National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for wildland fire management

  1. Wildland Fire Risk and Management on West and South Ranges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;#12;Wildland Fire Risk and Management on West and South Ranges Schofield Barracks, Oahu March) Intermountain Fire Science Lab, Missoula, MT CEMML TPS01-11 #12;#12;Wildland Fire Risk and Management on West .................................................................................................................................. 1 Fire Characteristics of Common Species

  2. Wildland Fire Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwager, K.; Green, T. M.

    2014-10-01

    The DOE policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas managed by DOE and/or Its various contractors which can sustain fire must have a FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures associated with wildland fire, operational, and prescribed fires. FMPs provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled ''prescribed'' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered, threatened, and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL. The plan will be reviewed periodically to ensure fire program advances and will evolve with the missions of DOE and BNL.

  3. WILDLAND FIRE SERVICES CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF MILITARY LANDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    products and services to assist military land managers and range operations personnel in protecting against is already in place. Fire Management Planning CEMML provides high quality fire management planning adviceWILDLAND FIRE SERVICES CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF MILITARY LANDS CEMML | 1490 Campus

  4. Wildland Fire Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green,T.

    2009-10-23

    This Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) updates the 2003 plan incorporating changes necessary to comply with DOE Order 450.1 and DOE P 450.4, Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes since the original draft of the FMP that result from new policies on the national level. This update also removes references and dependence on the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service and Department of the Interior, fully transitioning Wildland Fire Management responsibilities to BNL. The Department of Energy policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas, managed by the DOE and/or its various contractors, that can sustain fire must have a FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures associated with wild fire, operational, and prescribed fires. Fire management plans provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled, 'prescribed' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered, threatened, and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL. This FMP will be reviewed periodically to ensure the fire program advances and evolves with the missions of the DOE and BNL. This Fire Management Plan is presented in a format that coverers all aspects specified by DOE guidance documents which are based on the national template for fire management plans adopted under the National Fire Plan. The DOE is one of the signatory agencies on the National Fire Plan. This FMP is to be used and implemented for the entire BNL site including the Upton Reserve and has been reviewed by, The Nature Conservancy, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Forest Rangers, and DOE, as well as appropriate BNL emergency services personnel. The BNL Fire Department is the lead on wildfire suppression. However, the BNL Natural Resource Manager will be assigned to all wildland fires as technical resource advisor.

  5. Economic Principles of Wildland Fire Management Policy1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Economic Principles of Wildland Fire Management Policy1 Hayley Hesseln,2 Douglas B. Rideout3 and the growing number of regulations and laws. Key economic principles, such as the Coase Theorem, are developed in the context of contemporary policies and institutions. Economic principles of specific management situations

  6. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Wildland Fire Management Environmental Assessment - April 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irving, J.S.

    2003-04-30

    DOE prepared an environmental assessment (EA)for wildland fire management activities on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (DOE/EA-1372). The EA was developed to evaluate wildland fire management options for pre-fire, fire suppression, and post fire activities. Those activities have an important role in minimizing the conversion of the native sagebrush steppe ecosystem found on the INEEL to non-native weeds. Four alternative management approaches were analyzed: Alternative 1 - maximum fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 3 - protect infrastructure and personnel; and Alternative 4 - no action/traditional fire protection.

  7. WILDLAND FIRE SUSCEPTIBILITY ANALYSIS APPENDIX A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    APPENDIX A WILDLAND FIRE SUSCEPTIBILITY ANALYSIS #12;APPENDIX A WILDLAND FIRE SUSCEPTIBILITY ANALYSIS (From Wildland Fire Risk Assessment for the Lake Tahoe Region, 10/28/99, Completed For The USDA-Forest Service, Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit, By Jones and Stokes Associates, Sacramento, California, Fire

  8. 5th Symposium on Fire and Forest Meteorology and the 2nd International Wildland Fire Ecology and Fire Management Congress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fried, Jeremy S.

    More 5th Symposium on Fire and Forest Meteorology and the 2nd International Wildland Fire Ecology and Fire Management Congress Monday, 17 November 2003 Fire severity classification: uses and abuses Theresa B. Jain, USDA Forest Service, Moscow, Idaho, ID; and R. T. Graham Burn severity (also referred

  9. Analysis of Forest Service Wildland Fire Management Expenditures: An Update1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Analysis of Forest Service Wildland Fire Management Expenditures: An Update1 Ervin G. Schuster2 Abstract Soaring expenditures for fire management in the USDA Forest Service have caused substantial. This report contains analysis of most Forest Service fire management expenditures between fiscal years 1970

  10. Wildland Fire Protection Program NEBRASKA FOREST SERVICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    Wildland Fire Protection Program NEBRASKA FOREST SERVICE HOW NEBRASKANS BENEFIT: · improved districts · increased firefighter knowledge of wildland fire suppression and prevention · reduced forest.nfs.unl.edu Dr. Scott Josiah State Forester & Director (402) 472-1467 sjosiah2@unl.edu Don Westover Wildland Fire

  11. Mitigating Wildland Fires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework uses concrete7 AssessmentBusiness andMissionMissionMitigating Wildland

  12. Cross Plains, Texas Wildland Fire Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    was decimated by this fire. Like so many fire seasons across the western U.S., homes, communities and lives the interactions of the fire environment and the community led to the destruction of homes, property and lives. Rich Gray ­ Urban Wildland Interface State Coordinator Mike Dunivan ­ Fire Weather/Fire Behavior

  13. ORIGINAL PAPER Coupled fireatmosphere modeling of wildland fire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Ming

    ORIGINAL PAPER Coupled fire­atmosphere modeling of wildland fire spread using DEVS-FIRE and ARPS US Government 2015 Abstract This article introduces a new wildland fire spread prediction system consisting of the raster-based Discrete Event System Specification Fire model (DEVS-FIRE) and the Advanced

  14. A wildland fire modeling and visualization environment , Jonathan D. Beezley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    : · The wildland fire simulation code SFIRE coupled with a mesoscale atmospheric simulation code, the Weather by the coupling of a mesoscale weather model with a simple 2D fire spread model (Clark et al. 1996a,b, 2004; Coen

  15. Wildland Fire Detection from Space: Theory and Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baum, Bryan A.

    Wildland Fire Detection from Space: Theory and Application Donald R. Cahoon, Jr.1, Brian J. Stocks2 USA 5Fire Ecology Research Group, University of Freiburg, Germany Pulished in: Biomass Burning and its instruments are currently being designed specifically for fire detection, even though to date the detection

  16. Proceedings of the Second Conference on the Human Dimensions of Wildland Fire GTR-NRS-P-84 14 CHANGE AS A FACTOR IN ADVANCING FIRE-MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CHANGE AS A FACTOR IN ADVANCING FIRE-MANAGEMENT DECISIONMAKING AND PROGRAM EFFECTIVENESS Thomas Zimmerman change. To become better able to meet changing conditions and complexity, fire management must be agile to change. In fact, fire management has involved such continual change that it has been described

  17. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski Missoula Fire burning Greenhouse gases Emission factors a b s t r a c t While the vast majority of carbon emitted mixture of gases and aerosols. Primary emissions include sig- nificant amounts of CH4 and aerosol (organic

  18. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a: Fire emissions Emissions inventories Greenhouse gases a b s t r a c t Emissions from wildland fire fire emissions change considerably due to fluctuations from year to year with overall fire season

  19. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Wildland Fire Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2003-04-25

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-managed reservation occupying about 890 square miles in southeastern Idaho. The INEEL lies within the upper Snake River Plain sagebrush steppe ecosystem. Much of the sagebrush steppe ecosystem throughout the west has been segmented and lost to development and agriculture. The remaining sagebrush steppe ecosystem and the habitat it provides is threatened with irreversible conversion to non-native annual weeds by rangeland management practices in combination with the natural fire process. The sagebrush steppe of the INEEL is now threatened and DOE must evaluate its management role and alternatives available to preserve this important component of the western ecosystem.

  20. Implementation Guide, Wildland Fire Management Program for Use with DOE O 450.1, Environmental Protection Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-02-11

    This Guide provides a full range of activities and functions to plan, prepare, and respond to potential fires and rehabilitate undeveloped lands following a fire. Canceled by DOE N 251.82.

  1. Colorado State Forest Service SB09-020 --Responsibility for Responding to Wildland Fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado State Forest Service SB09-020 -- Responsibility for Responding to Wildland Fires Summary, and the Colorado State Forest Service in responding to wildland fires. This legislation organizes the roles Forest Service may assist the sheriff in controlling or extinguishing such fires, and may assume command

  2. Model comparisons for estimating carbon emissions from North American wildland fire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    from Canadian forest fires, 1959–1999, Can. J. For. Res. ,soils, Int. J. Wildland Fire, in press. Boby, L. A. , E. A.F. Johnstone (2010), Quantifying fire severity, carbon, and

  3. Using the National Environmental Policy Act to Fight Wildland Fires on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irving, John S

    2003-06-01

    The decade of the 90s saw an average of 106,000 wildland fires each year, resulting in an average yearly loss of 3.7 million acres across the United States. The total number of acres burned during the past decade exceeded 36 million acres (about 57 thousand square miles). This is an area about the size of the state of Iowa. The impact from wildland fires on federal lands came to the nation’s attention in May of 2000, when the "Cerro Grande" fire near Los Alamos, New Mexico burned 47,650 acres while destroying 235 structures. Firefighting activities for federal agencies alone exceeded 1.3 billion dollars in 2000. The dollar amount spent on firefighting does not approach the dollars lost in terms of timber resources, homes, and wildlife habitat. Following several fires on U. S. Department of Energy lands, the Deputy Secretary of Energy placed a moratorium on "prescribed burns" in June 2000. From 1994 to 2000, about 130,000 acres of the INEEL (or the Site) and several hundred thousand acres of surrounding Bureau of Land Management lands burned on the Snake River Plain of southeast Idaho. The fires on the INEEL threatened facilities and exposed soils to wind erosion, resulting in severe dust storms, affecting operations and creating traffic hazards for weeks. Most of the acreage burned on the Site between 1994 and 2000 is recovering well. With the exception of sagebrush, most native plant species are recovering. However, cheatgrass, a non-native species is a component. In isolated areas, cheatgrass and other annual non-native weeds are dominant. If this situation persists and the Site does not change the way it manages wildland fires, and there is no intervention to reduce cheatgrass and manage for sagebrush, the Site may transition from sagebrush steppe to cheatgrass. This would have cascading effects not only on wildland fires management, but also on wildlife and on their habitat. This paper describes how to use the NEPA process to identify different ways decision-makers can manage wildland fires and evaluate the trade-offs between management activities such as pre-fire, suppression, and post-fire activities. In addition, the paper compares the potential impact of each fire management activity on air, water, wildlife/habitat, and cultural resources. Finally, we describe the choices facing the decision-makers, how to implement the decisions, and the role the environmental assessment played in those decisions.

  4. The smoke-fireplume model : tool for eventual application to prescribed burns and wildland fires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D. F.; Dunn, W. E.; Lazaro, M. A.; Policastro, A. J.

    1999-08-17

    Land managers are increasingly implementing strategies that employ the use of fire in prescribed burns to sustain ecosystems and plan to sustain the rate of increase in its use over the next five years. In planning and executing expanded use of fire in wildland treatment it is important to estimate the human health and safety consequences, property damage, and the extent of visibility degradation from the resulting conflagration-pyrolysis gases, soot and smoke generated during flaming, smoldering and/or glowing fires. Traditional approaches have often employed the analysis of weather observations and forecasts to determine whether a prescribed burn will affect populations, property, or protected Class I areas. However, the complexity of the problem lends itself to advanced PC-based models that are simple to use for both calculating the emissions from the burning of wildland fuels and the downwind dispersion of smoke and other products of pyrolysis, distillation, and/or fuels combustion. These models will need to address the effects of residual smoldering combustion, including plume dynamics and optical effects. In this paper, we discuss a suite of tools that can be applied for analyzing dispersion. These tools include the dispersion models FIREPLUME and SMOKE, together with the meteorological preprocessor SEBMET.

  5. FireWxNet: A Multi-Tiered Portable Wireless System for Monitoring Weather Conditions in Wildland Fire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Richard Y.

    FireWxNet: A Multi-Tiered Portable Wireless System for Monitoring Weather Conditions in Wildland Fire Environments Carl Hartung, Richard Han Department of Computer Science University of Colorado In this paper we present FireWxNet, a multi-tiered portable wireless system for monitoring weather conditions

  6. The Biswell Symposium: Fire Issues and Solutions in Urban Interface and Wildland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Jim Desmond FARSITE: A Fire Area Simulator for Fire Managers

  7. A Survey of Vegetation and Wildland Fire Hazards on the Nevada Test Site, September 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-09-01

    In the spring of 2004 a survey was conducted by Bechtel Nevada Ecological Services on the Nevada Test Site to characterize vegetation resources and climatic components of the environment that contribute to wildland fires. The field surveyed assessed 211 sites along major Nevada Test Site corridors for the abundance of native perennial and annual species and invasive weeds. The abundance of fine-textured (grasses and herbs) and coarse-textured (woody) biomass was visually estimated on numerical scales ranging from one to five. Wildland fires are costly to control and to mitigate once they occur. Revegetation of burned areas is very slow without reseeding or transplanting with native species and other rehabilitation efforts. Untreated areas become much more vulnerable to future fires once invasive species, rather than native species, colonize a burned area.The annual assessment of wildland fire hazards on the Nevada Test Site is scheduled to be implemented each spring in the near future with results being reported directly to the U.S. Department of Energy and the Bechtel Nevada Fire Marshal.

  8. CSIRO PUBLISHING www.publish.csiro.au/journals/ijwf International Journal of Wildland Fire 2010, 19, 179201

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clements, Craig

    CSIRO PUBLISHING www.publish.csiro.au/journals/ijwf International Journal of Wildland Fire 2010, 19 the way wildfires behave. However, it is possible that slope affects fire differently depending and perimeter shape of the fires on both flat ground and on the idealised smooth hill topography. The analysis

  9. Modelling and mitigating dose to firefighters from inhalation of radionuclides in wildland fire smoke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viner, Brian J.; Jannik, Tim; Stone, Daniel; Hepworth, Allan; Naeher, Luke; Adetona, Olorunfemi; Blake, John; Eddy, Teresa

    2015-06-12

    Firefighters responding to wildland fires where surface litter and vegetation contain radiological contamination will receive a radiological dose by inhaling resuspended radioactive material in the smoke. This may increase their lifetime risk of contracting certain types of cancer. Using published data, we modelled hypothetical radionuclide emissions, dispersion and dose for 70th and 97th percentile environmental conditions and for average and high fuel loads at the Savannah River Site. We predicted downwind concentration and potential dose to firefighters for radionuclides of interest (137Cs, 238Pu, 90Sr and 210Po). Predicted concentrations exceeded dose guidelines in the base case scenario emissions of 1.0 × 107 Bq ha–1 for 238Pu at 70th percentile environmental conditions and average fuel load levels for both 4- and 14-h shifts. Under 97th percentile environmental conditions and high fuel loads, dose guidelines were exceeded for several reported cases for 90Sr, 238Pu and 210Po. Potential for exceeding dose guidelines was mitigated by including plume rise (>2 m s–1) or moving a small distance from the fire owing to large concentration gradients near the edge of the fire. As a result, our approach can quickly estimate potential dose from airborne radionuclides in wildland fire and assist decision-making to reduce firefighter exposure.

  10. Modelling and mitigating dose to firefighters from inhalation of radionuclides in wildland fire smoke.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viner, Brian J.

    2015-06-12

    Firefighters responding to wildland fires where surface litter and vegetation contain radiological contamination will receive a radiological dose by inhaling resuspended radioactive material in the smoke. This may increase their lifetime risk of contracting certain types of cancer. Using published data, we modelled hypothetical radionuclide emissions, dispersion and dose for 70th and 97th percentile environmental conditions and for average and high fuel loads at the Savannah River Site. We predicted downwind concentration and potential dose to firefighters for radionuclides of interest (137Cs, 238Pu, 90Sr and 210Po). Predicted concentrations exceeded dose guidelines in the base case scenario emissions of 1.0 x 107Bq ha-1 for 238Pu at 70th percentile environmental conditions and average fuel load levels for both 4- and 14-h shifts. Under 97th percentile environmental conditions and high fuel loads, dose guidelines were exceeded for several reported cases for 90Sr, 238Pu and 210Po. The potential for exceeding dose guidelines was mitigated by including plume rise (>2ms-1) or moving a small distance from the fire owing to large concentration gradients near the edge of the fire. This approach can quickly estimate potential dose from airborne radionuclides in wildland fire and assist decision-making to reduce firefighter exposure.

  11. Modelling and mitigating dose to firefighters from inhalation of radionuclides in wildland fire smoke

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Viner, Brian J.; Jannik, Tim; Stone, Daniel; Hepworth, Allan; Naeher, Luke; Adetona, Olorunfemi; Blake, John; Eddy, Teresa

    2015-06-12

    Firefighters responding to wildland fires where surface litter and vegetation contain radiological contamination will receive a radiological dose by inhaling resuspended radioactive material in the smoke. This may increase their lifetime risk of contracting certain types of cancer. Using published data, we modelled hypothetical radionuclide emissions, dispersion and dose for 70th and 97th percentile environmental conditions and for average and high fuel loads at the Savannah River Site. We predicted downwind concentration and potential dose to firefighters for radionuclides of interest (137Cs, 238Pu, 90Sr and 210Po). Predicted concentrations exceeded dose guidelines in the base case scenario emissions of 1.0 ×more »107 Bq ha–1 for 238Pu at 70th percentile environmental conditions and average fuel load levels for both 4- and 14-h shifts. Under 97th percentile environmental conditions and high fuel loads, dose guidelines were exceeded for several reported cases for 90Sr, 238Pu and 210Po. Potential for exceeding dose guidelines was mitigated by including plume rise (>2 m s–1) or moving a small distance from the fire owing to large concentration gradients near the edge of the fire. As a result, our approach can quickly estimate potential dose from airborne radionuclides in wildland fire and assist decision-making to reduce firefighter exposure.« less

  12. Summary report, California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection evaluation of full-face air-purifying respirators for wildland fire fighting use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beason, D.G.; Johnson, J.S.; Foote, K.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Weaver, W.A. [California Dept. of Forestry and Fire Protection, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Wildland fire suppression personnel employed by the CDF do not currently have the equipment to protect themselves from the short-term acute affects of smoke from wildland fires. In addition, no regulations exist that specify appropriate respiratory protection and the current air-purifying respirator technology and carbon monoxide monitoring has not been adapted to fit wildland fire suppression requirements. This three-year limited study evaluated the ability of wildland fire fighters to perform their normal job function while wearing full-face air-purifying respirators. In the first two years of this study we designed, developed and field tested a prototype ``smart`` air-purifying respirator which incorporated a real-time carbon monoxide monitor into a commercial full-face respirator.` Data on carbon monoxide exposure while fighting wildland fires was collected. During the third year of this study we evaluated eight different commercially available full-face air-purifying respirators equipped with a variety of cartridges. Apparatus to aid the fire fighter in carrying the respirator and carbon monoxide personal monitor was designed and fabricated. A smoke exposure test method was developed and a laboratory study on the penetration of smoke through respirator cartridges was conducted.

  13. THE IMPACT OF TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY CLIMATE CHANGE ON WILDLAND FIRE DANGER IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Westerling, Anthony L.

    applications, as encouraged under the Department of Energy Accelerated Climate Prediction Initiative (ACPI from the Parallel Climate Model (PCM) is used to assess changes in wildland fire danger across early this century. In these regions starting around the year 2070, when the model climate CO2 has

  14. How risk management can prevent future wildfire disasters in the wildland-urban interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    How risk management can prevent future wildfire disasters in the wildland-urban interface David E, ecosystems, and lives is not. We propose the principles of risk analysis to provide land management agencies: turn to the principles of decision science and risk management. Similar to other forms of risk

  15. New Dimensions of Visual Landscape Assessment Wildlands Management for Wildlife Viewing1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    preservation and other activities associated with traditional game management. Fortunately, much of the knowledge and techniques developed for game #12;management can be transferred to considerations of wildlifeNew Dimensions of Visual Landscape Assessment Wildlands Management for Wildlife Viewing1 Tamsie

  16. Using fine-scale fuel measurements to assess wildland fuels, potential fire behavior and hazard mitigation treatments in the southeastern USA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ottmar, Roger, D.; Blake, John, I.; Crolly, William, T.

    2012-01-01

    The inherent spatial and temporal heterogeneity of fuelbeds in forests of the southeastern United States may require fine scale fuel measurements for providing reliable fire hazard and fuel treatment effectiveness estimates. In a series of five papers, an intensive, fine scale fuel inventory from the Savanna River Site in the southeastern United States is used for building fuelbeds and mapping fire behavior potential, evaluating fuel treatment options for effectiveness, and providing a comparative analysis of landscape modeled fire behavior using three different data sources including the Fuel Characteristic Classification System, LANDFIRE, and the Southern Wildfire Risk Assessment. The research demonstrates that fine scale fuel measurements associated with fuel inventories repeated over time can be used to assess broad scale wildland fire potential and hazard mitigation treatment effectiveness in the southeastern USA and similar fire prone regions. Additional investigations will be needed to modify and improve these processes and capture the true potential of these fine scale data sets for fire and fuel management planning.

  17. Model comparisons for estimating carbon emissions from North American wildland fire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    emissions from Canadian forest fires, 1959–1999, Can. J.structure of the Canadian Forest Fire Behavior Predictionemissions from boreal forest fires, J. Geophys. Res. , 109,

  18. 4, 497545, 2011 atmosphere-wildland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandel, Jan

    by the coupling of a mesoscale weather 498 #12;GMDD 4, 497­545, 2011 Coupled atmosphere-wildland model WRF-Fire 3

  19. Type B Accident Investigation, Response to the 24 Command Wildland...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Type B Accident Investigation, Response to the 24 Command Wildland Fire on the Hanford Site, June 27-July 1, 2000 Type B Accident Investigation, Response to the 24 Command Wildland...

  20. A Dynamic Data Driven Wildland Fire Model Jan Mandel1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandel, Jan

    identified by optimization to match to measured profile. Eq. (1) represents a 2D balance of energy in a fire layer of some unspecified finite vertical thickness, (2) represents the balance of fuel, S [0, 1] is the fuel supply mass fraction (the relative amount of fuel remaining), k is the diffusion

  1. What's Inside . . . Wildland fire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­ December 2002 Hot off the press... Would you like to see what's new before the next mailing of New to Order . . . With imprinted name label on order card: Without name label on order card: 1. Circle desired). label. 2. If ordering former INT or RM reports, write report 2. Follow previous steps 1, 2, and 3

  2. Management strategy for fire 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naylor, C.; Capper, W.; Wilson, C. P.; Harcourt, E.; Voss, B. L. D.; Inger, J.; Murray, K. C.; Carnegie, L.

    1972-01-01

    This publication describes how fire protection thinking should be applied to a total business, rather than just to the safeguarding of building and contents. The subject is approached from the standpoint of being self-insured. ...

  3. Transport Effects on Calorimetry of Porous Wildland Fuels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schemel, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Wildland fire is a natural part of the earth’s phenomenological pattern and like most natural phenomena has presented a challenge to human activity and engineering science. Wildfire presents Fire Safety Engineering with ...

  4. Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997-2009)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    John- stone, J. F. : Quantifying fire severity, carbon, andfrom Canadian forest fires, 1959– 1999, Can. J. Forestwildland fires1, Int. J. Wildland Fire, 16, 593–606, doi:

  5. A Forest Fire Simulation Tool for Economic Planning in Fire Suppression Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    A Forest Fire Simulation Tool for Economic Planning in Fire Suppression Management Models fire spread behavior of forest fires provides important information for decision-making. Specific resource positioning to control and extinguish forest fire, decisions can be validated before

  6. Proceedings of the Second Conference on the Human Dimensions of Wildland Fire GTR-NRS-P-84 44 WILDFIRE IN THE UNITED KINGDOM: STATUS AND KEY ISSUES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .K. wildfire management. Wildfires challenge the resources of U.K. Fire and Rescue Services (FRSs), especially in the north and west of the United Kingdom is blanket bog on deep peat. This moorland is the U.K.'s most because firefighters have trouble reaching them and because peat fires are especially dangerous

  7. Ambient air monitoring during the 2011 Las Conchas wildland fire near Los Alamos, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Andrew A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schlemann, Shea A. [Los Alamos Technical Associates; Young, Daniel L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-31

    Air monitoring data collected during the Las Conchas fire near the Los Alamos National Laboratory during 2011 are presented. Data included are for selected radionuclides and selected metals found in particulate matter. None of these analytes were seen at levels which exceeded any state or federal standards.

  8. Type B Accident Investigation, Response to the 24 Command Wildland Fire on the Hanford Site, June 27-July 1, 2000

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    On June 27, 2000, a passenger vehicle and semitractor-trailer collided on Washington State Route (SR) 24 near the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. The vehicle fire resulting from the fatality accident quickly ignited vegetation on both sides of the highway.

  9. Managing Imported Fire Ants in Urban Areas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drees, Bastiaan M.

    2006-08-17

    The imported fire ant is found in much of Texas and across the southeastern U.S. This publication describes options for managing the pest in specific locations such as home lawns, gardens and buildings. Other topics include fire ant treatment...

  10. Management of Imported Fire Ants in Cattle Production Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuchs, Thomas W.; Drees, Bastiaan M.

    2004-03-31

    This publication can help ranch managers develop integrated pest management plans for managing fire ant problems in cattle operations. It covers the specifics of managing fire ants in hay pastures and rangelands, around farm ponds, and near...

  11. Impacts of climate change on fire activity and fire management in the circumboreal forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turetsky, Merritt

    Impacts of climate change on fire activity and fire management in the circumboreal forest M I K E F Lansing, MI 48824, USA Abstract Forest fires are a significant and natural element of the circumboreal forest. Fire activity is strongly linked to weather, and increased fire activity due to climate change

  12. Report Wildland Fire Area Hazard

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-RichProtonAbout UsRegionalScientificRenewablesPeriod: EIAReport

  13. What's Inside . . . Wildland fire and fire exclusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research Station New Publications April ­ June 2002 Hot off the press... Would you like to see what's new on the "RMRS New Publications" link. How to Order . . . With imprinted name label on order card: Without name label on order card: 1. Circle desired current report number on order 1. Print your name and address

  14. Forest Management Helps Save Chadron State Park from Fire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    Forest Management Helps Save Chadron State Park from Fire OVER THE PAST HALF-CENTURY, wildfire has Creek Fire on its deadly rampage across the Pine Ridge. The good news is that due to active forest no infrastructure and its forest survived the fire intact. About 90 percent of the Park burned, with the majority

  15. Urban Residents' Perceptions About The City of Austin's Wildlands 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Laura Elizabeth

    2011-10-21

    knowledge about environmental issues pertaining to the Edwards Aquifer and City of Austin?s wildlands and (2) Identify factors that influence residents? approval or disapproval of land management actions and the alternative recreation activities... ............................................................ 5 II LITERATURE REVIEW..................................................................... 7 Karst Geology and Edwards Aquifer ............................................. 7 Water Quality Management...

