and supplied by ACC. The material is a structural reaction injection-molded isocyanurate (urethane), reinforced with continuous-strand, swirl-mat, E-glass fibers. This report consists of 16 position papers, each summarizing the observations and results of a key area of investigation carried out to provide the basis for the durability-based design guide. The durability issues addressed include the effects of cyclic and sustained loadings, temperature, automotive fluids, vibrations, and low-energy impacts (e.g., tool drops and roadway kickups) on deformation, strength, and stiffness. The position papers cover these durability issues. Topics include (1) tensile, compressive, shear, and flexural properties; (2) creep and creep rupture; (3) cyclic fatigue; (4) the effects of temperature, environment, and prior loadings; (5) a multiaxial strength criterion; (6) impact damage and damage tolerance design; (7) stress concentrations; (8) a damage-based predictive model for time-dependent deformations; (9) confirmatory subscale component tests; and (10) damage development and growth observations.

  18. An Analytical Impact Assessment Framework for Wildlife to Inform the Siting and Permitting of Wind Energy Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Jesse D.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the United States overall electrical generation capacity is expected to increase by 10-25 gigawatts (GW) per year to meet increases in demand. Wind energy is a key component of state and federal renewable energy standards, and central to the Department of Energy’s 20% by 2030 wind production goals. Increased wind energy development may present increased resource conflict with avian wildlife, and environmental permitting has been identified as a potential obstacle to expansion in the sector. ICF developed an analytical framework to help applicants and agencies examine potential impacts in support of facility siting and permitting. A key objective of our work was to develop a framework that is scalable from the local to the national level, and one that is generalizable across the different scales at which biological communities operate – from local influences to meta-populations. The intent was to allow natural resource managers to estimate the cumulative impacts of turbine strikes and habitat changes on long-term population performance in the context of a species demography, genetic potential, and life history. We developed three types of models based on our literature review and participation in the scientific review processes. First, the conceptual model was developed as a general description of the analytical framework. Second, we developed the analytical framework based on the relationships between concepts, and the functions presented in the scientific literature. Third, we constructed an application of the model by parameterizing the framework using data from and relevant to the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA), and an existing golden eagle population model. We developed managed source code, database create statements, and written documentation to allow for the reproduction of each phase of the analysis. ICF identified a potential template adaptive management system in the form of the US Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS) Adaptive Harvest Management (AHM) program, and developed recommendations for the structure and function of a similar wind-facility related program. We provided a straw-man implementation of the analytical framework based on assumptions for APWRA-wide golden eagle fatalities, and presented a statistical examination of the model performance. APWRA-wide fatality rates appear substantial at all scales examined from the local APWRA population to the Bird Conservation Region. Documented fatality rates significantly influenced population performance in terms of non-territorial non-breeding birds. Breeder, Juvenile, Subadult, and Adult abundance were mostly unaffected by Baseline APWRA-wide fatality rates. However, increased variability in fatality rates would likely have impacts on long-term population performance, and would result in a substantially larger loss of resources. We developed four recommendations for future study. First, we recommend establishment of concept experts through the existing system of non-profits, regulatory agencies, academia, and industry in the wind energy sector. Second, we recommend the development of a central or distributed shared data repository, and establish guidelines for data sharing and transparency. Third, we recommend development a forum and process for model selection at the local and national level. Last, we recommend experimental implementation of the prescribed system at broader scales, and refinement the expectations for modeling and adaptive management.

  19. A Habitat-based Wind-Wildlife Collision Model with Application to the Upper Great Plains Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forcey, Greg, M.

    2012-08-28

    Most previous studies on collision impacts at wind facilities have taken place at the site-specific level and have only examined small-scale influences on mortality. In this study, we examine landscape-level influences using a hierarchical spatial model combined with existing datasets and life history knowledge for: Horned Lark, Red-eyed Vireo, Mallard, American Avocet, Golden Eagle, Whooping Crane, red bat, silver-haired bat, and hoary bat. These species were modeled in the central United States within Bird Conservation Regions 11, 17, 18, and 19. For the bird species, we modeled bird abundance from existing datasets as a function of habitat variables known to be preferred by each species to develop a relative abundance prediction for each species. For bats, there are no existing abundance datasets so we identified preferred habitat in the landscape for each species and assumed that greater amounts of preferred habitat would equate to greater abundance of bats. The abundance predictions for bird and bats were modeled with additional exposure factors known to influence collisions such as visibility, wind, temperature, precipitation, topography, and behavior to form a final mapped output of predicted collision risk within the study region. We reviewed published mortality studies from wind farms in our study region and collected data on reported mortality of our focal species to compare to our modeled predictions. We performed a sensitivity analysis evaluating model performance of 6 different scenarios where habitat and exposure factors were weighted differently. We compared the model performance in each scenario by evaluating observed data vs. our model predictions using spearmans rank correlations. Horned Lark collision risk was predicted to be highest in the northwestern and west-central portions of the study region with lower risk predicted elsewhere. Red-eyed Vireo collision risk was predicted to be the highest in the eastern portions of the study region and in the forested areas of the western portion; the lowest risk was predicted in the treeless portions of the northwest portion of the study area. Mallard collision risk was predicted to be highest in the eastern central portion of the prairie potholes and in Iowa which has a high density of pothole wetlands; lower risk was predicted in the more arid portions of the study area. Predicted collision risk for American Avocet was similar to Mallard and was highest in the prairie pothole region and lower elsewhere. Golden Eagle collision risk was predicted to be highest in the mountainous areas of the western portion of the study area and lowest in the eastern portion of the prairie potholes. Whooping Crane predicted collision risk was highest within the migration corridor that the birds follow through in the central portion of the study region; predicted collision risk was much lower elsewhere. Red bat collision risk was highly driven by large tracts of forest and river corridors which made up most of the areas of higher collision risk. Silver-haired bat and hoary bat predicted collision risk were nearly identical and driven largely by forest and river corridors as well as locations with warmer temperatures, and lower average wind speeds. Horned Lark collisions were mostly influenced by abundance and predictions showed a moderate correlation between observed and predicted mortality (r = 0.55). Red bat, silver-haired bat, and hoary bat predictions were much higher and shown a strong correlations with observed mortality with correlations of 0.85, 0.90, and 0.91 respectively. Red bat collisions were influenced primarily by habitat, while hoary bat and silver-haired bat collisions were influenced mainly by exposure variables. Stronger correlations between observed and predicted collision for bats than for Horned Larks can likely be attributed to stronger habitat associations and greater influences of weather on behavior for bats. Although the collision predictions cannot be compared among species, our model outputs provide a convenient and easy landscape-level tool to quickly screen for siting issues at a high level. The model resolution is suitable for state or multi-county siting but users are cautioned against using these models for micrositing. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recently released voluntary land-based wind energy guidelines for assessing impacts of a wind facility to wildlife using a tiered approach. The tiered approach uses an iterative approach for assessing impacts to wildlife in levels of increasing detail from landscape-level screening to site-specific field studies. Our models presented in this paper would be applicable to be used as tools to conduct screening at the tier 1 level and would not be appropriate to complete smaller scale tier 2 and tier 3 level studies. For smaller scale screening ancillary field studies should be conducted at the site-specific level to validate collision predictions.

