Sample records for wheat straw corn

  1. Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Scott A.

    Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Expected yield per acre2 118 126 39 62 23 149 158 49 70 29

  2. Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Expected yield per acre2 119 127 39 62 23 149 159 49 70 29

  3. afex-treated wheat straw: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1. INTRODUCTION Ammonia treatment of straws increases Boyer, Edmond 2 Combustion of pellets from wheat straw CiteSeer Summary: The alternative energy sources are more and more...

  4. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hess, J.R

    2005-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. We investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) An efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the internodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  5. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. They investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) an efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the intermodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  6. Modification of wheat straw in a high-shear mixer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, M.E.; Doane, W.M.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wheat straw (WS) was treated in a pilot-scale continuous mixer to disrupt the lignin-hemicellulose-cellulose (LHC) complex. An efficient and practical method was desired to remove lignin and hemicellulose (pentosans) rapidly and efficiently from the lignocellulose complex and to make the cellulose accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis. Milled WS in the presence of various chemicals in aqueous solutions was extruded from the mixer under several processing conditions. Chemicals used were sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium sulfide (Na/sub 2/S), anthraquinone (AQ), anthrahydroquinone (AHQ), hexamethylenediamine (HMDA), hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA), hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/), and ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS), which were used alone and in selected combinations. Concomitantly, WS was treated in laboratory batches using similar reaction conditions, except for mixing shearing. In extrusion treatments of WS at 20% concentration at 97/sup 0/C for 5.5 min with NaOH (15.7%, dry WS basis), NaOH (15.7%) + AHQ (0.3%), and NaOH (12.7%) + Na/sub 2/S (5.0%), 64-72% of the WS lignin and 36-43% of the pentosans were removed from aqueously washed extrudates (residues). This compares with 46-56% and 23-27%, respectively, for batch treatments. AHQ and Na/sub 2/S enhanced delignification. Cellulase treatment of the residues, which contai

  7. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into the Wheat Straw Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    pulping is the black liquor residue. Regarding the black liquor, a by-product of wheat straw pulping, Vibratory Shear Enhanced Process (VSEP) shows that lignin and hemicelluloses can be extracted from the blackUBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation

  8. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Sugarcane Bagasse Paper versus Wheat Straw Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Sugarcane Bagasse Paper Bagasse Paper versus Wheat Straw Paper prepared by Omar Omari 54434105 Marcus Cheung 82207101 Robert Chen this project to investigate and compare the advantages and disadvantages between sugarcane bagasse paper

  9. Antistaling properties of amylases, wheat gluten and CMC on corn tortilla 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bueso Ucles, Francisco Javier

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Antistaling properties of enzymes (xylanase, bacterial maltogenic and conventional a-amylases), CMC and vital wheat gluten on corn tortillas were evaluated during storage for up to 21 days. Effect of storage time (0-21 ...

  10. Degradation of untreated and anhydrous ammonia-treated wheat straw by two strains of rumen anaerobic fungi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Degradation of untreated and anhydrous ammonia-treated wheat straw by two strains of rumen in the degradation of plant tissues. The aim of this study was to compare the degradation of untreated and anhydrous, the phloem and the parenchyma were slightly degraded and rhizoids were visible on the surface of the plant

  11. Direct Comparison of Alfalfa Nitrogen Credits to Corn and Wheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Teri C.

    Station Ashland Ag Research Station #12;Alfalfa N credits to corn: · Infrequent fertilizer N responses Rate Aug Sep lb/a --------- bu/a --------- 15 48 48 35 55 43 55 52 51 75 62 49 Ashland, 2001

  12. Impact of process conditions on the density and durability of wheat, oat, canola, and barley straw briquettes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tumuluru, J. S.; Tabil, L. G.; Song, Y.; Iroba, K. L.; Meda, V.

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study is to understand the impact of process conditions on the quality attributes of wheat oat, barley, and canola straw briquettes. Analysis of variance indicated that briquette moisture content and initial density immediately after compaction and final density after 2 weeks of storage are strong functions of feedstock moisture content and compression pressure, whereas durability rating is influenced by die temperature and feedstock moisture content. Briquettes produced at a low feedstock moisture content of 9 % (w.b.) yielded maximum densities >700 kg/m3 for wheat, oat, canola, and barley straws. Lower feedstock moisture content of more »higher die temperatures >110 °C and compression pressure >10 MPa minimized the briquette moisture content and maximized densities and durability rating based on surface plots observations. Optimal process conditions indicated that a low feedstock moisture content of about 9 % (w.b.), high die temperature of 120–130 °C, medium-to-large hammer mill screen sizes of about 24 to 31.75 mm, and low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa minimized briquette moisture content to 700 kg/m3. Durability rating >90 % is achievable at higher die temperatures of >123 °C, lower to medium feedstock moisture contents of 9 to 12 % (w.b.), low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa, and large hammer mill screen size of 31.75 mm, except for canola where a lower compression pressure of 7.5 to 8.5 MPa and a smaller hammer mill screen size of 19 mm for oat maximized the durability rating values.« less

  13. Impact of process conditions on the density and durability of wheat, oat, canola, and barley straw briquettes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tumuluru, J. S.; Tabil, L. G.; Song, Y.; Iroba, K. L.; Meda, V.

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study is to understand the impact of process conditions on the quality attributes of wheat oat, barley, and canola straw briquettes. Analysis of variance indicated that briquette moisture content and initial density immediately after compaction and final density after 2 weeks of storage are strong functions of feedstock moisture content and compression pressure, whereas durability rating is influenced by die temperature and feedstock moisture content. Briquettes produced at a low feedstock moisture content of 9 % (w.b.) yielded maximum densities >700 kg/m3 for wheat, oat, canola, and barley straws. Lower feedstock moisture content of 110 °C and compression pressure >10 MPa minimized the briquette moisture content and maximized densities and durability rating based on surface plots observations. Optimal process conditions indicated that a low feedstock moisture content of about 9 % (w.b.), high die temperature of 120–130 °C, medium-to-large hammer mill screen sizes of about 24 to 31.75 mm, and low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa minimized briquette moisture content to 700 kg/m3. Durability rating >90 % is achievable at higher die temperatures of >123 °C, lower to medium feedstock moisture contents of 9 to 12 % (w.b.), low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa, and large hammer mill screen size of 31.75 mm, except for canola where a lower compression pressure of 7.5 to 8.5 MPa and a smaller hammer mill screen size of 19 mm for oat maximized the durability rating values.

  14. Dust suppression characteristics of mineral oil when applied to corn, wheat, or soybeans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, David Don

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and must be added repeatedly. Several water applications could raise the mo i stu re content of grain to the point of encouraging mold growth. Peterson (1977) reported that an average worker wi 1 1 breathe from 4 to 10 m of air during an eight hour work... Jones, B. S. , Texas Al!M University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Calvin B. Parnell, Jr. Corn, wheat, and soybean samples weighing 454 g each were treated with mineral oil at rates of 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 ppm and grain dust...

  15. Influence of three types of treated straw on intake and growth rate in beef cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Influence of three types of treated straw on intake and growth rate in beef cattle WX Zhang JK Yuan treated wheat straw (AS), an untreated wheat straw (US), and a microbe-fermented wheat straw (MS). Thirty.544 (AS), 0.479 (US) and 0.551 (MS). It is concluded that both urea and microbe treated straw can

  16. suggesting that fibre may be the active fraction. In experiment 3, lucerne meal, oat hulls, beet pulp and wheat straw were compared, at the same level (7.8 p. 100) of dietary fibre. Only

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    suggesting that fibre may be the active fraction. In experiment 3, lucerne meal, oat hulls, beet pulp and wheat straw were compared, at the same level (7.8 p. 100) of dietary fibre. Only lucerne meal, the effectiveness of finely ground lucerne meal vs lucerne hay ad libitum was compared. Both forms of lucerne gave

  17. Generation of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accumulating heterologous endo-xylanase or ferulic acid esterase in the endosperm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harholt, Jesper

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of wheat straw for bioethanol production by a combinedyields when processed for bioethanol production. In the

  18. Corn Silage Virginia Corn &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Virginia Corn Silage Testing 2006 Virginia Corn & Small Grain Management #12;#12; The 2006 Virginia Corn Silage Hybrid Trials The 2006 Virginia Corn Silage Hybrid Trials Coordnated by B. Jones, H. Behl Syngenta Co.) NK Brand Po Box 959, Mnneapols, MN 55440 Poneer H-bred Int'l, Inc. Poneer 7501 Memoral

  19. Corn Hybrid Virginia Corn &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials 2007 Virginia Corn & Small Grain Management #12;VIRGINIA CORN HYBRID AND MANAGEMENT TRIALS IN 2007 Coordinators of Virginia Corn Hybrid Trials in 2007 Wade Thomason, Extension Specialist, Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech Harry

  20. Corn Hybrid Virginia Corn &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Virginia Corn Hybrid Management and Trials 2006 Virginia Corn & Small Grain Management #12;#12;Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials 2006 Coordinators of Virginia Corn Hybrid Trials in 2006 Wade Thomason, Extension Specialist, Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech Harry

  1. Barley tortillas and barley flours in corn tortillas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitre-Dieste, Carlos Marcelo

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Barley tortillas (100%) were easily processed using corn tortilla technology. Flavor and color of barley tortillas were different from those of corn or wheat tortillas. Barley tortillas were generally darker, maybe due to ...

