National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for wheat triticum aestivum

  1. Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat as a Source of Improvement for Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooper, Jessica Kay

    2012-02-14

    backcrosses to spring wheats show improvement over recurrent parents (del Blanco et al., 2000; Lage et al., 2004a; Mujeeb-Kazi et al., 2008; Villareal et al., 1994) but evidence of the benefits of synthetic backcrosses to winter wheat is meager... drought stress, a common problem in Texas High Plains, as well as heat stress, a common problem in South Texas (del Blanco et al., 2000; Reynolds et al., 2007; Trethowanand Mujeeb-Kazi, 2008). Reynolds et al. attributed synthetic lines to be better...

  2. Quantitative trait loci(qtl) analysis of yield components and heat tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Do, Jung Hwa

    2009-05-15

    This study was conducted to identify and map QTLs for yield components and heat tolerance of wheat in response to two kinds of heat treatment (short term-and long term-heat treatment) during seed formation in a set of 62 ...

  3. Phenotypic and Molecular Genetic Analysis of Reproductive Stage Heat Tolerance in Wheat (Triticum aestivum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mason, Richard Esten

    2011-08-08

    , an analysis of both the phenotypic and genetic responses of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations was conducted. RIL populations Halberd x Cutter and Halberd x Karl 92 (H/K) both derive heat tolerance from Halberd and segregate in their response... ............................................................................... 61 3.2 Photosynthetic rate (a), relative photosynthetic rate (b), transpiration (c), and conductance (d) of wheat cultivars under 38?C heat stress at 10 days after pollination...

  4. Generation of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accumulating heterologous endo-xylanase or ferulic acid esterase in the endosperm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harholt, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    of wheat straw for bioethanol production by a combinedyields when processed for bioethanol production. In the

  5. Generation of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accumulating heterologous endo-xylanase or ferulic acid esterase in the endosperm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harholt, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    of wheat straw for bioethanol production by a combinedwhen processed for bioethanol production. In the present

  6. Analysis of the Compositional Variation in the Epicuticular Wax Layer of Wheat (Triticum aestivum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beecher, Francis Ward

    2013-05-08

    Epicuticular waxes form a layer on the outer surface of all land plants and play a fundamental role in their interaction with the environment. Development of a rapid and accurate method for the characterization of these ...

  7. Generation of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accumulating heterologous endo-xylanase or ferulic acid esterase in the endosperm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harholt, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    DFK transg. CWM WUS WES Arabinoxylan (µg/mg CWM) CWM WUS WESof water extractable arabinoxylan, and a shift in thethe water extractable arabinoxylan from being mainly larger

  8. Population- and genome-specific patterns of linkage disequilibrium and SNP variation in spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    lower than the proportion of variation among subpopulationsA higher proportion of among-subpopulation genetic variationproportion of extreme values and a narrower distribution. However, the fact that significant variation

  9. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) Associated with Maintenance of Bread Making Quality under Heat Stress in Wheat (Triticum aestivum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beecher, Francis Ward

    2010-10-12

    significant effects, particularly those associated with glutenin subunits or gliadins, are probably the best characterized. Blanco et al. (1998) detected a putative QTL for SDS (? = .01) associated with a Glu-A1 allele and another associated with the Gli-B1... of those identified thus far are on chromosomes 1A, 1B, and 1D (Blanco et al. 2002; MacRitchie and Lafiandra 2001). On the short arms of these chromosomes are found the complex Gli-1/Glu-3 loci coding for LMWGSs and ? and ? gliadins. The long arms...

  10. Elucidating and Mapping Heat Tolerance in Wild Tetraploid Wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali, Mohamed Badry Mohamed

    2012-02-14

    ................................................................................... 5 Heat stress constrains wheat yield ................................................ 5 Heat stress impairs photosynthesis ............................................... 7 Morphological adaptation to heat stress................................................................................ 37 2.7 The relationship between flag leaf temperature depression (FLTD) and spike temperature depression (STD) at 0 day (50% anthesis); before heat stress treatment...

  11. Effects of nitrogen source and rate and legume interseeding on the yield of soft red winter wheat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandt, Jon Eric

    1986-01-01

    and N uptake of soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Coker 762). The locat1ons were the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station research farms in Burleson and Rusk Counties. The study was divided into two parts: wheat fertilized w1th three.... agriculture was brought about by the use of this input (24). Reduction in the cost of N fertilization can be accomplished in two ways. The first method is to maximize crop use efficiency for each unit of applied N. This result can be achieved either...

  12. WHEAT (Triticum aestivum) H.C. Wetzel III and T.D. Murray Eyespot; Oculimacula acuformis Dept. of Plant Pathology, Washington State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pappu, Hanu R.

    /A) was applied over the plot area to control annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) with an electric pump sprayer.7), whereas 80% of the other entries tested had a statistically similar disease index to Eltan (range 68

  13. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hess, J.R

    2005-01-31

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. We investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) An efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the internodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  14. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2004-09-30

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. They investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) an efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the intermodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  15. Long-term tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization effects on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dou, Fugen

    2006-08-16

    microbial biomass (SMB) and mineralizable, particulate organic matter (POM), and hydrolyzable SOM] and slow (mineral-associated and resistant organic) C and N pools and turnover in continuous sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.], wheat (Triticum aestivum L...

  16. Wheat Diseases Atlas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCoy, Norman L.; Berry, Robert W.

    1982-01-01

    to wheat producers over the state on whose farms demonstrations have been conducted and pic tures for this publication were made. WhEAT DisEASES ATLAs Norman L. McCoy and Robert W Berry* INTRODUCTION Wheat diseases have caused untold human suffer ing...

  17. Wheat Production in Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkins, I. M.; Porter, K. B.; Lahr, Keith; Merkle, Owen G.; Futrell, M. C.

    1960-01-01

    of the land after har- This permits penetration of summer rains illing of weeds and volunteer wheat. Leav- le stubble as a mulch aids in preventing erosion. These practices fit well into both uous and fallow wheat production. Another I is that of delayed... races of leaf and stem rust. The spikes are awnless and the glumes white. Several other soft wheat varieties are grown on small acreages. These include Atlas 66, Coker 47-27, Austin, Clarkan, Vigo, Blackhawk and KanQueen. HARD RED SPRING WHEAT...

  18. Localization of iron, zinc, and protein in seeds of spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) genotypes with low and high protein concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozturk, Levent; Altintas, Gamze; Erdem, Halil; Gokmen, Ozay Ozgur; Yazici, Atilla; Cakmak, Ismail

    2009-01-01

    selected high-grain-protein (HGP) spelt genotypes had aboutLGP) genotypes, while the HGP or LGP genotypes were veryand 57 and 71 mg kg -1 for HGP genotypes (Table 1). The HGP

  19. Wheat Pasture Poisoning. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crookshank, H. R.; Sims, Frank H.

    1956-01-01

    in sexually mature cows which are in the late stages of pregnancy or with a calf at side. Most cases developed sometime between 60 and 150 days on wheat, and in cows which had calves under 60 days of age. When the level of several components of the blood..., globulin and possibly the potassium levels were in- creased. The wide range of values observed in the cases suggests that the blood serum findings could be the result of the effect of wheat pasture poisoning rather than the cause. 1 Salt, cottonseed...

  20. Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morgan, Gaylon

    2005-01-26

    Extension Small Grains Specialist, College Station, TX Carl Patrick, Extension Entomologist, Amarillo, TX Karl Steddom and Charlie Rush, Plant Pathologists, Amarillo, TX W Overview of WSMV and HPV Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus First discovered in Nebraska... losses due to WSMV exceed $30 million in some years but are in- significant in others. High Plains Virus High Plains Virus (HPV), occasionally called High Plains Disease, is a relatively new virus identified in the Great Plains in 1993. HPV usually...

  1. Effect of crop residue harvest on long-term crop yield, soil erosion, and carbon balance: tradeoffs for a sustainable bioenergy feedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregg, Jay S.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2010-08-26

    Agricultural residues are a potential feedstock for bioenergy production, if residue harvest can be done sustainably. The relationship between crop residue harvest, soil erosion, crop yield and carbon balance was modeled with the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator/ Environment Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) using a factorial design. Four crop rotations (winter wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)] – sunflower [Helianthus annuus]; spring wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)] – canola [Brassica napus]; corn [Zea mays L.] – soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]; and cotton [Gossypium hirsutum] – peanut [Arachis hypogaea]) were simulated at four US locations each, under different topographies (0-10% slope), and management practices [crop residue removal rates (0-75%), conservation practices (no till, contour cropping, strip cropping, terracing)].

  2. Southern Great Plains Expansion of Glyphosate Resistant Brassica Napus L.: Management and Mapping 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delgado, Alfredo

    2013-12-10

    Subject: Molecular and Environmental Plant Sciences Copyright 2013 Alfredo Delgado ABSTRACT Brassica napus L. production has become more predominant in the United States. Increased yield in rotational systems and the increased market.... Efficacy control data of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) per chemical treatment in the College Station Texas Weed/volunteer control in Glyphosate resistant Brassica napus L. trial site for 2013. Efficacy rated on basis of percent mortality from 0...

  3. Wheat quality evaluation methods to predict wheat flour tortilla production 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullins, Barbie Denise

    1997-01-01

    and processed more easily into wheat flour tortillas. Tortilla flour specifications utilized by manufacturers impart information to the miller for the production of the desired flours. Tortilla bake tests provide additional information that supplements...

  4. Karnal Bunt: A Disease of Wheat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuster, Greta; Krausz, Joseph P.; Rush, Charlie

    2002-11-20

    Karnal bunt is a fungal disease that affects wheat, durum wheat and triticale. This publication explains the life cycle of the disease, how it spreads, and methods of control....

  5. Cash Wheat in a Wheat-Ryegrass Grazing System. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, L.R.; Rouquette, F.M. Jr.; Randel, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    . On the grazed area sam:-'" pIing error was very high and comparisons be tween varieties were not significant. TABLE 1. FORAGE YIELD (LB OVENDRY WT/A) OF 5 WHEAT VARIETIES MECHANICALLY CLIPPED DURING TWO GROWING SEASONS 1980-81 Harvest Date Variety Dec. 12... jan. 23 Feb. 16 Mar. 13 Apr. 7 May 7 Total Coker "68-15 894 409 McNair 1003 715 588 Arthur 71 486 0 Tx-72-9 460 128 Tx-73-93 843 460 Mean 680 317 CV 19 51 LSD (10% level) 169 206 Variety Dec. 16 jan. 25 TAM-106 2018 1252 Coker 68-15 2247...

  6. 98 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Genetic Variation of Wheat streak mosaic virus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pappu, Hanu R.

    98 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Virology Genetic Variation of Wheat streak mosaic virus in the United States, T. D. 2013. Genetic variation of Wheat streak mosaic virus in the United States Pacific Northwest, is a widespread and damaging pathogen of wheat. WSMV is not a chronic problem of annual wheat in the United States

  7. Multi-Component Harvesting of Wheat Straw

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this project is to develop commercially-viable technologies that will potentially overcome these barriers and enable the use of wheat residues as an inexpensive feedstock resource.

  8. WATER REQUIREMENTSWATER REQUIREMENTSWATER REQUIREMENTSWATER REQUIREMENTS of Hard Red Spring Wheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Laughlin, Jay

    WATER REQUIREMENTSWATER REQUIREMENTSWATER REQUIREMENTSWATER REQUIREMENTS of Hard Red Spring Wheat C. Hopkins #12;Estimating Water Requirements of Hard Red Spring Wheat for Final Irrigations 2 Introductiond water use Producers of hard red spring wheat know that inadequate water reduces yield and quality

  9. The effects of added wheat proteins on processing and quality of wheat flour tortillas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascut, Simina

    2002-01-01

    crust characteristics when the buns are stored in a steamer. Gluten Changes During Baking of Flour Tortillas Wheat proteins develop into gluten during mixing and form a protein network through disulfide linkages and hydrophobic, ionic and hydrogen...

  10. Alternative Export - Wheat Distribution Systems for the Texas - Oklahoma Panhandle. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, Stephen W.; Shanmugham C.V.

    1980-01-01

    to be the most efficient of the export-wheat bility and potential cost savings of operating wheat- distribution systems. For the six-county area, this carrying unit trains between a six-county area in the would annually generate marketing-systemsavings Texas-Oklahoma... is a major source of income for U.S. and South Plains grain producers. Historically, wheat has ranked as one of the most valuable crops in Texas and Oklahoma, states that are major producers of the annual Hard Red Winter wheat national output...

  11. Screening of wheat genotypes for boron efficiency in Bangladesh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Islam, S; Jahiruddin, M; Islam, M A; Islam, M R; Brown, P H; Gustafson, J P

    2009-01-01

    of wheat cultivars. Bangladesh Journal Agricultural Scienceimportant cereal crop in Bangladesh. Its yield is very low,of boron deficiency in Bangladesh soils. Boron deficiency

  12. Effects of Variations in High Molecular Weight Glutenin Allele Composition and Resistant Starch on Wheat Flour Tortilla Quality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jondiko, Tom Odhiambo

    2012-02-14

    digestion, similar to white wheat bread (Saldana and Brown 1984). However, consumers prefer refined wheat tortillas mostly due to their sensory attributes compared to whole wheat tortillas. Hence, technology and ingredients are needed to improve...

  13. Plain, Asiago, Chocolate Chip, Blueberry, Cin Sugar, Cin Raisin, Sesame, Everything, Sourdough, Honey Wheat, Plain Thin, Wheat Thin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    Applewood Bacon and Cheddar Egg Sandwich: Plain Bagel, Egg, Bacon and Cheddar Cheese, Bacon, Ancho-Mayo, Lettuce, Tomato, Red Onion, Spinach. $6.99 Turkey BAT: Honey Wheat Bagel, Turkey, Bacon, Avocado, Roasted Tomato Sauce, Lettuce, Tomato. $6

  14. Molecular and cytological analysis of a novel leaf rust resistance gene in wheat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franks, Cleve Douglas

    2002-01-01

    A novel wheat leaf rust resistance gene from Aegilops cylindricum accession TTCC295 was investigated, using both cytogenetic and molecular tools. Previous work had introgressed this gene into adapted wheat germplasm, which was crossed to 'Chinese...

  15. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into Wheat Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and social aspects of wheat paper and 30% recycled paper have been compared. The Carbon Footprint is one footprint of wheat production is actually lower than the wood production if carbon storage is taken.0 Environmental Analysis 6 2.1 Carbon Storage 6 2.1.1 Wheat 6 2.1.2 Wood 7 2.2 Carbon Footprint 7 2.2.1 Wheat 8 2

  16. Wheat Gray Shorts for the Prevention of Slipped Tendons in Battery Brooder Chicks. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison); Couch, James Russell

    1936-01-01

    STATION -- - A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS - BULLETIN 1 -- - JUNE, 1936 DIVISION OF POULTRY HUSBANDRY WHEAT GRAY SHORTS FOR THE PREVENTION OF SLIPPED TENDONS IN BATTERY BROODER CHICKS AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL... COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President Rations containing wheat gray shorts milled from hard wheat produced fewer slipped tendons and'more rapid gains than rations containing shorts milled from soft wheat when fed to chicks ih battery brooders...

  17. Development of wheat marketing strategies for the Texas Northern High Plains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Karl E

    1982-01-01

    Marketing Strategy Results Marketing Strategy Comparison 42 55 55 71 72 77 78 SUEY. REFERENCES 83 86 APPENDIX A: Selected Moving Average Combination Results 88 APPENDIX B: February and August Wheat Outlook and Situa- tion Accuracy Plots 90..., 1974-1980. Examples of Buy and Sell Signals Generated by Moving Averages. 14 May Wheat Outlook and Situation Hard Winter Wheat Forecast Beginning Stock and Actual Beginning Stock Values for Crop Years 1975-1979. 44 November Wheat Outlook...

  18. Wheat and ryegrass interaction in response to drought 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carson, Katherine Holt

    1995-01-01

    :12 in 19 1 pots. Controls were well watered for the 14 wk experiment. Plants exposed to drought were well watered for 8 wk, had no water for 2 wk, and then were well watered for 4 wk. Despite a much smaller seed than wheat and a similar time of emergence...

  19. Does GM wheat affect saprophagous Diptera species (Drosophilidae, Phoridae)?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    Does GM wheat affect saprophagous Diptera species (Drosophilidae, Phoridae)? Marco Peter, Andreas Antifungal resistance Powdery mildew Pleiotropic effect S u m m a r y Genetically modified (GM) plants might. Therefore, an ecological risk assessment for GM plants also has to include decomposers. In a laboratory diet

  20. Abstract The ability of Trametes versicolor ATCC 20869 to colonize several natural and synthetic materials (wheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramsay, Juliana

    materials (wheat straw, jute, hemp, maple woodchips, and nylon and poly- ethylene teraphthalate fibers such as woodchips is cheaper. In M. Shin · T.

  1. Effects of hydrocolloids on processing and qualities of wheat tortillas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friend, Christopher Patric

    1991-01-01

    . (August, 1991) Christopher Patrie Friend, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Ralph D. Waniska Effects of hydrocolloids were evaluated in hot-press wheat tortillas. Natural (arabic, guar, and xanthan), modified... these transitions causes baked products to become hard and brittle, i. e. , stale (Dziezak, 1991). The rate of firming of a baked product, a parameter of staling, is dependent upon moisture level, storage temperature, product formulation and baking process...

  2. A Comparative Evaluation of Textured Wheat Ingredients and Soy Proteins in the Quality and Acceptability of Chicken Nuggets 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeater, Michael C

    2013-04-24

    Chicken nuggets are commonly made with varying levels of textured vegetable proteins such as soy and wheat, for their ability to bind water and their meat like conformation. This project compared textured wheat proteins and soy proteins at 10%, 20...

  3. Genetic Analysis of Bread Making Quality Stability in Wheat using a Halberd X Len Recombinant Inbred Line Population 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poudel, Ashima

    2012-07-16

    Wheat grain quality has a complex genetic architecture heavily influenced by the growing environment. Consistency in wheat quality not only affects the efficiency of milling and baking but also the quality of end-use ...

  4. Leaf epicuticular wax ultrastructure and trichome presence on Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) resistant and susceptible leaves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leaf epicuticular wax ultrastructure and trichome presence on Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia wax ultrastructure and leaf trichomes were examined on two Russian wheat aphid-susceptible wheat. Comparison of the scanning electron micrographs showed that the epicuticular wax structure was similar

  5. Chromosomes form into seven groups in hexaploid and tetraploid wheat as a prelude to meiosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Peter

    Chromosomes form into seven groups in hexaploid and tetraploid wheat as a prelude to meiosis be further divided into seven groups of six chromosomes (one chromosome pair being derived from each tetraploid) wheat associate via the centromeres into seven groups as the telomeres begin to cluster

  6. Influence of Planting Date on Response of Winter Wheat to Phosphorus. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hipp, Billy W.

    1987-01-01

    RI / B-1564 April 1987 Influence of Planting Date on Response of Winter Wheat to Phosphorus p T T Billy W. Hipp* LIBRARY JUN 1 5 1987 T ~x s A&M llniveusi Abstract Wheat is grown extensively in the Texas Blacklands, and even though... phosphorus (P) fertilization is a common practice, factors that influence the magnitude of response have not been ascertained. Field studies were conducted over a 4-year period to determine the influence of planting date on winter wheat response to P...

  7. Objective methods to evaluate rheological properties of wheat flour tortilla dough 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Meera

    1996-01-01

    Characteristics of wheat flour tortilla dough were measured on a texture analyzer using texture profile analysis (TPA), stress relaxation, extensibility and adhesiveness tests. Doughs were optimally mixed, rested, divided, rounded and sampled...

  8. Instrumental and sensory methods to evaluate texture of wheat flour tortillas during storage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Suman

    1999-01-01

    Subjective reliability, sensory evaluation, and objective rheological techniques characterized wheat flour tortillas on 0, 1, 4, 7, 10 and 13 days of storage. Subjective reliability scores increased during storage (r = 0.80). The 5-member expert...

  9. Roles of carbohydrates and proteins in the staling of wheat flour tortilla 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alviola, Juma Novie Ayap

    2009-05-15

    Effects of enzymatic modification of starch, proteins and pentosans on dough and tortilla properties were determined to establish the role of these wheat components in tortilla staling. Starch, protein and pentosans were ...

  10. The effect of enzymes and starch damage on wheat flour tortilla quality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arora, Sapna

    2007-04-25

    Specific enzymes have been used to improve flour quality for bread but enzyme action in tortilla flour has not been investigated. Two different wheat flours were prepared into tortillas using laboratory-scale, commercial ...

  11. Biomechanics of Wheat/Barley Straw and Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher T. Wright; Peter A. Pryfogle; Nathan A. Stevens; Eric D. Steffler; J. Richard Hess; Thomas H. Ulrich

    2005-03-01

    The lack of understanding of the mechanical characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks is a limiting factor in economically collecting and processing crop residues, primarily wheat and barley stems and corn stover. Several testing methods, including compression, tension, and bend have been investigated to increase our understanding of the biomechanical behavior of cellulosic feedstocks. Biomechanical data from these tests can provide required input to numerical models and help advance harvesting, handling, and processing techniques. In addition, integrating the models with the complete data set from this study can identify potential tools for manipulating the biomechanical properties of plant varieties in such a manner as to optimize their physical characteristics to produce higher value biomass and more energy efficient harvesting practices.

  12. Antistaling properties of amylases, wheat gluten and CMC on corn tortilla 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bueso Ucles, Francisco Javier

    2004-09-30

    ANTISTALING PROPERTIES OF AMYLASES, WHEAT GLUTEN AND CMC ON CORN TORTILLA A Dissertation by FRANCISCO JAVIER BUESO UCLES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2003 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology ANTISTALING PROPERTIES OF AMYLASES, WHEAT GLUTEN AND CMC ON CORN TORTILLA A Dissertation by FRANCISCO JAVIER BUESO UCLES...

  13. Impact of planting date and seeding rate on grain and forage yields of wheat in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaffer, Oliver Jacob

    2009-05-15

    IMPACT OF PLANTING DATE AND SEEDING RATE ON GRAIN AND FORAGE YIELDS OF WHEAT IN TEXAS A Thesis by OLIVER JACOB SHAFFER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2007 Major Subject: Agronomy IMPACT OF PLANTING DATE AND SEEDING RATE ON GRAIN AND FORAGE YIELDS OF WHEAT IN TEXAS A Thesis by OLIVER JACOB SHAFFER...

  14. Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Management for Winter Wheat Production in the Blackland Prairie. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knowles, Tim C.; Hipp, Billy W.; Marshall, David S.; Sutton, Russelll L.

    1995-01-01

    include wheat, oats, grain sorghum, corn, cotton, forage sorghum, and legumes. About half of the region is rangeland with pasture crops consisting primarily of Coastal bermudagrass, clover, alfalfa, wheat, oats, and na tive grasses such as bluestem..., and Shickluna, 1983). Intelligent crop management demands a working knowledge of these relationships depicted in Figure 5. Soil?N gains and transforma tions include fertilizer or manure applications, fixa tion of atmospheric N2 by legumes (clover, alfalfa...

  15. Influence of Solar Activity on State of Wheat Market in Medieval England

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lev A. Pustilnik; Gregory Yom Din

    2003-12-09

    The database of Prof. Rogers (1887), which includes wheat prices in England in the Middle Ages, was used to search for a possible influence of solar activity on the wheat market. We present a conceptual model of possible modes for sensitivity of wheat prices to weather conditions, caused by solar cycle variations, and compare expected price fluctuations with price variations recorded in medieval England. We compared statistical properties of the intervals between wheat price bursts during years 1249-1703 with statistical properties of the intervals between minimums of solar cycles during years 1700-2000. We show that statistical properties of these two samples are similar, both for characteristics of the distributions and for histograms of the distributions. We analyze a direct link between wheat prices and solar activity in the 17th Century, for which wheat prices and solar activity data (derived from 10Be isotope) are available. We show that for all 10 time moments of the solar activity minimums the observed prices were higher than prices for the correspondent time moments of maximal solar activity (100% sign correlation, on a significance level solar activity.

  16. Characterization of Quantitative Loci for Morphological and Anatomical Root Traits on the Short Arm of Chromosome 1 of Rye in Bread Wheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Sundrish

    2009-01-01

    bread wheat 'Pavon'. Crop Science 43:710-717 Esau K (1965)bread wheat 'Pavon'. Crop Science 43:710-717 Endo TR (1988)42- chromosome triticale. Crop Science 16:688-693 Hackauf B,

  17. Uncertainty in Simulating Wheat Yields Under Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asseng, S.; Ewert, F.; Rosenzweig, C.; Jones, J.W.; Hatfield, Jerry; Ruane, Alex; Boote, K. J.; Thorburn, Peter; Rotter, R.P.; Cammarano, D.; Brisson, N.; Basso, B.; Martre, P.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Angulo, C.; Bertuzzi, P.; Biernath, C.; Challinor, AJ; Doltra, J.; Gayler, S.; Goldberg, R.; Grant, Robert; Heng, L.; Hooker, J.; Hunt, L.A.; Ingwersen, J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Kersebaum, K.C.; Mueller, C.; Naresh Kumar, S.; Nendel, C.; O'Leary, G.O.; Olesen, JE; Osborne, T.; Palosuo, T.; Priesack, E.; Ripoche, D.; Semenov, M.A.; Shcherbak, I.; Steduto, P.; Stockle, Claudio O.; Stratonovitch, P.; Streck, T.; Supit, I.; Tao, F.; Travasso, M.; Waha, K.; Wallach, D.; White, J.W.; Williams, J.R.; Wolf, J.

    2013-09-01

    Anticipating the impacts of climate change on crop yields is critical for assessing future food security. Process-based crop simulation models are the most commonly used tools in such assessments1,2. Analysis of uncertainties in future greenhouse gas emissions and their impacts on future climate change has been increasingly described in the literature3,4 while assessments of the uncertainty in crop responses to climate change are very rare. Systematic and objective comparisons across impact studies is difficult, and thus has not been fully realized5. Here we present the largest coordinated and standardized crop model intercomparison for climate change impacts on wheat production to date. We found that several individual crop models are able to reproduce measured grain yields under current diverse environments, particularly if sufficient details are provided to execute them. However, simulated climate change impacts can vary across models due to differences in model structures and algorithms. The crop-model component of uncertainty in climate change impact assessments was considerably larger than the climate-model component from Global Climate Models (GCMs). Model responses to high temperatures and temperature-by-CO2 interactions are identified as major sources of simulated impact uncertainties. Significant reductions in impact uncertainties through model improvements in these areas and improved quantification of uncertainty through multi-model ensembles are urgently needed for a more reliable translation of climate change scenarios into agricultural impacts in order to develop adaptation strategies and aid policymaking.

  18. Seeding rate and seed size as management techniques for ryegrass (Lolium Multiflorum, Lam) in winter wheat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Casey Lee

    2005-08-29

    . These wheat seed and seed of the Italian ryegrass cultivar AGulf@ were planted in plastic pots containing fritted clay. A replacement series design with 12 plants per pot compared the relative growth in pure culture and competitiveness in mixtures of the two...

  19. Nitrogen Cycling from Pea Forage to Wheat in No-Till Systems Perry Miller1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    . Harvesting early at the first bloom stage used 2.5 in. of soil water compared with 3.1 in. when forage harvest was delayed until plump pod (approx. 3 wk). The most water conservative strategy was winter pea harvested at first bloom with 2.1 in. of soil water use. Wheat Yield Response to Previous Crop At Moccasin

  20. Molecular Characterization of Durable Yellow and Leaf Rust Resistance in Two Wheat Populations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basnet, Bhoja

    2012-07-16

    , characterize and utilize Adult Plant Resistance (APR), a.k.a. slow rusting resistance, in wheat germplasm to promote durability of resistance against rust. The objectives of this study were to 1) understand the genetics of APR to YR and/or LR present in two...

  1. Biocontrol S cience and Technology ( 1999) 9, 529 543 Wheat Seed Colonized with Atoxigenic Aspergillus avus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cotty, Peter J.

    ). When applied as a solid formulation, the biocontrol agent is activated by m oisture (fro m irrigation of biocontrol agents must allow cost eVective production and adequate stability to allow the productBiocontrol S cience and Technology ( 1999) 9, 529± 543 Wheat Seed Colonized with Atoxigenic

  2. UVM Scientists Identify Eco-Friendly Tool for Fighting Wheat Blight AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH (01.10.07)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    UVM Scientists Identify Eco-Friendly Tool for Fighting Wheat Blight AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH (01 to decide when and how to use these eco-friendly techniques. At least 3 million hectares -- or 300 million

  3. Defining the Molecular and Physiological Role of Leaf Cuticular Waxes in Reproductive Stage Heat Tolerane in Wheat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mondal, Suchismita

    2012-07-16

    environments. For the first objective, thirteen wheat cultivars were subjected to a 2-day heat treatment at 38 degrees C at 10 days after pollination (DAP). Leaf cuticular waxes, canopy temperature depression and stomatal conductance were estimated during...

  4. Wheat interactions with Italian ryegrass; forage production and quality in pure and mixed stands of wheat, oats, and ryegrass; and halosulfuron interaction with soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Alexandra Cathryn

    2007-09-17

    OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee, Harry T. Cralle Committee Members, Norman E. Borlaug Rodney W. Bovey James M. Chandler Travis D. Miller Scott A. Senseman Head of Department, C. Wayne Smith May 2007 Major Subject: Agronomy ABSTRACT Wheat... the ecological dimensions of pesticide applications and the use of his laboratory, to Dr. Travis Miller for giving me field space and providing me with an understanding of my career in extension, to Dr. Norman Borlaug for inspiring me to reach for my star...

  5. Training agricultural scientists at the International Center for the Improvement of Maize and Wheat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cote?, Michael E.

    1986-01-01

    agricultural production" (World Food Conference, 1974). At a meeting of the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) held at CIMMYT in Mexico during October, 1975, the consensus of those...TRAINING AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS AT THE INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF MAIZE AND WHEAT A PROFESSIONAL PAPER by Michael E. Cote Submitted to the College of Agriculture of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  6. Revised version Organic Geochemistry 22, 1023-1027, 1994.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Abstract- A Pliocene oil shale (Pula, Hungary), a C3 plant Triticum aestivum and a C4 plant Zea mays were-alkane, n-alkene, Pula oil shale, Botryococcus braunii, alga, plant, waxes, sediment. INTRODUCTION n-rich, Pliocene deposit from Pula (Hungary). The bulk carbon isotope ratio of this oil shale was also determined

  7. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into 30% Post-Consumer Recycled Wood Fiber Paper and Wheat Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    into Canada's pulp and paper industry was investigated by determining the availability of wheat straw along pulp and paper processes were explored. The ecological footprint of each resource was found along in the farming sector along with the social impact wheat paper would have on the current wood pulp and paper

  8. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into the Labour Practices of Sugarcane and Wheat Suppliers Comparing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    into the Labour Practices of Sugarcane and Wheat Suppliers Comparing TreeFrog's Suppliers with Alternatives OF BRITISH COLUMBIA An Investigation into the Labour Practices of Sugarcane and Wheat Suppliers Comparing TreeFrog's Suppliers with Alternatives For Long Term Use At UBC Evan Huang Lisa Lee Amitoj Sandhu Henry

  9. Dryland Winter Wheat and Grain Sorghum Cropping Systems: Northern High Plains of Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unger, Paul W.