  20. Sustainable development: Background an represent policy views for governmental agencies, industry, and other specialty groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickerman, J.A.; Silverman, G.S.

    1995-12-01

    Sustainable development is a phrase that has come into common usage without benefit of clear definition or meaning. Usage very much reflects individual and group perspectives: foresters might consider sustainability in terms of maintaining ecological integrity as part of managing forests for wood harvesting, industry might emphasize pollution control, while government agencies may be looking for new ways to exploit resources on a more continuous basis. Perhaps the greatest commonality among groups considering these issues is that {open_quotes}sustainability{close_quotes} has not been attained but that it needs to occur. The National Association of Environmental Professionals (NAEP) agrees that it is critical to the health of the planet that sustainable development be actively pursued and implemented in international, national, regional, and local policies and practices. To contribute to this effort a {open_quotes}white paper{close_quotes} is being prepared. Its purpose is twofold: (1) to review the existing information from the NAEP Sustainable Development Working Group and the literature and through examination of these policies, to clarify the thinking, what is being done, and what is still needed; and (2) to develop a position and action plan. This action plan should direct NAEP`s actions in making a significant contribution to the national dialog. This paper presents the background and results of the review phase of this white paper development. Representative views on sustainable development policy and practice are presented from three perspectives: governmental agencies, industry, and other specialty groups.

  1. Genetic background modulates lncRNA-coordinated tissue response to low dose ionizing radiation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tang, Jonathan; Huang, Yurong; Nguyen, David H.; Costes, Sylvain V.; Snijders, Antoine M.; Mao, Jian -Hua

    2015-02-04

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as key regulators of diverse cell functions and processes. However, the relevance of lncRNAs in the cell and tissue response to ionizing radiation has not yet been characterized. Here we used microarray profiling to determine lncRNA and mRNA expression in mammary glands of BALB/c and SPRET/EiJ mice after low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) exposure. We found that unirradiated mammary tissues of these strains differed significantly in baseline expressions of 290 lncRNAs. LDIR exposure (10 cGy) induced a significant change in the expression of many lncRNAs. The vast majority of lncRNAs identified to be differentially expressedmoreafter LDIR in either BALB/c or SPRET/EiJ had a significantly correlated expression pattern with at least one LDIR responsive mRNA. Functional analysis revealed that the response to LDIR in BALB/c mice is highly dynamic with enrichment for genes involved in tissue injury, inflammatory responses, and mammary gland development at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after LDIR, respectively. Our study demonstrates that genetic background strongly influences the expression of lncRNAs and their response to radiation and that lncRNAs may coordinate the tissue response to LDIR exposure via regulation of coding mRNAs.less

  2. Genetic Background Modulates lncRNA-Coordinated Tissue Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tang, Jonathan; Huang, Yurong; Nguyen, David H.; Costes, Sylvain V.; Snijders, Antoine M.; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as key regulators of diverse cell functions and processes. However, the relevance of lncRNAs in the cell and tissue response to ionizing radiation has not yet been characterized. Here we used microarray profiling to determine lncRNA and mRNA expression in mammary glands of BALB/c and SPRET/EiJ mice after low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) exposure. We found that unirradiated mammary tissues of these strains differed significantly in baseline expressions of 290 lncRNAs. LDIR exposure (10 cGy) induced a significant change in the expression of many lncRNAs. The vast majority of lncRNAs identified to be differentially expressed aftermore » LDIR in either BALB/c or SPRET/EiJ had a significantly correlated expression pattern with at least one LDIR responsive mRNA. Functional analysis revealed that the response to LDIR in BALB/c mice is highly dynamic with enrichment for genes involved in tissue injury, inflammatory responses, and mammary gland development at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after LDIR, respectively. Our study demonstrates that genetic background strongly influences the expression of lncRNAs and their response to radiation and that lncRNAs may coordinate the tissue response to LDIR exposure via regulation of coding mRNAs.« less

  3. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  4. Trace metal levels and partitioning in Wisconsin rivers: Results of background trace metals study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, M.M.; Overdier, J.T.; Armstrong, D.E.; Hurley, J.P.; Webb, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    Levels of total and filtrable Ag, Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in 41 Wisconsin rivers draining watersheds of distinct homogeneous characteristics (land use/cover, soil type, surficial geology) were quantified. Levels, fluxes, and yields of trace metals are interpreted in terms of principal geochemical controls. The study samples were also used to evaluate the capability of modern ICP-MS techniques for ``background`` level quantification of metals. Order-of-magnitude variations in levels of a given metal between sites was measured. This large natural variance reflects influences of soil type, dissolved organic matter (DOC), ionic strength, and suspended particulate matter (SPM) on metal levels. Significant positive correlations between DOC levels and filtrable metal concentrations were observed, demonstrating the important role that DOC plays in metal speciation and behavior. Systematic, chemically consistent, differences in behavior between the metals is evident with partition coefficients (K,) and fraction in particulate forms ranking in the order: Al > Pb > Zn > Cr >Cd > Cu. Total metal yields correlate well with SPM yields, especially for highly partitioned elements, whereas filtrable metal yields reflect the interplay of partitioning and water yield. The State of Wisconsin will use these data in a re-evaluation of regulatory limits and in the development of water effects ratio criteria.

  5. GERDA phase II detectors: Behind the production and characterisation at low background conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maneschg, Werner [Max-Planck-Institut fr Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut fr Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration; and others

    2013-08-08

    The low background GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) is designed to search for the rare neutrinoless double beta decay (0???) in {sup 76}Ge. Bare germanium diodes are operated in liquid argon which is used as coolant, as passive and soon active as well shield against external radiation. Currently, Phase I of the experiment is running using ?15 kg of co-axial High Purity Germanium diodes. In order to increase the sensitivity of the experiment 30 Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) diodes will be added within 2013. This presentation reviews the production chain of the new BEGe detectors from isotopic enrichment to diode production and testing. As demonstrated all steps were carefully planned in order to minimize the exposure of the enriched germanium to cosmic radiation. Following this premise, acceptance and characterisation measurement of the newly produced diodes have been performed within the HEROICA project in the Belgian underground laboratory HADES close to the diode manufacturer. The test program and the results from a subset of the recently terminated GERDA Phase II BEGe survey will be presented.

  6. A guide to designing future ground-based cosmic microwave background experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, W. L. K.; Kuo, C. L.; Errard, J.; Dvorkin, C.; Lee, A. T.; McDonald, P.; Zahn, O.; Slosar, A.