  2. Logs Wood Chips Straw Corn Switchgrass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & Gas »ofMarketing |Prepare for an EnergyDepartment of Energy

  3. Broccoli and Corn Bake Ingredients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    broccoli, frozen, thawed 20 low sodium whole-wheat crackers 1 egg, beaten 5 ounces evaporated skim milk and pour into a colander. Rinse under cool water to remove salt, set aside to drain. 3. Place crackers milk and add to egg. Beat until well mixed. 5. Add corn, thawed broccoli, half of the crushed crackers

  4. 2-D straw detectors with high rate capability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuchinskiy, N A; Duginov, V N; Zyazyulya, F E; Korenchenko, A S; Kolesnikov, A O; Kravchuk, N P; Movchan, S A; Rudenko, A I; Smirnov, V S; Khomutov, N V; Chekhovsky, V A; Lobko, A S; Misevich, O V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Precise measurement of straw axial coordinate (along the anode wire) with accuracy compatible with straw radial coordinate determination by drift time measurement and increase of straw detector rate capability by using straw cathode readout instead of anode readout are presented.

  5. 2-D straw detectors with high rate capability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. A. Kuchinskiy; V. A. Baranov; V. N. Duginov; F. E. Zyazyulya; A. S. Korenchenko; A. O. Kolesnikov; N. P. Kravchuk; S. A. Movchan; A. I. Rudenko; V. S. Smirnov; N. V. Khomutov; V. A. Chekhovsky; A. S. Lobko; O. V. Misevich

    2015-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Precise measurement of straw axial coordinate (along the anode wire) with accuracy compatible with straw radial coordinate determination by drift time measurement and increase of straw detector rate capability by using straw cathode readout instead of anode readout are presented.

  6. Producing Pine Straw in East Texas Forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Eric; Foster, C. Darwin

    2004-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Managing pine forests for the production of pine straw is a promising new enterprise in East Texas. This publication explains the processes and equipment needed to harvest and market pine straw....

  7. Pine Straw as a Ground Cover Mulch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Eric; Tate, Jay

    2004-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    , or half a pound of straw per square foot. An additional inch of pine straw may be applied each year for best appearance. A 40-pound bale will typically cover about 100 square feet (a 10- by 10-foot bed) to a 2-inch depth. For the same amount of coverage... using pine straw may be $1.60 to $4.60 per 10- by 10- foot bed (or 1.6? to 4.6? per square foot). Texas pine straw is available mainly to landscap- ers, but a retail market is developing and it will likely become more available at garden centers...

  8. Corn Hybrids for Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bockholt, A. J.; Collier, J. W.

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Land resource areas and corn test locations. Discussion of Results e areas affords an opportunity to determine if any Weather conditions were highly differences in adaptation to climatic and general corn production during the 3 soil conditions... usually has a climate for corn production and appr TABLE 6. CORN PERFORMANCE TEST, EAST BERLANDS, 1957-59 Bushels of shelled corn per acre ' Y-1 Kirby- Nacog- Mount Bowie' jr: ville doches Jyk~leasant countv A'! Texas 30 Texas 32 Texas 28 Texas...

  9. Mechanical Harvesting of Corn.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorenson, J. W. (Jerome Wallace); Smith, H. P. (Harris Pearson)

    1948-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - - TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION R. D. LEWIS, Director ' College Station, Texas BULLETIN 706 OCTOBER 1948 Mechanical Harvesting of Corn H. P. SMITH and J. W. SORENSON, JR. Department of Agricultural Engineering LlBRARY Atricaltr... of corn, from which they harvest about 77 million bushels valued at about 584 million. Most of the corn produced in Texas is harvested by hand. There were approximately 800 corn-picking machines of all types used in Texas in 1947. Texas farmers grow...

  10. Corn Production in Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collier, Jesse W. (Jesse Wilton); Rogers, John S. (John Sinclair)

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    during wet seasons, and they may cause appreciable damage each year in the more humid sections. Hybrids such as Texas 24 and 30, which possess some resistance, shorrld be used where diseases and i~sects are a serious problem. The Texas hybrid corn... in this bulletin and recommendations are given for corn production in the different areas of the ' State. Numerous diseases and insects attack corn in Texas and are responsible for considerable damage to the crop. These organisms are especiallv prevalent...

  11. Seismic load-resisting capacity of plastered straw bale walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsiaw, Jennifer S. (Jennifer Sing-Yee)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Straw bales have been incorporated into buildings for centuries, but only recently have they been explored in academic settings for their structural potential. Straw bale building is encountering a growing audience due to ...

  12. FOOD PRESERVATION SERIES CornMichigan-grown corn is available

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    under cool running water before preparing it. Do not use soap or detergent. Use a separate cutting board kernels and cooked lima beans. Add corn kernels to other raw vegetables in a salad. Add canned corn. sodium Boil whole ears of corn. Remove husk and silk from ears. Wash corn under cool running water. Fill

  13. Corn Hybrids for Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, J. S.; Bockholt, A. J.; Collier, J. W.

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - Corn Hybrid$ for . ;mE Tgmt 4.College Sta. 9Sulphw Spgr. @.Holland l9.GreenviUe 24Stephmville 5.Kibyvilb IO.(;brkrvilb B.Tanpb 20Mm 25.Chilkothe TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIC R. D. LEWIS. DIRECTOR, COLLEGE STATION, TEXAS DIGEST... - . Corn hybrids were planted on 81 percent of the Texas corn acreage in 1956. Most of this acreage was devoted to hybrids developed and released by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. These hybrids usually outyield open-pollinated varieties by 20...

  14. The feasibility and profitability of short season corn and sorghum cropping systems on the Texas High Plains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vagts, Todd Anthony

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the U. S. , therefore, irrigation management, particularly with limited irrigation, is very critical (Howell et al. , 1989). Seasonal ET rates for corn range from 30. 8 to 39. 5 inches with corn yields varying from 132 bu/acre to 204 bu/acre (Eck... 80 bu/acre for grain only wheat and 70 bu/acre for graze-grain wheat. All phosphorous was applied in the fall. Fertilizer was applied in fifteen inch bands in the fall with a knife injector and was applied in granular form in the spring...

  15. Corn Hybrids for Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, J. S.; McAfee, T. E.

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corn Hybrids for Terns ST LOCATIONS AREA I AREA II ARE4 Ill AREA IV 2Prdrie View 7.Tylw lZ.Lockhart 17.Waxahachie 22San Antonio 3.Cleveland 8.Mt. Pbctont I3Brsnha B.Garland 23Lamposas 4.Colbqe Sta. 9Sulphw Spp. 14Holland l9.0reenvilb 24...Stephenville ,J* 5.K'rbyvilb I0.Cbrkdb 15.Tanpk 2ODetiion 25.Wllothe TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION R. D. LEWIS. DIRECTOR, COLLEGE STATION, TEXAS DIGEST The Texas corn acreage planted to hybrids increased from less than 1 percent of the total acrea...

  16. Potato Corn Chowder Ingredients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    tablespoons margarine 1/4 cup all-purpose flour 2 cups skim milk 1/8 teaspoon pepper Directions 1. Wash. 2. Microwave on high for 8 minutes. 3. Open corn and pour into a colander. Rinse with cool water. Stir until thoroughly mixed and smooth. 5. Slowly add skim milk to saucepan and stir until thickened

  17. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Video Energy 101: Feedstocks for Biofuels and More See how organic materials like corn stover, wheat straw, and woody plants...

  18. Search results | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Video Energy 101: Feedstocks for Biofuels and More See how organic materials like corn stover, wheat straw, and woody plants are being used to create homegrown biofuels in the...

  19. Search results | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    10 results. Video Energy 101: Feedstocks for Biofuels and More See how organic materials like corn stover, wheat straw, and woody plants are being used to create homegrown biofuels...

  20. Energy 101: Feedstocks for Biofuels and More

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    See how organic materials like corn stover, wheat straw, and woody plants are being used to create homegrown biofuels in the United States—all while reducing our dependence on foreign oil and creating jobs in rural America.