    1972-01-01

    -RF and T47F systems, respectively. hfult.iple linear regression analvsis (Ezekiel and Fox, 1959)-was used to establish relationships between available soil water at seeding, growing seayon precipi- tation and wheat grain yields. For this analysis... at seedins for the CS and TVSF-RF systems were sim- ilar during the 1967-70 period, and yields also were similar for the two systems. The yield increases due to additional stored water at seeding were in the range reported by Bond, Army and Lehman (1964...

  10. The influence of awns on yield and certain morphological characters of wheat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norris, Milton J

    1951-01-01

    functions of awns+ They cite several experiments whexe the inexeased transpiration rate of awned heads 'ever awnlsss heals have been demonstrated, aC, km NI, Xiel4 Wheat growers and breedors in the Great Plains generally bolievi that awned varieties ate...)', fowy'f kh4 kQijkla ~";o~e'd eyQres Wished less than @hose from uae14yye4 ay&ac ~ 8e holieved , tract y~of, , thd'e. ~g&oicee, gg~ ~e hoon case+. ~ in]wry cjf the epochs im roaring 'th? ccaAe& . . 'lo avoid this ocscyxicsL- tiom he eoayarek- kielj5...

  11. Wheat Flour Tortilla: Quality Prediction and Study of Physical and Textural Changes during Storage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribeiro De Barros, Frederico

    2010-07-14

    stream_source_info RIBEIRO-DE-BARROS-THESIS.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 202855 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name RIBEIRO-DE-BARROS-THESIS.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859...-1 WHEAT FLOUR TORTILLA: QUALITY PREDICTION AND STUDY OF PHYSICAL AND TEXTURAL CHANGES DURING STORAGE A Thesis by FREDERICO AUGUSTO RIBEIRO DE BARROS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  12. Ozone impacts on the productivity of selected crops. [Corn, wheat, soybean and peanut crops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heck, W.W.; Cure, W.W.; Shriner, D.S.; Olson, R.J.; Heagle, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    The regional impacts of ozone on corn, wheat, soybean, and peanut crops are estimated by using dose-response functions to relate ambient maximum 7 h/d seasonal ozone concentrations to crop productivity data. Linear dose-response functions were developed from open-top field chamber studies. It was assumed that the limited number of cultivars and growing conditions available for the analysis were representative of major agricultural regions. Hourly ozone data were selected to represent rural concentrations and used to calculate maximum 7-h/d average values. Seasonal ozone averages for counties were extrapolated from approximately 300 monitoring sites. Results must be interpreted with knowledge of these assumptions and sources of uncertainty. Impacts are calculated for county units for the conterminous United States with maps showing patterns and tables summarizing the potential magnitude of ozone effects on selected crop yields. The assessment estimates that approximately three billion dollars of productivity could be gained if current maximum 7 hour per day ozone levels were reduced from present levels to below 25 parts per billion. Dollar values are based on 1978 crop prices, without accounting for price effects, to provide an overall estimate of the impact. Of the estimated economic impact, soybean represents 64%, corn 17%, wheat 12%, and peanuts 7%.

  13. List of publications 1. Sun, L., Mller, B. and Schnrer, A. (2013) Biogas production from wheat straw community

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    List of publications 1. Sun, L., Müller, B. and Schnürer, A. (2013) Biogas production from wheat biogas digesters. Biores. Technol. 132, 327­332 4. Manzoor, S., Müller, B., Niazi A., Bongcam-Rudloff E of syntrophic acetate- oxidising culture in biogas reactors exposed to increasing levels of ammonia. Applied

  14. Use of near-isogenic wheat lines to determine glutenin and gliadin composition and funtionality in flour tortillas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mondal, Suchismita

    2006-10-30

    The synthesis of high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin, low molecular weight glutenin and gliadin proteins are controlled by nine major loci present in wheat chromosomes. The loci Glu A1, Glu B1, Glu D1 and Gli A1, Gli B1, ...

  15. Effects of No-Till on Yields as Influenced by Crop and Environmental Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toliver, Dustin K.; Larson, James A.; Roberts, Roland K.; English, B.C.; De La Torre Ugarte, D. G.; West, Tristram O.

    2012-02-07

    Th is research evaluated diff erences in yields and associated downside risk from using no-till and tillage practices. Yields from 442 paired tillage experiments across the United States were evaluated with respect to six crops and environmental factors including geographic location, annual precipitation, soil texture, and time since conversion from tillage to no-till. Results indicated that mean yields for sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with no-till were greater than with tillage. In addition, no-till tended to produce similar or greater mean yields than tillage for crops grown on loamy soils in the Southern Seaboard and Mississippi Portal regions. A warmer and more humid climate and warmer soils in these regions relative to the Heartland, Basin and Range, and Fruitful Rim regions appear to favor no-till on loamy soils. With the exception of corn (Zea mays L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in the Southern Seaboard region, no-till performed poorly on sandy soils. Crops grown in the Southern Seaboard were less likely to have lower no-till yields than tillage yields on loamy soils and thus had lower downside yield risk than other farm resource regions. Consistent with mean yield results, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and wheat grown on sandy soils in the Southern Seaboard region using no-till had larger downside yield risks than when produced with no-till on loamy soils. Th e key fi ndings of this study support the hypothesis that soil and climate factors impact no-till yields relative to tillage yields and may be an important factor infl uencing risk and expected return and the adoption of the practice by farmers.

  16. VALIDATION OF FIRESIDE PERFORMANCE INDICES: FOULING/CORROSION EVALUATION OF MDF PARTICLEBOARD AND BLENDS WITH WHEAT STRAW BOARD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Jay R. Gunderson; Donald P. McCollor

    1999-02-01

    Sauder Woodworking currently fires a large portion of all wood wastes in a boiler producing process steam. It is investigating using particleboard made from wheat straw in its manufacturing process and is concerned with the effects of the inorganics on its boiler. Wheat straw board contains higher ash contents and increased levels of potassium, creating concern over fouling characteristics in Sauder's tight boiler design. In addition, the wheat straw board contains high concentrations of chlorine, which may affect boiler tube corrosion when fired in combination with the particleboard wastes currently generated. Sauder has engaged the services of the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota to investigate the potential detrimental effects of firing blends containing wheat straw on boiler tube fouling and corrosion. Additional funding for this project was provided through the U.S. Department of Energy Jointly Sponsored Research Program (DOE JSRP) project ''Validation of Fireside Performance Indices'' to validate, improve, and expand the PCQUEST (Predictive Coal Quality Effects Screening Tool) program. The PCQUEST fuel database is constantly expanding and adding new fuels, for which the algorithms may need refinement and additional verification in order to accurately predict index values. A key focus is on performing advanced and conventional fuel analyses and adding these analyses to the PCQUEST database. Such fuels include coals of all ranks and origins, upgraded coals, petroleum coke, biomass and biomass-coal blends, and waste materials blended with coal. Since there are differences in the chemical and mineral form of the inorganic content in biomass and substantial differences in organic matrix characteristics, analysis and characterization methods developed for coal fuels may not be applicable. The project was seen to provide an excellent opportunity to test and improve the ability of PCQUEST to handle nontypical soil and biomass minerals.

  17. Grinding energy and physical properties of chopped and hammer-milled barley, wheat, oat, and canola straws

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.S. Tumuluru; L.G. Tabil; Y. Song; K.L. Iroba; V. Meda

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, specific energy for grinding and physical properties of wheat, canola, oat and barley straw grinds were investigated. The initial moisture content of the straw was about 0.13–0.15 (fraction total mass basis). Particle size reduction experiments were conducted in two stages: (1) a chopper without a screen, and (2) a hammer mill using three screen sizes (19.05, 25.4, and 31.75 mm). The lowest grinding energy (1.96 and 2.91 kWh t-1) was recorded for canola straw using a chopper and hammer mill with 19.05-mm screen size, whereas the highest (3.15 and 8.05 kWh t-1) was recorded for barley and oat straws. The physical properties (geometric mean particle diameter, bulk, tapped and particle density, and porosity) of the chopped and hammer-milled wheat, barley, canola, and oat straw grinds measured were in the range of 0.98–4.22 mm, 36–80 kg m-3, 49–119 kg m-3, 600–1220 kg m-3, and 0.9–0.96, respectively. The average mean particle diameter was highest for the chopped wheat straw (4.22-mm) and lowest for the canola grind (0.98-mm). The canola grinds produced using the hammer mill (19.05-mm screen size) had the highest bulk and tapped density of about 80 and 119 kg m-3; whereas, the wheat and oat grinds had the lowest of about 58 and 88–90 kg m-3. The results indicate that the bulk and tapped densities are inversely proportional to the particle size of the grinds. The flow properties of the grinds calculated are better for chopped straws compared to hammer milled using smaller screen size (19.05 mm).

  18. Spontaneous gelation of wheat gluten proteins in a food grade solvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsen Dahesh; Amélie Banc; Agnès Duri; Marie-Hélène Morel; Laurence Ramos

    2015-06-10

    Structuring wheat gluten proteins into gels with tunable mechanical properties would provide more versatility for the production of plant protein-rich food products. Gluten, a strongly elastic protein material insoluble in water, is hardly processable. We use a novel fractionation procedure allowing the isolation from gluten of a water/ethanol soluble protein blend, enriched in glutenin polymers at an unprecedented high ratio (50%). We investigate here the viscoelasticity of suspensions of the protein blend in a water/ethanol (50/50 v/v) solvent, and show that, over a wide range of concentrations, they undergo a spontaneous gelation driven by hydrogen bonding. We successfully rationalize our data using percolation models and relate the viscoelasticity of the gels to their fractal dimension measured by scattering techniques. The gluten gels display self-healing properties and their elastic plateaus cover several decades, from 0.01 to 10000 Pa. In particular very soft gels as compared to standard hydrated gluten can be produced.

  19. Impacts of Farm Policies and Technology on the Economic Viability of Texas Southern High Plains Wheat Farms. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, James W.; Smith, Edward G.

    1985-01-01

    the relative magnitude of real financial growth. ? Acres owned, leased, and controlled at the end of the planning horizon for each iteration indicate the impacts of alternative scenarios on the rate of growth for representative farms. These three statistics...~ :) ,'---( _..----' I ... - Impacts of Farm Policies and Technology on the Economic Viability of Southern High Plains Wheat Farms tiD'" A".,V SEP 04 1985 8-1506 August 1985 THE TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION/Neville P. Clarke, DirectorlThe Texas A...

  20. Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2011-08-01

    Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley straw Jaya Shankar Tumuluru*, L. G. Tabil, Y. Song, K. L. Iroba and V. Meda Biomass is a renewable energy source and environmentally friendly substitute for fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum products. Major limitation of biomass for successful energy application is its low bulk density, which makes it very difficult and costly to transport and handle. To overcome this limitation, biomass has to be densified. The commonly used technologies for densification of biomass are pelletization and briquetting. Briquetting offers many advantages at it can densify larger particles sizes of biomass at higher moisture contents. Briquetting is influenced by a number of feedstock and process variables such as moisture content, particle size distribution, and some operating variables such as temperature and densification pressure. In the present study, experiments were designed and conducted based on Box-Behnken design to produce briquettes using barley, wheat, canola and barley straws. A laboratory scale hydraulic briquette press was used for the present study. The experimental process variables and their levels used in the present study were pressure levels (7.5, 10, 12.5 MPa), three levels of temperature (90, 110, 130 C), at three moisture content levels (9, 12, 15% w.b.), and three levels of particle size (19.1, 25.04, 31.75 mm). The quality variables studied includes moisture content, initial density and final briquette density after two weeks of storage, size distribution index and durability. The raw biomass was initially chopped and size reduced using a hammer mill. The ground biomass was conditioned at different moisture contents and was further densified using laboratory hydraulic press. For each treatment combination, ten briquettes were manufactured at a residence time of about 30 s after compression pressure setpoint was achieved. After compression, the initial dimensions and the final dimensions after 2 weeks of storage in controlled environment of all the samples were measured. Durability, dimensional stability, and moisture content tests were conducted after two weeks of storage of the briquettes produced. Initial results indicated that moisture content played a significant role on briquettes durability, stability, and density. Low moisture content of the straws (7-12%) gave more durable briquettes. Briquette density increased with increasing pressure depending on the moisture content value. The axial expansion was more significant than the lateral expansion, which in some cases tended to be nil depending on the material and operating variables. Further data analysis is in progress in order to understand the significance of the process variables based on ANOVA. Regression models were developed to predict the changes in quality of briquettes with respect of the process variables under study. Keywords: Herbaceous biomass, densification, briquettes, density, durability, dimensional stability, ANOVA and regression equations

  1. Studies on glycoproteins produced by wild type and wheat germ agglutinin-resistant B16 mouse melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinnaduwage, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    Two variants of B16 mouse melanoma cells have been selected in serum-free medium for their resistance to toxic levels of wheat germ agglutinin isolation 1 (WGA). Chromosome analysis and characteristic melanin production showed that the variants are derived from the parent mouse melanoma cell lines. However, the two variants were less tumorigenic in mice compared to the parent B16 mouse melanoma cells. The variants showed a marked decrease in cell agglutination with WGA. Cell agglutination with recin and peanut lectin was not different between the three cell lines, but the two variants showed a slight increase in agglutination with concanavalin A. The binding of /sup 125/I-labeled wheat germ agglutinin to the two variant cells was reduced compared to that of the parent cell. Glycoproteins secreted or shed by the three lines were isolated after growth in serum-free medium in the presence of (/sup 3/He)glucosamine and bovine serum albumin (1%). These metabolically labeled products were fractionated on the basis of their interaction with WGA-Sepharose (2 mg/ml). The WGA-Sepharose affinity chromatographic data suggested a decrease in WGA-binding glycoprotein(s) secreted to the medium by the two variants. The WGA-bound glycoproteins from the two variants upon SDS-PAGE revealed three bands of approximate molecular weights, 92,000, 56,000, and 42,000, none of which were present in the parent cell line (50,000 molecular weight).

  2. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into the Economic Influence of Sugar Cane and Wheat Waste Paper on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that have occurred within the pulp and paper industry. #12;ii After thorough analysis on both the sugar cane, increasing GDP. However, the disadvantage of making this switch is that the Canadian pulp and paper industry into the Economic Influence of Sugar Cane and Wheat Waste Paper on Canadian Economy Daniel Khuu, David Wong, Ka Wang

  3. Impact of process conditions on the density and durability of wheat, oat, canola, and barley straw briquettes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tumuluru, J. S.; Tabil, L. G.; Song, Y.; Iroba, K. L.; Meda, V.

    2015-03-01

    The present study is to understand the impact of process conditions on the quality attributes of wheat oat, barley, and canola straw briquettes. Analysis of variance indicated that briquette moisture content and initial density immediately after compaction and final density after 2 weeks of storage are strong functions of feedstock moisture content and compression pressure, whereas durability rating is influenced by die temperature and feedstock moisture content. Briquettes produced at a low feedstock moisture content of 9 % (w.b.) yielded maximum densities >700 kg/m3 for wheat, oat, canola, and barley straws. Lower feedstock moisture content of 110 °C and compression pressure >10 MPa minimized the briquette moisture content and maximized densities and durability rating based on surface plots observations. Optimal process conditions indicated that a low feedstock moisture content of about 9 % (w.b.), high die temperature of 120–130 °C, medium-to-large hammer mill screen sizes of about 24 to 31.75 mm, and low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa minimized briquette moisture content to 700 kg/m3. Durability rating >90 % is achievable at higher die temperatures of >123 °C, lower to medium feedstock moisture contents of 9 to 12 % (w.b.), low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa, and large hammer mill screen size of 31.75 mm, except for canola where a lower compression pressure of 7.5 to 8.5 MPa and a smaller hammer mill screen size of 19 mm for oat maximized the durability rating values.

  4. Impact of process conditions on the density and durability of wheat, oat, canola, and barley straw briquettes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumuluru, J. S.; Tabil, L. G.; Song, Y.; Iroba, K. L.; Meda, V.

    2014-10-01

    The present study is to understand the impact of process conditions on the quality attributes of wheat oat, barley, and canola straw briquettes. Analysis of variance indicated that briquette moisture content and initial density immediately after compaction and final density after 2 weeks of storage are strong functions of feedstock moisture content and compression pressure, whereas durability rating is influenced by die temperature and feedstock moisture content. Briquettes produced at a low feedstock moisture content of 9 % (w.b.) yielded maximum densities >700 kg/m3 for wheat, oat, canola, and barley straws. Lower feedstock moisture content of <10 % (w.b.) and higher die temperatures >110 °C and compression pressure >10 MPa minimized the briquette moisture content and maximized densities and durability rating based on surface plots observations. Optimal process conditions indicated that a low feedstock moisture content of about 9 % (w.b.), high die temperature of 120–130 °C, medium-to-large hammer mill screen sizes of about 24 to 31.75 mm, and low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa minimized briquette moisture content to <8 % (w.b.) and maximized density to >700 kg/m3. Durability rating >90 % is achievable at higher die temperatures of >123 °C, lower to medium feedstock moisture contents of 9 to 12 % (w.b.), low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa, and large hammer mill screen size of 31.75 mm, except for canola where a lower compression pressure of 7.5 to 8.5 MPa and a smaller hammer mill screen size of 19 mm for oat maximized the durability rating values.

  5. Impact of process conditions on the density and durability of wheat, oat, canola, and barley straw briquettes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tumuluru, J. S.; Tabil, L. G.; Song, Y.; Iroba, K. L.; Meda, V.

    2014-10-01

    The present study is to understand the impact of process conditions on the quality attributes of wheat oat, barley, and canola straw briquettes. Analysis of variance indicated that briquette moisture content and initial density immediately after compaction and final density after 2 weeks of storage are strong functions of feedstock moisture content and compression pressure, whereas durability rating is influenced by die temperature and feedstock moisture content. Briquettes produced at a low feedstock moisture content of 9 % (w.b.) yielded maximum densities >700 kg/m3 for wheat, oat, canola, and barley straws. Lower feedstock moisture content of more »higher die temperatures >110 °C and compression pressure >10 MPa minimized the briquette moisture content and maximized densities and durability rating based on surface plots observations. Optimal process conditions indicated that a low feedstock moisture content of about 9 % (w.b.), high die temperature of 120–130 °C, medium-to-large hammer mill screen sizes of about 24 to 31.75 mm, and low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa minimized briquette moisture content to 700 kg/m3. Durability rating >90 % is achievable at higher die temperatures of >123 °C, lower to medium feedstock moisture contents of 9 to 12 % (w.b.), low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa, and large hammer mill screen size of 31.75 mm, except for canola where a lower compression pressure of 7.5 to 8.5 MPa and a smaller hammer mill screen size of 19 mm for oat maximized the durability rating values.« less

  6. The bulking effect of dietary fiber in the rat large intestine: an in vivo study of cellulose, guar, pectin, wheat bran and oat bran 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gazzaniga, Jeanne Marie

    1985-01-01

    H. Chromium Concentration. IS 19 19 19 25 25 26 TABLE OF CONTENTS DISCUSSION. CONCLUSION. REFERENCES. . Page 32 47 50 LIST OF TABLES Page 1. COMPOSITION OF BASAI FIBER-FREE DIET. . . . 2. COMPOSITION OF THE EXPERIMENTAL DIETS. . . 13 3.... COMPOSITION OF WHEAT BRAN AND OAT BRAN SUPPLEMENTS. . 14 4. EFFECT OF FIBER SUPPLEMENTATION ON FOOD AND ENERGY INTAKE 5. EFFECT OF FIBER SUPPLEMENTATION ON WEIGHT GAIN. . 6. EFFECT OF FIBER ON 24-HOUR FECAL DRY WEIGHT. . . . . 20 21 22 7. EFFECT...

  7. Effects of alien and intraspecies cytoplasms on manifestation of nuclear genes for wheat resistance to brown rust: II. Specificity of cytoplasm influence on different Lr genes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voluevich, E.A.; Buloichik, A.A.; Palilova, A.N. [Institute of Genetics and Cytology, Minsk (Belarus)

    1995-04-01

    Specificity of expression of the major nuclear genes Lr to two brown rust clones in hybrids with the same maternal cytoplasm was analyzed. It was evaluated by a resistant: susceptible ratio in the F{sub 2}. Reciprocal hybrids were obtained from the cross between the progeny of homozygous susceptible plants of the cultivar Penjamo 62 and its alloplasmatic lines carrying cytoplasms of Triticum dicoccoides var. fulvovillosum, Aegilops squarrosa var. typical, Agropyron trichophorum, and isogenic lines of the cultivar Thatcher (Th) with the Lr1, Lr9, Lr15, and Lr19 genes. It was shown that the effect of the Lr1 gene in the cytoplasm of cultivar Thatcher and in eu-, and alloplasmatic forms of Penjamo 62 was less expressed than that of other Lr genes. Cytoplasm of the alloplasmatic line (dicoccoides)-Penjamo 62 was the only exception: in the F{sub 2}, hybrids with Th (Lr1) had a higher yield of resistant forms than those with Th (Lr15). In the hybrid combinations studied, expression and/or transmission of the Lr19 gene was more significant than that of other genes. This gene had no advantages over Lr15 and Lr19 only in cytoplasm of the alloplasmatic line (squarrosa)-Penjamo 62. In certain hybrid cytoplasms, the display of the Lr1, Lr15, and Lr19 genes, in contrast to Lr9, varied with the virulence of the pathogen clones. 15 refs., 5 tabs.

  8. Molecular weight and humification index as predictors of adsorption for plant-and manure-derived dissolved

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chorover, Jon

    -derived dissolved organic matter to goethite T. OHNO a , J. CHOROVER b , A. OMOIKE b & J. HUNT a a Department the sorption to goethite (a-FeOOH) of DOM extracted from: (i) above-ground biomass of wheat straw (Triticum with goethite. The multiple regression equation, based only on MWAP and HIX parameters, explained 76

  9. Wheat Production in Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkins, I. M.; Porter, K. B.; Merkle, O. G.; Lahr, K. A.; Gilmore, E. C.

    1970-01-01

    fomanche2 7 18.5 9 Farly B!ackhul12 7 20.0 9 Eiharkof- 7 18.5 9 Average of checks 7 19.0 9 .\\pent 1 10.1 htec 3 19.0 3 Rlcon 6 19.6 8 raddo 7 20.5 9 raprock 2 19.7 2 'oncho 3 20.7 6 'rocket t 6 18.8 6 .ape 3 19.2 3 .21nes 2 14.8 2 hdt. 3 22...

  10. Weed Control Recommendations in Wheat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morgan, Gaylon; Baumann, Paul A.; Baughman, Todd; Bean, Brent W.

    2008-06-05

    to label for specific weeds. Apply after 2-leaf stage but before flagleaf is visible. Must be thoroughly mixed with water before adding to liquid nitrogen fertilizer. 2,4-D, MCPA, Clarity, Hoelon, Buctril. Refer to label for additional tankmixes... with water before adding to liquid nitrogen fertilizer. 2,4-D, MCPA, Clarity, Hoelon, Buctril. Refer to label for additional tankmixes. Barley Agility SG with TotalSol (Ally Extra+Dicamba) 1.6?3.2 oz Annual broadleaves: mustards, docks, henbit, kochia...

  11. Hessian Fly in Texas Wheat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morgan, Gaylon; Sansone, Chris; Knutson, Allen E.

    2005-07-01

    The Hessian fly came from Russia and may have been introduced into the United States during the Revolutionary War. It has since spread to many parts of the country. By 2005, more than 67 counties in Texas reported Hessian fly infestations...

  12. Pre-Harvest Sprouting in Wheat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morgan, Gaylon

    2005-01-26

    stream_source_info pdf_2046.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3668 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name pdf_2046.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 E-336 1/05 Gaylon Morgan, State...

  13. Wheat Versus Milo for Dairy Cows. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Copeland, O. C. (Orlin Cephas)

    1933-01-01

    . Scoates. A. E.. Agricultural Engineering J. H. Knox. M. S., Animal Husbandry A. K. Mackey. M. S., Animal Husbandry A. L. Darnell. M. A.. Dairy Husbandry *Dean, School of Veterinary Medicine. ?As of August 1, 1938 **In coo~eration with U. S. Department...

  14. Wheat Ridge Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThinWarsaw,What Is a Small Community Wind Project? JumpWhat's

  15. Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Scott A.

    will change. 4 Seed, fertilizer, chemical, and fuel prices are based on projections for 2009. Page 1 #12;Table 179 190 59 84 35 Harvest price3 $4.50 $4.50 $9.30 $4.80 $9.30 $4.50 $4.50 $9.30 $4.80 $9.30 $4.50 $4 $129 $187 $83 Both product prices and input prices may have significantly changed since these estimates

  16. Wheat Ridge, Colorado: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEtGeorgia: EnergyMaryland: EnergyWexford County, Michigan:NewWhat's MyRidge,

  17. Effect of leavening acids on wheat flour tortillas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cepeda, Minerva

    1995-01-01

    leavening acid was first evaluated in combination with sodium bicarbonate at different levels, controlling dough temperature at 38'C. Individual leavening acids did not yield optimum dough properties and had pH higher than 6.0, except for MCP treatments...

  18. The Composition and Value of Wheat By-Products. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1921-01-01

    .. . . . . . . . . . . . . Ether extract 3.33 3.09 6.18 4.25 5.33 3.40 2.93 3.31 8.14 1.94 2.35 3.50 2.22 3.38 2.60 2.17 2.49 1.95 3.23 3.39 1.97 1.90 0.24 2.48 3.05 2.49 .5.13 2.28 1.46 2.98 3.62 3.85 4.11 3.48 5.42 5.50 Protein. 18.13 16....31 19.94 18.00 19.81 18.72 13.08 14.48 16.46 16.38 14.63 14.50 13.25 16.28 12.13 14.50 16.00 15.56 14.00 14.82 11.07 10.91 12.69 15.63 14.56 12.05 8.75 10.44 7.38 16.63 18.50 16.88 15.94 17.81 18.56 19.19 Crude fiber...

  19. Wheat Variety Identification Using MALDI-TOF M Znamirowski1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ens, Werner

    % ethanol in 1.5 mL micro-centrifuge tubes. Each tube is mixed with a vortex stirrer and then incubated to form a saturated solution. The solution was mixed with a vortex stirrer and then centrifuged for 10

  20. Dryland Wheat Response to Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilization. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramp, Betty A.; Bordovsky, David

    1995-01-01

    .172.3 . - ~ LIBRARY TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY JUN 13 1995 TEXAS STATE DOCUMENTS TEXAS STATE DEPOSITORY J]) ID W J1, ?~tiD ~JE~JP@ ~J]1f)]l@@ JPoo?~??JPoo? JFJE)]l1filJLU~? B-1723 Aprill995 Texas Agricultural Experiment Station ? Edward A. Hiler, Director...

  1. Water Conservation in Southern Great Plains Wheat Production. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finnell, H. H. (Henry Howard)

    1944-01-01

    .Iculated effect of other factors was eliminated it was 2.62 bushels ch. INCHES OF JULY RAINFALL PREVIOUS TO SOWING *lnd~cotes number of f~elds averaged In each group F= Vanance Ratio. - 10 5q* the ca per in 85# .SO-1.50 1.51-2.50 2.51-3.50 14... BUSHELS PER F = 9.05 0-40 50-80 90-100 PERCENT OF FIELD AREA AFFECTED BY WlND EROSION *Indrcates number of f~elds overaged In each group F = Var~ance Ratio. factor on lands where water conservation practices were used, probably due to an apparent...

  2. The Phosphorus Compounds of Cotton Seed Meal and Wheat Bran. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rather, J. B. (James Burness)

    1913-01-01

    as in 0.2 per cent hydro? , s H SN s H OD S UH . NHD 1 V S HF UH 5 5H 1 SEEV Y E A W A 1 V J s E A 5 i O A 1 a chloric acid, and that after extraction with acid the remaining phosphorus was no longer soluble in water, but could be dissolved in 0.2..., and that after extraction with acid the remaining phos? ,936,93IL6 U H . NHD 1 V S HF UH 5 5H 1 SEEV Y E AW A 1 V J s E A 5 i O A 1 hh phorus was no longer Soluble in water, but soluble in 0.2 per cent am? monia. The principal acid-soluble and ammonia...

  3. * SGP Central Facility - surrounded by wheat felds, the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAboutXuRod Hunt (208)InventorHow to Save(ANL-IN-03-032) -Feb 16in5

  4. Wheat Belt Public Power Dist | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowa (Utility Company)Idaho)VosslohWest Plains ElectricElectricCountyWhat

  5. The effect of heat treatment on the digestibility of wheat gluten in a model food system containing wheat gluten, corn starch and corn oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, Debra Marie Ruzicka

    1984-01-01

    ), gross prote1n value (GPV), relat1ve nitrogen ut111zat1on (RNU), net protein rat1o (NPR), and relat1ve protein value (RPV), will reveal a change only when the treatment affects the limiting amino acid but show no change when other amino acids...

  6. Interactions of Lignin and Hemicellulose and Effects on Biomass Deconstruction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Hongjia

    2012-01-01

    activity from wheat flour arabinoxylan. Eur J Nutr. 2003generated wheat-endosperm arabinoxylan oligosaccharides -extractable wheat-flour arabinoxylan by digestion with

  7. 2012 school of law catalog 2013 This publication is for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ........................................................................................ 8 Wheat Law Library ................................................................................................................... 8 Library Faculty Members Classification .......................................

  8. www.agbioresearch.anr.msu.edu Northern Michigan FruitNet 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that have allergies to wheat and wheat products. Lastly, producing hard cider fits in with craft brewery

  9. A History of Small Grain Crops in Texas: Wheat, Oats, Barley, Rye 1582-1976. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkins, Irvin Milburn

    1980-01-01

    River from Natchitoches, Louisiana. This would locate it in the present "Old Spanish Fort" area of Montague County. This location was described as "on the south bank of the Red River, on a beautiful prairie, in a very fertile country" (McConnell, 76... by '- Osage Indians in 1795. After Texas was ceded to Spain by the French in 1762, De Mezieres, the agent at Natchitoches, made a treaty with the Taovayos in 1770 (Bolton, 19). The villages of San Bernado, on the Oklahoma side, and San Teodore...

  10. Effects of Sorghum Polyphenols on In Vitro Starch Digestibility and Protein Profile of Wheat Flour Tortillas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunn, Kristen Lea

    2014-04-22

    ” and use as a gluten- free grain ingredient. Phenolic compounds in sorghum bran have beneficial health properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activity (Awika and Rooney, 2004; Yang et al., 2012). Condensed tannins present...), as an alternative grain for use in gluten free breads (Schober et al., 2005; Boswell, 2010), and a natural antioxidant to retard lipid oxidation in ground beef products (Hemphill, 2006). 5 Composition of sorghum polyphenols Sorghum phenolic acids Like...