  16. Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997-2009)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    K. G. : Direct carbon emissions from Canadian forest fires,O. , and Merlet, P. : Emission of trace gases and aerosolsEstimating direct carbon emissions from Canadian wildland

  17. Fire Interactions and Pulsation - Theoretical and Physical Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maynard, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Koonce, Int. J. Wildland Fire 1 (1991) 153-158. C.C Hardy,of flames from separate fuel beds. Fire Research Note 551.Boreham Wood Fire Research Station. (Boreham Wood,

  18. Knowledge and plan execution management in planning fire fighting operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández Olivares, Juan

    Knowledge and plan execution management in planning fire fighting operations Marc de la Asunci to assist human experts in the design of forest fire fighting plans. Issues about how to engineer planning knowledge for such a system, how to monitor the execution of fighting plans and how to patch unfeasible

  19. Fire Behavior and Management in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems: A Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fire Behavior and Management in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems: A Summary and Synthesis1 Serena C, Riverside, Calif. Our speakers have based their presentations on practical fire management problems fire management programs. Successful fire management in these ecosystems requires an understanding

  20. Wildland Fire Data: Issues and Proposed Solutions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ball, Kendall Carothers

    2014-11-10

    OF PHILOSOPHY Chair of Committee, Marian Eriksson Committee Members, Sorin Popescu Salih Yurttas Douglas Loh Head of Department, Kathleen Kavanagh December 2014 Major Subject: Forestry Copyright 2014 Kendall Carothers Ball ii ABSTRACT...

  1. Post-fire hydrologic behavior and recovery: Advancing spatial and temporal prediction with an emphasis on remote sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinoshita, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Inbar, M. , 2009. The Role of Fire Disturbance on Runoff andInternational journal of Wildland Fire 17: 713-723. Pierson,influence on California fire regime. Ecological Applications

  2. A comparison of geospatially modeled fire behavior and fire management utility of three data sources in the southeastern United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollingsworth, LaWen T.; Kurth, Laurie,; Parresol, Bernard, R.; Ottmar, Roger, D.; Prichard, Susan J.

    2012-01-01

    Landscape-scale fire behavior analyses are important to inform decisions on resource management projects that meet land management objectives and protect values from adverse consequences of fire. Deterministic and probabilistic geospatial fire behavior analyses are conducted with various modeling systems including FARSITE, FlamMap, FSPro, and Large Fire Simulation System. The fundamental fire intensity algorithms in these systems require surface fire behavior fuel models and canopy cover to model surface fire behavior. Canopy base height, stand height, and canopy bulk density are required in addition to surface fire behavior fuel models and canopy cover to model crown fire activity. Several surface fuel and canopy classification efforts have used various remote sensing and ecological relationships as core methods to develop the spatial layers. All of these methods depend upon consistent and temporally constant interpretations of crown attributes and their ecological conditions to estimate surface fuel conditions. This study evaluates modeled fire behavior for an 80,000 ha tract of land in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern US using three different data sources. The Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS) was used to build fuelbeds from intensive field sampling of 629 plots. Custom fire behavior fuel models were derived from these fuelbeds. LANDFIRE developed surface fire behavior fuel models and canopy attributes for the US using satellite imagery informed by field data. The Southern Wildfire Risk Assessment (SWRA) developed surface fire behavior fuel models and canopy cover for the southeastern US using satellite imagery. Differences in modeled fire behavior, data development, and data utility are summarized to assist in determining which data source may be most applicable for various land management activities and required analyses. Characterizing fire behavior under different fuel relationships provides insights for natural ecological processes, management strategies for fire mitigation, and positive and negative features of different modeling systems. A comparison of flame length, rate of spread, crown fire activity, and burn probabilities modeled with FlamMap shows some similar patterns across the landscape from all three data sources, but there are potentially important differences. All data sources showed an expected range of fire behavior. Average flame lengths ranged between 1 and 1.4 m. Rate of spread varied the greatest with a range of 2.4-5.7 m min{sup -1}. Passive crown fire was predicted for 5% of the study area using FCCS and LANDFIRE while passive crown fire was not predicted using SWRA data. No active crown fire was predicted regardless of the data source. Burn probability patterns across the landscape were similar but probability was highest using SWRA and lowest using FCCS.

  3. Fire Management Impacts on Invasive Plants in the Western United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruns, Tom

    Review Fire Management Impacts on Invasive Plants in the Western United States JON E. KEELEY U, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, U.S.A. Abstract: Fire management practices affect alien plant invasions in diverse ways. I considered the impact of six fire management practices on alien

  4. an educational alternative futures wildland planning game

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    an educational alternative futures wildland planning game Edward C. Thor James L. Creighton PACIFIC. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The Mystic Mountain Game was initially developed for a workshop on alternative futures planning alternative futures wildland planning game. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-30, 8 p., illus. Pacific South- west Forest

  5. 55USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-158. 1995. FARSITE: A Fire Area Simulator for Fire Managers1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be an accustomed means to bring fire growth modeling technology to management applications. The FARSITE model the transfer of fire growth modeling technology to user applications. Personal computers are now commonplace Managers1 Mark A. Finney2 Abstract: A fire growth model (FARSITE) has been developed for use on personal

  6. Memorandum, Managed Phase Out of Halon Fixed Fire Suppression Systems- May 5, 1993

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this memorandum is to provide additional interim departmental criteria on the management of the reduction and potential elimination of Halon fire extinguishing systems within the Department of Energy (DOE). This memorandum supplements the joint Office of Safety and Quality Assurance/Office of Projects and Facilities Management memorandum of September 27, 1990, in which guidance was provided on the installation of new Halon 1301 fixed fire suppression systems and halon 1211 portable fire extinguishers.

  7. Fire Effects and Fuel Management in Mediterranean Ecosystems in Spain1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fire Effects and Fuel Management in Mediterranean Ecosystems in Spain1 Ricardo Vélez2 1 Presented, California. 2 Doctor Ingeniero de Montes, ICONA - Forest Fire Section, Madrid Spain. Abstract: Forest fuels of woody shrub vegetation. The Forest Service prepared in 1978 a fuel management plan and a program

  8. GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-245 Advances in Integrated Fire Management in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-245 338 Advances in Integrated Fire Management in Central Mexico Mexico. The research includes the latest results obtained by UACH's Ajusco Project on the subject of workshops, meetings and prescribed burns oriented towards this type of fire management in Mexico City

  9. Simulating Historic Landscape Patterns of Fire in the Southern Appalachian Mountains: Implications for Fire History and Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gass, Ellen R

    2014-05-21

    -suppression fire regime is needed. Fire frequency and seasonality can be determined from physical fire records, such as fire scars, but fire size, fire cycle, ignition density, and ignition source are more difficult to ascertain. Using FARSITE, a spatially explicit...

  10. Robert Douglas Ramsey Department of Wildland Resources.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramsey, R. Douglas

    City. June 18 - 21, 1990. Sponsored by the Department of Geography and Earth Resources, College Personnel. April 17 - 21, 1989. Sponsored by the Department of Geography and Earth Resources, College1 Robert Douglas Ramsey Department of Wildland Resources. Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322

  11. VI International Conference on Forest Fire Research D. X. Viegas (Ed.), 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    VI International Conference on Forest Fire Research D. X. Viegas (Ed.), 2010 Comparison International Conference on Forest Fire Research D. X. Viegas (Ed.), 2010 1. Introduction In the Mediterranean Basin, fires are of major concern for forest and shrubland ecosystems. Wildland fire occurrence and area

  12. The management of fire-prone forests, especially within the national forests of the west, is one of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    The management of fire-prone forests, especially within the national forests of the west, is one). Many forests, however, have been degraded over the past century by misguided fire management, as well fire regimes in some forest types (Covington and Moore 1994; Schoennagel et al. 2004). Key structural

  13. Forest fire management in Portugal : developing system insights through models of social and physical dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Ross D. (Ross Daniel)

    2012-01-01

    Managing forest fires is a serious national problem in Portugal. Burned area has increased steadily over the past several decades, with particularly devastating years in 2003 and 2005. Ignitions also spike dramatically in ...

  14. Interagency Panel: Agency Fire Management Chair: Philip N. Omi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . This was done through an interagency agreement known as the Four Party Agreement, signed by CDF, the USDA Forest, contracting for rural and urban structure fire protection. These agreements allow the fire protection agencies requiring national support. Cooperative efforts such as FIRESCOPE, the California Master Mutual Aid

  15. Testimony of Scott L. Stephens, Assistant Professor of Fire Sciences, Forest Sciences Division

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Scott L.

    Testimony of Scott L. Stephens, Assistant Professor of Fire Sciences, Forest Sciences Division with the different methods used to reduce fire hazard in coniferous forest and in the urban- wildland intermix. Current forests in many fire-dependent ecosystems of the United States are denser and more spatially

  16. Quantifying the effect of fuel reduction treatments on fire behavior in boreal forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    NOTE Quantifying the effect of fuel reduction treatments on fire behavior in boreal forests B direct measurement of fire intensity and forest floor consumption during a single prescribed burn Rédaction] Introduction Concerns about a growing wildland-urban interface and the potential for forest fires

  17. Modelling long-term fire regimes of southern California Seth H. PetersonA,F

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Jean

    of Santa Ana wind events, and live fuel moisture, using the HFire fire spread model. HFire shrublands extends over a broad range of fire sizes from numerous small fires to relatively few large and Fotheringham 2003), whereas increases in population in the wildland­urban interface (WUI) will likely lead

  18. Formation of Superfog from Wildland Fire - Theoretical and Physical Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartolome, Christian

    2014-01-01

    fuel source without crosswind. 44 Figure 3.19. a) Pinefuel source without crosswind. 3.3. Experimental Set 1:

  19. Draft August 2007 WILDLAND FIRE PROBABILITIES ESTIMATED FROM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Westerling, Anthony L.

    - parametric logistic regression, spline functions 1 #12;Abstract1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 station data include insufficient spatial coverage and inconsistent maintenance of weather instruments

  20. Microsoft Word - Appendix G - Wildland Fire Mgmt Plan.docx

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReport for the t-) S/,,5 'a C O M P R E HGroundwaterRockyDRockyG

  1. The Development and Implementation of Forest Fire Management Decision Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    @smokey. forestry.utoronto.ca 3 Wildfire Management Systems Inc., 80a BehnkeCres, Pem- broke, Ontario, Canada, K8A6W

  2. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Fire Economics, Planning, and Policy: A Global View Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Fire Economics, Planning, and Policy: A Global View

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armando González-Cabán3 Abstract Although the vast majority of wildland fires are suppressed effectively knowledge of the decision making processes that were ongoing at the time of the incident. Fire reviews suppressed in initial attack at a relatively small size, usually an acre or two, or less. Of fires

  3. Session I--Communication of GIS Data in Fire Management--Boykin and others USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-189. 2008. 209

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Session I-- Communication of GIS Data in Fire Management--Boykin and others USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-189. 2008. 209 Communication and Implementation of GIS Data in Fire Management Remotely sensed data and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can be an effective tool in fire management

  4. Fire Protection Program Metrics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presenter: Perry E. D ’Antonio, P.E., Acting Sr. Manager, Fire Protection - Sandia National Laboratories

  5. Fighting Fire with Fire: Modeling the Datacenter-Scale Effects of Targeted Superlattice Thermal Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, S; Tiwari, M; Theogarajan, L; Sherwood, T P; Chong, F T

    2010-11-11

    Local thermal hot-spots in microprocessors lead to worst case provisioning of global cooling resources, especially in large-scale systems. However, efficiency of cooling solutions degrade non-linearly with supply temperature, resulting in high power consumption and cost in cooling - 50 {approx} 100% of IT power. Recent advances in active cooling techniques have shown on-chip thermoelectric coolers (TECs) to be very efficient at selectively eliminating small hot-spots, where applying current to a superlattice film deposited between silicon and the heat spreader results in a Peltier effect that spreads the heat and lowers the temperature of the hot-spot significantly to improve chip reliability. In this paper, we propose that hot-spot mitigation using thermoelectric coolers can be used as a power management mechanism to allow global coolers to be provisioned for a better worst case temperature leading to substantial savings in cooling power. In order to quantify the potential power savings from using TECs in data center servers, we present a detailed power model that integrates on-chip dynamic and leakage power sources, heat diffusion through the entire chip, TEC and global cooler efficiencies, and all their mutual interactions. Our multiscale analysis shows that, for a typical data center, TECs allow global coolers to operate at higher temperatures without degrading chip lifetime, and thus save {approx}27% cooling power on average while providing the same processor reliability as a data center running at 288K.

  6. 2003 Veblen, T.T. Key issues in fire regime research for fuels management and ecological restoration. Pages 259-276 in: P. Omi and L. Joyce (technical eds). Fire,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veblen, Thomas T.

    2003 Veblen, T.T. Key issues in fire regime research for fuels management and ecological restoration. Pages 259-276 in: P. Omi and L. Joyce (technical eds). Fire, Fuel Treatments and Ecological, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 475 p. AN INTRODUCTION TO KEY ISSUES IN FIRE REGIME

  7. A comparison of geospatially modeled fire behavior and potential application to fire and fuels management for the Savannah River Site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurth, Laurie; Hollingsworth, LaWen; Shea, Dan

    2011-12-20

    This study evaluates modeled fire behavior for the Savannah River Site in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern U.S. using three data sources: FCCS, LANDFIRE, and SWRA. The Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS) was used to build fuelbeds from intensive field sampling of 629 plots. Custom fire behavior fuel models were derived from these fuelbeds. LANDFIRE developed surface fire behavior fuel models and canopy attributes for the U.S. using satellite imagery informed by field data. The Southern Wildfire Risk Assessment (SWRA) developed surface fire behavior fuel models and canopy cover for the southeastern U.S. using satellite imagery.

  8. he southern California fires of late Oct. 2003 were, cumula-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moritz, Max A.

    at the wildland-urban interface. A total of 3,361 homes and 26 lives were lost in this event. It is without. 2003 burned 742,000 ac and destroyed 3,361 homes and 26 lives. Factors leading up to this event were: the montane climate results in a shorter fire season, ignitions are commonly from light- ning, under weather

  9. Air pollution forecasting by coupled atmosphere-fire model WRF and SFIRE with WRF-Chem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kochanski, Adam K; Mandel, Jan; Clements, Craig B

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution regulations have emerged as a dominant obstacle to prescribed burns. Thus, forecasting the pollution caused by wildland fires has acquired high importance. WRF and SFIRE model wildland fire spread in a two-way interaction with the atmosphere. The surface heat flux from the fire causes strong updrafts, which in turn change the winds and affect the fire spread. Fire emissions, estimated from the burning organic matter, are inserted in every time step into WRF-Chem tracers at the lowest atmospheric layer. The buoyancy caused by the fire then naturally simulates plume dynamics, and the chemical transport in WRF-Chem provides a forecast of the pollution spread. We discuss the choice of wood burning models and compatible chemical transport models in WRF-Chem, and demonstrate the results on case studies.

  10. et al. 2003). Seasonal drought and extreme wind events make the WUI especially susceptible to fire. In late October, 2003, Southern California experienced the worst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moritz, Max A.

    . The Wildland-Urban Interface Evacuation (WUIVAC) model is designed to help decision-makers set fire evacu#12;et al. 2003). Seasonal drought and extreme wind events make the WUI especially susceptible. Multiple large wildfires driven by Santa Ana winds consumed more than 300,000 ha. These fires were

  11. Effects of overstory composition and prescribed fire on fuel loading across a heterogeneous managed landscape in the southeastern USA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parresol, Bernard, R.; Scott, Joe, H.; Andreu, Anne; Prichard, Susan; Kurth, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    In the southeastern USA, land use history, forest management and natural geomorphic features have created heterogeneous fuel loads. This apparent temporal and spatial variation in fuel loads make it difficult to reliably assess potential fire behavior from remotely sensed canopy variables to determine risk and to prescribe treatments. We examined this variation by exploring the relationships between overstory forest vegetation attributes, recent fire history, and selected surface fuel components across an 80,000 ha contiguous landscape. Measurements of dead and live vegetation components of surface fuels were obtained from 624 permanent plots, or about 1 plot per 100 ha of forest cover. Within forest vegetation groups, we modeled the relationship between individual surface fuel components and overstory stand age, basal area, site quality and recent fire history, then stochastically predicted fuel loads across the landscape using the same linkage variables. The fraction of the plot variation, i.e., R2, explained by predictive models for individual fuel components ranged from 0.05 to 0.66 for dead fuels and 0.03 to 0.97 for live fuels in pine dominated vegetation groups. Stand age and basal area were generally more important than recent fire history for predicting fuel loads. Mapped fuel loads using these regressor variables showed a very heterogeneous landscape even at the scale of a few square kilometers. The mapped patterns corresponded to stand based forest management disturbances that are reflected in age, basal area, and fire history. Recent fire history was significant in explaining variation in litter and duff biomass. Stand basal area was positively and consistently related to dead fuel biomass in most groups and was present in many predictive equations. Patterns in live fuel biomass were related to recent fire history, but the patterns were not consistent among forest vegetation groups. Age and basal area were related to live fuels in a complex manner that is likely confounded with periodic disturbances that disrupt stand dynamics. This study complements earlier hazardous fuels research in the southeastern USA, and indicates that succession, disturbance, site quality and decomposition interact with forest management practices to create variable spatial and temporal conditions. The inclusion of additional land use, disturbance history, and soil-topographic variables coupled to improved sampling methods may increase precision and subsequent fuel mapping.

  12. Fire Modeling Examples in a Nuclear World

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presenter: Mark Schairer, P.E.,Technical Manager, Fire Protection Engineering Division - Engineering Planning and Management (EPM), Inc.

  13. Fire Protection Program Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  14. Fire Danger Fact Sheet The most commonly accepted definition of fire danger is "the resultant descriptor of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fire Danger Fact Sheet The most commonly accepted definition of fire danger is "the resultant are combined to assess the daily fire potential on an area. Fire danger is usually expressed in numeric. The fire danger rating of an area gives the fire manager a tool to help with the day-to-day "fire business

  15. The U's Facilities Management Department (FM) conducted an internal review of its fire alarm testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webb, Peter

    not follow recognized industry service standards, insurance underwriter recommendations or National Fire) were as much as 100% higher than the industry standard, when compared to the private sector industry standards and NFPA guidelines. The resulting program would improve customer service by ensuring

  16. Conference Waiver

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    current events and issues of concern to DOE Emergency Management. Events such as Fukushima, the wild-land fires, and other catastrophic disasters have uncovered issues that...

  17. Fire and Sudden Oak Death in Coast Redwood Forests: Effects of Two Distinct Disturbances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramage, Benjamin Sean

    2011-01-01

    7. Keeley, J. E. 2005. Fire management impacts on invasiveecosystem productivity, and fire to climate change scenariosanalysis of natural fire rotation in the California redwood

  18. Modeling Wildland Fire Radiance in Synthetic Remote Sensing B.S. Beijing Institute of Technology, 1996

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvaggio, Carl

    efforts in phenomenology studies, algorithm development, and sensor evaluation. Synthetic scenes are also and op- tical properties of wildfire and burn area in an infrared remote sensing system will assist look like as seen by the airborne sensor. Radiance scene rendering of the 3D flame iv #12;v includes 2D

  19. Contrasting controls on wildland fires in Southern California during periods with and without Santa Ana winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T; Faivre, Nicolas; Capps, Scott; Hall, Alex; Goulden, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    humidity (RH) and strong offshore ?ow, can result inconditions, when strong offshore winds and low humidity leadare typically driven by strong offshore Santa Ana winds, and

  20. A wildland fire model with data assimilation Jan Mandel ,a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandel, Jan

    that no model is perfect, the available data is spread over time and space, and it is burdened with errors assimilation methods have achieved good success in fields like oil and gas pipeline models (Emara-Shabaik et al

  1. Fire Woman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Keisha-Gaye

    2012-01-01

    at www.keishagaye.com Anderson, K-G. “Fire Woman”. http://20: 156-160 ISSN: 2159-2926 Fire Woman Keisha-Gaye AndersonAnderson, K-G. “Fire Woman”. http://escholarship.org/uc/

  2. Mountain Bicycling in the Urban-Wildland Interface1 Arthur W. MagiII2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountain Bicycling in the Urban-Wildland Interface1 Arthur W. MagiII2 Abstract: Mountain bicycling to bicyclists, increased income for resorts from summer bicycling, and potential income for rural communities from bicycling. The research will investigate activities on both sides of the country through

  3. PARCELIZATION AT THE WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE: EFFECTS ON FOREST OPERATIONS1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolding, M. Chad

    Operations and Harvesting; mboldin@clemson.edu Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, ClemsonPARCELIZATION AT THE WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE: EFFECTS ON FOREST OPERATIONS1 Matthew C implies a land use change. Parcelization is known to have an effect on wildfire outbreak, habitat

  4. Pyne SJ (1982) Fire in America. A Cultural History of Wildland and Rural Fire. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heino, Mikko

    1982-01-01

    ­1206. Swetnam TW and Betancourt JL (1998) Mesoscale disturbance and ecological response to decadal climatic

  5. Fire Alarm Pull Fire Alarm Pull Fire Alarm Pull

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    .39 1610A MECH 267.14 MECH 42.16 1727 CIRC 40.84 Fire Alarm Pull Fire Alarm Pull Fire Alarm Pull Fire Alarm Pull Fire Alarm Pull Fire Alarm Pull Fire Alarm Pull Fire Alarm Pull DN. UP. STAIRS 136.84 SHAFT 2 50.09 1821 ELEV 50.09 Fire Extinguisher Fire Extinguisher Fire Extinguisher Fire Extinguisher North

  6. Appropriate Combinations of Technology for Solving Landscape Management Problems--

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appropriate Combinations of Technology for Solving Landscape Management Problems-- Session H: Rural and Agricultural Development Managing for Naturalness in Wildland and Agricultural Landscapes1 Joan Nassauer 2/ Presented at the National Conference on Applied Techniques for Analysis and Management of the Visual

  7. Using Satellite Fire Detection to Calibrate Components of the Fire Weather Index System in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Field, Robert

    Using Satellite Fire Detection to Calibrate Components of the Fire Weather Index System in Malaysia, Indonesia ABSTRACT / Vegetation fires have become an increasing problem in tropical environments as a consequence of socioeconomic pressures and subsequent land-use change. In response, fire management systems

  8. Fire Effects on Forest Soil: Cave Gulch Fire, Helena National Forest TABLE OF CONTENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Fire Effects on Forest Soil: Cave Gulch Fire, Helena National Forest #12;ii TABLE OF CONTENTS ecosystems. Historically, ponderosa pine (Pinus contorta) forest systems have had low intensity fires every forests. Once forest managers began suppressing forest fires, vegetation and debris accumulated

  9. FIRE SYSTEMS Professional Organizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    FIRE SYSTEMS Professional Organizations: American Fire Sprinkler Association (AFSA) Society for Fire Protection Engineers (SFPE) National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA) Events & Training: UVa Center for Leadership Excellence classes SkillSoft classes American Fire Sprinkler Association events American Fire

  10. Introduction to FireGrid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welch, Stephen; Usmani, Asif; Upadhyay, Rochan; Berry, Dave; Potter, Stephen; Torero, Jose L

    2007-11-14

    FireGrid is an ambitious and innovative project, seeking to develop the technology to support a new way of managing emergency response in the modern built environment. Specific novel aspects include the integration of ...

  11. Test Two: The ‘Controlled Fire’ 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cowlard, Adam; Steinhaus, Thomas; Abecassis Empis, Cecilia; Torero, Jose L

    2007-11-14

    The main objective of Test Two was to demonstrate the effectiveness of ventilation changes and smoke management on the growth of a compartment fire and to display the potential for these techniques to be incorporated ...

  12. Fire Protection

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2012-12-05

    This Standard was developed to provide acceptable methods and approaches for meeting DOE fire protection program and design requirements and to address special or unique fire protection issues at DOE facilities that are not comprehensively or adequately addressed in national consensus standards or other design criteria.

  13. Fire Paradigms Spring, 2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    ;Potential approaches include: Paleoecology/ fire history Fire behavior and ecology modeling Meteorology

  14. Has fire suppression increased the amount of carbon stored in western U.S. forests?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fellows, Aaron W.; Goulden, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    and M. L. Goulden (2008), Has fire suppression increased thecarbon storage in the United States. 2. The role of fireand fire management, Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. , 9, 145 – 170,

  15. Fire Protection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bird, Eric L.; Studd, S. D.

    1958-11-25

    The first object of fire protection is to ensure safety of life; the second is to preserve from damage, resulting from the occasional outbreak, the activities (or occupancies) housed in buildings. Occupancies are usually ...

  16. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-101 Berkeley, CA. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture; 1987.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of natural resources. 4. Wildland owners and managers conducting prescribed burns with or without for correlation of fire behavior with fire effects. 2. More information becoming available on the effect and land managers in the utilization of fire and fire effects in land management. 6. Public perceiving

  17. Post-fire changes in net shortwave radiation along a latitudinal gradient in boreal North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y, Jin; Randerson, J T; Goulden, M L; Goetz, S J

    2012-01-01

    J. , et al. (2003), Large forest fires in Canada, 1959–1997,change on Canadian forest fires, Geophys. Res. Lett. , 31,management on boreal forest fire activity under climate

  18. Seeing Red: New Tools for Mapping and Understanding Fire Severity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Seeing Red: New Tools for Mapping and Understanding Fire Severity The 2012 fire season was resource managers tools to assess severity before, during, and after a wildfire. FIRESEV has produced a suite of tools for a wide range of fire management applications, including real-time forecasts

  19. GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-245 A Community in the Wildland-Urban

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of homes to fire using standard criteria. At that same time (2004), the city of Esquel began making around the specific theme of interface fires (Epele 2012, p.c.). For this reason and at the initiative

  20. CSIRO PUBLISHING www.publish.csiro.au/journals/ijwf International Journal of Wildland Fire 2010, 19, 7593

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Natural Resources and the Environment, Office of Arid Lands Studies, 1955 E 6th Street, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. BSchool of Geography and Development, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ and Environmental Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000, Israel. GDepartment of Geography and Environmental Studies

  1. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF FIRE SEPARATION AND BARRIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coutts, D

    2007-04-17

    Fire barriers, and physical separation are key components in managing the fire risk in Nuclear Facilities. The expected performance of these features have often been predicted using rules-of-thumb or expert judgment. These approaches often lack the convincing technical bases that exist when addressing other Nuclear Facility accident events. This paper presents science-based approaches to demonstrate the effectiveness of fire separation methods.