  1. Estimating Corn Grain Yields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blumenthal, Jurg M.; Thompson, Wayne

    2009-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    can collect samples from a corn field and use this data to calculate the yield estimate. An interactive grain yield calculator is provided in the Appendix of the pdf version of this publication. The calculator is also located in the publication.... Plan and prepare for sample and data collection. 2. Collect field samples and record data. 3. Analyze the data using the interactive grain yield calculator in the Appendix. Plan and prepare for sample and data collection Predetermine sample locations...

  2. Pamela L. Scheinost, Doug L. Lammer, Xiwen Gai, Timothy D. Murray, and Stephen S. Jones Abstract. Perennial wheat offers a new solution to the long-standing problems of soil erosion and degradation associated with conventional annual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, Timothy D.

    for management practices. Key words: carbon sequestration, cereal grains, Conservation Reserve Program, crop water, provision of a potent carbon sink, and the possibility of integrating straw retrieval. Perennial wheat production may now be viewed as acceptable for highly erodible land or for obtaining carbon

  3. Understanding the Poor Resolution from Test Beam RunUnderstanding the Poor Resolution from Test Beam Run 2004 Straw Test beam results2004 Straw Test beam results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Understanding the Poor Resolution from Test Beam RunUnderstanding the Poor Resolution from Test Beam Run aah #12;2 2004 Straw Test beam results2004 Straw Test beam results ! Doc # 3308 v#3 by A. Ledovskoy " Using Data from 2004 Test Beam " Used "triplet" method for beam nominally perpendicular to Straw

  4. Plutonium Detection with Straw Neutron Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Guss, Paul

    2014-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A kilogram of weapons grade plutonium gives off about 56,000 neutrons per second of which 55,000 neutrons come from spontaneous fission of 240Pu (~6% by weight of the total plutonium). Actually, all even numbered isotopes (238Pu, 240Pu, and 242Pu) produce copious spontaneous fission neutrons. These neutrons induce fission in the surrounding fissile 239Pu with an approximate multiplication of a factor of ~1.9. This multiplication depends on the shape of the fissile materials and the surrounding material. These neutrons (typically of energy 2 MeV and air scattering mean free path >100 meters) can be detected 100 meters away from the source by vehicle-portable neutron detectors. [1] In our current studies on neutron detection techniques, without using 3He gas proportional counters, we designed and developed a portable high-efficiency neutron multiplicity counter using 10B-coated thin tubes called straws. The detector was designed to perform like commercially available fission meters (manufactured by Ortec Corp.) except instead of using 3He gas as a neutron conversion material, we used a thin coating of 10B.

  5. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbas, Charles (Champaign, IL); Beery, Kyle E. (Decatur, IL); Binder, Thomas P. (Decatur, IL); Rammelsberg, Anne M. (Decatur, IL)

    2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  6. HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENT OF WHEAT STRAW ON PILOT PLANT SCALE Anders Thygesena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with lignin (15-20% w/w). The polysaccharides in lignocellulosic materials can be used for bioethanol bioethanol production. The cellulose cannot be enzymatically hydrolyzed to glucose without a physical be converted to bioethanol by thermophilic microorganisms. One of the objectives of the EU

  7. Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from wheat straw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Received in revised form 8 November 2011 Accepted 9 December 2011 Available online xxx Keywords: Bioethanol

  8. Thermal processing of black liquor from alkaline straw pulping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, J.L.; Garcia, L.; Gea, G.; Bilbao, R.; Arauzo, J. [Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Black liquor is the wastewater from the cooking of wood or straw in the production of pulp and paper. Nowadays new processes are being investigated as alternatives to the traditional recovery boiler used for black liquor treatment. One of the processes which appears to be more promising is gasification, for which further research is needed for its full industrial implementation. There is not much data about the behavior of soda black liquors from straw cooking in the literature. Therefore the thermal decomposition of one of these liquors has been studied in a thermobalance, in inert (N{sub 2}) atmosphere. The kinetic constants from isothermal experiments have been obtained.

  9. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for the Corn Wet Milling Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Ruth, Michael

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corn wet milling is the most energy intensive industry within the food and kindred products group (SIC 20), using 15 percent of the energy in the entire food industry. After corn, energy is the second largest operating cost for corn wet millers in the United States. A typical corn wet milling plant in the United States spends approximately $20 to $30 million per year on energy, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs and increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy-price volatility. This report shows energy efficiency opportunities available for wet corn millers. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure and production of the corn wet milling industry and the energy used in the milling and refining process. Specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The report draws upon the experiences of corn, wheat and other starch processing plants worldwide for energy efficiency measures. The findings suggest that given available resources and technology, there are opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the corn wet milling industry while maintaining the quality of the products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as the applicability of these to different wet milling practices, is needed to assess the feasibility of implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  10. Wheat Pasture Poisoning. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crookshank, H. R.; Sims, Frank H.

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    serum of normal cows was compared with the serum of cows affected with wheat pasture poisoning, a decrease in inarganic phos- phate, total and diffusible calcium, magnesium and the albumin-globulin ratio was found in the cases. The total serum protein... treatment appears to be the injection of a calcium gluconate solution with or without fortification with magnesium and phosphorus. Recovery seems to be speeded by removing the cow from wheat pasture fox a short time. No recurrence was o~bselrved ii animal...

  11. LP engine performance on rice straw producer gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brownfield, J.J.; Jenkins, B.M.; Goss, J.R.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An LP gas engine was converted using commercially available parts to operate on gas from fluidized bed gasifier fueled by rice straw. The engine was derated up to 57.5% from the lower energy value of induction charge, variations in gas quality, lower mechanical and thermal efficiencies.

  12. 2015 Request for Proposals from the Michigan Corn Marketing Program Corn Marketing Program of Michigan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douches, David S.

    1 2015 Request for Proposals from the Michigan Corn Marketing Program Corn Marketing Program of Michigan 2015 Request for Proposals Released August 24, 2014 The Corn Marketing Program of Michigan (CMPM for increasing economic viability of corn production in Michigan through innovative research and market

  13. Butterbean, Corn and Tomato Salad Ingredients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Butterbean, Corn and Tomato Salad Ingredients: 15 ounces butter beans, drained and rinsed 15 ounces cans of butterbeans and corn. Pour into a colander, and rinse under running water to remove sodium

  14. Neutron Multiplicity Measurements With 3He Alternative: Straw Neutron Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Counting neutrons emitted by special nuclear material (SNM) and differentiating them from the background neutrons of various origins is the most effective passive means of detecting SNM. Unfortunately, neutron detection, counting, and partitioning in a maritime environment are complex due to the presence of high-multiplicity spallation neutrons (commonly known as ‘‘ship effect ’’) and to the complicated nature of the neutron scattering in that environment. A prototype neutron detector was built using 10B as the converter in a special form factor called ‘‘straws’’ that would address the above problems by looking into the details of multiplicity distributions of neutrons originating from a fissioning source. This paper describes the straw neutron multiplicity counter (NMC) and assesses the performance with those of a commercially available fission meter. The prototype straw neutron detector provides a large-area, efficient, lightweight, more granular (than fission meter) neutron-responsive detection surface (to facilitate imaging) to enhance the ease of application of fission meters. Presented here are the results of preliminary investigations, modeling, and engineering considerations leading to the construction of this prototype. This design is capable of multiplicity and Feynman variance measurements. This prototype may lead to a near-term solution to the crisis that has arisen from the global scarcity of 3He by offering a viable alternative to fission meters. This paper describes the work performed during a 2-year site-directed research and development (SDRD) project that incorporated straw detectors for neutron multiplicity counting. The NMC is a two-panel detector system. We used 10B (in the form of enriched boron carbide: 10B4C) for neutron detection instead of 3He. In the first year, the project worked with a panel of straw neutron detectors, investigated its characteristics, and developed a data acquisition (DAQ) system to collect neutron multiplicity information from spontaneous fission sources using a single panel consisting of 60 straws equally distributed over three rows in high-density polyethylenemoderator. In the following year, we developed the field-programmable gate array and associated DAQ software. This SDRD effort successfully produced a prototype NMC with*33% detection efficiency compared to a commercial fission meter.

  15. The Corn and Climate Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debinski, Diane M.

    Administration National Weather Service North Central Bioeconomy Consortium US Climate Change Science Program Editorial Board Brendan Jordan, Great Plains Institute, staff for the North Central Bioeconomy Consortium Institute, staff for the North Central Bioeconomy Consortium Prepared by Megan Hassler and Sarah Wash Corn

  16. Electrochemical treatment of black liquor from straw pulping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanco, M.A.; Negro, C.; Tijero, J. [Complutense Univ., Madrid (Spain)] [and others

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conventional black liquor regeneration process is not always suitable for pulping plants of nonwood fibers due to the unfavorable ratio of organic to inorganic solids. This paper presents an alternative treatment based on an electrolysis process of the soda black liquor from straw pulping. This alternative method minimizes the environmental impact by recovering the caustic at the same time that the liquor is acidified, which favors the later separation of the lignin.