  11. The effects of flour types and storage temperatures on the staling of wheat flour tortillas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelekci, Nurettin Nuri

    2001-01-01

    stability while tortillas stored under refrigeration had more than three weeks shelf stability. Tortillas began to stale at the optimum staling temperature of bread but much of the firming of tortillas occurred at a similar temperature to the staling...

  12. Performance of Site-Specific Nutrient Management in a Rice-Wheat Cropping System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khurana, Harmandeep S; Sidhu, Ajmer; Singh, Bijay; Singh, Yadvinder

    2009-01-01

    farms in Punjab, India. Descriptive statistics are based onfarms in Punjab, India. Descriptive statistics are based on

  13. Effect of row spacing on yield and yield components of winter wheat cultivars 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Ross Jay

    1977-01-01

    was found at McGrego~ for this trait. Culms per m were increased by 2 decreased row width at all locations and in all cultivars except 'Coker 68-15' and 'TAM N-101' at McGregor. These cultivars decreased in culm number. Five hundred seed weight... width on cereals. He noted that reducing row width generally increased yields, particularly at high population levels. While culms per unit area behaved in a similar manner, data on other yield components were inconclusive or not mentioned. Holliday...

  14. Effect of Rail Rate Deregulation: The Case of Wheat Exports from the South Plains. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, Stephen; Shanmugham, C. V.

    1982-01-01

    Sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) foraging behavior and prey preference (2001- 2004) and the behavior and activity budgets of females with dependent pups (2005- 2010) were studied during the summer (June-August) in Simpson ...

  15. UDP-Xylose-Stimulated Glucuronyltransferase Activity in Wheat Microsomal Membranes: Characterization and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faik, Ahmed

    oligosaccharides along with known arabinoxylan oligosaccharide standards suggests that a portion of the nascent GAX, glucurono(arabino) xylans (GAXs) in vegetative tissues of grasses, and neutral arabinoxylans (AXs) found

  16. SNP-revealed genetic diversity in wild emmer wheat correlates with ecological factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    a significant proportion of variation in SNP allelea significant proportion in variation of SNP allelea significant proportion in variation of SNP allele fre-

  17. Physiology and Genetics of Drought Tolerance in Cowpea and Winter Wheat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verbree, David 1977-

    2012-02-02

    In the wake of rising temperatures, erratic rainfall, and declining ground water table, breeding for drought tolerance in food crops has become a top priority throughout the world. Phenotyping a large population of breeding ...

  18. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Sugarcane Bagasse Paper versus Wheat Straw Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to preserve the environment, paper manufacturers and consumers start to search for alternative raw materials ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT..........................................................................2 2.1 Material

  19. Cropping Sequence Effect of Pea and Pea Management on Spring Wheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    and harvest timing affected both soil N and PASW; a drought from 2 June to 5 July made water the key limiting harvest management on soil N contribution in no-till systems. For example, pea forage could provide crops in no-till systems. Specifically, the goal was to measure the effects of pea harvest timing

  20. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into the Wheat Straw Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for wood pulp paper, many trees from forests have to be cut down every year. The paper industry has a large impact of the paper industry. Additionally, conventional chlorine-based processing methods of wood pulps. The papers sold at UBC are typically created from wood fibres and 30% consumer recycled content from pulp

  1. The effects of dough conditioners on mixing properties, processing characteristics, and texture of wheat flour tortillas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, Robert Gaylon

    1989-01-01

    nature of the interaction between the proteins forming gluten has not been determined but it is certain that disulfide bonding occurs between the gluten fibrils around areas of entanglement, as well as between the glutenin and gliaden. Emulsifiers...

  2. Landsat-based inventory of glaciers in western Canada, 19852005 Tobias Bolch , Brian Menounos, Roger Wheate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocky Mountains where runoff is used for agriculture, urban consumption, and industry. Hydroelectric power generation also relies on glacier runoff in glacierized basins of British Columbia (Moore et al

  3. DOE ZERH Case Study: New Town Builders, Town Homes at Perrin's Row, Wheat Ridge, CO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning multifamily project with 26 units in the cold climate that got a HERS 54 without PV, or HERS 28 with PV, with 2x6 24” on center walls with R-23 blown fiberglass; slab foundation with R-10 rigid at slab edge; plus R-10 rigid exterior; R-22 ICF basement walls; vented attic with R-50 blown fiberglass; 92 AFUE furnace, 13 SEER AC.

  4. The Role of Leaf Epicuticular Wax an Improved Adaptation to Moisture Deficit Environments in Wheat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammed, Suheb

    2014-05-02

    recombinants and 2 replications was used with two distinct treatments (water deficit and control conditions) at each of 5 environments. The inheritance of leaf EW was low (15%) due to a high environmental influence. The RILs grown under water deficit produced...

  5. Yield Performance of Wheat Isolines With Different Dosages of the Short Arm of Rye Chromosome 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maheepala Mudalige, Dinusha Chinthana

    2013-01-01

    Dosage effect of the short arm of chromosome 1 of rye ontraits using a chromosome arm- specific mapping populationDifferent Dosages of the Short Arm of Rye Chromosome 1 A

  6. Effects of the timing and amounts of leavening during processing of wheat flour tortillas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, Janet Lynn

    2001-01-01

    opacities with coated NBC. Some combinations of the acid with NBC enhanced tortilla attributes. Treatments with coated citric acid were unique because they were thick, and had increased diameter, opacity, volume, and shelf stability. SALP with coarse NBC...

  7. Inheritance of resistance to stem rust (race 15B) and several other characters in wheat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shamma, Wifki Shakir El

    1956-01-01

    ? house ..................................... 32 9* Distribution in stem rust reaction of adult Fg plants of the Puno x Ml3 cross in the field at Madison, Wisconsin.............. 33 10. Frequency distribution, mean and standard deviation... ...................... 4l 15* Distribution of pubescent and glabrous Fg plants of the M48 x Ml3 cross for an expect? ed ratio of 3 :1 .......................... 43 16. Distribution of pubescent and glabrous F^ lines of the M48 x Ml3 cross for an expect? ed 1 :2 :1 r...

  8. Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from wheat straw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from a , J. Magid b , B. Yang d , C.E. Wyman c a Forestry and Wood Products, Forest & Landscape, Faculty Received in revised form 8 November 2011 Accepted 9 December 2011 Available online xxx Keywords: Bioethanol

  9. Fattening Lambs on Corn, Milo, Hegari, Wheat, and Oats, with Cottonseed Cake and Alfalfa 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mackey, A. K. (Arthur Kapp); Jones, J. M. (John McKinley)

    1932-01-01

    Engineering J. R. Knox, M. S., Animal Husbandry A. K. Mackey. M. S., Animal Husbandry A. L. Darndx, M. A., Dairy Husband- arian *ian *Dean School of Veterinary Medicine. ?As of December 1, 1932. **In cooperation with U. S. Department of Agriculture. ??On.... MACKEY and J. M. JONES I The lamb-feeding trials reported in this Bulletin were made to gain 1 additional information on the value of Texas-grown feedstuffs for fat- tening lambs. Five trials (11) at the Spur Substation (Texas Bulletin 379...

  10. Effects of amounts and types of sodium bicarbonate in wheat flour tortillas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garza Casso, Jessica Beatriz

    2007-04-25

    Villarreal. Papi, esta tesis te la dedico especialmente a ti, por el gran apoyo que has sido para mi en todos estos años. Por tus enseñanzas y por siempre motivarme y darme fuerza para seguir adelante. Muchas Gracias. Lorena Nohemí Garza Casso, my... beloved sister. Lore, muchas gracias por creer en mi, espero ser siempre un buen ejemplo para ti. Te agradezco mucho todo tu apoyo, y siempre estar a mi lado. Te quiero. Eberhard Laepple, my husband, for your patience and trust; for motivating me...

  11. Disease Control / Moyens de lutte Biological control of fusarium head blight of wheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsiang, Tom

    is a promising biocontrol agent against G. zeae and may be used as a control measure in an integrated FHB culture duale, la souche ACM941 a réduit de 52,6 % la croissance mycélienne de l'agent pathogène et en %. Les résultats de cette recherche suggèrent que la souche ACM941 de C. rosea est un agent de lutte

  12. The vitamin B? content of rust resistant and susceptible strains of wheat and oats 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hobbs, Clifford Dean

    1960-01-01

    grams of Beets agar. This mixture was bested to melt the agar, tubed, stoppered, sterilised, and slanted for future use. Yeast inoculum was prepared by suspending cells of a 24 hour growth of ~th ~jh alt 1 th jo&. f t 11 lt 1- tion with a sterile...

  13. Spectral Impact of Low-Power Laser Radiation on Wheat and Maize Parameters*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borissova, Daniela

    processing system for the agri- culture with 25 mW He-Ne laser which won a Gold Medal at the Plovdiv Fair density, can be used not only in all spheres of engineering but also in biology and plant growing and material are capable of accumulating sunlight energy. Seeds can absorb photons concentrated sunlight

  14. The World Wheat Economy and Agricultural Depression in England, 1873-1896

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Page, Walter P.

    1965-05-01

    was settled, but settlement on a 18 ! William Ashworth, A Short History of the International Economy, 1850-1950 (London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1952), p. 62. ^Abbott Payson Asher, "Man Molds the World," The Challenge of Our Times, eds. Farrington Daniels...

  15. Wheat Root Exudates Affected Phosphorus Uptake and Growth of Soybean in Two Farming Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nie, Yanli; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li; Li, Yuncong

    2009-01-01

    Soil. 2003; 256: 131-137. Nie YL, Tang L, Zheng Y, Effects2001: Zheng Y, Tang L, and Nie YL, Could root exudates ofStatistical Bureau, 2004). Nie et al. (2004) has shown that

  16. ForPeerReview Wheat canopy structure and surface roughness effects on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    and Ocean Salinity Mission 2010 Special Issue paper Keywords: Remote sensing, Microwave radiometry Abstract--The capability of multi-angle observations of the Soil moisture and Ocean Salinity22 (SMOS and Ocean Salinity (SMOS)43 Page 2 of 28Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

  17. Summer rainfall and wheat grain quality: Relationships with the North Atlantic Oscillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) in the preceding winter. The NAO is a large-scale alternation in air pressure between northern and southern regions period after germination when leaves and side shoots emerge in succession until spring. Development little consequence until accession to the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1973. Before this, most

  18. Fertilizer Facts: February 1993 Number 4 Winter Wheat Response to Available Nitrogen and Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    /acre. Nitrogen was applied at seeding in a band 3 inches below and to the side of the seedrow. Sufficient P and K dough stage. Economic return from N was computed as the product of yield and unit grain price ($3.50/bu, more seasonable, air temperatures during grainfill (anthesis to maturity). The 1988 season

  19. Registration of five wheat isogenic lines for leaf rust and stripe rust resistance genes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    to their recurrent parents. Reproduced from Crop Science.Published by Crop Science Society of America. All copyrightsReproduced from Crop Science. Published by Crop Science

  20. Characteristics of dough and tortillas prepared with composite wheat-sorghum flours 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres, Patricia Isabel

    1988-01-01

    and dougn stability increased as the level of sorghum replacement increased. Higher apparent biaxial elongational viscosity measured in uni axial compression wi th tne Instron Universal Testing machine was consistent with a subJectively observed... flour tortillas. At all replacement levels, color did not significantly change. Tortillas with carboxymethyl-cellulose or sodium stearoyl-2- lactylate remained flexible longer than tortillas without improvers. Tne use of sorghum flour as extender...

  1. Cereal Grains and Forage Grasses Cereal Grains and Forage Grasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slik, Ferry

    ) Why did Wheat become so popular? Impact of Gluten Why did it take so long for Wheat to become popular? It took a long time to cultivate a free threshing variety! Cultivated Wheats are hexapoloids 2n 6n #12

  2. Kansas Grows the Best Wheat and the Best Race Women: Black Women's Club Movement in Kansas 1900-30

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Doretha

    2011-12-31

    The rise of club women in the late-nineteenth and early twentieth-centuries challenged established definitions of true womanhood, redefined leadership roles in Black communities, and questioned the complexities of economic ...

  3. Releases of Exotic Parasitoids and Predators of the Russian Wheat Aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov), in the Texas Panhandle, 1987 - 1993. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michels, G.J.; Whitaker-Deerberg, R.L.; Gilstrap, F.E.; McKinnon, L.K.

    1994-01-01

    are specific for shipments from South America; BCWLSA is the code followed by a two- ,. digit year and two-digit shipment number for ship ments of coccinellid predators from Argentina, and PSRF is the code followed by a two-digit year and three...

  4. A diallel analysis of six components of partial resistance to Leptosphaeria nodorum in seedlings of six winter wheats 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruno, Hans Henning

    1987-01-01

    ) was also significant, but of less importance than GCA, indicating some non-additive (i. e. dominance and epistasis) gene effects. For incubation period, one variety (Coker 762) appeared to have the resistant reaction conditioned by a recessive allele. A... are moderately heritable and generally appear to be expressed quantitatively. This complicates the transfer of the resistance and delays the progress of breeding programs. However, there is evidence that suggests that the partial resistance to Septoria...

  5. Physical mapping resources for large plant genomes: radiation hybrids for wheat D-genome progenitor Aegilops tauschii

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    0.76 2DL9-0.76-1.00 Radiation hybrid map BE445242 BE497494BE404371 Figure 7 A radiation hybrid map of chromosome 2D (resolution comparative radiation hybrid map as a framework

  6. Modeling Cotton and Winter Wheat Growth and Yield Responses to Irrigation Management in the Texas High Plains and Rolling Plains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attia Mohamed, Ahmed

    2014-12-17

    were negatively correlated. A modeling study was performed using the cotton growth simulation model, Cotton2K, to investigate the lint yield, WUE, and economic return responses using 31 years weather records (1980 – 2010) from the Texas Rolling Plains...

  7. Characterization of a gene from breeding line WX93D180 conferring resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) in wheat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hung, Hsiao-Yi

    2009-05-15

    recombinations of virulence can occur several times in a single crop season (Ezzahiri et al., 1992). Continuous shifting of predominant races of P. triticina has 12 constituted a substantial challenge to breeders attempting to produce cultivars with durable...

  8. Characterization of the maintained vegetative phase deletions from diploid wheat and their effect on VRN2 and FT transcript levels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Distelfeld, Assaf; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    100:6263–6268 Mol Genet Genomics (2010) 283:223–232 Yan L,Mol Genet Genomics (2010) 283:223–232 DOI 10.1007/s00438-jdubcovsky@ucdavis.edu Mol Genet Genomics (2010) 283:223–232

  9. The effects of seeding rate, row spacing and rates of fertilizer on a short Vs a tall wheat variety 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rao, Srinivas Chamkurgopal

    1968-01-01

    of Mean F freedom square square value Total 161 4497. 39 Seeding rate (SR) Spacing (Spec) Variety (Var) SR x Spac SR x Var Spec X Var SR X Spec X Var Error 2 2 1 4 2 2 4 144 2135. 22 297. 17 97. 87 2. 32 66. 39 53. 54 30. 14 1814...) SR X Spec SR x Var Spac X Var SR X Spac x Var 161 2 2 1 4 2 2 4 137508. 86 5081. 87 6343. 73 930. 61 4281, 16 27317. 97 5217. 95 55. 60 4075. 92 1455. 98 2540. 93 1057. 28 465. 30 2140. 58 27317. 97 1304. 48 27. 80 2037...

  10. The effect of infrared radiation seed treatments on Ustilago tritici (Pers.) Rostr., the causal organism of loose smut of wheat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, John Wesley

    1963-01-01

    and the control were treated with Arasan seed crotectant. The chemical seed treatments served only to minimise losses to Camping-off organ1sms and reduce contamination of the scutellar tissue, The seed were planted in steam-sterilised quarts sand Table 1...

  11. Evaluation of Terrestrial Laser Scanning and Ground Penetrating Radar for Field-Based High-Throughput Phenotyping in Wheat Breeding 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Sean M

    2014-08-05

    laser scanning (TLS) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) have the potential to fill this gap by non-invasively estimating biomass and mapping three-dimensional above- and below-ground vegetation. The research objective was to evaluate the use of TLS...

  12. Nutrient and Residue Management for Improving Productivity and N Use Efficiency of Rice-Wheat-Mungbean Systems in Bangladesh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hossain, Md. Ilias

    2009-01-01

    proper management in Bangladesh. Further on farm adaptivewarranted. References BARC (Bangladesh Agricultural ResearchPakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh (Timsina and Connor 2001).

  13. Rhizodeposition-induced decomposition increases N availability to wild and cultivated wheat genotypes under elevated CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Kessel, Chris

    genotypes under elevated CO2 Marie-Anne de Graaff a,b,*, Chris Van Kessel a , Johan Six a a Department Available online 11 March 2009 Keywords: Elevated CO2 Rhizodeposition N mineralization 13 C 15 N Genotypes a b s t r a c t Elevated CO2 may increase nutrient availability in the rhizosphere bystimulating N

  14. Effect of elevated CO2 and N fertilisation on soil nematode abundance and diversity in a wheat field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neher, Deborah A.

    Author's personal copy Effect of elevated CO2 and N fertilisation on soil nematode abundance). The soil food chain response to elevated CO2 can indicate the changes in soil ecological processes s t r a c t An experimental platform of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) was established in mid June

  15. HIA 2015 DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: New Town Builders, Town Homes at Perrin's Row, Wheat Ridge, CO

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing Programs |Reference StationFranklinHammer and

  16. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01

    Wheat Straw Pretreated for Bioethanol Production. BiotechnolWheat Straw Pretreated for Bioethanol Production. Biotechnol1996) Handbook on Bioethanol: Production and Utilization (

  17. A Simple Method for Enzymatic Synthesis of Unlabeled and Radiolabeled Hydroxycinnamate-CoA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Baidoo, Edward; Keasling, Jay D.; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2010-01-01

    and feruloylation of arabinoxylan. Plant Physiol 144:43–53feruloylation of arabinoxylan in wheat. Evidence forSO, Scheller HV (2002) Arabinoxylan biosynthesis in wheat.

  18. A simple method for enzymatic synthesis of unlabeled and radiolabeled Hydroxycinnamate-CoA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rautergarten, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    and feruloylation of arabinoxylan. Plant Physiol 144:43–53feruloylation of arabinoxylan in wheat. Evidence forSO, Scheller HV (2002) Arabinoxylan biosynthesis in wheat.

  19. Vol. 2007, No. 2, June 1, 2006 Periodical postage paid at Lawrence, KS 66045

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ............................................. 8 Wheat Law Library ................................................................ 8 Library ............................................................ 10 Residency Classification ................................................ 10 Academic Information

  20. Annotation and comparative analysis of the glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium distachyon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tyler, Ludmila; Bragg, Jennifer N; Wu, Jiajie; Yang, Xiaohan; Tuskan, Gerald A; Vogel, John P

    2010-01-01

    from sugar beet arabinan, wheat arabinoxylan, and larch woodM, Fincher GB: Barley arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolases:

  1. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    for conventional bioethanol production are rice, wheat,Conventional ethanol production means bioethanol fermented

  2. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    for conventional bioethanol production are rice, wheat,Conventional ethanol production means bioethanol fermented

  3. Outlooks on Pest Management June 2006 105 2006. Research Information Ltd. All rights reserved

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latchininsky, Alexandre

    grasshoppers and Mormon crickets. A typical bait formulation consists of wheat bran impregnated with carbaryl

  4. The Plant Cell, Vol. 13, 17351747, August 2001, www.plantcell.org 2001 American Society of Plant Biologists Allopolyploidy-Induced Rapid Genome Evolution in the Wheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhattacharyya, Madan Kumar

    reviews of polyploid evolution, including types or categories of poly- ploids, mode of formation, Rehovot 72100, Israel To better understand genetic events that accompany allopolyploid formation, we evolution therefore has been a subject of intensive study for more than half a century. There are several

  5. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into the feasibility of wheat versus wood fibre paper for UBC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    category such as labour conditions, carbon emissions, and cost differences. Through extensive research from University of British Columbia APSC 262 March 29, 2012 Disclaimer: "UBC SEEDS provides students the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report

  6. Alternative Value Capture Systems for Improved Wheat Variety Intellectual Property for Increased Access by Tanzanian Smallholder Emerging Farmers: A Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, Joseph N

    2014-08-26

    market access, and for social, environmental, and economic development of smallholder emerging farmer. The researcher explores the relationships between value chains, intellectual property rights, institutional innovation, and technology transfer...

  7. Control of flowering time and spike development in cereals: the earliness per se Eps-1 region in wheat, rice, and Brachypodium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faricelli, Maria E.; Valárik, Miroslav; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    2006). This comparative genomics approach has been used inrice chromo- Funct Integr Genomics (2010) 10:293–306 RI101M3Funct Integr Genomics (2010) 10:293–306 DOI 10.1007/s10142-

  8. Biomass crops can be used for biological disinfestation and remediation of soils and water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stapleton, James J; Banuelos, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Bioremediation crops should be compatible in rotations with other agronomic crops, such as cotton, wheat, of irrigation water

  9. Warm Bavarian-Style Pretzels 6. Raye's Mustard & Smoked Cheddar...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    15 Bite All-Beef Dog, Sauerkraut, Frizzled Onion, Brioche Bun ... 13 TURKEY BURGER Spicy Tomato, Mozzarella, Whole Wheat Bun ......

  10. Particleboard quality characteristics of saline Jose Tall Wheatgrass and chemical treatment effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Y; Pan, Zhongli L; Zhang, R H; Jenkins, B M; Blunk, S

    2007-01-01

    particleboard from coconut chips-(Cocos nucifera L. ). Holzmade from wheat straw, coconut chips, and bamboo chips

  11. Laboratory Bioassays of Vegetable Oils as Kairomonal Phagostimulants for Grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latchininsky, Alexandre

    -3392, USA #12;grasshoppers and Mormon crickets. A typical bait formulation consists of wheat bran or other

  12. Bioenergy value chains: Whole systems analysis and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) Gaseous fuels Anaerobic digestion Biogas upgrading Gas compression Gasification + H2 Gasification wheat straw Winter wheat (grain) Winter wheat straw Pellets AD gas Biomethane Pyrolysis oil DME Methanol Ethanol Electricity Hot water Butanol Upgraded pyrolysis oil FT diesel FT jet Torrefaction Biomethane (for

  13. Productive Energy of Feeds Calculated from Feeding Experiments with Sheep. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1931-01-01

    beet pulp, clover hay, corn fodder, corn stover, emmer or spelt, molasses, oat straw, rye, soy bean straw, sun- flower silage, whole wheat, ground wheat, and wheat bran. The productive values of corn fodder and of oat straw were greater in balanced..., 69 per cent correct for clover hay, and 77 per cent correct for wheat bran. To put it another way, the assumption of equal value for digestible nutrients would be five times the actual value found by experiment with the wheat straw, nearly 50 per...

  14. Field Experiments at McKinney Sub-Station and Wichita Falls Sub-Station with Wheat, Corn, Cotton, Grasses and Manures. Field Experiments at College Station with Corn, Cotton, Grasses, Peas and Manures. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connell, J. H.; Clayton, James

    1895-01-01

    Cracken . . ............................... Smooth . . . . . . . . 17 .18 ..... . 206 White Frack .................................. do ......... Hi.29 .... .. 207 Lebanon ................................... Bearded ........ 23.55 3.43. 208 Bodine E., 0. K. West .... . ................. Smooth...

  15. Commercial Feeding Stuffs, September 1, 1940 to August 31, 1941. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, James; Fuller, F. D. (Frederick Driggs)

    1941-01-01

    .44 11.59 11.24 9.85 6.03 FEEDS Wheat Gray Shorts and Screenings.._. Wheat Mixed Feed Wheat Mixed Feed and Screenings_.- Dried Whey 13.34 15.55 27.79 5.87 6.07 7.54 6.27 6.00 18.60 21.65 31.90 6.33 5.72 4.07 4.26 4.46 1.69 4...

  16. 35 Years of Farming Systems Research in the Texas Blackland. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hipp, Billy W.; Simpson, Benny J.

    1988-01-01

    sorghum produced higher yields than equally fertilized con tinuous grain sorghum. ? Position of sorghum in a rotation containing cotton, sorghum, and wheat did not influence grain yield. ? Clover fixed adequate nitrogen for the first crop after clover... sorghum yields during 1971-1981 were obtained from rotated sorghum fertilized with 90-90-0 0 more or from fertilizer plus manure. Substitution of clover for wheat in a cotton-sorghum-wheat system did hot influence yields of sorghum if 45...

  17. Salinity Control in Irrigation Agriculture. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longenecker, Donald E.; Lyerly, Paul J.

    1957-01-01

    Barley (grain) Cowpeas (grain) Rye (grain) Sugar beet Corn (field) Wheat Rape Castorbean (grain) Soybean Oats (grain) Rice FORAGE CROPS White clover8 TaIl fesque Wheat- Alkali sacaton Alsike clover Meadow grasses Bermudagrass Red clover fesque... Sudangrass Barley (hay) Ladino clover Orchard- Sweetclover Rhodesgrass Crimson grass Alfalfa Blue clover Millet Ryegrass Panicgrass Rose clover Sour clover Rye (hay) Burnet clover Birdsfoot Wheat (hay) trefoil Oats (hay) VEGETABLE CROPS Lima bean...

  18. Identification of a Xylogalacturonan Xylosyltransferase Involved in Pectin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jensen, Jacob K.

    2010-01-01

    Scheller, H.V. (2002). Arabinoxylan biosynthesis in wheat.and an abundance of arabinoxylan rather than xyloglucan.acid backbone, like the arabinoxylan arabinosyltransferase (

  19. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY - NETL CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION (CX) DESIGNATIO...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2010 Jennifer Knipe 01012010-12312011 Wheat Ridge, Jefferson County, CO A Novel Biogas Desulfurization Sorbent Technology for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell - Based Combined...

  20. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (1) nutrients (1) pathogens (1) plant cells (1) plant tissues (1) poplars (1) proteins (1) sulfur (1) wheat rust fungi, melampsora larici-populina, puccinia graminis (1)...

  1. California farmers adapt mandated marketing programs to the 21st century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carman, Hoy

    2007-01-01

    walnuts, raisins and strawberries) and bene?t-cost estimatesRaisins Rice research Strawberry (processing) Tomato (Rice Sea urchin Sheep Strawberry (fresh) Tomato Walnut Wheat

  2. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    they will extract DNA from wheat germ. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadscell-wall-recipe-lesson-biofuels Page Frequently Asked Questions about Wind Energy This page...

  3. California’s Energy Future: The View to 2050 - Summary Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    ethanol and conventional biodiesel, thus bin 2 and bin 3cane, sugar beet, wheat) Biodiesel from oil crops (e.g. ,hydrocarbons) Algal biodiesel Improved enzymes, catalysts,

  4. California's Energy Future - The View to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    ethanol and conventional biodiesel, thus bin 2 and bin 3cane, sugar beet, wheat) Biodiesel from oil crops (e.g. ,hydrocarbons) Algal biodiesel Improved enzymes, catalysts,

  5. Deleterious activity of cultivated grasses (Poaceae) and residues on soilborne fungal, nematode and weed pests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stapleton, James J.; Summers, Charles G.; Mitchell, Jeffrey P.; Prather, Timothy S.

    2010-01-01

    on wheat seedlings. Crop Science, 35, 1652–1656. Burgos, N.system with cover crops. Weed Science, 44, 355–361. Cheema,

  6. dining.umd.edu GLUTEN FREE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Wendell T.

    dining.umd.edu GLUTEN FREE INGREDIENTS CONTAIN NO WHEAT OR GLUTEN EAT SMART PROPERLY PORTIONED CONTAIN NO TREE NUTS OR PEANUTS EAT SMART GLUTEN FREE VEGAN VEGETARIAN DAIRY NUTS PROPERLY PORTIONED, LOWER IN CALORIES AND WELL BALANCED INGREDIENTS CONTAIN NO WHEAT OR GLUTEN FREE OF ALL ANIMAL AND

  7. SPECIAL NEEDS AND OTHER DIETARY REQUIREMENTS The college's caterers are glad to meet a range of dietary requests, whether arising from a medical or religious

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallace, Mark

    Free GF No wheat products that contain gluten. Products based on wheat-flour should be avoided, including pasta, biscuits, sandwiches, cakes rolls etc Can use gluten- free flour, chickpea flour, rice flour, maize flour, potato flour, cornflour or soya flour. Plain potatoes are gluten-free. Rice and rice

  8. then 4x with bass London calling to the faraway towns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiners, Peter W.

    is coming, the sun is zooming in Engines stop running; the wheat is growing thin A nuclear error, but I is growing thin A nuclear error, but I have no fear Cause London is drowningI live by the river Verse in Engines stop running; the wheat is growing thin A nuclear error, but I have no fear Cause London

  9. American Journal of Botany 92(6): 10451058. 2005. THE -AMYLASE GENES OF GRASSES AND A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mason-Gamer, Roberta J.

    1045 American Journal of Botany 92(6): 1045­1058. 2005. THE -AMYLASE GENES OF GRASSES forms of -amylase in the Triticeae crop plants wheat, barley, and rye: an endosperm-specific form phylogenetic analyses of -amylase gene sequences. First, a phylogenetic analysis of coding sequences from wheat

  10. The Riboflavin Content of Some Animal Feeds and Some Human Foods. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Kemmerer, A. R. (Arthur Russell)

    1945-01-01

    , wheat brown shorts and wheat gray sh Feeds which contained low amounts of riboflavin (below 2.0 p.p.m.) su oil meal, barley, beans, bone meal, citrus pulp, corn and Argentine fish meal, grape nuts, kafir-milo mil1 feed with scl kafir chop and meal...). ..................... ICitrus pulp ..................................... Corn bran ...................................... Cornchop...

  11. Contact information: Jagadeesh Jagarlamudi, Department of Computer Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742 Email: jags@umiacs.umd.edu; Web: http://www.cs.umd.edu/jags/ Related Work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daume III, Hal

    -in-set knowledge mln mln dlrs bank oil cts tonnes company dollar pct NUM wheat lt exchange year dlrs pct shares stock yen company year prices share rate gas revs opec offer currency crude share dlrs group central, commodity, foreign, exchange, rates Grain grain, wheat, corn, forage, oilseed, silage Crude natural, gas

  12. Week 1 Menu Planner This is a sample meal plan for a week based on 2,000 calories each day. Recipes for a number of the dishes are included. Averaged over a week, this

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    slice whole wheat toast with 1 Tbsp. peanut bu er 1/2 large banana 2 slices whole wheat toast with 4 tsp 1 small fresh apple, sliced 1 Tbsp. peanut bu er 2 graham crackers 1 Tbsp. peanut bu er *Menu item

  13. Oklahoma Small Grains Variety Performance Tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Oklahoma Small Grains Variety Performance Tests 2012 - 2013 J.T. Edwards R.D. Kochenower R provided by: Oklahoma Wheat Commission Oklahoma Wheat Research Foundation OSU Cooperative Extension Service Central Research Station, Lahoma Lawrence Bohl, Oklahoma Panhandle Research and Extension Center, Goodwell

  14. Contact:Duane Dailey Senior Writer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, James S.

    projects an average wheat price of $5.10 per bushel for the current market year. Total wheat use, including prices are projected to average $3.68 per bushel for the crop harvested this fall. USDA estimates record yields this year, which moderates price increases for corn, Gerlt said FAPRI projects a soybean price

  15. The Nature of Power Synthesizing the History of Technology and Environmental History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Edmund P.; Allison, James; Finger, Thomas; Brown, John K.; Balogh, Brain; Carlson, W. Bernard

    2011-04-01

    in these transformations and applications. 4. Power is energy put to work, and all organisms use energy to stay alive, so all organisms exercise some power. 5. Energy can be concentrated, which has enabled some people to deploy more power than others. These ideas can lead... they converted solar energy into chemical energy. Farmers used chemical energy in wheat to power their bodies while harvesting the wheat. The mill used energy to turn machinery that ground the wheat into flour. Railroads used stored solar energy in coal or wood...