  2. Fire Classifications Fires involving the ordinary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    , plastics, etc. Fires involving combustible or flammable liquids such as gasoline, kerosene, oils, grease to prevent fires. Personnel should neither create nor tolerate conditions that could cause or fuel a fire is protected by various devices such as smoke detectors, sprinkler systems, and manual fire alarm pull stations

  3. Model Fire Protection Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To facilitate conformance with its fire safety directives and the implementation of a comprehensive fire protection program, DOE has developed a number of "model" program documents. These include a comprehensive model fire protection program, model fire hazards analyses and assessments, fire protection system inspection and testing procedures, and related material.

  4. Guidance for the Quality Assurance of Fire Protection Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This quality assurance document is intended to provide guidance for the DOE fire protection community in the continuing effort to ensure the reliability of fire protection systems. This guidance document applies the concepts of DOE Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance, to the management of fire protection systems.

  5. Fire suppressing apparatus. [sodium fires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buttrey, K.E.

    1980-12-19

    Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubed depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

  6. DOE Finalizes WIPP Fire Investigation Report | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Management (EM) released the accident investigation report for the underground mine fire involving a salt haul truck at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad,...

  7. Modeling long-term fire regimes of southern California shrublands1 (Suggested running head: "Modeling fire regimes with HFire")3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Jean

    1 Modeling long-term fire regimes of southern California shrublands1 2 (Suggested running head: "Modeling fire regimes with HFire")3 4 Seth H. Petersona , Max A. Moritzb , Marco E. Moraisc , Philip E for Fire Research & Outreach, Department of Environmental Science, Policy, & Management,10 UC Berkeley, CA

  8. Fire: A Constructive Prescription

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadighian, Michael

    2012-01-01

    O. (2009). The Central Role of Fire. California Indians andsmall, frequent, low-severity fires to foster these mosaicsR.E. , Sapsis, D.B. 1992. Fires as agents of bio- diversity:

  9. Smoldering - The Fire Scenario 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torero, Jose L

    2000-01-01

    There are certain fire initiation scenarios that are particularly common, one of great significance is a fire initiated from the ignition of a porous fuel. Nearly 40% of the deaths due to fire can be traced to cigarette induced ...

  10. Sandia Energy - Fire Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fire Science Home Stationary Power Nuclear Fuel Cycle Nuclear Energy Safety Technologies Risk and Safety Assessment Fire Science Fire ScienceTara Camacho-Lopez2015-05-11T17:01:52+0...

  11. How are the aftereffects of wildfire managed?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How are the aftereffects of wildfire managed? Wildfires cause flooding, increasing sediment movement. August 1, 2013 Las Conchas fire fighter in foreground; fire in Los Alamos...

  12. Getting Our Feet Wet: Water Management at Mt. Laguna in Cleveland National Forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mumby, William Cade

    2013-01-01

    of Fire and Invasive Alien Plant Management Practices in of Fire and Invasive Alien Plant Management Practices in of Fire and Invasive Alien Plant Management Practices in 

  13. Fire Safety Training: Fire Modeling- NUREG 1934

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presenter: Frederick W. Mowrer, Ph.D., P.E. Director Fire Protection Engineering Programs - Cal Poly – SLO

  14. Large-scale pool fires 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinhaus, Thomas; Welch, Stephen; Carvel, Ricky O; Torero, Jose L

    2007-03-29

    A review of research into the burning behaviour of large pool fires and fuel spill fires is presented. The features which distinguish such fires from smaller pool fires are mainly associated with the fire dynamics at low ...

  15. Fire Regime of an Ozark Wilderness Area, Arkansas MICHAEL C. STAMBAUGH1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stambaugh, Michael C

    Fire Regime of an Ozark Wilderness Area, Arkansas MICHAEL C. STAMBAUGH1 AND RICHARD P. GUYETTE2 day issues associated with fire management in wilderness areas are addressed by studying past interactions among fire, humans, vegetation and climate. In this paper we describe three centuries of the fire

  16. ORIGINAL PAPER Effect of wildfires and post-fire forest treatments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    years after the fire, but decreased or even disappeared in unburnt ones, indicating that forest fires be a good way of increasing the conservation and economic value of areas affected by forest fires. Keywords Oryctolagus cuniculus . Forest fires . Mediterranean scrubland . Management . Burnt branches Introduction

  17. Forest Fire Advanced System Technology (FFAST): A Conceptual Design for Detection and Mapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is developing a data system to provide near-real-time forest fire information to fire management at the fire of the Technical Staff, Observational Systems Division. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion for the scanner units were difficult to find and in some cases had to be custom built. The Fire Logistics

  18. Annual Fire Safety Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Faruque, Mohammad Abdullah

    1 2014 Annual Fire Safety Report University of California Campus Fire Marshals HIGHER EDUCATION to the Fire Safety in Student Housing Buildings of current or perspective students and employees be reported INTRODUCTION Fire Safety is an essential tool in protecting a campus community from injuries, deaths, business

  19. Annual Fire Safety Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014 Annual Fire Safety Report University of California, Santa Barbara Fire Marshals) requires that certain information pertaining to the Fire Safety in Student Housing Buildings of current. #12; 2 9/19/14 HIGHER EDUCATION OPPORTUNITY ACT INTRODUCTION Fire Safety is an essential tool

  20. Fire Safety January 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lennard, William N.

    1 Fire Safety PROCEDURES January 2011 firesafety@uwo.ca Campus Phones ­ EMERGENCY ­ Dial 911 Fire Safety Service is the focal point for the coordinated administration of the University Fire Safety program and plans, and is the University's representative in contacts dealing with all aspects of Fire

  1. Residence Hall Fire Safety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Residence Hall Fire Safety Information Department of Public Safety Residential Life & Housing #12;Part 1 ! Building Information Pursuant to New York City Fire Code and Local Law 10, this Fire Safety, as well as what to do in a fire emergency. Building Construction Residential buildings built before 1968

  2. Funding Fire: A Losing Proposition?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaughn, Jacqueline; Cortner, Hanna J.

    2010-01-01

    Laurel. 2008. “Loss of Fire Boards Is Harmful. ” San DiegoJoe. 2008. “Supervisors Put Fire Tax on Ballot. ” RamonaBoard. 2009. Quadrennial Fire Review 2009. Washington,

  3. Mapping surface fuels using LIDAR and multispectral data fusion for fire behavior modeling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mutlu, Muge

    2009-05-15

    Fires have become intense and more frequent in the United States. Improving the accuracy of mapping fuel models is essential for fuel management decisions and explicit fire behavior prediction for real-time support of suppression tactics...

  4. www.fs.fed.us/psw Pacific Southwest Research Station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at the urban-wildland interface and spread to nearby city neighborhoods. By incorporating weather models computer modeling, we translate physical processes, such as the way wind affects fire growth into fire perimeter projections, scientist Francis Fujioka is improving fire modeling as a tool for managing

  5. The Westmount Arena Fire 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gales, John

    A short article on the origins of professional ice hockey in Canada. The article describes an early fire of an arena in Westmount Montreal, QC. This fire's impact on professional ice hockey is discussed as well as initial details about...

  6. Fire Size in Tunnels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvel, Ricky O

    In recent years, a number of high profile accidental fires have occurred in several road and rail tunnels throughout the world. Many of these fires grew rapidly to catastrophic size and claimed many lives. The processes ...

  7. Fire in Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shorter, G.

    During the lifetime of any building in Canada it is probable that one or more "unwanted" fires will occur. "Fire Loss in Canada, 1959," the report of the Dominion Fire Commissioner, states that for the period 1950-1959 the average number of reported...

  8. Continuous Forest Fire Propagation in a Local Small World Network Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguayo, F; Clerc, J -P; Porterie, B

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a new continuous forest fire model implemented as a weighted local small-world network approach. This new approach was designed to simulate fire patterns in real, heterogeneous landscapes. The wildland fire spread is simulated on a square lattice in which each cell represents an area of the land's surface. The interaction between burning and non-burning cells, in the present work induced by flame radiation, may be extended well beyond nearest neighbors. It depends on local conditions of topography and vegetation types. An approach based on a solid flame model is used to predict the radiative heat flux from the flame generated by the burning of each site towards its neighbors. The weighting procedure takes into account the self-degradation of the tree and the ignition processes of a combustible cell through time. The model is tested on a field presenting a range of slopes and with data collected from a real wildfire scenario. The critical behavior of the spreading process...

  9. Synthesis and Summary: Land Use Decisions and Fire Risk1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    growth on fuel management and fire protection, concerns stated or implied in all presentations. Jim Davis of California, Davis. A preliminary analysis of the population, based on questionnaires, indicated that the aver was spent in fire suppres- sion. The bill for all costs and damages amounted to more than $1 billion. Given

  10. Ignition and spread of electrical wire fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Xinyan

    2012-01-01

    1.1 Electrical Wire Fires 1.2 Literature Review . . 1.3d) Electrical fires. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .of the fire performance of electrical cables,” Fire Safety

  11. Combining CBR and Constraint Reasoning in Planning Forest Fire Fighting 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricci, Francesco

    Combining CBR and Constraint Reasoning in Planning Forest Fire Fighting 1 P. Avesani, A. Perini for planning first attack to forest fires. It is based on two major techniques: case based reasoning at supporting the user in the whole process of forest fires management. The novelty of the proposed system

  12. Direct-fired biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The direct-fired biomass section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  13. Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  14. Co-firing biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, T.; Tennant, D. [Hunt, Guillot & Associates LLC (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Concern about global warming has altered the landscape for fossil-fuel combustion. The advantages and challenges of co-firing biomass and coal are discussed. 2 photos.

  15. Six Sigma process improvements and sourcing strategies following factory fire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egan, Sarah (Sarah J.)

    2005-01-01

    This thesis addresses Six Sigma process improvements and the supplier management issues resulting from the shift to external suppliers in the aftermath of a fire. Originally, this thesis was to address a lean implementation ...

  16. Model Baseline Fire Department/Fire Protection Engineering Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of the document is to comprehensively delineate and rationalize the roles and responsibilities of the Fire Department and Fire Protection (Engineering).

  17. Fire science at LLNL: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasegawa, H.K. (ed.)

    1990-03-01

    This fire sciences report from LLNL includes topics on: fire spread in trailer complexes, properties of welding blankets, validation of sprinkler systems, fire and smoke detectors, fire modeling, and other fire engineering and safety issues. (JEF)

  18. Electronic firing systems and methods for firing a device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frickey, Steven J. (Boise, ID); Svoboda, John M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2012-04-24

    An electronic firing system comprising a control system, a charging system, an electrical energy storage device, a shock tube firing circuit, a shock tube connector, a blasting cap firing circuit, and a blasting cap connector. The control system controls the charging system, which charges the electrical energy storage device. The control system also controls the shock tube firing circuit and the blasting cap firing circuit. When desired, the control system signals the shock tube firing circuit or blasting cap firing circuit to electrically connect the electrical energy storage device to the shock tube connector or the blasting cap connector respectively.

  19. RMRS GTR-175 RMRS-GTR-178

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the effects of wildland fire is critical for 1) docu- menting fire effects, 2) assessing ecosystem damage criteria . 20 Photo series for quantifying forest residues in managed lands of the Medicine Bow National available: http://www .fs .fed .us/rm/pubs/ rmrs_gtr172 .html This photo series presents a visual

  20. Flooding and Fire Ants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nester, Paul

    2008-08-05

    Fire ants can be a serious problem during and after a flood. This publication explains how to protect yourself when you must return to flooded structures or deal with storm debris....

  1. Prescribed Fire is Cool on Florida Highway

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caster, Jeff; McBurney, Willson; Farley, Patricia; Rodriguez, Rose; Green, Lane; McGorty, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    plans for a prescribed fire on US319/SR61, Kate Irelandwww.longleafalliance.org). Prescribed fire is a necessaryresource. Using prescribed fire along this highway is safe

  2. Fire Protection Database | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fire Protection Database Fire Protection Database DOE O 231.1, Environment, Safety, And Health Reporting, requires the submission of an Annual Fire Protection Summary. The previous...

  3. Cyber Friendly Fire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Roberts, Adam D.

    2011-09-01

    Cyber friendly fire (FF) is a new concept that has been brought to the attention of Department of Defense (DoD) stakeholders through two workshops that were planned and conducted by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and research conducted for AFRL by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. With this previous work in mind, we offer a definition of cyber FF as intentional offensive or defensive cyber/electronic actions intended to protect cyber systems against enemy forces or to attack enemy cyber systems, which unintentionally harms the mission effectiveness of friendly or neutral forces. Just as with combat friendly fire, a fundamental need in avoiding cyber FF is to maintain situation awareness (SA). We suggest that cyber SA concerns knowledge of a system's topology (connectedness and relationships of the nodes in a system), and critical knowledge elements such as the characteristics and vulnerabilities of the components that comprise the system (and that populate the nodes), the nature of the activities or work performed, and the available defensive (and offensive) countermeasures that may be applied to thwart network attacks. A training implication is to raise awareness and understanding of these critical knowledge units; an approach to decision aids and/or visualizations is to focus on supporting these critical knowledge units. To study cyber FF, we developed an unclassified security test range comprising a combination of virtual and physical devices that present a closed network for testing, simulation, and evaluation. This network offers services found on a production network without the associated costs of a real production network. Containing enough detail to appear realistic, this virtual and physical environment can be customized to represent different configurations. For our purposes, the test range was configured to appear as an Internet-connected Managed Service Provider (MSP) offering specialized web applications to the general public. The network is essentially divided into a production component that hosts the web and network services, and a user component that hosts thirty employee workstations and other end devices. The organization's network is separated from the Internet by a Cisco ASA network security device that both firewalls and detects intrusions. Business sensitive information is stored in various servers. This includes data comprising thousands of internal documents, such as finance and technical designs, email messages for the organization's employees including the CEO, CFO, and CIO, the organization's source code, and Personally Identifiable client data. Release of any of this information to unauthorized parties would have a significant, detrimental impact on the organization's reputation, which would harm earnings. The valuable information stored in these servers pose obvious points of interest for an adversary. We constructed several scenarios around this environment to support studies in cyber SA and cyber FF that may be run in the test range. We describe mitigation strategies to combat cyber FF including both training concepts and suggestions for decision aids and visualization approaches. Finally, we discuss possible future research directions.

  4. Initial tree regeneration responses to fire and thinning treatments in a Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North, Malcolm

    been altered in many forest ecosystems from decades of active fire management (Cooper, 1960; Linder al., 2007). Fire exclusion is believed to be especially important in forests that were previously, 2000; Shang et al., 2007). Fire exclusion in these forest types can result in greater canopy cover

  5. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 3. 2012 157 Effects of Fire on Intangible Cultural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 3. 2012 157 Chapter 8: Effects of Fire to unfold, we are learning about how we value, view, and treat publiclands,forests,fire,archaeologicalandhistorical sites, and associated human communities. The forest and fire management reorientation underway

  6. Executive roundtable on coal-fired generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-09-15

    Power Engineering magazine invited six industry executives from the coal-fired sector to discuss issues affecting current and future prospects of coal-fired generation. The executives are Tim Curran, head of Alstom Power for the USA and Senior Vice President and General Manager of Boilers North America; Ray Kowalik, President and General Manager of Burns and McDonnell Energy Group; Jeff Holmstead, head of Environmental Strategies for the Bracewell Giuliani law firm; Jim Mackey, Vice President, Fluor Power Group's Solid Fuel business line; Tom Shelby, President Kiewit Power Inc., and David Wilks, President of Energy Supply for Excel Energy Group. Steve Blankinship, the magazine's Associate Editor, was the moderator. 6 photos.

  7. Lodgepole Pine Forest Ecology A foundation for future forest management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is Very large patches of even-aged forests varying in composition from Fire Regimes in Lodgepole Pine Forests The historic fire regime is dominated by severe, stand-replacing fires. These fires occur at longLodgepole Pine Forest Ecology A foundation for future forest management Claudia Regan ­ Regional

  8. A Priori Modelling of Fire Test One 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rein, Guillermo; Torero, Jose L; Jahn, Wolfram; Stern-Gottfried, Jamie; Ryder, Noah L; Desanghere, Sylvain; Lazaro, Mariano; Mowrer, Frederick; Coles, Andrew; Joyeux, Daniel; Alvear, Daniel; Capote, Jorge A; Jowsey, Allan; Reszka, Pedro

    2007-11-14

    An international round-robin study of fire modelling was conducted prior to the Dalmarnock Fire Tests in order to assess the state-of-the-art of fire modelling in real scenarios. The philosophy behind the Dalmarnock Fire ...

  9. Field measurements of trace gases emitted by prescribed fires in southeastern U.S. pine forests using an open-path FTIR system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akagi, Sheryl; Burling, Ian R.; Mendoza, Albert; Johnson, Timothy J.; Cameron, Melanie; Griffith, David WT; Paton-Walsh, C.; Weise, David; Reardon, James; Yokelson, Robert J.

    2014-01-08

    We report trace-gas emission factors from three pine-understory prescribed fires in South Carolina, U.S. measured during the fall of 2011. The fires were an attempt to simulate high-intensity burns and the fuels included mature pine stands not frequently subjected to prescribed fire that were lit following a sustained period of drought. In this work we focus on the emission factor measurements made using a fixed open-path gas analyzer Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) system. We compare these emission factors with those measured using a roving, point sampling, land-based FTIR and an airborne FTIR that were deployed on the same fires. We also compare to emission factors measured by a similar open-path FTIR system deployed on savanna fires in Africa. The data suggest that the method in which the smoke is sampled can strongly influence the relative abundance of the emissions that are observed. The airborne FTIR probed the bulk of the emissions, which were lofted in the convection column and the downwind chemistry while the roving ground-based point sampling FTIR measured the contribution of individual residual smoldering combustion fuel elements scattered throughout the burn site. The open-path FTIR provided a fixed path-integrated sample of emissions produced directly upwind mixed with emissions that were redirected by wind gusts, or right after ignition and before the adjacent plume achieved significant vertical development. It typically probed two distinct combustion regimes, “flaming-like” (immediately after adjacent ignition) and “smoldering-like”, denoted “early” and “late”, respectively. The calculated emission factors from open-path measurements were closer to the airborne than to the point measurements, but this could vary depending on the calculation method or from fire to fire given the changing MCE and dynamics over the duration of a typical burn. The emission factors for species whose emissions are not highly fuel dependent (e.g. CH4 and CH3OH) from all three systems can be plotted versus modified combustion efficiency and fit to a single consistent trend suggesting that differences between the systems for these species may be mainly due to the unique mix of flaming and smoldering that each system sampled. For other more fuel dependent species, the different fuels sampled also likely contributed to platform differences in emission factors. The path-integrated sample of the ground-level smoke layer adjacent to the fire provided by the open-path measurements is important for estimating fire-line exposure to smoke for wildland fire personnel. We provide a table of estimated fire-line exposures for numerous known air toxics based on synthesizing results from several studies. Our data suggest that peak exposures are more likely to challenge permissible exposure limits for wildland fire personnel than shift-average exposures.

  10. Fire at Michael Colliery, Fife 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephenson, H. S.

    MINISTRY OF POWER FIRE AT MICHAEL COLLIERY FIFE RE PORT On the causes of, and circumstances attending, the fire which occurred at Michael Colliery, Fife, on 9th September, 1967 by H. S. STEPHENSON, B.Sc., C.Eng., ...

  11. FIREPLUME model for plume dispersion from fires: Application to uranium hexafluoride cylinder fires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.F.; Dunn, W.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Policastro, A.J.; Maloney, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-06-01

    This report provides basic documentation of the FIREPLUME model and discusses its application to the prediction of health impacts resulting from releases of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in fires. The model application outlined in this report was conducted for the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted UF{sub 6}. The FIREPLUME model is an advanced stochastic model for atmospheric plume dispersion that predicts the downwind consequences of a release of toxic materials from an explosion or a fire. The model is based on the nonbuoyant atmospheric dispersion model MCLDM (Monte Carlo Lagrangian Dispersion Model), which has been shown to be consistent with available laboratory and field data. The inclusion of buoyancy and the addition of a postprocessor to evaluate time-varying concentrations lead to the current model. The FIREPLUME model, as applied to fire-related UF{sub 6} cylinder releases, accounts for three phases of release and dispersion. The first phase of release involves the hydraulic rupture of the cylinder due to heating of the UF{sub 6} in the fire. The second phase involves the emission of material into the burning fire, and the third phase involves the emission of material after the fire has died during the cool-down period. The model predicts the downwind concentration of the material as a function of time at any point downwind at or above the ground. All together, five fire-related release scenarios are examined in this report. For each scenario, downwind concentrations of the UF{sub 6} reaction products, uranyl fluoride and hydrogen fluoride, are provided for two meteorological conditions: (1) D stability with a 4-m/s wind speed, and (2) F stability with a 1-m/s wind speed.

  12. FIRE Physics Validation Review Hampton Inn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FIRE Physics Validation Review Agenda Hampton Inn 20260 Goldenrod Lane Germantown, Maryland, US Introduction John Willis 2:15 pm FIRE Overview Dale Meade 3:30 pm FIRE Physics Basis Charles Kessel 5:00 pm Diagnostics for FIRE, Challenges for FIRE and ITER Ken Young 5:30 pm FIRE Engineering Summary Phil

  13. Natural Phenomena Exhibited by Forest Fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natural Phenomena Exhibited by Forest Fires J. S. BARROWS U. S. Forest Service ABSTRACT Forest fire phenomena of forest fires is related to the International Symposium topic of Fire Models. Analysis of the behavior of large-scale forest fires and smaller scale experimental fires in forest fuels permits critical

  14. EHSO TRAINING CLASSES Fire Safety Program Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EHSO TRAINING CLASSES Fire Safety Program Training 1. Fire Safety (60 minutes) Instruction includes an actual fire eperience. 2. Fire Extinguisher Training (30 minutes) A practical demonstration on actual burnable liquid fires. This practical extinguisher training is a critical portion of the fire

  15. Residential Fire Safety Policies Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson Jr.,, Ray

    Residential Fire Safety Policies Introduction University Housing and Campus Code Compliance and Fire Safety at the City University of New York at Queens College in compliance with the Higher Education Opportunity Act (HEOA) have developed an annual fire safety report. This document summarizes

  16. ANNUAL FIRE SAFETY RESIDENCE HALLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    1 2013 ANNUAL FIRE SAFETY REPORT FOR RESIDENCE HALLS As Required by the Higher Education Opportunity Act (HEOA) #12;2 INTRODUCTION Contents of this annual fire safety report reflect the requirements outlined in the HEOA, which are included in Florida Atlantic University's (FAU) campus fire safety program

  17. Forest fires: from economic assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pettenella, Davide

    1 Forest fires: from economic assessment to governance Laura Secco, Davide Pettenella and Mauro context) Contribute of ongoing research (A model to quantify forest fires costs) Proposal for future research (An ACF approach to stakeholders analysis) Final remarks Background Background - 1 Forest fires

  18. Using Prescribed Fire in Oklahoma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    E-927 Using Prescribed Fire in Oklahoma Using Prescribed Fire in Oklahoma Using Prescribed Fire in Oklahoma Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University in cooperation with USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, the Oklahoma

  19. management

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    5%2A en Management and Budget http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusouroperationsmanagementandbudget

  20. Direct fired heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

    1986-01-01

    A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

  1. Enhanced Fire Events Database to Support Fire PRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick Baranowsky; Ken Canavan; Shawn St. Germain

    2010-06-01

    Abstract: This paper provides a description of the updated and enhanced Fire Events Data Base (FEDB) developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in cooperation with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The FEDB is the principal source of fire incident operational data for use in fire PRAs. It provides a comprehensive and consolidated source of fire incident information for nuclear power plants operating in the U.S. The database classification scheme identifies important attributes of fire incidents to characterize their nature, causal factors, and severity consistent with available data. The database provides sufficient detail to delineate important plant specific attributes of the incidents to the extent practical. A significant enhancement to the updated FEDB is the reorganization and refinement of the database structure and data fields and fire characterization details added to more rigorously capture the nature and magnitude of the fire and damage to the ignition source and nearby equipment and structures

  2. Developing a Fire Danger Rating System for the UK: FireBeaters Phase I final report. Report to the Scottish Wildfire Forum. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Legg, Colin J; Davies, Gwilym Matthew; Kitchen, Karl; Marno, Penny

    2007-01-01

    Introduction and objectives The objective of this research is to develop a predictive tool for the management of wildfire in the UK and for facilitating good practice by those who work with fire in semi-natural vegetation. ...

  3. Fire Behavior Modeling - Experiment on Surface Fire Transition to the Elevated Live Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omodan, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Scientific Perspectives. Austin Fire Department, EngineeringCombustion Fundamentals of Fire, Ed. G. Cox Academic Press,Finney, M. A. FARSITE: Fire Area Simulator-Model Development

  4. The Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment: overview and airborne fire emission factor measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    W. M. : The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment:Physics The Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment:A. : The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment:

  5. Are Forest Fires Predictable?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Malarz; S. Kaczanowska; K. Kulakowski

    2002-04-23

    Dynamic mean field theory is applied to the problem of forest fires. The starting point is the Monte Carlo simulation in a lattice of million cells. The statistics of the clusters is obtained by means of the Hoshen--Kopelman algorithm. We get the map $p_n\\to p_{n+1}$, where $p_n$ is the probability of finding a tree in a cell, and $n$ is the discrete time. We demonstrate that the time evolution of $p$ is chaotic. The arguments are provided by the calculation of the bifurcation diagram and the Lyapunov exponent. The bifurcation diagram reveals several windows of stability, including periodic orbits of length three, five and seven. For smaller lattices, the results of the iteration are in qualitative agreement with the statistics of the forest fires in Canada in years 1970--2000.