    2014-06-20

    In this follow-up work to the high energy physics Community Summer Study 2013 (aka SNOWMASS), we explore the scientific capabilities of a future Stage IV cosmic microwave background polarization experiment under various assumptions on detector count, resolution, and sky coverage. We use the Fisher matrix technique to calculate the expected uncertainties of cosmological parameters in ??CDM that are especially relevant to the physics of fundamental interactions, including neutrino masses, effective number of relativistic species, dark energy equation of state, dark matter annihilation, and inflationary parameters. To further chart the landscape of future cosmology probes, we include forecasted results from the baryon acoustic oscillation signal as measured by Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument to constrain parameters that would benefit from low redshift information. We find the following best 1? constraints: ?(M {sub ?}) = 15 meV, ?(N {sub eff}) = 0.0156, dark energy figure of merit = 303, ?(p {sub ann}) = 0.00588 3 10{sup 26} cm{sup 3} s{sup 1} GeV{sup 1}, ?(? {sub K}) = 0.00074, ?(n{sub s} ) = 0.00110, ?(? {sub s}) = 0.00145, and ?(r) = 0.00009. We also detail the dependencies of the parameter constraints on detector count, resolution, and sky coverage.

  7. Applied Ecosystem Analysis - Background : EDT the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment Method.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mobrand, Lars E.

    1996-05-01

    This volume consists of eight separate reports. We present them as background to the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) methodology. They are a selection from publications, white papers, and presentations prepared over the past two years. Some of the papers are previously published, others are currently being prepared for publication. In the early to mid 1980`s the concern for failure of both natural and hatchery production of Columbia river salmon populations was widespread. The concept of supplementation was proposed as an alternative solution that would integrate artificial propagation with natural production. In response to the growing expectations placed upon the supplementation tool, a project called Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) was initiated in 1990. The charge of RASP was to define supplementation and to develop guidelines for when, where and how it would be the appropriate solution to salmon enhancement in the Columbia basin. The RASP developed a definition of supplementation and a set of guidelines for planning salmon enhancement efforts which required consideration of all factors affecting salmon populations, including environmental, genetic, and ecological variables. The results of RASP led to a conclusion that salmon issues needed to be addressed in a manner that was consistent with an ecosystem approach. If the limitations and potentials of supplementation or any other management tool were to be fully understood it would have to be within the context of a broadly integrated approach - thus the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) method was born.

  8. Measured Radiation and Background Levels During Transmission of Megawatt Electron Beams Through Millimeter Apertures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alarcon, Ricardo [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Balascuta, S. [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Benson, Stephen V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Bertozzi, William [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Boyce, James R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Cowan, Ray [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Evtushenko, Pavel [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Fisher, P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ihloff, Ernest E. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kalantarians, Narbe [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kelleher, Aidan Michael [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Krossler, W. J. [William and Mary College, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Legg, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Long, Elena [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Milner, Richard [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Neil, George R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Ou, Longwu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Schmookler, Barack Abraham [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Tennant, Christopher D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Tschalar, C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Williams, Gwyn P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Shukui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-off, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW continuous-wave (CW) beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, multipactoring inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation when the machine is tuned for 130 MeV operation.

  9. Measurements of the cosmic microwave background temperature at 1.47 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bensadoun, M.J.

    1991-11-01

    A radiofrequency-gain total power radiometer measured the intensity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at a frequency of 1.47 GHz (20.4 cm wavelength) from White Mountain, California, in September 1988 and from the South Pole, Antarctica, in December 1989. The CMB thermodynamic temperature, TCMB, is 2.27 {plus_minus} 0.25 K (68% C.L.) measured from White Mountain and 2.26 {plus_minus} 0.21 K from the South Pole site. The combined result is 2.27 {plus_minus} 0.19 K. The correction for galactic emission has been derived from scaled low-frequency maps and constitutes the main source, of error. The atmospheric signal is found by extrapolation from zenith scan measurements at higher frequencies. The result is consistent with previous low-frequency measurements, including a measurement at 1.41 GHz (Levin et al. 1988) made with an earlier version of this instrument. The result is {approximately}2.5 {sigma} ({approximately}l% probability) from the 2.74 {plus_minus} 0.02,K global average CMB temperature.

  10. Measurements of the cosmic microwave background temperature at 1. 47 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bensadoun, M.J.

    1991-11-01

    A radiofrequency-gain total power radiometer measured the intensity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at a frequency of 1.47 GHz (20.4 cm wavelength) from White Mountain, California, in September 1988 and from the South Pole, Antarctica, in December 1989. The CMB thermodynamic temperature, TCMB, is 2.27 {plus minus} 0.25 K (68% C.L.) measured from White Mountain and 2.26 {plus minus} 0.21 K from the South Pole site. The combined result is 2.27 {plus minus} 0.19 K. The correction for galactic emission has been derived from scaled low-frequency maps and constitutes the main source, of error. The atmospheric signal is found by extrapolation from zenith scan measurements at higher frequencies. The result is consistent with previous low-frequency measurements, including a measurement at 1.41 GHz (Levin et al. 1988) made with an earlier version of this instrument. The result is {approximately}2.5 {sigma} ({approximately}l% probability) from the 2.74 {plus minus} 0.02,K global average CMB temperature.

  11. Investigation of Technetium Redox Cycling in FRC Background Sediments using EXAFS and Gamma Camera Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lloyd, J.R.; McBeth, J.M.; Lear, G.; Morris, K.; Burke, I.T.; Livens, F.R.; Ellis, B.; Lawson, R.

    2006-04-05

    Technetium-99 is a priority pollutant at numerous DOE sites, due to its long half-life (2.1 x 105 years), high mobility as Tc(VII) in oxic waters, and bioavailability as a sulfate analogue. {sup 99}Tc is far less mobile under anaerobic conditions, forming insoluble Tc(IV) precipitates. As anaerobic microorganisms can reduce soluble Tc(VII) to insoluble Tc(IV), microbial metabolism may have the potential to treat sediments and waters contaminated with Tc. Baseline studies of fundamental mechanisms of Tc(VII) bioreduction and precipitation (reviewed by Lloyd et al., 2005, in press) have generally used pure cultures of metal-reducing bacteria, in order to develop conceptual models for the biogeochemical cycling of {sup 99}Tc. There is, however, comparatively little known about interactions of metal-reducing bacteria with environmentally relevant trace concentrations of {sup 99}Tc, against a more complex biogeochemical background provided by mixed microbial communities in aquifer sediments. The objective of this project is to probe the site specific biogeochemical conditions that control the mobility of {sup 99}Tc at the US DOE Field Research Center Site (FRC; Oak Ridge, Tennessee). This information is required for the rational design of in situ bioremediation strategies for technetium-contaminated subsurface environments. We are using a combination of geochemical, mineralogical, microbiological and spectroscopic techniques to determine the solubility and phase associations of {sup 99}Tc in FRC sediments, and characterize the underpinning biogeochemical controls.

  12. A Study of External Galaxies Detected by the {ital COBE} Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odenwald, S.; Newmark, J.; Smoot, G.

