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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wheat triticum aestivum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Registration of `Masami' Wheat `Masami' soft white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (Reg.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the ancestral resource (wheat flour), a sec- ond composed of adjacent patches of the ancestral and a novel-strain phe- notypic variation for fitness-related traits on corn and wheat flour (table 1) indicates of this species on wheat flour ( 5% yeast) under laboratory conditions for 20 years (250 generations). For my ex

Murray, Timothy D.

2

Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a new Sucrose Transporter in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Current bioethanol production is predominantly based on starch from cereal crops such as corn and wheat which leads to increased competition for such crops between (more)

Deol, Kirandeep

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Generation of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accumulating heterologous endo-xylanase or ferulic acid esterase in the endosperm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Delcour, J.A. (2005) Wheat flour constituents: how theybaking properties of wheat flour opposed to the beneficial

Harholt, Jesper

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Generation of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accumulating heterologous endo-xylanase or ferulic acid esterase in the endosperm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of wheat straw for bioethanol production by a combinedyields when processed for bioethanol production. In the

Harholt, Jesper

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Population- and genome-specific patterns of linkage disequilibrium and SNP variation in spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with the lines from the CIM- MYT population and nearly allpopulations except for the CIM- MYT population, which hadthe sample of U.S. and CIM- MYT wheat cultivars. Therefore,

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Generation of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accumulating heterologous endo-xylanase or ferulic acid esterase in the endosperm  

SciTech Connect

Endo-xylanase (from Bacillus subtilis) or ferulic acid esterase (from Aspergillus niger) were expressed in wheat under the control of the endosperm specific 1DX5 glutenin promoter. Constructs both with and without the endoplasmic reticulum retention signal KDEL were used. Transgenic plants were recovered in all four cases but no qualitative differences could be observed whether KDEL was added or not. Endo-xylanase activity in transgenic grains was increased between two and three fold relative to wild type. The grains were shriveled and had a 25-33% decrease in mass. Extensive analysis of the cell walls showed a 10-15% increase in arabinose to xylose ratio, a 50% increase in the proportion of water extractable arabinoxylan, and a shift in the MW of the water extractable arabinoxylan from being mainly larger than 85 kD to being between 2 kD and 85 kD. Ferulic acid esterase expressing grains were also shriveled and the seed weight was decreased by 20-50%. No ferulic acid esterase activity could be detected in wild type grains whereas ferulic acid esterase activity was detected in transgenic lines. The grain cell walls had 15-40% increase in water unextractable arabinoxylan and a decrease in monomeric ferulic acid between 13 and 34%. In all the plants the observed changes are consistent with a plant response that serves to minimize the effect of the heterologously expressed enzymes by increasing arabinoxylan biosynthesis and cross-linking.

Harholt, Jesper; Bach, Inga C; Lind-Bouquin, Solveig; Nunan, Kylie J.; Madrid, Susan M.; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Holm, Preben B.; Scheller, Henrik V.

2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

7

Integrated nutrient managment for sustainable production of sorghum-wheat crop sequeence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction Sorghum-(Sorghum bicolor) Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.of the systems. More over sorghum-wheat crop sequence is an

Bhale, Vilas Madhukar Dr.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Biochemistry of phenolic compounds in wheat grain (Triticum aestivum L.).  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Phenolic content, o-diphenol oxidase activity, flour colour and bread crumb colour have been examined for flour streams from a commercial flour mill and in flours (more)

McCallum, John Allan

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Identification of hybrids of spelt and wheat and their parental forms using shape and color descriptors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Grain images of three common wheat varieties, five spelt breeding lines and 24 single hybrids between wheat and spelt were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). The values of shape descriptors (Area, Perimeter (Perim.), Feret's Diameter (FD), ... Keywords: AR, Circ., FD, Grain, Hybrids, Image analysis, MFD, Perim., Principal component analysis, Round., Solid., Triticum aestivum, Triticum spelta

Marian Wiwart; Elbieta Suchowilska; Waldemar Lajszner; ?ukasz Graban

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Concentration and localization of zinc during seed development and germination in wheat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wheat genotypes and flour samples according to Zn concentration. DTZ is a Zn-chelating agent (Mc of red color due to DTZ staining in whole bread wheat flour (Triticum aestivum, cv. BDME-10). The seeds 16 23 34 55 (10 mm) Fig. 7. DTZ staining of whole grain flour of different wheat genotypes. Flour

Yanikoglu, Berrin

11

Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) Associated with Maintenance of Bread Making Quality under Heat Stress in Wheat (Triticum aestivum)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of this study was to identify QTLs associated with the maintenance of grain quality following post-anthesis heat stress. A population of 64 F6Halberd X Cutter recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was exposed to either heat stress or control conditions in the greenhouse, starting ten days after anthesis. Grain quality was determined using the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sedimentation test, a significant predictor of bread baking quality. The percent change in SDS sedimentation test scores between the heat and control populations was used to identify QTLs associated with quality stability. Four QTLs were identified, located one each on chromosomes 1B, 1D, 4A, and 7A. Three of the QTLs, those on 1B, 1D, and 4A, were associated with variations in SDS sedimentation level. The QTL on chromosome 7A was associated with the percent change in SDS sedimentation scores between heat-stressed and control conditions. This indicated a relationship between the identified QTL and quality stability. To confirm the detected QTLs, eighty advanced lines grown at three Texas nurseries were genotyped and tested for relationships between QTL-associated markers, quality traits, and stability of the quality traits. Quality trait stability was estimated using the coefficient of variability (CV%) of quality traits between growing sites. Quality characters analyzed in the advanced lines included kernel hardness, mixograph peak time, kernel weight, flour yield, SDS sedimentation, and grain yield. The analysis showed support for the effect of the QTLs on chromosomes 1B, 1D, and 4A. Further analysis will be needed to confirm the QTL on 7A, in particular. The mapping of additional markers will be necessary. However, the potential importance of this QTL and the abundance of other QTLs detected in this region make it worth investigating.

Beecher, Francis Ward

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network: North Dakota Sites 1 and 2 (Wheat)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes work performed in 2007 and 2008 to evaluate potential beneficial agricultural uses of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum at two sites in North Dakota. This work was part of a national research network evaluating beneficial uses of FGD gypsum in agriculture. The objectives of this research were to determine the influence of FGD gypsum applications on soil quality and on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yields and seed quality. Three application rates of FGD gypsum were compared with s...

2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

13

Nucleotide diversity maps reveal variation in diversity among wheat genomes and chromosomes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as: Akhunov et al. : Nucleotide diversity maps revealvariation in diversity among wheat genomes and chromosomes.wheat [16]. Levels of diversity in the T. aestivum D genome

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Wheat  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wheat Wheat Nature Bulletin No. 746 march 7, 1964 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Seymour Simon, President Roberts Mann, Conservation Editor WHEAT "Give us this day our daily bread. " That simple plea is included in the Lord' s Prayer because bread, made from wheat, was the "staff of life" in Palestine -- as it is for us today. Wheat bread is a source of energy that contains the food elements essential for the growth, health and upkeep of a human body. It is a staple food that is not only inexpensive but, uniquely, one which we never become tired of. The three most important grains used by mankind for food are wheat, rice, and Indian corn or maize. Next in importance are barley, rye, oats, and millet. The white races of people prize wheat far above any of the others. All seven -- known as cereal grains -- are the seeds of grasses descended from wild plants.

15

Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide - effect of elevated levels of CO{sub 2} on winter wheat under two moisture regimes  

SciTech Connect

This report deals with the second-year (1985-86) findings of an on going experiment with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at different carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels and under two moisture regimes. The results for the first year are given in the U.S. Department of Energy, Carbon Dioxide Research Division Response of Vegetation to Carbon Dioxide. The purpose of the second year`s experiment was to verify the results of 1984-85. However, based on the performance and the results of 1984-85 experiments, a few modifications were made.

Chaudhuri, U.N.; Burnett, R.B.; Kanemasu, E.T.; Kirkham, M.B.

1987-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

16

Genetic Loci Related to Kernel Quality Differences between a Soft and a Hard Wheat Cultivar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT processing and end-use characteristics, which depend Hybridizations between hard and soft wheat types could be a source on protein hydration and development through mixing. of novel variation for wheat quality improvement. This study was con- Hard wheat is generally used for making bread-type ducted to identify genomic regions related to differences in milling and products, and soft wheat is generally preferred for baking quality between a soft and a hard cultivar of hexaploid wheat pastry-type products. Hard grain requires more energy (Triticum aestivum L.). A population of 101 double-haploid lines was to be reduced to flour than soft grain, and its starch generated from a cross between Grandin, a hard spring wheat variety, and AC Reed, a soft spring wheat variety. The genetic map included 320 markers in 43 linkage groups and spanned 3555 cM. Quadrumat-milled flour yield, softness equivalent, flour protein content and alkaline water retention capacity were evaluated for three locations and one year, and Allis-Chalmers milling, mixograph, and cookie baking tests were completed without replication. The effect of qualitative variation for kernel texture, caused by the segregation of the Hardness gene, was granules are damaged more during milling. Damaged

Flvio Breseghello; Patrick L. Finney; Charles Gaines; Lonnie Andrews; James Tanaka; Gregory Penner; Mark E. Sorrells

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Assessing solar energy and water use efficiencies in winter wheat  

SciTech Connect

The water use and solar energy conversion efficiencies of two cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L., vars, Centurk and Newton) planted at three densities, were examined during a growing season. Water use, based on soil moisture depletion, was the lowest under the light, and the highest under the heavy planting densities of both cultivars. Water use efficiency of medium and heavy planting densities were greater than the light planting densities in both cultivars. The canopy radiation extinction coefficients of both cultivars increased with increases in planting density. Efficiency of operation interception of photosynthetically active radiation by both cultivars improved from the time of jointing until anthesis, and then decreased during senescence. The efficiency of the conversion of intercepted radiation to dry matter (biochemical efficiency) decreased throughout the growing season both cultivars. The interception, biochemical, and photosynthetic efficiencies improved as planting density increased.

Asrar, G.; Hipps, L.E.; Kanemasu, E.T.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

PCR markers for Triticum speltoides leaf rust resistance gene Lr51 and their use to develop isogenic hard red spring wheat lines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dubcovsky. 2000. Development of PCR markers for wheat leafqi, and J. Dubcovsky. 2003. PCR assays for the Lr37-Yr17-Czarnecki, and P.L. Dyck. 1995. PCR-based RAPD/ DGGE markers

Helguera, M; Vanzetti, L; Soria, M; Khan, I A; Kolmer, J; Dubcovsky, Jorge

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Evaluation of different agricultural biomass for bioethanol production.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In our study, five different bioenergy crops: wheat straw (Triticum aestivum), forage sorghum stover (sorghum bicolor), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus) and sweet sorghum (more)

Bansal, Sunil

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. They investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) an efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the intermodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

N /A

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wheat triticum aestivum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. We investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) An efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the internodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

Hess, J.R

2005-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

22

Wheat grain quality under enhanced tropospheric CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} concentrations  

SciTech Connect

It is expected that the progressive increase of tropospheric trace gases such as CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} will have a significant impact on agricultural production. The single and combined effects of CO{sub 2} enrichment and tropospheric O{sub 3} on grain quality characteristics in soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were examined in field studies using 3 m in diam. open-top chambers. Wheat cultivars {open_quotes}Massey{close_quotes} (1991) and {open_quotes}Saluda{close_quotes} (1992) were exposed to two CO{sub 2} concentrations (350 vs. 500 {mu}mol CO{sub 2} mol{sup {minus}1}; 12 h d{sup {minus}1}) in combination with two O{sub 3} regimes (charcoal-filtered air vs. ambient air + 40 {plus_minus} 20 nmol O{sub 3} mol{sup {minus}1}, 7 h d{sup {minus}1}; Monday to Friday) from late March until maturity in June. Grain quality characteristics investigated included: test weight, milling and baking quality, flour yield, protein content, softness equivalent, alkaline water retention capacity, and cookie diameter. In general, exposure of plants to either elevated CO{sub 2} or weekly chronic O{sub 3} episodes caused only small changes in grain quality. Milling and baking quality score were not significantly changed in response to treatments in both years. Flour yield was increased by elevated CO{sub 2} but this increase was counteracted when elevated CO{sub 2} was combined with chronic O{sub 3} exposure. Flour protein contents were increased by enhanced O{sub 3} under elevated CO{sub 2}. Although the single effect of either CO{sub 2} enrichment or chronic O{sub 3} exposure had some impact o grain quality characteristics, it was noted that the combined effect of these gases was minor. It is likely that the concomitant increase of CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} in the troposphere will have no significant impact on wheat grain quality. 25 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Rudorff, B.F.T. [National Space Research Inst., Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Mulchi, C.L. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Fenny, P. [USDA-ARS Soft Wheat Quality Lab., Wooster, OH (United States)] [and others

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Effects of Deletions of High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunit Alleles on Dough Properties and Wheat Flour Tortilla Quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In wheat (Triticum aestivum L), high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW -GS) are synthesized by the loci Glu-A1, Glu-B1, and Glu-D1 on the long arm of group 1 chromosome, and their variants play a significant role in the functional properties of flour; hence dough properties and tortilla quality. This study was conducted to understand the effects of HMW-GS on dough properties and tortilla quality using 40 different wheat lines from two different locations; Texas Agrilife Experiment Station at McGregor, and at Castroville, Texas, in 2010. Wheat lines in which one or more of these loci were absent (deletion lines) and non-deletion lines were used. Flours were evaluated for insoluble polymeric protein (IPP) content and mixograph properties. Dough properties; compression force, stress relaxation test, and dough extensibility, were determined using a texture analyzer. Tortillas were produced by hot-pressed method and evaluated for physical properties and textural change during 16 days of storage. Flour from deletion lines had lower average IPP content (38.4%) than non-deletion lines (41.9%). Dough from deletion lines were more extensible (44.8 mm) and required lower equilibrium force from stress relaxation test (4.91 N) compared to non-deletion lines (34.2 mm, and 6.56 N, respectively). Deletion lines produced larger diameter tortillas (177 mm) than non-deletion lines (165 mm) and had lighter color (L* = 82.3) than tortillas from non-deletion lines (L* = 81.0). Most of the deletion lines interestingly produced tortillas with acceptable flexibility scores on day 16 of storage (>= 3.0). Flour IPP content (r = -0.57) and equilibrium force (r = -0.80) were negatively correlated with tortilla diameter, but positively correlated with 16 day flexibility scores (r = 0.72, and r = 0.68, respectively). In general, deletion at Glu-A1 or Glu-D1 or presence of 2+12 instead of 5+10 allelic pair at Glu-D1 locus produced large diameter tortillas, but with poor day 16 flexibility. However, combination of 7+9 at Glu-B1 locus with deletions at Glu-A1 or Glu-D1 or 2+12 at Glu-D1 consistently produced tortillas that had large diameter and retained good flexibility scores during 16 days of storage. The results indicate the presence of 7+9 at Glu-B1 may play a crucial role in selection of wheat varieties for tortilla making.

Tuncil, Yunus

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Mapping straw yield using on-combine light detection and ranging lidar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wheat Triticum aestivum L. straw is not only important for long-term soil productivity, but also as a raw material for biofuel, livestock feed, building, packing, and bedding. Inventory figures in the USA for potential straw ...

DanS. Long, JohnD. McCallum

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Summary of Agricultural Experiments Used in Soil Carbon Sequestration...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

P, phosphorus S, soybean (Glycine max L.) Sf, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Sm, sorghum (Sorghum spp.) V, vetch ( Vicia sativa L.) W, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) NA is not...

26

The use of ultrasound and shear oscillatory tests to characterize the effect of mixing time on the rheological properties of dough  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wheat genotypes and flour samples according to Zn concentration. DTZ is a Zn-chelating agent (Mc of red color due to DTZ staining in whole bread wheat flour (Triticum aestivum, cv. BDME-10). The seeds 16 23 34 55 (10 mm) Fig. 7. DTZ staining of whole grain flour of different wheat genotypes. Flour

Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J.

27

Research on Populations of Tribolium confusum and its Bearing on Ecological Theory: A Author(s): John Ford  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wheat genotypes and flour samples according to Zn concentration. DTZ is a Zn-chelating agent (Mc of red color due to DTZ staining in whole bread wheat flour (Triticum aestivum, cv. BDME-10). The seeds 16 23 34 55 (10 mm) Fig. 7. DTZ staining of whole grain flour of different wheat genotypes. Flour

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

28

Poster created by: Syracuse University Food Services cooked Spelt =  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wheat genotypes and flour samples according to Zn concentration. DTZ is a Zn-chelating agent (Mc of red color due to DTZ staining in whole bread wheat flour (Triticum aestivum, cv. BDME-10). The seeds 16 23 34 55 (10 mm) Fig. 7. DTZ staining of whole grain flour of different wheat genotypes. Flour

Mather, Patrick T.

29

Direct mechanical energy measures of hammer mill comminution of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover and analysis of their particle size distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass particle size impacts handling, storage, conversion, and dust control systems. Size reduction mechanical energy was directly measured for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), and corn stover (Zea mays L.) in an instrumented hammer mill. Direct energy inputs were determined for hammer mill operating speeds from 2000 to 3600 rpm for 3.2 mm integral classifying screen and mass input rate of 2.5 kg/min with 90 - and 30 -hammers. Overall accuracy of specific energy measurement was calculated as 0.072 MJ/Mg. Particle size distributions created by hammer mill were determined for mill operating factors using ISO sieve sizes from 4.75 to 0.02 mm in conjunction with Ro-Tap sieve analyzer. A wide range of analytical descriptors were examined to mathematically represent the range of particle sizes in the distributions. Total specific energy (MJ/Mg) was defined as size reduction energy to operate the hammer mill plus that imparted to biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as energy imparted to biomass. Total specific energy for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover grinding increased by 37, 30, and 45% from 114.4, 125.1, and 103.7 MJ/Mg, respectively, with an increase in hammer mill speed from 2000 to 3600 rpm for 90 -hammers. Corresponding total specific energy per unit size reduction was 14.9, 19.7, and 13.5 MJ/Mg mm, respectively. Effective specific energy of 90 -hammers decreased marginally for switchgrass and considerably for wheat straw and it increased for corn stover with an increase in speed from 2000 to 3600 rpm. However, effective specific energy increased with speed to a certain extent and then decreased for 30 -hammers. Rosin Rammler equation fitted the size distribution data with R2 > 0.995. Mass relative span was greater than 1, which indicated a wide distribution of particle sizes. Hammer milling of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover with 3.2 mm screen resulted in well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic particles. Uniformity coefficient was corn stover, which indicated a moderate assortment of particles. Size-related parameters, namely, geometric mean diameter, Rosin Rammler size parameter, median diameter, and effective size had strong correlation among themselves and good negative correlation with speed. Distribution-related parameters, namely, Rosin Rammler distribution parameter, mass relative span, inclusive graphic skewness, graphic kurtosis, uniformity index, uniformity coefficient, coefficient of gradation and distribution geometric standard deviation had strong correlation among themselves and a weak correlation with mill speed. Results of this extensive analysis of specific energy and particle sizes can be applied to selection of hammer mill operating factors to produce a particular size of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover grind, and will serve as a guide for relations among the energy and various analytic descriptors of biomass particle distributions.

Bitra, V.S.P [University of Tennessee; Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Chevanan, Nehru [University of Tennessee; Miu, P.I. [University of Tennessee; Smith, D.R. [University of Tennessee; Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Wheat Situation and Outlook  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

U.S. 2004 wheat harvested area is projected down 2 million acres from 2003. With trend yields, projected production is down 215 million bushels. Total U.S. wheat disappearance in 2005/06 is expected to decline more than supplies, resulting in a small amount of stock-building. With the higher stocks-to-use ratio, the season-average farm price is projected to decline. World wheat prices during the fall of 2004 were not much changed compared with the previous year, but were high enough to encourage expanded plantings in some countries. However, normal weather is unlikely to replicate last years record foreign wheat yield, so global wheat production is expected to decline some in 2005/06. Assuming trend

United States; Gary Vocke; Edward Allen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Weed Control Recommendations in Wheat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This publication offers suggestions for controlling weeds in wheat using cultural, mechanical and chemical methods.

Morgan, Gaylon; Baumann, Paul A.; Baughman, Todd; Bean, Brent W.

2008-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

32

Texas Wheat Variety Research and Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Texas Wheat Variety Research and Development One of the most important decisions a wheat grower growing region. Extension's Response With the support of the Texas Wheat Producers Board, the Texas AgriLife Extension Service and Texas AgriLife Research have conducted 141 replicated wheat-variety demonstration

Wilkins, Neal

33

Effect of crop residue harvest on long-term crop yield, soil erosion, and carbon balance: tradeoffs for a sustainable bioenergy feedstock  

SciTech Connect

Agricultural residues are a potential feedstock for bioenergy production, if residue harvest can be done sustainably. The relationship between crop residue harvest, soil erosion, crop yield and carbon balance was modeled with the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator/ Environment Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) using a factorial design. Four crop rotations (winter wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)] sunflower [Helianthus annuus]; spring wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)] canola [Brassica napus]; corn [Zea mays L.] soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]; and cotton [Gossypium hirsutum] peanut [Arachis hypogaea]) were simulated at four US locations each, under different topographies (0-10% slope), and management practices [crop residue removal rates (0-75%), conservation practices (no till, contour cropping, strip cropping, terracing)].

Gregg, Jay S.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.

2010-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

34

Effects of Genotype and Environment on the Antioxidant Properties of Hard Winter Wheat Bran  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the other wheat cultivars. Wheat lines producing flour yields greater than 70.0% is desirable. The Soft ............................................................................................. 4 Barley and Wheat Entries. Section 3: Wheat Varieties Discussion of wheat varieties and summary of wheat management practices

Liu, Jian-Guo

35

Spatially discriminating Russian wheat aphid induced plant stress from other wheat stressing factors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Russian wheat aphid (RWA) Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) is a major pest of winter wheat and barley in the United States. RWA induces stress to the wheat crop by damaging plant foliage, lowering the greenness of plants, and affecting productivity. The ... Keywords: Discriminant function analysis, Plant stress, Russian wheat aphid, Spatial pattern metrics

Georges F. Backoulou; Norman C. Elliott; Kristopher Giles; Mpho Phoofolo; Vasile Catana; Mustafa Mirik; Jerry Michels

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Registration of `Bauermeister' Wheat `Bauermeister' (J981107, WA007939) hard red winter wheat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sclerotia. AFB1was detected by HPLC in 56.6% of the wheat samples and derived products (flour, semolina the form of unclean and clean wheat, flour, semolina and bran). The sample collection data are summa- rized, clean wheat and products (flour, semolina and bran). The cleaning of wheat consists of eliminating

Murray, Timothy D.

37

Climate Model for Winter Wheat Yield Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Winter wheat yields were simulated by a model requiring climatic data as input for estimating crop evapotranspiration and phenological development. An assumed relationship between the winter wheat yields and the amount and timing of crop water ...

Kenneth G. Hubbard; R. J. Hanks

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Measurement of effective thermal conductivity of wheat as a function of moisture content  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Grain drying and storage are one of the main activities of agricultural industry. Increasing energy costs have stressed the importance of calculation of heat and mass transfer in a grain bulk in order to be able to optimize drying facilities. Another limitation during drying is the preservation of grain structure and its nutritional values, Muehlbauer and Christ have shown that damage to the grain structure and grain nutritional value is dependent upon grain temperature and drying time. Therefore, proper conditions during drying and storage of cereal grains require the knowledge of the thermophysical properties of the grains. The effective thermal conductivity of two varieties of Triticum durum wheat and a wheat product, bulgur, is determined at different moisture contents and at ambient temperature by the transient lime heat source method. The moisture contents of the samples ranged from 9.17 to 38.65% wet basis and the bulk densities ranged from 675 to 827 kg/m{sup 3}. Under those conditions, the measured effective thermal conductivities ranged from 0.159 to 0.201 W/m.K. The effective thermal conductivity is found to be linearly increasing with moisture content. The results are also in good agreement with literature values.

Tavman, S. [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Food Engineering Dept.] [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Food Engineering Dept.; Tavman, I.H. [Dokuz Eyluel Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Mechanical Engineering Dept.] [Dokuz Eyluel Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

CULTIVAR DESCRIPTION CDC Kestrel winter wheat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

= 15 Increased satiety during 120 min (Hlebowicz et al., 2008b) Bread with 80% whole-grain wheat flour., 1998) Bread with 15% pearled barley flour (6 g df) Control: refined wheat bread (0.1 g df) Higher rye foods, compared with iso-caloric refined wheat bread, served as parts of breakfast meals in cross

Peak, Derek

40

An analysis of factors influencing wheat flour yield.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The cost of wheat is the largest input cost for a flour mill, and as a result, profitability in wheat flour milling is determined in (more)

Mog, David L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wheat triticum aestivum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Wheat Ridge Solar | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wheat Ridge Solar Wheat Ridge Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Wheat Ridge Solar Name Wheat Ridge Solar Address 4550 Teller St Place Wheat Ridge, Colorado Zip 80033 Sector Solar Product Design and installation of solar systems for residential and small business Website http://www.wheatridgesolar.com Coordinates 39.779472°, -105.076426° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.779472,"lon":-105.076426,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

42

Adapting to Climate: The Transformation of North American Wheat Production 1839-2009  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Wheat lines having a flour yield of one percentage point or greater below that of USG 3209 would ............................................................................................. 3 Barley and Wheat Entries, Blacksburg, VA, 2008 harvest. #12;2 Section 2: Wheat Varieties Discussion of wheat varieties and summary

Silver, Whendee

43

Classifiers fusion in recognition of wheat varieties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Five wheat varieties (Bezostaja, esit1252, Da?das, Gerek, Kiziltan traded in Konya Exchange of Commerce, Turkey), characterized by nine geometric and three colour descriptive features have been classified by multiple classier system where ...

Sarunas Raudys; mer Kaan Baykan; Ahmet Babalik; Vitalij Denisov; Antanas Andrius Bielskis

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Classification of Bidens in wheat farms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bidens pilosa L. (commonly known as cobbler's peg) is an annual broad leaf weed widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world and is reported to be a weed of 31 crops, including wheat. Automatic detection of Bidens in ... Keywords: Bidens pilosa L, automatic detection, classification, cobbler', colour-based segmentation, precision agriculture, s peg, sensing, shape-based validation, weed detection, wheat farms

Zhengzhi Zhang; Sarath Kodagoda; David Ruiz; Jayantha Katupitiya; Gamini Dissanayake

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

A traceability system incorporating 2D barcode and RFID technology for wheat flour mills  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wheat flour undergoes several processing steps in its transformation from raw wheat in the mill, which differentiates wheat flour from other farm products. At each step, various wheat sources are combined into one batch of wheat flour. This study primarily ... Keywords: 2D barcode, RFID, Supply chain, Traceability, Wheat flour

Jian-Ping Qian; Xin-Ting Yang; Xiao-Ming Wu; Li Zhao; Bei-Lei Fan; Bin Xing

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Genetic Diversity and Grain Protein Composition of Tetraploid Wheat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wheat flour. This is the first characterization of the linear viscoelastic behaviour over such a wide frequency range. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Wheat flour doughs of dough [12]. Since breadmak- ing flours in North America are typically made from grists of stronger wheat

47

Automatic detection of wheat flour precision based on Image processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to efficient, objective and comprehensive assessment of wheat flour processing accuracy, this paper introduces a new method to detect the wheat flour processing precision; it uses wheat flour three features of Whiteness, color, bran to design ... Keywords: ant colony algorithm, color feature, fuzzy C-means, fuzzy recognition

Liu YanLi; Zhang HongMei; Wang TieJian

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Wheat quality evaluation methods to predict wheat flour tortilla production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Commercial wheat flours from Canada, Mexico, and USA were evaluated to determine their processing ability for tortillas. All 64 flours were evaluated by sedimentation, moisture, protein, pH, and color. Doughs were evaluated by mixograph, farinograph, subjective dough properties, and stress relaxation. All flours were prepared into tortillas using a standardized tortilla bake test while some of the flours were prepared into tortillas using an optimized tortilla bake test, i.e., optimized for resting time to attain a uniform diameter. Tortillas were evaluated by weight, diameter, color, pH, moisture, and shelf stability. Flours that yielded easily machinable doughs that processed easily into tortillas which have long shelf stability were viewed as desirable. The flours were divided into weak, intermediate, and strong protein strength flours based on mixograph analysis. Both bake tests produced good quality tortillas. The standardized bake test was able to differentiate the flours, i.e., tortilla tortilla diameter, weight, moisture content, and storage stability. Strong protein strength flours produced significantly tougher doughs and tortillas with smaller diameters. Weak protein strength flours produced doughs that required less resting time and tortillas with a short shelf stability, i.e., tortillas cracked after 5 days of storage. Intermediate protein strength flours yielded optimum dough viscosity and elasticity and tortillas with good shelf stability. Intermediate protein strength flours met the criteria and processed more easily into wheat flour tortillas. Tortilla flour specifications utilized by manufacturers impart information to the miller for the production of the desired flours. Tortilla bake tests provide additional information that supplements information received from normal flour evaluation methods. Wide access distributed area network services are increasing in range and capacity at an exponential rate. With the continuation of this growth, the requirements of providing uniform security management will become more and more difficult to manage without occupying a significant portion of the network traffic capability available to the end-users the network is intended to service. Current methods rely on the network architecture itself to provide the mechanisms by which traffic is monitored and, when the situation warrants, suppressed in order to ensure that security methods are enforced. With the introduction of ATM/SONET technologies into this arena, the possibility of integrating every class of information service into a common transmission framework comes closer to reality through its high bandwidth capability and very large scalability. However, this expansion of types of services available and range offered complicates the task of minimizing the possibility that unauthorized persons may rely on covert traffic creation and reception in order to use the network in a manner not permitted by its controlling bodies. To address this deficiency, this thesis presents the groundwork for the implementation of a dedicated security framework which should be able to accomplish the task of minimizing the potential for covert channels in such networks without creating the associated traffic overhead normally associated with such operations within the network itself. For this security framework, the system described presents a design which incorporates both the mechanisms for the detection and suppression of covert traffic, as well as, the implementation by which these mechanisms may be linked to a unifying control authority. Performance analyses of the design show that it may be feasibly implemented with current levels of semiconductor manufacturing technology and incorporates elements that are readily available on the market. Secondly, these analyses show that the associated response delay experienced by transiting network traffic is n-minimal with respect to the overall time the information spends while en route through the network. Thirdly, the delays associated with connection management are constant under all glob

Sullins, Barbie Denise

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

The effects of added wheat proteins on processing and quality of wheat flour tortillas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Specific proteins improve quality of flour for breadmaking but protein composition in tortilla flour has not been investigated. Selected wheat protein fractions can separately modify dough resistance and extensibility. This may yield tortillas with increased diameter, opacity and stability. Tortillas were prepared using laboratory-scale, commercial equipment with fixed processing parameters. Dough and tortilla properties were evaluated using a texture analyzer and subjective methods. Tortillas were stored in plastic bags at 22?C for 28 days. The effects of ten wheat proteins (donated by Midwest Grain Products, Inc; at 3.0 baker's percent) on processing and quality of flour tortillas were determined. Mixograph parameters varied but were not significantly affected by added wheat proteins. Dough absorption, mixing time, and cysteine level were adjusted slightly to attain uniform dough for tortillas. Wheat protein fractions added to pastry, tortilla and bread flours did not significantly affect tortilla weight, moisture, pH, opacity or specific volume, except for glutenin and vital wheat gluten, which decreased opacity in pastry flour tortillas. Protein fractions yielding improved tortilla properties and stability were FP600, FP6000, FP5000 and Gliadin in pastry and tortilla flour. Addition levels of selected wheat proteins were evaluated in weak protein tortilla formulas. Addition of 1% FP5000 or PF6000 improved tortilla stability. Calcium peroxide was added to the formula to better incorporate added protein fractions in a reduced-oxidized dough system. A combination of 7.5 ppm calcium peroxide with 1% Gliadin resulted in tortillas with improved shelf stability. Bread-making quality of wheat flour is correlated with the insoluble polymeric protein fraction. The insoluble polymeric proteins in flour correlated with smaller diameter and improved rollability score at 12 days of storage for tortillas made from different wheat flours. The insoluble proteins correlated only with tortilla stability for tortillas prepared with added wheat protein fractions to flours with different protein strengths. Several wheat protein fractions improve storage stability of tortillas, while retaining good tortilla properties. This was not related to the insoluble protein amount; however the more insoluble proteins in flour caused smaller diameter tortillas.

Pascut, Simina

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

* SGP Central Facility - surrounded by wheat felds, the  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SGP Central Facility - surrounded by wheat felds, the SGP Central Facility - surrounded by wheat felds, the heavily instrumented Central Facility served as the primary source of information about cloud and carbon feedbacks. * Little Washita Watershed - located in a mix of pasture land and winter wheat, three carbon fux towers and associ ated instruments were added at this site. Two additional fux towers were located at Fort Cobb, in nearby croplands,

51

Winter Weed Pressure in Winter Wheat Edward Davis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

26 Wheat ** ** * Barley *** * * Oats *** ** Canola * * * Lentil * * ** Millet ** ** Corn Beyond PrePare Maverick (Field Bioassay) #12;LENTIL OAT PEA CAMELINA CANOLA BARLEY PowerFlex ROTATIONAL

Maxwell, Bruce D.

52

Effect of enzyme application in temper water on wheat milling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The effect of enzyme in temper water on wheat milling performance and flour quality was studied. Five independent variables, enzyme concentration, incubation time, incubation temperature, (more)

Yoo, Juhyun

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Texas AgriLIFE Research Wheat Cultivar Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Texas AgriLIFE Research Wheat Cultivar Development Jackie Rudd, Amir Ibrahim, Ravindra Devkota Through breeding efforts and better management practices, grain yield of wheat in Texas has increased from an average of 20 bushels per acre during the 1960's to 30 bushels per acre during the 1990's (Texas

54

Bioethanol Production Based on Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Wheat Straw  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential of wheat straw as raw materials for ethanol production was investigated. Ethanol cooking at 190 ? for 60 min was adopted as pretreatment method for dilute sulfuric acid impregnated wheat straw. The pretreated wheat straw was used ... Keywords: dilute sulfuric acid catalysis, ethanol cooking pretreatment, wheat straw, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, ethanol

Peng Luo; Zhong Liu

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Considerations for Planting Corn into Damaged Fields of Wheat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many folks are still assessing the condition of wheat fields damaged by the low temperatures of the past week. In some situations, additional damage to wheat has occurred from standing water in fields due to frequent rains this winter and spring. Some growers may decide replanting damaged wheat fields to corn is a viable economic option. Some of the key considerations for doing so are described in this article. Killing the Remaining Stand of Wheat For damaged wheat fields that will be planted to corn, complete and timely control of the existing wheat is more important than if planting to soybean. Corn is more sensitive to early-season weed competition than soybean. Living wheat plants are essentially weeds and can absorb nitrogen and make it unavailable for the corn plants during the same growing season. Use of a glyphosate-based burndown program should include the use of glyphosate at 1.5 lb ae/A + 2.4-D at 1-2 pts/A. The herbicide 2,4-D is needed to control glyphosateresistant marestail which is very prevalent in southern Indiana and help with control of emerged common lambsquarter and ragweed. Apply in a spray volume of 10 to 15 GPA

Bill Johnson; Tony Vyn; Jim Camberato; Christian Krupke; Rl (bob Nielsen; Depts Of Botany; Plant Pathology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Photo of the Week: Wheat and Wind | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wheat and Wind Wheat and Wind Photo of the Week: Wheat and Wind December 14, 2012 - 2:33pm Addthis From 262 feet in the air, 90 General Electric towers rise over Wheatland County, Montana, generating electricity for portions of the northwest United States. With an installed capacity of 135 MW, the Judith Gap Energy Center is one of the strongest wind farms in Montana. The blades begin spinning when winds reach just eight miles per hour, and at their highest point, tower almost 400 feet above the ground. In this photo, the wind turbines rotate while overlooking Wheatland County's main agricultural product: wheat. | Photo courtesy of Idaho National Laboratory Wind Energy Program. From 262 feet in the air, 90 General Electric towers rise over Wheatland County, Montana, generating electricity for portions of the northwest

57

Linear to Non-linear Rheology of Wheat Flour Dough  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We provide an overview of transient extensional rheometry techniques for wheat flour doughs in which the deformation and material response is well defined. The behavior of a range of model doughs was

Ng, Trevor S.K.

2007-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

58

Hard Spring Wheat Variety Descriptions Resistance To2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Hard Spring Wheat Variety Descriptions Resistance To2 Quality Factors Straw Stem Leaf Foliar Head; S =susceptible; VS =very susceptible; NA = data not available. #12;2 Hard White Spring Wheat Descriptions HWS 36.6 35.7 58.4 15.0 14.7 Kanata HWS 35.5 35.5 60.0 15.9 15.6 LSD 5% -- 3.2 -- 1.4 0.8 -- HWS-Hard

Dyer, Bill

59

Gourmet and Health-Promoting Specialty OilsChapter 13 Wheat Germ Oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gourmet and Health-Promoting Specialty Oils Chapter 13 Wheat Germ Oil Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 13 Wheat Germ Oil from th

60

Summer rainfall and wheat grain quality: Relationships with the North Atlantic Oscillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

import of North American wheat prohibitively expensive for milling into the majority of bread flour to inform the wheat industry about the quality of raw mate- rial available for milling and baking. Thus

Stephenson, David B.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wheat triticum aestivum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

LINEAR TO NON-LINEAR RHEOLOGY OF WHEAT FLOUR DOUGH TREVOR S.K. NG1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LINEAR TO NON-LINEAR RHEOLOGY OF WHEAT FLOUR DOUGH TREVOR S.K. NG1 , GARETH H. MCKINLEY1 *, MADESH.9.2006 Abstract: We provide an overview of transient extensional rheometry techniques for wheat flour doughs wheat flour; mixed to a constant time (360 s/peak-mixed) and a fixed water ratio by weight (66

62

MSU University News New wheat, barley and specialty crop varieties okayed for pipeline  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

" such as in "whole wheat flour." This indicates that the product is made primarily from whole grains. Just because · Organic unbleached flour · Enriched flour · Semolina, duram wheat, or wheat flour · Degerminated corn meal. Whole grains can be milled into flour or eaten whole, cracked, split or ground, as long as the whole

Maxwell, Bruce D.

63

REQUEST FOR SUPPORT FOR REGISTRATION OF S01-285-7*R Crop Kind: Wheat Type: Canada Western Hard Red Winter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

type of grain. Primarily, the grinding of wheat for whole-wheat flour and corn for cornmeal or grits. Soft winter wheat will be sufficient to make whole wheat flour. In addition, buckwheat in small to purchase yellow corn that has been cleaned through a separator. Cleaned wheat can also be obtained locally

Peak, Derek

64

Understanding the Effect of Rye Chromatin in Bread Wheat A. M. Kumlay, P. S. Baenziger,* K. S. Gill, D. R. Shelton, R. A. Graybosch,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

type of grain. Primarily, the grinding of wheat for whole-wheat flour and corn for cornmeal or grits. Soft winter wheat will be sufficient to make whole wheat flour. In addition, buckwheat in small to purchase yellow corn that has been cleaned through a separator. Cleaned wheat can also be obtained locally

Gill, Kulvinder

65

Separating homeologs by phasing in the tetraploid wheat transcriptome  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

k-mer length Page 3 of 19 assembly pipeline. Digitalpipeline (see next section) and the resulting contigs were aligned to the 13,472 full-lengthpipeline, we used two wheat benchmark sets. The first set consisted of 13,472 full-length

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Michael Flowers, Extension cereals specialist, and C. James Peterson, professor of wheat breeding and genetics, both  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Substitute whole grain and bran flours. Whole wheat flour can replace from one-fourth to one- half of the all-purpose flour. For example, if a recipe has 3 cups all-purpose flour, use 1½ cups whole wheat flour and 1½ cups, we need to review why flour is used. The gluten that is formed when protein from wheat flour

Tullos, Desiree

67

The New Era of Corn, Soybean, and Wheat Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Prices have changed so much for what we sell and buy that it is almost impossible to feel confident in the decisions you make.-- Agriculture Online, July 5, 2008 Prices of corn, soybeans, and wheat started moving higher in the fall of 2006 and have remained generally high and well above average prices in the previous 30 years. These higher prices, and the volatility associated with the higher prices, have resulted in the kind of uncertainty reflected in the quote above. Are higher prices here to stay? If so, what is the expected level and variability of prices during the new era? From a producers standpoint, the question really is, What is a good price for corn, soybeans and wheat? These questions

Darrel Good; Scott Irwin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Physicochemical properties of wheat starches and their relationship to liquefaction and fermentative bioethanol performance.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Fourteen varieties of wheat grown in western Canada were assessed for differences in starch content and structure. Physicochemical properties of starch such as amylopectin to (more)

Saunders, Jessica

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Integrated nutrient managment for sustainable production of sorghum-wheat crop sequeence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rhizosperic environment and crop productivity. A reviewpaol) is the most important crop sequence of India occupyingMore over sorghum-wheat crop sequence is an exhaustive

Bhale, Vilas Madhukar Dr.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Wheat Flour Tortilla: Quality Prediction and Study of Physical and Textural Changes during Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A cost-effective, faster and efficient way of screening wheat samples suitable for tortilla production is needed. Hence, we developed prediction models for tortilla quality (diameter, specific volume, color and texture parameters) using grain, flour and dough properties of 16 wheat flours. The prediction models were developed using stepwise multiple regression. Dough rheological tests had higher correlations with tortilla quality than grain and flour chemical tests. Dough resistance to extension was correlated best with tortilla quality, particularly tortilla diameter (r= -0.87, Pwheat flours, dough and tortillas were compared using five wheat samples. Refined flour doughs were more extensible and softer than whole wheat flour doughs. Whole wheat flour tortillas were larger, thinner and less opaque than refined flour tortillas. Refined wheat flour had much smaller particle size and less fiber than whole wheat flour. These are the major factors that contributed to the observed differences. In general, refined wheat tortillas were more shelf-stable than whole wheat tortillas. However, whole wheat tortillas from strong flours had excellent shelf-stability which must be considered when whole wheat tortillas are processed. . Different objective rheological techniques were used to characterize the texture of refined and whole flour tortillas during storage. Differences in texture between 0, 1 and 4 day-old tortillas were detected by rupture distance from one and two-dimension extensibility techniques. In general, the deformation modulus was not a good parameter to differentiate tortilla texture at the beginning of storage. It detected textural changes of 8 and 14 day-old tortillas. The subjective rollability method detected textural changes after 4 days storage.