  6. Fire and the related effects of nuclear explosions. 1982 Asilomar Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, S.B.; Alger, R.S. (eds.)

    1982-11-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of a Federal Emergency Management Agency-sponsored Conference on fire and the related effects of nuclear explosions (with passing attention to earthquakes and other nonnuclear mishaps). This conference, the fifth of an annual series (formally called Blast/Fire Interaction Conferences), was held during the week of April 25, 1982, again at Asilomar, California.

  7. Fire suppressing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buttrey, Kenneth E. (Northridge, CA)

    1982-11-02

    Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubes depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

  8. Calculating Fired Heater Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harriz, J. T.; Ritter, E. L.

    1986-01-01

    - The primary components of fuel are carbon and hydrogen. In the chemistry of combustion, hydrogen reacts with oxygen to form water vapor. The Higher Heating Value is the heat delivered by cooling all the products of combustion to their initial temperature... load. Combustibles losses are highly dependent on fuel type. Natural gas and No. 2 fuel oil are easily fired and flue gas residual combustibles are usually negligible. Coal, biomass and trash burners will usually have measurable unburned carbon...

  9. APPLICATION OF FAULT TREE ANALYSIS TO IGNITION OF FIRE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teresa Ling, W.C.

    2011-01-01

    Fig. 11 The Probability of Each Fire Scenario in a Kitchen ~Globerson, S. (1971). Berkeley Fire Incident Survey Initial1977. Evaluation of the Fire Hazard Household Fire Survey.

  10. WILDLAND WEEDS 19 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ling, Sharon Ewe Mei

    " (small fruit orchards) were examined. Ewe and her partners traveled approximately 600 km in the urban

  11. Design Considerations for Fire Safety 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, A. Grant; Schmidt, William A.; Degenkolb, John G.; Reilly, Edward J.; Robinson, A. Pitts; Sandvik, Robert G.; Semple, J. Brooks

    1971-01-28

    Papers presented at the Symposium on Design Considerations for Fire Safety at the Semiannual Meeting of The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers

  12. Fire Department, City of New York Fire SaFety education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schindler, Christian

    Fire Department, City of New York Fire SaFety education reSidential apartment Building Fire SaFety #7 Bill De Blasio, Mayor Daniel A. Nigro, Fire Commissioner Fire safety begins in your own apartment! Is your family fire safe? Protect yourself, your family and your neighbors. T here are special areas

  13. FireWatch: G.I.S.-assisted Wireless Sensor Networks for Forest Fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahabi, Cyrus

    FireWatch: G.I.S.-assisted Wireless Sensor Networks for Forest Fires Panayiotis G. Andreou, George and camera-based systems, are currently the predominant methods for detecting forest fires. Our study has-based approaches, FireWatch is able to detect forest fires more accurately and forecast the forest fire danger more

  14. Audit Report, "Fire Protection Deficiencies at Los Alamos National Laboratory"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-06-01

    The Department of Energy's Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) maintains some of the Nation's most important national security assets, including nuclear materials. Many of Los Alamos' facilities are located in close proximity to one another, are occupied by large numbers of contract and Federal employees, and support activities ranging from nuclear weapons design to science-related activities. Safeguarding against fires, regardless of origin, is essential to protecting employees, surrounding communities, and national security assets. On June 1, 2006, Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS), became the managing and operating contractor for Los Alamos, under contract with the Department's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In preparation for assuming its management responsibilities at Los Alamos, LANS conducted walk-downs of the Laboratory's facilities to identify pre-existing deficiencies that could give rise to liability, obligation, loss or damage. The walk-downs, which identified 812 pre-existing fire protection deficiencies, were conducted by subject matter professionals, including fire protection experts. While the Los Alamos Site Office has overall responsibility for the effectiveness of the fire protection program, LANS, as the Laboratory's operating contractor, has a major, day-to-day role in minimizing fire-related risks. The issue of fire protection at Los Alamos is more than theoretical. In May 2000, the 'Cerro Grande' fire burned about 43,000 acres, including 7,700 acres of Laboratory property. Due to the risk posed by fire to the Laboratory's facilities, workforce, and surrounding communities, we initiated this audit to determine whether pre-existing fire protection deficiencies had been addressed. Our review disclosed that LANS had not resolved many of the fire protection deficiencies that had been identified in early 2006: (1) Of the 296 pre-existing deficiencies we selected for audit, 174 (59 percent) had not been corrected; and, (2) A substantial portion of the uncorrected deficiencies, 86 (49 percent) were considered by the walk-down teams to be significant enough to warrant compensatory actions until the deficiency was corrected or was tracked to closure through implementation of corrective actions. Further, we found that 32 of the significant deficiencies had been closed by the previous Los Alamos contractor, prior to LANS assuming responsibility for operation of the Laboratory, even though the deficiencies had not been corrected. A fire protection expert provided technical support during the audit. As an example of uncorrected problems, LANS had not resolved, by performing periodic tests, a deficiency identified in 2006 regarding a kitchen hood fire suppression system in a facility located within the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. Such systems are required to be tested twice a year by the National Fire Protection Association standard, a standard that had been adopted by Department of Energy under DOE Order 420.1B. Yet, in 2006, the LANS walk-down team recognized that this system had not been inspected since May 2004 and noted that deficient suppression systems could result in significantly high levels of property damage and loss. After we brought this issue to management's attention on February 6, 2009, LANS officials stated that the Laboratory would correct this deficiency. As with the problems involving the fire suppression system, we observed that LANS had not always corrected life safety deficiencies involving building exits at one of its primary facilities. This included providing a secondary emergency exit for a building with occupants on multiple floor levels. LANS had removed personnel from the third floor and improved the sprinkler system of the facility, but it had still not provided a secondary exit for personnel on the second floor by the time we completed our review. NNSA has since stated that this fire protection issue will be completely addressed by relocating personnel from the second floor. Perhaps most serious, our testing revealed that a number of deficien

  15. February, 2010 Fire Analysis of the Shielded Container

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corporation William James RSL Safety Corporation Approvals: Sherman Butler, WTS Fire Protection Engineer, Washington TRU Solutions, LLC James McCormick, WTS Nuclear Safety Manager, Washington TRU Solutions, LLC #12) under contract with Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), subject to the warranty and other obligations

  16. CRAD, Fire Protection- Idaho Accelerated Retrieval Project Phase II

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2006 Commencement of Operations assessment of the Fire Protection program at the Idaho Accelerated Retrieval Project Phase II.

  17. Impacts of the Cerro Grande fire on Homestead era and Manhattan Project properties at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGehee, E. D. (Ellen D.); Isaacson, J. (John)

    2001-01-01

    In May of 2000, the Cerro Grande Fire burned approximately 8,000 acres of Department of Energy (DOE) managed land at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Although the fire was generally of low intensity, it impacted a significant number of LANL's cultural resources. Historic wooden properties were affected more heavily than prehistoric archaeological sites. This paper will provide an overview of the Homestead and Manhattan Project Periods at LANL and will discuss the effects of the Cerro Grande Fire on historic wooden properties. Post-fire cultural resource management issues will also be discussed.

  18. Fire Risk Assessments -Fire Extinguisher Provision Strategy General Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussex, University of

    Foam (AFFF) extinguishers. Electrical fires can be tackled using Carbon Dioxide (CO2) fire the potential severity of these outcomes to the user. Therefore, AFFF (6 litre) and CO2 (2 kg) will be the type that all plant rooms should have CO2 extinguishers located at any entrances to the plant room. Other

  19. Sandia Energy - Fire Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultidayAlumniProjectsCyberNotLEDPhaseFacilitiesFire Science Home

  20. Fire Safety Committee Meeting Minutes- May 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Fire Safety Committee Meeting Minutes, May, 2014 Topics included discussions on Fire modeling, revisions to DOE regulations and other important items relating to DOE and Fire Safety Community.

  1. Health Consequences of Forest Fires in Indonesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frankenberg, Elizabeth; McKee, Douglas; Thomas, Duncan

    2004-01-01

    to Lung Health of Haze From Forest Fires: The SingaporeJim, C.Y. 1999. “The Forest Fires in Indonesia 1997-1998:A Study of the 1997 Forest Fires in South East Asia Using

  2. Prescribed Fire is Cool on Florida Highway

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caster, Jeff; McBurney, Willson; Farley, Patricia; Rodriguez, Rose; Green, Lane; McGorty, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Only you can prevent forest fires! For all our lives we’veYou can’t prevent forest fires. We can, however, preventcan prevent wildfires. ” Forest fires will occur naturally,

  3. Using neutrons to fight forest fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egbert, Hal; Walker, Ronald; Flocchini, R.

    2006-01-01

    USING NEUTRONS TO FIGHT FOREST FIRES Hal Egbert, Ronaldretardant to the scene of forest fires. One system that goesretardant to the scene of forest fires. MAFFS is the acronym

  4. Forwardly-placed firearm fire control assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frickey, Steven J. (Rigby, ID)

    2001-12-22

    A firearm fire control assembly for disposition in a forwardly placed support-hand operative relationship within a firearm having a combination of a firing pin and a firearm hammer adapted to engage and fire a cartridge, a sear assembly to alternately engage and disengage the combination of the firearm hammer and firing pin, and a trigger assembly including a movable trigger mechanism that is operable to engage the sear assembly to cause the firearm hammer firing pin combination to fire the firearm, a fire control assembly including a fire control depression member and a fire control rod operably connected to the depression member, and being positioned in a forward disposition disposed within a forestock of the firearm, and the depression member adapted to be operably engaged and depressed by the user's conventional forwardly placed support hand to maneuver the fire control rod to provide firing control of the firing of the firearm.

  5. Test One: The ‘Uncontrolled’ Fire 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abecassis Empis, Cecilia; Cowlard, Adam; Welch, Stephen; Torero, Jose L

    2007-11-14

    The first of the Dalmarnock Fire Tests was a post-flashover compartment fire experiment held on July 25th, 2006, in a two-bedroom single-family flat on the 4th floor of the 23- storey reinforced concrete tower in Dalmarnock, ...

  6. Calculation of Fire Severity Factors and Fire Non-Suppression Probabilities For A DOE Facility Fire PRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tom Elicson; Bentley Harwood; Jim Bouchard; Heather Lucek

    2011-03-01

    Over a 12 month period, a fire PRA was developed for a DOE facility using the NUREG/CR-6850 EPRI/NRC fire PRA methodology. The fire PRA modeling included calculation of fire severity factors (SFs) and fire non-suppression probabilities (PNS) for each safe shutdown (SSD) component considered in the fire PRA model. The SFs were developed by performing detailed fire modeling through a combination of CFAST fire zone model calculations and Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS). Component damage times and automatic fire suppression system actuation times calculated in the CFAST LHS analyses were then input to a time-dependent model of fire non-suppression probability. The fire non-suppression probability model is based on the modeling approach outlined in NUREG/CR-6850 and is supplemented with plant specific data. This paper presents the methodology used in the DOE facility fire PRA for modeling fire-induced SSD component failures and includes discussions of modeling techniques for: • Development of time-dependent fire heat release rate profiles (required as input to CFAST), • Calculation of fire severity factors based on CFAST detailed fire modeling, and • Calculation of fire non-suppression probabilities.

  7. By Sandy Benson Forest Fuels Management Specialist,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    -intensity lightning fires kept tree density down and the forests were very well adapted to fire because of the healthyBy Sandy Benson Forest Fuels Management Specialist, Nebraska Forest Service Thinning is an excellent management tool for forest landowners to use to improve forest health and productivity

  8. Change Management in Heterogeneous Semistructured Databases (Demonstration Description) \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chawathe, Sudarshan S.

    Change Management in Heterogeneous Semistructured Databases (Demonstration Description) \\Lambda the trigger should fire. At Stanford we are addressing the problem of change management in heterogeneous TDIFF CORE QSS Tsimmis Figure 1: Components of our change management system subscribers of changes

  9. FIRE SAFETY REPORT ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & SAFETY SERVICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Don

    FIRE SAFETY REPORT 2014 ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & SAFETY SERVICES #12;1 | M T S U F I R E S A F E T Y R E P O R T FIRE SAFETY REPORT TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 2 RESPONSIBILITIES AND DUTIES OF THE MTSU FIRE MARSHAL 2 GENERAL 3 SMOKING POLICY 3 CLASS A COMBUSTIBLES 4 CLASS B COMBUSTIBLES 4 FIRE

  10. Fire Safety Report 2013 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linhardt, Robert J.

    Fire Safety Report 2013 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 110 Eighth Street Troy, NY 12180 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS From the Department of Environmental Health and Safety Page 1 Annual Fire Report Page 2 Reported Fires Page 5 Fire Safety Systems Page 7 #12;From the Department of Environmental Health and Safety (EH

  11. FIRE Project Action Plan in Response to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 FIRE Project Action Plan in Response to Next Step Options Program Advisory Committee Report (PAC1) FIRE Mission: Finding F1-1: PAC-1 felt that the FIRE mission statement, "Attain, explore, understand states the scientific direction and objectives of the FIRE program, but that the mission statement does

  12. 8, 42214266, 2008 Tropical forest fire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 8, 4221­4266, 2008 Tropical forest fire emissions R. J. Yokelson et al. Title Page Abstract Chemistry and Physics Discussions The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: laboratory fire Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 4221 #12;ACPD 8, 4221­4266, 2008 Tropical forest fire

  13. 7, 69036958, 2007 Tropical Forest fire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 7, 6903­6958, 2007 Tropical Forest fire emissions R. J. Yokelson et al. Title Page Abstract Discussions The Tropical Forest and fire emissions experiment: overview and airborne fire emission factor Forest Service, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT, USA Received: 4 May 2007 ­ Accepted: 10 May 2007

  14. GREAT PLAINS INTERSTATE FOREST FIRE COOPERATIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GREAT PLAINS INTERSTATE FOREST FIRE COMPACT COOPERATIVE ANNUAL OPERATING PLAN 2011 #12;Great Plains Interstate Forest Fire Compact Page 2 of 31 2011 Great Plains Forest Fire Compact AOP Table of Contents I. Intentionally Left Blank 28 K. Public Law 110-79 29 #12;Great Plains Interstate Forest Fire Compact Page 3 of 31

  15. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derbidge, T. Craig (Sunnyvale, CA); Mulholland, James A. (Chapel Hill, NC); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

    1986-01-01

    An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

  16. Development of custom fire behavior fuel models from FCCS fuelbeds for the Savannah River fuel assessment project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Joe, H.

    2009-07-23

    The purpose of this project is to create fire behavior fuel models that replicate the fire behavior characteristics (spread rate and fireline intensity) produced by 23 candidate FCCS fuelbeds developed for the Savannah River National Wildlife Refuge. These 23 fuelbeds were created by FERA staff in consultation with local fuel managers. The FCCS produces simulations of surface fire spread rate and flame length (and therefore fireline intensity) for each of these fuelbeds, but it does not produce maps of those fire behavior characteristics or simulate fire growth—those tasks currently require the use of the FARSITE and/or FlamMap software systems. FARSITE and FlamMap do not directly use FCCS fuelbeds, but instead use standard or custom fire behavior fuel models to describe surface fuel characteristics for fire modeling. Therefore, replicating fire growth and fire behavior potential calculations using FCCS?simulated fire characteristics requires the development of custom fuel models that mimic, as closely as possible, the fire behavior characteristics produced by the FCCS for each fuelbed, over a range of fuel moisture and wind speeds.

  17. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Fire Economics, Planning, and Policy: A Global View Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Fire Economics, Planning, and Policy: A Global View

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    problem is very present-day problem for Russia. Forest fires become disasters in 2 or 3 regions of Russia management of forest fire control system in Russia is one of the most important problems of conservancy and the movement of gas streams. These models require a number of parameters of forest information that 1 2

  18. Coal-fired power materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, V.; Purgert, R.; Rawls, P. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Advances in materials technologies over the last decade that is allowing coal-fired power plants to be built with higher efficiencies than the current generation are described. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Model Fire Protection Assessment Guide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This Assessment guide covers the implementation of the DOE's responsibility of assuring that DOE and the DOE Contractors have established Fire Protection Programs that are at the level required for the area being assessed.

  20. Travelling Fires for Structural Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stern-Gottfried, Jamie

    Traditional methods for specifying thermal inputs for the structural fire analysis of buildings assume uniform burning and homogeneous temperature conditions throughout a compartment, regardless of its size. This is in ...

  1. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Fire Economics, Planning, and Policy: A Global View United States Forest Service (USFS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : A Global View United States Forest Service (USFS) NRIS-INFORMS-Fire/Fuels Analysis Tool 1 David S. Martinez routines, and rule bases (a knowledge base component) Build and retain project alternatives via Arc Ecologist, Fire & Aviation Management, Southwestern Region, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

  2. Growth and reproduction of Scirpus americanus following fire and lesser snow geese herbivory on the upper Texas Gulf coast 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stahman, Matthew Glen

    1996-01-01

    and Louisiana Gulf coasts. Fire is used in the management of S-. ameficanus stands. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of fire and LSG herbivory on growth, development, and reproduction of SciEpus americanus. The study was conducted along...

  3. Incipient fire detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brooks, Jr., William K. (Newport News, VA)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for an incipient fire detection system that receives gaseous samples and measures the light absorption spectrum of the mixture of gases evolving from heated combustibles includes a detector for receiving gaseous samples and subjecting the samples to spectroscopy and determining wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples. The wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples are compared to predetermined absorption wavelengths. A warning signal is generated whenever the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples correspond to the predetermined absorption wavelengths. The method includes receiving gaseous samples, subjecting the samples to light spectroscopy, determining wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples, comparing the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples to predetermined absorption wavelengths and generating a warning signal whenever the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples correspond to the predetermined absorption wavelengths. In an alternate embodiment, the apparatus includes a series of channels fluidically connected to a plurality of remote locations. A pump is connected to the channels for drawing gaseous samples into the channels. A detector is connected to the channels for receiving the drawn gaseous samples and subjecting the samples to spectroscopy. The wavelengths of absorption are determined and compared to predetermined absorption wavelengths is provided. A warning signal is generated whenever the wavelengths correspond.

  4. Dynamics of fire plumes and smoke clouds associated with peat and deforestation fires in Indonesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tosca, M. G; Randerson, J. T; Zender, C. S; Nelson, D. L; Diner, D. J; Logan, J. A

    2011-01-01

    stereo heights of grassland fire smoke plumes in Australia,of 14 D08207 TOSCA ET AL. : FIRE SMOKE PLUMES ON BORNEO ANDthe 1997 Indonesian forest fire, Geophys. Res. Lett. , 30(

  5. FUEGO — Fire Urgency Estimator in Geosynchronous Orbit — A Proposed Early-Warning Fire Detection System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, Maggi

    2013-01-01

    Kaufman, J. ; Thode, A. Fire in California’s Ecosystems;of Forest and Range Fires; National Advanced ResourceM.J. ; Zhukov, B. ; Oertel, D. Fire radiative energy for

  6. How GIS and fire indices can be used in developing a fire prediction model for Scotland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacKinnon, Frances

    2008-12-05

    This project looks at how GIS and the six fire indices from the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System (FWI) could be used to aid in developing a fire prediction model for Scotland. Information on land cover type, ...

  7. FIRE /SMOKE The most effective method of fighting fires is to prevent them from occurring. All

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    FIRE /SMOKE The most effective method of fighting fires is to prevent them from occurring. All-305-7979 (CUMC) after evacuating. Procedures for UNCONTROLLABLE FIRES DO NOT stay to fight a large or rapidly

  8. A system dynamics view of project management firefighting at a startup company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiang, Melvin H. (Melvin Hsiang)

    2008-01-01

    Fire fighting in project management is the unplanned allocation of resources to either fix problems or speed completion of a project. In a startup company environment, fire fighting oftentimes becomes the norm rather than ...

  9. UC Fire Engineering Programme Structure The programme awards four qualifications: Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Fire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    UC Fire Engineering Programme Structure The programme awards four qualifications: Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Fire Engineering, Master of Engineering in Fire Engineering (MEFE), Master of Engineering Studies in Fire Engineering (MEngSt(Fire)) and a Postgraduate Certificate in Fire Engineering (PGCert(Fire

  10. How resilient are southwestern ponderosa pine forests after crown fires?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savage, M; Mast, J N

    2005-01-01

    of an intense prescribed forest fire: Is it ecologicalspecies to fires in Pinus ponderosa forests in northernIn Fire Effects in Southwestern Forests: Proceedings of the

  11. Fire Behavior Modeling - Experiment on Surface Fire Transition to the Elevated Live Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omodan, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    fraction combustion model for fire simulation using CFD, TheCFD Computational Fluid Dynamics FDS Fire Dynamics Simulator FS Forest Service HoC Heat of Combustion

  12. Housing Coordinator Fire Watch Implementation Checklist A Fire Watch is an inspection conducted by DFSL staff in order to provide fire and smoke detection and emergency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Wendell T.

    12 Fire Watch Housing Coordinator Fire Watch Implementation Checklist A Fire Watch is an inspection conducted by DFSL staff in order to provide fire and smoke detection and emergency warning to occupants when a building's fire alarm or sprinkler system is non-operational. Fire Watch inspectors serve as a "human smoke

  13. Fire Watch Inspector Checklist A Fire Watch is an inspection conducted by DFSL staff to provide fire and smoke detection and emergency warning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Wendell T.

    14 Fire Watch Fire Watch Inspector Checklist A Fire Watch is an inspection conducted by DFSL staff to provide fire and smoke detection and emergency warning to occupants when a building's fire alarm or sprinkler system is non-operational. Fire Watch inspectors serve as a "human smoke detector" and notify 911

  14. Evaluating fuel complexes for fire hazard mitigation planning in the southeastern United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreu, Anne G.; Shea, Dan; Parresol, Bernard, R.; Ottmar, Roger, D.

    2012-01-01

    Fire hazard mitigation planning requires an accurate accounting of fuel complexes to predict potential fire behavior and effects of treatment alternatives. In the southeastern United States, rapid vegetation growth coupled with complex land use history and forest management options requires a dynamic approach to fuel characterization. In this study we assessed potential surface fire behavior with the Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS), a tool which uses inventoried fuelbed inputs to predict fire behavior. Using inventory data from 629 plots established in the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain, South Carolina, we constructed FCCS fuelbeds representing median fuel characteristics by major forest type and age class. With a dry fuel moisture scenario and 6.4 km h{sub 1} midflame wind speed, the FCCS predicted moderate to high potential fire hazard for the majority of the fuelbeds under study. To explore fire hazard under potential future fuel conditions, we developed fuelbeds representing the range of quantitative inventorydata for fuelbed components that drive surface fire behavior algorithms and adjusted shrub species composition to represent 30% and 60% relative cover of highly flammable shrub species. Results indicate that the primary drivers of surface fire behavior vary by forest type, age and surface fire behavior rating. Litter tends to be a primary or secondary driver in most forest types. In comparison to other surface fire contributors, reducing shrub loading results in reduced flame lengths most consistently across forest types. FCCS fuelbeds and the results from this project can be used for fire hazard mitigation planning throughout the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain where similar forest types occur. The approach of building simulated fuelbeds across the range of available surface fuel data produces sets of incrementally different fuel characteristics that can be applied to any dynamic forest types in which surface fuel conditions change rapidly.

  15. Literature survey of blast and fire effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reitter, T.A.; McCallen, D.B.; Kang, S.W.

    1982-06-01

    The American literature of the past 30 years on fire and blast effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas has been surveyed. The relevant work is briefly sketched and areas where information is apparently lacking are noted. This report is intended to provide the basis for suggesting research priorities in the fire and blast effects area for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. It is also intended to provide entry into the literature for researchers. over 850 references are given.

  16. RISK MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK The UNIVERSITY of VERMONT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    RISK MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK UVM PEOPLE WORKING 2004 The UNIVERSITY of VERMONT #12;2 © 2004 University · Fire and Life Safety · Property Protection · Vehicle Safety · Liability Risk Management · Insurance & Claims Management RISK MANAGEMENT HANDBOOKThe UNIVERSITY of VERMONT #12;4 © 2004 University of Vermont

  17. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  18. Fire & Evacuation Plan Page | 1 Department of Biomedical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocke, David M.

    Fire & Evacuation Plan Page | 1 UC DAVIS Department of Biomedical Engineering FIRE & EVACUATION PLAN In compliance with: California Code of Regulations Title 8, Section 3220 Implementation Date: November 1, 2012 #12;Fire & Evacuation Plan Page | 2 UC DAVIS FIRE

  19. Fire suppression and detection equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.E. Bates [HSB Professional Loss Control, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2006-01-15

    Inspection and testing guidelines go beyond the 'Code of Federal Regulation'. Title 30 of the US Code of Federal Regulations (30 CFR) contains requirements and references to national standards for inspection, testing and maintenance of fire suppression and detection equipment for mine operators. However, federal requirements have not kept pace with national standards and best practices. The article lists National Fire Protection (NFPA) standards that are referenced by the US Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 30 CFR. It then discusses other NFPA Standards excluded from 30 CFR and explains the NFPA standard development process. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 5 photos.

  20. Fire and the Design of Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGuire, J

    Fire is one of the major hazards to life and property in buildings. Regulations in respect of fire safety therefore constitute a major part of every building bylaw. These regulations naturally influence the design of almost every building. Good...

  1. Underground fire at Auchengeich Colliery Lanarkshire 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, T. A.

    MINISTRY OF POWER UNDERGROUND FIRE AT AUCHENGEICH COLLIERY LANARKSHIRE REPORT On the causes of, and the circumstances attending, the fire which occurred at Auchengeich Colliery, Lanarkshire on 18th September, 1959 by T. ...

  2. Interactive simulation of fire, burn and decomposition 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melek, Zeki

    2009-05-15

    This work presents an approach to effectively integrate into one unified modular fire simulation framework the major processes related to fire, namely: a burning process, chemical combustion, heat distribution, decomposition and deformation...

  3. Nuclear Criticality Safety Guide for Fire Protection

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This guide is intended to provide information for use by fire protection professionals in the application of reasonable methods of fire protection in those facilities where there is a potential for nuclear criticality.

  4. Date ______________________ New York City Fire Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    Date ______________________ New York City Fire Department Bureau of Fire Prevention 9 Metro-Tech Brooklyn, New York 11201 ­ 5884 Dear Sir / Madam: I am pleased to recommend Street, New York, NY 10027 212-854-8749 #12;

  5. Fire performance of gable frame structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Congyi

    2013-01-01

    Fire protection engineering and structural engineering are two relevant but separated fields of study. Many experiments conducted by fire protection engineers are under certain ideal boundary conditions, which may not be ...