  17. INDEX TO VIRGINIA CORN HYBRID AND MANAGEMENT TRIALS 1998 SECTION I. VIRGINIA CORN HYBRID TRIALS IN 1998.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    INDEX TO VIRGINIA CORN HYBRID AND MANAGEMENT TRIALS 1998 SECTION I. VIRGINIA CORN HYBRID TRIALS IN 1998. Companies participating in the 1998 Corn Hybrid Trials 2 1998 Virginia Corn Hybird Plot, and 1998. 36 SECTION II. EVALUATION OF DOUBLECROP CORN UNDER IRRIGATION IN EASTERN VIRGINIA. Table 27

  18. SECTION I. VIRGINIA CORN HYBRID TRIALS IN 1997. Companies Participating in the 1997 Corn Hybrid Trials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    1 SECTION I. VIRGINIA CORN HYBRID TRIALS IN 1997. Companies Participating in the 1997 Corn Hybrid COLUMBIA PLAINVIEW TX 79072 NORTHRUP KING CO. NORTHRUP KING PO BOX 959 MINNEAPOLIS MN 55440 PIONEER HI, INC. WILSON PO BOX 391 HARLAN IA 51537 VIRGINIA CORN HYBRID TRIALS IN 1997 Coordinated by H. Behl, E

  19. Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Corn.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, J.W.; Patrick, Carl; Cronholm, Gregory B.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    damage to the brace roots and fibrous roots may cause plants to lodge. A "goose necking" appearance occurs when lodged plants continue to grow. The southern corn rootworm deposits eggs in he corn field after the corn is in the seedling stage... practice. Producers are encouraged to rotate soil insecticides each year for best results. SEEDLING TO PRE-TASSEL STAGE INSECT CONTROL Corn Leaf Aphid Although heavy populations of corn leaf aphids may cause damage to seedling corn plants, fields...

  20. Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State of Technology Model Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State of Technology Model An update to...

  1. A traditional technique as an alternative to plastic sheet for covering urea-treated straw : digestibility and growth trials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A traditional technique as an alternative to plastic sheet for covering urea-treated straw of the number of farmers treating straws. Therefore, an attempt was made to reduce the cost of urea treatment by using mud instead of plastic sheet to cover treated straws. Preliminary results of a digestibility

  2. Owens Corning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRoseConcernsCompany OilInformationPre-TaxShelf LandsOpenCorning Jump

  3. The effect of heat treatment on the digestibility of wheat gluten in a model food system containing wheat gluten, corn starch and corn oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, Debra Marie Ruzicka

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ), gross prote1n value (GPV), relat1ve nitrogen ut111zat1on (RNU), net protein rat1o (NPR), and relat1ve protein value (RPV), will reveal a change only when the treatment affects the limiting amino acid but show no change when other amino acids...

  4. The effect of heat treatment on the digestibility of wheat gluten in a model food system containing wheat gluten, corn starch and corn oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, Debra Marie Ruzicka

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to evaluate the nutritive value of protein foods (18). These include other rat bioassays such as NPR (Net Protein Ratio) and NPU (Net F t i Utile ti }, i bi t gi 1 y (~Tt h ~ufo computed PER (essential amino acid profile together with an in vitro protein...), gross prote1n value (GPV), relat1ve nitrogen ut111zat1on (RNU), net protein rat1o (NPR), and relat1ve protein value (RPV), will reveal a change only when the treatment affects the limiting amino acid but show no change when other amino acids...

  5. September 2010 FAPRI-MU US Biofuels, Corn Processing,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, James S.

    September 2010 FAPRI-MU US Biofuels, Corn Processing, Distillers Grains, Fats, Switchgrass-882-4256 or the US Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights. #12;1 Overview of FAPRI-MU Biofuels, Corn listed here represent US biofuel, corn processing, distillers grains, fats, switchgrass, and corn stover

  6. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Life Cycle Assessment of Bioethanol Derived from Corn and Corn Stover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Bioethanol Derived from Corn and Corn Stover Dora Ip Farbod Ahmadi Diba Derek Pope University of British Farbod Ahmadi Diba Derek Pope 4/16/2010 Life Cycle Assessment of Bioethanol Derived from Corn and Corn Stover #12;2 Abstract This paper follows the growing research of bioethanol fuels produced from farmed

  7. Berkeley Lab to Help Build Straw Bale Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worsham, S.A.; Van Mechelen, G.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Shorebird Environmental Learning Center (SELC) is a new straw bale building that will showcase current and future technologies and techniques that will reduce the environmental impacts of building construction and operations. The building will also serve as a living laboratory to test systems and monitor their performance. The project will be the model for a building process that stops using our precious resources and reduces waste pollution. The rice straw that will be used for the bale construction is generally waste material that is typically burned--millions of tons of it a year--especially in California's San Joaquin Valley. Buildings have significant impacts on the overall environment. Building operations, including lighting, heating, and cooling, consume about 30% of the energy used in the United States. Building construction and the processes into making building materials consume an additional 8% of total energy. Construction also accounts for 39% of wood consumed in the U S, while 25% of solid waste volume is construction and demolition (C &D) debris. The SELC will incorporate a variety of materials and techniques that will address these and other issues, while providing a model of environmentally considered design for Bay Area residents and builders. Environmental considerations include energy use in construction and operations, selection of materials, waste minimization, and indoor air quality. We have developed five major environmental goals for this project: (1) Minimize energy use in construction and operations; (2) Employ material sources that are renewable, salvaged, recycled, and/or recyclable; (3) Increase building lifespan with durable materials and designs that permit flexibility and modification with minimal demolition; (4) Reduce and strive to eliminate construction debris; and (5) Avoid products that create toxic pollutants and make a healthy indoor environment.

  8. Maximizing the enzymic saccharification of corn stover 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaar, William Edward

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ; thus, biomass has considerable potential as a fermentation feedstock. Corn stover represents an especially important resource because it is the single largest source of agricultural residue in the United States. The best method to obtain fermentable...

  9. Anaerobic fermentation of rice straw and chicken manure to carboxylic acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agbogbo, Frank Kwesi

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, 80% lime-treated rice straw and 20% lime-treated chicken manure were used as substrates in rotary fermentors. Countercurrent fermentation was performed at various volatile solid loading rates (VSLR) and liquid residence times (LRT...

  10. List of publications 1. Sun, L., Mller, B. and Schnrer, A. (2013) Biogas production from wheat straw community

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    biogas digesters. Biores. Technol. 132, 327­332 4. Manzoor, S., Müller, B., Niazi A., Bongcam-Rudloff E. and Schnürer, A. (2012). Improved biogas production from whole stillage by co-digestion with cattle manure. and Ståhlberg, J. (2011). Improved bio-energy yields via sequential ethanol fermentation and biogas digestion

  11. The estimated costs of corn, corn silage, soybeans, alfalfa, and pasture maintenance in this report are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    The estimated costs of corn, corn silage, soybeans, alfalfa, and pasture maintenance in this report summaries, production and costs data from the Depart- ments of Economics, Agricultural and Biosystems and other input suppliers around the state. These costs estimates are representative of average costs

  12. Corn Performance Trials Companies Participating in the 1994 Corn Performance Trials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Virginia Corn Performance Trials in 1994 #12;#12;1 Companies Participating in the 1994 Corn IN 46031 CARGILL HYBRID SEEDS CARGILL PO BOX 5645 MINNEAPOLIS MN 55440 CAVERNDALE FARMS INC. CAVERNDALE SCIENCES MYCOGEN 624 27TH ST LUBBOCK TX 79404 NORTHRUP KING CO. NORTHRUP KING 317 330TH ST STANTON MN 55018

  13. Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat as a Source of Improvement for Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooper, Jessica Kay

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    of this research was to evaluate the potential and performance of synthetic wheat in Texas. Ten elite primary synthetics from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), screened for desirable traits, were backcrossed to two Texas cultivars, TAM...