    1998-06-01

    A comparison of the {ital COBE} Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) all-sky survey with the locations of known galaxies in the {ital IRAS} Catalog of Extragalactic Objects and the Center for Astrophysics Catalog of Galaxies led to the detection of as many as 57 galaxies. In this paper, we present the photometric data for these galaxies and an analysis of the seven galaxies that were detected at {lambda} {gt} 100 {mu}m. Estimates of the ratio of the mass of the cold dust (CD) component detected at {ital T}{sub {ital d}} = 20{endash}30 K to a very cold dust (VCD) component with {ital T}{sub {ital d}} {approx} 10{endash}15 K suggest that between 2{percent}{endash}100{percent} of the cirrus-like CD mass can also exist in many of these galaxies as VCD. In one galaxy, M33, the DIRBE photometry at 240 {mu}m suggests as much as 26 times as much VCD may be present as compared to the cirrus-like component. Further submillimeter measurements of this galaxy are required to verify such a large population of VCD. We also present 10 galaxies that were detected in the sky region not previously surveyed by {ital IRAS} and that can be used to construct a flux-limited all-sky catalog of galaxies brighter than 1000 Jy with a modest completeness limit of about 65{percent}. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  13. A study of external galaxies detected by the COBE Diffuse InfraredBackground Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odenwald, S.; Newmark, J.; Smoot, G.

    1995-10-05

    A comparison of the COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) all-sky survey with the locations of known galaxies in the IRAS Catalog of Extragalactic Objects and the Center for Astrophysics Catalog of Galaxies led to the detection of as many as 57 galaxies. In this paper, we present the photometric data for these galaxies and an analysis of the seven galaxies that were detected at lambda > 100 mum. Estimates of the ratio of the mass of the cold dust (CD) component detected at Td = 20-30 K to a very cold dust (VCD) component with Td approx. = to 10-15 K suggest that between 2 percent-100 percent of the cirrus-like CD mass can also exist in many of these galaxies as VCD. In one galaxy, M33, the DIRBE photometry at 240 mu m suggests as much as 26 times as much VCD may be present as compared to the cirrus-like component. Further submillimeter measurements of this galaxy are required to verify such a large population of VCD. We also present 10 galaxies that were detected in the sky region not previously surveyed by IRAS and that can be used to construct a flux-limited all-sky catalog of galaxies brighter than 1000 Jy with a modest completeness limit of about 65 percent.

  14. Estimation of the extragalactic background light using TeV observations of BL Lac objects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinha, Atreyee; Acharya, B. S.; Sahayanathan, S.; Godambe, S.; Misra, R. E-mail: acharya@tifr.res.in E-mail: gsagar@barc.ernet.in

    2014-11-01

    The very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray spectral index of high-energy peaked blazars correlates strongly with its corresponding redshift, whereas no such correlation is observed in the X-ray or GeV bands. We attribute this correlation to photon-photon absorption of TeV photons with the extragalactic background light (EBL), and utilizing this we compute the allowed flux range for the EBL, which is independent of previous estimates. The observed VHE spectrum of the sources in our sample can be well approximated by a power law, and if the de-absorbed spectrum is also assumed to be a power law, then we show that the spectral shape of EBL will be εn(ε) ∼ klog (ε/ε {sub p}). We estimate the range of values for the parameters defining the EBL spectrum, k and ε {sub p}, such that the correlation of the intrinsic VHE spectrum with redshift is nullified. The estimated EBL depends only on the observed correlation and the assumption of a power-law source spectrum. Specifically, it does not depend on the spectral modeling or radiative mechanism of the sources or on any theoretical shape of the EBL spectrum obtained through cosmological calculations. The estimated EBL spectrum is consistent with the upper and lower limits imposed by different observations. Moreover, it also agrees closely with the theoretical estimates obtained through cosmological evolution models.

  15. A new scenario framework for climate change research: background, process, and future directions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebi, Kristie L.; Hallegatte, Stephane; Kram, Tom; Arnell, Nigel; Carter, Tim; Edmonds, James A.; Kriegler, Elmar; Mathur, Ritu; O'Neill, Brian; Riahi, Keywan; Winkler, Harald; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Zwickel, Timm

    2014-02-01

    The scientific community is developing new integrated global, regional, and sectoral scenarios to facilitate interdisciplinary research and assessment to explore the range of possible future climates and related physical changes could pose to human and natural systems; how these could interact with social, economic, and environmental development pathways; the degree to which mitigation and adaptation policies can avoid and reduce those risks; the costs and benefits of various policy mixes; residual impacts under alternative pathways; and the relationship with sustainable development. This paper provides the background to, and process of, developing the conceptual framework for these scenarios, described in three other papers in this Special Issue (van Vuuren et al.; O'Neill et al.; Kriegler et al.). The paper also discusses research needs to further develop and apply this framework. The goal is to encourage climate change researchers from a broad range of perspectives and disciplines to work together to develop policy-relevant scenarios and explore the implications of different possible futures for the challenges and opportunities human and natural systems could face with increasing climate change.

  16. Final Report of the Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data: Workshop to Establish Coordination & Communication: Appendix A, Workshop Agenda

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A: Workshop Agenda July 2013 Appendix A: Workshop Agenda Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data: Workshop to Establish Coordination & Communication Dates: July 24-25 Location: NOAA's Silver Spring headquarters: NOAA Science Center 1301 East-West Hwy, Silver Spring, MD 20910 July 24 - Science Center 8:00-8:30 - Arrival and check-in (please allow half an hour to go through security and sign- in) 8:30-8:45 - Welcome and Introductions 8:45-9:00 - Meeting Scope and Objectives

  17. Prediction of solar activity from solar background magnetic field variations in cycles 21-23

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shepherd, Simon J.; Zharkov, Sergei I.; Zharkova, Valentina V. E-mail: s.zharkov@hull.ac.uk

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive spectral analysis of both the solar background magnetic field (SBMF) in cycles 21-23 and the sunspot magnetic field in cycle 23 reported in our recent paper showed the presence of two principal components (PCs) of SBMF having opposite polarity, e.g., originating in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively. Over a duration of one solar cycle, both waves are found to travel with an increasing phase shift toward the northern hemisphere in odd cycles 21 and 23 and to the southern hemisphere in even cycle 22. These waves were linked to solar dynamo waves assumed to form in different layers of the solar interior. In this paper, for the first time, the PCs of SBMF in cycles 21-23 are analyzed with the symbolic regression technique using Hamiltonian principles, allowing us to uncover the underlying mathematical laws governing these complex waves in the SBMF presented by PCs and to extrapolate these PCs to cycles 24-26. The PCs predicted for cycle 24 very closely fit (with an accuracy better than 98%) the PCs derived from the SBMF observations in this cycle. This approach also predicts a strong reduction of the SBMF in cycles 25 and 26 and, thus, a reduction of the resulting solar activity. This decrease is accompanied by an increasing phase shift between the two predicted PCs (magnetic waves) in cycle 25 leading to their full separation into the opposite hemispheres in cycle 26. The variations of the modulus summary of the two PCs in SBMF reveals a remarkable resemblance to the average number of sunspots in cycles 21-24 and to predictions of reduced sunspot numbers compared to cycle 24: 80% in cycle 25 and 40% in cycle 26.