  6. Interactive simulation of fire, burn and decomposition 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melek, Zeki

    2008-10-10

    This work presents an approach to effectively integrate into one unified modular fire simulation framework the major processes related to fire, namely: a burning process, chemical combustion, heat distribution, decomposition and deformation...

  7. Assessing fire risk using Monte Carlo simulations of fire spread Yohay Carmel a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assessing fire risk using Monte Carlo simulations of fire spread Yohay Carmel a, *, Shlomit Paz b of Haifa, Haifa, Israel 1. Introduction Fires are a major source of forest destruction in the Mediterranean., 2000). Mediterranean fires are largely determined by climatic conditions; long, dry summers with high

  8. Limitations imposed on fire PRA methods as the result of incomplete and uncertain fire event data.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowlen, Steven Patrick; Hyslop, J. S. (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC)

    2010-04-01

    Fire probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods utilize data and insights gained from actual fire events in a variety of ways. For example, fire occurrence frequencies, manual fire fighting effectiveness and timing, and the distribution of fire events by fire source and plant location are all based directly on the historical experience base. Other factors are either derived indirectly or supported qualitatively based on insights from the event data. These factors include the general nature and intensity of plant fires, insights into operator performance, and insights into fire growth and damage behaviors. This paper will discuss the potential methodology improvements that could be realized if more complete fire event reporting information were available. Areas that could benefit from more complete event reporting that will be discussed in the paper include fire event frequency analysis, analysis of fire detection and suppression system performance including incipient detection systems, analysis of manual fire fighting performance, treatment of fire growth from incipient stages to fully-involved fires, operator response to fire events, the impact of smoke on plant operations and equipment, and the impact of fire-induced cable failures on plant electrical circuits.

  9. Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) fire scars reveal new details of a frequent fire regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stambaugh, Michael C

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) fire scars reveal new details of a frequent fire regime, University of Missouri ­ Columbia, MO 65211, USA Abstract Question: How frequent and variable were fire disturbances in longleaf pine ecosystems? Has the frequency and seasonality of fire events changed during

  10. Nacogdoches Fire DepartmentNacogdoches Fire Department Service Call Density andService Call Density and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hung, I-Kuai

    in areas of fire, rescue, medical emergencies,of fire, rescue, medical emergencies, hazardous materials ·· Medical AssistanceMedical Assistance ·· Hazardous Materials IncidentsHazardous Materials IncidentsBuilding of New Stations ­­ Locating Areas Fire Education Can BenefitLocating Areas Fire Education Can Benefit

  11. CQ2. Fire and Vegetation Composition How are fires and vegetation composition coupled?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian, Eric

    in conjunction with information on ecosystem health acquired from HyspIRI VSWIR data. Fire temperature retrieved: How does the timing, temperature and frequency of fires affect long-term ecosystem health? ! Science issue The state of an ecosystem can be affected by changes in fire regime. Changes in both fire

  12. Fire Protection for Underground Research Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presenter: James Priest, Ph.D., Senior Fire Protection Engineer ES&H, Universities Research Associates ? FNAL

  13. STATISTICAL METHODS FOR1 ESTIMATING HISTORICAL FIRE2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, W.J.

    STATISTICAL METHODS FOR1 ESTIMATING HISTORICAL FIRE2 FREQUENCY FROM MULTIPLE FIRE3 SCAR DATA.4 of fire-interval charts8 based on fire-scar data. Estimation of the fire interval (expected time9 between scar-registering fires at any location) by maximum likelihood10 is presented. Because of the fact

  14. Doctoral Defense "Structural reliability assessment under fire"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    Doctoral Defense "Structural reliability assessment under fire" Qianru Guo Date: December 11, 2014 Engineering Structural safety under fire has received significant attention in recent years. Current approaches to structural fire design are based on prescriptive codes that emphasize insulation of steel

  15. ANNUAL FIRE SAFETY REPORT October 1, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emmons, Scott

    ® ANNUAL FIRE SAFETY REPORT October 1, 2014 ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE JACK AND PEARL RESNICK CAMPUS BRONX, NY #12;2 October, 2014 POLICY: FIRE SAFETY REPORTING AND DISCLOSURES Introduction), the University has established the following reporting and disclosure procedures with respect to fire safety

  16. Fire Safety Report For CY 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandrova, Ivana

    Annual Security & Fire Safety Report For CY 2013 Higher Education Opportunity Act (Clery Act) #12;ANNUAL SECURITY & FIRE SAFETY REPORT UNDER THE CLERY ACT Page 2 of 125 AS&FSR, September 2014 http;ANNUAL SECURITY & FIRE SAFETY REPORT UNDER THE CLERY ACT Page 3 of 125 AS&FSR, September 2014 http

  17. Fire and the Compartmentation of Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGuire, J

    No building is free from the threat of fire. A designer, however, can ensure that only limited damage will result if fire breaks out by reducing the over-all fire risk. There are various means at his disposal, but the single design feature...

  18. 4, 27472779, 2004 Boreal forest fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 4, 2747­2779, 2004 Boreal forest fires 1997/1998 N. Spichtinger et al. Title Page Abstract Discussions Boreal forest fires in 1997 and 1998: a seasonal comparison using transport model simulations, 2747­2779, 2004 Boreal forest fires 1997/1998 N. Spichtinger et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  19. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Insect-Fire Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moorcroft, Paul R.

    and forest fires individually represent significant forest disturbances which have long-term effects on the dynamics and composition of forest ecosystems. Although it has long been speculated that forest fires of data on western spruce budworm out- breaks and forest fires in British Columbia using a spatiotemporal

  20. 7, 49254979, 2007 Forest fire plumes in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 4925­4979, 2007 Forest fire plumes in the European free troposphere A. Petzold et al. Title forest fire plumes during the ICARTT-ITOP Experiment in summer 2004 A. Petzold1 , B. Weinzierl1 , H Correspondence to: A. Petzold (andreas.petzold@dlr.de) 4925 #12;ACPD 7, 4925­4979, 2007 Forest fire plumes

  1. 6, 32273264, 2006 Forest fire smoke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 3227­3264, 2006 Forest fire smoke plume V. R. Kotamarthi et al. Title Page Abstract Discussions Modeling of trace gases from the 1998 North Central Mexico forest fire smoke plume, as measured Forest fire smoke plume V. R. Kotamarthi et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References

  2. FIRE AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FIRE AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN CALIFORNIA Changes in the Distribution and Frequency of Fire's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012026 Prepared for: California Energy Commission to climate change has the potential to induce alteration of future fire activity. This research presents just

  3. Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997-2009)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    at total deforestation car- bon emissions is prone to largesavanna on fires car- were bon emissions. Savanna fires

  4. Sandbaggers: A Guide for Understanding and Managing Underachievers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Presswood, Joseph D.

    2012-05-11

    Managers never fire people. People fire themselves. As a manager what can be done when encountering a problem employee? When does one use techniques such as motivation and counseling and when is it time to let the employee go? The first step...

  5. Annual Report 2002 Frederick & Anna B. Wiedman Professor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zanibbi, Richard

    .2.1 Forest fIRes imaging Experimental System (FIRES).....................................17 4.2.2 Emission.2 FIRES...........................................................................................17 4 line features and basic physical parameters of wildland fires................17 4.2.3 Distributed

  6. Algorithm FIRE -- Feynman Integral REduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Smirnov

    2008-08-02

    The recently developed algorithm FIRE performs the reduction of Feynman integrals to master integrals. It is based on a number of strategies, such as applying the Laporta algorithm, the s-bases algorithm, region-bases and integrating explicitly over loop momenta when possible. Currently it is being used in complicated three-loop calculations.

  7. Aging assessment for active fire protection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, S.B. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (United States); Nowlen, S.P.; Tanaka, T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This study assessed the impact of aging on the performance and reliability of active fire protection systems including both fixed fire suppression and fixed fire detection systems. The experience base shows that most nuclear power plants have an aggressive maintenance and testing program and are finding degraded fire protection system components before a failure occurs. Also, from the data reviewed it is clear that the risk impact of fire protection system aging is low. However, it is assumed that a more aggressive maintenance and testing program involving preventive diagnostics may reduce the risk impact even further.

  8. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  9. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1998-09-22

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

  10. Fire hazard analysis for the fuel supply shutdown storage buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REMAIZE, J.A.

    2000-09-27

    The purpose of a fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire and other perils within individual fire areas in a DOE facility in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE 5480.7A, Fire Protection, are met. This Fire Hazards Analysis was prepared as required by HNF-PRO-350, Fire Hazards Analysis Requirements, (Reference 7) for a portion of the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility.

  11. Chaotic Dynamics of Forest Fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Malarz; S. Kaczanowska; K. Kulakowski

    2002-04-25

    In the thermodynamic limit, a probabilistic cellular automaton can be approximated by a deterministic nonlinear map. Here we construct such a map for the forest fire problem. The construction is based on the results of the Monte Carlo simulation, performed on a square lattice of million cells. The results of the calculation are analyzed by means of the Hoshen--Kopelman algorithm (HKA). The only parameter of the map describes the probability that a tree appears at an empty cell during one time step. The obtained map seems to be non-differentiable at the percolation threshold. The Lyapunov exponent for the map is positive. Also, we found the cycle of length three by means of the method of symbolic dynamics. The results are illustrated by the experimental data on the forest fires in Canada in years 1970--2000. Although these data are fortunately far from thermodynamic limit, their qualitative character is reproduced for smaller lattices.

  12. Fire Ants and Their Control. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamman, Philip J.; Drees, Bastiaan M.; Vinson, S. Bradleigh

    1986-01-01

    Agricultural Extension Service because these substances are dangerously flammable, kill grass and plants around the treated mounds and can seriously pollute the soil. Other home remedies include soap solutions, cleaning products or wood ashes soaked... ant workers feed on parts of plants or remove planted corn, peanut or soybean seeds and/or seedlings. Seed treat ments or insecticides applied before or at planting to control soil insects usually will prevent fire ant damage, although...

  13. DOE Standard: Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1999-07-01

    The development of this Standard reflects the fact that national consensus standards and other design criteria do not comprehensively or, in some cases, adequately address fire protection issues at DOE facilities. This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard replaces certain mandatory fire protection requirements that were formerly in DOE 5480.7A, ``Fire Protection``, and DOE 6430.1A, ``General Design Criteria``. It also contains the fire protection guidelines from two (now canceled) draft standards: ``Glove Box Fire Protection`` and ``Filter Plenum Fire Protection``. (Note: This Standard does not supersede the requirements of DOE 5480.7A and DOE 6430.1A where these DOE Orders are currently applicable under existing contracts.) This Standard, along with the criteria delineated in Section 3, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  14. Application and Integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Science Application and Integration Program Spatial Variability of Wildland Fuel Wildland fuel fuel characteristics for dry forest and shrub ecosystems of the Mountain "Knowledge wildland fuel could revolutionize fire --Bob Keane We've always know What's different now? Although we've always known that fuels

  15. Fire and materials modeling for transportation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skocypec, R.D.; Gritzo, L.A.; Moya, J.L.; Nicolette, V.F.; Tieszen, S.R.; Thomas, R.

    1994-10-01

    Fire is an important threat to the safety of transportation systems. Therefore, understanding the effects of fire (and its interaction with materials) on transportation systems is crucial to quantifying and mitigating the impact of fire on the safety of those systems. Research and development directed toward improving the fire safety of transportation systems must address a broad range of phenomena and technologies, including: crash dynamics, fuel dispersion, fire environment characterization, material characterization, and system/cargo thermal response modeling. In addition, if the goal of the work is an assessment and/or reduction of risk due to fires, probabilistic risk assessment technology is also required. The research currently underway at Sandia National Laboratories in each of these areas is summarized in this paper.

  16. BRE large compartment fire tests – characterising post-flashover fires for model validation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welch, Stephen; Jowsey, Allan; Deeny, Susan; Morgan, Richard; Torero, Jose L

    2007-01-01

    Reliable and comprehensive measurement data from large-scale fire tests is needed for validation of computer fire models, but is subject to various uncertainties, including radiation errors in temperature measurement. Here, ...

  17. Alternative approach for fire suppression of class A, B and C fires in gloveboxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberger, Mark S; Tsiagkouris, James A

    2011-02-10

    Department of Energy (DOE) Orders and National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards require fire suppression in gloveboxes. Several potential solutions have been and are currently being considered at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective is to provide reliable, minimally invasive, and seismically robust fire suppression capable of extinguishing Class A, B, and C fires; achieve compliance with DOE and NFPA requirements; and provide value-added improvements to fire safety in gloveboxes. This report provides a brief summary of current approaches and also documents the successful fire tests conducted to prove that one approach, specifically Fire Foe{trademark} tubes, is capable of achieving the requirement to provide reliable fire protection in gloveboxes in a cost-effective manner.

  18. Fire Behavior Modeling - Experiment on Surface Fire Transition to the Elevated Live Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omodan, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    of FDS to recognize two fuels of different materials in theFire Behavior Prediction and Fuel Modeling System, BURN -K.P. Combustion of forest fuels in Forest Fire: Control and

  19. Fire dynamics and carbon cycling of miombo woodlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fire dynamics and carbon cycling of miombo woodlands Supervised by Mat Williams & Casey Ryan #12 extraction · Fire #12;#12;Research Questions 1. How does fire activity relate to forest biomass? 2. Can fire be linked to tree mortality? 3. Can modelling techniques be used to understand the impact of fire in SE

  20. Fire Hazard Analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOHNSON, B.H.

    1999-08-19

    This Fire Hazard Analysis assesses the risk from fire within individual fire areas in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility at the Hanford Site in relation to existing or proposed fire protection features to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE Order 5480.7A Fire Protection are met.

  1. forest ecology Using Fire to Increase the Scale, Benefits, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North, Malcolm

    forest ecology Using Fire to Increase the Scale, Benefits, and Future Maintenance of Fuels limited to affect fire severity and the Forest Service has predominantly focused on suppression, and institutional barriers to increased fire use that we discuss. Keywords: fire policy, fire suppression, forest

  2. Planning Rural Fire Protection for Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Jack L.

    1981-01-01

    include cost of fire fighting equipment, housing and annual operating expense. (See Section on Estimating Cost and Benefits.) Along with cost of a workable method of financing, the program should be outlined. During the planning stage, individuals... where no insurance credit is given for an unapproved water system or fire department, a fire insurance credit of 10 percent can be allowed for one automobile separate booster tank truck. This truck has a tank of not less than 350 gallons capacity, nor...

  3. Lead exposure at uncovered outdoor firing ranges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, R.L.; Hicks, A.M.; O'Leary, L.M.; London, S. (University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Excessive lead exposure in shooting instructors at indoor firing ranges and covered outdoor firing ranges has been documented. The City of Los Angeles assessed exposure of its full-time shooting instructors at uncovered outdoor ranges via air monitoring and blood lead-level measurements. Results of these tests revealed that significant lead exposure and absorption can occur at outdoor firing ranges. The use of copper-jacketed ammunition may decrease air lead levels and decrease lead absorption by range instructors.

  4. Test Plan to Assess Fire Effects on the Function of an Engineered Surface Barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Berlin, Gregory T.; Cammann, Jerry W.; Leary, Kevin D.; Link, Steven O.

    2008-09-29

    Wildfire is a frequent perturbation in shrub steppe ecosystems, altering the flora, fauna, atmosphere, and soil of these systems. Research on the fire effects has focused mostly on natural ecosystems with essentially no attention on engineered systems like surface barriers. The scope of the project is to use a simulated wildfire to induce changes in an engineered surface barrier and document the effects on barrier performance. The main objective is to quantify the effects of burning and the resulting post-fire conditions on alterations in soil physical properties; hydrologic response, particularly the water balance; geochemical properties; and biological properties. A secondary objective is to use the lessons learned to maximize fire protection in the design of long-term monitoring systems based on electronic sensors. A simulated wildfire will be initiated, controlled and monitored at the 200-BP-1 barrier in collaboration with the Hanford Fire Department during the fall of 2008. The north half of the barrier will be divided into nine 12 x 12 m plots, each of which will be randomly assigned a fuel load of 2 kg m-2 or 4 kg m-2. Each plot will be ignited around the perimeter and flames allowed to carry to the centre. Any remaining unburned vegetation will be manually burned off using a drip torch. Progress of the fire and its effects will be monitored using point measurements of thermal, hydrologic, and biotic variables. Three measures of fire intensity will be used to characterize fire behavior: (1) flame height, (2) the maximum temperature at three vertical profile levels, and (3) total duration of elevated temperature at these levels. Pre-burn plant information, including species diversity, plant height, and canopy diameter will be measured on shrubs from the plots to be burned and from control plots at the McGee ranch. General assessments of shrub survival, recovery, and recruitment will be made after the fire. Near-surface soil samples will be collected pre- and post-burn to determine changes in the gravel content of the surface layer so as to quantify inflationary or deflationary responses to fire and to reveal the ability of the surface to resist post-fire erosive stresses. Measures of bulk density, water repellency, water retention, and hydraulic conductivity will be used to characterize changes in infiltration rates and water storage capacity following the fire. Samples will also be analyzed to quantify geochemical changes including changes in soil pH, cation exchange capacity, specific surface area, and the concentration of macro nutrients (e.g. N, P, K) and other elements such as Na, Mg, Ca, that are critical to the post-fire recovery revegetation. Soil CO2 emissions will be measured monthly for one year following the burn to document post-fire stimulation of carbon turnover and soil biogenic emissions. Surface and subsurface temperature measurements at and near monitoring installations will be used to document fire effects on electronic equipment. The results of this study will be used to bridge the gaps in knowledge on the effects of fire on engineered ecosystems (e.g. surface barriers), particularly the hydrologic and biotic characteristics that govern the water and energy balance. These results will also support the development of practical fire management techniques for barriers that are compatible with wildfire suppression strategies. Furthermore, lessons learned will be use to develop installation strategies needed to protect electronic monitoring equipment from the intense heat of fire and the potential damaging effects of smoke and fire extinguishing agents. Such information is needed to better understand long-term barrier performance under extreme conditions, especially if site maintenance and operational funding is lost for activities such as barrier revegetation.

  5. Dynamics of fire plumes and smoke clouds associated with peat and deforestation fires in Indonesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tosca, M. G; Randerson, J. T; Zender, C. S; Nelson, D. L; Diner, D. J; Logan, J. A

    2011-01-01

    analyses suggested that direct injection of smoke into the4. Discussion [ 38 ] Direct injection of fire emissions into

  6. Tracking New Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    January 8, 2010 National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Systems Analyses and Planning Erik Shuster 2 Tracking New Coal-Fired Power Plants This report is intended to...

  7. LNG fire and vapor control system technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

  8. Identifying Socio-ecological Factors Influencing the Use of Prescribed Fire to Maintain and Restore Ecosystem Health in Texas, USA and Northern Chihuahua, Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toledo, David

    2013-01-10

    There is a critical need for more studies to identify socio-ecological drivers that affect conservation and management of fire adapted ecosystems, yet studies that identify such variables and explore their interaction in specific systems...

  9. EFFECTIVENESS OF REHABILITATION TREATMENTS IN REDUCING POST-FIRE EROSION AFTER THE HAYMAN AND SCHOONOVER FIRES,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Lee

    THESIS EFFECTIVENESS OF REHABILITATION TREATMENTS IN REDUCING POST-FIRE EROSION AFTER THE HAYMAN OF REHABILITATION TREATMENTS IN REDUCING POST- FIRE EROSION AFTER THE HAYMAN AND SCHOONOVER FIRES, COLORADO FRONT and damage human resources such as reservoirs, roads, and structures. Burned area emergency rehabilitation

  10. Aalborg Universitet Coal-firing and biomass-firing in a 150kW swirl stabilized burner flow reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    Aalborg Universitet Coal-firing and biomass-firing in a 150kW swirl stabilized burner flow reactor). Coal-firing and biomass-firing in a 150kW swirl stabilized burner flow reactor. Poster session-fired boiler could be far more challenging beca se b rner aerod namicsmore challenging, because burner

  11. SAN FRANCISCO STATE UNIVERSITY CRIME & FIRE STATISTICS FOR 2011-2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ovchinnikov, Sergei

    SAN FRANCISCO STATE UNIVERSITY 2014 CRIME & FIRE STATISTICS FOR 2011-2013 SAN FRANCISCO STATE UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY POLICE DEPARTMENT 1600 HOLLOWAY AVENUE SAN FRANCISCO, CA 94132 (415) 338-7200 / 24HRS FOR EMERGENCY DIAL 9-1-1 STUDENT AFFAIRS & ENROLLMENT MANAGEMENT Last updated October 1, 2014 #12;San Francisco

  12. Page 1 D. Dilling, T. Brown FIRE FACILITIES AND SITE REQUIREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with regulations for nuclear facilities. They must also include systems to manage tritium and tritiated water, activated dust, and radioactive waste material. Maintenance activities on FIRE will require the use service connections will be required to feed power to the copper magnet system and deliver plasma

  13. CRAD, Fire Protection- Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for an assessment of the Fire Protection Program portion of an Operational Readiness Review at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility.

  14. CRAD, Fire Protection- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2006 Commencement of Operations assessment of the Fire Protection program at the Idaho Accelerated Retrieval Project Phase II.

  15. Application of SAC88 to Estimating Hydrologic Effects of Fire on a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abstract: SAC88 is a major revision of the Sacramento Model, which was developed in 1969 with minor vegetation. THE SACRAMENTO MODEL The Sacramento Model was developed in 1969 by National Weather Service at the Symposium on Fire and Watershed Management, October 26-28, 1988, Sacramento, California. 2

  16. EM Takes on Next Environmental Cleanup Challenge at SRS: Coal-Fired Ash

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    AIKEN, S.C. – A large, 1950s-era, coal-fired power plant sits cold and dark at the Savannah River Site (SRS), but employees with EM and its management and operations contractor are preparing to clean up the facility’s substantial quantities of ash generated over the decades.

  17. Long-term fire history in northern Quebec: implications for the northern limit of commercial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asselin, Hugo

    Long-term fire history in northern Quebec: implications for the northern limit of commercial in Sustainable Forest Management, 445 boul. de l'Universite, Rouyn-Noranda, Quebec J9X 5E4, Canada; 2 Centre d'Etude de la For^et, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada; 3 Centre de Bio

  18. DEVS-FIRE: Towards an Integrated Simulation Environment for Surface Wildfire Spread and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ntaimo, Lewis

    to maintain a manageable fuel load- ing for forests susceptible to destructive wildfires. How- ever, wildfires Lewis Ntaimo Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering Texas A&M University, College Station TX to the complexity of fire behavior. In this paper, the authors present an integrated simulation environment

  19. Fire Safety Tests for Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin: Data Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Peterson, Reid A.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2012-07-30

    A draft safety evaluation of the scenario for spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (SRF) resin fire inside the ion exchange column was performed by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Fire Safety organization. The result of this draft evaluation suggested a potential change of the fire safety classification for the Cesium Ion Exchange Process System (CXP) emergency elution vessels, equipment, and piping, which may be overly bounding based on the fire performance data from the manufacturer of the ion exchange resin selected for use at the WTP. To resolve this question, the fire properties of the SRF resin were measured by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), following the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard procedures, through a subcontract managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). For some tests, the ASTM standard procedures were not entirely appropriate or practical for the SRF resin material, so the procedures were modified and deviations from the ASTM standard procedures were noted. This report summarizes the results of fire safety tests performed and reported by SwRI. The efforts by PNNL were limited to summarizing the test results provided by SwRI into one consolidated data report. All as-received SwRI reports are attached to this report in the Appendix. Where applicable, the precision and bias of each test method, as given by each ASTM standard procedure, are included and compared with the SwRI test results of the SRF resin.

  20. Fire Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdistoWhiskey flats 100k.pdf Jump to:WindP.pdfFire Resources Jump to:

  1. UC leads effort to protect California forests from catastrophic fire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warnert, Jeannette E

    2012-01-01

    forests from catastrophic fire F ire has always been a partthe past 100 years, a national fire suppression policy hasthe natural order. “By studying fire scars on tree rings,

  2. Annual Fire Protection Program Summary for Calendar Year 2012...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DOE experienced no fire-related fatalities, but three off-site firefighters from the nearby Manorville fire department were injured during a BNL range fire on April 9, 2012. There...

  3. Game-Method Model for Field Fires Nina Dobrinkova1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fidanova, Stefka

    Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences krat@bas.bg Abstract. Every year about 45000 forest fires occur fire. This model can be used also by non specialist in the forest fires field for learn- ing

  4. UC leads effort to protect California forests from catastrophic fire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warnert, Jeannette E

    2012-01-01

    because of its Humans and forest fire credibility on allof the 20th century, natural forest fires out forest fuelsto make Sierra Nevada forests more fire resil- ient is an

  5. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Randerson, J. T; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G. R; Rogers, B. M; Morton, D. C

    2012-01-01

    emissions from Canadian forest fires, 1959–1999, Can. J.released from peat and forest fires in Indo- nesia duringSpatial patterns of forest fires in Canada, 1980–1999, Int.

  6. The Impact of Boreal Forest Fire on Climate Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    The Impact of Boreal Forest Fire on Climate Warming J. T.analysis of a boreal forest fire, integrating the effects ofnet effect of a boreal forest fire on climate, on the basis

  7. Live Fire Range Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-08-01

    The Central Training Academy (CTA) is a DOE Headquarters Organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the mission to effectively and efficiently educate and train personnel involved in the protection of vital national security interests of DOE. The CTA Live Fire Range (LFR), where most of the firearms and tactical training occurs, is a complex separate from the main campus. The purpose of the proposed action is to expand the LFR to allow more options of implementing required training. The Department of Energy has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed construction and operation of an expanded Live Fire Range Facility at the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  8. Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997-2009)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    released from peat and forest fires in Indonesia duringZhang, Y. H. : Boreal forest fires burn less in- tensely inemissions from boreal forest fires, J. Geophys. Res. -Atmos,

  9. Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997-2009)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    in Canadian boreal forest fires, Can. J. Forest Res. , 39,emissions from boreal forest fires, J. Geophys. Res. -Atmos,released from peat and forest fires in Indonesia during

  10. Fire Department Gets New Trucks, Saves Money

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, Wash. – Last year, the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) set out to replace its aging chemical truck used for metal fires. Originally purchased to respond to potential incidents at the Fast Flux Test Facility, the 31-year-old vehicle was at the end of its lifecycle.