  16. San Augustine West Side School 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raiford Stripling Associates, Inc.; Stripling, Raiford L.

    2011-08-29

    , AND FORAGE PRODUCTION OF MIXED VARIETAL POPULATIONS, AND PURE STANDS OF VARIETIES IN WHEAT AND OATS By Renaud Wilfred da Gama Rose A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fuli'illment of the requirements.... , is the most important disease of oats. Leaf rust, of wheat, PE~~a Eggg+~ Rob ex Deem. , damages wheat, reduoing the forage and grain production (9). Both diseases are potentially 1mportant hasarda in Texas every year and may cause serious losses (1...

  17. The Compton Caf features a menu focused on locally grown, sustainable produce, meats, and dairy. Our menu changes seasonally to include the freshest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Edward I.

    . For The Early Risers ­ Available 10:00am ­ 11:00am Coffee or Tea ­ Fair Trade Medium Roast Organic Regular Vegetable, Humus, Mesclun greens in a Whole Wheat Wrap ­ Crisp Garden Vegetables, Mesclun Greens, & Choice of Dressing

  18. American Statistical Association Kansas-Western Missouri Chapter 2006 Fall Meeting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, Richard - Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Missouri

    stuffed Portobello mushrooms, rice pilaf, vegetable medley, Green bean armondine, fresh wheat and white, dinner rolls served with butter, cheesecake, brewed regular and decaffeinated coffee, iced tea, and iced

  19. Ackee, Lychee, Longan, Maple Syrup

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    , Collard greens, Daikon, Kale, Kohlrabi, Horseradish, Mustard greens, Radish, Rutabaga, Turnip, Turnip greens, Watercress Asparagus Barley, Corn, Lemongrass, Millet, Oat, Rye, Rice, Wheat, Sugarcane, Sorghum Black currant Poppy Tea Coffee Brazil nut Blueberry, Cranberry, Lingonberry Chinese Gooseberry, Kiwi

  20. Development of specialty breads as nutraceutical products 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hines, Lindsey Renee

    2009-05-15

    containing wheat flour, a need exists for gluten-free bread containing nutraceutical ingredients. In preliminary research, bread containing 12% brown sorghum bran and 5% flaxseed was developed. In an effort to reduce rapid staling, soy flour was substituted...

  1. 2/1/2014 Using TinyWindmills To Power Portable Electronics http://www.simplygreen.co.za/articles/articles/using-tiny-windmills-to-power-portable-electronics.html 1/2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    } SIMPLY GREEN MAGAZINE - ISSUE 6 Open publication - Free publishing In Defense of Gluten: Turns Out Wheat Credit: University of Texas at Arlington Open publication - Free publishing Coca-Cola Matches $1 Million

  2. Fabulous Fibre Participant Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neri, Peter

    · does not have wheat and gluten allergy · not on any cholesterol lowering medication. · non are free to withdraw at any time,without giving a reason What does the study involve? You are invited

  3. Day 1. Thursday, March 6th On March 6th we departed from the Bozeman Airport for Portland. We had to change planes in Seattle and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    content to gluten quality in the different wheat varieties. Some of the tests included the falling numbers day in China. Our morning was free for us to do as we pleased. After eating breakfast most

  4. FINDINGS IN BRIEF 2008 S W E D I S H U N I V E R S I T Y O F A G R I C U LT U R A L S C I E N C E S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Bioethanol is currently mainly made from cultivated crops such as sugar cane, sugar beet, wheat and corn.Sandgren@molbio.slu.se Johan.Schnurer@mikrob.slu.se microdrive.slu.se Efficient production of bioethanol from cellulose

  5. Biofuels supply chain characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Anindya, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    Ethanol can be made from agricultural residues like wheat straw and from crops dedicated to energy use, like switchgrass. We study the logistics aspects of this transformation and determine the main characteristics of the ...

  6. Search results | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    10 results. Video Energy 101: Feedstocks for Biofuels and More See how organic materials like corn stover, wheat straw, and woody plants are being used to create homegrown biofuels...

  7. Energy 101: Feedstocks for Biofuels and More

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    See how organic materials like corn stover, wheat straw, and woody plants are being used to create homegrown biofuels in the United States—all while reducing our dependence on foreign oil and creating jobs in rural America.

  8. Understanding Substrate Features Influenced by Pretreatments that Limit Biomass Deconstruction by Enzymes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Xiadi

    2013-01-01

    GM), galactomannan(GalM), arabinoxylan(AX), and xyloglucan (Lot 10501b), wheat arabinoxylan (Lot 20301b), andGM), galactomannan(GalM), arabinoxylan(AX), and xyloglucan (

  9. Grand Challenges of Characterization & Modeling of Cellulose...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 CN form Wide Variety of Sources Tunicate Wheat Straw Cotton Sugar Beet Sisal Ramie Bacteria Trees Plants Other Algae Banana Potato Alfa, Hemp, Flax, Jute, etc 5 Biosynthesis...

  10. No-tillage and high-residue practices reduce soil water evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    harvest and before corn seeding), we es- timated that 0.89 and 0.97 inches more waterwater content in a Panoche clay loam soil during the transition from wheat harvest

  11. Sweet Potato Fries $4 Maple Dipping Sauce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Company Whale Wheat Ale $5 6th Row Brewery O'Fallon Wheach $6 O'Fallon Brewery St. Louis IPA $5 Urban Chestnut Brewing Company Schlafly Hefeweizen $4 Schlafly Brewery Nightly Specials Monday House Wine

  12. Extreme Value at Risk and Expected Shortfall during Financial Crisis Lancin Kourouma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    This paper investigates Value at Risk and Expected Shortfall for CAC 40, S&P 500, Wheat and Crude Oil indexes such as the October 1987 stock market crash, the 2000 Internet bubble burst or the 2007 subprime crisis, calls

  13. Biological studies and characterization of the High Plains Disease pathogen 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mirabile, Joanna

    2001-01-01

    High Plains Disease (HPD), which is a recently recognized affliction causing up to 80% yield losses in corn and wheat, has been suspected to be of viral origin, however no clear evidence existed to validate this claim. ...

  14. Impact of Agricultural Practice on Regional Climate in a Coupled Land Surface Mesoscale Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooley, H.S.; Riley, W.J.; Torn, M.S.; He, Y.

    2004-01-01

    winter wheat belt on the mesoscale environment, Monthlygeneration Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5), NCAR,in a Coupled Land Surface Mesoscale Model H.S. Cooley Energy

  15. Influence of Epicuticular Wax on Heat and Drought Tolerance in TAM 112 X TAM 111 Populations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sengodon, Padmavathi

    2015-08-10

    High temperature and drought are the major constraints to wheat production globally. However, plants cope with stress by manipulating their physiological processes. This study investigates the role of leaf and glume wax ...

  16. Barley tortillas and barley flours in corn tortillas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitre-Dieste, Carlos Marcelo

    2001-01-01

    Barley tortillas (100%) were easily processed using corn tortilla technology. Flavor and color of barley tortillas were different from those of corn or wheat tortillas. Barley tortillas were generally darker, maybe due to ...

  17. Roberta Jaffe, Founding Director, Life Lab Science Program, Co-Founder of Community Agroecology Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farmer, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    into the dog food? The rat poison that got into the dog fooda chemical used in rat poison, was found in recalled pethundreds of others. The poison was added to wheat Robbie

  18. volume 17 Number 12 1989 Nucleic Acids Research The 5S RNA gene minichromosome of Euplotes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olins, Ada L.

    extract and 1.33 g/L anhydrous sodium acetate. Algae were harvested and resuspended in Pringsheim solution boiled wheat seeds in Carolina Spring-water. Large-scale cultures of Euplotes were grown in trays

  19. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a magnetic fields similar to those produced by a MRI-linac system. Elekta-MD Anderson Cancer Center Research Agreement. less June 2014 Synthesis of endosperm proteins in wheat...

  20. Biochemical & Thermochemical High Throughput Characterization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    20 40 60 80 100 120 140 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 Frequency Corn Stover Corn Cob Miscanthus Wheat...

  1. Utilization of Sorghum in El Salvador: Grain, Flour and End-Product Quality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinilla, Luz Eliana

    2012-02-14

    There is limited information on the utilization of sorghum for human consumption in El Salvador. Increased wheat prices have driven the baking industry to seek alternative cereals for manufacturing of their products. ...

  2. Diet and nondiet predictors of urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid in NHANES 1999-2002.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riederer, Anne M; Bartell, Scott M; Barr, Dana B; Ryan, P Barry

    2008-01-01

    other than 100% (g) M&M’s peanut candies (g) Pork bacon (g)fillet/tenders, breaded (g) Peanut butter (g) Occupation (wheat bread, and M&Ms peanut candies had 5th–95th percentile

  3. Diet and Nondiet Predictors of Urinary 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid in NHANES 1999â??2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riederer, Anne M; Bartell, Scott M; Barr, Dana B; Ryan, P. Barry

    2008-01-01

    other than 100% (g) M&M’s peanut candies (g) Pork bacon (g)fillet/tenders, breaded (g) Peanut butter (g) Occupation (wheat bread, and M&Ms peanut candies had 5th–95th percentile

  4. CLASSIFICATION OF FOOD KERNELS WITH IMPACT ACOUSTICS TIME-1 FREQUENCY PATTERNS2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    , Classification.24 25 INTRODUCTION26 Food kernel damage caused by insects, fungi and mold are major sources degrades the quality and value of wheat and is one of the most difficult29 #12;2 defects to detect

  5. Characterization of Sclerotinia minor populations in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henry, Merribeth Annette

    2009-06-02

    Agriculture is a crucial component of the economy of Texas with millions of pounds of peanuts, cotton, wheat, and corn produced annually. However, Texas agricultural crops are not exempt from pathogens, especially Sclerotinia ...

  6. Search results | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    5 of 5 results. Video Energy 101: Feedstocks for Biofuels and More See how organic materials like corn stover, wheat straw, and woody plants are being used to create homegrown...

  7. History of Hydropower

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Humans have been harnessing water to perform work for thousands of years. The Greeks used water wheels for grinding wheat into flour more than 2,000 years ago. The evolution of the modern...

  8. Extensional rheology of bread dough

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Shen Kuan (Trevor Shen Kuan)

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the extensional properties of wheat flour dough on the Filament Stretching Rheometer (FISER), in which the sample approaches uniform uni-axial extension flow at a constant strain rate over a large portion ...

  9. Methods to improve and measure texture of sorghum cookies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leon-Chapa, Martha Cecilia

    1999-01-01

    close to wheat flour control. Enzymes (?-amylase, xylanase, pentosanase, and protease) and two reducing agents (L-cysteine and sodium metabisulfite) at different concentrations did not have detectable effects on Mexican style cookies made with 100% SF...

  10. Characterization of secondary grain dust explosions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schulman, Cheryl Wendler

    1983-01-01

    dust less than 106 um . . . ~ . . ~ ~ ~ ~ 27 4 Coulter Counter particle size distribution for wheat dust less than 106 um . 28 5 Coulter Counter particle size distribution for rice dust less than 106 um ~ 29 6 Coulter Counter particle size... distribution f' or wheat/sorghum dust, less than 106 um . 7 Coulter Counter particle size distribution for soybean dust less than 106 um 31 8 Coulter Counter particle size distribution for corn dust between 106 and. 250 um 9 Coulter Counter particle size...

  11. EA-1940: Proposed Federal Loan Guarantee for Montana Advanced Biofuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Montana Advanced Biofuels (MAB) submitted an application to DOE for a Federal loan guarantee to support construction of a multi-feedstock biorefinery that would produce approximately 115 million gallons per year of ethanol in Great Falls, Montana. The biorefinery would utilize renewable biomass in the form of barley and wheat to produce ethanol and other by-products, including wheat gluten, barley bran, and barley meal. NOTE: The EA is cancelled because the applicant withdrew from the program.

  12. The effect of sorghum particle size on digestibility of nutrients at the terminal ileum and over the total digestive tract in growing-finishing pigs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owsley, Walter Franklin

    1979-01-01

    that microbial fermentation in the hind- gut exerts on total tract amino acid digestibilities. A comparison of chromic oxide and ytterbium chloride (Yb) as in- digestible markers with the results of total collection indicated that both markers accurately... through a 1. 5 mm screen and wheat cracked by grinding twice through a 6 mm screen. ?easured at the terminal ileum, digestibilities of all amino acids except glutamic acid and serine were higher (P&. 05) for the finely ground wheat than the cracked...

  13. Profitable Small Grain Production In the Texas Gulf Coast. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Travis D.; Livingston, Steve

    1987-01-01

    tiller formation. Early or heavy rainfall can delay planting dates, occasionally to the point that management decisions must be altered regarding types of wheat to plant. Inland soils are more varied, with a wider range of textures and generally... red winter Florida 302 Pioneer 2550? Terral 817 Coker 747? Hard red spring DK?22 S, DK 49 S Nadadores 63 ?Not recommended for the Gulf Coast. considerable risk of crop failure. Grazing of day neutral winter wheats reduces the risk of spring freeze...

  14. The Net Effect of Exchange Rates on Agricultural Inputs and Outputs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Myriah D.

    2012-10-19

    throughout my time here at Texas A&M. viii NOMENCLATURE BACE Bayesian Averaging of Classical Estimates BU Bushel CWT Hundred-weight DAP Di-ammonium Phosphate EIA Energy Information Administration ERS Economic Research Service RFS Renewable Fuel... on operating capital. A portion of the inputs, fertilizer, chemicals, and fuel, are imported. For corn and wheat, inputs are similar and according to the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City ?wheat and corn producers feel more of a pinch from higher energy...

  15. A Van Gogh inspired 3D Shader Methodology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Suruchi

    2013-08-01

    Figure 1. The Night Caf? by Van Gogh, 1888 [13] ......................................................... 6 Figure 2. Detail of Wheat Feld with Cypresses by Van Gogh, 1889 [14] ........................ 7 Figure 3. (Left) Woodblock print. The Plum Garden.... Detail of Wheat Feld with Cypresses by Van Gogh, 1889 [14] Lev Manovich developed ?Cultural Analytics? research study group in 2007 at Software Studies Initiative, UCSD. His research focuses on exploring and visually examining large cultural data...

  16. A detailed study of a method for detecting susceptibility and resistance of gramineous plants to common root rot 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Richard James

    1960-01-01

    -non-infested Amendments. l3 Sterilised Infested Amendments. . . . . . . , . . . 36 Live Inoculum. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 4O 53 SUMMARY . LITERATURE CITED' ~ ~ 58 62 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page The influence of sterile whole New Nortex oatsg... or autoclaved wheat, barley, oat, rice and sorghum grains, oat hull-oat mash, oat meal and cornmeal-soil mixtures (7, 14, 29, 31, 36, 43, 45, 46). Christensen (7) pre- pared inoculum of H. sativum on sterilised wheat seed. By mixing inoculum of this type...

  17. Prepayments of feed in cattle feeding operations: An emphasis on tax aspects. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheat, Gary Don

    1972-01-01

    PREPAYMENTS OF FEED IN CATTLE FEEDING OPERATIONS: AN EMPHASIS ON TAX ASPECTS A Thesis by Gary Don Wheat Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&K University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1972 Major Subject: Accounting PREPAYMENTS OF FEED IN CATTLE FEEDING OPERATIONS: AN EMPHASIS ON TAX ASPECTS A Thesis by Gary Don Wheat Approved as to style and content by: (Cha rman of o ttee) (Head of Department) (Member) Ql (Member...

  18. Surface soil moisture estimation with the electrically scanning microwave radiometer (ESMR) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theis, Sidney Wayne

    1979-01-01

    6. 00 7. 50 9. 00 10. 50 12. CGRR. CGEFF. = -0. 8141 API SLGI'E = -0. 0227 Figure 8. Fall scatter plot for six winter wheat grid points. CI O NGN-NHEAT CRGPLANDS FALL (AUG12-NGV1] C3 1? ) lA V] Zo tL)~ C3 'k~ 0 ~~ ate + 0 pe+ Clt ~v... for six non-wheat croplands grid points. CI co WINTER WHEAT AREAS WINTER (NGV2-FEB27) )Lo cr) Ko tc) co C3 A ea m+, . +, e + x $ x t ~ + " + xx x w + +y w xtx X + & ~ e o + + + 0 x p ~ 4L +~ 4 4x e + + x x + + t (( x (2, 5) (1, 5...

  19. Evaluation of agricultural residues for paper manufacture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alcaide, L.J.; Baldovin, F.L.; Herranz, J.L.F. (Univ. of Cordoba (Spain))

    1993-03-01

    Five agricultural residues-olive tree fellings, wheat straw, sunflower stalks, vine shoots, and cotton stalks-were evaluated for use as raw materials for paper manufacture. The untreated raw materials and their pulps were tested for hot-water solubles, 1%-NaOH solubles, alcohol-benzene extractables, ash, holocellulose, lignin, [alpha]-cellulose, and pentosans. Handsheets were tested for breaking length, stretch, burst index, and tear index. The results showed wheat straw to be the most promising material. Vine shoots showed the least promise.

  20. Farm Feed Processing. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, W. S.; Sorenson, J. W.; McCune, W. E.

    1961-01-01

    PLANNING- A DESI-N , s ~IiABY mUMENTS DNISfOH A & M COUEGE Of TOW CWfGE STATN)N, ; l- \\.~i - MECHANIZATION OF FEED processing and handling oper- ations should be approached with caution. Mechanization is justified for one or more of the following..../hr. 'peed from HP per 10 Trn horizontal, o ft. length Wheat Oats Cornlneal Angle Approximate Maximum capacit!., Speed from HPper10 bu. / hr. 1 rpm horizontal, O ft. length Wheat Oats Cornmeal I Capacities are interpolated from several sources...

  1. Availability of Some Nitrogenous and Phosphatic Materials. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1922-01-01

    at this Station, some of which are reported in this bulletin. Some of these tests relate to the use of the materials as fertilizer, while others relate to their possible value to plants when occurring as soil minerals. These tests have been made from time... to ascertain the availability of the nitrogen in the wheat which was charred. The experiments were carried out in the usual manner. The charred wheat was ground, and a quantity used containing 0.1 gram of nitrogen to 5000 grams of soil. Acid phosphate...

  2. India and Tibet: Geographical Considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinha, Nirmal Chandra

    and winter. the heat and cold are minimized, and the fear of famine. beasts of prey. poisonous serpents, poisonous insects, heat and cold are not great. "(Besides) the snow-.'lountains and other mountains there are great lakes of clear cool sparkling... and minerals were the food crops: barley, wheat, buck wheat, maize, millet, oats, peas and even rice. Snow mountains, great lakes and mighty rivers indeed made Tibet a happy land. An ancient hymn describes Tibet as "The centre of snow mountains: the source...

  3. Bulletin of Tibetology: Volume 13 Number 3 : Full issue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Namgyal Institute of Tibetology

    and winter. the heat and cold are minimized, and the fear of famine. beasts of prey. poisonous serpents, poisonous insects, heat and cold are not great. "(Besides) the snow-.'lountains and other mountains there are great lakes of clear cool sparkling... and minerals were the food crops: barley, wheat, buck wheat, maize, millet, oats, peas and even rice. Snow mountains, great lakes and mighty rivers indeed made Tibet a happy land. An ancient hymn describes Tibet as "The centre of snow mountains: the source...

  4. Polymeric Assembly of Gluten Proteins in an Aqueous Ethanol Solvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsen Dahesh; Amélie Banc; Agnès Duri; Marie-Hélène Morel; Laurence Ramos

    2014-09-02

    The supramolecular organization of wheat gluten proteins is largely unknown due to the intrinsic complexity of this family of proteins and their insolubility in water. We fractionate gluten in a water/ethanol (50/50 v/v) and obtain a protein extract which is depleted in gliadin, the monomeric part of wheat gluten proteins, and enriched in glutenin, the polymeric part of wheat gluten proteins. We investigate the structure of the proteins in the solvent used for extraction over a wide range of concentration, by combining X-ray scattering and multi-angle static and dynamic light scattering. Our data show that, in the ethanol/water mixture, the proteins display features characteristic of flexible polymer chains in a good solvent. In the dilute regime, the protein form very loose structures of characteristic size 150 nm, with an internal dynamics which is quantitatively similar to that of branched polymer coils. In more concentrated regimes, data highlight a hierarchical structure with one characteristic length scale of the order of a few nm, which displays the scaling with concentration expected for a semi-dilute polymer in good solvent, and a fractal arrangement at much larger length scale. This structure is strikingly similar to that of polymeric gels, thus providing some factual knowledge to rationalize the viscoelastic properties of wheat gluten proteins and their assemblies.

  5. Integrating Food Production and Biodiversity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with food, and NPK fluxes at farm level. The biofuels were crude rapeseed oil, horse draft, ethanol from a combination of a workhorse and a crude rapeseed oil-fuelled tractor. Ethanol from wheat had the largest impactIntegrating Food Production and Biodiversity Energy and Scale Issues in Implementation Kristina

  6. The Impacts on Mean and Variance of Returns-Over-Variable-Costs of Adding Chickpeas to a Traditional Dryland Crop Rotation1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    into returns for an entire farm. Our representative farm consists of 1,500 acres with machinery, labor chickpeas presents a higher risk/higher reward option. This higher risk stems from additional production risk and marketing risks. We also find that the agronomic benefits to wheat production from

  7. Climate and Climate Change, Professor James Booth PRELIMINARY Spring 2014 Syllabus (subject to refinement/updating)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolberg, George

    global warming and climate change. There is a large body of evidence that this is due to humankind that it is not clear to most what should be done. The purpose of this course is to separate the wheat of truth from this chaff of misinformation and to provide a thorough understanding of the scientific basis for global

  8. Q. If I suffer from food allergies will I be able to eat safely on campus?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutcheon, James M.

    originally developed by the National Foundation for Celiac Awareness (NFCA) for Gluten Free Diners. Brittany at "No Whey" include many gluten-free and lactose-free choices. #12;About Brittany Parham As Eagle Dining to top 9 allergen free choices. These allergens include: Dairy, Soy, Wheat, Fish, Shellfish, Tree Nut

  9. Meet the trillions of tiny allies that

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennett, Daniel

    & A n WALKABLE TOWNS n IS GLUTEN-FREE FOR ME? MAGA ZINE OF THE GER ALD J. AND DOROTHY R. FRIEDMAN SCHOOL the masses moving. By Julie Flaherty 17 Gluten Free-for-All Why avoiding wheat protein isn't necessarily

  10. Bagels: Plain & Cinnamon Raisin Cereal: Cinnamon Chex, Brown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenderholm, Elaine

    Free Meal * Gluten Free Friendly Options Spring 2015 Alfredo Sauce Brown Rice Pasta Cheese Ravioli Gluten Free Meals or Menu Planning? Contact our Registered Dietitian, Sarah Formoza at x3284 or Email sarah.formoza@oswego.edu Gluten Free Diet = No Wheat, Rye, Barley or Malt Ask a Manager: Product

  11. BcBeaker's Caf Breakfastserved from 7 a.m. -10:30 a.m. Monday -Friday

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    eggs made your way, choice of ham, bacon or sausage, with either white or wheat toast Breakfast Quesadilla $4.99 Choice of bacon, ham or sausage with scrambled eggs, diced tater tots and shredded Monterey your way, choice of ham, bacon or sausage, with cheese on either Texas toast or croissant Without ham/bacon

  12. Contracting Rail Freight Services for Country Elevators in the Texas Panhandle. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, Stephen

    1984-01-01

    that of the 10 elevators to be up graded. The plant size cost model, which was most lik~ ~he bushel storage capacity of the upgraded facIhty, was selected for estimating elevator costs. Plant depreciation estimates of existing plants varied and in some cases... ............................................................................ 4 Wheat Supply and Farm Storage Capacity ..................................... 4 Farm Assembly Cost. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 4 Farm Storage Cost...

  13. Inferences from Genomic Models in Structured Populations L. Janss1, G. de los Campos2, N. Sheehan3, D. Sorensen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schierup, Mikkel Heide

    axes of variation in humans. (marker dependent) Proportion of (marker dependent) variance explained largest axes of variation in wheat. Two rightmost figures: first vs second and third vs second largest of genomic heritability (y- axis) computed using REPMOD after accounting for the proportion of variance due

  14. Economic Assessment ofEconomic Assessment of BiofuelBiofuel Support PoliciesSupport Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Economic Assessment ofEconomic Assessment of BiofuelBiofuel Support PoliciesSupport Policies Press Sugar cane Maize Rape oil Sugar beet Wheat Brazil USA EU EU EU US$/lgasolineequivalent Year, fuel type oil 40 55 #12;How Effective areHow Effective are BiofuelsBiofuels Support Policies?Support Policies

  15. IPM packages deliver food security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isaacs, Rufus

    IPM packages deliver food security For the past 5 years IPM CRSP researchers have been developing Package for wheat production in Tajikistan Central Asia Integrated Pest Management Collaborative Research State University; Dr. Anvar Jalilov, Tajik Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Tajikistan. An IPM package

  16. Supplemental Material for Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Supplemental Material for Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No Summer, Kiev, Ukraine 5 Agrometeorology Department, Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Centre, Kiev, Ukraine ­ barley and maize) and 71 (for winter wheat) Ukraine stations. The total seeded areas are from 2002

  17. PROJECT TITLE: Evaluation of Seed Boot and Furrow Opener Configurations for Optimizing Seed and Fertilizer Placement in Simultaneous, Single-Pass Operations with Air Drills under

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Seed and Fertilizer Placement in Simultaneous, Single-Pass Operations with Air Drills under Differing: It is the objective of this project to evaluate air drill openers for the production of cereal grains under varying-seeded into spring wheat stubble at Havre in 2003 is presented in Table 1. Yield performance data for all air drill

  18. PROJECT TITLE: Evaluation of Seed Boot and Furrow Opener Configurations for Optimizing Seed and Fertilizer Placement in Simultaneous, Single-Pass Operations with Air Drills under

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Seed and Fertilizer Placement in Simultaneous, Single-Pass Operations with Air Drills under Differing: It is the objective of this project to evaluate air drill openers for the production of cereal grains under varying-seeded into spring wheat stubble at Havre in 2001 is presented in Table 1. Yield performance data for all air drill

  19. PROJECT TITLE: Evaluation of Seed Boot and Furrow Opener Configurations for Optimizing Seed and Fertilizer Placement in Simultaneous, Single-Pass Operations with Air Drills under

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Seed and Fertilizer Placement in Simultaneous, Single-Pass Operations with Air Drills under Differing of this project to evaluate air drill openers for the production of cereal grains under varying cropping-seeded into spring wheat stubble at Havre in 2004 is presented in Table 1. Yield performance data for all air drill

  20. REVIEW PAPER Strategies for reducing the carbon footprint of field crops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    REVIEW PAPER Strategies for reducing the carbon footprint of field crops for semiarid areas emission. To provide the potential solution, we estimated the carbon footprint [i.e., the total amount the effect of crop sequences on the carbon footprint of durum wheat. Key strategies for reducing the carbon

  1. Mining MultipleLevel Association Rules in Large Databases \\Lambda Jiawei Han Yongjian Fu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Yongjian

    are proposed based on the ways of sharing intermediate results, with the relative performance tested to ``drill­down'' and show that 75% of people buy wheat bread if they buy 2% milk. The association substantially, which may lead to the generation of many uninteresting associations at high or intermediate

  2. ERSDAC and Its ActivityERSDAC and Its ActivityERSDAC and Its Activity ERSDACERSDACEarth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center, Tokyo, Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Exploration and Exploitation · Monitoring , Management of Agriculture(rice, wheat) and Forestry. · Disaster and Reflection Radiometer) - NASA, U.S. - CERESCERES ((Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) MISRMISR) Remote Sensing Data Center Operation of ASTER "Ground Data System" (GDS) and PALSAR GDS · Production

  3. World production, consumption and international trade of rice 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Anwaruzzaman

    1957-01-01

    crop used for that purpose. Rice stands almost unique in the form in vhioh it is oonsumed as food. It is generally boiled or steamers, and eaten vithout undergoing any further ohange. Other cereals& such as wheat and barley, undergo various changes...