Ribeiro De Barros, Frederico

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Abstract We have produced transgenic maize plants containing a wheat Glu-1Dx5 gene encoding the high-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

represent wheat genomic DNA, and the cross-hatched arrow represents the 1Dx5 coding region. The stip- pled

Scott, Paul

72

Flowability parameters for chopped switchgrass, wheat straw and corn stover  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A direct shear cell to measure the shear strength and flow properties of chopped switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover was designed, fabricated, and tested. Yield loci (r2=0.99) determined at pre-consolidation pressures of 3.80 kPa and 5.02 kPa indicated that chopped biomass followed Mohr-Coulomb failure. Normal stress significantly affected the displacement required for shear failure, as well as the friction coefficient values for all three chopped biomass types. Displacement at shear failure ranged from 30 to 80 mm, and depended on pre-consolidation pressure, normal stress, and particle size. Friction coefficient was inversely related to normal stress, and was highest for chopped corn stover. Also, chopped corn stover exhibited the highest angle of internal friction, unconfined yield strength, major consolidation strength, and cohesive strength, all of which indicated increased challenges in handling chopped corn stover. The measured angle of internal friction and cohesive strength indicated that chopped biomass cannot be handled by gravity alone. The measured angle of internal friction and cohesive strength were 43 and 0.75 kPa for chopped switchgrass; 44 and 0.49 kPa for chopped wheat straw; and 48 and 0.82 kPa for chopped corn stover. Unconfined yield strength and major consolidation strength used for characterization of bulk flow materials and design of hopper dimensions were 3.4 and 10.4 kPa for chopped switchgrass; 2.3 and 9.6 kPa for chopped wheat straw and 4.2 and 11.8 kPa for chopped corn stover. These results are useful for development of efficient handling, storage, and transportation systems for biomass in biorefineries.

Chevanan, Nehru [University of Tennessee; Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Bitra, V.S.P. [University of Tennessee; Yoder, D.C. [University of Tennessee; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Biorefinery Concept Development Based on Wheat Flour Milling  

SciTech Connect

We are developing an innovative process for the recovery of a starch-rich product from millfeed (the low-value byproduct of wheat flour milling); enzymatic processing of the starch to glucose; and the subsequent processes for conversion of that glucose into a value-added product by either a catalytic or a fermentation process. We have completed the development of the starch recovery step with enzymatic processing and the assessment of its economic viability. The processes to use the glucose product as feedstock for catalytic processing and fermentation processing have been tested in the laboratory. Catalytic processing of the glucose from the extracted starch for polyol production is based on catalytic hydrogenation to sorbitol. Alternatively, fermentation of the extracted starch-derived glucose also provides a pathway to value-added chemical products via a platform chemical, lactic acid. The paper includes results from all the processing areas addressed. Starch extraction and glucose generation from wheat milling byproducts are presented with laboratory and scaled-up processing results. Results of fermentation of the glucose product to lactic acid in shaker flask tests are presented, documenting the minimal requirements for nutrient addition. Stirred batch reactor tests of catalytic hydrogenation of the glucose product to sorbitol are presented with a discussion of contaminant effects on the catalyst.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Orth, Rick J.; Werpy, Todd A.; Gao, Johnway; Eakin, David E.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Murry, J; Flagg, Anthony; Lahman, L; Mennel, D; Lin, C J.; Landucci, Ron; Crockett, John; Peterson, Charles L.

2002-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

74

Biorefinery Concept Development Based On Wheat Flour Milling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new process is being developed to extract starch from millfeed, the low-value byproduct of wheat flour milling, and convert it to glucose through enzymatic processing. The millfeed-derived glucose will then be converted to value-added products, such as polyol, through a catalytic process, or lactic acid, through a fermentation process. The starch (glucose) recovery process has been tested through the pilot scale. Catalytic and fermentation processes have been tested in the laboratory. The process developed for glucose recovery from wheat millfeed includes hot water extraction of starch and filtration of a fibrous animal feed coproduct, followed by enzymatic liquefaction and saccharification of the extracted starch, with filtration of a high-protein coproduct. The bench-scale tests showed that a glucose yield of approximately 30% on a dry millfeed basis could be achieved, which corresponds to the recovery of essentially all the glucose value in the millfeed. Glucose yields with the pilot-scale system were comparable, although filtration was more difficult.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Orth, Rick J.; Gao, Johnway; Werpy, Todd A.; Eakin, David E.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.

2002-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

75

Development of Regional Models that Use Meteorological Variables for Predicting Stripe Rust Disease on Winter Wheat  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Meteorological variables can be used to predict stripe rust, a disease of wheat caused by Puccinia striiformis West., at Lind, Pullman, and Walla Walla, Washington and Pendleton, Oregon in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Regional ...

Stella Melugin Coakley; William S. Boyd; Roland F. Line

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

The Diurnal Cycle of LandAtmosphere Interactions across Oklahomas Winter Wheat Belt  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This manuscript documents the impact of Oklahomas winter wheat belt (WWB) on the near-surface atmosphere by comparing the diurnal cycle of meteorological conditions within the WWB relative to conditions in adjacent counties before and after the ...

Matthew J. Haugland; Kenneth C. Crawford

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Using the Southern Oscillation to Forecast Texas Winter Wheat and Sorghum Crop Yields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Time series models are used to examine the impact of Southern Oscillation (SO) extreme events in estimating and forecasting Texas sorghum and winter wheat yields. It is shown that a significant correlation between the SO events and yield does not ...

James W. Mjelde; Keith Keplinger

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Wheat Belt Public Power Dist | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Belt Public Power Dist Belt Public Power Dist Jump to: navigation, search Name Wheat Belt Public Power Dist Place Nebraska Utility Id 20509 Utility Location Yes Ownership P NERC Location WECC/MRO NERC MRO Yes NERC WECC Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png DISTRIBUTION HEAVY INDUSTRIAL (E-2) Commercial GENERAL PURPOSE - LARGE COMMERCIAL Industrial GENERAL PURPOSE - LARGE COMMERCIAL Commercial GENERAL PURPOSE - SMALL Residential GENERAL PURPOSE - SMALL COMMERCIAL Commercial IRRIGATION Multi Phase Commercial LARGE POWER Industrial

79

Biomechanics of Wheat/Barley Straw and Corn Stover  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The lack of understanding of the mechanical characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks is a limiting factor in economically collecting and processing crop residues, primarily wheat and barley stems and corn stover. Several testing methods, including compression, tension, and bend have been investigated to increase our understanding of the biomechanical behavior of cellulosic feedstocks. Biomechanical data from these tests can provide required input to numerical models and help advance harvesting, handling, and processing techniques. In addition, integrating the models with the complete data set from this study can identify potential tools for manipulating the biomechanical properties of plant varieties in such a manner as to optimize their physical characteristics to produce higher value biomass and more energy efficient harvesting practices.

Christopher T. Wright; Peter A. Pryfogle; Nathan A. Stevens; Eric D. Steffler; J. Richard Hess; Thomas H. Ulrich

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Effect of Interleukin-18 Gene Polymorphisms on Sensitization to Wheat Flour in Bakery Workers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lower respiratory symptoms in bakery workers may be induced by wheat flour and endotoxins. We hypothesized that endotoxins from wheat flour may stimulate innate immunity and that interleukin-18 (IL-18) gene polymorphisms may affect their regulatory role in innate immune responses to endotoxins. To investigate the genetic contribution of IL-18 to sensitization to wheat flour, we performed a genetic association study of IL-18 in Korean bakery workers. A total of 373 bakery workers undertook a questionnaire regarding work-related symptoms. Skin prick tests with common and occupational allergens were performed and specific antibodies to wheat flour were measured by ELISA. Three polymorphisms of the IL-18 gene (-607A/C,-137G/C, 8674C/G) were genotyped, and the functional effects of the polymorphisms were analyzed using the luciferase reporter assay. Genotypes of-137G/C (GC or CC) and haplotype ht3 [ACC] showed a significant association with the rate of sensitization to wheat flour. Luciferase activity assay indicated ht3 [AC] as a low transcript haplotype. In conclusion, the regulatory role of IL-18 in lipopolysaccharide-induced responses in bakery workers may be affected by this polymorphism, thus contributing to the development of sensitization to wheat flour and work-related respiratory symptoms.

Seung-hyun Kim; Gyu-young Hur; Hyun Jung Jin; Hyunna Choi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wheat triticum aestivum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Root Uptake of Lipophilic Zinc?Rhamnolipid Complexes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigated the formation and plant uptake of lipophilic metal-rhamnolipid complexes. Monorhamnosyl and dirhamnosyl rhamnolipids formed lipophilic complexes with copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn). Rhamnolipids significantly increased Zn absorption by Brassica napus var. Pinnacle roots in {sup 65}Zn-spiked ice-cold solutions, compared with ZnSO{sub 4} alone. Therefore, rhamnolipid appeared to facilitate Zn absorption via a nonmetabolically mediated pathway. Synchrotron XRF and XAS showed that Zn was present in roots as Zn-phytate-like compounds when roots were treated with Zn-free solutions, ZnSO{sub 4}, or Zn-EDTA. With rhamnolipid application, Zn was predominantly found in roots as the Zn-rhamnolipid complex. When applied to a calcareous soil, rhamnolipids increased dry matter production and Zn concentrations in durum (Triticum durum L. cv. Balcali-2000) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. BDME-10) shoots. Rhamnolipids either increased total plant uptake of Zn from the soil or increased Zn translocation by reducing the prevalence of insoluble Zn-phytate-like compounds in roots.

Stacey, Samuel P.; McLaughlin, Michael J.; Cakmak, Ismail; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Karkkainen, Michael (Sabanci); (EPA); (CSIRO/LW); (Adelaide)

2009-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

82

Original paper: Detection of Fusarium damaged kernels in Canada Western Red Spring wheat using visible/near-infrared hyperspectral imaging and principal component analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fusarium damage in wheat reduces the quality and safety of food and feed products. In this study, the use of hyperspectral imaging was investigated to detect fusarium damaged kernels (FDK) in Canadian wheat samples. Eight hundred kernels of Canada Western ... Keywords: Fusarium damage, Spectral imaging, Wheat

Muhammad A. Shahin; Stephen J. Symons

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Identification of insect-damaged wheat kernels using short-wave near-infrared hyperspectral and digital colour imaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Healthy wheat kernels and wheat kernels damaged by the feeding of the insects: rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae), lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica), rusty grain beetle (Cryptolestes ferrugineus), and red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) were ... Keywords: Grain quality, Hyperspectral imaging, Machine vision, NIR

Chandra B. Singh; Digvir S. Jayas; Jitendra Paliwal; Noel D. G. White

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Bulk density and compaction behavior of knife mill chopped switchgrass,wheat straw, and corn stover  

SciTech Connect

Bulk density of comminuted biomass significantly increased by vibration during handling and transportation, and by normal pressure during storage. Compaction characteristics affecting the bulk density of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chopped in a knife mill at different operating conditions and using four different classifying screens were studied. Mean loose-filled bulk densities were 67.5 18.4 kg/m3 for switchgrass, 36.1 8.6 kg/m3 for wheat straw, and 52.1 10.8 kg/m3 for corn stover. Mean tapped bulk densities were 81.8 26.2 kg/m3 for switchgrass, 42.8 11.7 kg/m3 for wheat straw, and 58.9 13.4 kg/m3 for corn stover. Percentage changes in compressibility due to variation in particle size obtained from a knife mill ranged from 64.3 to 173.6 for chopped switchgrass, 22.2 51.5 for chopped wheat straw and 42.1 117.7 for chopped corn stover within the tested consolidation pressure range of 5 120 kPa. Pressure and volume relationship of chopped biomass during compression with application of normal pressure can be characterized by the Walker model and Kawakita and Ludde model. Parameter of Walker model was correlated to the compressibility with Pearson correlation coefficient greater than 0.9. Relationship between volume reduction in chopped biomass with respect to number of tappings studied using Sone s model indicated that infinite compressibility was highest for chopped switchgrass followed by chopped wheat straw and corn stover. Degree of difficulty in packing measured using the parameters of Sone s model indicated that the chopped wheat straw particles compacted very rapidly by tapping compared to chopped switchgrass and corn stover. These results are very useful for solving obstacles in handling bulk biomass supply logistics issues for a biorefinery.

Chevanan, Nehru [University of Tennessee; Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Bitra, V.S.P. [University of Tennessee; Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Yang, Y.T. [University of Tennessee; Miu, P.I [University of Tennessee; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Wheat Yield Functions for Analysis of Land-Use Change in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CERES-Wheat, a dynamic process crop growth model is specified and validated for eight sites in the major wheat-growing regions of China. Crop model results are then used to test functional forms for yield response to nitrogen fertilizer, irrigation water, temperature, and precipitation. The resulting functions are designed to be used in a linked biophysical-economic model of land-use and land-cover change. Variables explaining a significant proportion of simulated yield variance are nitrogen, irrigation water, and precipitation; temperature was not a sig...

Chynthia Rosenzweig; Ana Iglesias; Yanhua Liu; Walter Baethgen (baethgen+aea-undp. Org. Uy; James W. Jones; Gordon J. Macdonald

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Imaging Local Chemical Microstructure of Germinated Wheat with Synchrotron Infrared Microspectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The spatial resolution enabled by in situ Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy as predicted from our earlier report in Spectroscopy (1) is applied to localized chemical analysis in this vital biological process of seed germination. Germination includes several different biochemical and structural processes. Ultimately, the entire seed is consumed in sustaining the new life that results after sprouting and growth (2-4). Alpha amylase production is the standard evidence for detection of sprouted (germinated) wheat at harvest. Moist preharvest conditions can cause devastating losses and render the harvested wheat unfit for flour production. Dormancy of dry seeds following harvest retards sprouting under proper storage.

Koc,H.; Wetzel, D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Effect of leavening acids on wheat flour tortillas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reactivities of four leavening adds were evaluated during processing of wheat flour tortillas. These were: sodium aluminum phosphate (SAlP), sodium aluminum sulfate (SAS), monocalcium phosphate (MCP) and sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP-28). Each leavening acid was first evaluated in combination with sodium bicarbonate at different levels, controlling dough temperature at 38'C. Individual leavening acids did not yield optimum dough properties and had pH higher than 6.0, except for MCP treatments. Higher amounts of MCP and SAPP-28 were required to produce opaque tortillas compared to those treatments containing SAIP and SAS. Ionic interactions apparently affected elastic and viscous behaviours of doughs. The second study inculded fumaric acid along with each leavening acid at 380C. Fumaric acid effectively reduced resting times and pH of tortillas, except for doughs containing MCP. Addition of fumaric tortillas over time. To evaluate the effect of temperature 34 and 38'C were selected . At 38'C additional leavening was required, except for doughs containing SAS. At 380C dough properties tended to improve. Increasing temperature increased pH for SAIP and MCP treatments. SAIP and SAS treatments produced opaque tortillas. Increased dough temperature improved storage stability of tortillas for SALP and SAS treatments; no significant effect was observed for MCP and SAPP-28 treatments. Combination of MCP:SAIP (1:5) produced target dough and tortilla properties. Combination of MCP:SAS (1:2) produced acceptable dough properties and tortillas with diameters smaller than 17.0 cm. MCP, a fast reacting leavening acid, improved nucleation during mixing, giving the final product a better texture. Hence, to produce tortillas with desirable characteristics, leavening acids that dissolve and react during mixing and baking are required.

Cepeda, Minerva

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Early detection of Fusarium infection in wheat using hyper-spectral imaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Infections of wheat, rye, oat and barley by Fusarium ssp. are serious problems worldwide due to the mycotoxins, potentially produced by the fungi. In 2005, limit values were issued by the EU commission to avoid health risks by mycotoxins, both for humans ... Keywords: Fusarium culmorum, Head blight index, Non-invasive technique, Plant disease, Principal component analysis, Spectral Angle Mapper

E. Bauriegel; A. Giebel; M. Geyer; U. Schmidt; W. B. Herppich

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

The Iranian Wheat Growers' Climate Information Use: An Actor-Network Theory Perspective  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research project employed an interdisciplinary attempt to study agricultural climate information use, linking sociology of translation actor-network theory and actor analysis premises in a qualitative research design. The research method used case ... Keywords: Actor-Network Theory, Climate Information Use, Dynamic Actor-Network Analysis DANA, Fars Province, Wheat Growers

Maryam Sharifzadeh, Gholam Zamani, Arthur Tatnall, Ezatollah Hossein Karami, Davar Khalili

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

The Impact of Oklahoma's Winter Wheat Belt on the Mesoscale Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oklahoma Mesonet data were used to measure the impact of Oklahoma's winter wheat belt on the mesoscale environment from 1994 to 2001. Statistical analyses of monthly means of near-surface air temperatures demonstrated that 1) a well-defined cool ...

Renee A. McPherson; David J. Stensrud; Kenneth C. Crawford

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Spectral Impact of Low-Power Laser Radiation on Wheat and Maize Parameters*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and development of plants. The additionally absorbed light energy accelerates plant growth and increases7 4 Spectral Impact of Low-Power Laser Radiation on Wheat and Maize Parameters* St. Dinoev, M density, can be used not only in all spheres of engineering but also in biology and plant growing

Borissova, Daniela

92

Effect of cropping strategies on the irrigation water productivity of durum wheat Khaledian, MRa, b  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

climate with water deficiency. Author-produced version of the article published in Plant Soil Environ results in significant water savings. The highest irrigation water Author-produced version of the articleEffect of cropping strategies on the irrigation water productivity of durum wheat Khaledian, MRa, b

93

Developing model-based software to optimise wheat storage and transportation: A real-world application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates a real-world case of a logistical management problem. We determine the optimal amounts of wheat to be transported from each producing province to each consuming province per month across the year. The problem was formulated as ... Keywords: Agriculture, Genetic algorithm, Inventory, Linear integer programming, Transportation

Nasrin Asgari; Reza Zanjirani Farahani; Hannaneh Rashidi-Bajgan; Mohsen S. Sajadieh

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Thickness measurement and crease detection of wheat grains using stereo vision  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wheat grain quality assessment is important in meeting market requirements. The thickness of grains can be used for the measurement of the mass proportion of grains that pass through a sieve. This measure is known as ''screenings''. The determination ... Keywords: Grain crease detection, Grain thickness measurement, Stereo vision

Changming Sun; Mark Berman; David Coward; Brian Osborne

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Feasibility of impact-acoustic emissions for detection of damaged wheat kernels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A non-destructive, real time device was developed to detect insect damage, sprout damage, and scab damage in kernels of wheat. Kernels are impacted onto a steel plate and the resulting acoustic signal analyzed to detect damage. The acoustic signal was ... Keywords: Acoustic emissions, Insect damage kernels, Neural network, Sorting, Spectral analysis

Tom C. Pearson; A. Enis Cetin; Ahmed H. Tewfik; Ron P. Haff

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Price, Weather, and Acreage Abandonment in Western Great Plains Wheat Culture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multivariate analyses of acreage abandonment patterns in the U.S. Great Plains winter wheat region indicate that the major mode of variation is an in-phase oscillation confined to the western half of the overall area, which is also the area with ...

Patrick J. Michaels

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

A Comparative Evaluation of Textured Wheat Ingredients and Soy Proteins in the Quality and Acceptability of Chicken Nuggets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chicken nuggets are commonly made with varying levels of textured vegetable proteins such as soy and wheat, for their ability to bind water and their meat like conformation. This project compared textured wheat proteins and soy proteins at 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% in both emulsified and non-emulsified chicken nuggets. A total of 6,048 chicken nuggets were evaluated in replications for batter breader pickup (%), par fry yield (%), cook loss (%), L*, a*, b* color value, texture profile analysis, and sensory analysis. Analysis was conducted for all four concentrations of wheat and soy treatments then compared to each other and an all-white meat chicken nugget control. All data was analyzed with a ? <0.05 using SAS with PROC GLM and Duncans MRT, except for sensory data which was analyzed as a complete randomized block design using analysis of variance with a ? <0.05, and was analyzed using SAS with PROC GLM. Results indicated that no notable trends were apparent in the quality testing. A trained sensory panel determined that Soy flavor was more detectable at 20% and 30% than wheat flavor was at similar levels. The results indicate that wheat proteins can replace soy proteins for functional properties in both emulsified and non-emulsified chicken nuggets at all concentrations evaluated. It was also determined that wheat proteins could be used at levels up to 30% without imparting a noticeable flavor.

Yeater, Michael C

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Physical mapping of a large plant genome using global high-information-content-fingerprinting: the distal region of the wheat ancestor Aegilops tauschii chromosome 3DS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Brachypodium Initiative: Genome sequencing and analysis ofInternational Rice Genome Sequencing Project: The map-basedthe International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium http://

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Direct measures of mechanical energy for knife mill size reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lengthy straw/stalk of biomass may not be directly fed into grinders such as hammer mills and disc refiners. Hence, biomass needs to be preprocessed using coarse grinders like a knife mill to allow for efficient feeding in refiner mills without bridging and choking. Size reduction mechanical energy was directly measured for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), and corn stover (Zea mays L.) in an instrumented knife mill. Direct power inputs were determined for different knife mill screen openings from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, rotor speeds between 250 and 500 rpm, and mass feed rates from 1 to 11 kg/min. Overall accuracy of power measurement was calculated to be 0.003 kW. Total specific energy (kWh/Mg) was defined as size reduction energy to operate mill with biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as the energy that can be assumed to reach the biomass. The difference is parasitic or no-load energy of mill. Total specific energy for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chopping increased with knife mill speed, whereas, effective specific energy decreased marginally for switchgrass and increased for wheat straw and corn stover. Total and effective specific energy decreased with an increase in screen size for all the crops studied. Total specific energy decreased with increase in mass feed rate, but effective specific energy increased for switchgrass and wheat straw, and decreased for corn stover at increased feed rate. For knife mill screen size of 25.4 mm and optimum speed of 250 rpm, optimum feed rates were 7.6, 5.8, and 4.5 kg/min for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively, and the corresponding total specific energies were 7.57, 10.53, and 8.87 kWh/Mg and effective specific energies were 1.27, 1.50, and 0.24 kWh/Mg for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. Energy utilization ratios were calculated as 16.8%, 14.3%, and 2.8% for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. These data will be useful for preparing the feed material for subsequent fine grinding operations and designing new mills.

Bitra, V.S.P. [University of Tennessee; Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Miu, P.I [University of Tennessee; Yang, Y.T. [University of Tennessee; Smith, D.R. [University of Tennessee; Chevanan, Nehru [University of Tennessee; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

EFFECTS OF ELEVATED ATMOSPHERIC CO{sub 2} ON CANOPY TRANSPIRATION IN SENESCENT SPRING WHEAT  

SciTech Connect

The seasonal course of canopy transpiration and the diurnal courses of latent heat flux of a spring wheat crop were simulated for atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations of 370 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1} and 550 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1}. The hourly weather data, soil parameters and the irrigation and fertilizer treatments of the Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment wheat experiment in Arizona (1992/93) were used to drive the model. The simulation results were tested against field measurements with special emphasis on the period between anthesis and maturity. A model integrating leaf photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was scaled to a canopy level in order to be used in the wheat growth model. The simulated intercellular CO{sub 2} concentration, C{sub i} was determined from the ratio of C{sub i} to the CO{sub 2} concentration at the leaf surface, C{sub s} the leaf to air specific humidity deficit and a possibly unfulfilled transpiration demand. After anthesis, the measured assimilation rates of the flag leaves decreased more rapidly than their stomatal conductances, leading to a rise in the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio. In order to describe this observation, an empirical model approach was developed which took into account the leaf nitrogen content for the calculation of the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio. Simulation results obtained with the new model version were in good agreement with the measurements. If changes in the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio accorded to the decrease in leaf nitrogen content during leaf senescence were not considered in the model, simulations revealed an underestimation of the daily canopy transpiration of up to 20% and a decrease in simulated seasonal canopy transpiration by 10%. The measured reduction in the seasonal sum of canopy transpiration and soil evaporation owing to CO{sub 2} enrichment, in comparison, was only about 5%.

GROSSMAN,S.; KIMBALL,B.A.; HUNSAKER,D.J.; LONG,S.P.; GARCIA,R.L.; KARTSCHALL,TH.; WALL,G.W.; PINTER,P.J,JR.; WECHSUNG,F.; LAMORTE,R.L.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wheat triticum aestivum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY GEOLOGY STUDIES Volume 27, Part I  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Abstract- A Pliocene oil shale (Pula, Hungary), a C3 plant Triticum aestivum and a C4 plant Zea mays were-alkane, n-alkene, Pula oil shale, Botryococcus braunii, alga, plant, waxes, sediment. INTRODUCTION n-rich, Pliocene deposit from Pula (Hungary). The bulk carbon isotope ratio of this oil shale was also determined

Seamons, Kent E.

102

Revised version Organic Geochemistry 22, 1023-1027, 1994.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Abstract- A Pliocene oil shale (Pula, Hungary), a C3 plant Triticum aestivum and a C4 plant Zea mays were-alkane, n-alkene, Pula oil shale, Botryococcus braunii, alga, plant, waxes, sediment. INTRODUCTION n-rich, Pliocene deposit from Pula (Hungary). The bulk carbon isotope ratio of this oil shale was also determined

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

103

Development of geothermally assisted process for production of liquid fuels and chemicals from wheat straw  

SciTech Connect

The effects of variations in autohydrolysis conditions on the production of fermentable sugars from wheat straw are investigated. Both the direct production of sugar from the autohydrolysis of hemicellulose and the subsequent yield from the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose are considered. The principal parameters studied were time, temperature, and water/fiber weight ratio; however, the effects of adding minor amounts of phenol and aluminum sulfate to the autohydrolysis charge were also investigated. A brief study was made of the effects of two major parameters, substrate concentration and enzyme/substrate ratio, on the sugar yield from enzymatic hydrolysis of optimally pretreated straw. The efficiency with which these sugars could be fermented to ethanol was studied. In most cases experiments were carried out using distilled water; however, the effects of direct use of geothermal water were determined for each of the major steps in the process. An appendix to the body of the report describes the results of a preliminary economic evaluation of a plant designed to produce 25 x 10/sup 6/ gallons of ethanol per year from wheat straw using the best process conditions determined in the above work. Also appended are the results from a preliminary investigation of the applicability of autohydrolysis technology to the production of fermentable sugars from corn stover.

Murphy, V.G.; Linden, J.C.; Moreira, A.R.; Lenz, T.G.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Instrumental and sensory methods to evaluate texture of wheat flour tortillas during storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Subjective reliability, sensory evaluation, and objective rheological techniques characterized wheat flour tortillas on 0, 1, 4, 7, 10 and 13 days of storage. Subjective reliability scores increased during storage (r = 0.80). The 5-member expert sensory panel determined that subjective hardness, reliability, and cohesiveness increased during storage. The 35-member consumer panel failed to detect differences in tortillas stored from 4 to 17 days. Major rheological parameters from extensibility, bending, two-dimensional extensibility, puncture, reliability, and stress relaxation techniques were determined. Force and modulus of deformation (extensibility, puncture, two-dimensional extensibility techniques) and stiffness (stress relaxation technique) were grouped together, had high factor loadings, low CV, and significantly correlated (r = 0.72 -0.98) with subjective reliability score. Rheological parameters within the cluster could predict textural changes during storage. Sensory measures correlated with rheological parameters (r = 0.50 - 0.88) but were not clustered with any objective nor subjective rheological parameter. Rheological characteristics of tortillas (laboratory and commercial) prepared from widely varying dough systems were evaluated during storage. Age of tortillas significantly affected rheological pentameters from extensibility, two-dimensional extensibility, and puncture techniques. Rheological parameters differentiated control, T-1, T-2 and commercial tortillas. Commercial tortillas did not change through the first week of storage as did laboratory made tortillas. Acceptable techniques to measure wheat tortilla texture are extensibility, puncture, two-dimensional extensibility, and stress relaxation techniques. The recommended technique is stress relaxation in tension because it provides information about viscous and elastic properties.

Joseph, Suman

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Evaluation of an ecosystem model for a wheat-maize double cropping system over the North China Plain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process-based ecosystem model (Vegetation-atmosphere Interface Processes (VIP) model) is expanded, and then validated against three years' biometric, soil moisture and eddy-covariance fluxes data over a winter wheat-summer maize cropping system in ... Keywords: Eddy covariance, Evapotranspiration, Net ecosystem production, Uncertainty, VIP model

Xingguo Mo; Suxia Liu; Zhonghui Lin

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Using ground-based multispectral radiometry to detect stress in wheat caused by greenbug (Homoptera: Aphididae) infestation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Greenbug (Schizaphis graminum (Rondani)) outbreaks appear in the Great Plains almost every year and have had significant economic impacts on wheat and sorghum yields. Early detection of greenbug infestation becomes a critical part of integrated pest ... Keywords: Crop stress detection, Greenbug infestation, Ground-based, Radiometry, Remote sensing, Stress

Z. Yang; M. N. Rao; N. C. Elliott; S. D. Kindler; T. W. Popham

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Catalyst and feedstock effects in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquid transportation fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The thermochemical conversion of biomass feedstocks to liquid transportation fuels can be accomplished by three processes, namely gasification, high-pressure liquefaction, and pyrolysis. In this study, the pyrolysis option is selected which is followed by the catalytic upgrading of pyrolysis vapors to aromatic and olefinic hydrocarbons (PYROCAT process). The aromatics constitute a high-octane gasoline blend, while the olefins can be utilized as feedstocks for various chemicals. The PYROCAT process has been studied in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed catalytic reactor. Consecutive biomass samples were pyrolyzed rapidly in steam at 550{degree}C and atmospheric pressure, and then the pyrolysis vapors were passed over a zeolite catalyst. The catalytic upgrading products were monitored in real-time using molecular-beam mass-spectrometry (MBMS). The yields of major products were estimated from mass-spectral data. Several zeolite catalysts were screened in the upgrading process and promising catalysts with high yields were identified. Feedstocks studied included: the woody biomass species aspen (Populus tremuloides), basswood (Tilia americana), and willow (Salix alba); the three isolated components of wood lignin, xylan and cellulose; and the herbaceous species bagasse (Saccharum spp. hybrid), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum), and Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata). 17 refs.

Rejai, B.; Agblevor, F.A.; Evans, R.J.; Wang, D.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Effects of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} on canopy transpiration in senescent spring wheat  

SciTech Connect

The seasonal course of canopy transpiration and the diurnal courses of latent heat flux of a spring wheat crop were simulated for atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations of 370 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1} and 550 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1}. The hourly weather data, soil parameters and the irrigation and fertilizer treatments of the Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment wheat experiment in Arizona (1992/93) were used to drive the model. The simulation results were tested against field measurements with special emphasis on the period between anthesis and maturity. A model integrating leaf photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was scaled to a canopy level in order to be used in the wheat growth model. The simulated intercellular CO{sub 2} concentration, C{sub i} was determined from the ratio of C{sub i} to the CO{sub 2} concentration at the leaf surface, C{sub s}, the leaf to air specific humidity deficit and a possibly unfulfilled transpiration demand. After anthesis, the measured assimilation rates of the flag leaves decreased more rapidly than their stomatal conductances, leading to a rise in the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio. In order to describe this observation, an empirical model approach was developed which took into account the leaf nitrogen content for the calculation of the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio. Simulation results obtained with the new model version were in good agreement with the measurements. If changes in the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio accorded to the decrease in leaf nitrogen content during leaf senescence were not considered in the model, simulations revealed an underestimation of the daily canopy transpiration of up to twenty percent and a decrease in simulated seasonal canopy transpiration by ten percent. The measured reduction in the seasonal sum of canopy transpiration and soil evaporation owing to CO{sub 2} enrichment, in comparison, was only about five percent.

Grossman, S.; Kimball, B.A.; Hunsaker, D.J.; Long, S.P. et al

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

109

The effect of enzymes and starch damage on wheat flour tortilla quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Specific enzymes have been used to improve flour quality for bread but enzyme action in tortilla flour has not been investigated. Two different wheat flours were prepared into tortillas using laboratory-scale, commercial equipment with fixed processing parameters. Dough and tortilla properties were evaluated using subjective and objective methods. Tortillas were stored in plastic bags at 22?°C for evaluation. The effects of nine enzymes (amyloglucosidase 1, amyloglucosidase 2, bacterial 1, bacterial 2, fungal, maltogenic 1, maltogenic 2, malted barley and xylanase) on quality of wheat flour tortillas were evaluated. Dough absorption was adjusted to attain uniform dough for tortillas. Enzyme addition to tortilla flour did not significantly affect tortilla weight, moisture and pH. Bacterial 2 amylase extended shelf stability while maltogenic 1 and xylanase exhibited smaller improvements in shelf stability and other tortilla properties. Addition of 0.05 activity unit bacterial 2 amylase improved tortilla diameter and improved tortilla shelf life from 12 to 28 days. Maltogenic 1 at 280 ppm improved tortilla diameter, opacity and shelf life. Addition of 100 ppm of xylanase effectively improved tortilla diameter and shelf life. Bacterial 1 amylase at 60 ppm improved tortilla diameter but did not improve shelf stability. Amyloglucosidase 2, maltogenic 2 and malted barley amylase did not improve tortilla quality at any of the evaluated levels. Amyloglucosidase 1 and fungal amylase reduced overall tortilla quality at all the evaluated levels. Bread-making quality of wheat flour is correlated with the damaged starch present in the flour. Damage was induced by grinding the samples for 0, 1, 4 and 8 hr to determine the effects of starch damage on tortilla quality. Processing increased starch damage of control tortilla flour from 5.4% to 12.6%. Damage starch increased dough water absorption, toughness and press rating and reduced diameter and opacity of tortillas. Damage starch improved tortilla rollability at higher levels but did not improve tortilla properties in combination with bacterial 2 amylase. Overall tortilla quality was not improved due to additional starch damage. Improved tortilla quality using bacterial 2 amylase at very low levels could be commercialized.

Arora, Sapna

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

The Value of ENSO Forecast Information to Dual-Purpose Winter Wheat Production in the U.S. Southern High Plains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The value of El NioSouthern Oscillation (ENSO) forecast information to southern high plains winter wheat and cattle-grazing production systems was estimated here by simulation. Although previous work has calculated average forecast value, the ...

Steve Mauget; John Zhang; Jonghan Ko

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Healthy Whole Wheat Pizza Dough Students love pizzas, especially after a night out. Take away and shop bought pizzas are made with white flour  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ounces) wheat flour 3 teaspoons baking powder Filling: 500g (18 ounces) quark or 250g Philladelphia and vanilla extract. Continue stirring and gradually add flour ,baking powder and cacao. Filling: Cream

Li, Jingpeng

112

Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from wheat straw  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cultivar Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from wheat straw J. Lindedam a, *, S.B. Andersen b , J. DeMartini c , S. Bruun b , H. Jørgensen a , C. Felby a , J. Magid b , B. Yang d , C.E. Wyman c a Forestry and Wood Products, Forest & Landscape, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 23, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark b Plant and Soil Science Laboratory, Department of Agriculture and Ecology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C, Denmark c Center for Environmental Research and Technology, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California Riverside, 1084 Columbia Avenue, Riverside, CA 92507, USA d Center for Bioproducts and Bioenergy, Washington State University, 2710 University Drive, Richland, WA 99354, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history:

113

Post-Harvest Processing Methods for Reduction of Silica and Alkali Metals in Wheat Straw  

SciTech Connect

Silica and alkali metals in wheat straw limit its use for bioenergy and gasification. Slag deposits occur via the eutectic melting of SiO2 with K2O, trapping chlorides at surfaces and causing corrosion. A minimum melting point of 950C is desirable, corresponding to SiO2:K2O of about 3:1. Mild chemical treatments were used to reduce Si, K, and Cl, while varying temperature, concentration, %-solids, and time. Dilute acid was more effective at removing K and Cl, while dilute alkali was more effective for Si. Reduction of minerals in this manner may prove economical for increasing utilization of the straw for combustion or gasification.

Thompson, David Neal; Lacey, Jeffrey Alan; Shaw, Peter Gordon

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Long-term tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization effects on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Management practices that may increase soil organic matter (SOM) storage include conservation tillage, especially no till (NT), enhanced cropping intensity, and fertilization. My objectives were to evaluate management effects on labile [soil microbial biomass (SMB) and mineralizable, particulate organic matter (POM), and hydrolyzable SOM] and slow (mineral-associated and resistant organic) C and N pools and turnover in continuous sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.], wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], sorghum-wheat/soybean, and wheat/soybean sequences under convent ional tillage (CT) and NT with and without N fertilization. A Weswood silty clay loam (fine, mixed, thermic Fluventic Ustochepts) in southern central Texas was sampled at three depth increments to a 30-cm depth after wheat, sorghum, and soybean harvesting. Soil organic C and total N showed similar responses to tillage, cropping sequence, and N fertilization following wheat, sorghum, and soybean. Most effects were observed in surface soils. NT significantly increased SOC. Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased SOC only under NT. Compared to NT or N addition, enhanced cropping intensity only slightly increased SOC. Estimates of C sequestration rates under NT indicated that SOC would reach a new equilibrium after 20 yr or less of imposition of this treatment. Labile pools were all significantly greater with NT than CT at 0 to 5 cm and decreased with depth. SMB, mineralizable C and N, POM, and hydrolyzable C were highly correlated with each other and SOC, but their slopes were significantly different, being lowest in mineralizable C and highest in hydrolyzable C. These results indicated that different methods determined various fractions of total SOC. Results from soil physical fractionation and 13C concentrations further supported these observations. Carbon turnover rates increased in the sequence: ROC < silt- and clayassociated C < microaggregate-C < POM-C. Long-term incubation showed that 4 to 5% of SOC was in active pools with mean residence time (MRT) of about 50 days, 50% of SOC was in slow pools with an average MRT of 12 years, and the remainder was in resistant pools with an assumed MRT of over 500 years.