  11. Annual Fire Safety Report For Student Housing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltisberger, Jay H.

    and electrically wired smoke detectors with battery backups are located in individual living units have battery back-ups. Evacuation Procedures Students must evacuate during a fire alarm and proceed environment, free from known fire hazards. The college's goal is to recognize hazardous conditions and take

  12. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis May 2005 MIT LFEE 2005. LFEE 2005-002 Report #12;#12;i ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologies environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal (PC), integrated coal gasification combined cycle

  13. Characterisation of Dalmarnock Fire Test One 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abecassis Empis, Cecilia; Reszka, Pedro; Steinhaus, Thomas; Cowlard, Adam; Biteau, Hubert; Welch, Stephen; Rein, Guillermo; Torero, Jose L

    2008-01-01

    The Dalmarnock Tests comprise a set of fire experiments conducted in a real high-rise building in July 2006. The two main tests took place in identical flats, Test One allowing the fire to develop freely to post-flashover ...

  14. UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON FIRE DRILL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matrajt, Graciela

    UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON FIRE DRILL REPORT ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY Building Name Facility or Building Administrator/Coordinator Date of Drill Device Activated (location) Time Initiated Time Completed Verify that all procedures for preparing and conducting fire drills have been completed. Do not activate

  15. Risk assessment compatible fire models (RACFMs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, A.R.; Gritzo, L.A.; Sherman, M.P.

    1998-07-01

    A suite of Probabilistic Risk Assessment Compatible Fire Models (RACFMs) has been developed to represent the hazard posed by a pool fire to weapon systems transported on the B52-H aircraft. These models represent both stand-off (i.e., the weapon system is outside of the flame zone but exposed to the radiant heat load from fire) and fully-engulfing scenarios (i.e., the object is fully covered by flames). The approach taken in developing the RACFMs for both scenarios was to consolidate, reconcile, and apply data and knowledge from all available resources including: data and correlations from the literature, data from an extensive full-scale fire test program at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) at China Lake, and results from a fire field model (VULCAN). In the past, a single, effective temperature, T{sub f}, was used to represent the fire. The heat flux to an object exposed to a fire was estimated using the relationship for black body radiation, {sigma}T{sub f}{sup 4}. Significant improvements have been made by employing the present approach which accounts for the presence of temperature distributions in fully-engulfing fires, and uses best available correlations to estimate heat fluxes in stand-off scenarios.

  16. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  17. FIRE AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moritz, Max A.

    's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012026 Prepared for: California Energy Commission FIRE AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN CALIFORNIA Changes in the Distribution and Frequency of Fire the University of California, Davis, provided downscaling and hydrologic modeling of climate data

  18. Land Use and Wildfire: A Review of Local Interactions and Teleconnections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, Maggi

    2015-01-01

    J. ; García-Martínez, E. Forest fires in the wildland-urbanof dwelling types for forest fire prevention. Comput.and the mitigation of forest-fire risk. Proc. Natl. Acad.

  19. Land Use and Wildfire: A Review of Local Interactions and Teleconnections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, Maggi

    2015-01-01

    and the mitigation of forest-fire risk. Proc. Natl. Acad.J. ; García-Martínez, E. Forest fires in the wildland-urbanof dwelling types for forest fire prevention. Comput.

  20. Tree Mortality following Prescribed Fire and a Storm Surge Event in Slash Pine ( Pinus elliottii var. densa ) Forests in the Florida Keys, USA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sah, Jay P.; Ross, Michael S.; Snyder, James R.; Ogurcak, Danielle E.

    2010-01-01

    In fire-dependent forests, managers are interested in predicting the consequences of prescribed burning on postfire tree mortality. We examined the effects of prescribed fire on tree mortality in Florida Keys pine forests, using a factorial design with understory type, season, and year of burn as factors. We also used logistic regression to model the effects of burn season, fire severity, and tree dimensions on individual tree mortality. Despite limited statistical power due to problems in carrying out the full suite of planned experimental burns, associations with tree and fire variables were observed. Post-fire pine tree mortality was negatively correlated withmore »tree size and positively correlated with char height and percent crown scorch. Unlike post-fire mortality, tree mortality associated with storm surge from Hurricane Wilma was greater in the large size classes. Due to their influence on population structure and fuel dynamics, the size-selective mortality patterns following fire and storm surge have practical importance for using fire as a management tool in Florida Keys pinelands in the future, particularly when the threats to their continued existence from tropical storms and sea level rise are expected to increase.« less

  1. Tree Mortality following Prescribed Fire and a Storm Surge Event in Slash Pine (Pinus elliottiivar.densa) Forests in the Florida Keys, USA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sah, Jay P.; Ross, Michael S.; Snyder, James R.; Ogurcak, Danielle E.

    2010-01-01

    In fire-dependent forests, managers are interested in predicting the consequences of prescribed burning on postfire tree mortality. We examined the effects of prescribed fire on tree mortality in Florida Keys pine forests, using a factorial design with understory type, season, and year of burn as factors. We also used logistic regression to model the effects of burn season, fire severity, and tree dimensions on individual tree mortality. Despite limited statistical power due to problems in carrying out the full suite of planned experimental burns, associations with tree and fire variables were observed. Post-fire pine tree mortality was negatively correlated withmore »tree size and positively correlated with char height and percent crown scorch. Unlike post-fire mortality, tree mortality associated with storm surge from Hurricane Wilma was greater in the large size classes. Due to their influence on population structure and fuel dynamics, the size-selective mortality patterns following fire and storm surge have practical importance for using fire as a management tool in Florida Keys pinelands in the future, particularly when the threats to their continued existence from tropical storms and sea level rise are expected to increase.« less

  2. Hydrocarbon characterization experiments in fully turbulent fires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ricks, Allen; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-05-01

    As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. The model for the fuel evaporation rate in a liquid fuel pool fire is significant because in well-ventilated fires the evaporation rate largely controls the total heat release rate from the fire. A set of experiments are outlined in this report which will provide data for the development and validation of models for the fuel regression rates in liquid hydrocarbon fuel fires. The experiments will be performed on fires in the fully turbulent scale range (> 1 m diameter) and with a number of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from lightly sooting to heavily sooting. The importance of spectral absorption in the liquid fuels and the vapor dome above the pool will be investigated and the total heat flux to the pool surface will be measured. The importance of convection within the liquid fuel will be assessed by restricting large scale liquid motion in some tests. These data sets will provide a sound, experimentally proven basis for assessing how much of the liquid fuel needs to be modeled to enable a predictive simulation of a fuel fire given the couplings between evaporation of fuel from the pool and the heat release from the fire which drives the evaporation.

  3. Material Analysis for a Fire Assessment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Alexander; Nemer, Martin

    2014-08-01

    This report consolidates technical information on several materials and material classes for a fire assessment. The materials include three polymeric materials, wood, and hydraulic oil. The polymers are polystyrene, polyurethane, and melamine- formaldehyde foams. Samples of two of the specific materials were tested for their behavior in a fire - like environment. Test data and the methods used to test the materials are presented. Much of the remaining data are taken from a literature survey. This report serves as a reference source of properties necessary to predict the behavior of these materials in a fire.

  4. Method of locating underground mines fires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laage, Linneas (Eagam, MN); Pomroy, William (St. Paul, MN)

    1992-01-01

    An improved method of locating an underground mine fire by comparing the pattern of measured combustion product arrival times at detector locations with a real time computer-generated array of simulated patterns. A number of electronic fire detection devices are linked thru telemetry to a control station on the surface. The mine's ventilation is modeled on a digital computer using network analysis software. The time reguired to locate a fire consists of the time required to model the mines' ventilation, generate the arrival time array, scan the array, and to match measured arrival time patterns to the simulated patterns.

  5. Management and Conservation Effects of Rangeland Management on the Site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandercock, Brett K.

    research. We surveyed the site during mid-Mar to mid-May, 1981­2008, and recorded detections of birds use with prescribed fire or grazing management influenced the dynamic processes of site colonization. We found that different sets of environmental factors impacted the probabilities of colonization

  6. If a fire should occur... CLOSE the doors to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Faruque, Mohammad Abdullah

    If a fire should occur... · CLOSE the doors to stop the spread of the fire · SOUND the alarm, alert others to the danger · GET OUT of the building · NOTIFY the fire department DO NOT go back into the building or try to save your stuff. Clothes, books and papers can be replaced- YOU CAN'T! Living With Fire

  7. Forest Fire Modeling and Early Detection using Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Richard "Hao"

    Forest Fire Modeling and Early Detection using Wireless Sensor Networks MOHAMED HEFEEDA Simon Fraser University, Canada Forest fires cost millions of dollars in damages and claim many human lives for early detection of forest fires. We first present the key aspects in modeling forest fires. We do

  8. Post-Fire Vegetation Response 49 Barbara A. Holzman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruns, Tom

    -Fire Vegetation Response in the Bishop Pine Forest at Point Reyes National Seashore Chinook helicopter dropping

  9. Forests, Foraging and Fires August 23November 12, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    Forests, Foraging and Fires August 23­November 12, 2014 Forests, Foraging and Fires Catherine, Shannon Durbin is fascinated by the conflict between the role of fire in maintaining healthy forests beauty of forest fires." In the installation Thank You, Fog, Spencer Finch presents 60 photographs made

  10. LBTO Forest Fire Contingency Plan 5 Doc_info_start

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziurys, Lucy M.

    LBTO Forest Fire Contingency Plan 5 Doc_info_start Title: LBTO Forest Fire Contingency Plan: Date_of_Release: File Type: MS Word Local Name: LBTO Forest Fire Contingency Plan Category: Overview: 004s001 Revision: a Doc_info_end #12;LBTO Forest Fire Contingency Plan 4 TO SECURE THE LBTO ENCLOSURE

  11. Why Does the Sun Shine? Is the Sun on Fire?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Frederick M.

    Why Does the Sun Shine? #12;Is the Sun on Fire? Fire (oxidation) produces light and heat, just like the Sun. Source: chemical potential energy Suppose the Sun were made of carbon and oxygen. ·The Sun could) * mp N = M / MCO2 = 2.6 X 1055 (number of reactions possible) #12;Is the Sun on Fire? Fire produces

  12. Why Does the Sun Shine? Is the Sun on Fire?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Frederick M.

    Why Does the Sun Shine? #12;Is the Sun on Fire? Fire (oxidation) produces light and heat, just like the Sun. Source: chemical potential energy Suppose the Sun were made of carbon and oxygen. · The Sun could) * mp N = M¤ / MCO2 = 2.6 X 1055 (number of reactions possible) #12;Is the Sun on Fire? Fire produces

  13. COMPARING SIMULATION METHODS FOR FIRE SPREADING ACROSS A FUEL BED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wainer, Gabriel

    choice to solve the problem. Diffusion processes (oil spills, fire spread, insect infestation, etcCOMPARING SIMULATION METHODS FOR FIRE SPREADING ACROSS A FUEL BED Alexandre Muzy Computer Modeling computer simulation of a semi-physical fire spread model. Forest fire is a com- plex phenomenon, which

  14. Reduction of fire hazards on large mining equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maria I. De Rosa

    2008-09-15

    Although standards and regulations are in place to prevent large mining equipment fires, recent analyses of mine accident data show that mining equipment fires still occur with alarming frequency and grave consequences, particularly at all surface mines and in underground metal/nonmetal mines. Recently technological advances in fire protection, combined with the statistical data on equipment fires, led NIOSH to reinvestigate this and to improve operator safety. NIOSH demonstrated that newly developed technologies, such as dual cab fire inerting systems and engine compartment fire barriers, can greatly enhance operator safety and lessen the damage of property during large mobile equipment fires. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Computerized fire modeling as an effective tool for glovebox fire safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    In 1986, DOE instituted a program of intense audits by outside safety experts as a result of increased awareness of safety related issues. These audits were referred to as (TSA's). In 1988, a third TSA was conducted of one of the major production buildings. One of the findings of a Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) was that at Rocky Flats fire dampers are not installed within HVAC ductwork where the duct passes through fire barrier walls. Fire dampers are not utilized in ductwork because the exhaust air flow from process areas is critical from a radiological containment standpoint. Without adequate exhaust during a postulated fire, there would be the potential for radiological contamination exterior to the building. Due to this is an intolerable situation, fire dampers are not utilized. The final solution investigated was to attack the problem through the use of a computerized fire model of critical fire areas. The fact that fuel loading in most production areas was very low (3 to 7 pounds per square foot) led to the hypothesis that insufficient fire intensity exists to cause collapse of the duct. In order to validate this approach, two critical elements were needed. The first was a method to postulate a fire in the fire areas'' and the second was to determine at what exact point ducts will actually collapse. The best approach for the first element was through the use of a computerized fire model. The second element approach would be through either sound full scale fire testing or through a complete research search of past tests.

  16. Fighting Fire with Fire: Modeling the Datacenter-Scale Effects of Targeted Superlattice Thermal Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherwood, Tim

    power consumption and cost in cooling ­ 50100% of IT power. Recent advances in active cooling techniques. Even as processor complexity and technology scaling has increased the average energy density inside such as the load-store queue and other CAM-based units, and the peak temperatures on chip can be much worse than

  17. Fire Safety Tests for Cesium-Loaded Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin: Data Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2012-09-01

    A draft safety evaluation of the scenario for spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (SRF) resin fire inside the ion exchange column was performed by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Fire Safety organization. The result of this draft evaluation suggested a potential change of the fire safety classification for the Cesium Ion Exchange Process System (CXP) emergency elution vessels, equipment, and piping. To resolve this question, the fire properties of the SRF resin were measured by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) through a subcontract managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The results of initial fire safety tests on the SRF resin were documented in a previous report (WTP-RPT-218). The present report summarizes the results of additional tests performed by SwRI on the cesium-loaded SRF resin. The efforts by PNNL were limited to summarizing the test results provided by SwRI into one consolidated data report. The as-received SwRI report is attached to this report in the Appendix A. Where applicable, the precision and bias of each test method, as given by each American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard procedure, are included and compared with the SwRI test results of the cesium-loaded SRF resin.

  18. ADJECTIVE RATINGS FOR FIRE BEHAVIOR For many years now in America we have used the National Fire Danger Rating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danger Rating System (Deeming, et al, 1978) adjective ratings to describe the "fire danger" for a given of descriptive advice of the "danger" of having an ignition based on historic weather data for what kind of fire these ratings meant regarding potential fire behavior. Furthermore, they described "fire danger" which

  19. Phasic Firing Time Locked to Cocaine Self-Infusion and Locomotion: Dissociable Firing Patterns of Single Nucleus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Mark O.

    Phasic Firing Time Locked to Cocaine Self-Infusion and Locomotion: Dissociable Firing Patterns-administration sessions (0.7 mg/kg per infusion, fixed ratio 1). We reported previously that NAcc neurons showed a change in firing occurs during the interval that elapses between successive cocaine self-infusions. Firing rate

  20. Posteriori Modelling of Fire Test One 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahn, Wolfram; Rein, Guillermo; Torero, Jose L

    2007-10-14

    This work shows that reproducing fire behaviour of a full-scale enclosure on a detailed level using CFD simulations is possible to certain degree but is a very challenging task. A posteriori (ie after the test) numerical ...

  1. A New Approach to Optimizing Fired Heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garg, A.

    2010-01-01

    Fired heaters are the largest consumers of energy in refineries and petrochemical plants. Most heaters in the industry are not operating at their peak efficiency. There could be several reasons for that. One of the common reasons is the fluctuation...

  2. Experiments and Observation of Peat Smouldering Fires 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashton, Clare; Rein, Guillermo; Dios, JD; Torero, Jose L; Legg, C; Davies, M; Gray, A

    2007-01-30

    If a subsurface layer of peat is ignited, it smoulders (flameless combustion) slowly but steadily. These fires propagate for long periods of time (days, weeks, even years), are particularly difficult to extinguish and can ...

  3. Tall building collapse mechanisms initiated by fire 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usmani, Asif; Roben, Charlotte; Johnston, Louise; Flint, Graeme

    This paper introduces the hypothesis of two possible failure mechanisms for tall buildings in multiple floor fires. This paper extends the previous work done on the WTC towers by investigating more "generic" tall building frames made of standard...

  4. One-dimensional general forest fire processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bressaud, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We consider the one-dimensional generalized forest fire process: at each site of $\\zz$, seeds and matches fall according some i.i.d. stationary renewal processes. When a seed falls on an empty site, a tree grows immediately. When a match falls on an occupied site, a fire starts and destroys immediately the corresponding connected component of occupied sites. Under some quite reasonable assumptions on the renewal processes, we show that when matches become less and less frequent, the process converges, with a correct normalization, to a limit forest fire model. According to the nature of the renewal processes governing seeds, there are four possible limit forest fire models. The four limit processes can be perfectly simulated. This study generalizes consequently a previous result of the authors where seeds and matches were assumed to fall according to Poisson processes.

  5. Understanding Fire Fighting in New Product Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Repenning, Nelson

    Despite documented benefits, the processes described in the new product development literature often prove difficult to follow in practice. A principal source of such difficulties is the phenomenon of fire fighting the ...

  6. Fire Imposed Heat Fluxes for Structural Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jowsey, Allan

    The last two decades have seen new insights, data and analytical methods to establish the behaviour of structures in fire. These methods have slowly migrated into practice and now form the basis for modern quantitative ...

  7. Fire Brigades costs and organisational arrangements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoyle, W.H.H.

    Basic cost curves for fire brigades in England and Wales are presented. The relationships are used to investigate the financial consequenoes of enlarging present brigade responsibilities in terms of the scope of service ...

  8. POST-FIRE REVEGETATION AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROOS RC; JOHNSON AR; CAUDILL JG; RODRIGUEZ JM; WILDE JW

    2010-01-05

    Range fires on the Hanford Site can have a long lasting effect on native plant communities. Wind erosion following removal of protective vegetation from fragile soils compound the damaging effect of fires. Dust storms caused by erosion create health and safety hazards to personnel, and damage facilities and equipment. The Integrated Biological Control Program (IBC) revegetates burned areas to control erosion and consequent dust. Use of native, perennial vegetation in revegetation moves the resulting plant community away from fire-prone annual weeds, and toward the native shrub-steppe that is much less likely to burn in the future. Over the past 10 years, IBC has revegetated major fire areas with good success. IBC staff is monitoring the success of these efforts, and using lessons learned to improve future efforts.

  9. Office of Emergency Management UCF Facilities and Safety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    is lost. Bring extra batteries Fully charge cell phones and lap tops and keep chargers with you #12;Office, and charger Fire extinguisher Important documents #12;Office of Emergency Management UCF Facilities and Safety

  10. Wild Fire Computer Model Helps Firefighters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canfield, Jesse

    2012-09-04

    A high-tech computer model called HIGRAD/FIRETEC, the cornerstone of a collaborative effort between U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station and Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides insights that are essential for front-line fire fighters. The science team is looking into levels of bark beetle-induced conditions that lead to drastic changes in fire behavior and how variable or erratic the behavior is likely to be.

  11. A Wood-Fired Gas Turbine Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, S. H.; Hamrick, J. T.

    1986-01-01

    TURBINE PLANT Sam H. Powell, Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, Tennessee Joseph T. Hamrick, Aerospace Research Corporation, RBS Electric, Roanoke, VA Abstract This paper covers the research and development of a wood-fired gas turbine unit... of the walls. This wood?fired gas turbine unit could provide a low cost source of power for areas where conventional methods are now prohibitive and provide a means for recovering energy from a source that now poses disposal problems. When the Tennessee...

  12. Wild Fire Computer Model Helps Firefighters

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Canfield, Jesse

    2014-06-02

    A high-tech computer model called HIGRAD/FIRETEC, the cornerstone of a collaborative effort between U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station and Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides insights that are essential for front-line fire fighters. The science team is looking into levels of bark beetle-induced conditions that lead to drastic changes in fire behavior and how variable or erratic the behavior is likely to be.

  13. Path Planning Algorithm for Extinguishing Forest Fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, M P Sivaram

    2012-01-01

    One of the major impacts of climatic changes is due to destroying of forest. Destroying of forest takes place in many ways but the majority of the forest is destroyed due to wild forest fires. In this paper we have presented a path planning algorithm for extinguishing fires which uses Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs) for detecting fires. Since most of the works on forest fires are based on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and a collection of work has been done on coverage, message transmission, deployment of nodes, battery power depletion of sensor nodes in WSNs we focused our work in path planning approach of the Actor to move to the target area where the fire has occurred and extinguish it. An incremental approach is presented in order to determine the successive moves of the Actor to extinguish fire in an environment with and without obstacles. This is done by comparing the moves determined with target location readings obtained using sensors until the Actor reaches the target area to extinguish f...

  14. 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility closure plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site, located northwest of the city of Richland, Washington, houses reactors, chemical-separation systems, and related facilities used for the production of special nuclear materials, and activities associated with nuclear energy development. The 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF), which was in operation from about 1972 to 1986, was a research laboratory that occupied the former ventilation supply room on the southwest side of the 105-DR Reactor facility. The LSFF was established to provide a means of investigating fire and safety aspects associated with large sodium or other metal alkali fires in the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) facilities. The 105-DR Reactor facility was designed and built in the 1950`s and is located in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site. The building housed the 105-DR defense reactor, which was shut down in 1964. The LSFF was initially used only for engineering-scale alkali metal reaction studies. In addition, the Fusion Safety Support Studies program sponsored intermediate-size safety reaction tests in the LSFF with lithium and lithium lead compounds. The facility has also been used to store and treat alkali metal waste, therefore the LSFF is subject to the regulatory requirements for the storage and treatment of dangerous waste. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610. This closure plan presents a description of the facility, the history of waste managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the LSFF as an Alkali Metal Treatment Facility. No future use of the LSFF is expected.

  15. Residence Hall Fire and Fire Alarm Procedures Page 1 of 3 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University No. 5605 Rev.: 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Residence Hall Fire and Fire Alarm Procedures Page 1 of 3 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State ____________________________________________________________________________________ Subject: Residence Hall Fire and Fire Alarm Procedures ...........................................................................................................................2 1. Purpose Outlined below are the procedures to be followed should there be a fire alarm or fire

  16. Fire Safety Policy The College is a responsible employer that takes its fire safety duties seriously. For that1.1.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    Fire Safety Policy 1. General The College is a responsible employer that takes its fire safety legal obligations to staff and visitors under the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 (The Order associated with fire b) Reduce the risk of an outbreak of fire c) Reduce the risk of the spread of fire d

  17. Environmental Management Headquarters Corrective Action Plan - Truck Fire |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLfor InnovativeProcessing FacilityJanuary 20,membershipRelease Phase II

  18. Has fire suppression increased the amount of carbon stored in western U.S. forests?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fellows, Aaron W.; Goulden, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Davis. Chang, C. -R. (1996), Ecosystem responses to fire andvariations in fire regimes, Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project:1990), Simulating cumulative fire effects in ponderosa pine/

  19. The Santa Ana Winds of Southern California in the context of Fire Weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    in the Los Angeles County Fire Department dataset betweenix Validation of Large Fire Potential (LFP)against observed fire activities between September 2008-

  20. Global impact of smoke aerosols from landscape fires on climate and the Hadley circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tosca, M. G; Randerson, J. T; Zender, C. S

    2013-01-01

    on stand age in a boreal forest fire chronosequence, J.released from peat and forest fires in Indonesia duringevidence of smoke from forest fires inhibiting rainfall,

  1. Introduction to Engineering Math and Physics through Fire Dynamics (Eight Lectures, bi-weekly)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Benjamin

    properties) Ignition Phenomena Fire Spread Forest Fires Schedule Week 1 ­ Program intro, Understanding Temperature Calculations Week 7 ­ Final Assessment | Final project experiments/Labwork Week 8 ­ Forest Fires

  2. Fire dynamics during the 20th century simulated by the Community Land Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    contemporary fire car- bon emissions to satellite-basedon the simulated fire car- bon emissions to explain thedeforestation) fire car- bon emissions were between 2.0 and

  3. Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitions in southern Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    emissions from accidental forest fires, and forest damageof non-forest and pasture maintenance fires), and 3) high-of fires and biomass removal through combustion than forest

  4. FIRE DEPARTMENT, CITY OF NEW YORK * BUREAU OF FIRE PREVENTION CERTIFICATE OF FITNESS APPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    FIRE DEPARTMENT, CITY OF NEW YORK * BUREAU OF FIRE PREVENTION CERTIFICATE OF FITNESS APPLICATION Security # 846 29 120 MI ADDRESS 936 WEST END AVE APT E2 ZIP CODE 10025 STATE NY CITY OR BOROUGH New York RELATED EMPLOYER NAME COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY APPLICANT'S WORK ADDRESS CITY OR BOROUGH New York, NY STATE NY

  5. FireStream: Sensor Stream Processing for Monitoring Fire Spread Venkatesh Raghavan1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    locations required for spatial analysis, the Sen- sor Store, a collection of metadata pertinent to sensorsFireStream: Sensor Stream Processing for Monitoring Fire Spread Venkatesh Raghavan1 , ElkeStream, a sensor stream processing system which provides services for run-time de- tection, monitoring

  6. Fuel Treatment, Prescribed Fire, and Fire Restoration: Are the Benefits Worth It?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuel Treatment, Prescribed Fire, and Fire Restoration: Are the Benefits Worth It? Chairs: Susan Husari and Melanie Miller #12;Applying Simulation and Optimization to Plan Fuel Treatments at Landscape Scales1 J. Greg Jones,2 Jimmie D. Chew,2 Hans R. Zuuring3 Abstract Fuel treatment activities are analyzed

  7. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Bergman, W.; Ford, H.W.; Lipska, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect HEPA filters in exit ventilation ducts from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Several methods for partially mitigating the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified through testing and analysis. These independently involve controlling the fuel, controlling the fire, and intercepting the smoke aerosol prior to its sorption on the HEPA filter. Exit duct treatment of aerosols is not unusual in industrial applications and involves the use of scrubbers, prefilters, and inertial impaction, depending on the size, distribution, and concentration of the subject aerosol. However, when these unmodified techniques were applied to smoke aerosols from fires on materials, common to experimental laboratories of LLNL, it was found they offered minimal protection to the HEPA filters. Ultimately, a continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. This technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modificaton of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has a particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, we laminated rolling filter media with the desired properties. It is not true that the use of rolling prefilters solely to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols is cost effective in every type of containment system, especially if standard fire-protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  8. MSHA (Mine Safety and Health Administration) approved mine rescue - training module (coal): fires, fire fighting, and explosions. Mine rescue team series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Mine rescue teams frequently must fight fires and guard against the propagation of fires or explosions during a rescue and recovery operation. The team's ability to fight fires depends a great deal on hands-on experience with different fire fighting agents and equipment. The team's work includes an assessment of fire conditions, mine fire gases and other potential hazards associated with fire fighting activity. This training module covers the underlying principles of the fire triangle and the different methods for controlling, containing and extinguishing fires in a mine. The manual also covers fire-fighting equipment, considerations involved in a sealing operation and the cause-effect of explosions.