  14. The estimated costs of corn, corn silage, soybeans, al-falfa, and pasture maintenance in this report are based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    The estimated costs of corn, corn silage, soybeans, al- falfa, and pasture maintenance record summaries, production and costs data from the Departments of Economics, Agricultural cooperatives and other input suppliers around the state. These costs estimates are representative of average

  15. ANTHRAQUINONE CORN SEED TREATMENT (AVITECTM ) AS A FEEDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ANTHRAQUINONE CORN SEED TREATMENT (AVITECTM ) AS A FEEDING REPELLENT FOR RING-NECKED PHEASANTS and Fisheries Sciences South Dakota State University 2009 #12;ANTHRAQUINONE CORN SEED TREATMENT (AVITECTM the South Dakota Department of Game, Fish, and Parks. #12;v ABSTRACT ANTHRAQUINONE CORN SEED TREATMENT

  16. THE 2001 NET ENERGY BALANCE OF CORN-ETHANOL (PRELIMINARY)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    .S. Department of Energy, Center for Transportation Research, Energy Systems Division, Argonne National per gallon for the industry. The study results suggest that corn ethanol is energy efficient on the latest data on corn production and corn yield, (2) improving the quality of estimates for energy used

  17. Thermodynamics of the Corn-Ethanol Biofuel Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    into Corn Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3.11 Solar Energy Input into Corn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4.5 Overall Energy Balance of the Corn-Ethanol Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 II.1 The Earth is an Open System to Heat Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 10.2 Conclusions

  18. Variations in Vitamin A and in Chemical Composition of Corn.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1931-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    such as rickets, scurvy, or beri-beri. Vitamin A was one of the first vitamins discovered. It occurs in large quantity in yellow corn, while little or none is founcl in white corn. For the purpose of this study, samples of corn grown at the various substations...

  19. FIELD CROPS 2012 Weeds: Corn 5-53

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    in Delmarva corn production. To be successful in controlling weeds in corn, the weed control program must this record to plan your weed control program. Cultural control. Several aspects of cultural weed control should be considered in planning a corn weed control program. These include weed-free seed, cover crops

  20. Biofuel derived from Microalgae Corn-based Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

    ) Comparing both Energy Sources (1) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Corn Microalgae Land Area Needed (M ha) 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 Corn Microalgae Oil Yield (L/ha) #12;Comparing both Energy Sources (2) BackgroundBiofuel derived from Microalgae Corn-based Ethanol #12;Outline · Production processes for each

  1. Energy Analysis of the Corn-Ethanol Biofuel Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Energy Analysis of the Corn-Ethanol Biofuel Cycle First Draft Tad W. Patzek Department of Civil legitimately ask: Why do the various energy balances of the corn-ethanol cycle still differ so much? Why do some authors claim that the corn-ethanol cycle has a positive net energy balance (Wang et al., 1997

  2. Pre-Harvest Sprouting in Wheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morgan, Gaylon

    2005-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This leaflet cautions producers about the problems associated with pre-harvest sprouting of wheat and how to recognize affected grains....

  3. Weed Control Recommendations in Wheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morgan, Gaylon; Baumann, Paul A.; Baughman, Todd; Bean, Brent W.

    2008-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    , pennycress, Russian thistle, kochia, tansy mustard, wild mustard. 1?2-leaf stage or 1?6-leaf stage, depending on weed species; refer to label. Apply to wheat after emergence to before second node is detectable. Consult the product label for crop..., and combine their use with mechanical, cultural or biological methods. 2. Rotate or mix herbicides with different modes of action. 3. If possible, rotate crops where herbicide rotations are feasible. 4. Scout fields regularly for resistant weed populations...

  4. Effects of the treatment of straw with NaOH and urea solutions on ingestibility and digestibility in sheep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effects of the treatment of straw with NaOH and urea solutions on ingestibility and digestibility of digestibility measures. The main results appear in table I. Straw intake and digestibility were in- creased by the treatments. This was par- ticularly true for NaOH treatments with the exception of nitrogen digestibility

  5. BiofuelsBiofuels ResearchResearch Science for AmericaScience for America''s Energy Futures Energy Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /Fermentation - Gasification - Pyrolysis - Combustion - Co-firing BiomassBiomass FeedstockFeedstock Biological waste 2.9% Manure 4.1% Grains 5.2% Crop residues 7.6% Soy 6.2% Wheat straw 6.1%Corn stover 19

  6. Atmospheric deposition, resuspension, and root uptake of Pu in corn and other grain-producing agroecosystems near a nuclear fuel facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinder, J.E. III; McLeod, K.W.; Adriano, D.C.; Corey, J.C.; Boni, A.L. (Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken, SC (USA))

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plutonium released to the environment may contribute to dose to humans through inhalation or ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. Plutonium contamination of agricultural plants may result from interception and retention of atmospheric deposition, resuspension of Pu-bearing soil particles to plant surfaces, and root uptake. Plutonium on vegetation surfaces may be transferred to grain surfaces during mechanical harvesting. Data obtained from corn grown near the U.S. Department of Energy's H-Area nuclear fuel chemical separations facility on the Savannah River Site were used to estimate parameters of a simple model of Pu transport in agroecosystems. The parameter estimates for corn were compared to those previously obtained for wheat and soybeans. Despite some differences in parameter estimates among crops, the relative importances of atmospheric deposition, resuspension, and root uptake were similar among crops. For even small deposition rates, the relative importances of processes for Pu contamination of corn grain should be: transfer of atmospheric deposition from vegetation surfaces to grain surfaces during combining greater than resuspension of soil to grain surfaces greater than root uptake. Approximately 3.9 X 10(-5) of a year's atmospheric deposition is transferred to grain. Approximately 6.2 X 10(-9) of the Pu inventory in the soil is resuspended to corn grain, and a further 7.3 X 10(-10) of the soil Pu inventory is absorbed and translocated to grains.

  7. Atmospheric deposition, resuspension and root uptake of plutonium in corn and other grain-producing agroecosystems near a nuclear fuel facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinder, J.E. III; McLeod, K.W.; Adriano, D.C. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)); Corey, J.C.; Boni, A.L. (Savannah River Lab., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plutonium released to the environment may contribute to dose to humans through inhalation or ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. Plutonium contamination of agricultural plants may result from interception and retention of atmospheric deposition, resuspension of Pu-bearing soil particles to plant surfaces, and root uptake and translocation to grain. Plutonium on vegetation surfaces may be transferred to grain surfaces during mechanical harvesting. Data obtained from corn grown near the US Department of Energy's H-Area nuclear fuel chemical separations facility on the Savannah River Site was used to estimated parameters of a simple model of Pu transport in agroecosystems. The parameter estimates for corn were compared to those previously obtained for wheat and soybeans. Despite some differences in parameter estimates among crops, the relative importances of atmospheric deposition, resuspension and root uptake were similar among crops. For even small deposition rates, the relative importances of processes for Pu contamination of corn grain should be: transfer of atmospheric deposition from vegetation surfaces to grain surfaces during combining > resuspension of soil to grain surfaces > root uptake. Approximately 3.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} of a year's atmospheric deposition is transferred to grain. Approximately 6.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} of the Pu inventory in the soil is resuspended to corn grain, and a further 7.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} of the soil inventory is absorbed by roots and translocated to grains.

  8. Atmospheric deposition, resuspension and root uptake of plutonium in corn and other grain-producing agroecosystems near a nuclear fuel facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinder, J.E. III; McLeod, K.W.; Adriano, D.C. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States); Corey, J.C.; Boni, A.L. [Savannah River Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Plutonium released to the environment may contribute to dose to humans through inhalation or ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. Plutonium contamination of agricultural plants may result from interception and retention of atmospheric deposition, resuspension of Pu-bearing soil particles to plant surfaces, and root uptake and translocation to grain. Plutonium on vegetation surfaces may be transferred to grain surfaces during mechanical harvesting. Data obtained from corn grown near the US Department of Energy`s H-Area nuclear fuel chemical separations facility on the Savannah River Site was used to estimated parameters of a simple model of Pu transport in agroecosystems. The parameter estimates for corn were compared to those previously obtained for wheat and soybeans. Despite some differences in parameter estimates among crops, the relative importances of atmospheric deposition, resuspension and root uptake were similar among crops. For even small deposition rates, the relative importances of processes for Pu contamination of corn grain should be: transfer of atmospheric deposition from vegetation surfaces to grain surfaces during combining > resuspension of soil to grain surfaces > root uptake. Approximately 3.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} of a year`s atmospheric deposition is transferred to grain. Approximately 6.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} of the Pu inventory in the soil is resuspended to corn grain, and a further 7.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} of the soil inventory is absorbed by roots and translocated to grains.