  18. New constraints on cosmic polarization rotation from B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alighieri, Sperello di Serego; Ni, Wei-Tou; Pan, Wei-Ping E-mail: weitou@gmail.com

    2014-09-01

    SPTpol, POLARBEAR, and BICEP2 have recently measured the cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode polarization in various sky regions of several tens of square degrees and obtained BB power spectra in the multipole range 20-3000, detecting the components due to gravitational lensing and to inflationary gravitational waves. We analyze jointly the results of these three experiments and propose modifications to their analyses of the spectra to include in the model, in addition to the gravitational lensing and the inflationary gravitational wave components, and also the effects induced by the cosmic polarization rotation (CPR), if it exists within current upper limits. Although in principle our analysis would also lead to new constraints on CPR, in practice these can only be given on its fluctuations (??{sup 2}), since constraints on its mean angle are inhibited by the derotation which is applied by current CMB polarization experiments, in order to cope with the insufficient calibration of the polarization angle. The combined data fits from all three experiments (with 29% CPR-SPTpol correlation, depending on the theoretical model) gives the constraint (??{sup 2}){sup 1/2} < 27.3 mrad (1.56), with r = 0.194 0.033. These results show that the present data are consistent with no CPR detection and the constraint on CPR fluctuation is about 1.5. This method of constraining the CPR is new, is complementary to previous tests, which use the radio and optical/UV polarization of radio galaxies and the CMB E-mode polarization, and adds a new constraint for the sky areas observed by SPTpol, POLARBEAR, and BICEP2.

  19. SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF SX TANK FARM AT THE HANFORD SITE RESULTS OF BACKGROUND CHARACTERIZATION WITH MAGNETICS AND ELECTROMAGNETICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MYERS DA; RUCKER D; LEVIT M; CUBBAGE B; HENDERSON C

    2009-09-24

    This report presents the results of the background characterization of the cribs and trenches surrounding the SX tank farm prepared by HydroGEOPHYSICS Inc, Columbia Energy & Environmental Services Inc and Washington River Protection Solutions.

  20. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. This volume contains the data from the Background Soil Characterization Project. When available, the following validation qualifiers are used in the appendixes. When validation qualifiers are not available, the corresponding contract laboratory data qualifiers appearing on the next page are used.

  1. Final Technical Report [Cosmogenic background and shielding R&D for a Ge Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guiseppe, Vince

    2013-10-01

    The USD Majorana group focused all of its effort in support of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR (MJD) experiment. Final designs of the shielding subsystems are complete. Construction of the MJD shielding systems at SURF has begun and the proposed activities directly support the completion of the shield systems. The PI and the group contribute heavily to the onsite construction activities of the MJD experiment. The group led investigations into neutron and neutron-?induced backgrounds, shielding effectiveness and design, and radon backgrounds.

  2. The Design, Construction, and Initial Characterization of an Ultra-Low-Background Gas-Proportional Counting System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seifert, Allen; Aalseth, Craig E.; Day, Anthony R.; Fuller, Erin S.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Mace, Emily K.; Overman, Cory T.; Warren, Glen A.

    2013-05-01

    ABSTRACT Over the past several years, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed an ultra-low background proportional counter (ULBPC) technology. The resulting detector is the product of an effort to produce a low-background, physically robust gas proportional counter for applications like radon emanation measurements, groundwater tritium, and 37Ar. In order to fully take advantage of the inherent low-background properties designed into the ULBPC, a comparably low-background dedicated counting system is required. An ultra-low-background counting system (ULBCS) was recently built in the new shallow underground laboratory at PNNL. With a design depth of 30 meters water-equivalent, the shallow underground laboratory provides approximately 100x fewer fast neutrons and 6x fewer muons than a surface location. The ULBCS itself provides additional shielding in the form of active anti-cosmic veto (via 2-in. thick plastic scintillator paddles) and passive borated poly (1 in.), lead (6 in.), and copper (~3 in.) shielding. This work will provide details on PNNLs new shallow underground laboratory, examine the motivation for the design of the counting system, and provide results from the characterization of the ULBCS, including initial detector background.

  3. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 3: Project Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatmaker, T.L.; Hook, L.A.; Jackson, B.L.

    1993-10-01

    The Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. ORR background soil characterization data will be used for two purposes. The first application will be in differentiating between naturally occurring constituents and site-related contamination. This is a very important step in a risk assessment because if sufficient background data are not available, no constituent known to be a contaminant can be eliminated from the assessment even if the sampled concentration is measured at a minimum level. The second use of the background data will be in calculating baseline risks against which site-specific contamination risks can be compared.

  4. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program Hatcheries Division: Ford Hatchery, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Mike; Polacek, Matt; Knuttgen, Kamia

    2002-11-01

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife implemented the Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project (BLFEP) in September 2001 with funds from the Bonneville Power Administration. The first year of the BLFEP was used to gather historic information, establish methods and protocols, collect limnology data, and conduct the first seasonal fish surveys. Water quality parameters were collected monthly from February to May and bi-monthly from June to August. Banks Lake water temperatures began to increase in April and stratification was apparent by June at all 3 limnology collection sites. By late August, the thermocline had dropped to nearly 20 m deep, with 19-20 C temperatures throughout the epilimnion. Dissolved oxygen levels were generally above 10 mg/L until mid summer when dissolved oxygen dropped near or below 5 mg/L below 20-m deep. Secchi depths ranged from 3-10 m and varied by location and date. Nearshore and offshore fish surveys were conducted in May and July using boat electrofishing, fyke net, gill net, and hydroacoustic surveys. Smallmouth bass Micropterous dolomieui (24%) and lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis (20%) dominated the nearshore species composition in May; however, by July yellow perch Perca flavescens (26%) were the second most common species to smallmouth bass (30%). Lake whitefish dominated the offshore catch during May (72%) and July (90%). The May hydroacoustic survey revealed highest densities of fish in the upper 1/3 of the water column in the mid- to northern sections of the reservoir near Steamboat Rock. In the future, data from seasonal surveys will be used to identify potential factors that may limit the production and harvest of kokanee, rainbow trout, and various spiny-rayed fishes in Banks Lake. The limiting factors that will be examined consist of: abiotic factors including water temperature, dissolved oxygen levels, habitat, exploitation and entrainment; and biotic factors including food limitation and predation. The BLFEP will also evaluate the success of several rearing and stocking strategies for hatchery kokanee in Banks Lake.