  9. The Risk Imposed by Fire to Buildings and How to Address It 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torero, Jose L

    The history of fire science originates in the desire to enhance destruction of infrastructure by means of fire. Many of the basic principles of fire growth and the behaviour of structures in fire were developed within the ...

  10. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvares, N.; Beason, D.; Bergman, V.; Creighton, J.; Ford, H.; Lipska, A.

    1980-08-25

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  11. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert Toerne; John Bick

    2003-01-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this widespread fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be used as a supplemental fuel in an existing utility boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with a variety of conventional boilers including natural gas and oil fired boilers, pulverized coal fired conventional and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a wider selection of biomass as fuel and providing opportunity in reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere through the commercialization of this technology. This study evaluated two plants: Wester Kentucky Energy Corporation's (WKE's) Reid Plant and TXU Energy's Monticello Plant for technical and economical feasibility. These plants were selected for their proximity to large supply of poultry litter in the area. The Reid plant is located in Henderson County in southwest Kentucky, with a large poultry processing facility nearby. Within a fifty-mile radius of the Reid plant, there are large-scale poultry farms that generate over 75,000 tons/year of poultry litter. The local poultry farmers are actively seeking environmentally more benign alternatives to the current use of the litter as landfill or as a farm spread as fertilizer. The Monticello plant is located in Titus County, TX near the town of Pittsburgh, TX, where again a large poultry processor and poultry farmers in the area generate over 110,000 tons/year of poultry litter. Disposal of this litter in the area is also a concern. This project offers a model opportunity to demonstrate the feasibility of biomass co-firing and at the same time eliminate poultry litter disposal problems for the area's poultry farmers.

  12. Inflatable partition for fighting mine fires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conti, Ronald S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lazzara, Charles P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1995-01-01

    The seal is a lightweight, inflatable, bag which may be inflated by a portable air generator and is used to seal a burning mine passage. A collapsible tube-like aperture extends through the seal and allows passage of high expansion foam through the seal in a feed tube. The foam fills the passageway and extinguishes the fire. In other embodiments, the feed tubes incorporate means to prevent collapse of the aperture. In these embodiments a shroud connects the feed tube to a foam generator. This seal allows creation of a high expansion foam fire fighting barrier even in upward sloping passages.

  13. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lennon, Dennis R. (Allentown, PA); Snedden, Richard B. (McKeesport, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA); Bellas, George T. (Library, PA)

    1990-05-15

    A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

  14. Fire Protection System Account Request Form | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    December 2, 2010 Account request form used to obtain user credentials for the Fire Protection Database To obtain a user id and password to access the Fire Protection system, please...

  15. The Assessment and Response of Concrete Structures Subject to Fire 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Law, Angus

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 20 to 30 years, the field of structural fire design has shifted from relying on single element fire resistance testing to the consideration of the effects of full-frame behaviour. The change has been driven ...

  16. The Behaviour and Design of Composite Floor Systems in Fire 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cameron, Neil

    Modern composite steel frame structures possess a high degree of redundancy. This allows them to survive extreme fires without collapse as there are many alternative loadpaths which can be used to transfer load away from the fire affected part...

  17. The FIRE infrared spectrometer at Magellan: construction and commissioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simcoe, Robert A.

    We describe the construction and commissioning of FIRE, a new 0.8-2.5?m echelle spectrometer for the Magellan/ Baade 6.5 meter telescope. FIRE delivers continuous spectra over its full bandpass with nominal spectral ...

  18. PRESSURIZATION OF FIXED ROOF STORAGE TANKS DUE TO EXTERNAL FIRES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PRESSURIZATION OF FIXED ROOF STORAGE TANKS DUE TO EXTERNAL FIRES Fabien FouiHen, INERIS, Parc initiating event of the fire ball observed. In concrete terms, when a fixed roof storage tank is surrounded

  19. Modelling of the Growth Phase of Dalmarnock Fire Test One 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rein, Guillermo; Jahn, Wolfram; Torero, Jose L

    The challenge of modelling a well characterized full-scale fire test using computational fluid dynamics is illustrated in this work comparing a priori and a posteriori simulations. In 2006, The Dalmarnock Fire Tests were ...

  20. Factories: The Factories (Fire Certificate Application) Order, 1960 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hare, John

    1960-01-01

    This Order prescribes the form of application to the fire authority for a certificate under section 34 of the Factories Act, 1937, that premises are provided with such means of escape in case of fire for the persons ...

  1. An Interactive Planning Architecture \\Lambda The Forest Fire Fighting case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricci, Francesco

    An Interactive Planning Architecture \\Lambda The Forest Fire Fighting case Anna Perini Support System aimed at supporting the user in the whole process of fire fighting including both situation

  2. Independent Oversight Review of the Fire Protection Program at...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    pump and one diesel-driven fire pump attached to a new fire loop that surrounds the RPL. Pump controllers automatically maintain pressure in the underground loop to no less than...

  3. Fire Alarm Control Panel is located in Switchgear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    KEY: NORTH CHDD-South Floor 1 Fire Alarm Control Panel is located in Switchgear Room #CD11A Panel is located in Switchgear Room #CD11A on Basement Level Evacuation Route Exit Restroom Fire

  4. Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces May 16, 2013 - 3:15pm Addthis Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container...

  5. CLIMATE-FIRE RELATIONSHIPS IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Ralph C.

    2011-01-11

    This study is meant to explain the fire regime of the southern Appalachian Mountain Range of the southeastern United States by analyzing spatial statistics and climate-fire relationships. The spatial statistics were created by obtaining...

  6. Design fires for tunnel water mist suppression systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvel, Ricky O

    Water mist systems are unable to suppress or control large fires, therefore the ‘design fire’ for a water mist system in a tunnel should not be specified in terms of peak heat release rate, but rather in terms of the ...

  7. Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

    2008-01-01

    Coal-fired power generating plants contribute approximatelynumber of coal-fired generating plants (1-3). The mercury is

  8. Removal action work plan for the YS-860 Firing Ranges, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is conducting environmental restoration activities at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. As part of these efforts, a removal action is planned for the former YS-860 Firing Ranges as described in the Action Memorandum for the project. This removal action work plan (RmAWP) is focused on the former YS-860 Firing Ranges, located outside the primary fenceline at the eastern end of the plant. This RmAWP defines the technical approach, procedures, and requirements for the removal of lead-contaminated soil and site restoration of the former YS-860 Firing Ranges at the Y-12 Plant. This RmAWP describes excavation, verification/confirmatory sampling, and reporting requirements for the project. Lower tier plans associated with the RmAWP, which are submitted as separate stand-alone documents, include a field sampling and analysis plan, a health and safety plan, a quality assurance project plan, a waste management plan, a data management implementation plan, and a best management practices plan. A site evaluation of the YS-86O Firing Ranges conducted in 1996 by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., determined that elevated lead levels were present in the Firing Ranges target berm soils. The results of this sampling event form the basis for the removal action recommendation as described in the Action Memorandum for this project. This RmAWP contains a brief history and description of the Former YS-860 Firing Ranges Project, along with the current project schedule and milestones. This RmAWP also provides an overview of the technical requirements of the project, including a summary of the approach for the removal activities. Finally, the RmAWP identifies the regulatory requirements and the appropriate removal action responses to address applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements to achieve the project goals of substantially reducing the risk to human health and the environment.

  9. Fire hazards evaluation for light duty utility arm system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HUCKFELDT, R.A.

    1999-02-24

    In accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A, Fire Protection, a Fire Hazards Analysis must be performed for all new facilities. LMHC Fire Protection has reviewed and approved the significant documentation leading up to the LDUA operation. This includes, but is not limited to, development criteria and drawings, Engineering Task Plan, Quality Assurance Program Plan, and Safety Program Plan. LMHC has provided an appropriate level of fire protection for this activity as documented.

  10. Planning Glossary CharlesF.Schwarz EdwardC.Thor GaryH.Elsner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Oxford: 911(038)­(73) Retrieval Terms: wildland planning; land utilization; range management; forestWildland Planning Glossary CharlesF.Schwarz EdwardC.Thor GaryH.Elsner PACIFIC SOUTHWEST Forest., Edward C. Thor, and Gary H. Elsner. 1976. Wildland planning glossary. USDA Forest Serv. Gen Tech. Rep

  11. Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Buildings Final Report Prepared by: Robert Gerard and David Barber Arup North America Ltd San Francisco, CA Armin Wolski San Francisco, CA © December 2013 Fire Protection Research Foundation THE FIRE PROTECTION RESEARCH FOUNDATION ONE BATTERYMARCH PARK QUINCY

  12. FIRE Action Plan to Respond to Next Step Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 FIRE Action Plan to Respond to Next Step Options Program Advisory Committee Report #2 July 3, 2001 The FIRE Action s are listed among the NSO-PAC2 recommendations. 1. Response to NSO PAC-1 Report Representatives of the FIRE project presented an action plan for how to respond to issues that had been raised

  13. Building Fire Emergency Detection and Response Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sreenan, Cormac J.

    1 Building Fire Emergency Detection and Response Using Wireless Sensor Networks Yuanyuan Zeng, Seán technologies. Fire emergency detection and response for building environments is a novel application area for this problem. Then we describe work on the use of WSNs to improve fire evacuation and navigation. Keywords

  14. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modelling on Soot Yield for Fire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modelling on Soot Yield for Fire Engineering Assessment Yong S (CFD) Modelling is now widely used by fire safety engineers throughout the world as a tool of the smoke control design as part of the performance based fire safety design in the current industry

  15. WRF-Fire Applied in Bulgaria Nina Dobrinkova1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borissova, Daniela

    WRF-Fire Applied in Bulgaria Nina Dobrinkova1 Georgi Jordanov2 Jan Mandel3 1 Institute and Statistical Sciences University of Colorado Denver jan.mandel@ucdenver.edu Abstract. WRF-Fire consists of the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting Model) coupled with a fire spread model, based on the level- set

  16. FIRE Actions in Response to Next Step Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FIRE Actions in Response to Next Step Options Program Advisory Committee Report NSO-PAC CHARGES #1. The present level of effort in physics analysis is not fully adequate for ongoing high priority FIRE studies a strong focused effort on the FIRE physics and engineering studies. High priority must also be given

  17. ENGINEERING FEATURES OF THE FUSION IGNITION RESEARCH EXPERIMENT (FIRE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENGINEERING FEATURES OF THE FUSION IGNITION RESEARCH EXPERIMENT (FIRE) R.J. Thomea and P.J. Heitzenroederb for the FIRE Design Team a MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 185 Albany St, Cambridge, MA, USA Box 451, Princeton, NJ, USA 08543 The FIRE tokamak is an option for the next step in the US magnetic

  18. ENGINEERING STATUS OF THE FUSION IGNITION RESEARCH EXPERIMENT (FIRE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENGINEERING STATUS OF THE FUSION IGNITION RESEARCH EXPERIMENT (FIRE) Philip J. Heitzenroeder Dale 08543 Cambridge, MA 02139 (609)-243-3043 (609)-243-3301 (617)-253-8155 For the FIRE Project Team ABSTRACT FIRE is a compact, high field tokamak being studied as an option for the next step in the US

  19. Structural stability of polymer matrix composite panels in fire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao, Ming

    Structural stability of polymer matrix composite panels in fire Pei Gu a,*, Ming Dao b , R.J. Asaro Structural integrity in fire a b s t r a c t Development in advanced composite fabrication technology offers by fire. This paper addresses the compressive load-bearing capacity for polymer matrix composite panels

  20. FIRE Optimization Activities J. Schultz, J. Schmidt and D. Meade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FIRE Optimization Activities J. Schultz, J. Schmidt and D. Meade Presented to NSO-PAC2 Meeting MIT-PSFC, Cambridge, MA January 17, 2001 FIRE Lighting the Way to Fusion Response to NSO-PAC1 #12;NSO-PAC Recommendations on FIRE Optimization Finding F1-3: The Committee also endorses the project's focus

  1. Forest Fire Spread and Suppression in DEVS Lewis Ntaimo1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forest Fire Spread and Suppression in DEVS Lewis Ntaimo1 , Bithika Khargharia2 , Bernard P. Zeigler2 , Maria J. Vasconcelos3 Abstract In this paper we discuss modeling and simulation of forest fire simulation-based predictions of forest fire spread and suppression in uniform and non-uniform environmental

  2. Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pelc, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

  3. Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magdalena Pelc; Radoslaw Osuch

    2009-03-31

    In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

  4. Forest fires, explosions, and random trees Edward Crane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Forest fires, explosions, and random trees Edward Crane HIMR, UoB 13th January 2014 #12 and James Martin at the University of Oxford. Edward Crane (HIMR, UoB) Forest fires, explosions, and random trees 13th January 2014 2 / 20 #12;Overview This talk is about the mean field forest fire model

  5. Prediction of Forest Fires using Data Mining Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLeod, Ian

    Prediction of Forest Fires using Data Mining Methods By Hye Rin Kim Supervised by Dr. McLeod Master's Project July 2009 #12;Contents 1 Executive Summary 2 2 Introduction 2 2.1 Forest Fire Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5 Conclusion 13 6 References 14 1 #12;1 Executive Summary Forest fires are a major environmental

  6. What should employers do to protect workers from fire hazards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    . Address evacuation of employees who stay behind to shut down critical plant equipment. Include preferred fire hazards in the workplace and about what to do in a fire emergency. If you want your workers require for emergency fire exits? Every workplace must have enough exits suitably located to enable

  7. Levels and Sources of Forest Fire Prevention Knowledge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Levels and Sources of Forest Fire Prevention Knowledge of California Hunters William S. Folkman U;Folkman, William S. 1963. Levels and sources of forest fire prevention knowl- edge of California hunters-managerial occupations. Their level of knowl- edge about forest fire prevention is generally high, but their knowledge

  8. The Impact of Boreal Forest Fire on Climate Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zender, Charles

    The Impact of Boreal Forest Fire on Climate Warming J. T. Randerson,1 * H. Liu,2 M. G. Flanner,1 S measurements and analysis of a boreal forest fire, integrating the effects of greenhouse gases, aerosols, black the concept of radiative forcing (12) to assess quantitatively the net effect of a boreal forest fire

  9. APPLICATIONS Forest Fire Spread and Suppression in DEVS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ntaimo, Lewis

    APPLICATIONS Forest Fire Spread and Suppression in DEVS Lewis Ntaimo Department of Industrial. Speedway Tucson, AZ 85721 In this article, the authors discuss modeling and simulation of forest fire to obtain timely simulation-based predictions of forest fire spread and suppression in uniform

  10. Appendix 30 Fire Effects on Key Ecological Processes in Forested

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appendix 30 Fire Effects on Key Ecological Processes in Forested Ecosystems The following paragraphs on fire effects on forest succession are from Stickney (1982) Forest Succession ...the severity of the pre-disturbance forest herb species also demonstrated the ability to survive fire, particularly those

  11. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagoner, Charles L. (Tullahoma, TN); Foote, John P. (Tullahoma, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler, the converted boiler including a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones.

  12. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagoner, C.L.; Foote, J.P.

    1995-07-04

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler are disclosed. The converted boiler includes a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones. 19 figs.

  13. Coal-fired generation staging a comeback. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The report is an overview of the renewed U.S. market interest in coal-fired power generation. It provides a concise look at what is driving interest in coal-fired generation, the challenges faced in implementing coal-fired generation projects, and the current and future state of coal-fired generation. Topics covered in the report include: An overview of coal-fired generation including its history, the current market environment, and its future prospects; An analysis of the key business factors that are driving renewed interest in coal-fired generation; An analysis of the challenges that are hindering the implementation of coal-fired generation projects; A description of coal-fired generation technologies; A review of the economic drivers of coal-fired generation project success; An evaluation of coal-fired generation versus other generation technologies; A discussion of the key government initiatives supporting new coal-fired generation; and A listing of planned coal-fired generation projects. 13 figs., 12 tabs., 1 app.

  14. The Application of a Genetic Algorithm to Estimate Material Properties for Fire Modeling from Bench-Scale Fire Test Data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lautenberger, Chris; Rein, Guillermo; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos

    A methodology based on an automated optimization technique that uses a genetic algorithm (GA) is developed to estimate the material properties needed for CFD-based fire growth modeling from bench-scale fire test data. ...

  15. A Risk-based Optimization Modeling Framework for Mitigating Fire Events for Water and Fire Response Infrastructures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanta, Lufthansa Rahman

    2011-02-22

    ) minimizing the cost of mitigation. Third, a stochastic modeling approach is developed to assess urban fire risk for the coupled water distribution and fire response systems that includes probabilistic expressions for building ignition, WDS failure, and wind...

  16. Network Management Network Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giaccone, Paolo

    Network Management Pag. 1 Network Management Network management and QoS provisioning - 1Andrea of this license visit: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc- /3 0/ Network management and QoS provisioning ­ Chapter 9, Network Management, of the book Jim Kurose, Keith Ross, Computer Networking, A Top Down

  17. Management Plan Management Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Management Plan Management Plan "Management and restoration programs for native salmonids have communities" J. Lichatowich et al. 1998. A Conceptual Foundation for the Management of Native Salmonids in the Deschutes River. The Management Plan consists of five elements described in the Council's program: 1

  18. Unbonded Post Tensioned Concrete in Fire: A Review of Data from Furnace Tests and Real Fires 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gales, John; Bisby, Luke; Gillie, Martin

    The fire-safe design of concrete structures which incorporate post-tensioned prestressing tendons has recently been the subject of debate within the structural engineering community, particularly when unbonded post-tensioned ...

  19. FireGrid: Integrated emergency response and fire safety engineering for the future built environment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, Dave; Usmani, Asif; Torero, Jose L; Tate, Austin; McLaughlin, Stephen; Potter, Stephen; Trew, Arthur; Baxter, Rob; Bull, Mark; Atkinson, Malcolm

    2005-09-20

    Analyses of disasters such as the Piper Alpha explosion (Sylvester-Evans and Drysdale, 1998), the World Trade Centre collapse (Torero et al, 2002 , Usmani et al, 2003) and the fires at Kings Cross (Drysdale et al, 1992) ...

  20. FireGrid: Integrated emergency response and fire safety engineering for the future built environment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, Dave; Usmani, Asif; Torero, Jose L; Tate, Austin; McLaughlin, Stephen; Potter, Stephen; Trew, Arthur; Baxter, Rob; Bull, Mark; Atkinson, Malcolm

    FireGrid is researching the development and integration of modelling, sensors, Grid, HPC, and C/C technologies. It will stimulate further research, in new safety systems and strategies, in new sensor technologies, in ...

  1. Dynamics of fire plumes and smoke clouds associated with peat and deforestation fires in Indonesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tosca, M. G; Randerson, J. T; Zender, C. S; Nelson, D. L; Diner, D. J; Logan, J. A

    2011-01-01

    biomass burning in Indonesia since 1960, Nat. Geosci. , 2,and deforestation fires in Indonesia M. G. Tosca, 1 J. T.unnatural disasters in Indonesia, Geogr. Rev. , 94, 55–79,

  2. The radiological impact of the 2000 Hanford Fire (24-Command Fire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Ashley David

    2001-01-01

    into more populated areas. This paper examines the radiological impact of the 24-Command Fire, which occurred on the Hanford Site in late June 2000. Several different approaches are compared against each other to determine the validity of the results...

  3. The Piloted Transition to Flaming in Smoldering Fire Retarded and Non-Fire Retarded Polyurethane Foam 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Putzeys, Olivier; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Rein, Guillermo; Urban, David

    The piloted transition from smoldering to flaming, though a significant fire safety concern, has not been previously extensively studied. Experimental results are presented on the piloted transition from smoldering to ...

  4. Bioenergetics: budgeting the fires of life

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limburg, Karin E.

    1 Bioenergetics: budgeting the fires of life K. Limburg lecture notes Fisheries Science Reading: Adams, S.M., and J.E. Breck. 1990. Bioenergetics. In C.B. Schreck and P.B. Moyle, editors. Methods is bioenergetics? The study of the processing of energy by living systems, at any level of biological organization

  5. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fire Protection Program is delineated in a number of source documents including; the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), DOE Policy Statements and Orders, DOE and national consensus standards (such as those promulgated by the National Fire Protection Association), and supplementary guidance, This Handbook is intended to bring together in one location as much of this material as possible to facilitate understanding and ease of use. The applicability of any of these directives to individual Maintenance and Operating Contractors or to given facilities and operations is governed by existing contracts. Questions regarding applicability should be directed to the DOE Authority Having Jurisdiction for fire safety. The information provided within includes copies of those DOE directives that are directly applicable to the implementation of a comprehensive fire protection program. They are delineated in the Table of Contents. The items marked with an asterisk (*) are included on the disks in WordPerfect 5.1 format, with the filename noted below. The items marked with double asterisks are provided as hard copies as well as on the disk. For those using MAC disks, the files are in Wordperfect 2.1 for MAC.

  6. Risk Assessment of Diesel-Fired

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mlllet, Dylan B.

    Risk Assessment of Diesel-Fired Back-up Electric Generators Operating in California Prepared of the toxicity of various hazardous air pollutants in diesel emissions. Wayne Miller, the Director discussions on diesel back-up generators and, more broadly, the environmental health impacts of electricity

  7. FIRE Vacuum Vessel Design and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    quality vacuum - outgassing and leak rate of waste disposal #12;6 June 2001 FIRE Review: Vacuum Vessel Design 8 Vessel shell dimensions #12;6 June - Shielding water + steel with 60% packing factor - Volume of torus interior 35 m^3 - Surface Area of torus

  8. 2015 Winter and Spring Fire Potential Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015 Winter and Spring Fire Potential Assessment For the Grass Dominant Fuels on the Western Plains Factors · Fine Fuel Conditions · Drought · Seasonal Temperature and Precipitation #12;Grass Dominant Fuels Grass dominant fuels are generally found west of the red line shown on the map. During the dormant

  9. UF{sub 6} cylinder fire test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, S.H. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    With the increasing number of nuclear reactors for power generation, there is a comparable increase in the amount of UF{sub 6} being transported. Likewise, the probability of having an accident involving UF{sub 6}-filled cylinders also increases. Accident scenarios which have been difficult to assess are those involving a filled UF{sub 6} cylinder subjected to fire. A study is underway at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, as part of the US DOE Enrichment Program, to provide empirical data and a computer model that can be used to evaluate various cylinder-in-fire scenarios. It is expected that the results will provide information leading to better handling of possible fire accidents as well as show whether changes should be made to provide different physical protection during shipment. The computer model being developed will be capable of predicting the rupture of various cylinder sizes and designs as well as the amount of UF{sub 6}, its distribution in the cylinder, and the conditions of the fire.

  10. Blank fire configuration for automatic pistol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teague, Tommy L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A pistol configured to fire blank cartridges includes a modified barrel with a breech portion connected to an aligned inner sleeve. Around the inner sleeve, there is disposed an outer sleeve having a vent therein through which the cartridge discharges. The breech portion is connected to a barrel anchor to move backward in a slight arc when the pistol is fired. A spring retention rod projects from the barrel anchor and receives a shortened recoil spring therearound which recoil spring has one end abutting a stop on the barrel anchor and the other end in abutment with the end of a spring retaining cup. The spring retaining cup is engaged by a flange projecting from a slide so that when the pistol is fired, the slide moves rearwardly against the compression of the spring to eject the spent cartridge and then moves forwardly under the urging of the spring to load a fresh cartridge into the breech portion. The spring then returns all of the slidable elements to their initial position so that the pistol may again be fired.

  11. Fire safety of LPG in marine transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinsen, W.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-08-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with the marine handling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cargo. Principal emphasis was on cargo transfer operations for ships unloading at receiving terminals, and barges loading or unloading at a terminal. Major safety systems, including emergency shutdown systems, hazard detection systems, and fire extinguishment and control systems were included in the analysis. Spill probabilities were obtained from fault tree analyses utilizing composite LPG tank ship and barge designs. Failure rates for hardware in the analyses were generally taken from historical data on similar generic classes of hardware, there being very little historical data on the specific items involved. Potential consequences of cargo spills of various sizes are discussed and compared to actual LPG vapor cloud incidents. The usefulness of hazard mitigation systems (particularly dry chemical fire extinguishers and water spray systems) in controlling the hazards posed by LPG spills and spill fires is also discussed. The analysis estimates the probability of fatality for a terminal operator is about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ per cargo transfer operation. The probability of fatality for the general public is substantially less.

  12. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ying, David H. S. (Macungie, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is constructed with a heat transfer tube having U-bends at regular intervals along the length thereof to increase the slug frequency of the multi-phase mixture flowing therethrough to thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency.

  13. SimTable key tool for preparing, responding to wildfire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fire season Emergency operations officials need an arsenal of tools to prepare for and fight wildland fires. SimTable is one of those tools. It may look like a plain old sandbox,...