  4. south santa clara valley hIstorIcal ecoloGy stuDy including Soap lake, the upper pajaro river, and llagaS, uvaS-carnadero, and pacheco creekS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and the cattle industry 23 Railroads and wheat 24 Orchards, dairies, and wells: agricultural intensification (1874-1930) 25 Artesian wells 25 Dairies 26 Orchards 28 Irrigation 29 Drainage 31 Millers Canal 32 The groundwater problem 32 Flood control and urban expansion: modern era (1930-present) 33 Water storage 33 Flood

  5. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into the use of Rapidly Renewable Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the construction of the proposed building would contribute towards the achievement of this goal. This report frequent replacement than linoleum; and are damaging to the environment upon disposal. Linoleum releases is a pressed fiber board consisting of 100% wheat ­ as opposed to a traditional medium-density fiberboard (MDF

  6. Future Contracts and Options Commodity markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    in specific areas: ­ New York Mercantile Exchange(NYMEX): concentrates in energy products such as crude oil, soybean oil and wheat ­ London Metal Exchange (LME): specializes in metal trading such as copper, lead are contracts for future delivery of the underlying asset ( corn, oil, livestock, precious metal, etc

  7. 2002 Drought History in Colorado A Brief Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    depleted reservoirs Severe agricultural impacts Wheat Cattle Irrigated crops in jeopardy Intense heat Urban storms Hot & Dry weather continued Crops withering Urban water concerns growing Higher humidity and lighted winds calmed wildfires later in July #12;11 Widespread Drought By late July 2002, Colorado near

  8. BioMed Central Page 1 of 10

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mason-Gamer, Roberta J.

    of a -amylase gene in representatives of five genera in the wheat tribe, Triticeae. Its presence vs. absence was examined with reference to the -amylase gene tree topology, and in light of sequence comparisons of the -amylase elements to Triticeae Stowaway elements in the Entrez nucleotide database. Among the sequences

  9. Gold package menu -Week 2 This menu is served with fresh fruit, Fair-trade tea/coffee and herbal infusions, and a selection of Frobisher's juices.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussex, University of

    and fish choices are offered. Monday Tuesday Wednesday Chef's bread selection with olive oil and balsamic vinegar (v) Ramekins Meat- Harissa, butter bean and beef chilli with bulgur wheat Fish- Traditional fish vinegar (v) Ramekins Meat-Roast chicken with roasted new potatoes and red wine jus Fish-Salmon fish cake

  10. www.schoolofpublicpolicy.sk.ca JULY2010ISSUE4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    . The growth in the wheat trade was accompanied by lower trade costs and more facilitative commercial, monetary, and rapid technological innovation and dissemination.8 The nineteenth century witnessed a revolution of the nineteenth century and early twentieth century, a rapid re- duction in the cost of transporting goods

  11. Cooperative Extension System Cattle Producer's Library

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Laughlin, Jay

    1150-1 Cooperative Extension System Cattle Producer's Library Cow-Calf Section CL1150 efficiency be used when balancing rations for beef cattle. One other ben- efit of the ammoniation process of wintering beef cattle. Those who have wheat or barley straw may find that ammoniation could solve

  12. Irrigation Resources to Grow Biofuel:Irrigation Resources to Grow Biofuel: A National Overview with Role of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Christopher

    1 Irrigation Resources to Grow Biofuel:Irrigation Resources to Grow Biofuel: A National Overview about the water and land potentially used forabout the water and land potentially used for biofuel Dry Beans Other small Wheat Barley Pasture Other Crops Other Hay Potatoes Veggies Silage corn Berries

  13. Laboratory Policy Methods of Analysis & Quality Assurance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Laboratory Policy Methods of Analysis & Quality Assurance The Cereal Quality Lab (CQL) uses quality data. The laboratory participates in collaborative studies organized by AACC, Wheat Quality by the laboratory is treated confidentially and will not be revealed to third parties without prior consent

  14. InsideIllinoisF o r F a c u l t y a n d S t a f f , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s a t U r b a n a -C h a m p a i g n Aug. 16, 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bashir, Rashid

    at the im- pact of elevated carbon dioxide on wheat crops (Arizona and Germany) and on rice (Japan). Soy that deliver at crop level a precisely regulated flow of carbon dioxide, based on wind speed and direction, pumped from a 50-ton solar- powered tank. Next summer, soybeans will grow on an adjacent 40 acres dotted

  15. What plants does our food come from? Use the words from the word bank to correctly write the name of the plants in the boxes below. Each correct answer is one point.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Edward I.

    Name: What plants does our food come from? Use the words from the word bank to correctly write the name of the plants in the boxes below. Each correct answer is one point. Wheat Corn Oats Rye Barley +2 Points: What is another word for grist? +3 Points: List five things at home that came from these grains

  16. agronomie: agriculture and environment laboration du rendement du bl d'hiver en conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    : 1) a better description of the soil water extraction pattern; 2) a response of harvest index notamment : i) une meilleure description du profil d'extraction de l'eau ; ii) une réponse de l'indice de — Yield build-up in winter wheat under soil water deficit. II. Development and testing

  17. ORIGINAL PAPER Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing of Distillers Dried

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL PAPER Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS. Twin- screw extrusion studies were performed to investigate the production of nutritionally balanced amounts of fish meal, fish oil, whole wheat flour, corn gluten meal, and vitamin and mineral premixes

  18. MEPS Student Travel Awards, Fall 2007 II. Abstracts of Presentations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halberd, and a susceptible winter wheat cv Cutter or cv Karl92. These parents were used as models due to the UV- absorption characteristics of the greenhouse glass, hence UV-B was artificially, photosynthesis, primary branches on the main-stem panicle, total number of grains and filled grain weight

  19. The non-equilibrium steady state of sparse systems with non trivial topology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Doron

    , the system will reach a Non-Equilibrium Steady State (NESS). #12;The model system System + Bath + Driving of cooling = DB TB - DB Tsystem Driving System Work (W)Heat (Q) Bath SB() SA() Hence at the NESS: Tsystem = 1 to the sparsity of the perturbation matrix, the NESS is of glassy nature [1]. 2. An extension of the Fluctuation

  20. FUTURESF U T UR E SAGBIORESEARCH MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY SPRING/SUMMER 2011 VOLUME 29 NOS 1 & 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BioResearch scientists do not work in a vacuum -- the results of their studies are used by various groups of people who-consumed food crop in the world, after rice, wheat, and corn. Therefore, research on the genetic improvement

  1. 2. INFINITE SERIES 2.1. A PRE-REQUISITE: SEQUENCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    that when the inventor of chess (an ancient Indian mathematician, in most accounts) showed his invention to his ruler, the ruler was so pleased that he gave the inventor the right to name his prize. The inventor asked for 1 grain of wheat for the first square of the board, 2 grains for the second square, 4

  2. Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fuels from coal and biomass have potential to supply 2-3 MBPD of oil equivalent fuels with significantly and a carbon price, and on accelerated federal investment in essential technologies #12;BIOMASS SUPPLY by Milbrandt (2005) and Perlack et al. (2005). · Hay and wheat straws--Yield increase over time = historic

  3. Ethanol plant investment in Canada: A structural model1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lin and Fujin Yi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    1 Ethanol plant investment in Canada: A structural model1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lin and Fujin Yi Most of the fuel ethanol plants in Canada were built recently and either use corn or wheat as feedstock. It is important to determine what factors affect decisions about when and where to invest in building new ethanol

  4. NATIVEPLANTS | FALL 2005 all-sown seeds of many tree and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    we began using straw as mulch at Vallonia Nursery in Indiana, significant losses of 30% to 90 A C T A combination of cover crops and straw mulch effectively protect fall-sown hard- wood seeds from Figure 1. Supply of large round bales of wheat straw covered with plastic sleeves. Photos by Jeanie

  5. A Science Service p a t u r e Released upon receipt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Science Service p a t u r e Released upon receipt but intended f o r use April 25, 1933 ? WHY in the United States: f132eportsof falls of hail in the crop-growing seasan so heavy the ice formed in drifts data. of wheat and corn crops utterly dostropd over almost entire counties in the middle rest, of half

  6. Predicting cyclone emissions with a new computer mode 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Askew, James Wilson

    1993-01-01

    Cyclone emission tests were conducted on 1 D-3D and 2D-2D cyclones with varied outlet tube sizes and inlet velocities. Talc and wheat dusts were used in testing the laboratory scale models. Data from these tests were used in developing a...

  7. Evaluation of a Novel Xylanase and Algal Beta-Glucan on Broiler Performance, Energy Digestibility, and Immune Status 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pieniazek, Jake Stephen

    2014-12-12

    /MT increased (p<0.05) Newcastle Disease specific antibody titers. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of xylanase in diets containing wheat and DDGS at 30 and 15%, respectively, when pelleted at 82 and 92°C, on performance and IDE...

  8. Commercial Feeding Stuffs, September 1, 1932 to August 31, 1933. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, F. D. (Frederick Driggs); Sullivan, James

    1933-01-01

    are given. A table is given showing the average protein content of the cottonseed products made by each oil mill, so that the reader can see which mills maintained the guaranties on the average. Cottonseed cake and meal averaged higher in protein content... Produd 23 Wheat Products ..................................................... 23 Miscellaneous Products ........................ - ............. 24 sh Oils ................... ............................................-...........................2...

  9. Impacts of land use change due to biofuel crops on carbon balance, bioenergy production, and agricultural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai

    Impacts of land use change due to biofuel crops on carbon balance, bioenergy production that biofuel crops have much higher net pri- mary production (NPP) than soybean and wheat crops. When food). Global biofuel production has increased dramatically in the last decade, especially in United States

  10. Loss of Conformational Stability in Calmodulin upon Methionine Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Jun; Yin, Daniel H.; Yao, Yihong; Sun, Hongye; Qin, Zhihai; Schoeneich, Christian; Williams, Todd D.; Squier, Thomas C.

    1998-03-01

    in wheat germ calmodulin (CaM), and prevent activation of the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase. Using ESI-MS, we have measured rates of modification and molecular mass distributions of oxidatively modified CaM species (CaMox) resulting from exposure to H2O2. From...

  11. The Price of Feed Utilities. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1924-01-01

    investigations. -Table ?'--Texas selling prices and calculated values per ton, / 1919 ( 1920 1921 / 1922 1923 1 1923 1924 1 Av. I Jan. Apr. 1 Jan. Table 8-Pennsylvania .selling prices and calculated values per ton. I I I Wheat middlings-price $ 32 06 6 50... value ..::::I 411531 541391 59:49) 72:471 - $ - 1 27.76 - - 1920 ! 1921 1 19221 Av. I I 38.8%~4070j$0/~5 31.00 25.86 34.12 34.37 35.40 36.60 28.00 27.91 30.00 33.90 31.75 34.54 Wheat gray shorts-price 66 40 58 20 40.00 lculated value...

  12. ndias Independence was won in the backdrop of the great Bengal famine of 1942-43. No

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pal, Debnath

    .2 6.0 5 5 Pulses 26.0 36.6 1 1 Groundnut 28.6 35.2 1 1 Sugarcane 22.6 20.0 2 2 Tea 28.3 18.5 1 2 productivity improvement was also visible in rice, the phenomenon has been described as "Green Revolution". Wheat crop has exhibited a robust growth trend since the onset of the Green Revolution in 1968. In 2001

  13. Forecasting Using Time Varying Meta-Elliptical Distributions with a Study of Commodity Futures Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sancetta, Alessio; Nikanrova, Arina

    2006-03-14

    products), cartels among producing countries reducing supply (e.g. OPEC), changes in legislations (e.g. import-export tariffs), international war conflicts (e.g. Iraq war), changes in weather conditions (e.g. global warming), the behaviour of commodity... . The commodities studied are crude oil, gas oil (IPE), heating oil, natural gas, propane, un- leaded gas, cocoa, coffee, sugar, orange juice, soybean, corn, rice, oats, wheat and cotton. Assum- ing the data possess suitable ergodic properties, we report sample...

  14. GMP Compliance for Pharmaceutical Excipients in the Glycerin Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliot, Christina

    2008-12-19

    in which a Chinese pet food manufacturer exported wheat gluten containing an industrial chemical melamine, which then resulted in pet deaths in the United States (New York Times 6 May 2007). There have also been cases in which toys from Chinese... control program is needed to keep the facility free of bugs and rodents. Guidelines should be established and followed for computer systems, utilities, water, air handling, - 13 - controlled environments, lighting, drainage, and washing...

  15. Commercial Feeding Stuffs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carson, J.W.; Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1911-01-01

    , protein is, on the average, about as cheap as f at-producing power. TABLE IV. Relative Cost of Nutrients. Selling Price Per Ton. Cotton Seed Meal ............................................... Wheat Shorts... on the tag. ,This bula letin contains a discussion of these matters. Other informatian wili be cheerfully furnished when requested. The consumer of feeding stuffs should learn to utilize them to the greatest advantage and in the most economical manner...

  16. ERIP invention 637. Technical progress report 2nd quarter, April 1997--June 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thacker, G.W.

    1997-07-22

    This technical report describes progress in the development of the Pegasus plow, a stalk and root embedding apparatus. Prototype testing is reported, and includes the addition of precision tillage. Disease data, organic matter, and nitrogen levels results are very briefly described. Progress in marketing is also reported. Current marketing issues include test use by cotton and wheat growers, establishment of dealer relationships, incorporation of design modifications, expansion of marketing activities, and expansion of loan and lease program.

  17. Keys to Profitable Small Grain Production In the Rolling Plains and Edwards Plateau. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, U.U.; Gass, Willis B.; Boring, Emory P. III; Fuchs, Thomas W.

    1985-01-01

    penetration and conservation, (2) good sur face drainage for normal plant growth and to avoid severe damage during grazing, (3) weed control, (4) wind and water erosion control and (5) avoidance of an accumulation of excessive undecomposed organ ic..., use minimum tillage techniques such as sweep tillage for weed control, adequate water penetration and maintenance of crop residues to help avoid erOSIon. Several drills on the market recently will drill through both standing and downed wheat...

  18. A radiographic analysis of the effect of dietary fiber on transit time through the rat large intestine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meacher, Mary Melanie

    1986-01-01

    of digesta through the gastrointestinal tract. . . . . . . CHAPTER V. DISCUSSION. 31 31 35 35 39 . 61 TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) CONCLUSION. REFERENCES, . 68 . 69 VITA LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 1 Composition of basal fiber free control diet.... . . . . 20 2 Percentage composition of the experimental diets. . . . 22 3 Percentage composition of wheat bran and oat bran. . . . . . . , 22 4 Transit time measurements. 30 5 Effect of dietary fiber on food and energy intake. . . . . . . . 32 6 Effect...

  19. Wintering Steer Calves at the Spur Station. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, J. H.; Fisher, C. E.; Marion, P. T.

    1956-01-01

    at the Spur Station SUMMARY Winter maintenance experiments were conducted with 1,034 steer calves at the Spur station dur. ing the 14-year period from the fall of 1941 to the spring of 1955. Results of these comparative trials, in most instances, were... made approximately the same gain during the winter as heavy calves averaging 466 pounds. Wheat pasture provided the lowest cost of winter maintenance for calves. Sorghum fields and na- tive grass supplemented with cottonseed cake were intermediate...

  20. Agroforestry: Conifers. (Latest citations from the Cab Abstracts database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of lands forested with conifers for crop and livestock production. Citations cover the grazing of livestock and the production of crops, including tomatoes, soybeans, lespedeza, wheat, rape, taro, cotton, cabbages, ginger, watermelons, and strawberries. Livestock discussed include cattle, sheep, geese, and horses. Economic analyses and economic models are presented. (Contains a minimum of 147 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. RUMEN DIGESTION PARAMETERS IN LAMBS FED WITH PELLETED DIET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RUMEN DIGESTION PARAMETERS IN LAMBS FED WITH PELLETED DIET A. PETKOV E.I. ENEV Department of animal with pelleted feed containing 25 % alfalfa meal, 35 % maize, 9.9 % barley, 7.2 % wheat, 21.5 % sunflower oil ration was 0.200 kg pelleted feed and at the age of 4 months, 0.400 kg. The pelleted feed was given twice

  2. Egg yolk cholesterol as influenced by cereal grain and age of the laying hen 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Husseini, Munther Dawod

    1975-01-01

    quality characteristics, initial body weights and weights after each three periods of production were collected. From each treatment-replicate group eight initial samples of blood serum and egg yolks were collected at the end of each three periods... receiving Diet 3 containing 15. 02 ground whole oats, had the lowest mean blood serum and egg yolk cholesterol, and the lowest mean aorta staining scores. The hens fed wheat middlings had the highest mean blood serum cholesterol level; while the control...

  3. Variation in the aerodynamic drag coefficient due to changes in the shape of an automobile 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, John Gilbert

    1968-01-01

    . in Gage Bridge Calibration Results 22 Total Strain Gage Bridge Calibration Results 23 13 14 Exterior of' Com'bination Box. Combination Box, Strain Indicator, and Connecting Cables 25 26 15 16 17 Aerodynamic Drag ? Top and. Windows Up... Aerodynamic Drag ? Top and Windows Down Aerodynamic Drag ? Top Down, Windows Up Aerodynamic Drag - Top Up, Windows Down 31 19 Bas"'c Circuit - Combination of Wheat. tone Bridge Outputs 'v Figure Page 20 Equivalent Circui. t - Combination of Vneatstone...

  4. Making a Difference: Dell's 2020 Plan 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pflueger, J.

    2013-01-01

    ) or recycled (e.g. paper pulp) sources › Process, manufactured and used in efficient, safe ways › Opportunities: agricultural waste (wheat straw, mushroom food), customer education 100% recyclable or compostable packaging › Align with FTC’s Green Guides... (accepted in 60% of municipalities) › Align with ASTM standards for compostability Customer benefit › Waste-free packaging will help customers de-clutter, increase their own recycling rates, and reduce tipping fees associated with trash Confidential10 2...

  5. Diseases of Small Grains in Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkins, I. M.; Futrell, M. C.

    1958-01-01

    Diseases - of SMALL GRAINS in cooperation with the UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION R. D. LEWIS, DIRECTOR. COLLEGE STATIOKJ. TEXAS DIGEST CONTENTS 1 Diseases of small grains are important factors... and international signif- icance. The fall infection, winter survival and spring increase in South Texas of airborne pathogens, such as the cereal rusts, may endanger the small grain crops throughout Texas and other states. Diseases of wheat, which consistently...

  6. Salinity Control in Irrigation Agriculture. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longenecker, Donald E.; Lyerly, Paul J.

    1962-01-01

    -tolerant tolerant salt salt tolerant tolerant FIELD CROPS Field bean Cowpea White clover" Alsike clover Red clover Ladino clwer Crimson clover Rose clover Burnet clover Lima bean Green bean Celery Pear Apple Orange Grapefruit Plum Apricot... Ryegrass Sour clover Rye (hay) Birdsfoot Wheat (hay) trefoil Oats (hay) VEGETABLECROPS Tomato Garden beet Broccoli Kale Cabbage Spinach Pepper Okra Lettuce Sweet corn Onion Pea Watermelon Cantaloupe Squash FRUIT CROPS Olive Pomegranate...

  7. The Rajbanshis of Rajgadh: Community Adaptation in the Environment of Eastern Terai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhattarai, Hari P

    1996-01-01

    Icrti liiy without spending hard cash for chemical fertilizers. The uneven d istrihution of animals and differences in then types. however, render compost production per household unequal. Animal husbandry in (he studv area is thus dircct!v related... mills located in the village. Agriculture, as a result, is labor-intensive for those crops harvested in winter such as tobacco and wheat. Almost all of the Rajbanshis rarely use chemical fertilizers but use frequently both manure and animal dung...

  8. Risk perception & strategic decision making :general insights, a framework, and specific application to electricity generation using nuclear energy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brewer, Jeffrey D.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this report is to promote increased understanding of decision making processes and hopefully to enable improved decision making regarding high-consequence, highly sophisticated technological systems. This report brings together insights regarding risk perception and decision making across domains ranging from nuclear power technology safety, cognitive psychology, economics, science education, public policy, and neural science (to name a few). It forms them into a unique, coherent, concise framework, and list of strategies to aid in decision making. It is suggested that all decision makers, whether ordinary citizens, academics, or political leaders, ought to cultivate their abilities to separate the wheat from the chaff in these types of decision making instances. The wheat includes proper data sources and helpful human decision making heuristics; these should be sought. The chaff includes ''unhelpful biases'' that hinder proper interpretation of available data and lead people unwittingly toward inappropriate decision making ''strategies''; obviously, these should be avoided. It is further proposed that successfully accomplishing the wheat vs. chaff separation is very difficult, yet tenable. This report hopes to expose and facilitate navigation away from decision-making traps which often ensnare the unwary. Furthermore, it is emphasized that one's personal decision making biases can be examined, and tools can be provided allowing better means to generate, evaluate, and select among decision options. Many examples in this report are tailored to the energy domain (esp. nuclear power for electricity generation). The decision making framework and approach presented here are applicable to any high-consequence, highly sophisticated technological system.

  9. Lectin-functionalized poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-poly(vinyldimethyl azlactone) surface supports for high avidity microbial capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Ryan R; Hinestrosa Salazar, Juan P; Shubert, Katherine R; Morrell, Jennifer L.; Pelletier, Dale A; Messman, Jamie M; Kilbey, II, S Michael; Lokitz, Bradley S; Retterer, Scott T

    2013-01-01

    Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS) play a critical and dynamic role in shaping the interactions between microbial community members and their local environment. The capture of targeted microbes using surface immobilized lectins that recognize specific extracellular oligosaccharide moieties offers a non-destructive method for functional characterization based on EPS content. In this report, we evaluate the use of the block co-polymer, poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-4,4-dimethyl-2-vinylazlactone (PGMA-b-PVDMA), as a surface support for lectin-specific microbial capture. Arrays of circular polymer supports ten micron in diameter were generated on silicon substrates to provide discrete, covalent coupling sites for Triticum vulgare and Lens culinaris lectins. These supports promoted microbe adhesion and colony formation in a lectin-specific manner. Silicon posts with similar topography containing only physisorbed lectins showed significantly less activity. These results demonstrate that micropatterned PGMA-b-PVDMA supports provide a unique platform for microbial capture and screening based on EPS content by combining high avidity lectin surfaces with three-dimensional topography.

  10. TASK 3.4--IMPACTS OF COFIRING BIOMASS WITH FOSSIL FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Melanie D. Hetland; Mark A. Musich; Charlene R. Crocker; Jonas Dahl; Stacie Laducer

    2001-08-01

    With a major worldwide effort now ongoing to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, cofiring of renewable biomass fuels at conventional coal-fired utilities is seen as one of the lower-cost options to achieve such reductions. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has undertaken a fundamental study to address the viability of cofiring biomass with coal in a pulverized coal (pc)-fired boiler for power production. Wheat straw, alfalfa stems, and hybrid poplar were selected as candidate biomass materials for blending at a 20 wt% level with an Illinois bituminous coal and an Absaloka subbituminous coal. The biomass materials were found to be easily processed by shredding and pulverizing to a size suitable for cofiring with pc in a bench-scale downfired furnace. A literature investigation was undertaken on mineral uptake and storage by plants considered for biomass cofiring in order to understand the modes of occurrence of inorganic elements in plant matter. Sixteen essential elements, C, H, O, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, B, Mo, and Cl, are found throughout plants. The predominant inorganic elements are K and Ca, which are essential to the function of all plant cells and will, therefore, be evenly distributed throughout the nonreproductive, aerial portions of herbaceous biomass. Some inorganic constituents, e.g., N, P, Ca, and Cl, are organically associated and incorporated into the structure of the plant. Cell vacuoles are the repository for excess ions in the plant. Minerals deposited in these ubiquitous organelles are expected to be most easily leached from dry material. Other elements may not have specific functions within the plant, but are nevertheless absorbed and fill a need, such as silica. Other elements, such as Na, are nonessential, but are deposited throughout the plant. Their concentration will depend entirely on extrinsic factors regulating their availability in the soil solution, i.e., moisture and soil content. Similarly, Cl content is determined less by the needs of the plant than by the availability in the soil solution; in addition to occurring naturally, Cl is present in excess as the anion complement in K fertilizer applications. An analysis was performed on existing data for switchgrass samples from ten different farms in the south-central portion of Iowa, with the goal of determining correlations between switchgrass elemental composition and geographical and seasonal changes so as to identify factors that influence the elemental composition of biomass. The most important factors in determining levels of various chemical compounds were found to be seasonal and geographical differences related to soil conditions. Combustion testing was performed to obtain deposits typical of boiler fouling and slagging conditions as well as fly ash. Analysis methods using computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy and chemical fractionation were applied to determine the composition and association of inorganic materials in the biomass samples. Modified sample preparation techniques and mineral quantification procedures using cluster analysis were developed to characterize the inorganic material in these samples. Each of the biomass types exhibited different inorganic associations in the fuel as well as in the deposits and fly ash. Morphological analyses of the wheat straw show elongated 10-30-{micro}m amorphous silica particles or phytoliths in the wheat straw structure. Alkali such as potassium, calcium, and sodium is organically bound and dispersed in the organic structure of the biomass materials. Combustion test results showed that the blends fed quite evenly, with good burnout. Significant slag deposit formation was observed for the 100% wheat straw, compared to bituminous and subbituminous coals burned under similar conditions. Although growing rapidly, the fouling deposits of the biomass and coal-biomass blends were significantly weaker than those of the coals. Fouling was only slightly worse for the 100% wheat straw fuel compared to the coals. The wheat straw ash was found to show the greatest similar

  11. Impact of Agricultural Practice on Regional Climate in a CoupledLand Surface Mesoscale Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooley, H.S.; Riley, W.J.; Torn, M.S.; He, Y.

    2004-07-01

    The land surface has been shown to form strong feedbacks with climate due to linkages between atmospheric conditions and terrestrial ecosystem exchanges of energy, momentum, water, and trace gases. Although often ignored in modeling studies, land management itself may form significant feedbacks. Because crops are harvested earlier under drier conditions, regional air temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture, for example, affect harvest timing, particularly of rain-fed crops. This removal of vegetation alters the land surface characteristics and may, in turn, affect regional climate. We applied a coupled climate(MM5) and land-surface (LSM1) model to examine the effects of early and late winter wheat harvest on regional climate in the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility in the Southern Great Plains, where winter wheat accounts for 20 percent of the land area. Within the winter wheat region, simulated 2 m air temperature was 1.3 C warmer in the Early Harvest scenario at mid-day averaged over the two weeks following harvest. Soils in the harvested area were drier and warmer in the top 10 cm and wetter in the 10-20 cm layer. Midday soils were 2.5 C warmer in the harvested area at mid-day averaged over the two weeks following harvest. Harvest also dramatically altered latent and sensible heat fluxes. Although differences between scenarios diminished once both scenarios were harvested, the short-term impacts of land management on climate were comparable to those from land cover change demonstrated in other studies.

  12. A case study of agricultural residue availability and cost for a cellulosic ethanol conversion facility in the Henan province of China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Erin [ORNL; Wu, Yun [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    A preliminary analysis of the availability and cost of corn stover and wheat straw for the area surrounding a demonstration biorefinery in the Henan Province of China was performed as a case study of potential cooperative analyses of bioenergy feedstocks between researchers and industry in the US and China. Though limited in scope, the purpose of this analysis is to provide insight into some of the issues and challenges of estimating feedstock availability in China and how this relates to analyses of feedstocks in the U.S. Completing this analysis also highlighted the importance of improving communication between U.S. researchers and Chinese collaborators. Understanding the units and terms used in the data provided by Tianguan proved to be a significant challenge. This was further complicated by language barriers between collaborators in the U.S. and China. The Tianguan demonstration biorefinery has a current capacity of 3k tons (1 million gallons) of cellulosic ethanol per year with plans to scale up to 10k tons (3.34 million gallons) per year. Using data provided by Tianguan staff in summer of 2011, the costs and availability of corn stover and wheat straw were estimated. Currently, there are sufficient volumes of wheat straw and corn stover that are considered 'waste' and would likely be available for bioenergy in the 20-km (12-mile) region surrounding the demonstration biorefinery at a low cost. However, as the industry grows, competition for feedstock will grow and prices are likely to rise as producers demand additional compensation to fully recover costs.

  13. Evaluating chemical and physical properties of grain dust for use in an explosion hazard indicator 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plemons, Dorothy Sue

    1981-01-01

    0, um P 30. 0 40. 0 50. 0 FIG. l Hlnimum explosive concentration as a function of particle diameter and distance between particles, the highest levels measured at transfer points. From studies at Texas AFM University, Parnell and 8arton (1979... ) found dust levels in wheat and grain sorghum from a terminal elevator vary from 1000 to 5000 grams of dust less than 100 um per metric ton of grain (2 to 10 pounds per ton). Levels of dust in grain sorghum samples collected by Parnell (1981...

  14. How to Raise a Prize-Winning Pig. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burk, L. B.

    1916-01-01

    . If the sow is given a large quantity of rich slop at this time it is almost sure to result in the pigs souring. On the s8cond day, if the sow is not getting green feed, a bulky laxative ration, made principally of wheat bran, should be gi en. About one pound... will give good results in destroying lice. The direc- tions are on the containers and should be followed, ordinarily. Crude petroleum (Beaumont oil) is also very successfully used by many of the leading breeders. Any method of applying the dip will be suc...

  15. Inheritance of Black Pericarp Trait in Sorghum 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Kathleen Marie

    2014-09-18

    high and low pH levels, making it a viable candidate for use as a natural food colorant and preservative (Pfeiffer, 2014). Sorghum is also naturally gluten free (Pfeiffer, 2014) making it an excellent wheat substitute for those who suffer from Celiac... as antioxidants (Dlamini et al., 2007) and in the body, ward off free radicals that lead to disease (Rajendran, et. al., 2014). Sorghum, 5 compared to other cereals, has the highest level of antioxidants (Pfeiffer, 2014). In fact, black sorghum has levels...

  16. Dairy Digest. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, G. G.

    1955-01-01

    been used to determine a starting place. 4. Feed loose salt and steamed bonemeal free choice. 5. Keep clean, cool drinking water available at all times. ZED BUDGET REQUIREMENTS FOR DAIRY HEIFERS From Birth to Calving The amounts given below... Cottonseed meal Gluten meal Gluten feed Wheat bran Molasses Oats, whole Oats. around One qt. weighs, pounds 0.6 1.7 1.4 1.5 1.7 1.3 0.5 3.0 1 .o 0.7 Good corn or sorghum silage, well packed, weighs from 40 to 45 pounds per cubic foot...

  17. Tabula privilegiorum, quae sanctissimus Papa Pius Quintus, concessit fratribus mendicantibus: in bulla confirmationis, & novae, concessionis privilegiorum, ordinum mendicantium. Anno 1567 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic Church. Pope (1566-1572 : Pius V)

    2010-10-16

    -Ryegrass Grazing System L. R. Nelson. F. M. Rouquette. Jr .? and R. D. Randel* W heat is an important cool-season annual forage and grain crop in Texas. Wheat acreage in Texas varies from 5 million to over 8 million acres (11) depending on economic incentives... have been viral) was the cause of the illness. Neither the Brangus nor crossbreed cattle were affected by the illness. Grain yields. The grain yields in 1980-81 av eraged 37 bulA (Table 5) and were near average for east Texas. Through small samples...

  18. Quick Breads and Cereals. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anonymous,

    1965-01-01

    . : Contents 3 Quick -Bread Reciw 9 Standard 3&ng ~owder~iwu& 3 Bisnrits Supme , 3 Sour Milk Biscuit*, 5 Drap Biscuits 5 Cheese Bis6uits 5 Nut Biscuits 5 Orange Bjlkuits - 5 Bread muffins 5 Fruit Muffins 5 Whale Wheat Muffins 5 Nut Muffins 5... 7 Homemade Mixes 8 Master Mix Recipes 8 Biscuits 8 Muffins 8 Corn Bread 8 Hot Cakes ar Waffles 8 Nut Bd 8 Corn Meal Mix 8 Corn Meal Muffi~s 9 Chi?- GQ~ Meal Muffins 4 9 Orange Carn Meal Muffifilis 3 9 Caraway Muffins. . 9 jalapem Gorn...

  19. A study of the anatomical and physiological effects of the toxicity of galactose on seedlings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovejoy, Owen Harrison

    narrow glass jars, to accomodate the growth of the leafy stems. After a period of thirty days, the plants growing on the galactose media v/ere seen to have been unable to penetrate the agar, the roots dying soon after contact with the same. Many.... Experiments with galactose, involving varying per cents of the same, (from 0.125 to 2Ja), showed that marked toxicity was produced by percents of l°/o or more. Canada field peas, corn,and wheat were tried with like results. Finally it was discovered...