Dou, Fugen

115

VALIDATION OF FIRESIDE PERFORMANCE INDICES: FOULING/CORROSION EVALUATION OF MDF PARTICLEBOARD AND BLENDS WITH WHEAT STRAW BOARD  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sauder Woodworking currently fires a large portion of all wood wastes in a boiler producing process steam. It is investigating using particleboard made from wheat straw in its manufacturing process and is concerned with the effects of the inorganics on its boiler. Wheat straw board contains higher ash contents and increased levels of potassium, creating concern over fouling characteristics in Sauder's tight boiler design. In addition, the wheat straw board contains high concentrations of chlorine, which may affect boiler tube corrosion when fired in combination with the particleboard wastes currently generated. Sauder has engaged the services of the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota to investigate the potential detrimental effects of firing blends containing wheat straw on boiler tube fouling and corrosion. Additional funding for this project was provided through the U.S. Department of Energy Jointly Sponsored Research Program (DOE JSRP) project ''Validation of Fireside Performance Indices'' to validate, improve, and expand the PCQUEST (Predictive Coal Quality Effects Screening Tool) program. The PCQUEST fuel database is constantly expanding and adding new fuels, for which the algorithms may need refinement and additional verification in order to accurately predict index values. A key focus is on performing advanced and conventional fuel analyses and adding these analyses to the PCQUEST database. Such fuels include coals of all ranks and origins, upgraded coals, petroleum coke, biomass and biomass-coal blends, and waste materials blended with coal. Since there are differences in the chemical and mineral form of the inorganic content in biomass and substantial differences in organic matrix characteristics, analysis and characterization methods developed for coal fuels may not be applicable. The project was seen to provide an excellent opportunity to test and improve the ability of PCQUEST to handle nontypical soil and biomass minerals.

Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Jay R. Gunderson; Donald P. McCollor

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Effects of No-Till on Yields as Influenced by Crop and Environmental Factors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Th is research evaluated diff erences in yields and associated downside risk from using no-till and tillage practices. Yields from 442 paired tillage experiments across the United States were evaluated with respect to six crops and environmental factors including geographic location, annual precipitation, soil texture, and time since conversion from tillage to no-till. Results indicated that mean yields for sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with no-till were greater than with tillage. In addition, no-till tended to produce similar or greater mean yields than tillage for crops grown on loamy soils in the Southern Seaboard and Mississippi Portal regions. A warmer and more humid climate and warmer soils in these regions relative to the Heartland, Basin and Range, and Fruitful Rim regions appear to favor no-till on loamy soils. With the exception of corn (Zea mays L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in the Southern Seaboard region, no-till performed poorly on sandy soils. Crops grown in the Southern Seaboard were less likely to have lower no-till yields than tillage yields on loamy soils and thus had lower downside yield risk than other farm resource regions. Consistent with mean yield results, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and wheat grown on sandy soils in the Southern Seaboard region using no-till had larger downside yield risks than when produced with no-till on loamy soils. Th e key fi ndings of this study support the hypothesis that soil and climate factors impact no-till yields relative to tillage yields and may be an important factor infl uencing risk and expected return and the adoption of the practice by farmers.

Toliver, Dustin K.; Larson, James A.; Roberts, Roland K.; English, B.C.; De La Torre Ugarte, D. G.; West, Tristram O.

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

117

Effects of Variations in High Molecular Weight Glutenin Allele Composition and Resistant Starch on Wheat Flour Tortilla Quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tortilla sales are projected to exceed 9.5 billion by 2014. However, currently no wheat cultivars have been identified that possess the intrinsic quality attributes needed for the production of optimum quality tortillas. Tortillas made with refined wheat flour low in dietary fiber (DF) are popular in the United States due to their sensory properties. This study explored the use of wheat lines (WL) possessing variations in high molecular weight glutenin allele sub-units (HMW-GS) for production of tortillas and also investigated the use of corn based resistant starches (RS), type II (RS2) and wheat based RS type IV (RS4) to increase DF in tortillas. Tortillas were made with 0-15 percent RS and 100 percent whole white wheat (WW). Flour protein profiles, dough, and tortilla properties were evaluated to determine the effects of the allelic variations and RS substitution on tortilla quality. Sensory properties of tortillas with RS were determined. Variations in HMW-GS composition significantly affected the protein quality and tortilla properties. Flour from WL possessing allelic combinations (2*, 17+18, 7, 2+12), (1, 17+18, 5+10), (2*, 17, 2+12) and (1, 2*, 17+18, 2+12) had 12.8-13.3 percent protein. These WL had extensible doughs and produced large diameter tortillas with superior (greater than or equal to 3.0) flexibility after 16 days compared to control. However, WL with (17+18 and 5+10) and (2*, 17+7, 5) produced extensible doughs, large, but less flexible, tortillas compared to control. WL with (2*,17+18,5+10) and (1,2*,7+9,5+10) produced smaller diameter tortillas, but with superior flexibility compared to control. RS2, WW, and cross-linked-pre-gelatinized RS4 (FiberRite) produced hard, less-extensible doughs and thinner tortillas compared to control, due to high water absorption. Cross-linked RS4 (Fibersym) dough and tortillas were comparable to control. 15 percent of RS2 and RS4 increase DF in control to 6 and 14 percent respectively, compare to control (2.8 percent DF). WW tortillas were less acceptable than control in appearance, flavor and texture, while tortillas with 15 percent Fibersym had higher overall acceptability than control. RS2 negatively affected dough machinability and tortilla shelf stability. However, 15 percent RS4 improved the DF in refined flour tortillas to meet FDA's "good source of fiber claim," without negatively affecting dough/tortilla quality.

Jondiko, Tom Odhiambo

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

KNIFE MILL COMMINUTION ENERGY ANALYSIS OF SWITCHGRASS, WHEAT STRAW, AND CORN STOVER AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass preprocessing and pretreatment technologies such as size reduction and chemical preconditioning are aimed at reducing the cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Size reduction is an energy-intensive biomass preprocessing unit operation. In this study, switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover were chopped in an instrumented knife mill to evaluate size reduction energy and corresponding particle size distribution as determined with a standard forage sieve analyzer. Direct mechanical power inputs were determined using a dedicated data acquisition system for knife mill screen openings from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, rotor speeds between 250 and 500 rpm, and mass feed rates from 1 to 11 kg/min. A speed of 250 rpm gave optimum performance of the mill. Optimum feed rates for 25.4 mm screen and 250 rpm were 7.6, 5.8, and 4.5 kg/min for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. Total specific energy (MJ/Mg) was defined as the size reduction energy required to operate the knife mill plus that imparted to the biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as the energy imparted to the biomass. For these conditions, total specific energies were 27.3, 37.9, and 31.9 MJ/Mg and effective specific energies were 10.1, 15.5, and 3.2 MJ/Mg for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. These results demonstrated that biomass selection affects the size reduction energy, even for biomass with similar features. Second-order polynomial equations for the total specific energy requirement fitted well (R2 > 0.95) as a function of knife mill screen size, mass feed rate, and speed for biomass materials tested. The Rosin-Rammler equation fitted the cumulative undersize mass of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chop passed through ASABE sieves with high R2 (>0.983). Knife mill chopping of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover resulted in particle size distributions classified as 'well-graded strongly fine-skewed mesokurtic', 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', and 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', respectively, for small knife mill screen sizes (12.7 to 25.4 mm) and distributions classified as 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', 'well-graded strongly fine-skewed mesokurtic', and 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', respectively, for the large screen size (50.8 mm). Total and effective specific energy values per unit size reduction of wheat straw were greater compared to those for switchgrass. Corn stover resulted in reduced total and effective specific energy per unit size reduction compared to wheat straw for the same operating conditions, but higher total specific energy per unit size reduction and lesser effective specific energy per unit size reduction compared to switchgrass. Data on minimized total specific energy with corresponding particle spectra will be useful for preparing feed material with a knife mill for subsequent grinding with finer size reduction devices.

Bitra, V.S.P. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Igathinathane, C. [North Dakota State University

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Use of near-isogenic wheat lines to determine glutenin and gliadin composition and funtionality in flour tortillas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The synthesis of high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin, low molecular weight glutenin and gliadin proteins are controlled by nine major loci present in wheat chromosomes. The loci Glu A1, Glu B1, Glu D1 and Gli A1, Gli B1, Gli D1 and Gli 2 and their allelic variants play important roles in determining the functional properties of wheat flour. This study focused on understanding the functionality of these protein subunits with respect to tortilla quality for use in developing varieties with ideal tortilla baking quality. Near-isogenic wheat lines in which one or more of these loci were absent or deleted were used in the study. These lines were analyzed using SSR primers to verify the chromosome deletions. A standard SDS PAGE gel and a Lab on Chip Capillary Electrophoresis method were used to confirm the protein composition of the deletion lines. Tortillas were prepared from each deletion line and the parent lines used to derive the deletion lines, and tortilla quality evaluations were analyzed. The analysis has revealed that elimination of certain HMW glutenins results in gain of function both for tortilla diameters and overall tortilla quality. The deletion line possessing 17+18 at Glu B1 and deletions in Glu A1 and Glu D1 had a gain of function in tortilla diameter, yet tortilla stability was compromised. The deletion line possessing Glu A1, Glu D1 (1,5+10) and a deletion in Glu B1 improved both the diameters and stability of the tortillas. Presence of subunits 5+10 is important for maintaining tortilla stability. Deletions in gliadin monomeric proteins also affected the tortilla diameters and stability.

Mondal, Suchismita

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Application of Fibrolytic Enzymes and Bacterial Inoculants to Sorghum Silage and Small-Grain Hay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fibrolytic enzymes and microbial inoculants have potential to improve the value of feedstuff and feedstock. An experiment was conducted to determine the nutritive value, ensiling characteristics, and in situ disappearance kinetics of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) silages pretreated with fibrolytic enzyme (xylanase plus cellulase: XC) or microbial [Promote ASB (Lactobacillus buchneri and L. plantarum); PRO] inoculants. The greatest yield was for cultivar PS 747 and the least for MMR 381/73 (MMR). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration was least for XC treated silage, and acid detergent fiber (ADF) concentration was least for XC and PRO treated silage. In vitro true digestibility (IVTD) was greatest for PRO treated Dairy Master BMR (DBMR), whereas, acid detergent lignin was least for PRO treated DBMR. Aerobic stability was not improved by PRO, however, aerobic stability of XC treated MMR was 63 h greater than the control. Generally, the in situ disappearance kinetics were improved with the application of XC and PRO, and XC had the greatest effect on silage with greater NDF and ADF concentrations. A second experiment was conducted to determine if the same application rates of either inoculant would reduce the fiber fraction of two cultivars each of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) or oat (Avena sativa L.) hays. Forage was harvested twice during the tillering stage (H1) and (H2) and a third after grain harvest (H3). The IVTD was greater for oat than wheat due to a lesser fiber fraction. Forage from H2 had lesser NDF and ADF and greater CP and IVTD concentrations. In situ DM, NDF, ADF, and ERD were greater for wheat and oat at tillering than stover and NDF and ERD were greater for Harrison than Fannin at tillering. Treatment of oat or wheat hays with XC or PRO enhanced in situ disappearance kinetics. Both XC and PRO may be used to reduce the fiber fractions of sorghum silage and small-grain hay. Additionally, it appears the inoculant PRO can be used to improve fermentation characteristics of sorghum silage.

Thomas, Martha 1980-

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wheat triticum aestivum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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121

Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley straw Jaya Shankar Tumuluru*, L. G. Tabil, Y. Song, K. L. Iroba and V. Meda Biomass is a renewable energy source and environmentally friendly substitute for fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum products. Major limitation of biomass for successful energy application is its low bulk density, which makes it very difficult and costly to transport and handle. To overcome this limitation, biomass has to be densified. The commonly used technologies for densification of biomass are pelletization and briquetting. Briquetting offers many advantages at it can densify larger particles sizes of biomass at higher moisture contents. Briquetting is influenced by a number of feedstock and process variables such as moisture content, particle size distribution, and some operating variables such as temperature and densification pressure. In the present study, experiments were designed and conducted based on Box-Behnken design to produce briquettes using barley, wheat, canola and barley straws. A laboratory scale hydraulic briquette press was used for the present study. The experimental process variables and their levels used in the present study were pressure levels (7.5, 10, 12.5 MPa), three levels of temperature (90, 110, 130 C), at three moisture content levels (9, 12, 15% w.b.), and three levels of particle size (19.1, 25.04, 31.75 mm). The quality variables studied includes moisture content, initial density and final briquette density after two weeks of storage, size distribution index and durability. The raw biomass was initially chopped and size reduced using a hammer mill. The ground biomass was conditioned at different moisture contents and was further densified using laboratory hydraulic press. For each treatment combination, ten briquettes were manufactured at a residence time of about 30 s after compression pressure setpoint was achieved. After compression, the initial dimensions and the final dimensions after 2 weeks of storage in controlled environment of all the samples were measured. Durability, dimensional stability, and moisture content tests were conducted after two weeks of storage of the briquettes produced. Initial results indicated that moisture content played a significant role on briquettes durability, stability, and density. Low moisture content of the straws (7-12%) gave more durable briquettes. Briquette density increased with increasing pressure depending on the moisture content value. The axial expansion was more significant than the lateral expansion, which in some cases tended to be nil depending on the material and operating variables. Further data analysis is in progress in order to understand the significance of the process variables based on ANOVA. Regression models were developed to predict the changes in quality of briquettes with respect of the process variables under study. Keywords: Herbaceous biomass, densification, briquettes, density, durability, dimensional stability, ANOVA and regression equations

Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Greenhouse gas fluxes following tillage and wetting in a wheat-fallow cropping system  

SciTech Connect

Little is known about the relative contributions of episodic tillage and precipitation events to annual greenhouse gas emissions from soil. Consequently, the authors measured carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and methane (CH{sub 4}) fluxes from soil in a wheat-fallow cropping system in western Nebraska using vented surface chambers, before and immediately after tillage and wetting with 5.1 cm of water, during the fallow period in 1995/1996. Replicated fallow management treatments included no-tillage, subtillage, and plow representing a wide range in degree of soil disturbance. Soil bulk density, water-filled pore space, electrical conductivity (EC{sub 1:1}), nitrate (NO{sub 3}), and pH within the top 30.5 cm soil, and soil temperature at 0 to 7.6 cm were measured to assess their correlation with variations in gas flux and tillage and wetting. Atmospheric concentrations above the soil (at {approximately} 40 cm) increased by 15% for CO{sub 2} and 9 to 31% for N{sub 2}O and 6 to 16% for CH{sub 4} within 1 min after tillage and returned to background concentrations within 2 h. Except immediately after tillage, net CH{sub 4} flux was negative, from the atmosphere into soil, and is referred to as CH{sub 4} uptake. Overall, increases (1.5--4-fold) in CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O losses from soil, and CH{sub 4} uptake by soil were short lived and returned to background levels within 8 to 24 h after tillage. Losses of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O increased to 1.7 and 5 times background emissions, respectively, for 24 h following wetting, while CH{sub 4} uptake declined by about 60% for 3 to 14 d after wetting. Water-filled pore space in the surface soil fell below 60% within 24 h after saturation and exhibited an inverse relationship (R{sup 2} = 0.66) with CH{sub 4} uptake. A significant decline in soil NO{sub 3} and EC{sub 1:1} in the top 7.6 cm occurred following wetting. Under the experimental conditions, and the expected frequency of tillage and wetting events, failure to include these short-lived episodic gas pulses in annual flux estimations may underestimate annual CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O loss up to 13 and 24%, respectively, and overestimate CH{sub 4} uptake by up to 18% in this cropping system.

Kessavalou, A.; Drijber, R.A. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Agronomy; Doran, J.W. [Dept. of Agriculture, Lincoln, NE (United States)]|[Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Mosier, A.R. [Dept. of Agriculture, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

The effects of flour types and storage temperatures on the staling of wheat flour tortillas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flours from 12 wheat cultivars, grown in two locations (Uvalde and McGregor) over two years (1999 and 2000), were processed into tortillas. The environment and cultivars affected protein content and quality, which significantly affected tortilla quality. Cultivars grown in McGregor had low protein and poor mixogram characteristics (3.8 MU and short mixing time), which produced thick, small and translucent tortillas. Some of the flours within the range of 3.0-4.5 MU and 10.5-13.0% produced good tortillas. Flour with higher mixing resistance and low protein content or lower mixing resistance and higher protein content produced good quality tortillas. This suggests that some combination of flour mixing resistance and protein content may be useful to predict tortilla quality. Tortillas were stored at -60, -12, 0, 4, 22, and 35?C to evaluate staling. Subjective rollability and two-dimensional extensibility tests measured changes in texture of tortillas. Frozen tortillas stored for over 25 days retained their fresh attributes. However tortillas staled more when stored at 22?C than at 0, 4, or 35?C. Tortillas stored at 0, 4, 22, and 35?C had increasing force, work and modulus of deformation values during storage. More staling occurred at 4?C for first 3 days and, then at 22?C after 7 days. Tortillas stored at 22?C and 35?C had less than two weeks shelf stability while tortillas stored under refrigeration had more than three weeks shelf stability. Tortillas began to stale at the optimum staling temperature of bread but much of the firming of tortillas occurred at a similar temperature to the staling of cakes (22?C). The higher temperature of optimum staling for tortillas suggests that more firming could be due to protein changes than from starch retrogradation. Measured flour properties did not directly correspond to improved tortilla qualities of larger diameter, increased opacity and longer shelf stability. Some combination of flour protein content and mixing resistance, however, may be useful to predict tortilla quality.

Kelekci, Nurettin Nuri

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Roles of carbohydrates and proteins in the staling of wheat flour tortilla  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of enzymatic modification of starch, proteins and pentosans on dough and tortilla properties were determined to establish the role of these wheat components in tortilla staling. Starch, protein and pentosans were respectively modified with a-amylase, protease and transglutaminase (TG), and xylanase. Tortillas were stored at 22oC and evaluated for at least three weeks. Amylase improved shelf-stability of tortillas, produced a significant amount of dextrins and sugars, retarded decrease in amylose solubility, and weakened starch granules. However, control and treated tortillas had similar degrees of amylopectin crystallinity. Staling of tortillas appears to involve starch that reassociates into an amorphous structure. Micrographs of control dough had thin protein strands forming a continuous matrix. Protease-treated dough had pieces of proteins in place of the continuous matrix, while TG-treated dough had thicker protein strands that were heterogeneously distributed. Both treatments resulted in shorter shelf-stability of tortillas. The organization of protein in dough is important for dough structure and appears to impact tortilla flexibility. Protein solubility and SDS-PAGE results did not differentiate control and treated dough or tortillas. The fractions or molecular weight distribution are not significant determinants of protein functionality. Tertiary and quaternary protein structures of gluten may be more related to tortilla shelf-stability. The 75 ppm xylanase treatment resulted in weaker tortilla structure and significantly higher amounts of low molecular weight saccharides and sugars. Control and the 25 ppm treatment sample had a similar shelf-stability and texture profile. Pentosans may affect staling indirectly through the effect on gluten development. Fresh tortillas have amylopectin in an amorphous state, while amylose is mostly retrograded. The gluten matrix provides additional structure and flexibility to the tortilla. Pentosans may or may not be attached to the gluten network. Upon storage, amylopectin retrogrades and recrystallizes, firming the starch granules, resulting in firmer tortillas. Starch hydrolysis decreased the rigid structure and plasticized polymers during storage. It also reduced the restriction imposed by retrograded starch on gluten and allowed it more flexibility. Thus, the flexibility of tortillas results from the combined functionalities of amylose gel, amylopectin solidifying the starch granules during storage, and the changed functionality of gluten after baking.

Alviola, Juma Novie Ayap

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Objective methods to evaluate rheological properties of wheat flour tortilla dough  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Characteristics of wheat flour tortilla dough were measured on a texture analyzer using texture profile analysis (TPA), stress relaxation, extensibility and adhesiveness tests. Doughs were optimally mixed, rested, divided, rounded and sampled during resting. Concentrations of water, fat, reducing agent and acidulants were varied to prepare a viscoelastic solid, viscoelastic liquid, and control doughs for subjective and objective evaluations of dough properties. TPA hardness and resilience exhibited low variability (CV= 1-9%) and correlated significantly with subjective dough properties (smoothness, r--0.88; softness, r--0.90; toughness, r--0.91). TPA adhesiveness and springiness were not sensitive to differences in doughs during resting or by dough formulations and among doughs.Resistance to extension and dough extensibility showed low variability (CV= 3-12%). Dough extensibility method was sensitive enough to indicate significant differences during resting and among doughs. Both parameters gave significant correlations with subjective dough evaluations (resistance to extension, softness, r-0.95; toughness, r--0.95; extensibility, softness, r---0.85; toughness, r---0.86). Adhesive force measured by Chen-Hoseney dough stickiness method showed moderate variability (CV= 5-17%), but failed to differentiate the doughs. This method was insensitive to changes during resting since a freshly mixed dough surface was created for testing. Adhesive force correlated significantly with subjective dough properties (smoothness, r = 0.89; softness, r--0.89; toughness, r = 0.89). Equilibrium modulus (stress relaxation) showed low variability (CV= 7-10%) and correlated significantly with subjective dough evaluations (softness, r--0.95; toughness, r--0.96). TPA and dough extensibility, were utilized to evaluate doughs made from different formulations and processing conditions. Tortillas were made to determine the relationships between objective dough evaluations and tortilla characteristics. Hardness, resilience, and resistance to extension increased and extensibility decreased for doughs containing less fat, less cysteine, and/or more gluten. Dough extensibility parameters correlated significantly with subjective dough evaluations (softness, r-0.60; toughness, r--0.61). TPA hardness and resilience correlated significantly with tortilla characteristics (diameter, r=-0.58; height, r--0.65; weight, r--0.66). TPA (hardness and resilience) and dough extensibility methods were effective in characterizing dough properties. However, practical application of these objective Theological methods must be confirmed in commercial tortilla plants.

Srinivasan, Meera

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Changes in soil carbon and nitrogen associated with switchgrass production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Greater knowledge of the short- and long-term effects of biomass production practices on soil biological and chemical properties is needed to determine influences on sustainable land management. Soil samples under switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), other forage grasses, cultivated crops, and forest were collected seasonally at six locations. Soil organic C (SOC), total N, soil microbial biomass C (SMBC) and N (SMBN), soil mineralizable C and N, and basal soil respiration (BSR) were in general greatest under long-term coastal bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] pasture (>40 years), second highest under Alamo switchgrass and kleingrass (Panicum coloratum L.) planted in 1992 and forest, followed by Alamo switchgrass planted in 1997, and was lowest under the cultivated soils. Soil organic C at 0-5 cm was 42-220% greater in soils under Alamo switchgrass planted in 1992 than cultivated soils, except at College Station where SOC values under Alamo planted in 1992 and the cultivated rotation were not significantly different. Although the rotation treatment is cultivated at this location, two high residue crops are used, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.]. Similar trends were noted for total N, SMBC, SMBN, mineralizable C and N, BSR, and the ratio of SMBC/SOC. Insufficient information was collected in this study to determine whether the parameters evaluated for forest and switchgrass were different. In addition to its high yield potential, adaptation to marginal sites and tolerance to water and nutrient limitations, switchgrass appeared to be a competitive crop in terms of land sustainability, resulting in enhanced soil quality characteristics compared to long-term cultivated soils.

Lobo Alonzo, Porfirio Jose

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

CULTIVAR DESCRIPTION CDC Kestrel winter wheat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. The Food Production and Inspection Branch of Agriculture and Agri Kestrel was selected from the progeny of a cross Norstar*2/Vona made in 1979. The F1 and F2 generations

Saskatchewan, University of

128

Wheat Ridge, Colorado: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

766098°, -105.0772063° 766098°, -105.0772063° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.766098,"lon":-105.0772063,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

129

Small RNAs, DNA methylation and transposable elements in wheat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reinhardtii by a DEAH-Box RNA helicase. Science 2000, 290:homolog of Werner syndrome helicase and RNaseD. Cell 1999,

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Airtight storage of moist wheat grain improves bioethanol yields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License

Volkmar Passoth; Anna Eriksson; Mats S; Jerry Sthlberg; Kathleen Piens; Johan Schnrer; Open Access

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Sprinkler irrigation scheduling of winter wheat in the North China ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

tween Kc,pan and LAI (method A) or plant height. (method B), and ... Introduction. The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the main food .... Experimental design.

132

Whole wheat flour milling: effects of variety and particle size.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Nutrition from whole grains has become an integral part of a healthy diet. Consumers are focused on adding fiber and whole grains to be healthy (more)

Turner, Justin B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Breads, cereal, rice, pasta, etc. Bread, whole wheat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/ skin Chicken wing Fish, cod Whole beans Nuts/seeds* Fruits *Nuts & avocado contain healthy fats, plain Dairy Products Cheese, cheddar Milk, whole Milk/yogurt, non-fat Milk/yogurt, 1% Protein Foods Beef, ground Beef, round Sausage/pepperoni Hot dogs Chicken/turkey breast without skin with skin deep fried w

de la Torre, José R.

134

Partial List of Items Prohibited/Permitted into the Gaza Strip The following list is approximate and partial, and it changes from time to time. It is based on  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the other wheat cultivars. Wheat lines producing flour yields greater than 70.0% is desirable. The Soft ............................................................................................. 4 Barley and Wheat Entries. Section 3: Wheat Varieties Discussion of wheat varieties and summary of wheat management practices

Klein, David

135

2009 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University 2908-1403 Virginia Cooperative Extension programs and employment are open to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, o  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the other wheat cultivars. Wheat lines producing flour yields greater than 70.0% is desirable. The Soft ............................................................................................. 4 Barley and Wheat Entries. Section 3: Wheat Varieties Discussion of wheat varieties and summary of wheat management practices

Liskiewicz, Maciej

136

For guests with food allergies or specific dietary requirements, please ask to speak to a manager. *Consuming raw or undercooked eggs or meat may increase your risk of foodborne illness.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the other wheat cultivars. Wheat lines producing flour yields greater than 70.0% is desirable. The Soft ............................................................................................. 4 Barley and Wheat Entries. Section 3: Wheat Varieties Discussion of wheat varieties and summary of wheat management practices

Azevedo, Ricardo

137

ARE Update Volume 12, Number 6  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

alfalfa corn soybeans wheat sorghum irrigated 2004 and $5corn, alfalfa, soy- beans, sorghum, and wheat) or decide notsoybeans, wheat, and sorghum. While sorghum and wheat are

Pfeiffer, Lisa; Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia; Sunding, David L.; Ajami, Newsha; Carman, Hoy

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Detecting Molecular Features of Spectra Mainly Associated with Structural and Non-Structural Carbohydrates in Co-Products from BioEthanol Production Using DRIFT with Uni- and Multivariate Molecular Spectral Analyses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: The objective of this study was to use DRIFT spectroscopy with uni- and multivariate molecular spectral analyses as a novel approach to detect molecular features of spectra mainly associated with carbohydrate in the co-products (wheat DDGS, corn DDGS, blend DDGS) from bioethanol processing in comparison with original feedstock (wheat (Triticum), corn (Zea mays)). The carbohydrates related molecular spectral bands included: A_Cell (structural carbohydrates, peaks area region and baseline: ca. 14851188 cm ?1), A_1240 (structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 1240 cm ?1 with region and baseline: ca. 12921198 cm ?1), A_CHO (total carbohydrates, peaks region and baseline: ca. 1187950 cm-1), A_928 (non-structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 928 cm ?1 with region and baseline: ca. 952910 cm ?1), A_860 (non-structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 860 cm ?1 with region and baseline: ca. 880827 cm-1), H_1415 (structural carbohydrate, peak height centered at ca. 1415 cm ?1 with baseline: ca. 14851188 cm ?1), H_1370 (structural carbohydrate, peak height at ca. 1370 cm ?1 with a baseline: ca. 14851188 cm ?1). The study shows that the grains had lower spectral intensity (KM Unit) of the cellulosic compounds of A_1240 (8.5 vs. 36.6, P < 0.05), higher (P < 0.05)

Peiqiang Yu; Daalkhaijav Damiran; Arash Azarfar; Zhiyuan Niu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Interactions of Lignin and Hemicellulose and Effects on Biomass Deconstruction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

antioxidant activity from wheat flour arabinoxylan. Eur Jalkali-extractable wheat-flour arabinoxylan by digestion

Li, Hongjia

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Boston University, Sargent College of Health & Rehabilitation Sciences 635 Commonwealth Avenue E-mail: scnc@bu.edu www.bu.edu/scnutrition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

precede the grain. Wheat flour, enriched wheat flour and unbleached wheat flour are not whole grain of these essential oils to increase flavor and satisfaction. Whole Grains Whole grain breads Whole wheat English muffins Whole wheat bagels, mini bagels Whole wheat or corn tortillas Whole wheat pitas Cereal

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wheat triticum aestivum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Review: Continuous hydrolysis and fermentation for cellulosic ethanol production Simone Brethauer, Charles E. Wyman *  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

precede the grain. Wheat flour, enriched wheat flour and unbleached wheat flour are not whole grain of these essential oils to increase flavor and satisfaction. Whole Grains Whole grain breads Whole wheat English muffins Whole wheat bagels, mini bagels Whole wheat or corn tortillas Whole wheat pitas Cereal

California at Riverside, University of

142

Effectiveness of three bulking agents for food waste composting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rather than landfilling, composting the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes recycles the waste as a safe and nutrient enriched soil amendment, reduces emissions of greenhouse gases and generates less leachate. The objective of this project was to investigate the composting effectiveness of three bulking agents, namely chopped wheat (Triticum) straw, chopped mature hay consisting of 80% timothy (milium) and 20% clover (triphullum) and pine (pinus) wood shavings. These bulking agents were each mixed in duplicates at three different ratios with food waste (FW) and composted for 10 days using prototype in-vessel composters to observe their temperature and pH trends. Then, each mixture was matured in vertical barrels for 56 days to measure their mass loss and final nutrient content and to visually evaluate their level of decomposition. Chopped wheat straw (CWS) and chopped hay (CH) were the only two formulas that reached thermophilic temperatures during the 10 days of active composting when mixed with FW at a wet mass ratio of 8.9 and 8.6:1 (FW:CWS and FW:CH), respectively. After 56 days of maturation, these two formulas were well decomposed with no or very few recognizable substrate particles, and offered a final TN exceeding the original. Wood shavings (WS) produced the least decomposed compost at maturation, with wood particles still visible in the final product, and with a TN lower than the initial. Nevertheless, all bulking agents produced compost with an organic matter, TN, TP and TK content suitable for use as soil amendment.

Adhikari, Bijaya K. [Department of Bioresource Engineering, Macdonald Campus of McGill University, 21 111 Lakeshore, Ste Anne de Bellevue (Quebec), H9X 3V9 (Canada); Barrington, Suzelle [Department of Bioresource Engineering, Macdonald Campus of McGill University, 21 111 Lakeshore, Ste Anne de Bellevue (Quebec), H9X 3V9 (Canada)], E-mail: suzelle.barrington@mcgill.ca; Martinez, Jose [Cemagref, Rennes Regional Centre, 7 avenue du Cucille, CS 64427, F-35044 Rennes (France); King, Susan [Department of Bioresource Engineering, Macdonald Campus of McGill University, 21 111 Lakeshore, Ste Anne de Bellevue (Quebec), H9X 3V9 (Canada)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

143

Conservative Nutrition: The Industrial Food Supply and Its Critics, 1915-1985  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nutritive Value of Wheat Flours of Different Extraction-Toxic Factor from Agenized Wheat Flour, Nature 165 (4 Marchnaturally found in whole-wheat flour. But the enrichment

Renner, Martin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Just Provisions: Food, Identity, and Contested Space in Urban America, 1800-1875  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sugar, molasses, and wheat flour amid other provisions. "white sugar, molasses, and wheat flour; for his efforts, heflour, she followed, should be avoided because the wheat had

Branch, Michelle

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Recipe for Reform: The Food Economy Movement in Britain During the First World War  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

save bread: Substitutes for wheat flour." Times 8 Feb. 1917:bread: Substitutes for wheat flour," Times 8 Feb. 1917: 11.bread: Substitutes for wheat flour." Indeed, the ministry

Buckley, Michael Dennis

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Taking ramen seriously : food, labor, and everyday life in modern Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

laced noodles made from wheat flour, and various toppingsthe popularity of other wheat-flour based foods such asof rice in relation to wheat flour particularly after the

Solt, George Sekine

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Crossing the rural-urban divide in twentieth-century China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

versus expensive processed wheat flour. Villagers wanted toand dumplings made out of wheat flour are relatively commonarrived at the Dongya Wheat Flour Company, they accosted

Brown, Jeremy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

HYG-5543-06 Family and Consumer Sciences, 1787 Neil Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Wheat lines having a flour yield of one percentage point or greater below that of USG 3209 would ............................................................................................. 3 Barley and Wheat Entries, Blacksburg, VA, 2008 harvest. #12;2 Section 2: Wheat Varieties Discussion of wheat varieties and summary

Howat, Ian M.

149

Trip Report Bean/Cowpea CRSP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Wheat lines having a flour yield of one percentage point or greater below that of USG 3209 would ............................................................................................. 3 Barley and Wheat Entries, Blacksburg, VA, 2008 harvest. #12;2 Section 2: Wheat Varieties Discussion of wheat varieties and summary

Ginzel, Matthew

150

From Communications and Innovation, To Business Organization and Territory The Production Networks of Swift Meat Packing and Dell Computer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flour & Total Grain Wheat Corn and Flour Source: 1860 CensusCommodities (1852-56) Flour (barrels) Wheat (bushels) Corn (

Fields, Gary

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Export-Oriented Populism: Commodities and Coalitions in Argentina  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dairy, chicken, and wheat flour, administered by ONCCA, theFor example, both wheat farmers and flour mills received

Richardson, Neal P.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Swine Finishing Manure Applied on Frozen Ground as a Top-Dress Nitrogen Source on Wheat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

were similar in the manure and urea reps with approximately 15 plants per square foot. Urea cost was $0.65 per pound. Urea replications had $48.75 per acre in nitrogen expense plus the cost of application and field conditions supported the fertilizer buggy. The urea application rate was 75 pounds of nitrogen per

Jones, Michelle

153

Spatial assessment of the environmental impacts of potential wheat and switchgrass bioethanol chains in Ukraine.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Various scientific sources have identified Ukraine as one of the most promising European countries for the production of bioethanol. However, before exploiting this potential, the (more)

Gelten, R.M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

alpha-amylase and Glucose Oxidase as Promising Improvers for Wheat Bread  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of alpha-amylase and glucose oxidase as bread improvers on the textural and thermal properties of bread were evaluated by the rapid viscosity analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that alpha-amylase and glucose oxidase ... Keywords: alpha-amylase, Glucose oxidase, viscosity, Bread quality

Jie Zeng; Haiyan Gao; Guanglei Li; Xinhong Liang

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

CDC Nexon Spring Spelt wheat Formerly Interim-registered as CDC BAVARIA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Oct. 1, 1884. -- 916a-ON MANUBACTUBED WOOD B O K T B O U T A N D CARP.* By DP.C. 0. HARZ. FOOD-FLOUR ..................................................... 9 to 10 Peas ..................................................... 9 t o 10 Flour, among it some oat-meal............................ 5 to 10 Cooking-salt ............................................. 10 2. The food-flour

Peak, Derek

156

Studying on Particle Size Distribution of Wheat Flour Using the Resistance Changing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a new method of resistance-examining for the results of field flow fractionation is presented, which can be used for separating resulting checking of separation technology using liquid separating carrier such as FFF, liquid chromatogram ... Keywords: field-flow fractionation, resistance checking, double electrical layers, Wavelet Analysis

Xuejun Zhang; Xiangwei Chen

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

LACIEAn Application of Meteorology for United States and Foreign Wheat Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of a critical world food situation during the early 1970's was the background leading to the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). The need was to develop a capability for timely monitoring of crops on a global scale. ...

Jerry D. Hill; Norton D. Strommen; Clarence M. Sakamoto; Sharon K. Leduc

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENT OF WHEAT STRAW ON PILOT PLANT SCALE Anders Thygesena  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solid material is one of the most important factors for production of bioethanol. Conversion for production of sugars for bio ethanol and an alkali free solid material for combustion in an incineration). After combined hydrothermal treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis the maximum sugar, yields were 30 g

159

Developing a generic hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system for the wheat milling industry.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In South Africa there is a need within the milling industry for controlling food safety especially due to customer's demands and government's regulations. The best (more)

Gillion, Lauren

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

ARM - Instrument - ecor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

120-360 wheat or wheat stubble EF3: 0-48 pasture, 132-260 soybeans, wheat EF5: 80-154 sorghum or wheat, 155-260 wheat or wheat stubble EF6: 0-90 grazed pasture, 91-360 alfalfa and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wheat triticum aestivum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

UCI Staff Assembly Pancake Breakfast Ingredients Krusteaz Buttermilk Pancakes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wheat dough, all-purpose flour wheat dough, and cake flour wheat dough. Both ultrasound and conventional. Introduction 1.1. Dough based systems-importance of characterization Wheat flour and water mixtures, doughs, are used in the manufacture of many different food products. A wheat flour and water mixture when subjected

Loudon, Catherine

162

Zupfkuchen (some kind of cheese cake) What you need...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wheat couscous. All purpose flour Substitute whole wheat flour for up to ½ of the flour. For example, if a recipe calls for 2 cups flour, try 1 cup all purpose flour and 1 cup minus 1 tablespoon whole wheat flour. Use "white whole-wheat flour" or "whole wheat pastry flour" for total amount of all-purpose flour

Lamond, Angus I.

163

Effects of Solid-State Yeast Treatment on the Antioxidant Properties and Protein and Fiber  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

type of grain. Primarily, the grinding of wheat for whole-wheat flour and corn for cornmeal or grits. Soft winter wheat will be sufficient to make whole wheat flour. In addition, buckwheat in small to purchase yellow corn that has been cleaned through a separator. Cleaned wheat can also be obtained locally

Liu, Jian-Guo

164

This paper was published in Soft Matter as part of the Food Science web theme issue  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wheat dough, all-purpose flour wheat dough, and cake flour wheat dough. Both ultrasound and conventional. Introduction 1.1. Dough based systems-importance of characterization Wheat flour and water mixtures, doughs, are used in the manufacture of many different food products. A wheat flour and water mixture when subjected

Weeks, Eric R.

165

DESIGN OF AN EXPERIMENTAL FACILITY FOR BUILDING AIRFLOW AND HEAT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

winter wheat flour is especially suited for cake mixes while flour from durum wheat is required winter wheat, the flour from such a mixture might be acceptable, but not the most desirable for cake mixes when compared to flour from 100% soft red winter wheat. Wheat of Other Classes (Total) also

166

University of Massachusetts Amherst Department of Resource Economics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for processing into an end product, e.g., flour. Wheat imports are differentiated by quality, i.e., low- (k monopoly for wheat and controlled the price of wheat flour. In 1983, the government began a series-12 The Impact of Reforming Wheat Importing State-Trading Enterprises on the Quality of Wheat Imported Nathalie

Schweik, Charles M.

167

Whole Grains Recipes Peanut Butter Cookies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wheat couscous. All purpose flour Substitute whole wheat flour for up to ½ of the flour. For example, if a recipe calls for 2 cups flour, try 1 cup all purpose flour and 1 cup minus 1 tablespoon whole wheat flour. Use "white whole-wheat flour" or "whole wheat pastry flour" for total amount of all-purpose flour

de Lijser, Peter

168

University of Vermont Extension, and U.S. Department of Agriculture, cooperating, offer education and employment to everyone without regard to race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, and mari  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wheat dough, all-purpose flour wheat dough, and cake flour wheat dough. Both ultrasound and conventional. Introduction 1.1. Dough based systems-importance of characterization Wheat flour and water mixtures, doughs, are used in the manufacture of many different food products. A wheat flour and water mixture when subjected

Hayden, Nancy J.

169

West Lafayette, Indiana Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

winter wheat flour is especially suited for cake mixes while flour from durum wheat is required winter wheat, the flour from such a mixture might be acceptable, but not the most desirable for cake mixes when compared to flour from 100% soft red winter wheat. Wheat of Other Classes (Total) also

Ginzel, Matthew

170

STANJE ZIVALSKIH GENSKIH VIROV V SLOVENSKEM KMETIJSTVU  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for processing into an end product, e.g., flour. Wheat imports are differentiated by quality, i.e., low- (k monopoly for wheat and controlled the price of wheat flour. In 1983, the government began a series-12 The Impact of Reforming Wheat Importing State-Trading Enterprises on the Quality of Wheat Imported Nathalie

Stepi?nik, Janez

171

Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for processing into an end product, e.g., flour. Wheat imports are differentiated by quality, i.e., low- (k monopoly for wheat and controlled the price of wheat flour. In 1983, the government began a series-12 The Impact of Reforming Wheat Importing State-Trading Enterprises on the Quality of Wheat Imported Nathalie

Bertini, Robert L.