  5. Signatures of anisotropic sources in the trispectrum of the cosmic microwave background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Peloso, Marco E-mail: komatsu@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2014-04-01

    Soft limits of N-point correlation functions, in which one wavenumber is much smaller than the others, play a special role in constraining the physics of inflation. Anisotropic sources such as a vector field during inflation generate distinct angular dependence in all these correlators, and introduce a fix privileged direction in our sky. In this paper we focus on the four-point correlator (the trispectrum T). We adopt a parametrization motivated by models in which the inflaton ? is coupled to a vector field through a I{sup 2}(?)F{sup 2} interaction, namely T{sub ?}(k{sub 1},k{sub 2},k{sub 3},k{sub 4})??{sub n}d{sub n}[P{sub n}( k-circumflex {sub 1}? k-circumflex {sub 3})+P{sub n}( k-circumflex {sub 1}? k-circumflex {sub 12})+P{sub n}( k-circumflex {sub 3}? k-circumflex {sub 12})]P{sub ?}(k{sub 1})P{sub ?}(k{sub 3})P{sub ?}(k{sub 12})+(23perm), where P{sub n} denotes the Legendre polynomials. This shape is enhanced when the wavenumbers of the diagonals of the quadrilateral are much smaller than the sides, k{sub i}. The coefficient of the isotropic part, d{sub 0}, is equal to ?{sub NL}/6 discussed in the literature. A I{sup 2}(?)F{sup 2} interaction generates d{sub 2} = 2d{sub 0} which is, in turn, related to the quadrupole modulation parameter of the power spectrum, g{sub *}, as d{sub 2} ? 14|g{sub *}|N{sup 2} with N ? 60. We show that d{sub 0} and d{sub 2} can be equally well-constrained: the expected 68% CL error bars on these coefficients from a cosmic-variance-limited experiment measuring temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background up to ?{sub max} = 2000 are ?d{sub 2} ? 4?d{sub 0} = 105. Therefore, we can reach |g{sub *}| = 10{sup ?3} by measuring the angle-dependent trispectrum. The current upper limit on ?{sub NL} from the Planck temperature maps yields |g{sub *}| < 0.02 (95% CL)

  6. HerMES: COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND ANISOTROPIES AND THE CLUSTERING OF DUSTY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viero, M. P.; Zemcov, M.; Bock, J.; Cooray, A.; Dowell, C. D.; Wang, L.; Addison, G.; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; Aussel, H.; Bethermin, M.; Casey, C. M.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conversi, L.; De Zotti, G.; Farrah, D.; and others

    2013-07-20

    We present measurements of the auto- and cross-frequency power spectra of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m (1200, 860, and 600 GHz) from observations totaling {approx}70 deg{sup 2} made with the SPIRE instrument aboard the Herschel Space Observatory. We measure a fractional anisotropy {delta}I/I = 14% {+-} 4%, detecting signatures arising from the clustering of dusty star-forming galaxies in both the linear (2-halo) and nonlinear (1-halo) regimes; and that the transition from the 2- to 1-halo terms, below which power originates predominantly from multiple galaxies within dark matter halos, occurs at k{sub {theta}} {approx} 0.10-0.12 arcmin{sup -1} (l {approx} 2160-2380), from 250 to 500 {mu}m. New to this paper is clear evidence of a dependence of the Poisson and 1-halo power on the flux-cut level of masked sources-suggesting that some fraction of the more luminous sources occupy more massive halos as satellites, or are possibly close pairs. We measure the cross-correlation power spectra between bands, finding that bands which are farthest apart are the least correlated, as well as hints of a reduction in the correlation between bands when resolved sources are more aggressively masked. In the second part of the paper, we attempt to interpret the measurements in the framework of the halo model. With the aim of fitting simultaneously with one model the power spectra, number counts, and absolute CIB level in all bands, we find that this is achievable by invoking a luminosity-mass relationship, such that the luminosity-to-mass ratio peaks at a particular halo mass scale and declines toward lower and higher mass halos. Our best-fit model finds that the halo mass which is most efficient at hosting star formation in the redshift range of peak star-forming activity, z {approx} 1-3, is log(M{sub peak}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 12.1 {+-} 0.5, and that the minimum halo mass to host infrared galaxies is log(M{sub min}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 10.1 {+-} 0.6.

  7. DETECTION OF THE COSMIC FAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND IN AKARI DEEP FIELD SOUTH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuura, S.; Shirahata, M.; Kawada, M.; Matsuhara, H.; Nakagawa, T.; Oyabu, S.; Takagi, T.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Burgarella, D.; Clements, D. L.; Jeong, W.-S.; Hanami, H.; Khan, S. A.; Pearson, C. P.; White, G. J.; Pollo, A.; Serjeant, S.

    2011-08-10

    We report new limits on the absolute brightness and spatial fluctuations of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) via the AKARI satellite. We carried out observations at 65, 90, 140, and 160 {mu}m as a cosmological survey in AKARI Deep Field South, which is one of the lowest cirrus regions with a contiguous area of the sky. After removing bright galaxies and subtracting zodiacal and Galactic foregrounds from the measured sky brightness, we successfully measured the CIB brightness and its fluctuations across a wide range of angular scales, from arcminutes to degrees. The measured CIB brightness is consistent with previous results reported from COBE data, but significantly higher than the lower limits at 70 and 160 {mu}m obtained via Spitzer from the stacking analysis of selected 24 {mu}m sources. The discrepancy with the Spitzer result is possibly due to a new galaxy population at high redshift obscured by hot dust or unknown diffuse emission. From a power spectrum analysis at 90 {mu}m, two components were identified: the CIB fluctuations with shot noise due to individual galaxies in a small angular scale from the beam size up to 10 arcminutes, and Galactic cirrus emission dominating at the largest angular scales of a few degrees. The overall shape of the power spectrum at 90 {mu}m is very similar to that at longer wavelengths, as observed by Spitzer and the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST). Our power spectrum, with an intermediate angular scale of 10-30 arcminutes, gives a firm upper limit for galaxy clustering, which was found by Spitzer and BLAST. Moreover, the color of the CIB fluctuations, which is obtained by combining our data with the previous results, is as red as ultra-luminous infrared galaxies at high redshift. These galaxies are not likely to provide the majority of the CIB emission at 90 {mu}m, but are responsible for the fluctuations. Our results provide new constraints on the evolution and clustering properties of distant infrared galaxies and any diffuse emission from the early universe.

  8. Probing non-standard gravity with the growth index: a background independent analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steigerwald, Heinrich; Marinoni, Christian; Bel, Julien E-mail: jbel@cpt.univ-mrs.fr

    2014-05-01

    Measurements of the growth index of linear matter density fluctuations ?(z) provide a clue as to whether Einstein's field equations encompass gravity also on large cosmic scales, those where the expansion of the universe accelerates. We show that the information encoded in this function can be satisfactorily parameterized using a small set of coefficients ?{sub i}, in such a way that the true scaling of the growth index is recovered to better than 1% in most dark energy and dark gravity models. We find that the likelihood of current data, given this formalism and the ? Cold Dark Matter (?CDM) expansion model of Planck, is maximal for ?{sub 0} = 0.74{sup +0.44}{sub ?0.41} and ?{sub 1} = 0.01{sup +0.46}{sub ?0.46}, a measurement compatible with the ?CDM predictions (?{sub 0} = 0.545, ?{sub 1} = ?0.007). In addition, data tend to favor models predicting slightly less growth of structures than the Planck ?CDM scenario. The main aim of the paper is to provide a prescription for routinely calculating, in an analytic way, the amplitude of the growth indices ?{sub i} in relevant cosmological scenarios, and to show that these parameters naturally define a space where predictions of alternative theories of gravity can be compared against growth data in a manner which is independent from the expansion history of the cosmological background. As the standard ?-plane provides a tool to identify different expansion histories H(t) and their relation to various cosmological models, the ?-plane can thus be used to locate different growth rate histories f(t) and their relation to alternatives model of gravity. As a result, we find that the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati gravity model is rejected with a 95% confidence level. By simulating future data sets, such as those that a Euclid-like mission will provide, we also show how to tell apart ?CDM predictions from those of more extreme possibilities, such as smooth dark energy models, clustering quintessence or parameterized post-Friedmann cosmological models.