  9. Bioaugmentation for Electricity Generation from Corn Stover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that it is possible to directly generate electricity from waste corn stover in MFCs through bioaugmentation using of an MFC, bacteria break down organic matter and release electrons to the electrode. Most MFC tests used by Zuo et al., 501 ( 20 mW/m2 was generated from a paper recycling wastewater containing cellulose

  10. DOW CORNING CORPORATION Material Safety Data Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garmestani, Hamid

    -88-3 Toluene The above components are hazardous as defined in 29 CFR 1910.1200. 3. HAZARDS or water spray. Water can be used to cool fire exposed containers. Fire Fighting Measures: Self to keep fire exposed containers cool. #12;DOW CORNING CORPORATION Material Safety Data Sheet Page: 3 of 8

  11. Corn Ethanol -April 2006 11 Cover Story

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Corn Ethanol - April 2006 11 Cover Story orn ethanol is the fuel du jour. It's domestic. It oil into gasoline or diesel fuel. Ethanol refineries also use huge amounts of water. An average dry's not oil. Ethanol's going to help promote "energy independence." Magazines trumpet it as the motor vehicle

  12. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wheat Straw Pretreated for Bioethanol Production. BiotechnolWheat Straw Pretreated for Bioethanol Production. Biotechnol1996) Handbook on Bioethanol: Production and Utilization (

  13. Universit du Sud Toulon-Var Prsente en vue de l'obtention du diplme de DOCTORAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    starch foam reinforced by natural fibres (hemp, cellulose, wheat straw, cotton linter). The influence foam, natural fibres, hemp, cellulose, cotton linter, wheat straw, polycaprolactone, multilayer

  14. Idaho_WheatGrassRidge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School footballHydrogenIT |Hot Springs SiteWassmuth Site #1113 Wheat

  15. A supply forecasting model for Zimbabwe's corn sector: a time series and structural analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makaudze, Ephias

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Zimbabwean government utilizes the corn supply forecasts to establish producer prices for the following growing season, estimate corn storage and handling costs, project corn import needs and associated costs, and to assess the Grain Marketing...

  16. Microscopic Analysis of Corn Fiber Using Corn Starch- and Cellulose-Specific Molecular Probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, S. E.; Donohoe, B. S.; Beery, K. E.; Xu, Q.; Ding, S.-Y.; Vinzant, T. B.; Abbas, C. A.; Himmel, M. E.

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is the primary liquid transportation fuel produced from renewable feedstocks in the United States today. The majority of corn grain, the primary feedstock for ethanol production, has been historically processed in wet mills yielding products such as gluten feed, gluten meal, starch, and germ. Starch extracted from the grain is used to produce ethanol in saccharification and fermentation steps; however the extraction of starch is not 100% efficient. To better understand starch extraction during the wet milling process, we have developed fluorescent probes that can be used to visually localize starch and cellulose in samples using confocal microscopy. These probes are based on the binding specificities of two types of carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), which are small substrate-specific protein domains derived from carbohydrate degrading enzymes. CBMs were fused, using molecular cloning techniques, to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) or to the red fluorescent protein DsRed (RFP). Using these engineered probes, we found that the binding of the starch-specific probe correlates with starch content in corn fiber samples. We also demonstrate that there is starch internally localized in the endosperm that may contribute to the high starch content in corn fiber. We also surprisingly found that the cellulose-specific probe did not bind to most corn fiber samples, but only to corn fiber that had been hydrolyzed using a thermochemical process that removes the residual starch and much of the hemicellulose. Our findings should be of interest to those working to increase the efficiency of the corn grain to ethanol process.

  17. Corn Belt Energy Corporation- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Corn Belt Energy Corporation (CBEC), in association with the Wabash Valley Power Association, provides its customers with the "Power Moves" energy efficiency rebate program. Through this program,...

  18. Sandia Energy - JBEI Researchers Splice Corn Gene into Switchgrass...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The JBEI researchers, working with researchers at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service, have demonstrated that introducing a maize (corn)...

  19. acid pretreated corn: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (LCA) using the Ga 77 Researchers use corn waste to generate electricity Renewable Energy Websites Summary: to create hydrogen." The Penn State researcher and colleagues also...

  20. STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY OWENS CORNING SCIENCE...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Shingles Using Monocrystalline Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells." OWENS CORNING is a sub-awardee under the cooperative agreement. Solexel Inc....

  1. Partnership Logging Accidents Cornelis de Hoop, LA Forest Products Lab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Partnership Logging Accidents · by · Cornelis de Hoop, LA Forest Products Lab · Albert Lefort Agreement · 1998 & 1999 Accident Reports · 25 injuries reported · 185 loggers signed up · 8 deaths 1999

  2. Karnal Bunt: A Disease of Wheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuster, Greta; Krausz, Joseph P.; Rush, Charlie

    2002-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    into developing kernels. Masses of black teliospores Sporidial infection of heading wheat Airborne secondary sporidia Primary sporidia germinating on leaf surface Sorus Stomatal opening The life cycle of Karnal bunt fungus. Advanced infection Germinating... teliospore on soil surface Teliospores 28 ? 47 ? Early symptoms of infection on wheat kernel Airborne primary sporidia Later stages of infection then develop in infected kernels. The fungus infects one or more developing seed on a head, but usually not all...

  3. Improved Multivariate Calibration Models for Corn Stover Feedstock and Dilute-Acid Pretreated Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfrum, E. J.; Sluiter, A. D.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied rapid calibration models to predict the composition of a variety of biomass feedstocks by correlating near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic data to compositional data produced using traditional wet chemical analysis techniques. The rapid calibration models are developed using multivariate statistical analysis of the spectroscopic and wet chemical data. This work discusses the latest versions of the NIR calibration models for corn stover feedstock and dilute-acid pretreated corn stover. Measures of the calibration precision and uncertainty are presented. No statistically significant differences (p = 0.05) are seen between NIR calibration models built using different mathematical pretreatments. Finally, two common algorithms for building NIR calibration models are compared; no statistically significant differences (p = 0.05) are seen for the major constituents glucan, xylan, and lignin, but the algorithms did produce different predictions for total extractives. A single calibration model combining the corn stover feedstock and dilute-acid pretreated corn stover samples gave less satisfactory predictions than the separate models.

  4. Corn Storage Protein - A Molecular Genetic Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messing, Joachim [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

    2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Corn is the highest yielding crop on earth and probably the most valuable agricultural product of the United States. Because it converts sun energy through photosynthesis into starch and proteins, we addressed energy savings by focusing on protein quality. People and animals require essential amino acids derived from the digestion of proteins. If proteins are relatively low in certain essential amino acids, the crop becomes nutritionally defective and has to be supplemented. Such deficiency affects meat and fish production and countries where corn is a staple. Because corn seed proteins have relatively low levels of lysine and methionine, a diet has to be supplemented with soybeans for the missing lysine and with chemically synthesized methionine. We therefore have studied genes expressed during maize seed development and their chromosomal organization. A critical technical requirement for the understanding of the molecular structure of genes and their positional information was DNA sequencing. Because of the length of sequences, DNA sequencing methods themselves were insufficient for this type of analysis. We therefore developed the so-called “DNA shotgun sequencing” strategy, where overlapping DNA fragments were sequenced in parallel and used to reconstruct large DNA molecules via overlaps. Our publications became the most frequently cited ones during the decade of 1981-1990 and former Associate Director of Science for the Office of Basic Energy Sciences Patricia M. Dehmer presented our work as one of the great successes of this program. A major component of the sequencing strategy was the development of bacterial strains and vectors, which were also used to develop the first biotechnology crops. These crops possessed new traits thanks to the expression of foreign genes in plants. To enable such expression, chimeric genes had to be constructed using our materials and methods by the industry. Because we made our materials and methods freely available to academia and industry, progress in plant research and new crop development could accelerate and benefit the public.

  5. Prediction of corn tortilla textural quality using stress relaxation methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zhihong

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ). The effects of moisture content and resting time on corn masa textural property were investigated. Texture of properties of corn tortilla (fresh up to stale) was evaluated using the stress relaxation technique in two different modes, pure tension and bending-tension...

  6. Biofuels from Corn Stover: Pyrolytic Production and Catalytic Upgrading Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capunitan, Jewel Alviar

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    explored, in an attempt to convert an abundant agricultural residue, corn stover, into potential bio-fuels. Pyrolysis of corn stover was carried out at 400, 500 and 600oC and at moderate pressure. Maximum bio-char yield of 37.3 wt.% and liquid product...

  7. Suggestions for Weed Control in Corn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baumann, Paul A.

    2002-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    F r ontier ? for additional w eed contr ol. Consult (R efer to label for specific w eeds BASF U se rate determined b y inches of soil) or sur face applied the pr oduct label. R o tational cr o p r estrictions will contr olled.) C.E.C. (cationex...) or sur face contr olled.) BASF applied within 2 w eeks of U se rate is determined b y C.E.C. (cation ex change planting. Early postemergence capacity) or soil textur e and organic matter befor e corn is12 inches tall, but content. Can make split...