172

VI. Dam and Raceway Some discussion of the dam gate valve has already taken place. As mentioned earlier, the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

type of grain. Primarily, the grinding of wheat for whole-wheat flour and corn for cornmeal or grits. Soft winter wheat will be sufficient to make whole wheat flour. In addition, buckwheat in small to purchase yellow corn that has been cleaned through a separator. Cleaned wheat can also be obtained locally

Beex, A. A. "Louis"

173

Revised 6/26/2011 CURRICULUM VITAE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

winter wheat flour is especially suited for cake mixes while flour from durum wheat is required winter wheat, the flour from such a mixture might be acceptable, but not the most desirable for cake mixes when compared to flour from 100% soft red winter wheat. Wheat of Other Classes (Total) also

Dahlberg, E. Dan

174

www.schoolofpublicpolicy.sk.ca JULY2010ISSUE4  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

period.15 For Argentina, wheat vied with beef exports, while wool vied with wheat in Australia.16 While of wheat, the history and ideology of free trade and "cheap food" was too strong to even consider full to the col- lapse in the prices of wool and wheat by launching the "grow more wheat campaign" of 1930

Saskatchewan, University of

175

The Institution of Infrastructure and the Development of Port-Regions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

11 Field Crops, NEC 12 Wheat Flour and Semolina 13 AnimalField Crops, NEC 2041 Wheat Flour and Semolina 2042 Animal6781 Hay & Fodder 6746 Wheat Flour 6782 Animal Feed, Prep.

Hall, Peter Voss

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Evaluating the Benefits of Integrated Child Development Program in Rural India  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

snack made of whole wheat flour, sugar and clarified butterAREF/ Panjiri/ Murmura (wheat flour, soya flour, malt ragiReady-to-Eat: Murmura (wheat flour, soya flour, edible oil,

Jain, Monica

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Jered Lawson and Nancy Vail: Pie Ranch: A Rural Center for Urban Renewal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

trying to grow all of the wheat flour needs for the crustspiefrom grinding the wheat into flour and cutting up theThey didnt know flour comes from wheat. And that emphasis

Rabkin, Sarah

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

The Trouble with Bread  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sick. So what about whole wheat flour? If all the parts ofNarrator: So whole wheat flour is actually just white flourthere, then shouldnt whole wheat flour be okay for me? Bags

Beidelman, Maggie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Recent developments in plant tissue analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

et al. , 1997) and wheat flour (Amarasiriwardena et al. ,apple leaves and durum wheat flour (Nist 1515 and Nist 8436,on certified durum wheat flour (Fig. 2A). It was shown that

Laursen, Kristian H; Hansen, Thomas H; Persson, Daniel P; Schjoerring, Jan K; Husted, Soeren

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Reforming the Nation: Law and Land in Post-Soviet Ukraine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and grades of flour: rough-cut wheat, finely-milled rye. Allof Australia's wheat output is exported, mainly to floursaid flour and food prices would rise if current wheat

Eppinger, Monica Elizabeth

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wheat triticum aestivum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Adapting to contradiction : competing models of organization in the United States organic foods industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be this much organic wheat flour. But here at 70% we're atmore demand for the wheat flour. 20 Interview, April 22,could be made into whole wheat flour instead of sent through

Haedicke, Michael Anthony

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

The Institution of Infrastructure and the Development of Port-Regions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

12 Wheat Flour and Semolina 13 Animal Feeds 14 Grain MillWheat Flour and Semolina 2042 Animal Feeds 2049 Grain MillWheat Flour 6782 Animal Feed, Prep. 6747 Grain Mill Products

Hall, Peter Voss

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

List of publications 1. Sun, L., Mller, B. and Schnrer, A. (2013) Biogas production from wheat straw community  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a mesophilic anaerobic digester in response to increasing ammonia concentration. 26(4), 347-353. 13. Dererie, D., Schnürer, A. (2011) Conversion of phenols during anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste ­ a review of substrate and operational parameters on the abundance of sulphate-reducing bacteria in industrial anaerobic

184

Can be straight combined, swathed or pushed. Same equipment used for wheat can be used to harvest canola.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

canola. ·Combines require some modification to handle smaller canola seed. ·Harvest canola when average effective for fields with uneven maturity. ·Once canola is swathed, it can be left in windrows on the stubble for 7 to 10 days, or until seed moisture is 8 percent to 10 percent. ·The swathed canola can

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

185

Determination and modelling of energy consumption in wheat production using neural networks : "a case study in Canterbury Province, New Zealand".  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??New Zealand farmers practice a form of 'industrialised??? agriculture that relies on relatively high inputs of fossil fuels, not only to power machinery directly but (more)

Safa, Majeed

186

Atmospheric Dispersion of Wheat Rust Spores: A New Theoretical Framework to Interpret Field Data and Estimate Downwind Dispersion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Theoretical predictions for dispersion of heavy particles above an area source are used to formulate a new framework to interpret measurements of spore concentration above an infected field. Experimental measurements of mean spore concentration ...

Marcelo Chamecki; Nicholas S. Dufault; Scott A. Isard

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

The Greening of Capitalist Agriculture in Nigeria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

political line. Wheat and flour: In 1981, wheat imports werewheat occupies a key position in Nigerian industrialization. There are s ix flour

Dunmoye, R. Ayo

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Regional Economic Cooperation: The Role of Agricultural Production and Trade in Northeast Asia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pacific Rim. ERS, 1994. * Wheat flour: multiplying by thethe small amount of non-wheat flour C ARTER , L EE , AND S

Carter, Colin; Lee, Hyunok; Sumner, Daniel

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Malio J. Stagnaro: The Santa Cruz Genovese  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was it the whole kernel wheat, or flour, or. Stagnaro:was flour they'd bring in, the whole kernel wheat and barley

Regional History Project, UCSC Library; Stagnaro, Malio; Jarrell, Randall

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wheat Straw Pretreated for Bioethanol Production. BiotechnolWheat Straw Pretreated for Bioethanol Production. Biotechnol1996) Handbook on Bioethanol: Production and Utilization (

DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

On the last mile : the effects of telecommunications regulation and deregulation in the rural western United States and Canada  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wheat, barley, oats, canola, and peas could not access high-economy is based on wheat, canola, oats, pulse crops such as

Kozak, Nadine Irne

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Government Policy, Housing, and the Origins of Securitization, 1780 - 1968  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sell cotton in Russia, wheat and flour in the Philippines,government of China to buy wheat, flour, and cotton (Nourse,

Quinn, Sarah Lehman

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Quiet Confrontations: Transnational Advocacy Networks, Local Churches, and the Pursuit of Religious Freedoms in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was often nicknamed "wheat flour religion" (Mian Fen Jiang)the major source of getting wheat flour provided by the U.S.

Wang, Yun

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Investigation and design of wet-mill equipment and process technology.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??need to dry-mill the wheat into flour, and as a result, the total cost of conversion from wheat to bread is reduced. The resulting product (more)

Smith, Lisa Noelle.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

University of Waterloo | Executive summary 2 Executive summary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with flour; various parts of the wheat kernel (including the germ, bran and endosperm [starch]); and grain supply as rye flour and rye bread. Unlike wheat and barley, rye is typically not used as a food additive: Semolina (wheat), egg whites, ground flaxseed, durum flour (wheat), niacin, thiamine. A few things

Nazar, Linda F.

196

Gluten Free Diet What is Gluten?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the characteristic bread aroma. Flour--Wheat flour is used most often in bread- making because it contains by the fermentative action of yeast. All- purpose flour, a blend of winter and summer wheat, is used most often for breads. Other flours that may be used in combination with wheat flour are rye, oatmeal, and whole wheat

Mootha, Vamsi K.

197

BAKING and MISCELLEANOUS Baking powder Avkat Afia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with flour; various parts of the wheat kernel (including the germ, bran and endosperm [starch]); and grain supply as rye flour and rye bread. Unlike wheat and barley, rye is typically not used as a food additive: Semolina (wheat), egg whites, ground flaxseed, durum flour (wheat), niacin, thiamine. A few things

Martin, Jan M.L.

198

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. 449 . VoE. HV, No. 99. Washimqgton, ID. C. Oct. 1, 1884.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sclerotia. AFB1was detected by HPLC in 56.6% of the wheat samples and derived products (flour, semolina the form of unclean and clean wheat, flour, semolina and bran). The sample collection data are summa- rized, clean wheat and products (flour, semolina and bran). The cleaning of wheat consists of eliminating

199

Prep time: 15 minutes Cook time: 30 minutes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. In addition, no cross-reactivity was detected in protein extracts of host foods (whole wheat flour, all purpose wheat flour, rolled oats, milk chocolate, raisin bran cereal, chocolate- filled cookies, and rice wheat flour, all purpose wheat flour, rolled oats, chocolate-filled cookies, and rice cereal, detection

200

This is an author-deposited version published in: http://oatao.univ-toulouse.fr/ Eprints ID: 5697  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of unclean and clean wheat, flour, semolina and bran). The sample collection data are summa- rized in Table 1 (flour, semolina and bran). The cleaning of wheat consists of eliminating impurities from the grain and soft wheat grain stored in a silo was 12% w/w, whereas that of the clean wheat, flour and sem- olina

Mailhes, Corinne

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wheat triticum aestivum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

S i k h i s m Faith Guides for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

flour (wheat flour, niacin, reduced iron, thiamin, monoitrate, riboflavin, folate) - sugar - soy flour

202

Menu 1 Associated Students Campus Children's Center  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. In addition, no cross-reactivity was detected in protein extracts of host foods (whole wheat flour, all purpose wheat flour, rolled oats, milk chocolate, raisin bran cereal, chocolate- filled cookies, and rice wheat flour, all purpose wheat flour, rolled oats, chocolate-filled cookies, and rice cereal, detection

Ponce, V. Miguel

203

United States Department of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with 40% Wheat Flour Ratio 55 Figure 30 Damaged Ceramic Prototypes with 40% and 50% Wheat Flour Ratio 56. Two types of additives were considered, sawdust and wheat flour. The goal was to find the optimal-ceramic ratios of 10%, 20%, 30% and with wheat flour-ceramic ratios of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% were tested

204

Modelling and Optimization of Catliq Liquid Biofuel Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the characteristic bread aroma. Flour--Wheat flour is used most often in bread- making because it contains by the fermentative action of yeast. All- purpose flour, a blend of winter and summer wheat, is used most often for breads. Other flours that may be used in combination with wheat flour are rye, oatmeal, and whole wheat

Toor, Saqib

205

International Boston College  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the characteristic bread aroma. Flour--Wheat flour is used most often in bread- making because it contains by the fermentative action of yeast. All- purpose flour, a blend of winter and summer wheat, is used most often for breads. Other flours that may be used in combination with wheat flour are rye, oatmeal, and whole wheat

Huang, Jianyu

206

USDA Ag in the Classroom-www.agclassroom.org Making Pretzels-Grades PreK-1: T-1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

flour (wheat flour, niacin, reduced iron, thiamin, monoitrate, riboflavin, folate) - sugar - soy flour

Mathis, Wayne N.

207

Muammer Koc Department of Mechanical Engineering,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with flour; various parts of the wheat kernel (including the germ, bran and endosperm [starch]); and grain supply as rye flour and rye bread. Unlike wheat and barley, rye is typically not used as a food additive: Semolina (wheat), egg whites, ground flaxseed, durum flour (wheat), niacin, thiamine. A few things

Koç, Muammer

208

A shape memory stent of poly(e-caprolactone-co-DL-lactide) copolymer for potential treatment of esophageal stenosis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

flour (wheat flour, niacin, reduced iron, thiamin, monoitrate, riboflavin, folate) - sugar - soy flour

Grunlan, Melissa A.

209

A Sensitive Sandwich ELISA for the Detection of Trace Amounts of Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Nut in Foods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. In addition, no cross-reactivity was detected in protein extracts of host foods (whole wheat flour, all purpose wheat flour, rolled oats, milk chocolate, raisin bran cereal, chocolate- filled cookies, and rice wheat flour, all purpose wheat flour, rolled oats, chocolate-filled cookies, and rice cereal, detection

Ronquist, Fredrik

210

The Grain Milling Oilseed Processing Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. In addition, no cross-reactivity was detected in protein extracts of host foods (whole wheat flour, all purpose wheat flour, rolled oats, milk chocolate, raisin bran cereal, chocolate- filled cookies, and rice wheat flour, all purpose wheat flour, rolled oats, chocolate-filled cookies, and rice cereal, detection

Levinson, David M.

211

Probabilistic Change of Wheat Productivity and Water Use in China for Global Mean Temperature Changes of 1, 2, and 3C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Impacts of climate change on agriculture are a major concern worldwide, but uncertainties of climate models and emission scenarios may hamper efforts to adapt to climate change. In this paper, a probabilistic approach is used to estimate the ...

Yujie Liu; Fulu Tao

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

The McDonald's Equilibrium: Advertising, Empty Calories, and the Endogenous Determination of Dietary Preferences  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to simple stone-ground wheat flour, todays white floursproducers of (enriched) wheat flour are now required towheat milling since prehistoric times to separate the bran and germ from the endosperm, in order to make white flour.

Smith, Trenton G

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Non-contact system for measuring tillage depth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A microprocessor-based non-contact ultrasonic sensor for tillage depth was evaluated. The sensor was tested on concrete, grass, wheat stubble, lightly disked wheat stubble (semi-stubble) and disked surfaces. The grass surface gave a higher variation ...

M. Yasin; R. D. Grisso; G. M. Lackas

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Soil microbial response to controlled-release urea under zero tillage and conventional tillage in western Canada  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 for wheat, barley and canola, and broadcast at 150 kg Nor flowering stage of canola growth. Soil MBC was measuredcases. In wheat, barley and canola, fertilizer was applied

Lupwayi, Newton; Soon, Yoong; Clayton, George; Bittman, Shabtai; Malhi, Sukhdev; Grant, Cynthia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Revised Team Descriptions Action Figure Laboratories (AFL) is an  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Kemakh Tiras Flour Kemakh Flour (whole wheat Kemakh Maleh Flour (self rising) Kemakh Tofe'akh Sugar Sukar Vanilla extract Tamseet vanil Yeast Chmarim Bread Lekhem Bread (whole wheat) Lekhem Maleh Cake Uga Cookies

216

Bread in a Bag Yield: 1 loaf Serving: 1/12 of loaf  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Kemakh Tiras Flour Kemakh Flour (whole wheat Kemakh Maleh Flour (self rising) Kemakh Tofe'akh Sugar Sukar Vanilla extract Tamseet vanil Yeast Chmarim Bread Lekhem Bread (whole wheat) Lekhem Maleh Cake Uga Cookies

Florida, University of

217

41S PR I NG 2012 ENGINEERING & SCIENCE Nicholas W. Tschoegl, professor of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Kemakh Tiras Flour Kemakh Flour (whole wheat Kemakh Maleh Flour (self rising) Kemakh Tofe'akh Sugar Sukar Vanilla extract Tamseet vanil Yeast Chmarim Bread Lekhem Bread (whole wheat) Lekhem Maleh Cake Uga Cookies

218

Proceedings of the Huntsville Simulation Conference 2007, October 30November 1, 2007, Huntsville, Alabama A General Model of Resources Using the Unified Modeling Language  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The farmer's thousand bushels of wheat may be fit for grinding into flour or only for mixing with animal feed, standardization, composition, and statelessness. Wheat in a silo occupies a central location, but a large flour milling comp

Rice, Stephen V.

219

What's Going on in the Garden? February 2011 The scoop on school lunch!  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, whole wheat breads, baked chicken and ground turkey and adding edamame and a low-fat creamy version. Both were delicious but the creamy version-wheat dough and grilled chicken and cheese quesadillas. New, healthier salad dressings

220

Assessments A Training Manual  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Butcher, Tool Maker, Stacker of Wheat, Player with Railroads and Freight Handler to the Nation" ­ hardly

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wheat triticum aestivum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

A Maidu Acorn Dough Carrier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wheat 1967:84-86), but the early replacement of traditional bags and even burden baskets by commercial flour

Bates, Craig D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Historical Memory and Ethnographic Perspectives on the Southern Paiute Homeland  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

were fed with "wheat & seed flour porridge & berries" andwheat from the husks and thus prepare it for grinding into flour

Stoffle, Richard W; Zedeno, Maria Nieves

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Computer simulation model development and validation for radio frequency (RF) heating of dry food materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

·11 /2 Tbsp whole wheat flour · 1 /2 Tbsp whole wheat flour and 1 /2 Tbsp all-purpose flour Flour, 1 flour, result in a rye flour or whole wheat flour and reduced volume 1 /2 cup all-purpose flour and a · 3 /4 cup whole wheat flour or bran heavier product. flour and 1 /4 cup all-purpose flour ·1 cup rye

Tang, Juming

224

www.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications and Marketing, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

·11 /2 Tbsp whole wheat flour · 1 /2 Tbsp whole wheat flour and 1 /2 Tbsp all-purpose flour Flour, 1 flour, result in a rye flour or whole wheat flour and reduced volume 1 /2 cup all-purpose flour and a · 3 /4 cup whole wheat flour or bran heavier product. flour and 1 /4 cup all-purpose flour ·1 cup rye

Liskiewicz, Maciej

225

Cooperative Extension Service College of Agriculture and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

·11 /2 Tbsp whole wheat flour · 1 /2 Tbsp whole wheat flour and 1 /2 Tbsp all-purpose flour Flour, 1 flour, result in a rye flour or whole wheat flour and reduced volume 1 /2 cup all-purpose flour and a · 3 /4 cup whole wheat flour or bran heavier product. flour and 1 /4 cup all-purpose flour ·1 cup rye

Castillo, Steven P.

226

To find more resources for your business, home, or family, visit the College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences on the World Wide Web at aces.nmsu.edu  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

·11 /2 Tbsp whole wheat flour · 1 /2 Tbsp whole wheat flour and 1 /2 Tbsp all-purpose flour Flour, 1 flour, result in a rye flour or whole wheat flour and reduced volume 1 /2 cup all-purpose flour and a · 3 /4 cup whole wheat flour or bran heavier product. flour and 1 /4 cup all-purpose flour ·1 cup rye

Castillo, Steven P.

227

Global and Local Models for Multi-Document Summarization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... supplier wheat poisoning 7 ?7 : flood country Bangladesh river district northern water kill situation relief level government monsoon inundate rain ...

2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

228

Export-Oriented Populism: Commodities and Coalitions in Argentina  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

both wheat farmers and flour mills received subsidies.The mills did the same when they sold their flour. The

Richardson, Neal P.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Death Valley Indian Farming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mills and handstones, long employed for wild seeds, were pressed into service for grinding corn and wheat into flour, and

Wallace, William J

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Soil-, water-, and energy-conserving tillage - Southern Plains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper summarizes some conservation cropping systems that have been developed through research. The cropping systems were: dryland wheat-fallow with stubble mulch, dryland wheat-chemical fallow-sorghum, irrigated wheat-chemical fallow-sorghum, irrigated sorghum double-cropped after winter wheat, and irrigated annual sorghum. For these cropping systems, the affect of tillage method upon soil water storage, crop yield, and energy use is discussed. 15 refs.

Allen, R.R.; Musick, J.T.; Unger, P.W.; Wiese, A.F.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 165 (2010) 475478 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

" such as in "whole wheat flour." This indicates that the product is made primarily from whole grains. Just because · Organic unbleached flour · Enriched flour · Semolina, duram wheat, or wheat flour · Degerminated corn meal. Whole grains can be milled into flour or eaten whole, cracked, split or ground, as long as the whole

Page, John

232

A closer look at FATS.... According to the Dietary Guidelines, your fat intake should be kept  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Peanut flour Rye flour Soybean flour Wild rice Whole wheat flour Breads labeled "healthy" or mixed grain. baking soda 1 qt. Buttermilk 5 cups flour (3 whole wheat, 2 white)* 2 cups sugar 1 package (15 oz germ may be substituted for ½ cup whole-wheat flour. Dissolve baking soda in buttermilk. Mix together

Bandettini, Peter A.

233

An important part of a healthy diet is eating fiber-rich foods. This handout will explain what fiber is, where it's found, and how to increase the amount of fiber in your diet.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Peanut flour Rye flour Soybean flour Wild rice Whole wheat flour Breads labeled "healthy" or mixed grain. baking soda 1 qt. Buttermilk 5 cups flour (3 whole wheat, 2 white)* 2 cups sugar 1 package (15 oz germ may be substituted for ½ cup whole-wheat flour. Dissolve baking soda in buttermilk. Mix together

Sheridan, Jennifer

234

DEVELOPMENT OF A METODOLOGY BY NMR AND CHEMOMETRIC ANALYSIS FOR SOYBEAN QUALITY CONTROL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

" such as in "whole wheat flour." This indicates that the product is made primarily from whole grains. Just because · Organic unbleached flour · Enriched flour · Semolina, duram wheat, or wheat flour · Degerminated corn meal. Whole grains can be milled into flour or eaten whole, cracked, split or ground, as long as the whole

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

235

Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station Oregon State University  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Peanut flour Rye flour Soybean flour Wild rice Whole wheat flour Breads labeled "healthy" or mixed grain. baking soda 1 qt. Buttermilk 5 cups flour (3 whole wheat, 2 white)* 2 cups sugar 1 package (15 oz germ may be substituted for ½ cup whole-wheat flour. Dissolve baking soda in buttermilk. Mix together

Tullos, Desiree

236

This is an author-deposited version published in: http://oatao.univ-toulouse.fr/ Eprints ID: 5697  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

recommends to develop the consumption of breads made with more whole wheat flour, such as 80-type flour material extraction (wheat). Two alternatives can be pointed out : change common bread to 80-type flour in Table 3. The two recommendations "debranning wheat flour" (T80 & D.) and "organic bread" (T80 & O.) can

237

Lyndon B. Johnson School ofPublic Affairs Policy Research Project Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. demonstrate that plants provide food products by grinding wheat seeds into flour and using the flour to make or bulk food department of the supermarket. (If unavailable, use the amount of whole wheat flour listed in the recipe and explain how wheat is ground into flour.) 2. Other ingredients listed in the recipe on page T-4

Texas at Austin, University of

238

Operations Manual for the McCormick Grist Mill I. History of the McCormick Mill  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Peanut flour Rye flour Soybean flour Wild rice Whole wheat flour Breads labeled "healthy" or mixed grain. baking soda 1 qt. Buttermilk 5 cups flour (3 whole wheat, 2 white)* 2 cups sugar 1 package (15 oz germ may be substituted for ½ cup whole-wheat flour. Dissolve baking soda in buttermilk. Mix together

Beex, A. A. "Louis"

239

Patterns of Pass-through of Commodity Price Shocks to Retail Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1) Chicken Ln(Flour/PPI) Ln(ChicFeed/PPI) Ln(Wheat/PPI) Ln(Index. Ln(Flour/PPI) Ln(ChicFeed/PPI) Ln(Wheat/PPI) Ln(Corn/feed and flour), and upstream commodities (corn and wheat).

Berck, Peter; Leibtag, Ephraim S.; Villas-Boas, Sofia B.; Solis, Alex

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

MASTER PLAN ChiefJosephDamHatcheryProgram This Chief Joseph Dam Hatchery Program Master Plan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. demonstrate that plants provide food products by grinding wheat seeds into flour and using the flour to make or bulk food department of the supermarket. (If unavailable, use the amount of whole wheat flour listed in the recipe and explain how wheat is ground into flour.) 2. Other ingredients listed in the recipe on page T-4

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wheat triticum aestivum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Draft Umatilla/Willow Subbasin May 28, 2004 Appendix G: Draft Hatchery Genetic Management Plans G-1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the Zilkha Center, I only focused on the different types of wheat flour that Williams purchases. Then I, "for King Arthur Flour, "local" flour has meant `milled from U.S.-grown wheat' (Maine)." Therefore, the fact that the actual company is situated in Vermont does not mean that the wheat that their flour

242

Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the Zilkha Center, I only focused on the different types of wheat flour that Williams purchases. Then I, "for King Arthur Flour, "local" flour has meant `milled from U.S.-grown wheat' (Maine)." Therefore, the fact that the actual company is situated in Vermont does not mean that the wheat that their flour

Texas at Austin, University of

243

Satiating Effects of Rye Foods Hanna Isaksson  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

= 15 Increased satiety during 120 min (Hlebowicz et al., 2008b) Bread with 80% whole-grain wheat flour., 1998) Bread with 15% pearled barley flour (6 g df) Control: refined wheat bread (0.1 g df) Higher rye foods, compared with iso-caloric refined wheat bread, served as parts of breakfast meals in cross

244

CHOLESTEROL FRIENDS & ENEMIES Lowering your cholesterol is a large part of improving heart health.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Peanut flour Rye flour Soybean flour Wild rice Whole wheat flour Breads labeled "healthy" or mixed grain. baking soda 1 qt. Buttermilk 5 cups flour (3 whole wheat, 2 white)* 2 cups sugar 1 package (15 oz germ may be substituted for ½ cup whole-wheat flour. Dissolve baking soda in buttermilk. Mix together

O'Toole, Alice J.

245

Validation and Sensitivity Analysis of a New AtmosphereSoilVegetation Model. Part II: Impacts on In-Canopy Latent Heat Flux over a Winter Wheat Field Determined by Detailed Calculation of Canopy Radiation Transmission and Stomatal Resistance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the validation and sensitivity analysis of an atmospheresoilvegetation model. The model consists of one-dimensional multilayer submodels for the atmosphere, soil, and vegetation and a radiation scheme for the transmission ...

Haruyasu Nagai

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Evidence for glyphosate damage of winter wheat depending on waiting-times after pre-crop glyphosate application and density of desiccated weed plants under field and experimental conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

times for sowing after pre-crop glyphosate application aretimes before sowing of the subsequent crop resulted in muchstronger and longer lasting crop damage than the same amount

Bott, Sebastian; Lebender, Ulrike; Yoon, Duck-Joong; Tesfamariam, Tsehaye; Rmheld, Volker; Neumann, Gnter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Revised by Mary Claire Kinney Bielamowicz, PhD, MS, RD, LD, CFCS, Regents Fellow, Professor and Nutrition Specialist, Texas AgriLife Extension Service, Texas A&M System, May 2012.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Substitute whole grain and bran flours. Whole wheat flour can replace from one-fourth to one- half of the all-purpose flour. For example, if a recipe has 3 cups all-purpose flour, use 1½ cups whole wheat flour and 1½ cups, we need to review why flour is used. The gluten that is formed when protein from wheat flour

248

Center for Successful Aging California State University, Fullerton  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Substitute whole grain and bran flours. Whole wheat flour can replace from one-fourth to one- half of the all-purpose flour. For example, if a recipe has 3 cups all-purpose flour, use 1½ cups whole wheat flour and 1½ cups, we need to review why flour is used. The gluten that is formed when protein from wheat flour

de Lijser, Peter

249

2008 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University 2808-1007 Virginia Cooperative Extension programs and employment are open to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, o  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Substitute whole grain and bran flours. Whole wheat flour can replace from one-fourth to one- half of the all-purpose flour. For example, if a recipe has 3 cups all-purpose flour, use 1½ cups whole wheat flour and 1½ cups, we need to review why flour is used. The gluten that is formed when protein from wheat flour

Liskiewicz, Maciej

250

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY - NETL CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION (CX) DESIGNATIO...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2010 Jennifer Knipe 01012010-12312011 Wheat Ridge, Jefferson County, CO A Novel Biogas Desulfurization Sorbent Technology for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell - Based Combined...

251

Conservation Tillage:  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hosford, R.M. Jr. 1976. Fungal Leaf Spot Diseases of Wheat in North Dakota. N.D. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull.

Today Andtomorrow Southern; Southern Region; No-till Conference; Thomas J. Gerik; Thomas J. Gerik; Bill L. Harris; Bill L. Harris

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Microsoft PowerPoint - Proceedings Cover Sheets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

* Conversion from conventional tillage to no-till Biophysical responses e.g., Argentina rainfed wheat CT to NT 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 Change (%) Change (%) Change (%)...

253

Biotechnology for Biofuels BioMed Central  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pilot-scale conversion of lime-treated wheat straw into bioethanol: quality assessment of bioethanol and valorization of side streams by anaerobic digestion and combustion

Ronald Hw Maas; Robert R Bakker; Arjen R Boersma; Iemke Bisschops; Jan R Pels; De Jong; Ruud A Weusthuis; Hans Reith; Open Access

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Biological conversion of biomass to methane. Quarterly progress report, September 1--November 30, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The viability of wheat straw as a feedstock for methane production by anaerobic digestion was investigated and the results obtained compared with that obtained with corn stover. Poor conversion was obtained with the wheat straw under thermophilic conditions, but better than that obtained with corn. In addition the residue has no value as an animal feed. A mild thermochemical pretreatment of the corn prior to anaerobic digestion improved the conversion efficiency and the value of the residue as an animal feed. It is assumed that similar pretreatment of wheat straw would improve its conversion efficiency. Slurry and pumping characteristics of wheat straw particles were reported. (JSR)

Pfeffer, J T

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Microevolution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

have been created by man since he began manipulating his environment. Consider domestic cats, dogs, cows, pigs, horses, wheat, rice, and corn. New species of bacteria are created...

256

Californias Energy Future: The View to 2050 - Summary Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ethanol and conventional biodiesel, thus bin 2 and bin 3cane, sugar beet, wheat) Biodiesel from oil crops (e.g. ,hydrocarbons) Algal biodiesel Improved enzymes, catalysts,

Yang, Christopher

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

California's Energy Future - The View to 2050  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ethanol and conventional biodiesel, thus bin 2 and bin 3cane, sugar beet, wheat) Biodiesel from oil crops (e.g. ,hydrocarbons) Algal biodiesel Improved enzymes, catalysts,

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Microsoft PowerPoint - Proceedings Cover Sheets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

* Conservation tillage data from CTIC * Regional price data for crops (wheat, corn, soy, hay) and inputs (fertilizer, labor, fuel) * USG Ecozone dummy variables * Net...

259

NREL: Biomass Research - Glossary of Biomass Terms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

not removed from the fields with the primary food or fiber product. Examples include corn stover (stalks, leaves, husks, and cobs); wheat straw; and rice straw. alcohol: An...

260

Applicant Organization:  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ethanol Technology & Feedstocks: * Agricultural residues: wheat straw, barley straw, corn stover, switchgrass and rice straw State of Readiness: * Tested the overall process...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wheat triticum aestivum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Biofuels Research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Soy 6.2% Wheat straw 6.1% Corn stover 19.9% ... Cellulosic Materials Poplar Maize/Corn Stover Switchgrass Brachypodium Sorghum ...

2012-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

262

Energy Basics: Biomass Resources  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

leaves, that are not harvested or removed from fields in commercial use. Examples include corn stover (stalks, leaves, husks, and cobs), wheat straw, and rice straw. With...

263

Issue 10, July 2008  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

resources of coal and biomass - biomass including such growing things as wheat straw, corn stover, switchgrass, mixed hardwood and distillers' dried grains with corn fiber, and...

264

NREL: Energy Analysis - Biomass Technology Analysis Models and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of more than 150 (as of 1001) samples of potential biofuels feedstocks including corn stover, wheat straw, bagasse, switchgrass and other grasses, and poplars and other...

265

NREL: Biomass Research - Data and Resources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

data on more than 150 analyzed samples of potential biofuels feedstocks, including corn stover, wheat straw, bagasse, switchgrass and other grasses, and poplars and other...

266

Netlog, Volume 10, July 2008  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

resources of coal and biomass - biomass including such growing things as wheat straw, corn stover, switchgrass, mixed hardwood and distillers' dried grains with corn fiber, and...

267

Tillage or no-tillage: Impact on mycorrhizae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in maize, wheat, and canola. Agron. J. 92: 11171124.when a non- mycorrhizal canola plant (OHalloran et al.

Kabir, Zahangir

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

A new instrumental setup for determination of small amplitude ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

varieties of wheat [7]. Although .... obtained all-purpose flour (14% moisture). Each batch of the prepared dough samples contained 100 g of flour, 77 g of water...

269

Agency datasets monthly list | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) report is prepared monthly and includes forecasts for U.S. and world wheat, rice, and coarse grains (corn, barley, sorghum, and oats),...

270

NREL: News - NREL Selects Partners for New High Performance Computer...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cooling to accelerate innovation in more efficient use of energy critical for achieving exascale performance by end of the decade," Stephen Wheat, general manager of High...

271

LDC debt and policy linkages in the determination of world commodity prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coarse Grain, Rice, and Cotton Prices Explanatory VariablesDependent Variables\\ Wheat Prices Impact (standard error)Inter La DW I Coarse Grain Prices Impact (standard error)

Rausser, Gordon C.; Brazelon, Coleman

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Lifecycle Analyses of Biofuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from soybeans; methanol, SNG and hydrogen from wood. GREETgrass, and wheat; methanol and SNG from wood; biodiesel fromwood; hydrogen, methanol, and SNG from wood; biodiesel from

Delucchi, Mark

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

CO2 uptake and ecophysiological parameters of the grain crops...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ecosystems & Environment Volume 164 Pagination 162-175 Keywords CO2 sink, Gross photosynthesis, Maize, Net CO2 exchange partitioning, VPD limitation of photosynthesis, wheat...

274

"I Am History, Don't Destroy Please": Three Gristmills and Their Communities in Wake County, North Carolina.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The custom gristmill was a center of business and economic activity. Mills ground wheat into flour and corn into meal for millions of customers, providing (more)

Hawkins, Leslie Erin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Benefits of flour storage as related to process efficiencies in milling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The milling of wheat into white flour is a high volume, low margin business. Flour is a commodity. Competition is fierce. Over the past several (more)

Johnson, Brent S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

DOE Solar Decathlon: 2005 Teams - New York Institute of Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

sleeping, relaxing, and working. "Our design philosophy is to live in harmony with the Earth," says architecture student Heather Korb. That's why the soybean insulation, wheat...

277

Microsoft Word - ThisWeek03.04.13.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in cooperation with NETL, collaborators at TDA Research Inc. (Wheat Ridge, Colo.) and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research have completed categorizing the...

278

BULLETIN OF THE UXITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. 151 the old ones and will, consequently, keep the cabin more comfortable in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Make a filling of four ounces tallow or fre& fat pork, four ydks of eggA, some wheat bread slightly

279

152 CULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. of wine pour one-half gill warm vinegar over the pieces of carp before  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Make a filling of four ounces tallow or fre& fat pork, four ydks of eggA, some wheat bread slightly

280

JERRY CARR, JR. A WVU plasma physics doctoral student was selected  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, regardless of race, class, gender, religion, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or economic back- ground benefit such as energy, biometrics, and health sciences. Michele G. Wheatly, Provost Dr. Michele G. Wheatly, provost-grant institution. Since it was founded, WVU has remained committed to that goal from biomedical research to energy

Mohaghegh, Shahab

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wheat triticum aestivum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Evaluation of Reanalysis Soil Moisture Simulations Using Updated Chinese Soil Moisture Observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that no single product was obvi- ously superior in all climates, and that the mean annual cycle is generally Cabbage/beet 1981­99 12 Hulin 100 Silt clay Wheat-bean 1981­99 13 Wulanwusu 468 Sand Wheat 1981­99 14

Robock, Alan

282

Carol Jones Research Engineer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

canola varieties, Oklahoma producers have the option of rotating canola with wheat to break the weed and disease cycle and to potentially increase wheat yields. Production of canola also provides an income source outside of the grain market. The recent increase in canola production in Oklahoma has prompted

Jones, Carol

283

Cereal Killers What we saw in 2007  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hosts Poor Hosts Root lesion nematode bi l Wide host range for P. Wheat Canola Mustard Barley Oat Durum Good Moderate Hosts Poor Rotation to non-host crop Good Hosts Moderate Hosts Poor Hosts Wheat Canola Barley Oat Field Pea Faba Bean Variety selection Canola Mustard Chickpea Oat Durum Lentil Triticale

Dyer, Bill

284

Iliyana Hadjistoyanova May 18, 2010  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bread in a Bag Yield: 1 loaf · Serving: 1/12 of loaf 2 cups all-purpose flour 1 cup whole wheat. Combine flour, whole wheat flour, yeast, sugar, salt and powdered milk in a one gallon resealable freezer flour 3 Tablespoons powdered milk 3 Tablespoons sugar 1 teaspoon salt 1 envelope or 1 Tablespoon rapid

Aalberts, Daniel P.

285

Vegetarian Chili 2 tbsp. olive or vegetable oil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

flour ¾ cup whole wheat flour 1 cup cornmeal, fine ground ½ tsp. salt 1 tablespoon double acting baking wheat flour ½ cup oatmeal ¼ cup ground chia ¼ cup dried unsweetened coconut ½ cup sugar (or ¼ cup sugar juice, egg, banana and oil into the blender. Blend until smooth. In a large bowl add flour, oatmeal

Watson, Craig A.

286

Middle Snake Draft Assessment 59 May 2004 3 Biological Characterization and Status  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bread in a Bag Yield: 1 loaf · Serving: 1/12 of loaf 2 cups all-purpose flour 1 cup whole wheat. Combine flour, whole wheat flour, yeast, sugar, salt and powdered milk in a one gallon resealable freezer flour 3 Tablespoons powdered milk 3 Tablespoons sugar 1 teaspoon salt 1 envelope or 1 Tablespoon rapid

287

Secondary Ice Nucleus Generation by Silver Iodide Applied to the Ground  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice nuclei were monitored, using the membrane filter technique at eight sites around the 17-km perimeter of a rough circle and at one site in a 40 ha wheat field within the circle. The wheat field was then sprayed in fine weather with 2000 1 of ...

E. K. Bigg

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Future Contracts and Options Commodity markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the concurrent use of both cash and futures markets · Consider the case of a flour mill which has made heavy forward sales of flour, that requires more uncommitted wheat that the mill owns. ­ to hedge these flour sales, the mill needs to secure more wheat contracts in future when there is enough resources from

Boisvert, Jeff

289

2 Presentations on Storytelling in Bhutan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

), a changma branches that is cut and tied into small bundle that is no bigger than a handful. An effigy of Changshing Gyalpo, about 15 centimetres is made normally of wheat flour. A butter lamp, again of wheat flour is also made... . Ritualizing Story: A Way to Heal Malady 71 The items used are all related to the story. Changma branches are used because Changshing Gyalpo was born from this tree. Effigy of Changshing Gyalpo and butter lamp is made of wheat flour as the cow had eaten...

Penjore, Dorji; Dorji, Tandin

290

Comparisons of Interception Loss from Tropical and Temperate Vegetation Canopies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multilayer crop model is used to investigate interception loss from oak, pine, wheat and grass canopies. It is shown that the evaporative properties of the full oak canopy are similar to those of the evergreen tropical rain forest. Evaporation ...

J. G. Lockwood; P. J. Sellers

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Inbicon Biomass Refinery Cellulosic Ethanol Technology Platforms  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

for biogas production Inbicon Biomass Refinery Energy integrated solutions Wheat Straw 50 t/h (at 86 % dm) C5 molasses Power The Lignin and biogas are used in power

292

On the Economic Value of Seasonal-Precipitation Forecasts: The Fallowing/Planting Problem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The so-called fallowing/planting problem is an example of a decision-making situation that is potentially sensitive to meteorological information. In this problem, wheat farmers in the drier, western portions of the northern Great Plains must ...

Barbara G. Brown; Richard W. Katz; Allan H. Murphy

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Extensional rheology of bread dough  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigated the extensional properties of wheat flour dough on the Filament Stretching Rheometer (FISER), in which the sample approaches uniform uni-axial extension flow at a constant strain rate over a large portion ...

Ng, Shen Kuan (Trevor Shen Kuan)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Interpretation of Measured Tracer Concentration Fluctuations Using a Sinusoidal Meandering Plume Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simultaneous instantaneous concentration and wind velocity fluctuations were measured 100 to 752 m downwind of a point source release of SF6 tracer during two field studies conducted amid rolling wheat fields and at a flat desert site in eastern ...

Holly Peterson; Brian Lamb; David Stock

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

ARE Update Volume 12, Number 2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

policies continue to hold corn, soybean, and rice prices atmajor food com- modities (corn, rice, soybeans, and wheat)as they rose, although corn, rice, and soybean prices remain

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Poppies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wood and Cantigny, in 1918, saw poppies growing profusely in the wheat fields: the Corn Poppy so common in Europe and so often mentioned in English literature -- "all silk and...

297

Rooted in Wonder: Joint Genome Institute Study Reveals Amazing...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

better understanding of the microbes that affect the growth of other plants (crops like corn or wheat) researchers may be able to improve their growth -- or provide better care for...

298

Essays on Externalities and Uncertainty: On the Role of Disaster Insurance in Improving Welfare  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rice. Risk and the Value of Bt Corn. American Journal ofThe Impact of the Western Corn Rootworm Soybean Variant insimulation section, for both corn and wheat farmers. For the

Sproul, Thomas Wendell

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

NREL: Biomass Research - Mark R. Nimlos  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

K. R.; Jablonski, W.; Phillips, S. D.; Nimlos, M. R. (2010). "Pilot-Scale Gasification of Corn Stover, Switchgrass, Wheat Straw, and Wood: 1. Parametric Study and Comparison with...