  20. Buying Hedge with Futures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welch, Mark; Kastens, Terry L.

    2009-01-07

    , David Anderson and Terry Kastens* 2 hogs, corn, wheat and soybeans are a few examples. A notable exception is grain sorghum. Because of grain sorghum?s close price relationship to corn, producers can use corn futures to manage grain sorghum price... of gain) is 7. The cattle feeder?s projected feed requirement is 6,750 bushels (54,000 pounds total gain x 7 pounds of feed per pound of gain ? 56 pounds per bushel). Since one Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) corn contract is specified as 5,000 bushels...

  1. Ethnohistoric Notes on the Ancient Tibetan Kingdom of sPo bo and its influence on the Eastern Himalayas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lazcano, Santiago

    2005-01-01

    ON THE ANCIENT TIBETANKINGDOM OF sPO BO AND ITS INFLUENCE ONTHE EASTERN HIMALAYAS1 Santiago Lazcano Translated from Spanish by Rita Granda …In late 1910 the Pome people killed a senior Chinese official. The Chinese replied with a punitiveexpedition which provoked... in the great gTsang po River5. Unlike most of Tibet,this area is humid and fertile and it is covered in dense forests and steepgorges. Wheat, barley, peaches and nuts grow in abundance. sPo yul is alsoknown for its production of honey, spices, bamboo...

  2. Effects of conservation tillage and conventional tillage on selected physical and chemical properties of a Blackland Praire soil in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mella, Welhelmus Isak Imanuel

    1991-01-01

    Table 5. EIFect of tillage and location on 33 kPa water content in the Ap horizon (0 to 20-cm depth) of a, Burleson soil after wheat harvest in the fall of 1988. 30 Table 6. Tillage x depth interaction efFect on 33 kPa water content in dif... the period of January 1984 to December 1987 were 22. 4 ~ 10. 2 ' C and 17. 0 + 7. 7 ' C, respectively. From January to August 1988 the maxi- 14 mum and minimum soil temperatures were 23. 2 6 7. 4 C and 16. 8 + 9. 8 ' C (Texas Agricultural Extension...

  3. Investigation of carbon distribution with {sup 14}C as tracer for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration through NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3} production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhongxian Cheng; Youhua Ma; Xin Li; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

    2007-12-15

    This work studies carbon fate using the {sup 14}C tracer technique in ecosystems when synthesized fertilizer is applied. The concept of aqueous ammonia solution scrubbing CO{sub 2} from flue gas is used in the fertilizer synthesis. Products after the capture are ammonium bicarbonate (ABC, NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}) or long-term effect ammonium bicarbonate (LEABC, NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}), an economic source of nitrogen fertilizer. The ABC or LEABC is used as a 'carrier' to transport CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere to the crops and soil. An indoor greenhouse was built, and wheat was chosen as the plant to study in this ecosystem. The investigated ecosystem consists of plant (wheat), soils with three different pH values (alkaline, neutral, and acidic), and three types of underground water (different Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} concentrations). After biological assimilation and metabolism in wheat receiving ABC or LEABC, it was found that a considerable amount (up to 10%) of the carbon source was absorbed by the wheat with increased biomass production. The majority of the unused carbon source (up to 76%) percolated into the soil as carbonates, such as environmentally benign calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}). Generally speaking, alkaline soil has a higher capability to capture and store carbon. For the same soil, there is no apparent difference in carbon capturing capability between ABC and LEABC. These findings answer the question of how carbon is distributed after synthesized ABC or LEABC is applied into the ecosystem. In addition, a separate postexperiment on carbon forms that existed in the soil was made. It was found that up to 88% of the trapped carbon existed in the form of insoluble salts (i.e., CaCO{sub 3}) in alkaline soils. This indicates that alkaline soil has a greater potential for storing carbon after the use of the synthesized ABC or LEABC from exhausted CO{sub 2}. 21 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Harvesting Grain with the Combined Harvester-Thresher in Northwest Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, H. P. (Harris Pearson); Spilman, Robert F.

    1928-01-01

    been remarkable in its effect on methods of harvesting wheat. Combines were first introduced in this section in 1919, and 7 machines were sold the first year. The manufacturers' sales reports to July, 1927, show that since the introduction in 1919....6 34.0 27.7 - 34.0 Farms Number 5 10 - 19 1 6 ----- 4 Type of Machine Tractor- pulled aux~liary englne Rate of Travel ~~~~~-- Miles, Hour ------- 2.8 ppppp-- 2.8 ------ 2.6 2.2 2.3 ---- 2.8 Size of Machine Feet 12...

  5. Changing Supply of Grains in Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Clarence A.; Whitney, Howard S.

    1959-01-01

    importance, while rice in- creased, in the food grain group in the 1950's. Grain sorghum increased from 21 percent of total feed grain production in 1935-39 to 72 percent in 1955-58, while corn decreased from 52 to 14 per- cent. Texas usually grows more... for food. This indi- cates a greater dependence on export markets to take the increased production in recent years. Although Texas grows an average of 43,000,- 000 bushels of wheat annually, this makes up only a relatively small proportion of total U...

  6. Lamb Feeding Trials in the El Paso Valley, 1947-49 : A Comparison of High Protein Cottonseed Products, and of Ground and Unground Sorghum Grain. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyerly, P. J. (Paul J.); Jones, John H.; Willey, N. B. (Norman Bailey)

    1951-01-01

    threshed mi10 in two lamb fattening tests, but it was stated that the test should be continued further. Later, Mackey and Jones (1932) observed *Respectively, assistant animal husbandman, El Paso Valley Experiment Station, Ysleta, Texas; professor... of Sorghum, Tex. Agr. Esp. Sta. Prog. Report 1064. Mackey, A. K. and s. M. Jones, 1932. Fattening Lambs on Corn, Milo, Hegari, Wheat and Oats with Cottonseed Cake and Al- falfa. Tex. &gr. Exp. Sta. Rul. 465. Neale, P. E., 1932. The Use of Cottonseed Meal...

  7. The Separation of powers in the WTO: how to avoid judicial activism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartels, Lorand

    2008-01-17

    Panel Report European Economic Community?Subsidies on Exports of Wheat Flour, SCM/42, BISD 31S/259, unadopted, 21 Mar 1983, para 5.3, where the panel said that ?it was unable to conclude as to whether the increased share has resulted in the EEC ?having... of Nuclear Weapons, when it stated that: [I]n view of the current state of international law, and of the elements at its The Separation of Powers in the WTO 873 Ecuador, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, Switzerland, Uruguay and Venezuela...

  8. Newsfront 31 March - 6 April 2008, Issue 60

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghimire, Yubaraj

    , they were calling off the peace initiative. They also announced that the joint team they had formed to negotiate with the official team consisting of members from the seven party ruling alliance stood dissolved. Deputy Prime Minister, Ram Chandra Poudel who... there are on the rise and so are standards of living. Globally we should now expect the opposite of the benefits we once enjoyed. Super stellar Chinese demand has the power to raise commodity prices worldwide. Wheat, corn, pork, oil, gas, gold, steel and onion prices...

  9. Cell Wall Recipe: A Lesson on Biofuels

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students will investigate how changes in the DNA sequence that codes for cell wall formation can have a favorable outcome in producing plants that have higher levels of cellulose than the parent plant. The cellulose yield is most important in the production of ethanol: the greater the amount of cellulose within the cell wall, the greater the amount of ethanol that can be produced. To engage students, the first part of this lesson has students participating in a discovery activity where they will extract DNA from wheat germ.

  10. Ceremonies of measurement: rethinking the world history of science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaffer, Simon

    2015-01-01

    , measurement, balance and royal authority. From the thirteenth century, every Good Friday the English king would creep towards an altar on which stood the cross. At the foot of the altar he would place a quantity of fine gold and silver coins. “Il reprenait ces... proportion. The only way he could prove this was by testing the movements of balances and pendulums made with “silver, lead, glass, sand, common salt, wood, water and wheat”, using gold as the substance against which all other substances were calibrated.71...

  11. Group Risk Plan (GRP) Insurance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stokes, Kenneth; Barnaby, G. A. Art; Waller, Mark L.; Outlaw, Joe

    1999-06-09

    sorghum, soybeans and wheat. Coverage Levels A grower selects a specific dollar amount of protection per acre and one of the five coverage levels (70, 75, 80, 85 or 90 percent). The specific dollar amount of protection per acre ranges from 60 to 100... percent of the maximum dollar amount of protection shown in the county?s actuarial table. Generally, the maximum dollar amount of protection will be 150 percent of the expected county yield, valued at the market price elected under the APH plan...

  12. Small Grains and Rye Grass for Winter Pasture. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stansel, R. H. (Roy Harrison); Dunkle, P. B. (Paul Burtch); Jones, D. L. (Don L.)

    1937-01-01

    as lvell as practicaIIg all classes of livestock. With the uniform success of Sudan as grazing crop in sumlner and fall and with these winter grazillg crops, tile farmer has within his wasp a potential constant supply of green grafiag abundant proteins... cutting to cutting, but has a tendency to increase during the latter part of the growing season. RESULTS AT DENTON Pract.ica1 Problems in Connection with Winter Pastures at Denton Wheat is the principal small grain planted for winter pasture although...

  13. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: New Town Builders, Town Homes at

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOE FederalTheofHeyeck, AEP,Perrin's Row, Wheat Ridge, CO |

  14. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: One Sky Homes, San Jose, CA |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOE FederalTheofHeyeck, AEP,Perrin's Row, Wheat Ridge, CO

  15. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: One Sky Homes, San Jose, CA |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOE FederalTheofHeyeck, AEP,Perrin's Row, Wheat Ridge,

  16. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Palo Duro Homes Inc., Albuquerque,

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOE FederalTheofHeyeck, AEP,Perrin's Row, Wheat Ridge,NM,

  17. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Palo Duro Homes, Albuquerque, NM |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOE FederalTheofHeyeck, AEP,Perrin's Row, Wheat

  18. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Palo Duro Homes, Via del Cielo,

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOE FederalTheofHeyeck, AEP,Perrin's Row, WheatSanta Fe, NM |

  19. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Preferred Builders, Old Greenwich,

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOE FederalTheofHeyeck, AEP,Perrin's Row, WheatSanta Fe, NM |CT,

  20. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Promethean Homes, Charlottesville,

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOE FederalTheofHeyeck, AEP,Perrin's Row, WheatSanta Fe, NM |CT,VA

  1. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Shore Road Project - Old Greenwich,

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOE FederalTheofHeyeck, AEP,Perrin's Row, WheatSanta Fe, NM

  2. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Southeast Volusia Habitat for

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOE FederalTheofHeyeck, AEP,Perrin's Row, WheatSanta Fe,

  3. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Southern Energy Homes, Russellville,

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOE FederalTheofHeyeck, AEP,Perrin's Row, WheatSanta Fe,AL |

  4. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Sterling Brook Custom Homes, Double

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOE FederalTheofHeyeck, AEP,Perrin's Row, WheatSanta Fe,AL |Oak,

  5. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: StreetScape Development, LLC,

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOE FederalTheofHeyeck, AEP,Perrin's Row, WheatSanta Fe,AL

  6. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Sunroc Builders, Bates Avenue,

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOE FederalTheofHeyeck, AEP,Perrin's Row, WheatSanta

  7. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: TC Legend Homes, Bellingham Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOE FederalTheofHeyeck, AEP,Perrin's Row, WheatSantaHouse,

  8. Effects of Compressive Force, Particle Size and Moisture Content on Mechanical Properties of Biomass Grinds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani, Sudhagar; Tabil, Lope Jr.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2006-03-01

    Chemical composition, moisture content, bulk and particle densities, and geometric mean particle size were determined to characterize grinds from wheat and barley straws, corn stover and switchgrass. The biomass grinds were compressed for five levels of compressive forces (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 4400 N) and three levels of particle sizes (3.2, 1.6 and 0.8 mm) at two levels of moisture contents (12% and 15% (wb) to establish the compression and relaxation data. Corn stover grind produced the highest compact density at low pressure during compression. Compressive force, particle size and moisture content of grinds significantly affected the compact density of barley straw, corn stover and switchgrass grinds. However, different particle sizes of wheat straw grind did not produce any significant difference on compact density. Barley straw grind had the highest asymptotic modulus among all other biomass grinds indicating that compact from barley straw grind were more rigid than those of other compacts. Asymptotic modulus increased with an increase in maximum compressive pressure. The trend of increase in asymptotic modulus (EA) with the maximum compressive pressure ( 0) was fitted to a second order polynomial equation. Keywords: Biomass grinds, chemical composition, compact density and asymptotic modulus

  9. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najser, Jan E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Václav E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz

    2014-08-06

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they do?t compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  10. Identifying irradiated flours by photo-stimulated luminescence technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramli, Ros Anita Ahmad; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Othman, Zainon; Abdullah, Wan Saffiey Wan

    2014-02-12

    Photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique was used in this study to detect gamma irradiation treatment of five types of flours (corn, rice, tapioca, wheat and glutinous rice) at four different doses 0, 0.2, .05 and 1kGy. The signal level was compared with two threshold values (700 and 5000). With the exception of glutinous rice, all irradiated samples produced a strong signal above the upper threshold (5000 counts/60s). All control samples produced negative result with the signals below the lower threshold (700 counts/60s) suggesting that the samples have not been irradiated. Irradiated glutinous rice samples produced intermediate signals (700 - 5000 counts/60s) which were subsequently confirmed using calibrated PSL. The PSL signals remained stable after 90 days of storage. The findings of this study will be useful to facilitate control of food irradiation application in Malaysia.

  11. Molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations resolve apparent diffusion rate differences for proteins confined in nanochannels

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tringe, J. W.; Ileri, N.; Levie, H. W.; Stroeve, P.; Ustach, V.; Faller, R.; Renaud, P.

    2015-08-01

    We use Molecular Dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations to examine molecular transport phenomena in nanochannels, explaining four orders of magnitude difference in wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) protein diffusion rates observed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and by direct imaging of fluorescently-labeled proteins. We first use the ESPResSo Molecular Dynamics code to estimate the surface transport distance for neutral and charged proteins. We then employ a Monte Carlo model to calculate the paths of protein molecules on surfaces and in the bulk liquid transport medium. Our results show that the transport characteristics depend strongly on the degree of molecular surface coverage.more »Atomic force microscope characterization of surfaces exposed to WGA proteins for 1000 s show large protein aggregates consistent with the predicted coverage. These calculations and experiments provide useful insight into the details of molecular motion in confined geometries.« less

  12. Variability of biomass chemical composition and rapid analysis using FT-NIR techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Lu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ye, Philip [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2010-04-01

    A quick method for analyzing the chemical composition of renewable energy biomass feedstock was developed by using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis. The study presents the broad-based model hypothesis that a single FT-NIR predictive model can be developed to analyze multiple types of biomass feedstock. The two most important biomass feedstocks corn stover and switchgrass were evaluated for the variability in their concentrations of the following components: glucan, xylan, galactan, arabinan, mannan, lignin, and ash. A hypothesis test was developed based upon these two species. Both cross-validation and independent validation results showed that the broad-based model developed is promising for future chemical prediction of both biomass species; in addition, the results also showed the method's prediction potential for wheat straw.

  13. Development of a Method for Measuring Carbon Balance in Chemical Sequestration of CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Zhongxian; Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, John T.

    2006-09-09

    Anthropogenic CO2 released from fossil fuel combustion is a primary greenhouse gas which contributes to “global warming.” It is estimated that stationary power generation contributes over one-third of total CO2 emissions. Reducing CO2 in the atmosphere can be accomplished either by decreasing the rate at which CO2 is emitted into the atmosphere or by increasing the rate at which it is removed from it. Extensive research has been conducted on determining a fast and inexpensive method to sequester carbon dioxide. These methods can be classified into two categories, CO2 fixation by natural sink process for CO2, or direct CO2 sequestration by artificial processes. In direct sequestration, CO2 produced from sources such as coal-fired power plants, would be captured from the exhausted gases. CO2 from a combustion exhaust gas is absorbed with an aqueous ammonia solution through scrubbing. The captured CO2 is then used to synthesize ammonium bicarbonate (ABC or NH4HCO3), an economical source of nitrogen fertilizer. In this work, we studied the carbon distribution after fertilizer is synthesized from CO2. The synthesized fertilizer in laboratory is used as a “CO2 carrier” to “transport” CO2 from the atmosphere to crops. After biological assimilation and metabolism in crops treated with ABC, a considerable amount of the carbon source is absorbed by the plants with increased biomass production. The majority of the unused carbon source percolates into the soil as carbonates, such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). These carbonates are environmentally benign. As insoluble salts, they are found in normal rocks and can be stored safely and permanently in soil. This investigation mainly focuses on the carbon distribution after the synthesized fertilizer is applied to soil. Quantitative examination of carbon distribution in an ecosystem is a challenging task since the carbon in the soil may come from various sources. Therefore synthesized 14C tagged NH4HCO3 (ABC) was used. Products of ammonium bicarbonate (ABC) or long-term effect ammonium bicarbonate (LEABC) were tagged with 14C when they were synthesized in the laboratory. An indoor greenhouse was built and wheat was chosen as the plant to study in this ecosystem. The investigated ecosystem consists of plant (wheat), soils with three different pH values (alkaline, neutral and acid), and three types of underground water (different Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations). After biological assimilation and metabolism in wheat receiving ABC or LEABC, it was found that a considerable amount (up to 10%) of the carbon source is absorbed by the wheat with increased biomass production. The majority of the unused carbon source (up to 76%) percolated into the soil as carbonates, such as environmentally benign calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Generally speaking, alkaline soil has a higher capability to capture and store carbon. For the same soil, there is no apparent difference in carbon capturing capability between ABC fertilizer and LEABC fertilizer. These findings answer the question how carbon is distributed after synthesized fertilizer is applied into the ecosystem. In addition, a separate post-experiment on fertilizer carbon forms that exist in the soil was made. It was found that the up to 88% of the trapped carbon exists in the form of insoluble salts (i.e., CaCO3) in alkaline soils. This indicates that alkaline soil has a greater potential for storing carbon after the use of the synthesized fertilizer from exhausted CO2.

  14. Farmers' Attitudes Toward All-Risk Crop Insurance High Plains of Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shipley, John; Wehrly, J. S.

    1968-01-01

    - , Owner Tenant tenant Total Owner Tenant tenant Total Owner Tenant tenant Total Owner Tenant tenant All Average age 53.9 41.7 45.4 46.1 56.3 38.0 44.3 43.6 54.4 40.6 45.2 45.6 54.7: 40.2 44.8 Average size family3.1 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.0 4.0 3.7 3 3.1 4.0 3... Owner Tenant tenant Total Owner Tenant tenant Total Owner Tenant tenant Total Owner Tenant tenant All fanners Yes 80 88 60 80 67 78 77 76 79 79 66 76 76: 82 70 76 No 13 8 20 12 22 13 17 16 14 17 17 16 161 12 17 15 Not wheat 7 10 4 11 9 6 7 17 6 838 6...

  15. Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulman, Al

    2009-08-09

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

  16. Making the best of a pest: the potential for using invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) biomass as a supplement to commercial chicken feed.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLaughlan, Claire; Rose, Paul; Aldridge, David C.

    2014-07-18

    .8 Arginine 12.9 2.4 Proline 10.6 2.3 Gross energy MJ kg-1 15.3 0.8 Crude protein (N x 6.25) 175.6 32.5 Ash 110.0 928.0 Oil A (fats) 38.0 3.0 Amino acids in bold are the ‘essential’ amino acids that cannot be made by the body. Crude protein is calculated as N... , code 116: Target Feeds Ltd., Whitchurch, Shropshire, UK). The components of this feed were wheat (68 %), soya (20 %), soya oil (1 %), calcium phosphate (1 %), limestone (8.5 %), salt (0.3 %), lysine (0.1 %, methionine (0.2 %), and threonine (0...

  17. Impaction of spray droplets on leaves: influence of formulation and leaf character on shatter, bounce and adhesion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorr, Gary J; Mayo, Lisa C; McCue, Scott W; Forster, W Alison; Hanan, Jim; He, Xiongkui

    2015-01-01

    This paper combines experimental data with simple mathematical models to investigate the influence of spray formulation type and leaf character (wettability) on shatter, bounce and adhesion of droplets impacting with cotton, rice and wheat leaves. Impaction criteria that allow for different angles of the leaf surface and the droplet impact trajectory are presented; their predictions are based on whether combinations of droplet size and velocity lie above or below bounce and shatter boundaries. In the experimental component, real leaves are used, with all their inherent natural variability. Further, commercial agricultural spray nozzles are employed, resulting in a range of droplet characteristics. Given this natural variability, there is broad agreement between the data and predictions. As predicted, the shatter of droplets was found to increase as droplet size and velocity increased, and the surface became harder to wet. Bouncing of droplets occurred most frequently on hard to wet surfaces with high surface ...

  18. United States based agricultural {open_quotes}waste products{close_quotes} as fillers in a polypropylene homopolymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobson, R.E.; Rowell, R.M.; Caulfield, D.F. [Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    With the advent of modern coupling agents (MAPP or maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene), the potential use of various types of renewable, sustainable agricultural byproducts as fillers in thermoplastics is explored. Over 7.7 billion pounds of fillers were used in the plastics industry in 1993. With sharp price increases in commodity thermoplastics (i.e. approximately 25% in 94`), the amount of fillers in thermoplastic materials will increase throughout the 90`s. Various types of agricultural fibers are evaluated for mechanical properties vs. 50% wood flour and 40% talc filled polypropylene (PP). The fibers included in this study are: kenaf core, oat straw, wheat straw, oat hulls, wood flour (pine), corncob, hard corncob, rice hulls, peanut hulls, corn fiber, soybean hull, residue, and jojoba seed meal. Composite interfaces were modified with MAPP to improve the mechanical properties through increased adhesion between the hydrophilic and polar fibers with the hydrophobic and non-polar matrix. The agro-waste composites had compositions of 50% agro-waste/48% PP/2% MAPP. All of the agricultural waste by-products were granulated through a Wiley mill with a 30 mesh screen and compounded in a high intensity shear-thermo kinetic mixer. The resultant blends were injection molded into ASTM standard samples and tested for tensile, flexural, and impact properties. This paper reports on the mechanical properties of the twelve resultant composites and compares them to wood flour and talc-filled polypropylene composites. The mechanical properties of kenaf core, oat straw, wheat straw, and oat hulls compare favorably to the wood flour and talc-filled PP, which are both commercially available and used in the automotive and furniture markets.

  19. Vulnerability of crops and native grasses to summer drying in the U.S. Southern Great Plains

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Raz-Yaseef, Naama; Billesbach, Dave P.; Fischer, Marc L.; Biraud, Sebastien C.; Gunter, Stacey A.; Bradford, James A.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2015-08-31

    The Southern Great Plains are characterized by a fine-scale mixture of different land-cover types, predominantly winter-wheat and grazed pasture, with relatively small areas of other crops, native prairie, and switchgrass. Recent droughts and predictions of increased drought in the Southern Great Plains, especially during the summer months, raise concern for these ecosystems. We measured ecosystem carbon and water fluxes with eddy-covariance systems over cultivated cropland for 10 years, and over lightly grazed prairie and new switchgrass fields for 2 years each. Growing-season precipitation showed the strongest control over net carbon uptake for all ecosystems, but with a variable effect: grassesmore »(prairie and switchgrass) needed at least 350 mm of precipitation during the growing season to become net carbon sinks, while crops needed only 100 mm. In summer, high temperatures enhanced evaporation and led to higher likelihood of dry soil conditions. Therefore, summer-growing native prairie species and switchgrass experienced more seasonal droughts than spring-growing crops. For wheat, the net reduction in carbon uptake resulted mostly from a decrease in gross primary production rather than an increase in respiration. Flux measurements suggested that management practices for crops were effective in suppressing evapotranspiration and decomposition (by harvesting and removing secondary growth), and in increasing carbon uptake (by fertilizing and conserving summer soil water). In light of future projections for wetter springs and drier and warmer summers in the Southern Great Plains, our study indicates an increased vulnerability in native ecosystems and summer crops over time.« less

  20. Global crop yield losses from recent warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobell, D; Field, C

    2006-06-02

    Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach, especially at the local scale (6-8). At the global scale, however, many of the processes and impacts captured by field scale models will tend to cancel out, and therefore simpler empirical/statistical models with fewer input requirements may be as accurate (8, 9). Empirical/statistical models also allow the effects of poorly modeled processes (e.g., pest dynamics) to be captured and uncertainties to be readily quantified (10). Here we develop new, empirical/statistical models of global yield responses to climate using datasets on broad-scale yields, crop locations, and climate variability. We focus on global average yields for the six most widely grown crops in the world: wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, and sorghum. Production of these crops accounts for over 40% of global cropland area (11). 55% of non-meat calories, and over 70% of animal feed (12).

  1. Changes in diurnal temperature range and national cereal yields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobell, D

    2007-04-26

    Models of yield responses to temperature change have often considered only changes in average temperature (Tavg), with the implicit assumption that changes in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) can safely be ignored. The goal of this study was to evaluate this assumption using a combination of historical datasets and climate model projections. Data on national crop yields for 1961-2002 in the 10 leading producers of wheat, rice, and maize were combined with datasets on climate and crop locations to evaluate the empirical relationships between Tavg, DTR, and crop yields. In several rice and maize growing regions, including the two major nations for each crop, there was a clear negative response of yields to increased DTR. This finding reflects a nonlinear response of yields to temperature, which likely results from greater water and heat stress during hot days. In many other cases, the effects of DTR were not statistically significant, in part because correlations of DTR with other climate variables and the relatively short length of the time series resulted in wide confidence intervals for the estimates. To evaluate whether future changes in DTR are relevant to crop impact assessments, yield responses to projected changes in Tavg and DTR by 2046-2065 from 11 climate models were estimated. The mean climate model projections indicated an increase in DTR in most seasons and locations where wheat is grown, mixed projections for maize, and a general decrease in DTR for rice. These mean projections were associated with wide ranges that included zero in nearly all cases. The estimated impacts of DTR changes on yields were generally small (<5% change in yields) relative to the consistently negative impact of projected warming of Tavg. However, DTR changes did significantly affect yield responses in several cases, such as in reducing US maize yields and increasing India rice yields. Because DTR projections tend to be positively correlated with Tavg, estimates of yields under extreme warming scenarios were particularly affected by including DTR (up to 10%). Finally, based on the relatively poor performance of climate models in reproducing the magnitude of past DTR trends, it is possible that future DTR changes and associated yield responses will exceed the ranges considered here.

  2. In Summary: Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. G. Mitchell; D. E. Roush, Jr.; R. B. Evans

    1998-10-01

    Scientists from the Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company, the US Geological Survey, and other INEEL contractors monitored the environment on and around the INEEL to find contaminants attributable to the INEEL. During 1997, exposures from the INEEL to the public were found to be negligible. Pathways by which INEEL contaminants might reach people were monitored. These included air, precipitation, water, locally grown food (wheat, milk, potatoes, and lettuce), livestock, game animals, and direct radiation. Results from samples collected to monitor these pathways often contain radioactivity from natural sources and nuclear weapons testing carried out in the 1950s and 1960s, termed ''background radioactivity.'' According to the results obtained in 1997, radioactivity from operations at the INEEL could not be distinguished from this background radioactivity in the regions surrounding the INEEL. Because radioactivity from t! he INEEL wa s not detected by offsite environmental surveillance methods, computer models were used to estimate a radiation dose to people. The hypothetical maximum individual dose from the INEEL was calculated to be 0.03 millirem. That is 0.008 percent of an average person's annual dose from background radiation in southeast Idaho.

  3. Comparative Genomics of a Plant-Pathogenic Fungus, Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, Reveals Transduplication and the Impact of Repeat Elements on Pathogenicity and Population Divergence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manning, Viola A.; Pandelova, Iovanna; Dhillon, Braham; Wilhelm, Larry J.; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Berlin, Aaron M.; Figueroa, Melania; Freitag, Michael; Hane, James K.; Henrissat, Bernard; Holman, Wade H.; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Martin, Joel; Oliver, Richard P.; Robbertse, Barbara; Schackwitz, Wendy; Schwartz, David C.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Turgeon, B. Gillian; Yandava, Chandri; Young, Sarah; Zhou, Shiguo; Zeng, Qiandong; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Ma, Li-Jun; Ciuffetti, Lynda M.

    2012-08-16

    Pyrenophora tritici-repentis is a necrotrophic fungus causal to the disease tan spot of wheat, whose contribution to crop loss has increased significantly during the last few decades. Pathogenicity by this fungus is attributed to the production of host-selective toxins (HST), which are recognized by their host in a genotype-specific manner. To better understand the mechanisms that have led to the increase in disease incidence related to this pathogen, we sequenced the genomes of three P. tritici-repentis isolates. A pathogenic isolate that produces two known HSTs was used to assemble a reference nuclear genome of approximately 40 Mb composed of 11 chromosomes that encode 12,141 predicted genes. Comparison of the reference genome with those of a pathogenic isolate that produces a third HST, and a nonpathogenic isolate, showed the nonpathogen genome to be more diverged than those of the two pathogens. Examination of gene-coding regions has provided candidate pathogen-specific proteins and revealed gene families that may play a role in a necrotrophic lifestyle. Analysis of transposable elements suggests that their presence in the genome of pathogenic isolates contributes to the creation of novel genes, effector diversification, possible horizontal gene transfer events, identified copy number variation, and the first example of transduplication by DNA transposable elements in fungi. Overall, comparative analysis of these genomes provides evidence that pathogenicity in this species arose through an influx of transposable elements, which created a genetically flexible landscape that can easily respond to environmental changes.

  4. Crop physiology calibration in the CLM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bilionis, I.; Drewniak, B. A.; Constantinescu, E. M.

    2015-04-15

    Farming is using more of the land surface, as population increases and agriculture is increasingly applied for non-nutritional purposes such as biofuel production. This agricultural expansion exerts an increasing impact on the terrestrial carbon cycle. In order to understand the impact of such processes, the Community Land Model (CLM) has been augmented with a CLM-Crop extension that simulates the development of three crop types: maize, soybean, and spring wheat. The CLM-Crop model is a complex system that relies on a suite of parametric inputs that govern plant growth under a given atmospheric forcing and available resources. CLM-Crop development used measurements of gross primary productivity (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from AmeriFlux sites to choose parameter values that optimize crop productivity in the model. In this paper, we calibrate these parameters for one crop type, soybean, in order to provide a faithful projection in terms of both plant development and net carbon exchange. Calibration is performed in a Bayesian framework by developing a scalable and adaptive scheme based on sequential Monte Carlo (SMC). The model showed significant improvement of crop productivity with the new calibrated parameters. We demonstrate that the calibrated parameters are applicable across alternative years and different sites.