  8. Tall Corn Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolar Jump to:Holdings Co08.0 -TEEMP JumpTakigamiTalbotts LtdTall Corn

  9. Glacial Lakes Corn Processors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating AGeothermal/Exploration <Glacial Energy HoldingsGlacial Lakes Corn

  10. Grupo Corn lio Brennand | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating AGeothermal/ExplorationGoods |Grundy Electric Coop, IncGrupo Corn lio

  11. Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley straw Jaya Shankar Tumuluru*, L. G. Tabil, Y. Song, K. L. Iroba and V. Meda Biomass is a renewable energy source and environmentally friendly substitute for fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum products. Major limitation of biomass for successful energy application is its low bulk density, which makes it very difficult and costly to transport and handle. To overcome this limitation, biomass has to be densified. The commonly used technologies for densification of biomass are pelletization and briquetting. Briquetting offers many advantages at it can densify larger particles sizes of biomass at higher moisture contents. Briquetting is influenced by a number of feedstock and process variables such as moisture content, particle size distribution, and some operating variables such as temperature and densification pressure. In the present study, experiments were designed and conducted based on Box-Behnken design to produce briquettes using barley, wheat, canola and barley straws. A laboratory scale hydraulic briquette press was used for the present study. The experimental process variables and their levels used in the present study were pressure levels (7.5, 10, 12.5 MPa), three levels of temperature (90, 110, 130 C), at three moisture content levels (9, 12, 15% w.b.), and three levels of particle size (19.1, 25.04, 31.75 mm). The quality variables studied includes moisture content, initial density and final briquette density after two weeks of storage, size distribution index and durability. The raw biomass was initially chopped and size reduced using a hammer mill. The ground biomass was conditioned at different moisture contents and was further densified using laboratory hydraulic press. For each treatment combination, ten briquettes were manufactured at a residence time of about 30 s after compression pressure setpoint was achieved. After compression, the initial dimensions and the final dimensions after 2 weeks of storage in controlled environment of all the samples were measured. Durability, dimensional stability, and moisture content tests were conducted after two weeks of storage of the briquettes produced. Initial results indicated that moisture content played a significant role on briquettes durability, stability, and density. Low moisture content of the straws (7-12%) gave more durable briquettes. Briquette density increased with increasing pressure depending on the moisture content value. The axial expansion was more significant than the lateral expansion, which in some cases tended to be nil depending on the material and operating variables. Further data analysis is in progress in order to understand the significance of the process variables based on ANOVA. Regression models were developed to predict the changes in quality of briquettes with respect of the process variables under study. Keywords: Herbaceous biomass, densification, briquettes, density, durability, dimensional stability, ANOVA and regression equations

  12. Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Corn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porter, Patrick; Cronholm, Gregory B.; Parker, Roy D.; Troxclair, Noel N.; Patrick, Carl D.; Biles, Stephen; Morrison, William P.

    2006-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    weedy fields, larvae may be able to feed on weed roots until they are large and then move to corn roots and cause significant damage. In this case, control may not be as good as it should have been. Also, it is common for a very small percentage... be reduced or in some cases eliminated by a crop rotation scheme including soybeans or other crops that are not fed upon by rootworms. In most areas of Texas, corn has been rotated successfully with sorghum without damage from the Mexican corn rootworm...

  13. Sweet Corn Tests in the Lower Rio Grande Valley.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pickett, B. S. (Barzalli Stewart)

    1947-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Erie has more earworm resistance than either Ioarn or Golden Hybrid 2439. It is less sub- ject to bird damage than 2439. and suckers less. The plant is taller and more vigorous than most of the sweet corn varieties studied. It is slightly later... supply, * an important factor in corn earworm control. Jour. of Anr. Res. 68:73-77. 1944. 3. Dicke, F. F.. and M. T. Jenkins: Susceptibility of certain strains of field cc in hybrid combinations to damage by corn ear worms. U.S.D.A. Tech. Bul. 898...

  14. Watergrass and Volunteer Sorghum Control in Corn.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiese, A.F.; Chenault, E.W.; Lavake, D.E.; Hollingsworth, Dale

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corn Preplant LblA emergence LblA emergence herbicide (ai) herbicide (ail herbicide (ail (LbIA) (BulA) c*" (NolA) AAtrex 442 c-e 820 c-e 1,561 b-d 1506 3 e 2 350 de 12,192 ab 12,288 ab 1 1,328 a-c 11,616a-c Princep AAtrex 1ya iha 125... Aatrex 3 _ Evik + SC 2 202 e 123a-c 11,136a-c Check .- -_ 4,991 a 90 d 9,216 c Weans followed by the sgme letaer --&= fwel of significance. bSun 11Eoilat 1 gaHanper&cmin COupont WK surfactant at 0.5% of mtzi&k%ume. TABLE 8. WATERGRASS COMa AND...

  15. The effects of added wheat proteins on processing and quality of wheat flour tortillas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascut, Simina

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    crust characteristics when the buns are stored in a steamer. Gluten Changes During Baking of Flour Tortillas Wheat proteins develop into gluten during mixing and form a protein network through disulfide linkages and hydrophobic, ionic and hydrogen...

  16. The relationship between wheat self-sufficiency and national wheat trade policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maurer, Alan Borman

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of self- sufficiency in wheat. Trade-restrictive policies such as tariffs, quotas and price support programs have been enacted by most gov- ernments. In 1976-1977, for example, less than five percent of the wheat traded internationally was imported...-demand conditions with production quotas and price support programs. It also sets standards of product differentiation (grading), determines ease of entry into the market by issuing licenses, and affects cost structures through credit and other reg- ulations...

  17. Corn Belt Energy Coop- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Corn Belt Energy, through the Wabash Valley Power Association, offers business, school, and farm customers a variety of energy efficient rebates and incentives through its "Power Moves" program....

  18. Lime pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Se Hoon

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Renewable energy sources, such as lignocellulosic biomass, are environmentally friendly because they emit less pollution without contributing net carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Among lignocellulosic biomass, corn stover is a very useful feedstock...

  19. Lime pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Se Hoon

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Renewable energy sources, such as lignocellulosic biomass, are environmentally friendly because they emit less pollution without contributing net carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Among lignocellulosic biomass, corn stover is a very useful feedstock...

  20. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Sylvania Corning Nuclear...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    to SYLVANIA CORNING NUCLEAR CORP., INC., SYLVANIA LABORATORIES NY.07-1 - Letter, Smith to Norris, Contract at (30-1)-1293- U Metal Requirements, March 5, 1953 NY.07-2 -...

  1. The Origin of Indian Corn and its Relatives.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mangelsdorf, Paul C. (Paul Christoph); Reeves, R. G. (Robert Gatlin)

    1939-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    if it were not that when it hybridizes with Zea, some of the segregates are indistinguishable from Mexican varieties. Zea L. Maize, Indian Corn The genus Zea usually is distinguished from its near relatives by having separate staminate and pistillate...TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR, College Station, Texas BULLETIN NO. 574 (Monograph) MAY 1939 THE ORIGIN OF INDIAN CORN AND ITS RELATIVES P. C. MANGELSDORF AND R. G. REEVES Division of Agronomy (In cooperation...

  2. The values and practices associated with high moisture corn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finch, Charles B

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    damage and a corresponding reduction in feeding value can occur. Kernel size will vary greatly depending on corn growing conditions, variety and 13 especially kernel location on the cob. Kernels which come from the upper end of the cob will be smaller... of the corn. Owens (1986) states that browning of HMC does not affect performance, but discoloration can be an indication of heating during feedout which in turn decreases feed intake. Possible chemical causes could be a reaction between reducing sugars...

  3. Legumes for Soil Improvement for Cotton and Corn.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, E. B.; Rea, H. E.; Whitney, Eli; Rich, P. A.; Roberts, J. E.

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    medium yields, averaging about 28 bushels for the several treatments, were caused by severe corn rootworm damage. In an adjoin- ing experiment, which suffered little or no damage by the rootworm, the average yield was nearly 50 bushels per acre... of all the treatments was about 51 bushels per acre. Low to medium yields in the other years were caused bv deficient or poor distribution of rainfall, unavoidable lateness of planting or replanting necessitated by corn rootworm dam- age. In 1950...

  4. Characteristics of corn and sorghum for tortilla processing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez de Palacios, Maria de Jesus

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CHARACTERISTICS OF CORN AND SORGHUM FOR TORTILLA PROCESSING A Thesis by MARIA DE JESUS GONZALEZ DE PALACIOS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology CHARACTERISTICS OF CORN AND SORGHUM FOR TORTILLA PROCESSING A Thesis by MARIA DE JESUS GONZALEZ DE PALACIOS Approved as to style and content by: an o omm t em er em er ea o...