300

UPDATED: Energy Department Announces New Advance in Biofuel Technology...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

to create a major new industry - one based on bio-material such as wheat and rice straw, corn stover, lumber wastes, and plants specifically developed for bio-fuel production that...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wheat triticum aestivum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

NREL: Learning - Biomass Energy Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

In the near future-and with NREL-developed technology-agricultural residues such as corn stover (the stalks, leaves, and husks of the plant) and wheat straw will also be...

302

Transportation accounts for a quarter of the United States green house gases. With this statistic being so high and the need for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

properties and its availability. Ethanol is produced from plant matter (i.e. corn, sugar cane, wheat, barley less fertilizer per bushel. Nitrogen-free fertilizer. Using machinery that uses Bio-diesel or ethanol

Toohey, Darin W.

303

Exploring the Physiological Basis for High Reproduction Sensitivity to Boron Deficiency in Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lordkaew et al. , 2005), canola (Asad et al. , 2000) andHowever, in dicots such as canola, B deficiency was reportedin pollen (e.g. wheat and canola) and pistil or silk (e.g.

Huang, Longbin; Bell, Richard William; Dell, Bernard

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

GMOs in animal agriculture: time to consider both costs and benefits in regulatory evaluations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

81%), corn (35%), and canola (30%) crops grown globally areGE corn, soybean, cotton, canola, wheat, potato, alfalfa,Soybeans Maize (Corn) Cotton Canola Page 9 of 14 animal feed

Van Eenennaam, Alison L

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Louis Freels | Y-12 National Security Complex  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

over in I forget where it was, to have ground for our flour. That's the way we got our flour for the winter was through the wheat. WHAT BECAME OF THE FREELS BEND CABIN It was I...

306

Department of Entomology Stored Product Pests  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wa ngano [wheat flour] yai / mayai [egg / eggs] vitafunio; karanga [snacks] mkate / mikate [bread garlic] [hot pepper] [butter] sukuma wiki [collard greens] unga [flour] unga wa mahindi [corn flour] unga

Ginzel, Matthew

307

1 | P a g e Lucas Jan Patzek  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wa ngano [wheat flour] yai / mayai [egg / eggs] vitafunio; karanga [snacks] mkate / mikate [bread garlic] [hot pepper] [butter] sukuma wiki [collard greens] unga [flour] unga wa mahindi [corn flour] unga

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

308

Microsoft Word - Cooking of the American South booklet.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Southern-style Cornbread In contrast to other cornbread, this type does not contain any wheat flour or any sweetener. It more like polenta or cornmeal mush. The following recipe...

309

Lesson 20: Foods [vyakula  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wa ngano [wheat flour] yai / mayai [egg / eggs] vitafunio; karanga [snacks] mkate / mikate [bread garlic] [hot pepper] [butter] sukuma wiki [collard greens] unga [flour] unga wa mahindi [corn flour] unga

Peterson, Blake R.

310

Secretary Chu Congratulates FY 2011 Small Business Award Winners...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Business of the Year Winner: Delta-21 Resources, Inc. - Knoxville, Tennessee Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business of the Year Winner: HukariAscendent, Inc. - Wheat Ridge,...

311

ARE Update Volume 12, Number 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

accompanied by record high oil prices, and, while biofuelshave helped reduce oil prices relative to prices that wouldSoybean X Wheat increase in oil prices in recent years. Oil

Sexton, Steven E; Rajagopal, Deepak; Zilberman, David D; Aker, Jenny

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Biofuels supply chain characterization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ethanol can be made from agricultural residues like wheat straw and from crops dedicated to energy use, like switchgrass. We study the logistics aspects of this transformation and determine the main characteristics of the ...

Banerjee, Anindya, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Alfalfa Market News Page 1 5/18/2011 N/A = prices not available at this time  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

%; Demand strong; Very dry with extreme fluctuations in temperature; Substantial yield variation. Colfax Boe wheat, asking for alfalfa; Hot and dry; Low yields; Heavy weevils early Valencia Kyle Tator, County

Castillo, Steven P.

314

Evaluating Our Instruction: Surveys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

you put in; and as the grandest mill in the world will not extract wheat flour from peascod, so pagesEvaluating Our Instruction: Surveys Mathematics may be compared to a mill of exquisite workmanship

Maryland at College Park, University of

315

Invocation Assembly Lines Patterns of Invocation and Message Processing in Object Remoting Middleware  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and their relationships in existing middleware frameworks. Evans' improved mill [22, Plate VIII] advanced the automation of pre-industrial further processing and refinement of wheat into flour. It is commonly regarded

Zdun, Uwe

316

Environmental Energy Technologies Division News  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

involves bringing to a boil a thin mixture of water and flour. The flour is a mix of sorghum, millet, wheat, and corn, supplied by the United Nations World Food Program. More...

317

403.pdf  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

,. , , . .", , r 1 .,. -~ ments, and personal-care products (netlink: www.burcon.ca/). New wheat flour may provide low-calorie bread Researchers at the United States Department of Agriculture (U

318

Effects of Monsoonal Fluctuations on Grains in China. Part II: Crop Water Requirements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper continues the description of the effects of monsoonal variability in regard to crop evapotranspiration (ET) and irrigation needs of rice, maize, and wheat for 16 Chinese stations between 1961 and 1975. For this analysis the previously ...

W. H. Terjung; L. O. Mearns; P. E. Todhunter; J. T. Hayes; H-Y. Ji

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Water use of tall and dwarf crop plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

height in a spring wheat. Crop Science 34(No. 6); \\ i i *O F T A L L AND D W A R F CROP PLANTS By J . Giles Wainesbetween water application, crop yields, and management

Waines, J. Giles; Ehdaie, Bahman

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Results and Interpretations from a Survey on Agriculturally Related Weather Information  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A survey Of top wheat farmers in 12 counties in western Nebraska was undertaken to help guide future research and extension programs (in agricultural meteorology and economics) in the region. One hundred forty-two farmers (59 percent of those ...

A. Weiss; J. G. Robb

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wheat triticum aestivum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Strictly Speaking, the Law of One Price Works in Commodity Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

teststo rejectthe law of one price when in fact it holds.G l . Keywords: law of one price, exchange rates,half livesequation 4 with wheat prices between the U.S. and Japan. All

Pippenger, John

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Sorbents for High Temperature Removal of Arsenic from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gokhan O. Alptekin, PhD Robert Copeland, PhD Gokhan O. Alptekin, PhD Robert Copeland, PhD (Primary Contact) TDA Research, Inc TDA Research, Inc 12345 W. 52 nd Avenue 12345 W. 52 nd Avenue Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 Email: copeland@tda.com Email: galptekin@tda.com Tel: (303) 940-2323 Tel: (303) 940-2349 Fax: (303) 422-7763 Fax: (303) 422-7763 Margarita Dubovik Yevgenia Gershanovich TDA Research, Inc TDA Research, Inc 12345 W. 52 nd Avenue 12345 W. 52 nd Avenue Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 Email: dubovik@tda.com Email: ygershan@tda.com Tel: (303) 940-2316 Tel: (303) 940-2346 Fax: (303) 422-7763 Fax: (303) 422-7763 Sorbents for High Temperature Removal of Arsenic from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas

323

Statistics in Ancient History  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper uses new data to extend the argument that there was an integrated wheat market in the late Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. I explore the meaning of randomness when data are scarce, and I investigate how ...

Temin, Peter

2013-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

324

Plant response to Na/sup +/, K/sup +/ and K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratios under saline conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research was undertaken to more clearly determine plant response to saline-sodic waters. In the first experiment, the response of wheat and sorghum to different K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratios at different osmotic potentials was investigated. The plants were grown in outdoor solution culture tanks containing polyethylene glycol and/or NaCl as osmoticum with 1/2 strength Hoagland as the base nutrient solution. The mass of the root system for both wheat and sorghum was determined primarily by the osmotic potential. However, root elongation was controlled primarily by the Na/sup +/ concentration. Sorghum root elongation rates decreased with increasing Na/sup +/ while those for wheat increased. Sodium was not translocated out of the sorghum root system until a critical Na/sup +/ root saturation level of .6 moles/kg was obtained. The second experiment was designed to investigate the water, nutrient and growth responses of the second crop of wheat in a wheat-sorghum-wheat rotation to zonal saline-sodic conditions.

Devitt, D.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Why sequence fungal pathogen Cochliobolus sativus?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fungal pathogen Cochliobolus sativus? fungal pathogen Cochliobolus sativus? Wheat and barley have been and will continue to be the cereal crops of major importance in the United States and around the world. In 2008, the U.S. produced over 130 million tons of wheat, third in the world behind China and India. Fungal diseases such as spot blotch are a consistent source of economic losses for the cereal crops. Spot blotch caused by C. sativus in barley and wheat is one of the most important diseases and remains a problem in many regions of the world. The fungus Cochliobolus sativus is the sexual stage of Bipolaris sorokiniana, which is the causal agent of a wide variety of cereal diseases. In its asexual stage, the pathogen can infect and cause disease on the root (where it is known as common root rot), leaf and stem, and head

326

No Slide Title  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 * www.tda.com Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 * www.tda.com A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-Combustion CO 2 Capture Contract No: DE-FE0000469 Principal Investigator Gökhan Alptekin, PhD DOE Project Manager Ms. Sara Zenner Project Kick-off Meeting NETL, Pittsburgh, PA November 12, 2009 TDA R e s e a r c h 2  Privately Owned / Began operations in 1987  ~13 million revenue in 2009  84 full-time technical staff  Primarily chemists and engineers, more than half with advanced degrees (26 PhDs) TDA Research, Inc. Wheat Ridge Facility Golden Facility 12345-12355 W 52 nd Avenue 22,000 ft 2 offices and labs Synthetic Chemistry, Catalyst/Sorbent Synthesis and Testing, Machine and Electronics Shops, SEM, TOF Mass Spec 4663 Table Mountain Drive 27,000 ft 2 offices and labs

327

Award Review Analysis of Food Allergen Structures and Development of Foods for Allergic Patients  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Food allergy is one of the important health problems, and countermeasures are socially required. We have been undertaking studies on wheat allergens and their epitopes, and have developed a method for producing hypoallergenic wheat flour by enzymatic modification. The hypoallergenic products are now provided to patients. More noteworthy, by taking hypoallergenic cupcakes over a long period, more than half of patients are hyposensitized and become able to eat normal wheat products. This suggests that the hypoallergenic wheat flour can act as anti-allergenic via allergen-specific immunotolerance. This series of studies was followed by expansive research on food allergy: analysis of epitopes of bovine serum albumin (the major beef allergen), isolation and identification of inhibitory peptides for allergen absorption at the intestine, evaluation of hesperetin as an inhibitor of degranulation of mast cells, and the development of PCR detection methods for verifying allergen labeling and for identifying hidden allergic ingredients in processed foods. Key words: food allergy; epitope; hypoallergenic wheat flour; allergen permeation; Caco-2 The worldwide prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis has increased during the last two decades, 1) and it is assumed that in Japan more than one-third of the population is now suffering from at least one of these diseases. Allergic diseases affect atopic individuals, who synthesize specific Immunoglobulins E (IgE) to environmental allergens. These allergens include grass and tree pollens, indoor allergens such as house dust mites and animal dander, and various foods. Hens egg, 2) cows milk, 3) wheat 4) and peanuts 5) are generally known allergens for food-allergic patients. Allergens are proteins characterized by their ability to induce a pathogenic IgE response in susceptible individuals, giving rise to asthma, atopic dermatitis, and rhinitis. Although the reasons that certain individuals suffer particular hypersensitivities are unclear, there is evidence that both genetic and environmental factors influence susceptibility. 6)

Soichi Tanabe

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Space Climate Manifestation in Earth Prices - from Medieval England Up to Modern Usa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study we continue to search for possible manifestations of space weather influence on prices of agricultural products and consumables. We note that the connection between solar activity and prices is based on the causal chain that includes several nonlinear transition elements. These non-linear elements are characterized by threshold sensitivity to external parameters and lead to very inhomogeneous local sensitivity of the price to space weather conditions. It is noted that "soft type" models are the most adequate for description of this class of connections. Two main observational effects suitable for testing causal connections of this type of sensitivity are considered: burst-like price reactions on changes in solar activity and price asymmetry for selected phases of the sunspot cycle. The connection, discovered earlier for wheat prices of Medieval England, is examined in this work on the basis of another 700-year data set of consumable prices in England. Using the same technique as in the previous part of our work (Pistilnik and Yom Din 2004) we show that statistical parameters of the interval distributions for price bursts of consumables basket and for sunspot minimum states are similar one to another, like it was reported earlier for wheat price bursts. Possible sources of these consistencies between three different multiyear samples are discussed. For search of possible manifestations of the "space weather - wheat market" connection in modern time, we analyze dynamics of wheat prices in the USA in the twentieth century. We show that the wheat prices revealed a maximum/minimum price asymmetry consistent with the phases of the sunspot cycle. We discuss possible explanations of this observed asymmetry, unexpected under conditions of globalization of the modern wheat market.

L. A. Pustilnik; G. Yom Din

2004-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

329

India and Tibet: Geographical Considerations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to keep the other power out of Tibet as of 1951-54 when China finally incorporated Tibet into the fold of the Great Han Motherland and made considerable changes in the eastern and northern parts or what was once Tibet. Besides no definition of Tibet... and minerals were the food crops: barley, wheat, buck wheat, maize, millet, oats, peas and even rice. Snow mountains, great lakes and mighty rivers indeed made Tibet a happy land. An ancient hymn describes Tibet as "The centre of snow mountains: the source...

Sinha, Nirmal Chandra

330

Brightening triticale's future  

SciTech Connect

Triticales, hybrids of wheat and rye, were first developed a century ago to take advantage of the natural disease resistances found in each parent. Yields of up to 30 percent more than wheat have been obtained on marginal lands. The hybrids have been grown mainly for animal feed with some used to make flour for human consumption. Growth under adverse conditions has been found in soils that are sandy, cold, infertile, dry, and mineral deficient as well as in soils of high acidity and alkalinity and of high boron and aluminum content. The NRC predicts that triticales will be grown increasingly on marginal land due to climate changes caused by the greenhouse effect.

Gustafson, J.P. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia (USA)); Francois, L.E. (Salinity Research Laboratory, Riverside, CA (USA)); Webster, J.A. (USDA-ARS Wheat and Other Crops Research, Stillwater, (OK))

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Draft Umatilla/Willow Subbasin Plan May 28, 2004 Section 3. Subbasin Assessment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.1.1.4 Climate and Weather The entire Umatilla/Willow subbasin falls within Oregon's North Central Climatic Zone, Washington, and Idaho. A large variety of animals are hunted in the area, including ducks, quail, ring. In the central portion of the subbasin, dryland wheat is the major crop, and cattle are the main commodity

332

Draft Umatilla/Willow Subbasin Plan May 28, 2004 Section 3. Subbasin Assessment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.1.1.4 Climate and Weather The entire Umatilla/Willow subbasin falls within Oregon's North Central Climatic Zone, Washington, and Idaho. A large variety of animals are hunted in the area, including ducks, quail, ring and other vegetables. In the central portion of the subbasin, dryland wheat is the major crop, and cattle

333

Rosson is Professor and Director, Center for North American Studies; Adcock is International Program Coordinator and Assistant Director, Center for North American Studies; and Manthei is Extension Assistant, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. competitive position for wheat, corn, and soybean meal and oil. Through February 2010, U.S. exports of corn&M University. Key Findings, Assumptions and Limitations of the Analysis In 2009, U.S. exports to Cuba were $528. exports could result, requiring $1.1 billion in business activity and 6,000 new jobs. While U.S

334

Sustainable bioethanol production combining biorefinery principles and intercropping  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of intercropping is that the intercrop components composition can be designed to produce a medium (for microbial. Nitrogen fertilization is responsible for more than 85 % of the greenhouse gas emissions from wheat grain unheated clover-grass juice can be co-converted into ethanol by natural enzymes and yeast increasing

335

CX-000292: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A Novel Biogas Desulphurization Sorbent Technology for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell - Based Combined Heat and Power SystemsCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 12/10/2009Location(s): Wheat Ridge, ColoradoOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

336

Repeated double cross validation Peter Filzmosera  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) determination of glucose concentrations from NIR data in mash samples from bioethanol production; (2) modeling investigated in this work. GLC: The first data set is from 120 mash samples from bioethanol production, but also to enzymatic pretreatment and type of feedstock (wheat or rye) in the fermentation process

Filzmoser, Peter

337

Soil fertility and soil loss constraints on crop residue removal for energy production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A summary of the methodologies used to estimate the soil fertility and soil loss constraints on crop residue removal for energy production is presented. Estimates of excess residue are developed for wheat in north-central Oklahoma and for corn and soybeans in central Iowa. These sample farming situations are analyzed in other research in the Analysis Division of the Solar Energy Research Institute.

Flaim, S.

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Weed Manager-A model-based decision support system for weed management in arable crops  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Weed Manager is a model-based decision support system to assist arable farmers and advisers in weed control decisions on two time scales: within a single season and over several years in a rotation. The single season decision is supported by a wheat ... Keywords: Decision support, Dynamic programming, Heuristics, Models, Optimisation, Stochastic, Weeds

D. J. Parsons; L. R. Benjamin; J. Clarke; D. Ginsburg; A. Mayes; A. E. Milne; D. J. Wilkinson

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Red clover-derived isoflavones and mammographic breast density: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial [ISRCTN42940165  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Murkies AL, Lombard C, Strauss BJ, Wilcox G, Burger HG, Morton MS: Dietary flour supplementation decreases post- menopausal hot flushes: effect of soy and wheat. Maturitas 1995, 21:189-195. 58. Brzezinski A, Adlercreutz H, Shaoul R, Rsler A, Shmueli A...

Atkinson, Charlotte; Warren, Ruth M L; Sala, Evis; Dowsett, Mitch; Dunning, Alison M; Healey, Catherine S; Runswick, Shirley; Day, Nicholas E; Bingham, Sheila

2004-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

340

A GIS-based tool for modelling large-scale crop-water relations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent research on crop-water relations has increasingly been directed towards the application of locally acquired knowledge to answering the questions raised on larger scales. However, the application of the local results to larger scales is often questionable. ... Keywords: Crop water productivity, EPIC, GEPIC, Maize, Rice, Wheat

Junguo Liu

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wheat triticum aestivum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Experiment Study on Adsorption Characteristics of SO2, NOx by Biomass Chars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Different kinds of biomass chars of the wheat straws, rice straw, cotton straw collected at Nanjing, China, were pyrolysed in a fixed bed reactor at different temperatures and heating rates. The specific area and pore structure, micromorphology of different ... Keywords: Biomass char, Pyrolysis, Adsorption efficiency, SO2, NOx

Fei Lu; Ping Lu

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Determining optimum agronomic practices to maximize productivity of canola-quality oriental mustard (Brassica juncea).  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Determining optimum agronomic practices to maximize productivity of canola-quality oriental mustard such as winter and spring canola and rapeseed have long been grown in this region, albeit on a relatively small. Wheat yields after canola, rapeseed and yellow mustard have been shown to be favorably high compared

Brown, Jack

343

Commercial Feeding Stuffs, September 1, 1921, to August 31, 1922.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction; Summary of the Texas Feed Law; How to Comply with the Texas Feed Law; Standards and Definitions Adopted; Rulings Under the Law; Tentative Guarantees for Feed; Average Composition of Feeding Stuffs on Basis of Inspection; Shipments Withdrawn from Sale; Co-operation with the U. S. Department of Agriculture; Wheat By-Products; Results of Analyses; Table of Inspection Results;

Youngblood, B. (Bonney)

1922-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Albedo of a Forest Modeled as a Plane with Dense Protrusions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model is developed that treats, in a simplified way, the reflection of the direct solar radiation by a surface consisting of a soil-plane and protruding vertical plant elements, such as needles of pine trees or stalks of a wheat field. Such a ...

J. Otterman

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Soil fixative study progress report aerial application test:  

SciTech Connect

A soil fixative has been developed (a simple wheat flour paste mixture) and tested in the laboratory that appears suitable for the temporary fixation of radioactive dusts in case of an accidental spill. A limited field test was made and the feasibility of aircraft delivery examined. A videotape was made of the operations. 3 figs.

Teter, A.C.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

September 2011 Menu 1 Barbeque chicken,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, 64 and 128 g. of whole-wheat flour, the depth of flour in each case being the same. Into each Figure in the Text) THE series of studies on populations of the flour beetle (Tribolium confusum Duval, and the two flour beetles, T. confusumDuval and T. ferrugineumFab. (= castaneumHbst.), have also occasionally

Liu, Taosheng

347

Department of Entomology Stored Product Pests  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, 64 and 128 g. of whole-wheat flour, the depth of flour in each case being the same. Into each Figure in the Text) THE series of studies on populations of the flour beetle (Tribolium confusum Duval, and the two flour beetles, T. confusumDuval and T. ferrugineumFab. (= castaneumHbst.), have also occasionally

Ginzel, Matthew

348

A field-specific web tool for the prediction of Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol content in Belgium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fusarium head blight is a worldwide problem in wheat growing areas. In addition to yield loss, Fusarium species can also synthesise mycotoxins and thus threaten animal and human health. Models for predicting Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol content ... Keywords: Deoxynivalenol, Forecasting, Fusarium head blight, Web tool

S. Landschoot; W. Waegeman; K. Audenaert; P. Van Damme; J. Vandepitte; B. De Baets; G. Haesaert

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Postgraduate Handbook The courses, programs and arrangements for delivery of programs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

materials, second generation of biofuels or cooking and algae oil, second and third generation of biodiesel-stage hydrotreating and FCC of WPO; FCC of the aqueous phase of pyrolysis oil (APPO); one-stage hydrotreating and FCC, corn or wheat grain or vegetable oils, presented a number of ethical problems related to the use

Benatallah, Boualem

350

Page 1 of 2 C. Burvill : Brief CV : December 2005  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2008 for helpful comments. 1 School of History, Classics and Archaeology, 50 George Square, Edinburgh in 1871 and wool or kauri gum exports offered limited development prospects.1 In the nineteenth century: Pastoral (wool, meat, cheese, butter), Agricultural (wheat, oats, barley, potatoes), Mining (gold, coal

Halgamuge, Saman

351

126 J. L. DUNNUM et aL parative cytogenetic studies of 2 karyomorphs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2008 for helpful comments. 1 School of History, Classics and Archaeology, 50 George Square, Edinburgh in 1871 and wool or kauri gum exports offered limited development prospects.1 In the nineteenth century: Pastoral (wool, meat, cheese, butter), Agricultural (wheat, oats, barley, potatoes), Mining (gold, coal

352

Gall aphids do not select optimal galling sites (Smynthurodes betae; Pemphigidae)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2008 for helpful comments. 1 School of History, Classics and Archaeology, 50 George Square, Edinburgh in 1871 and wool or kauri gum exports offered limited development prospects.1 In the nineteenth century: Pastoral (wool, meat, cheese, butter), Agricultural (wheat, oats, barley, potatoes), Mining (gold, coal

Inbar, Moshe

353

Predicting and mitigating the net greenhouse gas emissions of crop rotations in Western Europe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Predicting and mitigating the net greenhouse gas emissions of crop rotations in Western Europe gases (GHG) con- tributing to net greenhouse gas balance of agro-ecosystems. Evaluating the impact to the final greenhouse gas balance. One experimental site (involving a maize-wheat-barley-mustard rotation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

354

Salvo and Geiger Page 1 Fuel Mix and Air Quality during the 2009-2011 Natural Experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

renewable sources. This will include bioethanol from wheat and sugar beet, biodiesel from oil seed rape scarcer even though suitable habitat is available elsewhere. Conversely, mobile and general- ist species and novel crops such as monocultures of high- sugar grass species or biomass crops such as Miscanthus

Schweik, Charles M.

355

Presentazione della partecipazione della Sapienza al Programma Quadro di Ricerca  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

side effects of the artificial sweetener aspartame, which is 150 times sweeter than sugar and can. The plant is due to open in 2011, creating 70 jobs, and will convert wheat into bioethanol ­ a renewable `in conversation' events with guests such as the 2009 Man Booker Prize winner, Hilary Mantel

Di Pillo, Gianni

356

No. 124No. 124 POTSDAM INSTITUTE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of bioethanol from wheat or sugar beet suffers from many of the same limitations as biodiesel. Large an influence on travel behaviour. Conversely, other exogenous trends in society, etc, which affect the scale deliver a sustained 60 per cent energy conversion efficiency, whereas ICEs have a maximum efficiency of 40

Calov, Reinhard

357

To link to this article: DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2011.06.031 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2011.06.031  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

approach, we propose to study the chemical conversion of one of these acids, the aconitic acid and 75% of fusel oils, according to the origin of bioethanol (beet, wheat, etc.). Lauryl alcohol- ied in order to optimize the conversion of aconitic acid and to enrich the medium with one

Mailhes, Corinne

358

06 Natural Environment Research Council Annual Report and Accounts 2010-11 ast year's comprehensive spending review set the context  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

challenge in biomass conversion to bioethanol is achieving yields that make it cost for bioethanol production from lignocel- lulosic residues, and uses up to 30 tonnes per day of wheat, oat production, these sugars can be converted to bioethanol through fermentation processes [24]. The primary

Edinburgh, University of

359

Table of Contents The International Board..........................................................................................................1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, forestry or industrial wastes It includes a variety of a relatively cheap agricultural or forestry residues, dedicated crops and different kinds of waste, such as wheat straw, corn stover, wood chips, etc. Use of bio-cellulose, while the carbohydrate- rich micro-fibrils are surrounded by a lignin seal. Hemi- cellulose is connected

Maoz, Shahar

360

EVO LU T IO N, C OM P E T I T IO N A N D C O O P E R AT IO N I N BAC T E R IA L P O P U L AT IO N S  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, forestry or industrial wastes It includes a variety of a relatively cheap agricultural or forestry residues, dedicated crops and different kinds of waste, such as wheat straw, corn stover, wood chips, etc. Use of bio-cellulose, while the carbohydrate- rich micro-fibrils are surrounded by a lignin seal. Hemi- cellulose is connected

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wheat triticum aestivum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

publication 348-790 Kids Kitchen: Which cereal should I eat?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fiber 2 g 9% Sugar 14 g Protein 1 g Frosted Fruit O's Ingredients: Sugar, Corn Flour,Wheat Flour, Oat Flour, Partially HydrogenatedVegetable Oil (one or more of: Coconut, Cottonseed, and Soybean), Salt Ingredients: Milled Corn, Rice, Brown Sugar, Salt, Malt Flavoring, Baking Soda,Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C), Iron

Liskiewicz, Maciej

362

MSU Extension Publication Archive Archive copy of publication, do not use for current recommendations. Up-to-date  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

winter hardiness - rust resistance - mildew resistance - Hessian fly resistance - high milling quality Tecumseh was named for Tecumseh, Michigan, the site of one of the first frontier grist mills (1835 levels between those of the other soft, white wheat varieties and the soft, red varieties. Flour from

363

MMEC Forward Focus Pasta Montana's Global Food Safety Initiative Done To Perfection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the production facility from a nearby flour mill using an automated, demand-driven system. The plant Montana has created a special niche using superior durum semolina (the highest quality hard wheat flour efficient product handling uses state of the art automation. This includes having its durum flour piped over

Maxwell, Bruce D.

364

Patricia Rayas-Duarte Cristina Fransisco FAPC Cereal Chemist FAPC Research Assistant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

flour than the red winter wheat varieties, but also lack the bitter after- taste given by polyphenols) varieties from Washington and Montana, re- spectively, were used for comparison. All samples were milled in a Quadromat Sr. mill (C.W. Brabender, Hackensack, NJ). Protein Analysis

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

365

PURDUE UNIVERSITY COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE WEST LAFAYETTE, IN 47907 PURDUE PESTICIDE PROGRAMSPURDUE PESTICIDE PROGRAMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the significant role of pesticides in maintaining a high quality of life. We must acknowledge that the effective of modern pesticide chemistry is to produce pesticides that are effective in smaller quanti- ties, more to be economically viable, the pesticide must be used commercially for one or more major crops (corn, soybeans, wheat

366

Interpreting Pesticide Label Wording1 Frederick M. Fishel2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pest problems due space involved and hand weeding, fail to reveal the effects on soil tilth and cropNew Crops Jan 09 issue Ag at a Glance By Dave Wichman Peas, lentils and other broadleaf crops including oilseeds may provide viable alternative crop which central Montana wheat producers can include

Watson, Craig A.

367

Garden Omelette Plate 5.19 Egg white omelette with tomato, peppers,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

bread Calories 350, Fat (g) 13, Sodium (mg) 650 Grilled Chicken and Mushroom 5.99 Grilled chicken Grilled Cheese 2.49 Calories 330, Fat 12g, Sodium 600mg Swiss cheese on wheat bread Classic Chicken Ciabatta 5.95 Calories 321, Fat 5g, Sodium 450mg Grilled chicken, romaine lettuce & tomato on ciabatta

Oklahoma, University of

368

Article original Effet du son de bl et de la nature des lipides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or 15°/) and two sources of fat (5°/ of olive oil or 5% of beef tallow) in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. The effects of the level of wheat bran and fat source (olive oil or beef tallow) were evaluated on growth per

Recanati, Catherine

369

Rooted in Wonder: Joint Genome Institute Study Reveals Amazing World  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Rooted in Wonder: Joint Genome Institute Study Reveals Amazing Rooted in Wonder: Joint Genome Institute Study Reveals Amazing World Underfoot Rooted in Wonder: Joint Genome Institute Study Reveals Amazing World Underfoot August 13, 2012 - 2:33pm Addthis By developing a better understanding of the microbes that affect the growth of other plants (crops like corn or wheat) researchers may be able to improve their growth -- or provide better care for them in times of drought. By developing a better understanding of the microbes that affect the growth of other plants (crops like corn or wheat) researchers may be able to improve their growth -- or provide better care for them in times of drought. Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science What Is A Weed It's also known as a mouse-ear cress. The scientific name is Arababidopsis thaliana.

370

Reapers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reapers Reapers Nature Bulletin No. 759 June 6, 1964 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Seymour Simon, President Roberts Mann, Conservation Editor REAPERS The early settlers in Illinois and Indiana grew corn, but not much wheat other than patches of it to be ground into flour by local grist mills. There was a reason. In those days wheat had to be sown, cut and threshed in virtually the same way as it had been for 6000 years -- by hand -- and that meant countless hours of monotonous backbreaking toil. The earliest tool for cutting grain was a long knife of wood or bone with flakes of flint inserted to give it a saw like edge. Late Stone Age people used curved flint tools similar to the sickles made by ancient Egyptians of bronze and, later, of steel. The Romans developed a two-handed scythe that was gradually improved until, after the Middle Ages, a cradle was added.

371

JGI - Why Sequence Mycosphaerella?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mycosphaerella? Mycosphaerella? Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant pathogenic fungi, having more than 1,000 named species, many of which cause economically important diseases in temperate and tropical crops. A few species of Mycosphaerella cause disease in humans and other vertebrates, so the genus is of interest both for human and plant health. Two species will be sequenced: M. graminicola (asexual stage: Septoria tritici), the cause of Septoria tritici blotch, one of the most common and important diseases of wheat worldwide; and M. fijiensis, the cause of black sigatoka, the most economically significant disease in banana plants. Losses caused by M. graminicola cost United States wheat growers more than $275 million every year. The estimated annual cost of fungicides applied against Septoria

372

Major DOE Biofuels Project Locations  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Feedstock, and Technology Diversity Feedstock, and Technology Diversity Pacific Ethanol Biochemical Wheat Straw/Corn Stover (Boardman, OR) Iogen Biochemical Wheat Straw (Shelly, ID) Blue Fire Biochemical Municipal Solid Waste (Corona, CA) Poet Biochemical Corn Stover (Emmetsburg, IA) Lignol Biochemical Wood Residues (Commerce City, CO) ICM Biochemical Switchgrass, Corn Stover (St. Joseph, MO) Abengoa Biochemical/ Thermo Ag Waste, Switchgrass (Hugoton, KS) DOE Joint Bioenergy Institute (Berkeley, CA) DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (Madison, WI) DOE Bioenergy Science Center (Oak Ridge, TN) Stora Enso North America Thermochemical Wood Chips (Wisconsin Rapids, WI) Range Fuels Thermochemical Wood Chips (Soperton, GA) Alico Thermochemical/Bio Citrus Waste (LaBelle, FL) Six Commercial-Scale Biorefinergy

373

Faster plant growth in a safe, economical way  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Faster plant growth in a safe, economical way Faster plant growth in a safe, economical way Faster plant growth in a safe, economical way When applied to plants, Take-Off(tm) speeds crop emergence, increases growth rates and yields, improves stress tolerance and nutrient value, and reduces need for nitrogen fertilizers. April 3, 2012 Farmer in wheat field inspecting wheat Biagro Western offers Take-Off(tm), a metabolic plant stimulant that will allow farmers to increase crop carbon fixation and thereby increase nitrate uptake and nitrogen use efficiency. The new product speeds plants to maturity, allowing the plants to more efficiently assimilate nitrogen by coordinating the nitrogen uptake and photosynthesis processes. Field tests show that Take-Off(tm) reduced nitrogen inputs by 25 to 35 percent.

374

EA-1940: Proposed Federal Loan Guarantee for Montana Advanced Biofuels |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0: Proposed Federal Loan Guarantee for Montana Advanced 0: Proposed Federal Loan Guarantee for Montana Advanced Biofuels EA-1940: Proposed Federal Loan Guarantee for Montana Advanced Biofuels SUMMARY Montana Advanced Biofuels (MAB) submitted an application to DOE for a Federal loan guarantee to support construction of a multi-feedstock biorefinery that would produce approximately 115 million gallons per year of ethanol in Great Falls, Montana. The biorefinery would utilize renewable biomass in the form of barley and wheat to produce ethanol and other by-products, including wheat gluten, barley bran, and barley meal. NOTE: The EA is cancelled because the applicant withdrew from the program. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOADS No downloads found for this office.

375

More Economical Sulfur Removal for Fuel Processing Plants  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

enabled TDA to develop and commercialize its direct oxidation process-a simple, catalyst-based system for removing sulfur from natural gas and petroleum-that was convenient and economical enough for smaller fuel processing plants to use. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) of Wheat Ridge, CO, formed in 1987, is a privately-held R&D company that brings products to market either by forming internal business

376

Project Title  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wheat straw char 500 22.1 97.9 2.2 0.0 3.5 19.0 Pine char 500 22.5 87.7 2.6 0.0 3.1 278.5 Corn stover lignin char 500 38.5 87.2 2.3 1.7 3.3 11.7 White oak char 500 6.1 68.0 3.1 0.0...

377

ALINET: a model for assessing energy conservation opportunities in food processing  

SciTech Connect

ALINET, a network model of the US food processing and distribution sector, has been designed as a tool for analyzing energy use and for evaluating specific energy conserving technologies. The model is operational and has been used in the analysis of wheat processing. The results of a pilot study in which an alternative technology - microwave drying - is introduced in the pasta making process are described, and the impact on energy and on specific fuel use is analyzed.

Levis, A.H. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge); Ducot, E.R.; Webster, T.F.; Levis, I.S.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Dietary fortificant iron intake is negatively associated with quality of life in patients with mildly active inflammatory bowel disease  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

information using the McCance and Widdowson food composition tables [23], and this value was then subtracted from the total iron content declared by the manufacturer to esti- mate fortificant iron content; and (iii) for other foods containing white wheat flour... between IBD patients and healthy control subjects (6.9 1.6 vs 5.3 0.6; pwheat flour and iron derived from other Pancakes, sweet udding Fruit pie Digestive biscuits ingue pie Sponge pudding...

Powell, Jonathan J; Cook, William B; Hutchinson, Carol; Tolkien, Zoe; Chatfield, Mark; Pereira, Dora IA; Lomer, Miranda CE

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

379

Countercurrent Process for Lignin Separation from Biomass Matrix  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall goal of the project was to test the concept of using a twin-screw extruder to conduct autohydrolysis pretreatment of wheat straw in countercurrent fashion, demonstrate in situ solid/liquid separation, and produce a low-lignin cellulose product using ethanol as an extractant. The resultant solid product is suitable for sugar production through enzymatic hydrolysis and for pulp applications. Pilot-scale equipment was used to successfully demonstrate the process both for sugar and pulp applications.

Kiran Kadam; Ed Lehrburger

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

380

Protein Molecular Structures and Protein Fraction Profiles of New Co-Products of BioEthanol Production: A Novel Approach  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study were to determine the protein molecular structures of the new coproducts from bioethanol production, quantify protein structure amide I to II and {alpha}-helix to {beta}-sheet spectral peak intensity ratio, and illustrate multivariate molecular spectral analyses as a novel research tool for rapid characterization of protein molecular structures in bioethonal bioproducts. The study demonstrated that the grains had a significantly higher ratio of {alpha}-helix to {beta}-sheet in the protein structure than their coproducts produced from bioethanol processing (1.38 vs 1.03, P < 0.05). There were significant differences between wheat and corn (1.47 vs 1.29, P < 0.05) but no difference between wheat dried distiller grains with solubles (DDGS) and corn DDGS (1.04 vs 1.03, P > 0.05). The grains had a significantly higher ratio of protein amide I to II in the protein structure than their coproducts produced from bioethanol processing (4.58 vs 2.84, P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between wheat and corn (4.61 vs 4.56, P > 0.05), but there were significant differences between wheat DDGS and corn DDGS (3.08 vs 2.21, P < 0.05). This preliminary study indicated that bioethanol processing changes protein molecular structures, compared with original grains. Further study is needed with a large set of the new bioethanol coproducts to quantify protein molecular structures ({alpha}-helix to {beta}-sheet ratio; amide I to II ratio) of the bioethanol coproducts in relation to nutrient supply and availability in animals.

Yu, P.; Niu, Z; Damiran, D

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wheat triticum aestivum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Relating United States crop land use to natural resources and climate change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crop production depends not only on the yield but also on the area harvested. The yield response to climate change has been widely examined, but the sensitivity of crop land use to hypothetical climate change has not been examined directly. Crop land-use regression models for estimating crop area indices (CAIs)-the percent of land used for corn, soybean, wheat, and sorghum production-are presented. Inputs to the models include available water-holding capacity of the soil, percent of land available for rain-fed agricultural production, annual precipitation, and annual temperature. The total variance of CAI explained by the models ranged from 78% from wheat to 87% for sorghum, and the root-mean-square errors ranged from 1.74% for sorghum to 4.24% for corn. The introduction of additional climatic variables to the models did not significantly improve their performance. The crop land-use models were used to predict the CAI for every crop reporting district in the United States for the current climatic condition and for possible future climate change scenarios (various combinations of temperature and precipitation changes over a range of -3{degrees} to +6{degrees}C and -20% to +20% respectively). The magnitude of climatic warming suggested by GCMs (GISS and GFDL) is from 3.5{degrees} to 5.9{degrees}C for regions of the United States. For this magnitude of warming, the model suggests corn and soybean production areas may decline while wheat and sorghum production areas may expand. If the warming is accompanied by a decrease in annual precipitation from 1% to 10%, then the areas used for corn and soybean production could decrease by as much as 20% and 40%, respectively. The area for sorghum and wheat under these conditions would increase by as much as 80% and 70%, respectively; the exact amount depending strongly on the change in precipitation. 15 refs., 6 figs.

Flores-Mendoza, F.J.; Hubbard, K.G. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Risk perception & strategic decision making :general insights, a framework, and specific application to electricity generation using nuclear energy.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to promote increased understanding of decision making processes and hopefully to enable improved decision making regarding high-consequence, highly sophisticated technological systems. This report brings together insights regarding risk perception and decision making across domains ranging from nuclear power technology safety, cognitive psychology, economics, science education, public policy, and neural science (to name a few). It forms them into a unique, coherent, concise framework, and list of strategies to aid in decision making. It is suggested that all decision makers, whether ordinary citizens, academics, or political leaders, ought to cultivate their abilities to separate the wheat from the chaff in these types of decision making instances. The wheat includes proper data sources and helpful human decision making heuristics; these should be sought. The chaff includes ''unhelpful biases'' that hinder proper interpretation of available data and lead people unwittingly toward inappropriate decision making ''strategies''; obviously, these should be avoided. It is further proposed that successfully accomplishing the wheat vs. chaff separation is very difficult, yet tenable. This report hopes to expose and facilitate navigation away from decision-making traps which often ensnare the unwary. Furthermore, it is emphasized that one's personal decision making biases can be examined, and tools can be provided allowing better means to generate, evaluate, and select among decision options. Many examples in this report are tailored to the energy domain (esp. nuclear power for electricity generation). The decision making framework and approach presented here are applicable to any high-consequence, highly sophisticated technological system.