  5. Vegetable ash as raw material in the production of glasses and enamels, for example the contemporary vegetable ashes from Burgundy, France

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colomban, Philippe; De Montmollin, Frère Daniel; Krainhoefner, Frère Luc

    2010-01-01

    The powdery nature and high alkali content of vegetable ashes make them ideal raw materials to be used as modifiers of silicate compositions (glasses, enamels and ceramics). Their utilisation since ancient times is described in the literature of the history of glasses, but studies on the analyses of their composition are still limited. We discuss here the compositions of tree and shrub ashes (wattle, hawthorn, oak, green oak, olive wood, elm, poplar, apple tree, vine shoot), of plants (carex, fern, dogwood), of cereals (wheat, maize, rice), threshing waste and hay, mainly harvested in Maconnais, near Taiz\\'e (Sa\\^one-et-Loire, France), by the potter Brother D. de Montmolin. The contributions in alkali modifiers (Na2O, K2O), alkaline-earth (CaO, MgO) and in silica are discussed in view of the data gathered from the literature of the history of techniques used in the production of ceramics, enamels and glasses. The huge variation in composition is usually attributed to recycling and is questioned by the very br...

  6. Atmospheric deposition, resuspension and root uptake of plutonium in corn and other grain-producing agroecosystems near a nuclear fuel facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinder, J.E. III; McLeod, K.W.; Adriano, D.C. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)); Corey, J.C.; Boni, A.L. (Savannah River Lab., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1989-01-01

    Plutonium released to the environment may contribute to dose to humans through inhalation or ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. Plutonium contamination of agricultural plants may result from interception and retention of atmospheric deposition, resuspension of Pu-bearing soil particles to plant surfaces, and root uptake and translocation to grain. Plutonium on vegetation surfaces may be transferred to grain surfaces during mechanical harvesting. Data obtained from corn grown near the US Department of Energy's H-Area nuclear fuel chemical separations facility on the Savannah River Site was used to estimated parameters of a simple model of Pu transport in agroecosystems. The parameter estimates for corn were compared to those previously obtained for wheat and soybeans. Despite some differences in parameter estimates among crops, the relative importances of atmospheric deposition, resuspension and root uptake were similar among crops. For even small deposition rates, the relative importances of processes for Pu contamination of corn grain should be: transfer of atmospheric deposition from vegetation surfaces to grain surfaces during combining > resuspension of soil to grain surfaces > root uptake. Approximately 3.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} of a year's atmospheric deposition is transferred to grain. Approximately 6.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} of the Pu inventory in the soil is resuspended to corn grain, and a further 7.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} of the soil inventory is absorbed by roots and translocated to grains.

  7. Atmospheric deposition, resuspension, and root uptake of Pu in corn and other grain-producing agroecosystems near a nuclear fuel facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinder, J.E. III; McLeod, K.W.; Adriano, D.C.; Corey, J.C.; Boni, A.L. (Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken, SC (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Plutonium released to the environment may contribute to dose to humans through inhalation or ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. Plutonium contamination of agricultural plants may result from interception and retention of atmospheric deposition, resuspension of Pu-bearing soil particles to plant surfaces, and root uptake. Plutonium on vegetation surfaces may be transferred to grain surfaces during mechanical harvesting. Data obtained from corn grown near the U.S. Department of Energy's H-Area nuclear fuel chemical separations facility on the Savannah River Site were used to estimate parameters of a simple model of Pu transport in agroecosystems. The parameter estimates for corn were compared to those previously obtained for wheat and soybeans. Despite some differences in parameter estimates among crops, the relative importances of atmospheric deposition, resuspension, and root uptake were similar among crops. For even small deposition rates, the relative importances of processes for Pu contamination of corn grain should be: transfer of atmospheric deposition from vegetation surfaces to grain surfaces during combining greater than resuspension of soil to grain surfaces greater than root uptake. Approximately 3.9 X 10(-5) of a year's atmospheric deposition is transferred to grain. Approximately 6.2 X 10(-9) of the Pu inventory in the soil is resuspended to corn grain, and a further 7.3 X 10(-10) of the soil Pu inventory is absorbed and translocated to grains.

  8. Atmospheric deposition, resuspension and root uptake of plutonium in corn and other grain-producing agroecosystems near a nuclear fuel facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinder, J.E. III; McLeod, K.W.; Adriano, D.C. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States); Corey, J.C.; Boni, A.L. [Savannah River Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1989-12-31

    Plutonium released to the environment may contribute to dose to humans through inhalation or ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. Plutonium contamination of agricultural plants may result from interception and retention of atmospheric deposition, resuspension of Pu-bearing soil particles to plant surfaces, and root uptake and translocation to grain. Plutonium on vegetation surfaces may be transferred to grain surfaces during mechanical harvesting. Data obtained from corn grown near the US Department of Energy`s H-Area nuclear fuel chemical separations facility on the Savannah River Site was used to estimated parameters of a simple model of Pu transport in agroecosystems. The parameter estimates for corn were compared to those previously obtained for wheat and soybeans. Despite some differences in parameter estimates among crops, the relative importances of atmospheric deposition, resuspension and root uptake were similar among crops. For even small deposition rates, the relative importances of processes for Pu contamination of corn grain should be: transfer of atmospheric deposition from vegetation surfaces to grain surfaces during combining > resuspension of soil to grain surfaces > root uptake. Approximately 3.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} of a year`s atmospheric deposition is transferred to grain. Approximately 6.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} of the Pu inventory in the soil is resuspended to corn grain, and a further 7.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} of the soil inventory is absorbed by roots and translocated to grains.

  9. Measurement of directional thermal infrared emissivity of vegetation and soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, J.M. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Soil Science; Balick, L.K. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A new method has been developed for measuring directional thermal emissivity as a function of view angle for plant canopies and soils using two infrared thermometers each sensitive to a different wavelength band. By calibrating the two infrared thermometers to 0.1C consistency, canopy directional emissivity can be estimated with typical errors less than 0.005 in the 8--14 um wavelength band, depending on clarity of the sky and corrections for CO{sub 2} absorption by the atmosphere. A theoretical justification for the method is developed along with an error analysis. Laboratory measurements were used to develop corrections for CO{sub 2}, absorption and a field calibration method is used to obtain the necessary 0.1C consistency for relatively low cost infrared thermometers. The emissivity of alfalfa (LAI=2.5) and corn (LAI=3.2) was near 0.995 and independent of view angle. Individual corn leaves had an emissivity of 0.97. A wheat (LAI=3.0) canopy had an emissivity of 0.985 at nadir and 0.975 at 75 degree view angle. The canopy emissivity values tend to be higher than values in the literature, and are useful for converting infrared thermometer measurements to kinetic temperature and interpreting satellite thermal observations.

  10. Preprocessing Moist Lignocellulosic Biomass for Biorefinery Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal Yancey; Christopher T. Wright; Craig Conner; J. Richard Hess

    2009-06-01

    Biomass preprocessing is one of the primary operations in the feedstock assembly system of a lignocellulosic biorefinery. Preprocessing is generally accomplished using industrial grinders to format biomass materials into a suitable biorefinery feedstock for conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Many factors affect machine efficiency and the physical characteristics of preprocessed biomass. For example, moisture content of the biomass as received from the point of production has a significant impact on overall system efficiency and can significantly affect the characteristics (particle size distribution, flowability, storability, etc.) of the size-reduced biomass. Many different grinder configurations are available on the market, each with advantages under specific conditions. Ultimately, the capacity and/or efficiency of the grinding process can be enhanced by selecting the grinder configuration that optimizes grinder performance based on moisture content and screen size. This paper discusses the relationships of biomass moisture with respect to preprocessing system performance and product physical characteristics and compares data obtained on corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw as model feedstocks during Vermeer HG 200 grinder testing. During the tests, grinder screen configuration and biomass moisture content were varied and tested to provide a better understanding of their relative impact on machine performance and the resulting feedstock physical characteristics and uniformity relative to each crop tested.

  11. Levelized life-cycle costs for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thayer, G.R.; Rood, P.L.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.; Rollett, H.

    1983-01-01

    Technology characterizations and life-cycle costs were obtained for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems. All costs are in constant 1981 dollars. The residue-collection systems were cornstover collection, wheat-straw collection, soybean-residue collection, and wood chips from forest residue. The life-cycle costs ranged from $19/ton for cornstover collection to $56/ton for wood chips from forest residues. The gas-production systems were low-Btu gas from a farm-size gasifier, solar flash pyrolysis of biomass, methane from seaweed farms, and hydrogen production from bacteria. Life-cycle costs ranged from $3.3/10/sup 6/ Btu for solar flash pyrolysis of biomass to $9.6/10/sup 6/ Btu for hydrogen from bacteria. Sensitivity studies were also performed for each system. The sensitivity studies indicated that fertilizer replacement costs were the dominate costs for the farm-residue collection, while residue yield was most important for the wood residue. Feedstock costs were most important for the flash pyrolysis. Yields and capital costs are most important for the seaweed farm and the hydrogen from bacteria system.

  12. Fifteenth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals: Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This collection contains 173 abstracts from presented papers and poster sessions. The five sessions of the conference were on the subjects of: (1) Thermal, Chemical, and Biological Processing, (2) Applied Biological Research, (3) Bioprocessing Research (4), Process Economics and Commercialization, and (5) Environmental Biotechnology. Examples of specific topics in the first session include the kinetics of ripening cheese, microbial liquefaction of lignite, and wheat as a feedstock for fuel ethanol. Typical topics in the second session were synergism studies of bacterial and fungal celluloses, conversion of inulin from jerusalem artichokes to sorbitol and ethanol by saccharomyces cerevisiae, and microbial conversion of high rank coals to methane. The third session entertained topics such as hydrodynamic modeling of a liquid fluidized bed bioreactor for coal biosolubilization, aqueous biphasic systems for biological particle partitioning, and arabinose utilization by xylose-fermenting yeast and fungi. The fourth session included such topics as silage processing of forage biomass to alcohol fuels, economics of molasses to ethanol in India, and production of lactic acid from renewable resources. the final session contained papers on such subjects as bioluminescent detection of contaminants in soils, characterization of petroleum contaminated soils in coral atolls in the south Pacific, and landfill management for methane generation and emission control.

  13. Crop physiology calibration in the CLM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bilionis, I. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Div.; Drewniak, B. A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Science Div.; Constantinescu, E. M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Div.

    2015-01-01

    Farming is using more of the land surface, as population increases and agriculture is increasingly applied for non-nutritional purposes such as biofuel production. This agricultural expansion exerts an increasing impact on the terrestrial carbon cycle. In order to understand the impact of such processes, the Community Land Model (CLM) has been augmented with a CLM-Crop extension that simulates the development of three crop types: maize, soybean, and spring wheat. The CLM-Crop model is a complex system that relies on a suite of parametric inputs that govern plant growth under a given atmospheric forcing and available resources. CLM-Crop development used measurements of gross primary productivity (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from AmeriFlux sites to choose parameter values that optimize crop productivity in the model. In this paper, we calibrate these parameters for one crop type, soybean, in order to provide a faithful projection in terms of both plant development and net carbon exchange. Calibration is performed in a Bayesian framework by developing a scalable and adaptive scheme based on sequential Monte Carlo (SMC). The model showed significant improvement of crop productivity with the new calibrated parameters. We demonstrate that the calibrated parameters are applicable across alternative years and different sites.

  14. Using a Decision Support System to Optimize Production of Agricultural Crop Residue Biofeedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed L. Hoskinson; Ronald C. Rope; Raymond K. Fink

    2007-04-01

    For several years the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) which determines the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field to produce a crop, based on the existing soil fertility at each site, as well as historic production information and current prices of fertilizers and the forecast market price of the crop at harvest, for growing a crop such as wheat, potatoes, corn, or cotton. In support of the growing interest in agricultural crop residues as a bioenergy feedstock, we have extended the capability of the DSS4Ag to develop a variable-rate fertilizer recipe for the simultaneous economically optimum production of both grain and straw, and have been conducting field research to test this new DSS4Ag. In this paper we report the results of two years of field research testing and enhancing the DSS4Ag’s ability to economically optimize the fertilization for the simultaneous production of both grain and its straw, where the straw is an agricultural crop residue that can be used as a biofeedstock.

  15. Microstructured block copolymer surfaces for control of microbe capture and aggregation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Ryan R; Shubert, Katherine R; Morrell, Jennifer L.; Lokitz, Bradley S; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Retterer, Scott T

    2014-01-01

    The capture and arrangement of surface-associated microbes is influenced by biochemical and physical properties of the substrate. In this report, we develop lectin-functionalized substrates containing patterned, three-dimensional polymeric structures of varied shapes and densities and use these to investigate the effects of topology and spatial confinement on lectin-mediated microbe capture. Films of poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-4,4-dimethyl-2-vinylazlactone (PGMA-b-PVDMA) were patterned on silicon surfaces into line or square grid patterns with 5 m wide features and varied edge spacing. The patterned films had three-dimensional geometries with 900 nm film thickness. After surface functionalization with wheat germ agglutinin, the size of Pseudomonas fluorescens aggregates captured was dependent on the pattern dimensions. Line patterns with edge spacing of 5 m or less led to the capture of individual microbes with minimal formation of aggregates, while grid patterns with the same spacing also captured individual microbes with further reduction in aggregation. Both geometries allowed for increases in aggregate size distribution with increased in edge spacing. These engineered surfaces combine spatial confinement with affinity-based microbe capture based on exopolysaccharide content to control the degree of microbe aggregation, and can also be used as a platform to investigate intercellular interactions and biofilm formation in microbial populations of controlled sizes.

  16. Obligate Biotrophy Features Unraveled by the Genomic Analysis of the Rust Fungi, Melampsora larici-populina and Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duplessis, Sebastien; Cuomo, Christina A.; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Aerts, Andrea; Tisserant, Emilie; Veneault-Fourrey, Claire; Joly, David L.; Hacquard, Stephane; Amselem, Joelle; Cantarel, Brandi; Chiu, Readman; Couthinho, Pedro; Feau, Nicolas; Field, Matthew; Frey, Pascal; Gelhaye, Eric; Goldberg, Jonathan; Grabherr, Manfred; Kodira, Chinnappa; Kohler, Annegret; Kues, Ursula; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Mago, Rohit; Mauceli, Evan; Morin, Emmanuelle; Murat, Claude; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L.; Park, Robert; Pearson, Matthew; Quesneville, Hadi; Rouhier, Nicolas; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Salamov, Asaf A.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Selles, Benjamin; Shapiro, Harris; Tangay, Philippe; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Peer, Yves Van de; Henrissat, Bernard; Rouze, Pierre; Ellis, Jeffrey G.; Dodds, Peter N.; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Zhong, Shaobin; Hamelin, Richard C.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Szabo, Les J.; Martin1, Francis

    2011-04-27

    Rust fungi are some of the most devastating pathogens of crop plants. They are obligate biotrophs, which extract nutrients only from living plant tissues and cannot grow apart from their hosts. Their lifestyle has slowed the dissection of molecular mechanisms underlying host invasion and avoidance or suppression of plant innate immunity. We sequenced the 101 mega base pair genome of Melampsora larici-populina, the causal agent of poplar leaf rust, and the 89 mega base pair genome of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat and barley stem rust. We then compared the 16,841 predicted proteins of M. larici-populina to the 18,241 predicted proteins of P. graminis f. sp tritici. Genomic features related to their obligate biotrophic life-style include expanded lineage-specific gene families, a large repertoire of effector-like small secreted proteins (SSPs), impaired nitrogen and sulfur assimilation pathways, and expanded families of amino-acid, oligopeptide and hexose membrane transporters. The dramatic upregulation of transcripts coding for SSPs, secreted hydrolytic enzymes, and transporters in planta suggests that they play a role in host infection and nutrient acquisition. Some of these genomic hallmarks are mirrored in the genomes of other microbial eukaryotes that have independently evolved to infect plants, indicating convergent adaptation to a biotrophic existence inside plant cells

  17. Agricultural Industry Advanced Vehicle Technology: Benchmark Study for Reduction in Petroleum Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roger Hoy

    2014-09-01

    Diesel use on farms in the United States has remained relatively constant since 1985, decreasing slightly in 2009, which may be attributed to price increases and the economic recession. During this time, the United States’ harvested area also has remained relatively constant at roughly 300 million acres. In 2010, farm diesel use was 5.4% of the total United States diesel use. Crops accounting for an estimated 65% of United States farm diesel use include corn, soybean, wheat, hay, and alfalfa, respectively, based on harvested crop area and a recent analysis of estimated fuel use by crop. Diesel use in these cropping systems primarily is from tillage, harvest, and various other operations (e.g., planting and spraying) (Figure 3). Diesel efficiency is markedly variable due to machinery types, conditions of operation (e.g., soil type and moisture), and operator variability. Farm diesel use per acre has slightly decreased in the last two decades and diesel is now estimated to be less than 5% of farm costs per acre. This report will explore current trends in increasing diesel efficiency in the farm sector. The report combines a survey of industry representatives, a review of literature, and data analysis to identify nascent technologies for increasing diesel efficiency

  18. A simple method for enzymatic synthesis of unlabeled and radiolabeled Hydroxycinnamate-CoA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rautergarten, Carsten; Baidoo, Edward; Keasling, Jay; Vibe Scheller, Henrik

    2011-07-20

    Hydroxycinnamate coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters are substrates for biosynthesis of lignin and hydroxycinna- mate esters of polysaccharides and other polymers. Hence, a supply of these substrates is essential for investigation of cell wall biosynthesis. In this study, three recombinant enzymes, caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase, 4-coumarate- CoA ligase 1, and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase 5, were cloned from wheat, tobacco, and Arabidopsis, respectively, and were used to synthesize {sup 14}C-feruloyl-CoA, caffeoyl-CoA, p-coumaroyl-CoA, feruloyl-CoA, and sinapoyl-CoA. The corresponding hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA thioesters were high-performance liquid chromatography purified, the only extraction/purification step necessary, with total yields between 88-95%. Radiolabeled {sup 14}C-feruloyl-CoA was generated from caffeic acid and S-adenosyl-{sup 14}C-methionine under the combined action of caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase 1. About 70% of {sup 14}C-methyl groups from S-adenosyl methionine were incorporated into the final product. The methods presented are simple, fast, and efficient for the preparation of the hydroxycinnamate thioesters.

  19. Crop physiology calibration in the CLM

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bilionis, I.; Drewniak, B. A.; Constantinescu, E. M.

    2015-04-15

    Farming is using more of the land surface, as population increases and agriculture is increasingly applied for non-nutritional purposes such as biofuel production. This agricultural expansion exerts an increasing impact on the terrestrial carbon cycle. In order to understand the impact of such processes, the Community Land Model (CLM) has been augmented with a CLM-Crop extension that simulates the development of three crop types: maize, soybean, and spring wheat. The CLM-Crop model is a complex system that relies on a suite of parametric inputs that govern plant growth under a given atmospheric forcing and available resources. CLM-Crop development used measurementsmore »of gross primary productivity (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from AmeriFlux sites to choose parameter values that optimize crop productivity in the model. In this paper, we calibrate these parameters for one crop type, soybean, in order to provide a faithful projection in terms of both plant development and net carbon exchange. Calibration is performed in a Bayesian framework by developing a scalable and adaptive scheme based on sequential Monte Carlo (SMC). The model showed significant improvement of crop productivity with the new calibrated parameters. We demonstrate that the calibrated parameters are applicable across alternative years and different sites.« less

  20. Interspecific Comparison and annotation of two complete mitochondrial genome sequences from the plant pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millenbaugh, Bonnie A; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L.; Torriani, Stefano F.F.; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Kema, Gert H.J.; McDonald, Bruce A.

    2007-12-07

    The mitochondrial genomes of two isolates of the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola were sequenced completely and compared to identify polymorphic regions. This organism is of interest because it is phylogenetically distant from other fungi with sequenced mitochondrial genomes and it has shown discordant patterns of nuclear and mitochondrial diversity. The mitochondrial genome of M. graminicola is a circular molecule of approximately 43,960 bp containing the typical genes coding for 14 proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation, one RNA polymerase, two rRNA genes and a set of 27 tRNAs. The mitochondrial DNA of M. graminicola lacks the gene encoding the putative ribosomal protein (rps5-like), commonly found in fungal mitochondrial genomes. Most of the tRNA genes were clustered with a gene order conserved with many other ascomycetes. A sample of thirty-five additional strains representing the known global mt diversity was partially sequenced to measure overall mitochondrial variability within the species. Little variation was found, confirming previous RFLP-based findings of low mitochondrial diversity. The mitochondrial sequence of M. graminicola is the first reported from the family Mycosphaerellaceae or the order Capnodiales. The sequence also provides a tool to better understand the development of fungicide resistance and the conflicting pattern of high nuclear and low mitochondrial diversity in global populations of this fungus.

  1. Final Report: DOE/ID/14215

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth Bryden; J. Richard Hess; Thomas Ulrich; Robert Zemetra

    2008-08-18

    The proposed straw separation system developed in the research project harvests the large internode sections of the straw which has the greater potential as a feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol production while leaving the chaff and nodes in the field. This strategy ensures sustainable agriculture by preventing the depletion of soil minerals, and it restores organic matter to the soil in amounts and particle sizes that accommodate farmers’ needs to keep tillage and fertilizer costs low. A ton of these nutrient-rich plant tissues contains as much as $10.55 worth of fertilizer (economic and energy benefits), in terms of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and other nutrients provided to the soil when incorporated by tillage instead of being burned. Biomass conversion to fermentable sugars for the purpose of producing fuels, chemicals, and other industrial products is well understood. Most bioenergy strategies rely on low-cost fermentable sugars for sustainability and economic viability in the marketplace. Exploitation of the “whole crop”—specifically, wheat straw or other plant material currently regarded as residue or waste—is a practical approach for obtaining a reliable and low-cost source of sugars. However, industrial-scale production of sugars from wheat straw, while technically feasible, is plagued by obstacles related to capital costs, energy consumption, waste streams, production logistics, and the quality of the biomass feedstock. Currently available separation options with combine harvesters are not able to achieve sufficient separation of the straw/stover and chaff streams to realize the full potential of selective harvest. Since ethanol yield is a function of feedstock structural carbohydrate content, biomass anatomical fractions of higher product yield can have a significant beneficial impact on minimum ethanol selling price. To address this advanced biomass separation computation engineering models were developed to more effectively and efficiently engineer high-fidelity and high throughput separation systems for biomass components. INL and Iowa State University developed a computational modeling strategy for simulating multi-phase flow with an integrated solver using various computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. ISU set up a classic multi-phase test problem to be solved by the various CFD codes. The benchmark case was based on experimental data for bubble gas holdup and bed expansion for a gas/solid fluidized bed. Preliminary fluidization experiments identified some unexpected fluidization behavior, where rather than the bed uniformly fluidizing, a “blow out” would occur where a hole would open up in the bed through which the air would preferentially flow, resulting in erratic fluidization. To improve understanding of this phenomena and aid in building a design tool, improved computational tools were developed. The virtual engineering techniques developed were tested and utilized to design a separation baffle in a CNH combine. A computational engineering approach involving modeling, analysis, and simulation was used in the form of virtual engineering to design a baffle separator capable of accomplishing the high-fidelity residue separation established by the performance targets. Through the use of the virtual engineering model, baffle designs were simulated to (1) determine the effect of the baffle on the airflow of the combine cleaning system, and (2) predict the effectiveness of the baffle in separating the residue streams. A baffle design was selected based on the virtual engineering modeling, built into the INL selective harvest test combine. The result of the baffle changes improved the crop separation capability of the combine, enabling downstream improvement in composition and theoretical ethanol yield. In addition, the positive results from the application of the virtual engineering tools to the CNH combine design resulted in further application of these tools to other INL areas of research. INL and the University of Idaho identified, characterized, and modified a key plant biosynt

  2. Cropland Field Monitoring: MMV Page 1 Montana Cropland Enrolled Farm Fields Carbon Sequestration Field Sampling, Measurement, Monitoring, and Verification: Application of Visible-Near Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (VNIR) and Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee Spangler; Ross Bricklemyer; David Brown

    2012-03-15

    There is growing need for rapid, accurate, and inexpensive methods to measure, and verify soil organic carbon (SOC) change for national greenhouse gas accounting and the development of a soil carbon trading market. Laboratory based soil characterization typically requires significant soil processing, which is time and resource intensive. This severely limits application for large-region soil characterization. Thus, development of rapid and accurate methods for characterizing soils are needed to map soil properties for precision agriculture applications, improve regional and global soil carbon (C) stock and flux estimates and efficiently map sub-surface metal contamination, among others. The greatest gains for efficient soil characterization will come from collecting soil data in situ, thus minimizing soil sample transportation, processing, and lab-based measurement costs. Visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (VisNIR) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) are two complementary, yet fundamentally different spectroscopic techniques that have the potential to meet this need. These sensors have the potential to be mounted on a soil penetrometer and deployed for rapid soil profile characterization at field and landscape scales. Details of sensor interaction, efficient data management, and appropriate statistical analysis techniques for model calibrations are first needed. In situ or on-the-go VisNIR spectroscopy has been proposed as a rapid and inexpensive tool for intensively mapping soil texture and organic carbon (SOC). While lab-based VisNIR has been established as a viable technique for estimating various soil properties, few experiments have compared the predictive accuracy of on-the-go and lab-based VisNIR. Eight north central Montana wheat fields were intensively interrogated using on-the-go and lab-based VisNIR. Lab-based spectral data consistently provided more accurate predictions than on-the-go data. However, neither in situ nor lab-based spectroscopy yielded even semi-quantitative SOC predictions. There was little SOC variability to explain across the eight fields, and on-the-go VisNIR was not able to capture the subtle SOC variability in these Montana soils. With more variation in soil clay content compared to SOC, both lab and on-the-go VisNIR showed better explanatory power. There are several potential explanations for poor on-the-go predictive accuracy: soil heterogeneity, field moisture, consistent sample presentation, and a difference between the spatial support of on-the-go measurements and soil samples collected for laboratory analyses. Though the current configuration of a commercially available on-the-go VisNIR system allows for rapid field scanning, on-the-go soil processing (i.e. drying, crushing, and sieving) could improve soil carbon predictions. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging elemental analysis technology with the potential to provide rapid, accurate and precise analysis of soil constituents, such as carbon, in situ across landscapes. The research team evaluated the accuracy of LIBS for measuring soil profile carbon in field-moist, intact soil cores simulating conditions that might be encountered by a probe-mounted LIBS instrument measuring soil profile carbon in situ. Over the course of three experiments, more than120 intact soil cores from eight north central Montana wheat fields and the Washington State University (WSU) Cook Agronomy Farm near Pullman, WA were interrogated with LIBS for rapid total carbon (TC), inorganic carbon (IC), and SOC determination. Partial least squares regression models were derived and independently validated at field- and regional scales. Researchers obtained the best LIBS validation predictions for IC followed by TC and SOC. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is fundamentally an elemental analysis technique, yet LIBS PLS2 models appeared to discriminate IC from TC. Regression coefficients from initial models suggested a reliance upon stoichiometric relationships between carbon (247.8 nm) and other elements

  3. National Geo-Database for Biofuel Simulations and Regional Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Zhang, Xuesong; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Manowitz, David H.

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this project undertaken by GLBRC (Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center) Area 4 (Sustainability) modelers is to develop a national capability to model feedstock supply, ethanol production, and biogeochemical impacts of cellulosic biofuels. The results of this project contribute to sustainability goals of the GLBRC; i.e. to contribute to developing a sustainable bioenergy economy: one that is profitable to farmers and refiners, acceptable to society, and environmentally sound. A sustainable bioenergy economy will also contribute, in a fundamental way, to meeting national objectives on energy security and climate mitigation. The specific objectives of this study are to: (1) develop a spatially explicit national geodatabase for conducting biofuel simulation studies; (2) model biomass productivity and associated environmental impacts of annual cellulosic feedstocks; (3) simulate production of perennial biomass feedstocks grown on marginal lands; and (4) locate possible sites for the establishment of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries. To address the first objective, we developed SENGBEM (Spatially Explicit National Geodatabase for Biofuel and Environmental Modeling), a 60-m resolution geodatabase of the conterminous USA containing data on: (1) climate, (2) soils, (3) topography, (4) hydrography, (5) land cover/ land use (LCLU), and (6) ancillary data (e.g., road networks, federal and state lands, national and state parks, etc.). A unique feature of SENGBEM is its 2008-2010 crop rotation data, a crucially important component for simulating productivity and biogeochemical cycles as well as land-use changes associated with biofuel cropping. We used the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) model to simulate biomass productivity and environmental impacts of annual and perennial cellulosic feedstocks across much of the USA on both croplands and marginal lands. We used data from LTER and eddy-covariance experiments within the study region to test the performance of EPIC and, when necessary, improve its parameterization. We investigated three scenarios. In the first, we simulated a historical (current) baseline scenario composed mainly of corn-, soybean-, and wheat-based rotations as grown existing croplands east of the Rocky Mountains in 30 states. In the second scenario, we simulated a modified baseline in which we harvested corn and wheat residues to supply feedstocks to potential cellulosic ethanol biorefineries distributed within the study area. In the third scenario, we simulated the productivity of perennial cropping systems such as switchgrass or perennial mixtures grown on either marginal or Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands. In all cases we evaluated the environmental impacts (e.g., soil carbon changes, soil erosion, nitrate leaching, etc.) associated with the practices. In summary, we have reported on the development of a spatially explicit national geodatabase to conduct biofuel simulation studies and provided initial simulation results on the potential of annual and perennial cropping systems to serve as feedstocks for the production of cellulosic ethanol. To accomplish this, we have employed sophisticated spatial analysis methods in combination with the process-based biogeochemical model EPIC. This work provided the opportunity to test the hypothesis that marginal lands can serve as sources of cellulosic feedstocks and thus contribute to avoid potential conflicts between bioenergy and food production systems. This work, we believe, opens the door for further analysis on the characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks as major contributors to the development of a sustainable bioenergy economy.

  4. Meeting the Radiative Forcing Targets of the Representative Concentration Pathways in a World with Agricultural Climate Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, G. Page; Mueller, C.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-02-28

    This study assesses how climate impacts on agriculture may change the evolution of the agricultural and energy systems in meeting the end-of-century radiative forcing targets of the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). We build on the recently completed ISI-MIP exercise that has produced global gridded estimates of future crop yields for major agricultural crops using climate model projections of the RCPs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). For this study we use the bias-corrected outputs of the HadGEM2-ES climate model as inputs to the LPJmL crop growth model, and the outputs of LPJmL to modify inputs to the GCAM integrated assessment model. Our results indicate that agricultural climate impacts generally lead to an increase in global cropland, as compared with corresponding emissions scenarios that do not consider climate impacts on agricultural productivity. This is driven mostly by negative impacts on wheat, rice, other grains, and oil crops. Still, including agricultural climate impacts does not significantly increase the costs or change the technological strategies of global, whole-system emissions mitigation. In fact, to meet the most aggressive climate change mitigation target (2.6 W/m2 in 2100), the net mitigation costs are slightly lower when agricultural climate impacts are considered. Key contributing factors to these results are (a) low levels of climate change in the low-forcing scenarios, (b) adaptation to climate impacts, simulated in GCAM through inter-regional shifting in the production of agricultural goods, and (c) positive average climate impacts on bioenergy crop yields.