  9. INVERSE-COMPTON CONTRIBUTION TO THE STAR-FORMING EXTRAGALACTIC GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, Nachiketa; Fields, Brian D.

    2013-08-20

    Fermi has resolved several star-forming galaxies, but the vast majority of the star-forming universe is unresolved, and thus contributes to the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB). Here, we calculate the contribution of star-forming galaxies to the EGB in the Fermi range from 100 MeV to 100 GeV due to inverse-Compton (IC) scattering of the interstellar photon field by cosmic-ray electrons. We first construct one-zone models for individual star-forming galaxies assuming that supernovae power the acceleration of cosmic rays. We develop templates for both normal and starburst galaxies, accounting for differences in the cosmic-ray electron propagation and in the interstellar radiation fields. For both types of star-forming galaxies, the same IC interactions leading to gamma rays also substantially contribute to the energy loss of the high-energy cosmic-ray electrons. Consequently, a galaxy's IC emission is determined by the relative importance of IC losses in the cosmic-ray electron energy budget ({sup p}artial calorimetry{sup )}. We calculate the cosmological contribution of star-forming galaxies to the EGB using our templates and the cosmic star formation rate distribution. For all of our models, we find that the IC EGB contribution is almost an order of magnitude less than the peak of the emission due to cosmic-ray ion interactions (mostly pionic p{sub cr} p{sub ism} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {yields} {gamma}{gamma}); even at the highest Fermi energies, IC is subdominant. The flatter IC spectrum increases the high-energy signal of the pionic+IC sum, bringing it closer to the EGB spectral index observed by Fermi. Partial calorimetry ensures that the overall IC signal is relatively well constrained, with only uncertainties in the amplitude and spectral shape for plausible model choices. We conclude with a brief discussion on how the pionic spectral feature and other methods can be used to measure the star-forming component of the EGB.

  10. Evaluation of Background Concentrations of Contaminants in an Unusual Desert Arroyo Near a Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Cell - 12260

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, Richard P.; Morrison, Stan J.

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) manages 27 sites that have groundwater containing uranium concentrations above background levels. The distal portions of the plumes merge into background groundwater that can have 50 μg/L or more uranium. Distinguishing background from site-related uranium is often problematic, but it is critical to determining if remediation is warranted, establishing appropriate remediation goals, and evaluating disposal cell performance. In particular, groundwater at disposal cells located on the upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale may have relatively high background concentrations of uranium. Elevated concentrations of nitrate, selenium, and sulfate accompany the uranium. LM used geologic analogs and uranium isotopic signatures to distinguish background groundwater from groundwater contaminated by a former uranium processing site. The same suite of contaminants is present in groundwater near former uranium processing sites and in groundwater seeps emanating from the Mancos Shale over a broad area. The concentrations of these contaminants in Many Devils Wash, located near LM's Shiprock disposal cell, are similar to those in samples collected from many Mancos seeps, including two analog sites that are 8 to 11 km from the disposal cell. Samples collected from Many Devils Wash and the analog sites have high AR values (about 2.0)-in contrast, groundwater samples collected near the tailings disposal cell have AR values near 1.0. These chemical signatures raise questions about the origin of the contamination seeping into Many Devils Wash. (authors)

  11. Analysis of electret ion chamber radon detector response to {sup 222}Rn and interference from background gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usman, S.; Spitz, H.; Lee, S.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental radon ({sup 222}Rn) monitors that incorporate electret detectors are confounded by background gamma radiation, which may cause the electret to discharge by as much as 7.5 volts per mR. Although background gamma corrections were formerly made by multiplying the known background gamma exposure rate with a constant conversion factor, this research demonstrates that doing so introduces an error ranging up to about 20%, especially in high gamma background areas. A new, more accurate method of background gamma correction has been developed that uses an average, voltage-dependent discharge factor, D{sub {gamma}} (V Kg C{sup {minus}1}). This factor and its coefficients were experimentally determined by separately exposing groups of electret radon detectors to photons from {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. Statistical analysis shows that D{sub {gamma}} is independent of the orientation of the electret during irradiation but that some dependency on dose rate or energy of the irradiating photons may be expected. The discharge of the electret due only to gamma irradiation, V{sub {gamma}}, is determined by multiplying the total integrated gamma exposure by D{sub {gamma}}. The discharge of the electret during a radon measurement can then be corrected for background gamma radiation by subtracting V{sub {gamma}} from the total discharge of the electret resulting in a net discharge due solely to radon. A new equation has also been developed in this study for the radon discharge factor, D{sub Rn} (V m{sup 3}Bq{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}), that is entirely consistent with the gamma discharge radon detectors to known concentrations of radon.

  12. Real-Time Airborne Gamma-Ray Background Estimation Using NASVD with MLE and Radiation Transport for Calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Jordan, David V.; Stewart, Trevor N.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Kernan, Warnick J.

    2015-06-01

    Helicopter-mounted gamma-ray detectors can provide law enforcement officials the means to quickly and accurately detect, identify, and locate radiological threats over a wide geographical area. The ability to accurately distinguish radiological threat-generated gamma-ray signatures from background gamma radiation in real time is essential in order to realize this potential. This problem is non-trivial, especially in urban environments for which the background may change very rapidly during flight. This exacerbates the challenge of estimating background due to the poor counting statistics inherent in real-time airborne gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements. To address this, we have developed a new technique for real-time estimation of background gamma radiation from aerial measurements. This method is built upon on the noise-adjusted singular value decomposition (NASVD) technique that was previously developed for estimating the potassium (K), uranium (U), and thorium (T) concentrations in soil post-flight. The method can be calibrated using K, U, and T spectra determined from radiation transport simulations along with basis functions, which may be determined empirically by applying maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) to previously measured airborne gamma-ray spectra. The method was applied to both measured and simulated airborne gamma-ray spectra, with and without man-made radiological source injections. Compared to schemes based on simple averaging, this technique was less sensitive to background contamination from the injected man-made sources and may be particularly useful when the gamma-ray background frequently changes during the course of the flight.