Brewer, Jeffrey D.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Experimental investigation into fast pyrolysis of biomass using an entrained-flow reactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pyrolysis experiments were performed using 30 and 90cm entrained-flow reactors, with steam as a carrier gas and two different feedstocks - wheat straw and powdered material drived from municipal solid waste (ECO-II TM). Reactor wall temperature was varied from 700/sup 0/ to 1400/sup 0/C. Gas composition data from the ECO-II tests were comparable to previously reported data but ethylene yield appeared to vary with reactor wall temperature and residence time. The important conclusion from the wheat straw tests is that olefin yields are about one half that obtained from ECO-II. Evidence was found that high olefin yields from ECO-II are due to the presence of plastics in the feedstock. Batch experiments were run on wheat straw using a Pyroprobe/sup TM/. The samples were heated at a high rate (20,000/sup 0/ C/sec) to 1000/sup 0/ and held at 1000/sup 0/C for a variable period of time from 0.05 to 4.95s. For times up to 0.15s volume fractions of ethylene, propylene, and methane increase while that of carbon dioxide decreases. Subsequently, only carbon monoxide and hydrogen are produced. The change may be related to poor thermal contact and suggests caution in using the Pyroprobe.

Bohn, M.; Benham, C.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

An economic analysis of land use alternatives on CRP land trees after the CRP contracts expire in east Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Landowners who have planted trees on CRP land must decide whether to retain the trees or divert land to others uses after the contracts expire. An economic tool is developed to assist landowners in making the most profitable choice between retaining trees to produce sawlogs or pulpwood and reverting land to crops, corn, cotton, sorghum and wheat. A generic theoretical framework is formulated to compare various land use alternatives. Several scenarios are formulated to incorporate the changing patterns of variables and to examine the sensitivity of the outcome to these changes. The influence of implementing the conservation compliance plan (CCP) is also examined. The time frame of the analysis is determined by the financially optimal. single rotation length of the tree stand. The real discounted revenues of the land use alternatives, based in 1993, are compared on a per-acre basis. The results indicate that retaining trees on post-CRP land is a better option than reverting land to corn, cotton without a CCP, sorghum, or wheat under all scenarios. However, when compared with reverting land to cotton with a CCP, retaining trees does not seem to be a profitable land use alternative under several of the scenarios. Given that a large proportion of the land going into CRP in east Texas is wheat acres, it seems likely that majority of the CRP land in trees is going to be retained in trees upon expiration of contracts.

Arekere, Marigowda Dhananjaya

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Ethanol production for automotive fuel usage. Final technical report, July 1979-August 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Production of ethanol from potatoes, sugar beets, and wheat using geothermal resources in the Raft River area of Idaho was evaluated. The south-central region of Idaho produces approximately 18 million bushels of wheat, 1.3 million tons of sugar beets, and 27 million cwt potatoes annually. A 20-million-gallon-per-year ethanol facility has been selected as the largest scale plant that can be supported with the current agricultural resources. The conceptual plant was designed to operate on each of these three feedstocks for a portion of the year, but could operate year-round on any of them. The processing facility uses conventional alcohol technology and uses geothermal energy for all process heating. There are three feedstock preparation sections, although the liquefaction and saccharification steps for potatoes and wheat involve common equipment. The fermentation, distillation, and by-product handling sections are common to all three feedstocks. Maximum geothermal fluid requirements are approximately 6000 gpm. It is anticipated that this flow will be supplied by nine production wells located on private and BLM lands in the Raft River KGRA. The geothermal fluid will be flashed from 280/sup 0/F in three stages to supply process steam at 250/sup 0/F, 225/sup 0/F, and 205/sup 0/F for various process needs. Steam condensate plus liquid remaining after the third flash will be returned to receiving strata through six injection wells.

Stenzel, R.A.; Yu, J.; Lindemuth, T.E.; Soo-Hoo, R.; May, S.C.; Yim, Y.J.; Houle, E.H.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Effects of composite flours on quality and nutritional profile of flour tortillas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Obesity, glucose intolerance or insulin resistance and elevated blood pressure are now prevalent in the U.S. Increased intake of dietary fiber, omega- 3 fatty acids, and antioxidants may help prevent or manage these diseases. Tortillas are now part of the American diet, and are excellent carriers of higher amounts of fiber and other nutraceutical ingredients. This study was conducted to determine the effects of incorporating nutraceutical ingredients (flaxseed, sorghum bran, oat flour, buckwheat flour) on whole white wheat tortilla quality. Tortillas were prepared using a hot-press, gas-fired oven and were evaluated for physical properties, texture and shelf-stability. Objective and subjective tests demonstrated that whole white wheat and multigrain tortilla doughs were harder, rougher and less extensible than refined flour tortilla dough. Multigrain flour tortillas were thinner, larger and more translucent than the refined flour treatment. Incorporation of whole multigrain flours affected color of the product, giving darker tortillas. Tortilla flexibility decreased over time. After 16 days of storage rollability scores of tortillas decreased drastically. The most pronounced decrease in tortilla flexibility was observed for 5% sorghum bran, 10% buckwheat, and for the treatment prepared with of 5% flax, 5% sorghum, 5% oat, 5% buckwheat. The flexibility loss was higher for whole white wheat and multigrain tortillas than for the refined one which was confirmed with objective and subjective tests. To extend shelf stability of whole multigrain tortillas various amounts of commercial hydrocolloid and ?-amylase were added to the formulation. Tortillas with 75 ppm, 100 ppm of ?-amylase, 1% and 1.5% of gum retained their flexibility during 16 days of storage. Consumer acceptability of the whole multigrain tortillas (5% flaxseed, 5% sorghum bran, 5% oat, 5% buckwheat) was compared with commercial multigrain tortillas and whole white wheat flour tortillas using an untrained sensory panel. The multigrain tortillas were liked by the panel as much as the other samples. Prepared multigrain tortillas had improved nutritional value. Each multigrain treatment contained at least 3 g of dietary fiber, 0.29 g of ?- linolenic fatty acid, lignans and antioxidants. It makes possible to claim them as a ?good source of dietary fiber? and ?an excellent source of ?-linolenic fatty acid?. The formulations tested, together with future refinements, provide more options to consumers seeking healthier alternatives to refined wheat flour tortillas.

Gritsenko, Maria

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

The feasibility and profitability of short season corn and sorghum cropping systems on the Texas High Plains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Studies of experimental cropping systems were conducted at the TAES-USDA Conservation and Production Research Field at Bushland, TX and at the North Plains Research Field near Etter, TX. The study at Bushland was fully irrigated using flood irrigation in level plots with raised borders. The study at Etter was conducted as limited irrigation using sprinkler irrigation equipped with a low energy precision application (LEPA) system. The four experimental cropping systems utilized a 98-day short season corn cultivar (SSC), a 100-day short season sorghum cultivar (SSS), and winter wheat grazed-grain (Wht Grz-Grn) and grain only. The cropping systems were evaluated in terms of attainable yields, irrigation water use, profitability, and feasibility. Conventional cropping systems of continuous full season corn (FSC), continuous full season sorghum (FSS), and continuous wheat grazed-grain and grain only were also included in the study. Compared to conventional cropping systems, the experimental cropping systems did not reduce irrigation, but profitability was increased. The rotation of SSC/Wht/SSS with wheat grazed or non-grazed, was consistently the most profitable rotation under full and limited irrigation. Profitability was obtained by increasing total revenue through improved yields of SSC in rotation with wheat and sorghum when compared to yields of SSC in continuous rotation, by obtaining higher market prices for early harvested SSC, and by realizing the opportunity to graze and obtain grain from wheat planted after SSC. Input costs were reduced by decreased fertilizer, insecticide, and irrigation applications and by reduced to no-tillage operations. Peak irrigation demands were spread more evenly throughout the year, and irrigation scheduling became less critical for optimum yields. Experimental rotations increased management and labor requirements. A greater diversity of machinery was also necessary. Timing of harvesting one crop and planting the next became critical in determining whether a rotation was profitable. The experimental rotation SSC/Wht Grz was not profitable and used the greatest amount of irrigation water. Conventional cropping systems of continuous FSS and continuous Wht Grz-Grn reduced irrigation compared to continuous FSC and all experimental rotations while maintaining profitability.

Vagts, Todd Anthony

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Methods to improve and measure texture of sorghum cookies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effect of wheat flour substitution with sorghum flour (SF) on the quality of cookies was evaluated. The three point bending test and sensory panels were used to evaluate changes in cookie texture and acceptability. The formulations used were a Mexican style, standard AACC recipe, and a chocolate chip type. The Mexican style cookie was optimum to evaluate changes in SF on cookie quality. Mexican style cookies made with 100% SF were very gritty, dry and fragile. The chocolate chip cookies had improved palatability, although they remained fragile. Intensive milling methods increased the amount of damaged starch, reduced particle size and moisture in the flour in hopes of improving cookie quality. Milling detoxicated sorghum with a Udy cyclone mill was the best alternative. Flours with higher damaged starch (1x and 2x Udy milled, 11 and 16% DS) produced better cookies than flour with low damaged starch (Sr. milled, 7% DS). Substitution with native corn or sorghum starch did not improve cookie texture. Substituting 5% of SF with pregelatinized waxy corn starch (PCS) or with 10% vital wheat gluten improved the Mexican style cookie quality, making them less gritty and more resistant to breakage during handling, having bending force values close to wheat flour control. Enzymes (?-amylase, xylanase, pentosanase, and protease) and two reducing agents (L-cysteine and sodium metabisulfite) at different concentrations did not have detectable effects on Mexican style cookies made with 100% SF. Environmental SEM analysis was helpful in detecting the continuous starch/lipid phase in the chocolate chip formulation that coated the sharp edges of SF particles in the cookie. The Mexican style cookie crumb improved when 5% PCS was added; more air tunnels developed within the crumb with thicker walls and a starchy continuous matrix that functioned like gluten did in the wheat flour cookie. Sensory evaluation confirmed the improvement in cookie texture for sorghum flours with higher damaged starch levels and when 5% PCS-95% SF ratios were used. Sorghum flour can be used in various cookie formulations to levels as high as 95% in combination with 5% PCS and up to 50% in combination with 50% wheat flour.

Leon-Chapa, Martha Cecilia

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

TASK 3.4--IMPACTS OF COFIRING BIOMASS WITH FOSSIL FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

With a major worldwide effort now ongoing to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, cofiring of renewable biomass fuels at conventional coal-fired utilities is seen as one of the lower-cost options to achieve such reductions. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has undertaken a fundamental study to address the viability of cofiring biomass with coal in a pulverized coal (pc)-fired boiler for power production. Wheat straw, alfalfa stems, and hybrid poplar were selected as candidate biomass materials for blending at a 20 wt% level with an Illinois bituminous coal and an Absaloka subbituminous coal. The biomass materials were found to be easily processed by shredding and pulverizing to a size suitable for cofiring with pc in a bench-scale downfired furnace. A literature investigation was undertaken on mineral uptake and storage by plants considered for biomass cofiring in order to understand the modes of occurrence of inorganic elements in plant matter. Sixteen essential elements, C, H, O, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, B, Mo, and Cl, are found throughout plants. The predominant inorganic elements are K and Ca, which are essential to the function of all plant cells and will, therefore, be evenly distributed throughout the nonreproductive, aerial portions of herbaceous biomass. Some inorganic constituents, e.g., N, P, Ca, and Cl, are organically associated and incorporated into the structure of the plant. Cell vacuoles are the repository for excess ions in the plant. Minerals deposited in these ubiquitous organelles are expected to be most easily leached from dry material. Other elements may not have specific functions within the plant, but are nevertheless absorbed and fill a need, such as silica. Other elements, such as Na, are nonessential, but are deposited throughout the plant. Their concentration will depend entirely on extrinsic factors regulating their availability in the soil solution, i.e., moisture and soil content. Similarly, Cl content is determined less by the needs of the plant than by the availability in the soil solution; in addition to occurring naturally, Cl is present in excess as the anion complement in K fertilizer applications. An analysis was performed on existing data for switchgrass samples from ten different farms in the south-central portion of Iowa, with the goal of determining correlations between switchgrass elemental composition and geographical and seasonal changes so as to identify factors that influence the elemental composition of biomass. The most important factors in determining levels of various chemical compounds were found to be seasonal and geographical differences related to soil conditions. Combustion testing was performed to obtain deposits typical of boiler fouling and slagging conditions as well as fly ash. Analysis methods using computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy and chemical fractionation were applied to determine the composition and association of inorganic materials in the biomass samples. Modified sample preparation techniques and mineral quantification procedures using cluster analysis were developed to characterize the inorganic material in these samples. Each of the biomass types exhibited different inorganic associations in the fuel as well as in the deposits and fly ash. Morphological analyses of the wheat straw show elongated 10-30-{micro}m amorphous silica particles or phytoliths in the wheat straw structure. Alkali such as potassium, calcium, and sodium is organically bound and dispersed in the organic structure of the biomass materials. Combustion test results showed that the blends fed quite evenly, with good burnout. Significant slag deposit formation was observed for the 100% wheat straw, compared to bituminous and subbituminous coals burned under similar conditions. Although growing rapidly, the fouling deposits of the biomass and coal-biomass blends were significantly weaker than those of the coals. Fouling was only slightly worse for the 100% wheat straw fuel compared to the coals. The wheat straw ash was found to show the greatest similar

Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Melanie D. Hetland; Mark A. Musich; Charlene R. Crocker; Jonas Dahl; Stacie Laducer

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

A case study of agricultural residue availability and cost for a cellulosic ethanol conversion facility in the Henan province of China  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary analysis of the availability and cost of corn stover and wheat straw for the area surrounding a demonstration biorefinery in the Henan Province of China was performed as a case study of potential cooperative analyses of bioenergy feedstocks between researchers and industry in the US and China. Though limited in scope, the purpose of this analysis is to provide insight into some of the issues and challenges of estimating feedstock availability in China and how this relates to analyses of feedstocks in the U.S. Completing this analysis also highlighted the importance of improving communication between U.S. researchers and Chinese collaborators. Understanding the units and terms used in the data provided by Tianguan proved to be a significant challenge. This was further complicated by language barriers between collaborators in the U.S. and China. The Tianguan demonstration biorefinery has a current capacity of 3k tons (1 million gallons) of cellulosic ethanol per year with plans to scale up to 10k tons (3.34 million gallons) per year. Using data provided by Tianguan staff in summer of 2011, the costs and availability of corn stover and wheat straw were estimated. Currently, there are sufficient volumes of wheat straw and corn stover that are considered 'waste' and would likely be available for bioenergy in the 20-km (12-mile) region surrounding the demonstration biorefinery at a low cost. However, as the industry grows, competition for feedstock will grow and prices are likely to rise as producers demand additional compensation to fully recover costs.

Webb, Erin [ORNL; Wu, Yun [ORNL

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

The Net Effect of Exchange Rates on Agricultural Inputs and Outputs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For more than thirty years, studies about the effect of the exchange rate on exports have been conducted. However, few have considered the combined effect of the exchange rate on imported inputs into the agricultural system and the exports of final agricultural products those inputs produce. This work contributes to the agricultural economics literature by combining those effects. A current concern is for the net effect as the total value and quantity of inputs imported has increased. This research examines the effect of the exchange rate on imported inputs into the corn, wheat, and beef cattle production systems, breaking it down to a producer's budget, examining how the exchange rate affects profitability. Vector Autoregression (VAR) and Bayesian Averaging of Classical Estimates (BACE) models were estimated to evaluate the effects. Daily and weekly price data were used for corn, wheat, feeder steers, ethanol, diesel, ammonia, urea, di-ammonium phosphate, and the exchange rate. A VAR model was estimated to model the relationship between the variables. After having incongruous test results in determining the lag length structure it was decided that a BACE model would be approximated. After estimating the BACE model, the price responses of the commodities to the exchange rates were estimated. The price responses were used in demonstrating the effect of the exchange rate on a producer's profitability. It was determined that, generally, a strengthening exchange rate has a negative impact on prices. It was also found that the exchange rate has a greater impact on prices now than it did 14 years ago, implying that the exchange rate now has a greater affect on profitability. A one percent increase in the value of the dollar led to a decline in profitability ranging from $0.02/bu in wheat to $0.56/cwt in feeder steers. However, agricultural producers should not be overly concerned about a lower valued dollar from the perspective of their agricultural business.

Johnson, Myriah D.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Long-term climate change impacts on agricultural productivity in eastern China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are expected to induce significant climate change over the next century and beyond, but the impacts on society remain highly uncertain. This work examines potential climate change impacts on the productivity of five major crops in northeastern China: canola, corn, potato, rice, and winter wheat. In addition to determining domain-wide trends, the objective is to identify vulnerable and emergent regions under future climate conditions, defined as having a greater than 10% decrease and increase in productivity, respectively. Data from the ICTP RegCM3 regional climate model for baseline (1961-1990) and future (2071-2100) periods under A2 scenario conditions are used as input in the EPIC agro-ecosystem simulation model in the domain [30N, 108E] to [42N, 123E]. Simulations are performed with and without the enhanced CO2 fertilization effect. Results indicate that aggregate potential productivity (i.e. if the crop is grown everywhere) increases 6.5% for rice, 8.3% for canola, 18.6% for corn, 22.9% for potato, and 24.9% for winter wheat, although with significant spatial variability for each crop. However, absent the enhanced CO2 fertilization effect, potential productivity declines in all cases ranging from 2.5-12%. Interannual yield variability remains constant or declines in all cases except rice. Climate variables are found to be more significant drivers of simulated yield changes than changes in soil properties, except in the case of potato production in the northwest where the effects of wind erosion are more significant. Overall, in the future period corn and winter wheat benefit significantly in the North China Plain, rice remains dominant in the southeast and emerges in the northeast, potato and corn yields become viable in the northwest, and potato yields suffer in the southwest with no other crop emerging as a clear beneficiary from among those simulated in this study.

Chavas, Daniel R.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Thomson, Allison M.; Gao, Xuejie

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

393

Applicant Organization:  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Iogen Biorefinery Partners, LLC Iogen Biorefinery Partners, LLC Corporate HQ: Arlington, VA Proposed Facility Location: Shelley, Idaho Description: This project from a leading enzyme player will demonstrate a scaled up biochemical process with the flexibility to process a wide range of agricultural residues into cellulose ethanol. CEO or Equivalent: Brian Foody Participants: Iogen Corporation, Goldman Sachs; Royal Dutch Shell Oil Company; Others Production: * 18 million gallons/year in the first plant, 250 million gallons/year in future plants * Cellulose ethanol & co-products in first plant; future plants to be primarily cellulose ethanol Technology & Feedstocks: * Agricultural residues: wheat straw, barley straw, corn stover, switchgrass and rice

394

The Historical Anecdotes of Kheng Nobilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dung. The descendants of Tagma Dung have to send butter (mar-phod) and flour (phi-phod) offerings today while conducting Peling Kuchey. Until recently, this nobility had an authority to reveal the relics to public. In absence of Dung, Khraipa Apa... hunting wild boars that ravaged their wheat fields. They persued the animals and came to what is now known as Buli. According to the oral source26, Buli Ponpo derived its wealth and power from Buli Manmo (goddess of lake). She lived near Zhemgang...

Dorji, Lham

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Impact on Grain Quality Parameters when Nitrogen Is `Sensor Applied' by the `Hydro Precise System'  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Yield and grain quality maps have been produced at full-scale field trials within a 10.5 ha field for four different nitrogen strategies. Grain samples have been collected directly from the grain flow of a combine harvester and analysed for quality in the laboratory and merged with the yield meter registrations. Within the field great variance was observed in yield and grain quality. This paper evaluates the impact on yield and grain quality -- protein when nitrogen is sensor applied by the Hydro-Precise N-Sensor system. The results are discussed in terms of a potential new precision nitrogen application strategy for Danish winter wheat

R.N. Jrgensen; R. N. Jrgensen

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Forestry and Farming System In the Mid-Hills of Nepal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as "Pakho" sometimes "Pokho-Bari" which is suitable only for maize. Farmers usually plant one crop of potatoes or barley buck wheat in the fields above 2300 m. because of the cooler climate. steeper slope. stonier soils. Here, as compared to lower elevation... , responsibilities and power of the user group committee will be specified in the operational plan as agreed between forest department staff. VDC and users' committee. Preferably one third of the members of the committee will be women. Seme Bottlenecks in the Process...

Upadhyay, Kiran Dutta

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

A Journal of Newar Studies - Number 5, NS 1125 / 2004-2005  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, strength, power meat raw meat meat-puree buck-wheat noodles ball l brick tea steamed meat-ball 8 f lou~ K a n s a k a r , T e j R I T h e Cha l l enges of M u l t i l i n g u i s m . . S English file form lamp suitcase rubber drlver... ~stered Karmacharyas i n high cstccm fnr their power and sorne o f Nepal's most significant cultural and religious knowledge o f esoteric goddess-hased rituals. l 'he i r tradit~ons. For centuries. Bhaktapur served as the pr:lctices and ritual tradition had...

Shakya, Daya R

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Impact dynamics of porous powder. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The shock adiabats have been built experimentally in the range of moderate pressures for three porous materials: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} wheat flour, and their mixture. The model, which describes the behavior of porous powder materials under large-amplitude dynamic loading, has been constructed. The model applicability to describing the shock wave processes is confirmed by good agreement of the calculated shock adiabats and the data obtained in the experiments. The compressive strength of compacted samples has been determined. The possible trend of further researches is presented in conclusion. 15 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

Titov, V.M.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

399

The Rajbanshis of Rajgadh: Community Adaptation in the Environment of Eastern Terai  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. A TALYTI AL FRAJ\\I .W RK The analyti al angle in this paper will be cultural-ecological . in which a particular ociety i icwed from th pe pectivc of its intera tion with it phy. ical well ocial environment. The con epr of cultural eco logy first p... /April and ends in November co~'erin!! ahout nine 1ll00;ths. Paddy, maize. wheat. millet. oilsccdx, and Icntif" arc the major crops grown. Jute and tobacco arc extensively grown as cash crops. Green vegetables arc _grmvn I.)artly for consumption and partly...

Bhattarai, Hari P

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Cattle Management Systems in Humid Subtropical Areas of Western Bhutan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

charges were five to six kgs of butter or 40 dre (a standard dre contains 1.68 kg rice) locally grown milled rice per season. Some herders were also reported to be paying cash (Nu.900) for a seasons access. During migration, cattle are allowed... while 39 percent of herders fed only Jourrnal of Bhutan Sstudies 110 the calves. Breeding bulls were given special care and periodically fed with raw eggs, butter and milk, in addition to supplementary feed. Feeds given were mostly wheat flour...

Tamang, N B; Perkins, J M

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wheat triticum aestivum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

A Socioeconomic Profile of the Poters in the Central Mid-Hills of Nepal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of their economiC limitation they have to survive with maize. 4. Maize serves a duel purpose: human food and livestock feed. Maize is mainly consumed In the fonn of grit. During the process of grit making (milllng3) the flour comes out as a by product which is fed... 8: Food co~n~s~umlFu~ln~.~f~th~e~"~e~"'la~(..!th~e~h=.~u~se~h~.~'d~,evef'lRamechhap SindbuU Rank- Rank- 2 3 1 2 Malze Rice Pulses (Horse gram and masyang) Millets (Flnger mille and buck wheat 7 8 7 22 ~eat 2 7 -Rank: I Most frequently used: 2...

Upadhyay, Kiran Dutta

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Utilization of sorghum brans and barley flour in bread  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

White, brown, and black sorghum brans, wheat bran, and a waxy barley flour were each substituted for 0-30% of wheat flour in a bread formula. Each of the brans were then combined with the barley flour and substituted for a total of 20-25% of the wheat flour in the bread formula. The brans and barley flour were analyzed for dietary fiber, phenols, tannins, anthocyanins, and ORAC values. Effects of substitutions on bread qualities were evaluated and optimum levels of use were determined. All the brans contained similar levels of dietary fiber (41-48%). The brown sorghum bran was highest in tannins, phenols, and ORAC value, and the black sorghum bran was highest in anthocyanins. The barley flour contained significantly less dietary fiber (13.9%) and higher levels of ?-glucans (4.4%) than the brans. More than 15% brown or black sorghum bran in the bread formula significantly reduced specific volumes. Interactions between tannins in the brown sorghum bran and gluten proteins, and puncturing of air cells by sharp glume fragments in the black sorghum bran were determined to adversely affect dough structure. The optimum usage level of 15% was chosen for the brans based on bread qualities and dietary fiber levels (~3g/serving). Brown and black sorghum brans added significant levels of antioxidants/phenolic compounds to the bread and gave a dark brown color. The optimum level of 20% barley flour in the bread added significant levels of soluble fiber (0.9g/serving), minimally affected color, and did not contribute excessive chewiness. Acceptability scores for 20% barley flour bread were not significantly different from those for wheat bran or non-waxy barley flour bread. Breads containing the optimum combinations of 10% barley flour/10% bran had specific volumes similar to those for 15% bran and 20% barley flour breads, and were good sources of total (~3g/serving) and soluble dietary fiber (0.7g/serving). Those with brown or black sorghum bran were significantly higher in phenolic compounds. The use of sorghum brans and barley flour in bread adds soluble and insoluble dietary fiber as well as antioxidants. Breads containing these beneficial ingredients could be promoted as nutraceuticals or functional foods.

Gordon, Leigh Ann

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Pilot plant studies of the bioconversion of cellulose and production of ethanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress is reported in several areas of research. The following cellulosic raw materials were selected for study: wheat, barley, and rice straws, rice hulls, sorghum, corn stover, cotton gin trash, newsprint, ground wood, and masonite steam-treated Douglas fir and redwood. Samples were collected, prepared, and analyzed for hexosans, pentosans, lignin, ash, and protein. Results of acid extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis are discussed. Yields of glucose, polyglucose, xylose, and arabinose are reported. Progress in process design and economic studies, as well as pilot plant process development and design studies, is summarized. (JGB)

Wilke, C.R.

1977-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

404

Newsfront 31 March - 6 April 2008, Issue 60  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the power to raise commodity prices worldwide. Wheat, corn, pork, oil, gas, gold, steel and onion prices have risen globally on the back of double digit growth in China, 9% growth in India and a healthy U.S economy. We are now in a new epoch where battle... by the effects of global energy inflation. Crude oil prices have tripled and gas at the pumps here is still at heavily subsidised rates. As a result the NOC and the government are bleeding money and have not been able to pay the suppliers, resulting in shortages...

Ghimire, Yubaraj

405

Rice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rice Rice Nature Bulletin No. 364-A January 10, 1970 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation RICE The Biblical saying, "All flesh is grass", is food for thought. Civilization depends on agriculture; and agriculture, fundamentally, depends upon the seeds of grasses that were originally wild: principally wheat, rice and corn; to a lesser extent upon barley, rye, oats and millet, These are the cereal grains that feed us. The seeds, stems and leaves of these and other grasses also sustain the animals upon which we depend for meat. Millet and, later, barley were apparently the first grains to be cultivated but civilization really arrived, probably 10, 000 years ago, when man learned how to grow wheat. He learned how to make bread, the staff of life. About the same time, in southeastern Asia, he learned how to cultivate rice and boil it for food. To lessen his labor, he invented the plow, the wheel and the cart. Here in the western hemisphere he domesticated maize, which we call corn. Until those times the land would not support relatively dense populations nor the central cities that advanced the progress of civilization.

406

Economic and energetic evaluation of alcohol fuel production from agriculture: Yolo County, California  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation reviews the technical aspects of alcohol fuel production and consumption, examines the set of policy-related issues that affect both the private and the public sectors, and investigates the economic and energetic feasibility of small-scale on-farm production on a representative Sacramento Valley field and vegetable crop farm. Candidate feedstocks, including both starch and sugar-rich crops, are: barley, corn, fodder beet, grain sorghum, Jerusalem artichoke, sugar beet, sweet sorghum, tomatoes, and wheat. The leading fuel crops were found to be sweet sorghum, Jerusalem artichoke, corn, fodder beet, and grain sorghum in order of declining preference. With better than average crop yields and the current mix of financial incentives, the breakeven cost of alcohol fuel is $1.03 per gallon when diesel fuel and gasoline prices are $1.30 and $1.46, respectively. Without subsidy, the breakeven cost is $1.62 per gallon. An energy analysis was calculated for each of the feedstocks under consideration. With the exception of sweet sorghum, wheat, and barley, all feedstocks showed a negative net energy balance. The use of agricultural residues as a boiler fuel, however, made a significant difference in the overall energy balance. The role of government in energy policy is reviewed and typical policy instruments are discussed. Although on-farm alcohol fuel production is not currently economically competitive with gasoline and diesel fuel, technological innovation and the return of increasing petroleum prices could alter the situation.

Meo, M.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

The effect of drying temperature on the composition of biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The compositional quality of different lignocellulosic feedstocks influences their performance and potential demand at a biorefinery. Many analytical protocols for determining the composition or performance characteristics of biomass involve a drying step, where the drying temperature can vary depending on the specific protocol. To get reliable data, it is important to determine the correct drying temperature to vaporize the water without negatively impacting the compositional quality of the biomass. A comparison of drying temperature between 45 degrees C and 100 degrees C was performed using wheat straw and corn stover. Near-infrared (NIR) spectra were taken of the dried samples and compared using principal component analysis (PCA). Carbohydrates were analyzed using quantitative saccharification to determine sugar degradation. Analysis of variance was used to determine if there was a significant difference between drying at different temperatures. PCA showed an obvious separation in samples dried at different temperatures due to sample water content. However, quantitative saccharification data shows, within a 95% confidence interval, that there is no significant difference in sugar content for drying temperatures up to 100 degrees C for wheat straw and corn stover.

Houghton, T.P.; Stevens, D.N.; Wright, C.T.; Radtke, C.W.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Analysis of the synthetic pyrethroids, permethrin and 1(R)-phenothrin, in grain using a monoclonal antibody-based test  

SciTech Connect

A monoclonal antibody generated to the synthetic pyrethroid-related hapten, (3-phenoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1, 3-dicarboxylate-protein conjugate, was used to develop assays for determinations of permethrin and 1(R)-phenothrin in wheat grain and flour milling fractions. The earlier 3-h assay was simplified using two approaches. The antibody was directly conjugated to the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP), which removes a separate incubation and washing step from the assay. Also, an assay has been developed using microwell-bound monoclonal antibody and a HRP-labeled 3-phenoxybenzoic acid derivative. These assay formats have advantages in increased sensitivity and, in the case of the latter assay, accuracy with grain and flour samples. The most sensitive assay format could detect 1.5 ng/mL permethrin; 50% inhibition of antibody binding occurred at 10 ng/mL. These values corresponded to 75 and 500 ppb, respectively, in the original wheat sample. Methanol was the most effective pyrethroid extractant. Use of a simple cleanup procedure for ground grain extracts improved ELISA accuracy but could by omitted for screening purposes.

Skerritt, J.H.; Hill, A.S. (CSIRO Division of Plant Industry, North Ryde (Australia)); McAdam, D.P. (CSIRO Division of Plant Industry, Canberra (Australia)); Stanker, L.H. (University of California, Livermore (United States))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Ethanol Production for Automotive Fuel Usage  

SciTech Connect

The conceptual design of the 20 million gallon per year anhydrous ethanol facility a t Raft River has been completed. The corresponding geothermal gathering, extraction and reinjection systems to supply the process heating requirement were also completed. The ethanol facility operating on sugar beets, potatoes and wheat will share common fermentation and product recovery equipment. The geothermal fluid requirement will be approximately 6,000 gpm. It is anticipated that this flow will be supplied by 9 supply wells spaced at no closer than 1/4 mile in order to prevent mutual interferences. The geothermal fluid will be flashed in three stages to supply process steam at 250 F, 225 F and 205 F for various process needs. Steam condensate plus liquid remaining after the third flash will all be reinjected through 9 reinjection wells. The capital cost estimated for this ethanol plant employing all three feedstocks is $64 million. If only a single feedstock were used (for the same 20 mm gal/yr plant) the capital costs are estimated at $51.6 million, $43.1 million and $40. 5 million for sugar beets, potatoes and wheat respectively. The estimated capital cost for the geothermal system is $18 million.

Lindemuth, T.E.; Stenzel, R.A.; Yim, Y.J.; Yu, J.

1980-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

410

Headspace gas chromatographic method for determination of methyl bromide in food ingredients  

SciTech Connect

A headspace gas chromatographic (GC) method, which can be automated, has been developed for determination of methyl bromide. This method has been applied to wheat, flour, cocoa, and peanuts. Samples to be analyzed are placed in headspace sample vials, water is added, and the vials are sealed with Teflon-lined septa. After an appropriate equilibration time at 32 degrees C, the samples are analyzed within 10 h. A sample of the headspace is withdrawn and analyzed on a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector (ECD). Methyl bromide levels were quantitated by comparison of peak area with a standard. The standard was generated by adding a known amount of methyl bromide to a portion of the matrix being analyzed and which was known to be methyl bromide free. The detection limit of the method was 0.4 ppb. The coefficient of variation (CV) was 6.5% for wheat, 8.3% for flour, 3.3% for cocoa, and 11.6% for peanuts.

DeVries, J.W.; Broge, J.M.; Schroeder, J.P.; Bowers, R.H.; Larson, P.A.; Burns, N.M.

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Availability of cadmium to rats from crops grown on cadmium-enriched soil  

SciTech Connect

The research was initiated to enhance understanding of the availability to animals of Cd present in edible plants. Such information is of considerable importance since agricultural crops can accumulate high concentrations of the metal when grown in certain soils or with sewage sludge as a fertilizer. Edible plants were labeled with /sup 109/Cd by growing them on /sup 109/CdCl/sup 2/ treated soil. The availability of /sup 109/Cd to male and female rats was then determined by feeding semisynthetic diets containing either freeze-dried radioactive spinach, lettuce, soybean, carrots, tomatoes, or wheat flour, or comparable nonradioactive plant powders spiked with /sup 109/CdCl/sup 2/. Retention of /sup 109/Cd by liver and kidney was determined after a 14-day feeding period. With the exception of spinach, Cd accumulation by rats was not found to be significantly influenced by the form of Cd in the diet whether supplied as plant-bound /sup 109/Cd or added to nonradioactive diets as /sup 109/CdCl/sup 2/. The mean retention of Cd in liver and kidney was 0.17% of the dose consumed for males and 0.26% for females consuming diets containing wheat, soybean, carrots, lettuce, or tomatoes.

Buhler, D.R.; Tinsley, I.J.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

The effects of thermal processing on properties of fundamental food polymers in commercial Asian and experimental sorghum noodles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Processing variables of 100% sorghum noodles were evaluated. A dough was made, extruded to create noodles then dried. Structural, physical, and cooking characteristics of the experimental sorghum noodles, as well as thin spaghetti, commercial Asian rice, broad bean, tapioca, sweet potato and egg noodles were evaluated. In comparison to the commercial noodles, the experimental sorghum noodles had high dry matter loss, but similar water uptake and moisture. The dry matter loss of sorghum noodles was greatly affected by the heating stage before extrusion, with a lower dry matter loss resulting from a longer heating time. The internal structure of the noodles was evaluated with the ESEM. Starch noodles had a thick starchy continuous phase that was smooth and amorphous. The protein based noodles were held together by a gluten matrix, small endosperm pieces with intact starch granules were visible and suspended within the matrix. Noodles made from any grain or starch other than wheat must rely on starch gelatinization for their structure. The sorghum noodles produced in this experiment indicated that sorghum could be used to produce a non-wheat noodle. A sorghum noodle could be a new food product for those who are gluten-intolerant or an alternative food product for the semi-arid tropic regions where sorghum is a native grain.

Leach, Michelle R

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Biological conversion of biomass to methane. Final report, June 1, 1976-January 31, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An experimental methane fermentation system was constructed for the purpose of evaluating the processng requirements and conversion efficiencies associated with production of methane from various organic feed stocks. The fermentation reactors had an operating volume 0.775 m/sup 3/. This permitted operation with an approximate continuous feed of milled organics including beef feedlot manure, corn stover, wheat straw and alfalfa hay. A thermochemical pretreatment was applied to the corn stover and wheat straw in order to increase the biodegradability of these substrates. Working with these large units provided sufficient volumes of fermented slurry for evaluation of the dewatering properties of these slurries. Kinetic data were obtained by operating four reactors at different retention times. These data were used to calculate a first order rate constant and the percent of substrate volatile solids that were biodegradable. These data were obtained on beef feed lot manure at 40/sup 0/C and 60/sup 0/C nominal fermentation temperatures. Data from the fermentation of corn stover showed that the biodegradability of the stover volatile solids was only 36 percent at the thermophilic fermentation temperature. The first order rate constant was found to be 0.25 day/sup -1/. Thermochemical pretreatment increased the biodegradability of stover volatile solids to 71 percent. The final substrate tested was a green crop that was field dried - alfalfa. Significant foaming problems were encountered with this material. The volatile solids were found to be 74 percent biodegradable at a fermentation temperature of 60/sup 0/C. (MHR)

Pfeffer, J T

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Feasibility study for anaerobic digestion of agricultural crop residues. Dynatech report No. 1935  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to provide cost estimates for the pretreatment/digestion of crop residues to fuel gas. A review of agricultural statistics indicated that the crop residues wheat straw, corn stover, and rice straw are available in sufficient quantity to provide meaningful supplies of gas. Engineering economic analyses were performed for digestion of wheat straw, corn stover, and rice straw for small farm-, cooperative-, and industrial scales. The small farm scale processed the residue from an average size US farm (400 acres), and the other sizes were two and three orders of magnitude greater. The results of the analyses indicate that the production of fuel gas from these residues is, at best, economically marginal, unless a credit can be obtained for digester effluent. The use of pretreatment can double the fuel gas output but will not be economically justifiable unless low chemical requirements or low cost chemicals can be utilized. Additional development is necessary in this area. Use of low cost hole-in-the-ground batch digestion results in improved economics for the small farm size digestion system, but not for the cooperative and industrial size systems. Recommendations arising from this study are continued development of autohydrolysis and chemical pretreatment of agricultural crop residues to improve fuel gas yields in an economically feasible manner; development of a low cost controlled landfill batch digestion process for small farm applications; and determination of crop residue digestion by-product values for fertilizer and refeed.

Ashare, E.; Buivid, M. G.; Wilson, E. H.

1979-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

415

Measurement and analysis of the surface energy budget for ARM field experiments. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to conduct experiments to investigate the scaling properties of surface-atmosphere interactions and feedbacks as they relate to regional fluxes of heat and water vapor. This is part of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program. To achieve this objective, two field campaigns were conducted in northeastern Oregon during June 1991 and June 1992. Analysis of the data collected during these campaigns revealed the following: (1) fluxes over a dry, semi-arid grass/brush area show only small spatial heterogeneity; (2) fluxes over an irrigated farm were dependent on crop type and stage of development. In particular, fluxes over row crops such as potatoes and corn were very similar to each other, but somewhat different than fluxes over wheat and alfalfa. In general, higher latent and lower sensible heat fluxes were experienced over wheat and alfalfa compared to corn and potatoes; (3) meteorological factors had a major influence on fluxes. In particular, significantly higher latent heat fluxes were experienced on days with moderate winds compared to days with light winds over the irrigated farm. This was presumably due to the advection of sensible heat from the surrounding dry rangeland.