  5. Agriculture, Land Use, Energy and Carbon Emission Impacts of Global Biofuel Mandates to Mid-Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Luckow, Patrick; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page

    2014-02-01

    Three potential future scenarios of expanded global biofuel production are presented here utilizing the GCAM integrated assessment model. These scenarios span a range that encompasses on the low end a continuation of existing biofuel production policies to two scenarios that would require an expansion of current targets as well as an extension of biofuels targets to other regions of the world. Conventional oil use is reduced by 4-8% in the expanded biofuel scenarios, which results in a decrease of in CO2 emissions on the order of 1-2 GtCO2/year by mid-century from the global transportation sector. The regional distribution of crop production is relatively unaffected, but the biofuels targets do result in a marked increase in the production of conventional crops used for energy. Producer prices of sugar and corn reach levels about 12% and 7% above year 2005 levels, while the increased competition for land causes the price of food crops such as wheat, although not used for bioenergy in this study, to increase by 1 to 2%. The amount of land devoted to growing all food crops and dedicated bioenergy crops is increased by about 10% by 2050 in the High biofuel case, with concurrent decreases in other uses of land such as forest and pasture. In both of the expanded biofuels cases studied, there is an increase in net cumulative carbon emissions for the first couple of decades due to these induced land use changes. However, the difference in net cumulative emissions from the biofuels expansion decline by about 2035 as the reductions in energy system emissions exceed further increases in emissions from land use change. Even in the absence of a policy that would limit emissions from land use change, the differences in net cumulative emissions from the biofuels scenarios reach zero by 2050, and are decreasing further over time in both cases.

  6. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment For Selected Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kline, Keith L; Oladosu, Gbadebo A; Wolfe, Amy K; Perlack, Robert D; Dale, Virginia H; McMahon, Matthew

    2008-02-01

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as 'available' for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64% of the total. Among the nations studied, Brazil is the source of about two-thirds of available supplies, followed distantly by Argentina (12%), India and the CBI region.

  7. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment for Selected Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kline, K.L.; Oladosu, G.A.; Wolfe, A.K.; Perlack, R.D.; Dale, V.H.

    2008-02-18

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as ‘available’ for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64% of the total. Among the nations studied, Brazil is the source of about two-thirds of available supplies, followed distantly by Argentina (12%), India and the CBI region.

  8. Seasonal and inter-annual variability in 13C composition of ecosystem carbon fluxes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torn, M.S.; Biraud, S.; Still, C.J.; Riley, W.J.; Berry, J.A.

    2010-09-22

    The {delta}{sup 13}C signature of terrestrial carbon fluxes ({delta}{sub bio}) provides an important constraint for inverse models of CO{sub 2} sources and sinks, insight into vegetation physiology, C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} vegetation productivity, and ecosystem carbon residence times. From 2002-2009, we measured atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and {delta}{sup 13}C-CO{sub 2} at four heights (2 to 60 m) in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) and computed {delta}{sub bio} weekly. This region has a fine-scale mix of crops (primarily C{sub 3} winter wheat) and C{sub 4} pasture grasses. {delta}{sub bio} had a large and consistent seasonal cycle of 6-8{per_thousand}. Ensemble monthly mean {delta}{sub bio} ranged from -25.8 {+-} 0.4{per_thousand} ({+-}SE) in March to -20.1 {+-} 0.4{per_thousand} in July. Thus, C{sub 3} vegetation contributed about 80% of ecosystem fluxes in winter-spring and 50% in summer-fall. In contrast, prairie-soil {delta}{sub 13}C values were about -15{per_thousand}, indicating that historically the region was dominated by C{sub 4} vegetation and had more positive {delta}{sub bio} values. Based on a land-surface model, isofluxes ({delta}{sub bio} x NEE) in this region have large seasonal amplitude because {delta}{sub bio} and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) covary. Interannual variability in isoflux was driven by variability in NEE. The large seasonal amplitude in {delta}{sub bio} and isoflux imply that carbon inverse analyses require accurate estimates of land cover and temporally resolved {sup 13}CO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} fluxes.

  9. Cookoff Modeling of a WIPP waste drum (68660)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, Michael L.

    2014-11-24

    A waste drum located 2150 feet underground may have been the root cause of a radiation leak on February 14, 2014. Information provided to the WIPP Technical Assessment Team (TAT) was used to describe the approximate content of the drum, which included an organic cat litter (Swheat Scoop®, or Swheat) composed of 100% wheat products. The drum also contained various nitrate salts, oxalic acid, and a nitric acid solution that was neutralized with triethanolamine (TEA). CTH-TIGER was used with the approximate drum contents to specify the products for an exothermic reaction for the drum. If an inorganic adsorbent such as zeolite had been used in lieu of the kitty litter, the overall reaction would have been endothermic. Dilution with a zeolite adsorbent might be a useful method to remediate drums containing organic kitty litter. SIERRA THERMAL was used to calculate the pressurization and ignition of the drum. A baseline simulation of drum 68660 was performed by assuming a background heat source of 0.5-10 W of unknown origin. The 0.5 W source could be representative of heat generated by radioactive decay. The drum ignited after about 70 days. Gas generation at ignition was predicted to be 300-500 psig with a sealed drum (no vent). At ignition, the wall temperature increases modestly by about 1°C, demonstrating that heating would not be apparent prior to ignition. The ignition location was predicted to be about 0.43 meters above the bottom center portion of the drum. At ignition only 3-5 kg (out of 71.6 kg total) has been converted into gas, indicating that most of the material remained available for post-ignition reaction.

  10. Lectin-mediated effects on bone resorption in vitro: a morphological and functional study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popoff, S.N.

    1986-01-01

    Lectins have been used to study the structure and function of a variety of cells and tissues. The authors used 4 different lectins, concanavalin A (con A), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), soybean agglutinin (SBA) and peanut agglutinin (PNA) as in vitro biological probes to study the osteoclast, a multinucleated bone cell that is widely accepted as the primary effector cell responsible for normal bone resorption. They evaluated the effects of each of these lectins on osteoclastic bone resorbing activity and then examined mechanisms that may be responsible for the activation and/or inhibition of osteoclastic activity. Using con A and hemocyanin, a marker molecule used to visualize cell-bound con A via scanning electron microscopy, they demonstrated that osteoclasts have specific con A binding sites on their cell surface. They conducted a series of /sup 45/Ca bone release assays demonstrating that con A has a dose-dependent biphasic effect on bone resorption; stimulation at low concentrations and inhibition at higher concentrations. The findings suggest that the specificity of lectin binding to cell surface receptors may play an important role in the induction of altered cell function. Recently, cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system have been proposed as surrogates of less readily available osteoclasts. They used a macrophage-devitalized bone culture system to evaluate the effects of con A and SBA on the attachment of macrophages to bone and their subsequent functional activity. The results showed that con A, but not SBA, alters the morphology and function of macrophages on a devitalized bone surface. The results support the hypothesis that certain, specific saccharides regulate the interaction between macrophages and bone.

  11. Modeling the impact of agricultural land use and management on US carbon budgets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Drewniak, B. A.; Mishra, U.; Song, J.; Prell, J.; Kotamarthi, V. R.

    2014-09-22

    Cultivation of the terrestrial land surface can create either a source or sink of atmospheric CO2, depending on land management practices. The Community Land Model (CLM) provides a useful tool to explore how land use and management impact the soil carbon pool at regional to global scales. CLM was recently updated to include representation of managed lands growing maize, soybean, and spring wheat. In this study, CLM-Crop is used to investigate the impacts of various management practices, including fertilizer use and differential rates of crop residue removal, on the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage of croplands in the continental Unitedmore »States over approximately a 170 year period. Results indicate that total US SOC stocks have already lost over 8 Pg C (10%) due to land cultivation practices (e.g., fertilizer application, cultivar choice, and residue removal), compared to a land surface composed of native vegetation (i.e., grasslands). After long periods of cultivation, individual plots growing maize and soybean lost up to 65% of the carbon stored, compared to a grassland site. Crop residue management showed the greatest effect on soil carbon storage, with low and medium residue returns resulting in additional losses of 5% and 3.5%, respectively, in US carbon storage, while plots with high residue returns stored 2% more carbon. Nitrogenous fertilizer can alter the amount of soil carbon stocks significantly. Under current levels of crop residue return, not applying fertilizer resulted in a 5% loss of soil carbon. Our simulations indicate that disturbance through cultivation will always result in a loss of soil carbon, and management practices will have a large influence on the magnitude of SOC loss.« less

  12. Modeling the impact of agricultural land use and management on US carbon budgets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Drewniak, B. A.; Mishra, U.; Song, J.; Prell, J.; Kotamarthi, V. R.

    2015-04-09

    Cultivation of the terrestrial land surface can create either a source or sink of atmospheric CO2, depending on land management practices. The Community Land Model (CLM) provides a useful tool for exploring how land use and management impact the soil carbon pool at regional to global scales. CLM was recently updated to include representation of managed lands growing maize, soybean, and spring wheat. In this study, CLM-Crop is used to investigate the impacts of various management practices, including fertilizer use and differential rates of crop residue removal, on the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage of croplands in the continental Unitedmore »States over approximately a 170-year period. Results indicate that total US SOC stocks have already lost over 8 Pg C (10%) due to land cultivation practices (e.g., fertilizer application, cultivar choice, and residue removal), compared to a land surface composed of native vegetation (i.e., grasslands). After long periods of cultivation, individual subgrids (the equivalent of a field plot) growing maize and soybean lost up to 65% of the carbon stored compared to a grassland site. Crop residue management showed the greatest effect on soil carbon storage, with low and medium residue returns resulting in additional losses of 5 and 3.5%, respectively, in US carbon storage, while plots with high residue returns stored 2% more carbon. Nitrogenous fertilizer can alter the amount of soil carbon stocks significantly. Under current levels of crop residue return, not applying fertilizer resulted in a 5% loss of soil carbon. Our simulations indicate that disturbance through cultivation will always result in a loss of soil carbon, and management practices will have a large influence on the magnitude of SOC loss.« less

  13. Grain Handling and Transportation Policy in Canada: Implications for the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nolan, James; Peterson, Steven K

    2015-01-01

    The grain handling and transportation system in Canada (GHTS) is currently going through a major transition, both with respect to handling and transportation. Historically, the system has pitted farmers against the railways with respect to securing individual fair shares of grain revenues. But with the removal of the single desk marketing and logistics function of the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) in late 2012, a very interesting and potentially game-changing outcome is emerging with respect to the new functionality of the grain companies in the Canadian system. While historical awareness of rail s natural monopoly position in the grain handling system has kept that sector regulated (in several ways) for close to a century, we are now starting to see the effects of a less than competitive Canadian grain handling sector on revenue sharing, along with renewed movement in the industry with respect to buyouts and potential mergers. This overview will highlight some of the changes now occurring and how they are potentially going to interact or evolve as the system moves forward. For example, the on-going regulatory instrument used to regulate grain transportation rates in Canada (called the maximum revenue entitlement (MRE) or revenue cap) is under current debate because of the introduction a few months ago of a modification to an old regulatory instrument known as extended (or reciprocal) interswitching. As opposed to the revenue cap which is a direct intervention on monopoly behavior, extended interswitching is designed to encourage the major Canadian grain carriers to compete with one another and potentially seek out new traffic (Nolan and Skotheim, 2008). But the most intriguing aspect of extended interswitching is how it might allow a major rail carrier from the U.S. to solicit grain traffic in some areas of the Canadian grain transportation system.

  14. Montana Integrated Carbon to Liquids (ICTL) Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiato, Rocco; Sharma, Ramesh; Allen, Mark; Peyton, Brent; Macur, Richard; Cameron, Jemima

    2013-09-30

    Integrated carbon?to?liquids technology (ICTL) incorporates three basic processes for the conversion of a wide range of feedstocks to distillate liquid fuels: (1) Direct Microcatalytic Coal Liquefaction (MCL) is coupled with biomass liquefaction via (2) Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation and Isomerization (CHI) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or trigylceride fatty acids (TGFA) to produce liquid fuels, with process derived (3) CO{sub 2} Capture and Utilization (CCU) via algae production and use in BioFertilizer for added terrestrial sequestration of CO{sub 2}, or as a feedstock for MCL and/or CHI. This novel approach enables synthetic fuels production while simultaneously meeting EISA 2007 Section 526 targets, minimizing land use and water consumption, and providing cost competitive fuels at current day petroleum prices. ICTL was demonstrated with Montana Crow sub?bituminous coal in MCL pilot scale operations at the Energy and Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota (EERC), with related pilot scale CHI studies conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Applied Research Center (PARC). Coal?Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) Fuel samples were evaluated at the US Air Force Research Labs (AFRL) in Dayton and greenhouse tests of algae based BioFertilizer conducted at Montana State University (MSU). Econometric modeling studies were also conducted on the use of algae based BioFertilizer in a wheat?camelina crop rotation cycle. We find that the combined operation is not only able to help boost crop yields, but also to provide added crop yields and associated profits from TGFA (from crop production) for use an ICTL plant feedstock. This program demonstrated the overall viability of ICTL in pilot scale operations. Related work on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a Montana project indicated that CCU could be employed very effectively to reduce the overall carbon footprint of the MCL/CHI process. Plans are currently being made to conduct larger?scale process demonstration studies of the CHI process in combination with CCU to generate synthetic jet and diesel fuels from algae and algae fertilized crops. Site assessment and project prefeasibility studies are planned with a major EPC firm to determine the overall viability of ICTL technology commercialization with Crow coal resources in south central Montana.

  15. Identifying and Mitigating Potential Nutrient and Sediment Hot Spots under a Future Scenario in the Missouri River Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, May; Zhang, Zhonglong

    2015-09-01

    Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for large-scale watershed modeling could be useful for evaluating the quality of the water in regions that are dominated by nonpoint sources in order to identify potential “hot spots” for which mitigating strategies could be further developed. An analysis of water quality under future scenarios in which changes in land use would be made to accommodate increased biofuel production was developed for the Missouri River Basin (MoRB) based on a SWAT model application. The analysis covered major agricultural crops and biofuel feedstock in the MoRB, including pasture land, hay, corn, soybeans, wheat, and switchgrass. The analysis examined, at multiple temporal and spatial scales, how nitrate, organic nitrogen, and total nitrogen; phosphorus, organic phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus, and total phosphorus; suspended sediments; and water flow (water yield) would respond to the shifts in land use that would occur under proposed future scenarios. The analysis was conducted at three geospatial scales: (1) large tributary basin scale (two: Upper MoRB and Lower MoRB); (2) regional watershed scale (seven: Upper Missouri River, Middle Missouri River, Middle Lower Missouri River, Lower Missouri River, Yellowstone River, Platte River, and Kansas River); and (3) eight-digit hydrologic unit (HUC-8) subbasin scale (307 subbasins). Results showed that subbasin-level variations were substantial. Nitrogen loadings decreased across the entire Upper MoRB, and they increased in several subbasins in the Lower MoRB. Most nitrate reductions occurred in lateral flow. Also at the subbasin level, phosphorus in organic, sediment, and soluble forms was reduced by 35%, 45%, and 65%, respectively. Suspended sediments increased in 68% of the subbasins. The water yield decreased in 62% of the subbasins. In the Kansas River watershed, the water quality improved significantly with regard to every nitrogen and phosphorus compound. The improvement was clearly attributable to the conversion of a large amount of land to switchgrass. The Middle Lower Missouri River and Lower Missouri River were identified as hot regions. Further analysis identified four subbasins (10240002, 10230007, 10290402, and 10300200) as being the most vulnerable in terms of sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus loadings. Overall, results suggest that increasing the amount of switchgrass acreage in the hot spots should be considered to mitigate the nutrient loads. The study provides an analytical method to support stakeholders in making informed decisions that balance biofuel production and water sustainability.

  16. Determination of saccharides and ethanol from biomass conversion using Raman spectroscopy: Effects of pretreatment and enzyme composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, Chien-Ju

    2010-05-16

    This dissertation focuses on the development of facile and rapid quantitative Raman spectroscopy measurements for the determination of conversion products in producing bioethanol from corn stover. Raman spectroscopy was chosen to determine glucose, xylose and ethanol in complex hydrolysis and fermentation matrices. Chapter 1 describes the motives and main goals of this work, and includes an introduction to biomass, commonly used pretreatment methods, hydrolysis and fermentation reactions. The principles of Raman spectroscopy, its advantages and applications related to biomass analysis are also illustrated. Chapter 2 and 3 comprise two published or submitted manuscripts, and the thesis concludes with an appendix. In Chapter 2, a Raman spectroscopic protocol is described to study the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by measuring the main product in hydrolysate, glucose. Two commonly utilized pretreatment methods were investigated in order to understand their effect on glucose measurements by Raman spectroscopy. Second, a similar method was set up to determine the concentration of ethanol in fermentation broth. Both of these measurements are challenged by the presence of complex matrices. In Chapter 3, a quantitative comparison of pretreatment protocols and the effect of enzyme composition are studied using systematic methods. A multipeak fitting algorithm was developed to analyze spectra of hydrolysate containing two analytes: glucose and xylose. Chapter 4 concludes with a future perspective of this research area. An appendix describes a convenient, rapid spectrophotometric method developed to measure cadmium in water. This method requires relatively low cost instrumentation and can be used in microgravity, such as space shuttles or the International Space Station. This work was performed under the supervision of Professor Marc Porter while at Iowa State University. Research related to producing biofuel from bio-renewable resources, especially bioethanol from biomass, has grown significantly in the past decade due to the high demand and rising costs of fossil fuels. More than 3 percent of the energy consumption in the U.S. is derived from renewable biomass, mostly through industrial heat and steam production by the pulp and paper industry, and electricity generation from municipal solid waste (MSW) and forest industry residues. The utilization of food-based biomass to make fuels has been widely criticized because it may increase food shortages throughout the world and raise the cost of food. Thus, nonfood-based and plentiful lignocellulosic feedstocks, such as corn stover, perennial grass, bagasse, sorghum, wheat/rice straw, herbaceous and woody crops, have great potential to be new bio-renewable sources for energy production. Given that many varieties of biomass are available, there is need for a rapid, simple, high-throughput method to screen the conversion of many plant varieties. The most suitable species for each geographic region must be determined, as well as the optimal stage of harvest, impacts of environmental conditions (temperature, soil, pH, etc.). Various genetically modified plants should be studied in order to establish the desired biomass in bioethanol production. The main screening challenge, however, is the complexity of plant cell wall structures that make reliable and sensitive analysis difficult. To date, one of the most popular methods to produce lignocellulosic ethanol is to perform enzymatic hydrolysis followed by fermentation of the hydrolysate with yeast. There are several vital needs related to the field of chemistry that have been suggested as primary research foci needed to effectively improve lignocellulosic ethanol production. These topics include overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass, the pervasiveness of pretreatment, advanced biological processing and better feedstocks. In this thesis, a novel approach using Raman spectroscopy has been developed to address important issues related to bioethanol generation, which will aid the research aimed to solve the topics m

  17. Agricultural pathogen decontamination technology-reducing the threat of infectious agent spread.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betty, Rita G.; Bieker, Jill Marie; Tucker, Mark David

    2005-10-01

    Outbreaks of infectious agricultural diseases, whether natural occurring or introduced intentionally, could have catastrophic impacts on the U.S. economy. Examples of such agricultural pathogens include foot and mouth disease (FMD), avian influenza (AI), citrus canker, wheat and soy rust, etc. Current approaches to mitigate the spread of agricultural pathogens include quarantine, development of vaccines for animal diseases, and development of pathogen resistant crop strains in the case of plant diseases. None of these approaches is rapid, and none address the potential persistence of the pathogen in the environment, which could lead to further spread of the agent and damage after quarantine is lifted. Pathogen spread in agricultural environments commonly occurs via transfer on agricultural equipment (transportation trailers, tractors, trucks, combines, etc.), having components made from a broad range of materials (galvanized and painted steel, rubber tires, glass and Plexiglas shields, etc), and under conditions of heavy organic load (mud, soil, feces, litter, etc). A key element of stemming the spread of an outbreak is to ensure complete inactivation of the pathogens in the agricultural environment and on the equipment used in those environments. Through the combination of enhanced agricultural pathogen decontamination chemistry and a validated inactivation verification methodology, important technologies for incorporation as components of a robust response capability will be enabled. Because of the potentially devastating economic impact that could result from the spread of infectious agricultural diseases, the proposed capability components will promote critical infrastructure protection and greater border and food supply security. We investigated and developed agricultural pathogen decontamination technologies to reduce the threat of infectious-agent spread, and thus enhance agricultural biosecurity. Specifically, enhanced detergency versions of the patented Sandia decontamination chemistry were developed and tested against a few surrogate pathogens under conditions of relatively heavy organic load. Tests were conducted on surfaces commonly found in agricultural environments. Wide spectrum decontamination efficacy, low corrosivity, and biodegradability issues were addressed in developing an enhanced detergency formulation. A method for rapid assessment of loss of pathogenic activity (inactivation) was also assessed. This enhanced technology will enable rapid assessment of contamination following an intentional event, and will also be extremely useful in routine assessment of agricultural environments. The primary effort during the second year was progress towards a demonstration of both decontamination and viral inactivation technologies of Foot and Mouth virus (FMDv) using the modified SNL chemistry developed through this project. Lab studies using a surrogate virus (bovine enterovirus) were conducted using DF200, modified DF200 chemistry, and decontaminants currently recommended for use in heavily loaded organic, agricultural environments (VirkonS, 10% bleach, sodium hydroxide and citric acid). Tests using actual FMD virus will be performed at the Department of Homeland Security's Plum Island facilities in the fall of 2005. Success and the insight gained from this project will lead to enhanced response capability, which will benefit agencies such as USDA, DHS, DOD, and the agricultural industry.

  18. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downing, Mark; Eaton, Laurence M; Graham, Robin Lambert; Langholtz, Matthew H; Perlack, Robert D; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Stokes, Bryce; Brandt, Craig C

    2011-08-01

    The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory, production capacity, availability, and technology. The analysis was made to determine if conterminous U.S. agriculture and forestry resources had the capability to produce at least one billion dry tons of sustainable biomass annually to displace 30% or more of the nation's present petroleum consumption. An effort was made to use conservative estimates to assure confidence in having sufficient supply to reach the goal. The potential biomass was projected to be reasonably available around mid-century when large-scale biorefineries are likely to exist. The study emphasized primary sources of forest- and agriculture-derived biomass, such as logging residues, fuel treatment thinnings, crop residues, and perennially grown grasses and trees. These primary sources have the greatest potential to supply large, reliable, and sustainable quantities of biomass. While the primary sources were emphasized, estimates of secondary residue and tertiary waste resources of biomass were also provided. The original Billion-Ton Resource Assessment, published in 2005, was divided into two parts-forest-derived resources and agriculture-derived resources. The forest resources included residues produced during the harvesting of merchantable timber, forest residues, and small-diameter trees that could become available through initiatives to reduce fire hazards and improve forest health; forest residues from land conversion; fuelwood extracted from forests; residues generated at primary forest product processing mills; and urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes (MSW), and construction and demolition (C&D) debris. For these forest resources, only residues, wastes, and small-diameter trees were considered. The 2005 BTS did not attempt to include any wood that would normally be used for higher-valued products (e.g., pulpwood) that could potentially shift to bioenergy applications. This would have required a separate economic analysis, which was not part of the 2005 BTS. The agriculture resources in the 2005 BTS included grains used for biofuels production; crop residues derived primarily from corn, wheat, and small grains; and animal manures and other residues. The cropland resource analysis also included estimates of perennial energy crops (e.g., herbaceous grasses, such as switchgrass, woody crops like hybrid poplar, as well as willow grown under short rotations and more intensive management than conventional plantation forests). Woody crops were included under cropland resources because it was assumed that they would be grown on a combination of cropland and pasture rather than forestland. In the 2005 BTS, current resource availability was estimated at 278 million dry tons annually from forestlands and slightly more than 194 million dry tons annually from croplands. These annual quantities increase to about 370 million dry tons from forestlands and to nearly 1 billion dry tons from croplands under scenario conditions of high-yield growth and large-scale plantings of perennial grasses and woody tree crops. This high-yield scenario reflects a mid-century timescale ({approx}2040-2050). Under conditions of lower-yield growth, estimated resource potential was projected to be about 320 and 580 million dry tons for forest and cropland biomass, respectively. As noted earlier, the 2005 BTS emphasized the primary resources (agricultural and forestry residues and energy crops) because they represent nearly 80% of the long-term resource potential. Since publication of the BTS in April 2005, there have been some rather dramatic changes in energy markets. In fact, just prior to the actual publication of the BTS, world oil prices started to increase as a result of a burgeoning worldwide demand and concerns about long-term supplies. By the end of the summer, oil pri

  19. Innovative Coal Solids-Flow Monitoring and Measurement Using Phase-Doppler and Mie Scattering Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Seong Lee

    2010-01-19

    Fuel flow to individual burners is complicated and difficult to determine on coal fired boilers, since coal solids were transported in a gas suspension that is governed by the complex physics of two-phase flow. The objectives of the project were the measurements of suspended coal solids-flows in the simulated test conditions. Various extractive methods were performed manually and can give only a snapshot result of fuel distribution. In order to measure particle diameter & velocity, laser based phase-Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were carefully applied. Statistical methods were used to analyze particle characteristics to see which factors have significant effect. The transparent duct model was carefully designed and fabricated for the laser-based-instrumentation of solids-flow monitoring (LISM). The experiments were conducted with two different kinds of particles with four different particle diameters. The particle types were organic particles and saw dust particles with the diameter range of 75-150 micron, 150-250 micron, 250-355 micron and 355-425 micron. The densities of the particles were measured to see how the densities affected the test results. Also the experiment was conducted with humid particles and fog particles. To generate humid particles, the humidifier was used. A pipe was connected to the humidifier to lead the particle flow to the intersection of the laser beam. The test results of the particle diameter indicated that, the mean diameter of humid particles was between 6.1703 microns and 6.6947 microns when the humid particle flow was low. When the humid particle flow was high, the mean diameter was between 6.6728 microns and 7.1872 microns. The test results of the particle mean velocity indicated that the mean velocity was between 1.3394 m/sec and 1.4556 m/sec at low humid particle flow. When the humid particle flow was high, the mean velocity was between 1.5694 m/sec and 1.7856 m/sec. The Air Flow Module, TQ AF 17 and shell ondina oil were used to generate fog particles. After the oil was heated inside the fog generator, the blower was used to generate the fog. The fog flew along the pipe to the intersection of the laser beam. The mean diameter of the fog particles was 5.765 microns. Compared with the humid particle diameter, we observed that the mean diameter of the fog particles was smaller than the humid particles. The test results of particle mean velocity was about 3.76 m/sec. Compared with the mean velocity of the humid particles, we can observed the mean velocity of fog particles were greater than humid particles. The experiments were conducted with four different kinds of particles with five different particle diameters. The particle types were organic particles, coal particles, potato particles and wheat particles with the diameter range of 63-75 micron, less than 150 micron, 150-250 micron, 250-355 micron and 355-425 micron. To control the flow rate, the control gate of the particle dispensing hopper was adjusted to 1/16 open rate, 1/8 open rate and 1/4 open rate. The captured image range was 0 cm to 5 cm from the control gate, 5 cm to 10 cm from the control gate and 10 cm to 15 cm from the control gate. Some of these experiments were conducted under both open environment conditions and closed environment conditions. Thus these experiments had a total of five parameters which were type of particles, diameter of particles, flow rate, observation range, and environment conditions. The coal particles (diameter between 63 and 75 microns) tested under the closed environment condition had three factors that were considered as the affecting factors. They were open rate, observation range, and environment conditions. In this experiment, the interaction of open rate and observation range had a significant effect on the lower limit. On the upper limit, the open rate and environment conditions had a significant effect. In addition, the interaction of open rate and environment conditions had a significant effect. The coal particles tested (diameter between 63 and 75

  20. Premium Fuel Production From Mining and Timber Waste Using Advanced Separation and Pelletizing Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honaker, R. Q.; Taulbee, D.; Parekh, B. K.; Tao, D.

    2005-12-05

    The Commonwealth of Kentucky is one of the leading states in the production of both coal and timber. As a result of mining and processing coal, an estimated 3 million tons of fine coal are disposed annually to waste-slurry impoundments with an additional 500 million tons stored at a number of disposal sites around the state due to past practices. Likewise, the Kentucky timber industry discards nearly 35,000 tons of sawdust on the production site due to unfavorable economics of transporting the material to industrial boilers for use as a fuel. With an average heating value of 6,700 Btu/lb, the monetary value of the energy disposed in the form of sawdust is approximately $490,000 annually. Since the two industries are typically in close proximity, one promising avenue is to selectively recover and dewater the fine-coal particles and then briquette them with sawdust to produce a high-value fuel. The benefits are i) a premium fuel product that is low in moisture and can be handled, transported, and utilized in existing infrastructure, thereby avoiding significant additional capital investment and ii) a reduction in the amount of fine-waste material produced by the two industries that must now be disposed at a significant financial and environmental price. As such, the goal of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of producing a premium fuel with a heating value greater than 10,000 Btu/lb from waste materials generated by the coal and timber industries. Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of the briquetting process indicated that the goal was successfully achieved. Low-ash briquettes containing 5% to 10% sawdust were produced with energy values that were well in excess of 12,000 Btu/lb. A major economic hurdle associated with commercially briquetting coal is binder cost. Approximately fifty binder formulations, both with and without lime, were subjected to an extensive laboratory evaluation to assess their relative technical and economical effectiveness as binding agents for the briquetting of 90% coal and 10% sawdust blends. Guar gum, wheat starch, and a multi-component formulation were identified as most cost-effective for the production of briquettes targeted for the pulverized-coal market with costs being around $8 per ton of the coal-sawdust blend. REAX/lime and a second multi-component formulation were identified as the most cost-effective for the production of briquettes targeted for the stoker-coal market. Various sources of sawdust generated from different wood types were also investigated to determine their chemical properties and to evaluate their relative performance when briquetted with clean coal to form a premium fuel. The highest heating values, approaching 7,000 Btu/lb, were obtained from oak. Sawdusts from higher-density, red oak, white oak, hickory, and beech trees provided higher quality briquettes relative to their lower-density counterparts. In addition to sawdust type, a number of other parameters were evaluated to characterize their impact on briquette properties. The parameters that exhibited the greatest impact on briquette performance were binder concentration; sawdust concentration and particle size; cure temperature; and ash content. Parameters that had the least impact on briquette properties, at least over the ranges studied, were moisture content, briquetting force, and briquetting dwell time. The continuous production of briquettes from a blend of coal and sawdust was evaluated using a 200 lbs/hr Komarek Model B-100 briquetter. The heating values of briquettes produced by the unit exceeded the goal of the project by a large margin. A significant observation was the role of feed moisture on the stability of the mass flow rate through the briquetter and on briquette strength. Excessive feed moisture levels caused inconsistent or stoppage of material flow through the feed hopper and resulted in the production of variable-quality briquettes. Obviously, the limit on feed moisture content has a significant impact on the economics of coal-sawdust briquetting since it will ultimately dictate dew