  13. Probing the Cosmic X-ray and MeV Gamma-ray Background Radiation through the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Anisotropy (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Probing the Cosmic X-ray and MeV Gamma-ray Background Radiation through the Anisotropy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Probing the Cosmic X-ray and MeV Gamma-ray Background Radiation through the Anisotropy Authors: Inoue, Yoshiyuki ; Murase, Kohta ; Madejski, Grzegorz M. ; Uchiyama, Yasunobu Publication Date: 2013-08-15 OSTI Identifier: 1090325 Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-15711 arXiv:1308.1951 DOE Contract Number: AC02-76SF00515

  14. SR9807

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4, 1999 Media Contact: Bill Taylor (803) 725-2889 DOE Teams with State on Dedication and Management of 10,000 Acre Crackerneck Wildlife Management Area and Ecological Reserve Flag Ribbon Art Aiken, S.C. (June 24) -- Secretary of Energy Bill Richardson today designated 10,000 acres of the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a biological and wildlife refuge creating the Crackerneck Wildlife Management Area and Ecological Reserve. The agreement, co-signed by South Carolina Department of Natural Resources

  15. The effect of plasma background on the instability of two non-parallel quantum plasma shells in whole K space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehdian, H., E-mail: mehdian@khu.ac.ir; Hajisharifi, K., E-mail: std-hajisharifi@khu.ac.ir, E-mail: k.hajisharifi@gmail.com; Hasanbeigi, A., E-mail: hbeigi@khu.ac.ir, E-mail: ahbeigi@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Institute for Plasma Research, Kharazmi University, 49 Dr. Mofatteh Avenue, Tehran 15614 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    In this paper, quantum fluid equations together with Maxwell's equations are used to study the stability problem of non-parallel and non-relativistic plasma shells colliding over a background plasma at arbitrary angle, as a first step towards a microscopic understanding of the collision shocks. The calculations have been performed for all magnitude and directions of wave vectors. The colliding plasma shells in the vacuum region have been investigated in the previous works as a counter-streaming model. While, in the presence of background plasma (more realistic system), the colliding shells are mainly non-paralleled. The obtained results show that the presence of background plasma often suppresses the maximum growth rate of instabilities (in particular case, this behavior is contrary). It is also found that the largest maximum growth rate occurs for the two-stream instability of the configuration consisting of counter-streaming currents in a very dilute plasma background. The results derived in this study can be used to analyze the systems of three colliding plasma slabs, provided that the used coordinate system is stationary relative to the one of the particle slabs. The present analytical investigations can be applied to describe the quantum violent astrophysical phenomena such as white dwarf stars collision with other dense astrophysical bodies or supernova remnants. Moreover, at the limit of ??0, the obtained results described the classical (sufficiently dilute) events of colliding plasma shells such as gamma-ray bursts and flares in the solar winds.

  16. Evaluation of Carrying Capacity : Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program : Report 1 of 4, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Johnson, Gary E.

    1996-05-01

    This report is one of four that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff prepared to address Measure 7.1A in the Northwest Power Planning Council's (Council) Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) dated december 1994 (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.1A calls for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to fund an evaluation of salmon survival, ecology, carrying capacity, and limiting factors in freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats. Additionally, the Measure asks for development of a study plan based on critical uncertainties and research needs identified during the evaluation. This report deals with the evaluation of carrying capacity. It describes the analysis of different views of capacity as it relates to salmon survival and abundance. The report ends with conclusions and recommendations for studying carrying capacity.

  17. Background Suppression Using Pulse Shape Analysis with a BEGe Detector for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Search with GERDA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budjas, Dusan; Schoenert, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Chkvorets, Oleg [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Physics, Laurentian University, Ramsey Lake Road, P3E 2C6 Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-12-17

    A pulse shape analysis for distinguishing between double beta decay-like interactions and multiple-scattered photons was performed for the first time using a BEGe-type detector. This discrimination method is included in the research and development for the second phase of the GERDA experiment, since active background suppression techniques are necessary to reach sensitivity for the {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless double beta decay half life of >10{sup 26} years. A suppression of backgrounds in the energy region of interest around the {sup 76}Ge Q{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} = 2039 keV is demonstrated, with (0.93{+-}0.08)% survival probability for events from {sup 60}Co, (21{+-}3)% for {sup 226}Ra, and (40{+-}2)% for {sup 228}Th. This performance is achieved with (89{+-}1)% acceptance of {sup 228}Th double escape events, which are analogous to double beta decay.

  18. Impact of sensitivity and throughput on optimum selection of a low-background alpha/beta gross counting system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seymour, R.; Sergent, F.; Knight, K.; Kyker, B.

    1992-12-31

    Selection of the appropriate low-background counting system is determined by the laboratory`s measurement requirements including the radionuclide activities being measured, required sensitivity, sample volume, sample throughput, operator skill, automation, reporting requirements, budget, reliability, service, and upgrade capability. These requirements are ranked differently by each user. Nevertheless, any selection requires that the sensitivity and sample throughput be evaluated first because these parameters are instrument-specific, cannot be changed after the equipment is purchased and are easily quantified beforehand. Many of the other criteria are also related to sensitivity and affect the choice of instrument. Mathematical expressions, useful in evaluating sensitivity and throughput, are reviewed, extended, and applied to selecting a low-background alpha/beta counting system.

  19. Sources of machine-induced background in the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce, R.; et al.,

    2013-11-21

    One source of experimental background in the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is particles entering the detectors from the machine. These particles are created in cascades, caused by upstream interactions of beam protons with residual gas molecules or collimators. We estimate the losses on the collimators with SixTrack and simulate the showers with FLUKA and MARS to obtain the flux and distribution of particles entering the ATLAS and CMS detectors. We consider some machine configurations used in the first LHC run, with focus on 3.5 TeV operation as in 2011. Results from FLUKA and MARS are compared and a very good agreement is found. An analysis of logged LHC data provides, for different processes, absolute beam loss rates, which are used together with further simulations of vacuum conditions to normalize the results to rates of particles entering the detectors. We assess the relative importance of background from elastic and inelastic beam-gas interactions, and the leakage out of the LHC collimation system, and show that beam-gas interactions are the dominating source of machine-induced background for the studied machine scenarios. Our results serve as a starting point for the experiments to perform further simulations in order to estimate the resulting signals in the detectors.

  20. The sensitivity of Cherenkov telescopes to dark matter and astrophysical anisotropies in the diffuse gamma-ray background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ripken, Joachim; Cuoco, Alessandro; Conrad, Jan; Zechlin, Hannes-S.; Horns, Dieter E-mail: cuoco@fysik.su.se E-mail: conrad@fysik.su.se

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the capability of present (H.E.S.S., MAGIC, VERITAS) and planned (CTA) ground-based Cherenkov telescope systems for detecting angular anisotropies in the diffuse gamma-ray background is investigated. Following up on a study of the impact of instrumental characteristics (effective area, field of view, angular resolution, and background rejection efficiency), the first part examines the influence of different observational strategies, i.e. whether a single deep observation or a splitting over multiple shallow fields is preferred. In the second part, the sensitivity to anisotropies generated by self-annihilating dark matter is studied for different common dark matter models. We find that a relative contribution of ∼ 10% from dark matter annihilation to the extra-galactic diffuse gamma-ray background can be detected with planned configurations of CTA. In terms of the thermally-averaged self-annihilation cross section, the sensitivity of CTA corresponds to values below the thermal freeze-out expectation (σv) = 3 × 10{sup −26} cm{sup 3} s{sup −1} for dark matter particles lighter than ∼ 200 GeV. We stress the importance of constraining anisotropies from unresolved astrophysical sources with currently operating instruments already, as a novel and complementary method for investigating the properties of TeV sources.