Kunkel, K.E. [Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Utilization of Sorghum in El Salvador: Grain, Flour and End-Product Quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is limited information on the utilization of sorghum for human consumption in El Salvador. Increased wheat prices have driven the baking industry to seek alternative cereals for manufacturing of their products. The white color and bland taste characteristics of Salvadorian sorghum is ideal for use as a partial substitute of wheat (up to 50 percent) or alone in baked goods and a wide variety of foods. Further information on the grain quality, milling characteristics and impact on end-product was assessed to make better use of the available grain. Three different varieties of improved and local cultivars (RCV, Native and ZAM 912) were evaluated for their grain, flour and end-product quality. Grain hardness, color and composition of the grains varied from hard to intermediate to soft. Burr, hammer and roller milling were used for sorghum flour production. Impact of grain characteristics and milling quality was evaluated through the flours produced and their end-product quality. Grain hardness significantly affects flour and final product characteristics. Harder grain, RCV, produced flours more difficult to cook and with a grittier texture than those produced from Native cultivars (floury endosperm). Cupcakes produced from harder grain flours had lower volume and harder texture than cupcakes made from the Native varieties. ZAM 912 was an intermediate hard sorghum variety and produced the darkest flour and darkest cupcakes due to its pericarp hue. Appropriate use of this grains flour can be used in baked products with a darker hue (e.g. chocolate pastries). Harder grain flours can be utilized in coarse crumb products (e.g. cookies, horchata, and atole). Hammer mills produced the coarsest particles for all the varieties evaluated. Burr mills produced flour with similar cooking and end-product texture qualities as the roller mill. However, burr mills are not suitable for production of large quantities of whole sorghum flour. Nevertheless, they are more affordable for small entrepreneurs. Cultivars analyzed produce quality flour that can be used in an array of baked foods, i.e. ethnic beverages, porridges, cookies, flour mixes, tortillas, sweet breads. Whole sorghum flour substitution as low as 25 percent in wheat-based foods can represent significant cost savings for its users.

Pinilla, Luz Eliana

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

In vitro starch digestibility and estimated glycemic index of sorghum products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fractions from white and tannin sorghums were processed into extrudates, thick porridges, and breads. The effects of sorghum type and fraction on the in vitro starch availability of the products were evaluated, and the estimated glycemic indexes (EGI) of the products were obtained. Sorghum extrudates were significantly more slowly digested than corn meal extrudates for all preparation methods (whole, cracked and decorticated kernels). Furthermore, tannin extrudates were less digestible than white sorghum extrudates. The soft endosperm nature of the tannin sorghum limited friction formation inside the extruder, reducing starch gelatinization. On the other hand, condensed tannins also interfered with the starch availability for digestion. White sorghum was more 'suitable' for extrusion, giving extrudates with higher starch degradation and expansion than the tannin sorghums. However, tannin sorghums also gave acceptable products offering the benefit of lower EGI values. Sorghum porridges were more slowly digested than a corn flour porridge when using whole and decorticated flours. In addition, tannin sorghum porridges had a lower starch digestibility compared to all the samples. Tannin sorghum flours produced soft porridges with enhanced initial starch digestibility. However, condensed tannins seemed to offset the starch digestion by limiting starch availability. All sorghum porridges had significantly lower EGI values than the corn porridge. Extrudates and porridges had reduced starch digestibilities and EGI values when using whole grains compared to using the decorticated fractions. This was observed in both the white and the tannin sorghum. Therefore, whole-grain products from sorghum have health benefits attributed to whole grain foods and slower digesting starches; for instance, prevention and treatment of diseases such as diabetes, insulin resistance, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and some types of cancer. When 12% of tannin bran was added to a wheat bread formulation, a slower rate of starch digestion was observed compared to a wheat bread. The high concentration of non-starch components of the bran (i.e. dietary fiber, condensed tannins) affected starch digestion. The addition of tannin sorghum bran significantly reduced the EGI value of wheat bread, besides being a natural source of brown color, and an excellent source of antioxidants and dietary fiber.

De Castro Palomino Siller, Angelina

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

04JBMBE04-1104  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ARTICLE Copyright © 2010 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy Vol. 4, 1-6, 2010 Near Infrared Spectroscopy as a Screening Tool for Sugar Release and Chemical Composition of Wheat Straw J. Lindedam 1 2 ∗ , S. Bruun 1 , J. DeMartini 3 , H. Jørgensen 2 , C. Felby 2 , B. Yang 3 4 , C. E. Wyman 3 , and J. Magid 1 1 Plant and Soil Science Laboratory, Department of Agriculture and Ecology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C, Denmark 2 Wood and Biomass Science, Forest and Landscape, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C, Denmark 3 Center for Environmental Research and Technology, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California Riverside, 1084 Columbia Avenue, Riverside CA 92507, USA 4 Now at Center for Bioproducts

419

DOE Joint Genome Institute: A DOE Office of Science User Facility of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE Joint Genome Institute DOE Joint Genome Institute Latest News R. irregularis December 20, 2013 A gluttonous plant reveals how its cellular power plant devours foreign DNA. Amborella trichopoda, a sprawling shrub that grows on just a single island in the remote South Pacific, is the only plant in its family and genus. It is also one of the oldest flowering plants, having branched off from others about 200 million years ago. more... R. irregularis November 25, 2013 How Scavenging Fungi Became a Plant's Best Friend. Glomeromycota is an ancient lineage of fungi that has a symbiotic relationship with roots that goes back nearly 420 million years to the earliest plants. More than two thirds of the world's plants depend on this soil-dwelling symbiotic fungus to survive, including critical agricultural crops such as wheat,

420

EIS-0407: Final Environmental Impact Statement | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Final Environmental Impact Statement Final Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0407: Final Environmental Impact Statement Abengoa Biorefinery Project near Hugoton, Stevens County, Kansas DOE's Proposed Action is to provide federal funding to Abengoa Bioenergy Biomass of Kansas, LLC (Abengoa Bioenergy) to support the design, construction, and startup of a commercial-scale integrated biorefinery to be located near the city of Hugoton, Stevens County, Kansas. If DOE decides to provide federal funding, it would negotiate an agreement with Abengoa Bioenergy to provide up to $71 million, subject to annual appropriations, of the total anticipated cost of approximately $685 million (2009 dollars). The biorefinery would use lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover, wheat straw) as feedstock to produce ethanol and biopower (electricity)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wheat triticum aestivum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Data:C1297158-c8c3-43fc-9333-13b54c8217f1 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

8-c8c3-43fc-9333-13b54c8217f1 8-c8c3-43fc-9333-13b54c8217f1 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Wheat Belt Public Power Dist Effective date: 2013/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: IRRIGATION Multi Phase Sector: Commercial Description: Applicable to electric service used for water pumping loads for agricultural irrigation purposes. Demand Charge: April 1 - per month $8.5 September 16 - March 31- [No demand charge] Source or reference: http://www.wheatbelt.com/index.php?pg=rates Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh)

422

Feature - WATER Tool Released  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Assessment for Transportation Energy Resources (WATER) Tool Released Water Assessment for Transportation Energy Resources (WATER) Tool Released Argonne National Laboratory recently released an open access online tool called WATER (Water Assessment for Transportation Energy Resources), which quantifies water footprint of fuel production stages from feedstock production to conversion process for biofuel with county, state, and regional level spatial resolution. WATER provides analysis on water consumption and its impact on water quality. It contains biofuel pathways for corn grain ethanol, soybean biodiesel, and cellulosic ethanol produced from corn stover and wheat straw. Perennial grass (Switchgrass and Miscanthus) and forest wood residue-based biofuel pathways are currently under development. The WATER tool enables users to conduct pathway comparison, scenario development, and regional specific feedstock analysis in supporting of biofuel industry development and planning. It is available at http://water.es.anl.gov/.

423

Resourceful Kansas Puts Energy Efficient Technology on Display,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Resourceful Kansas Puts Energy Efficient Technology on Display, Resourceful Kansas Puts Energy Efficient Technology on Display, Demonstrates Cost-Saving Benefits Resourceful Kansas Puts Energy Efficient Technology on Display, Demonstrates Cost-Saving Benefits June 2, 2011 - 3:45pm Addthis One of Riley County Public Works' new wind turbines. | Courtesy of: Riley County Public Works One of Riley County Public Works' new wind turbines. | Courtesy of: Riley County Public Works Lindsey Geisler Lindsey Geisler Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs It turns out there's more to harvest in Kansas than just the wheat and soybeans. As one of the windiest states in the country, it's a great place to harness wind and solar power. And through the Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant program, the

424

Genome sequencing and analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Genome Genome sequencing and analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon The International Brachypodium Initiative* Three subfamilies of grasses, the Ehrhartoideae, Panicoideae and Pooideae, provide the bulk of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), which is, to our knowledge, the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes shows a precise history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grasses, and establishes a template for analysis of the large genomes of economically important pooid grasses such as wheat. The high-quality genome sequence, coupled with ease of cultivation and transformation, small size and rapid life cycle, will help Brachypodium reach its

425

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

41 - 5750 of 28,905 results. 41 - 5750 of 28,905 results. Download CX-000351: Categorical Exclusion Determination Texas Propane Fleet Pilot Program CX(s) Applied: A1, A9 Date: 12/10/2009 Location(s): Austin, Texas Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-000351-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-000292: Categorical Exclusion Determination A Novel Biogas Desulphurization Sorbent Technology for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell - Based Combined Heat and Power Systems CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 12/10/2009 Location(s): Wheat Ridge, Colorado Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-000292-categorical-exclusion-determination

426

Modifying Proteins to Combat Disease | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Higher Temperature at the Earth's Core Higher Temperature at the Earth's Core Clues about Rheumatoid Arthritis Damage Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Modifying Proteins to Combat Disease JANUARY 22, 2013 Bookmark and Share Structure of the human PRMT5:MEP50 hetero-octameric complex bound to a substrate peptide and a cofactor analog. Cartoon representations of the PRMT5 monomers are colored blue, green, wheat, and yellow, while the MEP50 molecules are in red. Highlighted in stick representation are the substrate peptide derived from histone H3 in magenta, and the cofactor analog in orange. Transmitting from one generation to the next the genetic message encoded in

427

EIS-0407: Record of Decision | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7: Record of Decision 7: Record of Decision EIS-0407: Record of Decision Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Abengoa Bioenergy Biomass of Kansas, LLC for the Abengoa Biorefinery Project Near Hugoton, Stevens County, Kansas (October 2011) The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announces its decision to issue a $134 million loan guarantee under Title XVII of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005) to Abengoa Bioenergy Biomass of Kansas, LLC (Abengoa) for construction and start-up of a cellulosic ethanol plant near Hugoton, Kansas (Project). The integrated biorefinery will use a combination of biomass feedstocks, such as corn stover and wheat straw, to produce cellulosic ethanol and to generate sufficient electricity to power the facility. The Project site comprises approximately 810 acres of

428

Mid-West Electric Consumers Association  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Mid-West Electric Consumers Association Mid-West Electric Consumers Association 4350 Wadsworth Blvd., Suite 330, Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 Tel: (303) 463-4979 Fax: (303) 463-8876 April 1, 2009 Transmission Infrastructure Program Western Area Power Administration P.O. Box 281213 Lakewood, CO 80228-8213 Comments on the Proposed Adoption of a Transmission Infrastructure Program The Mid-West Electric Consumers Association appreciates the opportunity to comment on the Western Area Power Administration's ("Western" or "WAPA") two Federal Register notices: Notice of Proposed Program and Request for Public Comments, and Notice of Availability of Request for Interest (FRN), published March 4, 2009 (pp. 9392-9393). The Mid-West Electric Consumers Association was founded in 1958 as the regional

429

The outlook for crops (and biofuels and policy and...)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Jarrett Whistance Jarrett Whistance EIA Biofuels Workshop 20 March 2013  Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute at the University of Missouri (FAPRI-MU)  Objective policy analysis  Focus on how policies affect decisions, then estimate market impacts  Recently released annual baseline  10-year projection of agricultural and biofuel markets  Stochastic process to account for different assumptions in oil price, weather patterns, etc.  Cellulosic model basics  Key assumptions in the biofuel model  Focus on cellulosic waiver options  Implications of cellulosic waiver options  A look at the 2013 Baseline results  Cellulosic biofuel production based on supply of five feedstocks:  Warm-season grasses; Wheat straw; Corn stover;

430

Energy Blog | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3, 2012 3, 2012 The Energy Department's main site, Energy.gov and its contents, are now available on the go. This allows users to access the Energy Departments' resources over a variety of mobile devices such as smart phones and tablets. Feedback Wanted: Help the Energy Department Go Mobile, Open Data! What is the Energy Department doing in mobile, APIs, and responsive design? August 13, 2012 By developing a better understanding of the microbes that affect the growth of other plants (crops like corn or wheat) researchers may be able to improve their growth -- or provide better care for them in times of drought. Rooted in Wonder: Joint Genome Institute Study Reveals Amazing World Underfoot Scientists study roots of common weeds, also known as the "lab rat" of the

431

Biomass/Biogas | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass/Biogas Biomass/Biogas < Biomass Jump to: navigation, search Agricultural residues are defined as the residues from production of the following crops. * Corn * Wheat * Soybeans * Cotton * Sorghum * Barley * Oats * Rice * Rye * Canola * Beans * Peas * Peanuts * Potatoes * Safflower * Sunflower * Sugarcane * Flaxseed Forest residues are defined as logging residues and other removals. These include material already utilized as well as material that is disposed as waste. Logging residues are the unused portions of trees cut by logging (tops and branches) and left to be burned or decay in the woods. Other removals include trees removed as a part of thinning projects, land clearings, and forest health uses that are not directly associated with round wood product harvests. Primary mill residues include wood materials

432

EIS-0407: Draft Environmental Impact Statement | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Draft Environmental Impact Statement Draft Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0407: Draft Environmental Impact Statement Abengoa Biorefinery Project Near Hugoton, Stevens County, Kansas DOE's Proposed Action is to provide federal funding to Abengoa Bioenergy Biomass of Kansas, LLC (Abengoa Bioenergy) to support the design, construction, and startup of a commercial-scale integrated biorefinery to be located near the city of Hugoton, Stevens County, Kansas. If DOE decides to provide federal funding, it would negotiate an agreement with Abengoa Bioenergy to provide approximately $85 million of the total anticipated cost of approximately $300 million (2008 dollars). The biorefinery would use lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover, wheat straw) as feedstock to produce ethanol and biopower (electricity) sufficient to meet the needs of

433

NETL: LabNotes - July 2008  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

July 2008 July 2008 NETL Researchers Focus on Combining Coal and Biomass in Co-Gasification Todd Gardner is one of the NETL researchers studying co-gasification of various types of coal and biomass. Todd Gardner is one of the NETL researchers studying co-gasification of various types of coal and biomass. He's holding pelletized corn stover. Two other types of biomass are in the containers: poplar dust and switchgrass. Researchers at the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory are looking at ways to combine the natural resources of coal and biomass - biomass including such growing things as wheat straw, corn stover, switchgrass, mixed hardwood and distillers' dried grains with corn fiber, and even algae - but avoid the emission of carbon dioxide.

434

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Diesel Auxiliary Power Unit Demonstration - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Dan Hennessy (Primary Contact), Jim Banna Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC 300 University Drive m/c 480-300-385 Auburn Hills, MI 48326 Phone: (248) 732-0656 Email: daniel.t.hennessy@delphi.com DOE Managers HQ: Dimitrios Papageorgopoulos Phone: (202) 586-5463 Email: Dimitrios.Papageorgopoulos@ee.doe.gov GO: David Peterson Phone: (720) 356-1747 Email: David.Peterson@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-EE0000478 Subcontractors: * Electricore, Inc., Valencia, CA * PACCAR, Inc., Bellevue, WA * TDA Research, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO Project Start Date: August 1, 2009 Project End Date: April 30, 2013 Objectives

435

Energy Secretary Bodman Kicks Off "Energizing America for Energy Security"  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

"Energizing America for Energy "Energizing America for Energy Security" Tour with Visit to Habitat for Humanity "Net-Zero Energy Home" Energy Secretary Bodman Kicks Off "Energizing America for Energy Security" Tour with Visit to Habitat for Humanity "Net-Zero Energy Home" June 13, 2005 - 4:51pm Addthis WHEAT RIDGE, COLORADO - Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today kicked off the "Energizing America for Energy Security" Tour with a visit to Habitat for Humanity's first "true net-zero energy home" to highlight the need to improve energy efficiency, a key component of President Bush's National Energy Policy (NEP). The NEP calls for using energy wisely by increasing energy conservation and efficiency. "Increasing energy efficiency is a critical element of the comprehensive

436

Feedstocks (Poster), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Feedstocks Feedstocks Customized milling and continuous handling of a wide variety of feedstocks Integrated Biorefi nery Research Facility | NREL * Golden, Colorado | December 2011 | NREL/PO-5100-53598 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Offi ce of Energy Effi ciency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Photo by Warren Gretz, NREL/PIX 10446 Photo by Warren Gretz, NREL/PIX 00459 Photo by Warren Gretz, NREL/PIX 05754 Feedstock handling capabilities * We have experience working with: - Perennials - switchgrass, sorghum, and others - Crop residue - corn stover, bagasse, wheat straw - Forestry biomass - hickory, poplar, oak * Our mill takes dry material from large super sacks and mills the feedstock to a variety of sizes

437

Resourceful Kansas Puts Energy Efficient Technology on Display,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Resourceful Kansas Puts Energy Efficient Technology on Display, Resourceful Kansas Puts Energy Efficient Technology on Display, Demonstrates Cost-Saving Benefits Resourceful Kansas Puts Energy Efficient Technology on Display, Demonstrates Cost-Saving Benefits June 2, 2011 - 3:45pm Addthis One of Riley County Public Works' new wind turbines. | Courtesy of: Riley County Public Works One of Riley County Public Works' new wind turbines. | Courtesy of: Riley County Public Works Lindsey Geisler Lindsey Geisler Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs It turns out there's more to harvest in Kansas than just the wheat and soybeans. As one of the windiest states in the country, it's a great place to harness wind and solar power. And through the Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant program, the

438

Slide 1  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

feedstock and technology diversity feedstock and technology diversity Legend Company Name Process Technology Feedstock Type (Site Location) * Acquired by NewPage Corporation Six Commercial-Scale Biorefinery Projects; DOE will invest up to $385 million P j t Four Small-Scale Biorefinery Projects; DOE will invest up to $114 million (first round) Three Bio-Energy Centers; DOE will invest up to $405 million Alico Thermochemical/Bio Citrus Waste (LaBelle, FL) Range Fuels Thermochemical Wood Chips (Soperton, GA) DOE BioEnergy Science Center (Oak Ridge, TN) Abengoa Biochemical/Thermo Ag Waste, switchgrass (Hugoton, KS) Blue Fire Biochemical Municipal Solid Waste (Corona, CA) Iogen Biochemical Wheat Straw (Shelley, ID) Poet Biochemical Corn Stover (Emmetsburg, IA) ICM Biochemical Switchgrass, Corn Stover (St. Joseph, MO) Lignol

439

The Future of Biofuels | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Future of Biofuels The Future of Biofuels The Future of Biofuels Addthis Description Secretary Chu discusses why feedstock grasses such as miscanthus could be the future of biofuels. Speakers Secretary Steven Chu Duration 1:46 Topic Biofuels Bioenergy Credit Energy Department Video SECRETARY STEVEN CHU: This is a photograph of a perennial grass called miscanthus. It was grown without irrigation, without fertilizer. And in the autumn, you just shave it off. You use that to convert it to ethanol. The amount of ethanol in this particular plot of land outside the University of Illinois produces 15 times more ethanol than a similar plot of land if you grew corn, and the energy inputs are far less. So we need to develop methods in order to use these grassy, woody substances and also agricultural waste - wheat straw, rice straw, corn

440

A Novel CO2 Separation System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Novel CO Novel CO 2 Separation System Robert J. Copeland (copeland@tda.com 303-940-2323) Gokhan Alptekin (galtpekin@tda.com 303 940-2349) Mike Cesario (czar@tda.com 303-940-2336) Yevgenia Gershanovich (ygershan@tda.com 303-940-2346) TDA Research, Inc. 12345 West 52 nd Avenue Wheat Ridge, Colorado 80033-1917 Project Summary NEED Concern over global climate change has led to a need to reduce CO 2 emissions from power plants. Unfortunately, current CO 2 capture processes reduce the efficiency with which fuel can be converted to electricity by 9-37%, and CO 2 capture costs can exceed $70 per tonne 1 of CO 2 (Herzog, Drake, and Adams 1997). OBJECTIVE To generate electricity with little reduction in conversion efficiency while emitting little or no CO 2 to the atmosphere, TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) is developing a Novel CO

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441

Secretary of Energy to Kick Off "Energizing America for Energy Security"  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

to Kick Off "Energizing America for Energy to Kick Off "Energizing America for Energy Security" Tour Secretary of Energy to Kick Off "Energizing America for Energy Security" Tour June 9, 2005 - 2:28pm Addthis Will Speak Directly to the American People on the Need to Pass the Energy Bill WASHINGTON, DC -- Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today announced the "Energizing America for Energy Security" Tour. Secretary Bodman and other Department of Energy officials, including Deputy Secretary Clay Sell, will travel the country this summer to speak directly to the American people about the need for Congress to pass comprehensive energy legislation before the August Congressional recess. Secretary Bodman will kick off the tour outside of Denver on Monday, June 13, 2005 in Wheat Ridge, Colo.

442

Data Assimilation R. L. Coulter, T. J. Martin, and D. R. Cook  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

R. L. Coulter, T. J. Martin, and D. R. Cook R. L. Coulter, T. J. Martin, and D. R. Cook Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL 60439 To investigate these problems, ARM science team members conducted two field studies near Boardman, Oregon, during June of 1991 and 1992. The site was chosen to provide strong contrasts in surface moisture while minimizing the differences in topography. The region, described in detail by Doran et al. (1992), consists of a substantial dry steppe (desert) upwind of an extensive area of heavily irrigated farm land, 15 km in width and divided into 800-m-diameter circular fields in a close packed array, in which wheat, alfalfa, corn, or potatoes were grown (Figure 1). A full rotation of the irrigation arm was completed approximately once every 28 or 35 h during the growing season. This region provides marked

443

ARM - Field Campaign - Complex Layered Cloud Experiment (CLEX)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsComplex Layered Cloud Experiment (CLEX) govCampaignsComplex Layered Cloud Experiment (CLEX) Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Complex Layered Cloud Experiment (CLEX) 1996.06.20 - 1996.07.02 Lead Scientist : Graeme Stephens Data Availability TABLE 1 Locations and Status of Extended Facilitiesa SMOS(c) Comments Site Elevation(b) Latitude, Surface Flux SIROS(c) (m) Longitude Type Station(c) (deg) Larned, KS 632 38.202 N Wheat ECOR Yes Yes Power and communication center EF-1 99.316 W 9/95 9/95 9/95 installation planned for July 1995 Hillsboro, 450 38.306 N Pasture EBBR 8/95 No Yes 8/95 Power and communication center

444

CX-008382: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

82: Categorical Exclusion Determination 82: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-008382: Categorical Exclusion Determination Bridgeport-Sidney 115 Kilovolt Line Rejected Pole Replacement CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 03/16/2012 Location(s): Nebraska Offices(s): Western Area Power Administration-Rocky Mountain Region Western Area Power Administration (Western) regularly inspects the structures that support our transmission lines and occasionally needs to replace structures that have failed these inspections. To avoid an outage caused by the failure of shell rotted poles, Western will conduct pole replacements on three structures in the Bridgeport-Sidney 115 kilovolt line. The structure numbers are 134, 24, and 14. The work will be done in mid- summer 2012 to avoid disrupting the landowner's wheat harvest.

445

Small Hydropower Systems: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse (EREC) Fact Sheet  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

you're considering building a small you're considering building a small hydropower system on water flowing through your property, you have a long tradition from which to draw your inspi- ration. Two thousand years ago, the Greeks learned to harness the power of running water to turn the massive wheels that rotated the shafts of their wheat flour grinders. And in the hydropower heyday of the 18th century, thousands of towns and cities worldwide were located around small hydropower sites. Today, small hydropower projects offer emissions-free power solutions for many remote communities throughout the world-such as those in Nepal, India, China, and Peru-as well as for highly industrialized countries, like the United States. This fact sheet will help you determine whether a small hydropower system will

446

NETL: Utilization Projects - Value Added Products from FGD Sulfite rich  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Value Added Products from FGD Sulfite rich Scrubber Material Value Added Products from FGD Sulfite rich Scrubber Material In pursuit of developing value added products from sulfite-rich scrubber material, e.g., low-density panels, carpet underlayment, siding, pre-cast building material, lumber panels, particle and wafer type boards, the following four experimental tasks are proposed: A comprehensive characterization of sulfite-rich scrubber materials produced by power plant generation. Specifically, the mercury, selenium, arsenic, boron, and organic content will be monitored The sulfite-rich scrubber material will be combined with cheap but renewable agricultural byproducts like micronized core fibers and/or micronized wheat straw, and the composites will be formulated by exploiting the natural polymers of the byproducts. The conditions under which structural composites can be formulated using injection molding and compressive molding will be evaluated.

447

Influence of heavy natural radioactive nuclides introduced in soil with labelled fertilizers and ameliorants on cytogenetic effects in plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of heavy natural radioactive nuclides (STYU, STSTh, SSWRa, S Po, and S Pb) in labeled fertilizers and ameliorants on the number of meiotic chromosome aberrations was studied in field experiments on the major crop plants, wheat, barley and corn. The mining and use of coal and oil and the processing of raw materials in the production of rare and nonferrous metals produce high quantities of wastes with an elevated content of natural radionuclides. One possible way for technogenically altering the natural radiation background of soil is the active utilization of phosphorus fertilizers in agriculture, and also the use, as fertilizers and ameliorants of wastes from nonferrous metallurgy, of the ash from heat and power plants and various intermediates from the chemical industry. The authors conclude that the introduction of labeled ammophos, nitrophos and phosphogypsum, which raised the soil background concentration of the specified elements, produced an increase in the number of cells with meiotic chromosome aberrations.

Arkhipov, N.P.; Bazylev, V.V.; Bobrikova, E.T.; Fevraleva, L.T.; Kal'chenko, VA.; Shevchenko, V.A.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Desiccant grain applied to the storage of solar drying potential  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sorption storage of solar heat using a layer of wheat as the desiccant was analyzed by means of a deep-bed model. Intended to be applied to solar-assisted in-storage drying of agricultural bulk materials, the probability of the persistence of unfavorable weather periods was quantified statistically for Potsdam for the month of August, as an example. Simulation results demonstrate that a relative humidity of the drying air of 65% can be maintained day and night for weeks without combustion of fossil fuels. Using a simple strategy of control, periods with insufficient solar radiation can be bridged over. The desiccant grain is not endangered by mold growth as a matter of principle. Simple solar air heaters can be used to avoid economic losses due to overdrying and to reduce the danger of decay to a minimum even at unfavorable climatic conditions.

Ziegler, T.; Richter, I.G.; Pecenka, R.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Energy in synthetic fertilizers and pesticides: Revisited. Final project report  

SciTech Connect

Agricultural chemicals that are derived from fossil-fuels are the major energy intensive inputs in agriculture. Growing scarcity of the world`s fossil resources stimulated research and development of energy-efficient technology for manufacturing these chemicals in the last decade. The purpose of this study is to revisit the energy requirements of major plant nutrients and pesticides. The data from manufacturers energy survey conducted by The Fertilizer Institute are used to estimate energy requirements of fertilizers. Energy estimates for pesticides are developed from consulting previously published literature. The impact of technical innovation in the fertilizer industry to US corn, cotton, soybean and wheat producers is estimated in terms of energy-saving.

Bhat, M.G.; English, B.C.; Turhollow, A.F.; Nyangito, H.O. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Moisture Metrics Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

the goal of this project was to determine the optimum moisture levels for biomass processing for pellets commercially, by correlating data taken from numerous points in the process, and across several different feedstock materials produced and harvested using a variety of different management practices. This was to be done by correlating energy consumption and material through put rates with the moisture content of incoming biomass ( corn & wheat stubble, native grasses, weeds, & grass straws), and the quality of the final pellet product.This project disseminated the data through a public website, and answering questions form universities across Missouri that are engaged in biomass conversion technologies. Student interns from a local university were employed to help collect data, which enabled them to learn firsthand about biomass processing.

Schuchmann, Mark

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

451

Variability of biomass chemical composition and rapid analysis using FT-NIR techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A quick method for analyzing the chemical composition of renewable energy biomass feedstock was developed by using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis. The study presents the broad-based model hypothesis that a single FT-NIR predictive model can be developed to analyze multiple types of biomass feedstock. The two most important biomass feedstocks corn stover and switchgrass were evaluated for the variability in their concentrations of the following components: glucan, xylan, galactan, arabinan, mannan, lignin, and ash. A hypothesis test was developed based upon these two species. Both cross-validation and independent validation results showed that the broad-based model developed is promising for future chemical prediction of both biomass species; in addition, the results also showed the method's prediction potential for wheat straw.

Liu, Lu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ye, Philip [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Reclamation of abandoned surface coal mined land using flue gas desulfurization products  

SciTech Connect

Details are given of a field-scale research project where the Fleming site, in Ohio, of highly degraded and acid-forming abandoned surface coal-mined land, was reclaimed using a dry flue gas desulfurization product from an atmospheric fluidized bed combustion burner at a General Motors plant Pontiac, MI, which burned eastern Ohio coal and used dolomitic limestone for desulfurization. Plots were seeded with a mixture of grasses, wheat and clover, in 1994 and soil and water samples were analysed in 1995 and in 2009. It was found that FGD-treated plots promoted good regenerative growth, similar to that in plots using more concentrated re-soil material. The FGD treatment also greatly improved overall water quality. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Chen, L.; Kost, D.; Dick, W.A. [Ohio State University, OH (United States)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Feasibility of high protein flour and ethanol production in northern Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The results of a study on the technical and economic feasibility of constructing and operating a medium-scale (3,000,000 gal/year) ethanol plant in northern Idaho are presented. The boilers will be fueled with a wood waste fuel (WOODEX) and sawdust. Distiller's dried grains will be processed and produce high-protein flour which will be sold as a health food product for human consumption. The feedstock will be locally grown wheat and barley. Carbon dioxide by-product will be collected and sold to a chemical plant. A third by-product, fusel oil, will be produced and sold for use as a solvent. Processes and equipment were evaluated and recommendations are included. 5 figs. (DMC)

Snipes, D.; Korus, R.

1981-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

454

Near-infrared reflectance analysis by Gauss-Jordan linear algebra  

SciTech Connect

Near-infrared reflectance analysis is an analytical technique that uses the near-infrared diffuse reflectance of a sample at several discrete wavelengths to predict the concentration of one or more of the chemical species in that sample. However, because near-infrared bands from solid samples are both abundant and broad, the reflectance at a given wavelength usually contains contributions from several sample components, requiring extensive calculations on overlapped bands. In the present study, these calculations have been performed using an approach similar to that employed in multi-component spectrophotometry, but with Gauss-Jordan linear algebra serving as the computational vehicle. Using this approach, correlations for percent protein in wheat flour and percent benzene in hydrocarbons have been obtained and are evaluated. The advantages of a linear-algebra approach over the common one employing stepwise regression are explored.

Honigs, D.E.; Freelin, J.M.; Hieftje, G.M.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Corrosivity of Foodstuffs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Approximate pH values of various foods...6.5??8.5 Dates 6.2??6.4 Eggs, fresh white 7.6??8.0 Flour, wheat 5.5??6.5 Gooseberries 2.8??3.0 Grapefruit 3.0??3.3 Grapes 3.5??4.5 Hominy (lye) 6.8??8.0 Jams, fruit 3.5??4.0 Jellies, fruit 2.8??3.4 Lemons 2.2??2.4 Limes 1.8??2.0 Maple syrup 6.5??7.0 Milk, cows 6.3??6.6 Olives 3.6??3.8 Oranges 3.0??4.0 Oysters 6.1??6.6...

456

Density-permittivity relationships for powdered and granular materials  

SciTech Connect

Relationships between the permittivities of powdered or granular solid materials and their bulk densities (density of the air-particle mixture) are discussed. Linear relationships between functions of the permittivity and bulk density are identified that are useful in determining permittivity of solids from measurements of the permittivity of pulverized samples. The usefulness of several dielectric mixture equations for calculating solid material permittivity from measured permittivity of pulverized samples is also discussed. Results of testing linear extrapolation techniques and dielectric mixture equations on pulverized coal, limestone, plastics, and granular wheat and flour are presented. Recommendations are provided for reliable estimation of solid material permittivities or changes in permittivities of powdered and granular materials as a result of changes in their bulk densities.

Nelson, S.O. [USDA ARS, Athens, GA (United States). Russell Research Center

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Studies on the tolerance limit of fluoride in food in China  

SciTech Connect

To estimate the appropriate tolerance limit of fluoride in food in China, fluoride-related endemic diseases, background levels of fluoride in foods, and daily total intake of fluoride per capita were studied in addition to the subchronic toxicity test of fluoride in rats. In the general population, the daily total intake of fluoride from food, water, and air is 1.45-3.15 mg per capita. On the basis of these results and other information, it is suggested that the ADI of fluoride in the Chinese population should be 3.5 mg per capita, or 0.058 mg/kg body wt, and the tolerance limit of fluoride should be 1.0 ppm in rice, wheat flour, vegetables, and freshwater fish.

Chen, S.L.; Gong, Y.J.; Fu, Y.G. (Zhejiang Academy of Medicine (China))

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, September 1-November 30, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Studies on the accumulation of glucose during the fermentation of cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum are discussed. Production of ethanol and its relationship to growth rate in C. thermocellum is reported. Different biomasses were tested for ethanol yields. These included exploded poplar, sugar cane, bagasse, corn cobs, sweet gum, rice straw, and wheat straw. Thermophilic bacteria were tested to determine relationship of temperature to yield of ethanol. A preliminary report on isolating plaque forming emits derived from C. thermocellum is presented as well as the utilization of carbohydrates in nutrition. A cellulose enzyme is being purified from C. thermocellum. The production of chemical feedstocks by fermentation is reported. Acrylic acid, acetone/butanol, and acetic acid, produced by C. propionicum, C. acetobutylicum, and C. thermoaceticum, are discussed. (DC)

Wang, D.I.; Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Gomez, R.F.; Sinskey, A.J.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Development of a Method for Measuring Carbon Balance in Chemical Sequestration of CO2  

SciTech Connect

Anthropogenic CO2 released from fossil fuel combustion is a primary greenhouse gas which contributes to global warming. It is estimated that stationary power generation contributes over one-third of total CO2 emissions. Reducing CO2 in the atmosphere can be accomplished either by decreasing the rate at which CO2 is emitted into the atmosphere or by increasing the rate at which it is removed from it. Extensive research has been conducted on determining a fast and inexpensive method to sequester carbon dioxide. These methods can be classified into two categories, CO2 fixation by natural sink process for CO2, or direct CO2 sequestration by artificial processes. In direct sequestration, CO2 produced from sources such as coal-fired power plants, would be captured from the exhausted gases. CO2 from a combustion exhaust gas is absorbed with an aqueous ammonia solution through scrubbing. The captured CO2 is then used to synthesize ammonium bicarbonate (ABC or NH4HCO3), an economical source of nitrogen fertilizer. In this work, we studied the carbon distribution after fertilizer is synthesized from CO2. The synthesized fertilizer in laboratory is used as a CO2 carrier to transport CO2 from the atmosphere to crops. After biological assimilation and metabolism in crops treated with ABC, a considerable amount of the carbon source is absorbed by the plants with increased biomass production. The majority of the unused carbon source percolates into the soil as carbonates, such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). These carbonates are environmentally benign. As insoluble salts, they are found in normal rocks and can be stored safely and permanently in soil. This investigation mainly focuses on the carbon distribution after the synthesized fertilizer is applied to soil. Quantitative examination of carbon distribution in an ecosystem is a challenging task since the carbon in the soil may come from various sources. Therefore synthesized 14C tagged NH4HCO3 (ABC) was used. Products of ammonium bicarbonate (ABC) or long-term effect ammonium bicarbonate (LEABC) were tagged with 14C when they were synthesized in the laboratory. An indoor greenhouse was built and wheat was chosen as the plant to study in this ecosystem. The investigated ecosystem consists of plant (wheat), soils with three different pH values (alkaline, neutral and acid), and three types of underground water (different Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations). After biological assimilation and metabolism in wheat receiving ABC or LEABC, it was found that a considerable amount (up to 10%) of the carbon source is absorbed by the wheat with increased biomass production. The majority of the unused carbon source (up to 76%) percolated into the soil as carbonates, such as environmentally benign calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Generally speaking, alkaline soil has a higher capability to capture and store carbon. For the same soil, there is no apparent difference in carbon capturing capability between ABC fertilizer and LEABC fertilizer. These findings answer the question how carbon is distributed after synthesized fertilizer is applied into the ecosystem. In addition, a separate post-experiment on fertilizer carbon forms that exist in the soil was made. It was found that the up to 88% of the trapped carbon exists in the form of insoluble salts (i.e., CaCO3) in alkaline soils. This indicates that alkaline soil has a greater potential for storing carbon after the use of the synthesized fertilizer from exhausted CO2.

Cheng, Zhongxian; Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, John T.

2006-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

460

FALLOUT PROGRAM QUARTERLY SUMMARY REPORT, SEPTEMBER 1, 1963 THROUGH DECEMBER 1, 1963  

SciTech Connect

Current data are presented from the HASL Fallout Program, the New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, and the Dominion X-Ray and Radium Laboratory in New Zealand. Radionuclide levels in fallout, milk, tap water, diet, and upper air samples are given in tabular form. Also included are interpretive reports and notes dealing with fission product concentrations in the upper atmosphere, cumulative Sr/sup 90/ deposition levels from analyses of soils collected in 1962, and measurements of Cs/sup 137/ in the 1962 wheat crop. The production of and decay schemes for Cd isotopes generated in a high altitude 1962 U. S. nuclear test are covered in a series of three reports. A listing of andnounced nuclear detonations and tables excenpted from published sources on the fission and total yields of nuclear tests precedes a report on inventories of selected radioisotopes from nuclear testing. A bibliography of recent literature pertinent to fallout studies is included. (auth)

Hardy, E.P. Jr.; Rivera, J.; Collins, W.R. Jr.

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wheat triticum aestivum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Genome sequencing and analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three subfamilies of grasses, the Ehrhartoideae, Panicoideae and Pooideae, provide the bulk of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), which is, to our knowledge, the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes shows a precise history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grasses, and establishes a template for analysis of the large genomes of economically important pooid grasses such as wheat. The high-quality genome sequence, coupled with ease of cultivation and transformation, small size and rapid life cycle, will help Brachypodium reach its potential as an important model system for developing new energy and food crops.

Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Kalluri, Udaya C [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

A comparison of a hierarchy of models for determining energy balance components over vegetation canopies  

SciTech Connect

Several methods for estimating surface energy balance components over a vegetated surface are compared. These include Penman-Monteith, Deardorff, and multilayer canopy (CANWHT) models for evaporation. Measurements taken during the 1991 DOE-sponsored Boardman Area Regional Flux Experiment over a well-irrigated, closed wheat canopy are used in the comparison. The relative performance of each model is then evaluated. It is found that the Penman-Monteith approach using a simple parameterization for stomatal conductance performs best for evaporation flux. The Deardorff model is found to have the best relative performance for sensible heat, while the CANWHT model gives the best results for net radiation and soil heat flux. The Priestley-Taylor model for evaporation and a resistance-analog equation for sensible heat flux are also tested. 35 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

Vogel, C.A.; Baldocchi, D.D.; Luhar, A.K.; Rao, K.S. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Airborne measurements of mass, momentum, and energy fluxes for the boardman-arm regional flux experiment-1991. Preliminary data release. Technical memo  

SciTech Connect

During 2 - 19 June 1991 the Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division of NOAA measured flux densities of mass, momentum, and energy from an airplane in support of DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. Over 507 horizontal flux transects were completed, along with 24 vertical atmospheric profiles, during the 93 flight hours. Flux transects passed over both irrigated farmland and steppe. The report describes the variation in wind, radiation, and surface temperature, along with exchange of mass (CO2, H2O, and O3), momentum, and energy as observed along the transects. Airborne measurements are compared with those from flux towers in wheat, corn, and steppe. In general, the measurements correspond well. The largest difference occurs at the steppe tower, with stronger heat fluxes reported by the tower. This discrepancy increases as heat flux increases. The cause may be a significant vertical flux divergence or an inconsistant specification of the mean state.