  14. Is the situation and immediate threat to life and health? Spill/Leak/Release Medical Emergency Fire or Flammable Gas Spill/Leak/Release Medical Emergency Fire or Flammable Gas Chemical Odor? Possible Fire / Natural Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ? Possible Fire / Natural Gas (including chemicals and bio agents") (not including chemicals or bio agents Fire or Flammable Gas Spill/Leak/Release Medical Emergency Fire or Flammable Gas Chemical Odor

  15. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Bradley; Davis, Kevin; Senior, Constance; Shim, Hong Shim; Otten, Brydger; Fry, Andrew; Wendt, Jost; Eddings, Eric; Paschedag, Alan; Shaddix, Christopher; Cox, William; Tree, Dale

    2013-09-30

    Reaction Engineering International (REI) managed a team of experts from University of Utah, Siemens Energy, Praxair, Vattenfall AB, Sandia National Laboratories, Brigham Young University (BYU) and Corrosion Management Ltd. to perform multi-scale experiments, coupled with mechanism development, process modeling and CFD modeling, for both applied and fundamental investigations. The primary objective of this program was to acquire data and develop tools to characterize and predict impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner feed design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) inherent in the retrofit of existing coal-fired boilers for oxy-coal combustion. Experimental work was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories’ Entrained Flow Reactor, the University of Utah Industrial Combustion Research Facility, and Brigham Young University. Process modeling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed at REI. Successful completion of the project objectives resulted in the following key deliverables: 1) Multi-scale test data from 0.1 kW bench-scale, 100 kW and 200 kW laboratory-scale, and 1 MW semi-industrial scale combustors that describe differences in flame characteristics, fouling, slagging and corrosion for coal combustion under air-firing and oxygen-firing conditions, including sensitivity to oxy-burner design and flue gas recycle composition. 2) Validated mechanisms developed from test data that describe fouling, slagging, waterwall corrosion, heat transfer, char burnout and sooting under coal oxy-combustion conditions. The mechanisms were presented in a form suitable for inclusion in CFD models or process models. 3) Principles to guide design of pilot-scale and full-scale coal oxy-firing systems and flue gas recycle configurations, such that boiler operational impacts from oxy-combustion retrofits are minimized. 4) Assessment of oxy-combustion impacts in two full-scale coal-fired utility boiler retrofits based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of air-fired and oxygen-fired operation. This research determined that it is technically feasible to retrofit the combustion system in an air-fired boiler for oxy-fired operation. The impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) were minimal, with the exception of high sulfur levels resulting from untreated flue gas recycle with medium and high-sulfur coals. This work focused on combustion in the radiant and convective sections of the boiler and did not address boiler system integration issues, plant efficiencies, impacts on downstream air pollution control devices, or CO{sub 2} capture and compression. The experimental data, oxy-firing system principles and oxy-combustion process mechanisms provided by this work can be used by electric utilities, boiler OEMs, equipment suppliers, design firms, software vendors, consultants and government agencies to assess retrofit applications of oxy-combustion technologies to existing boilers and to guide development of new designs.

  16. Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denise Baclawski

    2010-03-08

    The University of Nevada, Reno Fire Science Academy (FSA) applied for grant funding to develop and deliver programs for municipal, rural, and volunteer firefighters. The FSA specializes in preparing responders for a variety of emergency events, including flammable liquid fires resulting from accidents, intentional acts, or natural disasters. Live fire training on full scale burnable props is the hallmark of FSA training, allowing responders to practice critical skills in a realistic, yet safe environment. Unfortunately, flammable liquid live fire training is often not accessible to municipal, rural, or volunteer firefighters due to limited department training budgets, even though most department personnel will be exposed to flammable liquid fire incidents during the course of their careers. In response to this training need, the FSA developed a course during the first year of the grant (Year One), Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters. During the three years of the grant, a total of 2,029 emergency responders received this training. In Year Three, two new courses, a train-the-trainer for Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community and Management of Large-Scale Disasters for Public Officials were developed and pilot tested during the Real-World Disaster Management Conference held at the FSA in June of 2007. Two research projects were conducted during Years Two and Three. The first, conducted over a two year period, evaluated student surveys regarding the value of the flammable liquids training received. The second was a needs assessment conducted for rural Nevada. Both projects provided important feedback and a basis for curricula development and improvements.

  17. Computational modeling of composite material fires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Alexander L.; Erickson, Kenneth L.; Hubbard, Joshua Allen; Dodd, Amanda B.

    2010-10-01

    Composite materials behave differently from conventional fuel sources and have the potential to smolder and burn for extended time periods. As the amount of composite materials on modern aircraft continues to increase, understanding the response of composites in fire environments becomes increasingly important. An effort is ongoing to enhance the capability to simulate composite material response in fires including the decomposition of the composite and the interaction with a fire. To adequately model composite material in a fire, two physical model development tasks are necessary; first, the decomposition model for the composite material and second, the interaction with a fire. A porous media approach for the decomposition model including a time dependent formulation with the effects of heat, mass, species, and momentum transfer of the porous solid and gas phase is being implemented in an engineering code, ARIA. ARIA is a Sandia National Laboratories multiphysics code including a range of capabilities such as incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, energy transport equations, species transport equations, non-Newtonian fluid rheology, linear elastic solid mechanics, and electro-statics. To simulate the fire, FUEGO, also a Sandia National Laboratories code, is coupled to ARIA. FUEGO represents the turbulent, buoyantly driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, and combustion. FUEGO and ARIA are uniquely able to solve this problem because they were designed using a common architecture (SIERRA) that enhances multiphysics coupling and both codes are capable of massively parallel calculations, enhancing performance. The decomposition reaction model is developed from small scale experimental data including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) in both nitrogen and air for a range of heating rates and from available data in the literature. The response of the composite material subject to a radiant heat flux boundary condition is examined to study the propagation of decomposition fronts of the epoxy and carbon fiber and their dependence on the ambient conditions such as oxygen concentration, surface flow velocity, and radiant heat flux. In addition to the computational effort, small scaled experimental efforts to attain adequate data used to validate model predictions is ongoing. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the progress of the capability for a typical composite material and emphasize the path forward.

  18. Selection of natural Gas Fired Advanced Turbine Systems (GFATS) program - Task 3. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-06-01

    Research continued on natural gas-fired turbines.The objective of Task 3 was to perform initial trade studies and select one engine system (Gas-Fired Advanced Turbine System [GFATS]) that the contractor could demonstrate, at full scale, in the 1998 to 2000 time frame. This report describes the results of the selection process. This task, including Allison internal management reviews of the selected system, has been completed. Allison`s approach to ATS is to offer an engine family that is based on the newest T406 high technology engine. This selection was based on a number of parameters including return on investment (ROI), internal rate of return (IRR) market size and potential sales into that market. This base engine family continues a history at Allison of converting flight engine products to industrial use.

  19. 5) Management 5) Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nowak, Robert S.

    5) Management c) Control #12;5) Management c) Control Prioritizing control ­ From Hiebert in Luken & Thieret (1997) · Types of information utilized Ecological impacts #12;5) Management c) Control impacts Economic impacts #12;5) Management c) Control Prioritizing control ­ From Hiebert in Luken

  20. Network Management Network Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giaccone, Paolo

    Network Management Pag. 1 Network Management Andrea Bianco Telecommunication Network Group Network management and QoS provisioning - 1Andrea Bianco ­ TNG group - Politecnico di Torino Telecommunication management and QoS provisioning - 2Andrea Bianco ­ TNG group - Politecnico di Torino Stanford, California

  1. Fire-induced growth responses of huisache 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasmussen, George Allen

    1981-01-01

    to applications of the herbicide to unburned rangeland (Bontrager 1977). Fire can be used to improve access or "clean up" an area of debris from previous treatments (Britton and Wright 1971). Removal of stems reduced livestock handling problems in addition... in June 1979 snd with a new set burned every other month until April 1980. Sampling stations composed of four plants each. (tnree ourned and one unburned) were established with one burned tree enclosed to allow access only +o rodents, lagomorphs...

  2. Universal scaling of forest fire propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernard, Porterie; Pierre, Clerc Jean; Nouredine, Zekri; Zekri, Lotfi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we use a variant of the Watts-Strogatz small-world model to predict wildfire behavior near the critical propagation/nonpropagation threshold. We find that forest fire patterns are fractal and that critical exponents are universal, which suggests that the propagation/nonpropagation transition is a second-order transition. Universality tells us that the characteristic critical behaviour of propagation in real (amorphous) forest landscapes can be extracted from the simplest network model.

  3. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ying, David H. S. (Macungie, PA); McDermott, Wayne T. (Allentown, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1985-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is operated under conditions to maximize the slurry slug frequency and thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency. The operating conditions controlled are (1) the pipe diameter and pipe arrangement, (2) the minimum coal/solvent slurry velocity, (3) the maximum gas superficial velocity, and (4) the range of the volumetric flow velocity ratio of gas to coal/solvent slurry.

  4. California State Fire Marshal Information Bulletin

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageBlenderBusiness Case for E85California State Fire Marshal

  5. Memorandum Request for Concurrence on firee Temporary Variance Applications Regarding Fire Protection and Pressure Safety at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Memorandum Request for Concurrence on firee Temporary Variance Applications Regarding Fire Protection and Pressure Safety at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  6. Fire exposure of empty 30B cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziehlke, K.T. [MJB Technical Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Cylinders for UF{sub 6} handling, transport, and storage are designed and built as unfired pressure vessels under ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code criteria and standards. They are normally filled and emptied while UF{sub 6} is in its liquid phase. Transport cylinders such as the Model 30B are designed for service at 200 psi and 250{degrees}F, to sustain the process conditions which prevail during filling or emptying operations. While in transport, however, at ambient temperature the UF{sub 6} is solid, and the cylinder interior is well below atmospheric pressure. When the cylinders contain isotopically enriched product (above 1.0 percent U-235), they are transported in protective overpacks which function to guard the cylinders and their contents against thermal or mechanical damage in the event of possible transport accidents. Two bare Model 30B cylinders were accidentally exposed to a storage warehouse fire in which a considerable amount of damage was sustained by stored materials and the building structure, as well as by the cylinder valves and valve protectors. The cylinders were about six years old, and had been cleaned, inspected, hydrotested, and re-certified for service, but were still empty at the time of the fire. The privately-owned cylinders were transferred to DOE for testing and evaluation of the fire damage.

  7. Californians must learn from the past and work together to meet the forest and fire challenges of the next century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kocher, Susan

    2015-01-01

    that can better adapt to the fire and climate conditions ofconifer forest: Habitat and fire hazard implications. Forestto meet the forest and fire challenges of the next century

  8. Californians must learn from the past and work together to meet the forest and fire challenges of the next century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kocher, Susan

    2015-01-01

    state and federal forest and fire agencies. Moving forwardtogether to meet the forest and fire challenges of the nextmixed conifer forest: Habitat and fire hazard implications.

  9. Fire Safety for Students -On Campus When you move in you should

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Faruque, Mohammad Abdullah

    Fire Safety for Students - On Campus When you move in you should: Know fire evacuation routes Know the building evacuation point Know the location of nearest alarm pull and fire extinguisher Know how to contact the Fire Department How do I contact the Fire Department? Campus Phones - Dial 911 Cell Phones -Dial (949

  10. Fire Safety for Off Campus Students When you move in you should

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Faruque, Mohammad Abdullah

    Fire Safety for Off Campus Students When you move in you should: Know fire evacuation routes Choose an evacuation point Find the location of nearest alarm pull and fire extinguisher Know how to contact the Fire Department How do I contact the Fire Department? Dial 911 Tell the emergency operator your name address

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Human impacts on fire occurrence: a case study of hundred years

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Human impacts on fire occurrence: a case study of hundred years of forest fires: 18 April 2012 Ó Springer-Verlag 2012 Abstract Forest fire regimes are sensitive to alterations Anthropogenic fires Á Climate Á Valais Á Central Alps Á Switzerland Introduction Forest fires are a major

  12. A Critical Evaluation of Fire Suppression Effects in the Boreal Forest of Ontario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Edward A.

    A Critical Evaluation of Fire Suppression Effects in the Boreal Forest of Ontario S.R.J. Bridge, K-since-fire techniques to spatial fire data (1921­1995) for the western and eastern boreal regions of Ontario and compare cycle in the boreal forest of Ontario. FOR. SCI. 51(1):41­50. Key Words: Forest fires, fire frequency

  13. What Was the Role of Fire in Coast Redwood Forests?1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    What Was the Role of Fire in Coast Redwood Forests?1 Peter M. Brown2 Fire has long been recognized and that effects on forest composition and structure varied depending primarily on fire severity (for example, episodic surface fires were a dominant fire regime in many coast redwood forests, and that loss of surface

  14. Chestnuts roasting on an open fire | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chestnuts roasting on an open fire SUNY, ORNL researchers use mass spectrometry to confirm similarity of transgenic leaves, stems and nuts to wild-type American chestnut American...

  15. Nitrogen deposition in tropical forests from savanna and deforestation fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Y; Randerson, JT; Van Der Werf, GR; Morton, DC; Mu, M; Kasibhatla, PS

    2010-01-01

    15, Atkinson R (2000) Atmospheric chemistry of VOCs and NOx.tropics – impact on atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemicalimpact of fires on atmospheric chemistry. N r can be emitted

  16. Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) Corrective Action Plan - Truck Fire...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    issues identified in the March 2014, accident investigation report for the Underground Salt Haul Truck Fire at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) February 5, 2014 (hereafter...

  17. Global Installed Capacity of Coal Fired Power Generation to Reach...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    offers comprehensive data with regard to the size, growth, and forecast of this market. Coal fired power generation has been a very common energy producing technique for...

  18. A Method for Evaluating Fire After Earthquake Scenarios for Single...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    public release; distribution I unlimited. Title: A Method for Evaluating Fire After Earthquake Scenarios for Single Buildings Authors: Elizabeth J. Kelly and Raymond N. Tell...

  19. Rotary Firing in Ring-Shaped Protein Explains Unidirectionality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rotary Firing in Ring-Shaped Protein Explains Unidirectionality Print Hexameric motor proteins represent a complex class of molecular machines that variously push and pull on...

  20. Fire and the Design of Schools 5th ed 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anonymous

    1975-01-01

    This BULLETIN seeks to give guidance on ways of designing schools so that they will satisfy the requirements of health and safety regulation regarding fire.

  1. Duct System Flammability and Air Sealing Fire Separation Assemblies...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fire Separation Assemblies in the International Residential Code Rudd, A.; Prahl, D. 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS; AIRTIGHTNESS;...

  2. Modeling the effects of fire severity and climate warming on...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modeling the effects of fire severity and climate warming on active layer thickness and soil carbon storage of black spruce forests across the landscape in interior Alaska Citation...

  3. Enterprise Assessments Targeted Review of the Fire Protection...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Targeted Review of the Fire Protection Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory, Building 3525 - September 2015 Enterprise Assessments...

  4. Control and extinguishment of LPG fires. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, D.W.; Martinsen, W.E.; Cavin, W.D.; Chilton, P.D.; Lawson, H.P.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-08-01

    Approximately 100 fire control and fire extinguishment tests were run on free-burning liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) pool fires from 25 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area. The LPG was contained in concrete pits, and the pit floors were allowed to cool before the fires were ignited so that the burning rates were not influenced by boiloff from the warm floor. High expansion foam was used for fire control. The foam was applied from fixed generators located on the upwind side of the pit. Fires were controlled after foam application of less than a minute to about 10 minutes, depending on the application rate. Fires were extinguished with dry chemical agents applied through fixed piping systems with tankside nozzles and by manual application using hoselines and portable extinguishers. Fires could readily be extinguished in times ranging from a few seconds to about half a minute, depending on the application rate, system design, and ambient conditions. Additional tests were conducted in 1-ft/sup 2/ and 5-ft/sup 2/ pits to determine the boiloff rates for LPG spilled on concrete, a sand/soil mix, and polyurethane foam substrates. Burning rates for free-burning LPG pool fires from 1 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area are also reported.

  5. Control and extinguishment of LPG fires. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Approximately 100 fire control and fire extinguishment tests were run on free-burning LPG pool fires from 25 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area. The LPG was contained in concrete pits, and the pit floors were allowed to cool before the fires were ignited so that the burning rates were not influenced by boiloff from the warm floor. High expansion foam was used for fire control. The foam was applied from fixed generators located on the upwind side of the pit. Fires were controlled after foam application of less than a minute to about 10 minutes, depending on the application rate. Fires were extinguished with dry chemical agents applied through fixed piping systems with tankside nozzles and by manual application using hoselines and portable extinguishers. Fires could readily be extinguished in times ranging from a few seconds to about half a minute, depending on the application rate, system design, and ambient conditions. Additional tests were conducted in 1-ft/sup 2/ and 5-ft/sup 2/ pits to determine the boiloff rates for LPG spilled on concrete, a sand/soil mix, and polyurethane foam substrates. Burning rates for free-burning LPG pool fires from 1 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area are also reported.

  6. Safety assessment of outdoor live fire range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the outdoor live fire range facility (LFR). The purpose of this facility is to supplement the indoor LFR. In particular it provides capacity for exercises that would be inappropriate on the indoor range. This SA examines the risks that are attendant to the training on the outdoor LFR. The outdoor LFR used by EG&G Mound is privately owned. It is identified as the Miami Valley Shooting Grounds. Mondays are leased for the exclusive use of EG&G Mound.

  7. A Factsheet on Holiday Fire Prevention

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteriesAyou|ach year fires

  8. Fire and Life Safety Information - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES OctoberEvanServices » IncentivesStocks 7,171Fire Department

  9. Fire victim helped by area programs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES OctoberEvanServices » IncentivesStocks 7,171Fire

  10. BlueFire Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental JumpInformationBio-GasIllinois: EnergyHills, Connecticut:NgBlueFire Ethanol Jump

  11. fire rescue | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal01 Sandia4) August 20123/%2A en46Afed feed families |fff |fire

  12. Fire Safety Committee | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015Executive Order14,EnergyFinancing andfor theSafety Committee Fire

  13. Fire Standards Codes and Prevention in IBRs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015Executive Order14,EnergyFinancing andfor theSafety Committee Fire5,

  14. Model Fire Protection Program | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPAEnergy6-09.docAERMOD-PRIME, Units 4, 1,RidgeModel Fire

  15. Fire Protection - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journal Article) |Final Reportthe Growing American66-2012, Fire Protection

  16. BlueFire Ethanol | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12Power, IncBio Centers AnnouncementandBlog BlogBlueFire Ethanol

  17. Fire Protection Database | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof Energy Services » ProgramPolicy andResearchDataDepartmentFindings ofFire

  18. Post-Fire Debris-Flow Hazard Assessment of the Area Burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek Fire near Hailey, Central Idaho

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    Post-Fire Debris-Flow Hazard Assessment of the Area Burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek Fire near-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek Fire near Hailey, central Idaho: U­1273 Prepared in cooperation with Blaine County, Idaho #12;#12;Post-Fire Debris-Flow Hazard Assessment

  19. Proceedings of the 4th Fire in Eastern Oak Forests Conference 207GTR-NRS-P-102 GENESIS OF AN OAK-FIRE SCIENCE CONSORTIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Proceedings of the 4th Fire in Eastern Oak Forests Conference 207GTR-NRS-P-102 GENESIS OF AN OAK-FIRE and to identify fire information needs of oak-dominated communities such as woodlands, forests, savannas through the Forest Service's Northern Research Station. Smaller groups such as the Fire Learning Network

  20. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-07-13

    This Summary Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3, 3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the Material Handling and Conditioning System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem.

  1. EPRI/NRC-RES fire human reliability analysis guidelines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Stuart R.; Cooper, Susan E.; Najafi, Bijan; Collins, Erin; Hannaman, Bill; Kohlhepp, Kaydee; Grobbelaar, Jan; Hill, Kendra; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt; Forester, John Alan; Julius, Jeff

    2010-03-01

    During the 1990s, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) developed methods for fire risk analysis to support its utility members in the preparation of responses to Generic Letter 88-20, Supplement 4, 'Individual Plant Examination - External Events' (IPEEE). This effort produced a Fire Risk Assessment methodology for operations at power that was used by the majority of U.S. nuclear power plants (NPPs) in support of the IPEEE program and several NPPs overseas. Although these methods were acceptable for accomplishing the objectives of the IPEEE, EPRI and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) recognized that they required upgrades to support current requirements for risk-informed, performance-based (RI/PB) applications. In 2001, EPRI and the USNRC's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) embarked on a cooperative project to improve the state-of-the-art in fire risk assessment to support a new risk-informed environment in fire protection. This project produced a consensus document, NUREG/CR-6850 (EPRI 1011989), entitled 'Fire PRA Methodology for Nuclear Power Facilities' which addressed fire risk for at power operations. NUREG/CR-6850 developed high level guidance on the process for identification and inclusion of human failure events (HFEs) into the fire PRA (FPRA), and a methodology for assigning quantitative screening values to these HFEs. It outlined the initial considerations of performance shaping factors (PSFs) and related fire effects that may need to be addressed in developing best-estimate human error probabilities (HEPs). However, NUREG/CR-6850 did not describe a methodology to develop best-estimate HEPs given the PSFs and the fire-related effects. In 2007, EPRI and RES embarked on another cooperative project to develop explicit guidance for estimating HEPs for human failure events under fire generated conditions, building upon existing human reliability analysis (HRA) methods. This document provides a methodology and guidance for conducting a fire HRA. This process includes identification and definition of post-fire human failure events, qualitative analysis, quantification, recovery, dependency, and uncertainty. This document provides three approaches to quantification: screening, scoping, and detailed HRA. Screening is based on the guidance in NUREG/CR-6850, with some additional guidance for scenarios with long time windows. Scoping is a new approach to quantification developed specifically to support the iterative nature of fire PRA quantification. Scoping is intended to provide less conservative HEPs than screening, but requires fewer resources than a detailed HRA analysis. For detailed HRA quantification, guidance has been developed on how to apply existing methods to assess post-fire fire HEPs.

  2. Fire Regimes of the Southern Appalachian Mountains: Temporal and Spatial Variability and Implications for Vegetation Dynamics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flatley, William 1977-

    2012-08-31

    Ecologists continue to debate the role of fire in forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains. How does climate influence fire in these humid, temperate forests? Did fire regimes change during the transition from Native American settlement to Euro...

  3. Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

    2008-01-01

    removal from flue gas of coal-fired power plants. Environ.Speciation in a 100-MW Coal-Fired Boiler with Low-NOxControl Technologies for Coal-Fired Power Plants, DOE/NETL

  4. Post-fire vegetation dynamics of a sagebrush steppe community change significantly over time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanna, Sara K; Fulgham, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Perennial forbs 1981 (Pre-fire) Chandler site Annual forbsWright HA. 1985. Effects of fire on grasses and forbs inJ (eds. ). Rangeland Fire Effects. Idaho State Office,

  5. UC Cooperative Extension works with fire safe councils to reduce wildfires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nader, Glenn A; De Lasaux, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Smith E. 1999. Living with Fire: A Guide for the Homeowner.tension, Reno, NV. The Yuba fire stopped at the Middlebrookand surface fuels following fire hazard reduction treatment.

  6. Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitions in southern Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    doi:10.1029/2008GL035689, 2008 Fire-related carbon emissionssources of emissions from fires in this region. Citation:and Y. Shimabukuro (2008), Fire-related carbon emissions

  7. Fire dynamics during the 20th century simulated by the Community Land Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    G. R. , and Pyne, S. J. : Fire in the Earth System, Science,area using MODIS active fire observations, Atmos. Chem.Skinner, W. R. : Large forest fires in Canada, 1959–1997, J.

  8. Post-fire changes in net shortwave radiation along a latitudinal gradient in boreal North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y, Jin; Randerson, J T; Goulden, M L; Goetz, S J

    2012-01-01

    et al. (2003), Large forest fires in Canada, 1959–1997, J.of an intensifying fire regime on Alaskan boreal forestLamberty, B. , et al. (2007), Fire as the dominant driver of

  9. High-latitude cooling associated with landscape changes from North American boreal forest fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, B. M; Randerson, J. T; Bonan, G. B

    2013-01-01

    C. S. : The impact of boreal forest fire on climate warming,W. : Climate change and forest fire poten- tial in Russianflight measurements of forest-fire effects on carbon diox-

  10. What causes large fires in Southern France Anne GanteaumeAB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the forest fires database Prométhée that records all fires occurring in the 15 départements of Southern, large forest fires are becoming more and more frequent and are responsible for most of the overall area

  11. The effect of post-fire stand age on the boreal forest energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    emissions from Canadian forest fires, 1959–1999. Can. J.W.R. , 2002. Large forest fires in Canada, 1959– 1997. J.flight measurements of forest-fire effects on carbon dioxide

  12. header for SPIE use Evolving forest fire burn severity classification algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Thomas

    header for SPIE use Evolving forest fire burn severity classification algorithms for multi, to the classification of forest fire burn severity using Landsat 7 ETM+ multispectral imagery. The details. Keywords: Multispectral imagery, Genetic programming, Supervised classification, Forest fire, Wildfire. 1

  13. Interannual variability of surface energy exchange depends on stand age in a boreal forest fire chronosequence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Heping; Randerson, James T

    2008-01-01

    LIU AND RANDERSON: BOREAL FOREST FIRE AND ENERGY EXCHANGE2006), The impact of boreal forest fire on climate warming,pathways by which boreal forest fire influences the surface

  14. High-latitude cooling associated with landscape changes from North American boreal forest fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, B. M; Randerson, J. T; Bonan, G. B

    2013-01-01

    C. S. : The impact of boreal forest fire on climate warming,W. : Climate change and forest fire poten- tial in Russianand Flannigan, M. D. : Forest fire oc- currence and climate

  15. Fire effects on net radiation and energy partitioning: Contrasting responses of tundra and boreal forest ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chambers, S. D; Randerson , J. T.; Beringer, J.; Chapin , F. S

    2005-01-01

    at Fourth Symposium on Forest and Fire Meteorology, Am.flight measurements of forest-fire effects on carbon dioxideNorth American boreal forest, in Fire, Climate Change and

  16. The effect of prescribed fire on sugar pine mortality in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nesmith, Jonny CB

    2011-01-01

    L. W. Ruth. 2005. Federal forest-fire policy in the UnitedHeight of crown scorch in forest fires. Canadian Journal ofevidence for increasing forest fire severity in the Sierra

  17. Has fire suppression increased the amount of carbon stored in western U.S. forests?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fellows, Aaron W.; Goulden, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    precipitation (MAP), forest type, and fire regime. [ 7 ] Thein mid-elevation conifer forests, where fire suppression is20th century fire suppression in western US forests, and a

  18. Behavior of Structures in Fire and Real Design - A Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lamont, Susan; Lane, Barbara; Flint, Graeme; Usmani, Asif

    2006-01-01

    A great deal of understanding into the behaviour of composite steel-concrete structures in fire has been developed since the Cardington frame fire tests (UK) 1990s. This has now been broadened so that structures in fire ...

  19. Effect of the shutdown of a large coal fired power plant on ambient mercury species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yungang

    2014-01-01

    Effect of the shutdown of a coal-fired power plant on urbanof the shutdown of a large coal-fired power plant on ambientof the shutdown of a large coal-fired power plant on ambient

  20. Effect of the shutdown of a large coal fired power plant on ambient mercury species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yungang

    2014-01-01

    the shutdown of a coal-fired power plant on urban ultrafineof a large coal-fired power plant on ambient mercury speciesof a large coal-fired power plant on ambient mercury species