Crawford, T.L.; Dobosy, R.J.; Birdwell, K.R.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

JGI - News Releases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

News Releases News Releases December 20, 2013 A gluttonous plant reveals how its cellular power plant devours foreign DNA. Amborella trichopoda, a sprawling shrub that grows on just a single island in the remote South Pacific, is the only plant in its family and genus. It is also one of the oldest flowering plants, having branched off from others about 200 million years ago. November 25, 2013 How Scavenging Fungi Became a Plant's Best Friend. Glomeromycota is an ancient lineage of fungi that has a symbiotic relationship with roots that goes back nearly 420 million years to the earliest plants. More than two thirds of the world's plants depend on this soil-dwelling symbiotic fungus to survive, including critical agricultural crops such as wheat, cassava, and rice. November 22, 2013

465

Southern California Institute of Architecture and California Institute of Technology Solar Decathlon 2011 Menu and Recipes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SCI-Arc/Caltech Dinner Competition Menus and Recipes Dinner 1 Menu Custom Laser Cut 1/16" Basswood 11" x 3" Produce: Tomatoes Cabbage Onions Limes Cilantro Red and green peppers Black beans Meat: Talapia Wheat: Flour tortillas Tortilla chips Rice Dairy: Light sour cream Adobo sauce from chipotle peppers Comprehensive List of Ingredients Dinner 1 Condiments and Spices: Extra virgin olive oil Distilled white vinegar Lime juice Lime zest Honey Garlic Cumin Chilli powder Black pepper Salt Old Bay Seafood seasoning Oregano Dessert: Pre-made churro dough Drinks: Sparkling and still water Sierra Mist Coke Diet Coke Horchata Equipment: Bosch Cooktop Food processor Hand mixer RECIPE - CHIPS and GUACAMOLE Ingredients 3 Haas avocadoes, halved, seeded and peeled 1 lime, juiced 1/2 teaspoon salt

466

Microsoft Word - ThisWeek02.04.13.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4, 2013 4, 2013 Carbon Dioxide Capture Sorbent Successful in Field Tests In cooperation with NETL, product developers at TDA Research Inc. (Wheat Ridge, CO) have produced a novel sorbent that selectively removes CO 2 above the dew point of synthesis gas. The sorbent is a carbon matrix grafted with surface functional groups to remove CO 2 by physical adsorption. With no chemical bonds involved, the sorbent can be regenerated isothermally by pressure and/or concentration swings, requiring one third less energy than amine-based solvents and one sixth less than chemical sorbents. The TDA research team optimized the sorbent formulation and developed a manufacturing process based on high-throughput production equipment. The sorbent completed more than 11,650 adsorption-regeneration cycles at

467

Agriculture model development to improve performance of the Community Land  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Agriculture model development to improve performance of the Community Land Agriculture model development to improve performance of the Community Land Model April 3, 2013 The important relationships between climate change and agriculture are uncertain, particularly the feedbacks related to the carbon cycle. Nevertheless, vegetation models have not yet considered the full impacts of management practices and nitrogen feedbacks on the carbon cycle. We are working to meet this need. We have integrated three crop types (corn, soybean, and spring wheat) into the Community Land Model (CLM). In developing the agriculture version of CLM, we added plant processes related to management practices and nitrogen cycling. A manuscript documenting our changes to CLM has been accepted for publication in Geoscientific Model Development Discussions ("Modeling

468

Pre-Application to PROGRAM SOLICITATION (PS) DE-PS26-02NT15377  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Production Improvement from Increased Permeability Using Engineered Biochemical Production Improvement from Increased Permeability Using Engineered Biochemical Secondary Recovery Methodology in Marginal Wells of the East Texas Field Final Report Reporting Period Start Date: July 1, 2003 Reporting Period End Date: December 31, 2004 By Dr. R.L. Bassett, President TENECO Energy, LLC and William S. Botto, President MICRO-TES, Inc. Issue Date: April 29, 2005 USDOE Award No. DE-FG26-03NT15440 Submitted by: TENECO Energy, LLC, 3760 Vance St. Suite 200, Wheat Ridge, CO 80033-6275, and MICRO-TES, Inc., 12500 Network, Suite 201, San Antonio, TX 78249-3307 1 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United State Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their

469

Durra Building Systems | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Durra Building Systems Durra Building Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name Durra Building Systems Place Whitewright, Texas Zip 75491 Product Creates contruction panels from wheat straw using a patented production process. Coordinates 33.512685°, -96.393299° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.512685,"lon":-96.393299,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

470

A Model for Estimating Demand for Irrigation Water on the Texas High Plains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With rapidly changing conditions in production agriculture, the need for highly flexible and quickly applicable methods of analysis is emphasized. The purpose of this study was to develop such a model for a homogeneous production region in the Texas High Plains. A linear programming model was constructed whereby crop or input prices are readily adjustable. In addition, limitations on quantities of inputs available can easily be evaluated. The model contains cotton, grain sorghum, corn, wheat and soybeans. Inputs that can be evaluated include irrigation water, natural gas, diesel, nitrogen fertilizer and herbicides. The primary focus of this work was to estimate the demand for irrigation water in the study area. The model was applied using alternative crop prices and input prices. Assuming average crop prices, current input prices and only variable costs of production, as the price of water was increased wheat shifted from irrigated to dryland production, then grain sorghum, cotton, corn and soybeans, in that order. The price of water was $71.75 per acre foot plus current pumping cost when all land shifted to dryland production. The same analysis, except variable and fixed costs both included, gave similar results relative to the sequence of crops that shift to dryland production as the price of water was increased. However, the shifts occurred at much lower water prices; i.e., at $24.47 per acre foot plus current pumping costs, all land had shifted to dryland production. This suggests that over the long run, irrigation in the Texas High Plains is quite sensitive to the price of energy used in pumping water. Further, there are strong implications relative to farmer's "ability to pay" for water imported to the High Plains from other regions. In this report, several scenarios including low, high and average crop prices and average and high input prices were evaluated.

Condra, G. D.; Lacewell, R. D.; Sprott, J. M.; Adams, B. M.

1975-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Global crop yield losses from recent warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach, especially at the local scale (6-8). At the global scale, however, many of the processes and impacts captured by field scale models will tend to cancel out, and therefore simpler empirical/statistical models with fewer input requirements may be as accurate (8, 9). Empirical/statistical models also allow the effects of poorly modeled processes (e.g., pest dynamics) to be captured and uncertainties to be readily quantified (10). Here we develop new, empirical/statistical models of global yield responses to climate using datasets on broad-scale yields, crop locations, and climate variability. We focus on global average yields for the six most widely grown crops in the world: wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, and sorghum. Production of these crops accounts for over 40% of global cropland area (11). 55% of non-meat calories, and over 70% of animal feed (12).

Lobell, D; Field, C

2006-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

472

The Impact of Energy Shortage and Cost on Irrigation for the High Plains and Trans Pecos Regions of Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The High Plains and Trans Pecos regions of Texas are semi-arid crop production regions located in the western part of the state. Relatively low levels of rainfall are supplemented by irrigation from groundwater supplies. These regions produced 51 percent of the cotton, 42 percent of the grain sorghum, and 48 percent of the wheat produced in Texas in 1974 (Texas Crop and Livestock Reporting Service). Considering only irrigated production these percentages were 75, 85, and 91 percent of Texas irrigated crop production for cotton, grain sorghum and wheat respectively. The importance of the High Plains and Trans Pecos regions to Texas crop production are not limited to these three crops, however, these statistics do serve to illustrate the significance of these regions in the Texas agricultural economy. While it is easily seen that the majority of irrigated production (for the crops mentioned) in Texas occurs in these regions, it should be noted that the importance of irrigation in the High Plains and Trans Pecos regional economies is much greater than these statistics show. On the High Plains 86 percent of the cotton, 90 percent of the grain sorghum, and 75 percent of the wheat produced in 1974 was harvested from irrigated acreage. Rainfall is somewhat less in the Trans Pecos region and 100 percent of the production of these crops was under irrigation (Texas Crop and Livestock Reporting Service). More than 60 percent of the value of agricultural crops in Texas is produced on irrigated land (Knutson, et.al.). Thus, the crop production of these regions is vitally important to the Texas and respective regional economies. Crop yields are heavily dependent on groundwater irrigation and extremely sensitive to any factor which may affect the availability or cost of irrigation water. Availability and price of fuel used in pumping groundwater are the critical factors which directly affect the availability and cost of irrigation water. About 39 percent of the energy used in Texas agriculture in 1973 was utilized in pumping water, compared to 18 percent used in machinery operations. Of this irrigation fuel, 76 percent was natural gas, the majority of which was consumed in the High Plains (Coble and LePori). Current supplies and reserves of natural gas have reached critically low levels in recent years and producers in the High Plains and Trans Pecos regions are faced with possible curtailments of, and certain price increases for their irrigation fuel (Patton and Lacewell). The threat of possible curtailment of fuel supplies during the irrigation season imposes greatly increased risk to irrigated crop production since curtailment of natural gas supplies during a critical water use period would significantly reduce yields (Lacewell). This threat would also increase financial risk and restrict availability of credit. Continued price increases for natural gas will increase costs of pumping irrigation water and hence the costs of irrigated crop production (Patton and Lacewell). The Ogalalla aquifer underlying the High Plains and many of the alluvium aquifers underlying the Trans Pecos are exhaustible; i.e., there is a negligible recharge from percolation and other sources. Therefore, even with unchanged natural gas prices, these groundwater supplies are being "economically" exhausted over time as pumping depth increases. Increases in fuel prices will lead to reduced groundwater pumpage and result in less groundwater being economically recoverable. Although life of the physical supply will be exhausted, a greater quantity of groundwater will be economically unrecoverable for irrigation without significant product price increases.

Lacewell, R. D.; Condra, G. D.; Hardin, D. C.; Zavaleta, L.; Petty, J. A.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Development of specialty breads as nutraceutical products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bread is widely consumed and is an ideal vehicle for nutraceutical delivery. Sorghum bran, flax, and inulin are nutraceutical ingredients that may be incorporated into bread to provide health benefits. Because celiacs can not consume bread containing wheat flour, a need exists for gluten-free bread containing nutraceutical ingredients. In preliminary research, bread containing 12% brown sorghum bran and 5% flaxseed was developed. In an effort to reduce rapid staling, soy flour was substituted for 0, 2, 4, and 6% of the wheat flour. Bread was evaluated based on specific volume, crumb firmness, color, moisture, nutrition content, and sensory evaluation. Sorghum bran was high in dietary fiber (45%) and antioxidants (oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ORAC). Flaxseed also contained dietary fiber (28%) and omega-3 fatty acids. Soy flour was high in protein. High levels of soy flour increased crumb firmness and decreased specific volume. The bread containing 2% soy flour was preferred, however, by panelists in sensory evaluation. Per 56 g serving, this bread provided ~3 g dietary fiber, ~396 mg omega-3 fatty acids, and ~3417 mol TE antioxidant activity. The use of low levels of soy flour in bread containing sorghum bran and flaxseed may help improve palatability and increase consumption of dietary fiber, antioxidants, and omega-3 fatty acids in bread. A gluten-free bread containing sorghum bran, flax, and inulin was also developed for consumers with celiac disease. Breads were evaluated based on the same parameters as described above. Inulin was high in soluble fiber (90%). The optimum formula was 10% inulin, 5% sorghum bran, and 5% flax. This formula had improved specific volume, reduced crumb firmness, and an attractive dark colored crumb. One 56 g serving of the bread provided ~2 g dietary fiber, ~1882 mol TE antioxidant value, and ~287 mg omega-3 fatty acids. When compared to commercially available gluten-free bread mixes, the optimum formula was significantly improved with regards to crumb firmness and provided acceptable specific volume. Because of the improved bread qualities and high levels of health-promoting nutraceutical ingredients, the optimum formula could likely compete in the gluten-free bread market.

Hines, Lindsey Renee

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

The cost of agriculturally based greenhouse gas offsets in the Texas High Plains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The broad objective of this thesis involves investigation of the role agriculture might play in a society wide greenhouse gas emissions reduction effort. Specifically, the breakeven price for carbon emission offsets is calculated for agriculturally based emission reducing practices. The practices investigated in the Texas High Plains involve reduced tillage use, reduced fallow use, reduced crop fertilization, cropland conversion to grassland, feedlot enteric fermentation management and digester based dairy manure handling. Costs of emission reductions were calculated at the producer level. The calculated offset prices are classified into four cost categories. They are: negative cost, low cost (less than $20 per ton of carbon saved), moderate cost ($20 through $100 per ton of carbon saved), and high cost (over $100 for tons of carbon saved). Negative cost implies that farmers could make money and reduce emissions by moving to alternative practices even without any carbon payments. Alternatives in the positive cost categories need compensation to induce farmers to switch to practices that sequester more carbon. All fallow dryland crop practices, dryland and irrigated cotton zero tillage, dryland and irrigated wheat zero tillage, irrigated corn zero tillage, cotton irrigated nitrogen use reduction under minimum tillage and dryland pasture for all systems, and anaerobic lagoon complete mix and plug flow systems fall in the negative cost category. Dryland and irrigated wheat under minimum tillage are found to be in the low cost category. Cotton dryland under minimum tillage and cotton irrigated with nitrogen use reduction under zero tillage fell into the moderate cost class. Both corn and cotton irrigated minimum tillage are found to be in the high cost category. This study only considers the producer foregone net income less fixed costs as the only cost incurred in switching to an alternative sequestering practice. More costs such as learning and risk should probably be included. This limitation along with other constraints such as use of short run budget data, lack of availability and reliability of local budgets, overlooking any market effects, and lack of treatment of costs incurred in selling carbon offsets to buyers are limitations and portend future work.

Chandrasena, Rajapakshage Inoka Ilmi

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Technology adoption: who is likely to adopt and how does the timing affect the benefits?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many fields of economics point to technology as the primary vehicle for change. Agencies pushing change often promote technology adoption to achieve their goals. To improve our understanding of how efforts to push new technologies should be focused, two studies are undertaken. The first study defines and tests for universality using meta-regression analysis on 170 analyses of agricultural production technologies. The second study, a case study on an emerging information technology - climate forecasts, examines how the timing of adoption affects the benefits. A factor exhibiting a systematic positive or negative effect on technology adoption is a universal factor. If the impact is the same regardless of location or technology type, the factor is strongly universal. The factor is weakly universal if the impact varies by location or technology type. Education and farm size are found to be weakly positive universal, age is found to be weakly negative universal, and outreach is not found to be a universal factor in the adoption of technology. These results indicate that technology-promoters may want to change their approach and focus on younger, more educated producers with larger farms. In the second study, an international wheat trade model incorporating climate variability is used to simulate different scenarios when wheat producers in the U.S., Canada, and Australia adopt ENSO-based forecasts for use in production decisions. Adoption timing and levels are varied across countries in the different scenarios. The results are highly consistent. Early adopters benefit the most, there is no incentive for more producers to adopt after 60% to 95% have adopted (meaning the adoption ceiling has been reached), and slower adoption corresponds to ceilings closer to 60% than 95%. Examining technology adoption from two angles provides a deeper understanding of the adoption process and aids technology-promoters in achieving their goals. In addition to focusing on younger, more educated producers with larger farms, technology-promoters wanting wide-spread adoption with high benefits need to push constituents to adopt early and fast.

Rubas, Debra Joyce

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Sorghum phenols as antioxidants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sorghum varieties grown in Texas in 1998 and 1999 were analyzed for tannins, phenols and anthocyanins. Representative varieties of black, brown, red and white sorghums were decorticated to sequentially remove bran fractions, which were also analyzed for tannins, phenols and anthocyanins. Selected fractions were analyzed for oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), proximate composition and dietary fiber. Wide variations in phenol levels were observed with values ranging from 0.07-2.45 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 mg. Only brown sorghums had significant levels of tannins which ranged between 1.5 and 5.6 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100 mg. Anthocyanin levels ranged between 24-40 abs/g/ml among the black sorghums, and between 1.5-7.2 abs/g/ml among the red and brown sorghums. Maximum tannin levels in brown sorghum brans ranged between 7.4-17.5 mg CE/100 mg. The brown sorghum brans generally had higher levels of phenols than the other sorghums, with maximum values ranging between 3.0-7.2 mg GAE/100 mg. The black and red sorghum brans attained maximum phenol values of between 1.7-3.2 mg GAE/100. White sorghum bran had maximum phenol content of 0.6 mg GAE/100 mg. Anthocyanin levels were highest among the black sorghum brans, with maximum values of 318-417 abs/g/ml. The red and brown sorghum brans had maximum anthocyanin values ranging between 6.7 and 40.5 abs/g/ml. ORAC values of the brown and black sorghum brans were higher than that of berries; the early sumac (Br-1) bran had the highest ORAC values (410 mg Trolox equivalents (TE)/g). White sorghum and wheat bran had the lowest ORAC values (23 and 31 mg TE/g respectively) due to their low levels of phenols. Positive correlation was observed between the ORAC value and the level of tannins (r = 0.89) and phenols (r = 0.94) in the sorghum brans. Dietary fiber levels in the bran fractions ranged between 36.1-42.9% dry weight basis. Wheat bran had a dietary fiber value of 47.6%. Sorghum brans have high levels of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant potentials and could be exploited as a source of phytonutrients in foods. The high levels of dietary fiber in these fractions could offer additional benefits.

Awika, Joseph Mobutu

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Changes in diurnal temperature range and national cereal yields  

SciTech Connect

Models of yield responses to temperature change have often considered only changes in average temperature (Tavg), with the implicit assumption that changes in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) can safely be ignored. The goal of this study was to evaluate this assumption using a combination of historical datasets and climate model projections. Data on national crop yields for 1961-2002 in the 10 leading producers of wheat, rice, and maize were combined with datasets on climate and crop locations to evaluate the empirical relationships between Tavg, DTR, and crop yields. In several rice and maize growing regions, including the two major nations for each crop, there was a clear negative response of yields to increased DTR. This finding reflects a nonlinear response of yields to temperature, which likely results from greater water and heat stress during hot days. In many other cases, the effects of DTR were not statistically significant, in part because correlations of DTR with other climate variables and the relatively short length of the time series resulted in wide confidence intervals for the estimates. To evaluate whether future changes in DTR are relevant to crop impact assessments, yield responses to projected changes in Tavg and DTR by 2046-2065 from 11 climate models were estimated. The mean climate model projections indicated an increase in DTR in most seasons and locations where wheat is grown, mixed projections for maize, and a general decrease in DTR for rice. These mean projections were associated with wide ranges that included zero in nearly all cases. The estimated impacts of DTR changes on yields were generally small (<5% change in yields) relative to the consistently negative impact of projected warming of Tavg. However, DTR changes did significantly affect yield responses in several cases, such as in reducing US maize yields and increasing India rice yields. Because DTR projections tend to be positively correlated with Tavg, estimates of yields under extreme warming scenarios were particularly affected by including DTR (up to 10%). Finally, based on the relatively poor performance of climate models in reproducing the magnitude of past DTR trends, it is possible that future DTR changes and associated yield responses will exceed the ranges considered here.

Lobell, D

2007-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

478

Projecting net incomes for Texas crop producers: an application of probabilistic forecasting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Agricultural policy changes directly affect the economic viability of Texas crop producers because government payments make up a significant portion of their net farm income (NFI). NFI projections benefit producers, agribusinesses and policy makers, but an economic model making these projections for Texas did not previously exist. The objective of this study was to develop a model to project annual NFI for producers of major crops in Texas. The Texas crop model was developed to achieve this objective, estimating state prices, yields and production costs as a function of their national counterparts. Five hundred iterations of national price and yield projections from the Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI), along with FAPRIâ??s average production cost projections, were used as input to the Texas crop model. The stochastic FAPRI Baseline and residuals for Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) equations relating Texas variables to national variables were used to incorporate the risk left unexplained by OLS equations between Texas and U.S. variables. Deterministic and probabilistic NFI projections for Texas crops were compared under the January 2005 and January 2006 FAPRI Baseline projections. With production costs increasing considerably and prices rising moderately in the January 2006 Baseline, deterministic projections of 2006-2014 Texas NFI decreased by an average of 26 percent for corn, 3 percent for cotton, 15 percent for peanuts, and 12 percent for rice, and were negative for sorghum and wheat. Probability distributions of projected NFI fell for all program crops, especially sorghum and wheat. Higher hay price projections caused deterministic projections of NFI for hay to rise roughly 13 percent, and increased the probability distributions of projected hay NFI. Deterministic and probabilistic projections of total NFI decreased for each year, especially for 2006-2008 when fuel price projections were the highest. The Texas crop model can be used to simulate NFI for Texas crop producers under alternative FAPRI baselines. The model shows the impact of baseline changes on probability distributions of NFI for each crop and for Texas as a whole. It can also be useful as a policy analysis tool to compare impacts of alternative farm and macroeconomic policies on NFI.

Eggerman, Christopher Ryan

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Civil War Makeshifts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Civil War Makeshifts Civil War Makeshifts Nature Bulletin No. 297-A March 9, 1968 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Richard B. Ogilvie, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation CIVIL WAR MAKESHIFTS Recently we came across an article about "Hard Times in the Confederacy" published in Century Magazine in 1988. It is difficult to picture, now, the misery and want that prevailed during that bloody four-year Civil War. With no money and all the able-bodied menfolks gone, particularly in the south but to some extent in the northern states, our grandmothers had to resort to desperate makeshifts in order to feed and clothe their families. Salt, common salt, became a luxury in the south, in spite of its production from the salt springs and "licks" in Virginia, Tennessee and Indian Territory. The price of wheat flour rose to more than $100 per barrel. There was no sugar. After the fall of Vicksburg, which cut off the supply of sugar and molasses from Louisiana, sorghum cane was widely grown and crushed in primitive mills to make molasses or "long sweetenin"'. Its seeds were ground into a meal that made excellent brown bread. A recipe book of that day, which also told how to tan a dog's skin for making gloves, said that "wonderful shoe blacking can be made of sorghum molasses, pinewood soot, neat's-foot oil and vinegar..

480

Data:63897f34-1011-47c5-81bf-ce81d5e3bc25 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

7f34-1011-47c5-81bf-ce81d5e3bc25 7f34-1011-47c5-81bf-ce81d5e3bc25 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Wheat Belt Public Power Dist Effective date: 2013/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Street and Security lights 400w Sector: Lighting Description: Qualifying Service Municipalities: For lighting service to public, town and/or city facilities, pursuant to the terms set forth in the Franchise Agreement. Customers: For lighting service to customer facilities where such services can be provided directly from the 12.5/7.2 or 24.9/14.4 kV distribution system. Production Cost Adjustments In the event that adjustments are made to the District's wholesale cost of power, charges or credits shall be made to this rate accordingly. Such charges or credits shall be billed separately as "Production Cost Adjustments." If changes are made to the wholesale supplier's power rate for the District, the District reserves the right to change this rate to reflect the wholesale supplier changes.

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481

Data:34702ed8-2f91-4f3c-af4a-a423d3c483ad | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ed8-2f91-4f3c-af4a-a423d3c483ad ed8-2f91-4f3c-af4a-a423d3c483ad No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Wheat Belt Public Power Dist Effective date: 2013/04/01 End date if known: Rate name: Large Power (C-1) Sector: Commercial Description: Source or reference: http://www.wheatbelt.com/uploaded/pdf/13572235352013RSC-1.pdf Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >>

482

Data:F7b8506d-5d3e-4ce0-abc9-a4a383eda56e | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

06d-5d3e-4ce0-abc9-a4a383eda56e 06d-5d3e-4ce0-abc9-a4a383eda56e No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Wheat Belt Public Power Dist Effective date: 2013/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: LARGE POWER Sector: Industrial Description: Qualifying Service Any single-phase or multi-phase service, greater than 50 kVA and less than 1000 kVA connected transformer capacity, delivered from the 12.5/7.2 or 24.9/14.4 kV distribution system. Power Factor Charge A power factor charge will be assessed to compensate for average power factor lower than eightyfive (85%) lagging. The power factor charge will be calculated by increasing the demand charge by one percent (1%) for each one percent (1%) by which the average power factor is less than eightyfive (85%) lagging. The District will consult with the customer regarding power factor correction and applicable charges before applying the provisions of this clause.

483

Microsoft PowerPoint - 04-10 DC_Ruhl.ppt [Compatibility Mode]  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Markets: The Long And The Markets: The Long And The Short Term Christof Rühl, Group Chief Economist, BP plc. Washington, April 2010 Outline Long term context Long term context Structural change in oil markets Natural gas: a new game   How does it matter? Conclusion © BP 2010 The Long Term: Real Commodity Prices 400 Oil Wheat Iron & Steel Index: average 1970-2008 = 100 300 350 200 250 100 150 0 50 © BP 2010 1972 1975 1978 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2009 The Long Term: Contributions to Growth 5-year moving average GDP Primary energy 4% OECD Non-OECD OECD Non-OECD 2% 3% 1% 2% 0% © BP 2010 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008 Energy Demand Growth Mboe/d Gas Oil Mboe/d Coal Mboe/d 70 80 90 OECD Non-OECD 70 80 90 OECD Non-OECD 70 80 90 OECD Non-OECD 50 60 70 50 60 70 50 60 70 2016 20 30 40 30 40 20 30 40 2008 1988 0 10 20 0 10 20 0 10

484

Data:50a8e182-a4a1-4790-a5dd-96e637ccaca2 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

e182-a4a1-4790-a5dd-96e637ccaca2 e182-a4a1-4790-a5dd-96e637ccaca2 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Wheat Belt Public Power Dist Effective date: 2013/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Large Power Time of Use (C-2) Sector: Commercial Description: Determination of Billing Demand: TOU #1: The billing demand shall be the maximum kilowatt (kW) demand established by the customer for any fifteen (15) consecutive minute period within the TOU #1 time period during the month for which the bill is rendered, as indicated or recorded by the District's metering equipment(11:00PM to 7:00AM) TOU #2: The billing demand shall be the maximum kilowatt (kW) demand established by the customer for any fifteen (15) consecutive minute period within the TOU #2 time period during the month for which the bill is rendered, as indicated or recorded by the District's metering equipment.( 7:00AM to 11:00PM )

485

Data:Fc620c5a-4c53-43e5-a3d9-a00122654f5c | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

c5a-4c53-43e5-a3d9-a00122654f5c c5a-4c53-43e5-a3d9-a00122654f5c No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Wheat Belt Public Power Dist Effective date: 2013/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Street lights Public or Private 400w Sector: Lighting Description: Qualifying Service Municipalities: For lighting service to public, town and/or city facilities, pursuant to the terms set forth in the Franchise Agreement. Customers: For lighting service to customer facilities where such services can be provided directly from the 12.5/7.2 or 24.9/14.4 kV distribution system. Production Cost Adjustments In the event that adjustments are made to the District's wholesale cost of power, charges or credits shall be made to this rate accordingly. Such charges or credits shall be billed separately as "Production Cost Adjustments." If changes are made to the wholesale supplier's power rate for the District, the District reserves the right to change this rate to reflect the wholesale supplier changes.

486

Data:F05a1f7a-6876-4a7d-8e0c-5094b7442aea | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

f7a-6876-4a7d-8e0c-5094b7442aea f7a-6876-4a7d-8e0c-5094b7442aea No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Wheat Belt Public Power Dist Effective date: 2013/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: U.S. AIR FORCE Sector: Commercial Description: Qualifying Service All services classified as United States Air Force facilities. Production Cost Adjustments The Government agrees that, if any time after April 1, 1987, that adjustments are made to the District's wholesale cost of power, charges or credits shall be made to this rateaccordingly. Such charges or credits shall be billed separately as "Production Cost Adjustments." If changes are made to the wholesale supplier's power rate for the District, the District reserves the right to change this rate to reflect the wholesale supplier changes. Any changes or adjustments shall be accompanied by written evidence of changes to the wholesale cost of power and shall be made effective with the monthly billing for the Government.

487

How Scavenging Fungi Became a Plant's Best Friend  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

November 25, 2013 November 25, 2013 How Scavenging Fungi Became a Plant's Best Friend Glomeromycota is an ancient lineage of fungi that has a symbiotic relationship with roots that goes back nearly 420 million years to the earliest plants. More than two thirds of the world's plants depend on this soil-dwelling symbiotic fungus to survive, including critical agricultural crops such as wheat, cassava, and rice. The analysis of the Rhizophagus irregularis genome has revealed that this asexual fungus doesn't shuffle its genes the way researchers expected. Moreover, rather than having lost much of its metabolic genes, as observed in many mutualistic organisms, it has expanded its range of cell-to-cell communication genes and phosphorus-capturing genes. For the first time, researchers were able to watch cyanobacteria make their critical carbon-fixing carboxysomes inside living cells using a pioneering visualization technique. Images by James Cameron and Cheryl Kerfeld (far left) and Susan Bernstein and Cheryl Kerfeld (center images and far right image).

488

Data:2b44c914-9d66-462f-ac10-eca6644f9c6a | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

4c914-9d66-462f-ac10-eca6644f9c6a 4c914-9d66-462f-ac10-eca6644f9c6a No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Wheat Belt Public Power Dist Effective date: 2013/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Street and Security lights 175w Sector: Lighting Description: Qualifying Service Municipalities: For lighting service to public, town and/or city facilities, pursuant to the terms set forth in the Franchise Agreement. Customers: For lighting service to customer facilities where such services can be provided directly from the 12.5/7.2 or 24.9/14.4 kV distribution system. Production Cost Adjustments In the event that adjustments are made to the District's wholesale cost of power, charges or credits shall be made to this rate accordingly. Such charges or credits shall be billed separately as "Production Cost Adjustments." If changes are made to the wholesale supplier's power rate for the District, the District reserves the right to change this rate to reflect the wholesale supplier changes.

489

Genetic Engineered Food and Safety  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Genetic Engineered Food and Safety Genetic Engineered Food and Safety Name: Christopher Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Is genetically engineered food safe to eat? Replies: Well, I hope so, since I and you and all of us have been eating it for centuries. All common foodstuffs have been seriously engineered since they were discovered. The modern tomato plant, apple tree, wheat stalk, and corn plant bear only a general resemblance to their ancestors, as farmers have engineered them to increase their yield, shelf life, resistance to disease, etc. It is, however, true that up until recently changes to the genetic code of foodstuffs could only be made via natural mutation (which occurs via naturally-occuring ionizing radiation and mutagenic chemicals), and the food engineer's job was limited to selecting those changes he wanted to preserve, and those he wanted to weed out. Now you can induce mutations directly, with intention and forethought, and avoid much of the waiting around for natural mutation that was heretofore necessary in plant breeding.

490

Data:081f0f05-9d4f-4701-b072-4bf5cb7dc11d | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

9d4f-4701-b072-4bf5cb7dc11d 9d4f-4701-b072-4bf5cb7dc11d No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Wheat Belt Public Power Dist Effective date: 2013/04/01 End date if known: Rate name: DISTRIBUTION HEAVY INDUSTRIAL (E-2) Sector: Commercial Description: Applicable for Any service, 1000 kVA or greater connected transformer capacity, delivered from the 12.5/7.2 or 24.9/14.4 kV distribution system. Source or reference: http://www.wheatbelt.com/index.php?pg=rates Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh):

491

Data:91064728-7eed-4987-80ca-f9c06962a1f4 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

4728-7eed-4987-80ca-f9c06962a1f4 4728-7eed-4987-80ca-f9c06962a1f4 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Wheat Belt Public Power Dist Effective date: 2013/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Street lights Public or Private 175w Sector: Lighting Description: Qualifying Service Municipalities: For lighting service to public, town and/or city facilities, pursuant to the terms set forth in the Franchise Agreement. Customers: For lighting service to customer facilities where such services can be provided directly from the 12.5/7.2 or 24.9/14.4 kV distribution system. Production Cost Adjustments In the event that adjustments are made to the District's wholesale cost of power, charges or credits shall be made to this rate accordingly. Such charges or credits shall be billed separately as "Production Cost Adjustments." If changes are made to the wholesale supplier's power rate for the District, the District reserves the right to change this rate to reflect the wholesale supplier changes.

492

Data:97a106ca-844f-4382-a80a-9cb7d2ace1b2 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

6ca-844f-4382-a80a-9cb7d2ace1b2 6ca-844f-4382-a80a-9cb7d2ace1b2 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Wheat Belt Public Power Dist Effective date: 2013/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: TRANMISSION HEAVY INDUSTRIAL (E1) Sector: Industrial Description: Applicable for any service, 1000 kVA or greater delivered from the 34.5 kV or higher transmission systems. Source or reference: http://www.wheatbelt.com/index.php?pg=rates Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage

493

Production and Farm Organization after Privatization in Azerbaijan.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The privatization of agriculture in Azerbaijan started in the mid 1990s, while the pace of privatization in the country differs. Some Rayons have privatized almost all of the former stateowned agricultural land while others hold a wait and see strategy. The agricultural administration observes the recent agricultural development with suspicion. Specifically, there are concerns about the decrease in wheat production in the area and about a possible collapse of agriculture production in general. In addition to the perceived changes in agriculture production there are obvious problems on the management of natural resources, which may have an impact on farm production. In this paper we present the results of a combined natural resources and farm household survey conducted during the first six month of the year 2000 in Sagatalla Rayon. The results show the Rayon can be divided into five agro-ecological zones. Agriculture is concentrated in two zones. Average farm income was higher among the households farming in the less favorable agricultural zone, while on a hectare basis the average gross margin for major crops was higher in the more favorable agro-ecological zone. Households without off-farm

Nemet Alibejov; Stephan Krische; Justus Wesseler; Nemet Alibejov; Stephan Krische; Justus Wesseler

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Characterization and purification of the detergent solubilized atrial natriuretic peptide receptor from bovine aortic smooth muscle cells  

SciTech Connect

A protein has been purified from total homogenates of cultured vascular bovine smooth muscle cells with properties indicative of the receptor for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). Specific /sup 125/I-ANP binding activity was solubilized quantitatively from smooth muscle cell membranes with a purified component of Triton X-100. Equilibrium binding studies of the solubilized ANP receptor reveal by Scatchard analysis a single class of binding sites with a K/sub d/ = 1.77 x 10/sup -10/ moles /sup 125/I-ANP/1 and B/sub max/ = 34.6 pmol/mg protein. The ANP receptor solubilized in this manner is stable for greater than or equal to 2 months at -70/sup 0/C. Studies investigating the ANP receptor show that it binds to wheat germ agglutinin and to CM-cellulose at pH 4.1 but not at pH 6.5. These findings imply that the ANP receptor is a neutral to mildly basic glycoprotein. Further purification studies involving affinity chromatography with ANP-Sepharose result in a 500-fold purification and reveal a single protein with a molecular mass of 58,700 daltons as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The size of this protein is in good agreement with that of an ANP receptor previously identified in intact smooth muscle cells by crosslinking studies with /sup 125/I-ANP.

Schenk, D.; Phelps, M.; Scarborough, R.; Johnson, K.; Lewicki, J.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Food and Agriculture Organization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

International cereal prices (in US dollar terms) have been increasing since 2003, but it is domestic prices that affect food consumption and production. This paper analyzes, for seven large Asian countries, the extent to which domestic prices have increased since 2003 and presents several conclusions. First, the data show that the increases in world cereal prices have been accompanied by a real depreciation of the US dollar. For many countries (but not all), this depreciation has neutralized a substantial proportion of the increase in world prices. Second, domestic commodity specific policies in several of these Asian countries have further stabilized domestic prices relative to the change in world prices. This has been especially true for rice, the main staple food in the region, but it is also true for wheat. On average, through the end of 2007, the increase in real domestic rice prices was about onethird of the increase in real US dollar world market rice prices. Third, for the specific cases analyzed here, producer or farmgate prices have changed by approximately the same percentage as consumer prices. Thus, in these Asian countries, domestic markets seem to be transmitting price changes between farmers and consumers rather efficiently. Fourth, the

David Dawe; Of The United Nations; David Dawe

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Quantum dots for tracking cellular transport of lectin-functionalized nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Successful drug delivery by functionalized nanocarriers largely depends on their efficient intracellular transport which has not yet been fully understood. We developed a new tracking technique by encapsulating quantum dots into the core of wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated nanoparticles (WGA-NP) to track cellular transport of functionalized nanocarriers. The resulting nanoparticles showed no changes in particle size, zeta potential or biobinding activity, and the loaded probe presented excellent photostability and tracking ability. Taking advantage of these properties, cellular transport profiles of WGA-NP in Caco-2 cells was demonstrated. The cellular uptake begins with binding of WGA to its receptor at the cell surface. The subsequent endocytosis happened in a cytoskeleton-dependent manner and by means of clathrin and caveolae-mediated mechanisms. After endosome creating, transport occurs to both trans-Golgi and lysosome. Our study provides new evidences for quantum dots as a cellular tracking probe of nanocarriers and helps understand intracellular transport profile of lectin-functionalized nanoparticles.

Gao Xiaoling [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Wang Tao [Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key Laboratory), Physics Department, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wu Bingxian; Chen Jun [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Chen Jiyao [Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key Laboratory), Physics Department, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yue Yang; Dai Ning [National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China); Chen Hongzhuan [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China)], E-mail: yaoli@shsmu.edu.cn; Jiang Xinguo [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)], E-mail: xgjiang@shmu.edu.cn

2008-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

497

Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for the Corn Wet Milling Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Corn wet milling is the most energy intensive industry within the food and kindred products group (SIC 20), using 15 percent of the energy in the entire food industry. After corn, energy is the second largest operating cost for corn wet millers in the United States. A typical corn wet milling plant in the United States spends approximately $20 to $30 million per year on energy, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs and increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy-price volatility. This report shows energy efficiency opportunities available for wet corn millers. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure and production of the corn wet milling industry and the energy used in the milling and refining process. Specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The report draws upon the experiences of corn, wheat and other starch processing plants worldwide for energy efficiency measures. The findings suggest that given available resources and technology, there are opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the corn wet milling industry while maintaining the quality of the products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as the applicability of these to different wet milling practices, is needed to assess the feasibility of implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Ruth, Michael

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Levelized life-cycle costs for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Technology characterizations and life-cycle costs were obtained for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems. All costs are in constant 1981 dollars. The residue-collection systems were cornstover collection, wheat-straw collection, soybean-residue collection, and wood chips from forest residue. The life-cycle costs ranged from $19/ton for cornstover collection to $56/ton for wood chips from forest residues. The gas-production systems were low-Btu gas from a farm-size gasifier, solar flash pyrolysis of biomass, methane from seaweed farms, and hydrogen production from bacteria. Life-cycle costs ranged from $3.3/10/sup 6/ Btu for solar flash pyrolysis of biomass to $9.6/10/sup 6/ Btu for hydrogen from bacteria. Sensitivity studies were also performed for each system. The sensitivity studies indicated that fertilizer replacement costs were the dominate costs for the farm-residue collection, while residue yield was most important for the wood residue. Feedstock costs were most important for the flash pyrolysis. Yields and capital costs are most important for the seaweed farm and the hydrogen from bacteria system.

Thayer, G.R.; Rood, P.L.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.; Rollett, H.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Environmental and economic evaluation of energy recovery from agricultural and forestry residues  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Four conversion methods and five residues are examined in this report, which describes six model systems: hydrolysis of corn residues, pyrolysis of corn residues, combustion of cotton-ginning residues, pyrolysis of wheat residues, fermentation of molasses, and combustion of pulp and papermill wastes. Estimates of material and energy flows for those systems are given per 10/sup 12/ Btu of recovered energy. Regional effects are incorporated by addressing the regionalized production of the residues. A national scope cannot be provided for every residue considered because of the biological and physical constraints of crop production. Thus, regionalization of the model systems to the primary production region for the crop from which the residue is obtained has been undertaken. The associated environmental consequences of residue utilization are then assessed for the production region. In addition, the environmental impacts of operating the model systems are examined by quantifying the residuals generated and the land, water, and material requirements per 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy generated. On the basis of estimates found in the literature, capital, operating, and maintenance cost estimates are given for the model systems. These data are also computed on the basis of 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy recovered. The cost, residual, material, land, and water data were then organized into a format acceptable for input into the SEAS data management program. The study indicates that the most serious environmental impacts arise from residue removal rather than from conversion.

None

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

4.1.2 HEAT OR COLD THERAPY AIM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To reduce pain and provide a comfort measure for women in labour. BACKGROUND INFORMATION Superficial application of hot or cold therapy is a common and popular choice for women in labour, with minimal side effects when appropriately used. 1 Superficial heat may be generated from hot packs, hot moist towels, heated silica gel packs, warm towels, baths and showers. Superficial cold can be produced from covered ice bags, frozen silica gel packs and towels soaked in icy water. 2 Recent research has indicated that the application of warm packs to the perineum during late second 3, 4 stage assists in relieving pain and providing comfort. KEY POINTS 1. Ensure the woman has no contra-indications to hot or cold application prior to use. 2. One to two layers of cloth should be placed between the womans skin and the hot or cold pack. 1 3. Wheat bags / hot water bottles should not be used at KEMH. 4. Microwave ovens should not be used for heating packs. 5. Hot packs shall only be heated in a hospital approved heating device with thermostatic control. The temperature of the heating device is to be checked daily; it must not exceed 50 degrees Celsius. The device is to be emptied and cleaned weekly. 6. See Clinical Guideline Section A 1.5 Local Application of heat for detailed information of local application of heat.

Pain Management; Relaxation Comfort Measures; Heat Or Cold Therapy; Section B

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z