  5. Characteristics of corn and sorghum for tortilla processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez de Palacios, Maria de Jesus

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CHARACTERISTICS OF CORN AND SORGHUM FOR TORTILLA PROCESSING A Thesis by MARIA DE JESUS GONZALEZ DE PALACIOS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology CHARACTERISTICS OF CORN AND SORGHUM FOR TORTILLA PROCESSING A Thesis by MARIA DE JESUS GONZALEZ DE PALACIOS Approved as to style and content by: an o omm t em er em er ea o...

  6. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

  7. Bt vs. non-Bt corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids: effect on degradation of corn stover in soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvatore, Herminia T.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Page Figure 1 Mean temperatures during 2004 corn growing season in College Station, TX. .......???????????????????...... 48 Figure 2 Monthly rain in millimeters during the first half of 2004 in College Station, TX...., 2000; Mann et al., 2002; Spedding et al., 2004; DeFelice et al., 2006), and therefore, farmers adopt various techniques to deal with the stover. At least 50% of corn stover, roughly 300 billion pounds, will be tilled back into the soil (DeFelice et al...

  8. Seeding rate and seed size as management techniques for ryegrass (Lolium Multiflorum, Lam) in winter wheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Casey Lee

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Higher seeding rates and larger seed sizes could enhance the competitiveness of wheat with ryegrass. Growth room and field research evaluated the effects of wheat seeding rates and seed size in competition with Italian ryegrass. Winter wheat seeds...

  9. MBI Biorefinery: Corn to Biomass, Ethanol to Biochemicals and Biomaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2006-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The project is a continuation of DOE-funded work (FY02 and FY03) that has focused on the development of the ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) pretreatment technology, fermentation production of succinic acid and new processes and products to enhance dry mill profitability. The primary objective for work beginning in April 2004 and ending in November 2005 is focus on the key issues related to the: (1) design, costing and construction plan for a pilot AFEX pretreatment system, formation of a stakeholder development team to assist in the planning and design of a biorefinery pilot plant, continued evaluation of corn fractionation technologies, corn oil extraction, AFEX treatment of corn fiber/DDGs; (2) development of a process to fractionate AFEX-treated corn fiber and corn stover--cellulose and hemicellulose fractionation and sugar recovery; and (3) development of a scalable batch succinic acid production process at 500 L at or below $.42/lb, a laboratory scale fed-batch process for succinic acid production at or below $.40/lb, a recovery process for succinic acid that reduces the cost of succinic acid by $.02/lb and the development of an acid tolerant succinic acid production strain at lab scale (last objective not to be completed during this project time period).

  10. Effects of Bt-corn decomposition on the composition of the soil meso-and macrofauna

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    to the environment. At this point genetically modified corn, expressing Cry proteins of the soil bacterium Bacillus bags Soil invertebrates a b s t r a c t Genetically modified Bt-corn is able to fight main insect pests than 4%. All corn varieties were likewise used as food resource by decomposers, thus the Bt

  11. INTERSPECIFIC AND INTRASPECIFIC COMPETITION OF COMMON SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) IN FIELD CORN (ZEA MAYS L.)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Falkenberg, Nyland R.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    corn. Field studies were conducted in 2006 and 2007 to 1) define the density-dependent effects of common sunflower competition with corn; 2) define the necessary weed-free periods of common sunflower in corn; 3) evaluate common sunflower control...

  12. Kaffir Corn and Milo Maize for Fattening Cattle.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, F. R. (Frederick Rupert); Burns, John C.

    1907-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is used, when price permits, for mixing with ground feed. Even though this be the case at this time the grower has no complaint to make, because all of the grain offered for sale up to this time has been taken at fair prices. It is altogether desirable... liaffir corn at a price much lover than that of Indian corn, biit refuqe to do so because of a misunderstanding of its ac- tual value. It is with a view to serving thes6 two classas as well as others lilcelp to desire infformation upon tbe same snbjecte...

  13. Wheat and ryegrass interaction in response to drought

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carson, Katherine Holt

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenhouse experiments compared the growth of wheat and ryegrass in pure culture and mixtures in response to temporary and prolonged droughts. The main experiment was a replacement series with wheat:ryegrass ratios of 12:0, 9:3, 6:6, 3:9, and 0...

  14. The effects of added wheat proteins on processing and quality of wheat flour tortillas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascut, Simina

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Gliadin in pastry and tortilla flour. Addition levels of selected wheat proteins were evaluated in weak protein tortilla formulas. Addition of 1% FP5000 or PF6000 improved tortilla stability. Calcium peroxide was added to the formula to better incorporate...

  15. Impact of planting date and seeding rate on grain and forage yields of wheat in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaffer, Oliver Jacob

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Wheat serves three very important roles to producers in Texas and many states in the Great Plains. First, wheat is used as a cool season forage crop for livestock grazing. Second, wheat serves as a grain only crop. Third, wheat is used as both a...

  16. Alternatives for Using Failed Corn in the Texas High Plains Ted McCollum III and Brent Bean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    for Using Failed Corn in the Texas High Plains Ted McCollum III and Brent Bean Extension Beef Cattle The Texas A&M University System SCS-1998-18 Some corn producers are deciding to quit watering a portion of their corn fields in order to reallocate the water. What can be done to salvage some value from the corn

  17. SECO - Dow Corning's Wood Fueled Industrial Cogeneration Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Betts, W. D.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1979, Dow Corning Corporation decided to build a wood fueled steam and electric cogeneration (SECO) power plant at Midland, Michigan. This decision was prompted by the high cost of oil and natural gas, an abundant supply of wood in mid Michigan...

  18. SECO - Dow Corning's Wood Fueled Industrial Cogeneration Project 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Betts, W. D.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1979, Dow Corning Corporation decided to build a wood fueled steam and electric cogeneration (SECO) power plant at Midland, Michigan. This decision was prompted by the high cost of oil and natural gas, an abundant supply of wood in mid Michigan...

  19. Incorporating risk and uncertainty into extension applications: case example -- the wheat and stocker cattle grazing evaluator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ralston, Roger E.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for both wheat and stocker cattle production, and may choose several stocker cattle grazing strategies these include owning stocker catle as well as leasing wheat pasture for grazing. Finally, the user specifies correlations between each pair of random... ALTERNATIVES AVAILABLE TO THE WHEAT PROGRAM 16 16 21 No Stocker Cattle Grazing Owned Stocker Cattle Wheat Pasture Lease-out Winter Grazing and Wheat Pasture Graze-out THE NEED FOR A DECISION MODEL III DESCRIPTION OF THE MODEL INPUT SUBMODEL 21 22...

  20. INDEX TO VIRGINIA CORN HYBRID AND MANAGEMENT TRIALS 1999 SECTION I. VIRGINIA CORN HYBRID TRIALS IN 1999.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    CORPORTATION AUGUSTA 106 FAIRBURN RD MT SOLON VA 22843 BIO GENE BIO GENE 5491 TRI COUNTY HWY SARDINIA OH 45171 at Middlesex County, Virginia in 1998 and at New Kent County, Virginia in 1999 37 Table 29. Three-year corn hybrid studies at Middlesex County, Virginia in 1997 and 1998 and at New Kent County in 1999. 37 SECTION

  1. Wheat Production in the Panhandle of Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitfield, Charles J. (Charles James); Atkins, Irvin Milburn; Porter, Kenneth B.

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 Ave. CONTINUOUS WHEAT Moldboard plow 20.3 4.2 19.7 4.4 1.8 31.8 5.6 23.2 13.9 Oneway plow 20.1 6.0 24.5 6.3 2.6 28.4 4.6 21.5 14.2 Subtillage* 19.1 7.1 26.4 6.9 6.0 34.3 6.2 19.4 15.7 WHEAT ON FALLOW Oneway plow 11....9 28.4 16.7 8.5 33.1 13.9 36.0 21.2 Subtillage 14.6 28.4 20.4 13.9 36.8 15.7 38.4 24.0 Delayed subtillage3 12.9 30.3 23.3 15.4 36.2 15.6 36.1 24.3 -. 'Tables reproduced from USDA Circular No. 860. =Subtillage refers to cultivation with a sweep...

  2. Wheat stress measurement with the Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richter, John Charles

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 35 0Hz, of some natural surfaces. They found ice had an emissivity of 0. 92 while for water it was 0. 4. Yfet soil, at field capacity, had an emissivity of 0. 6 while dry soil had a value of 0. 94. The values for dry and wet soil are for smooth... winter wheat were not used. This was to insure that wheat emission made a significant contribution to the brightness temperature. A further restriction was that the wheat fields comprising the 30 percent must be continuously cropped. This removed from...

  3. Wet extraction of heavy metals and chloride from MSWI and straw combustion fly ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguiar del Toro, M. [Hamburg University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Eissendorfer Street 40, D-21073 Hamburg (Germany); Calmano, W. [Hamburg University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Eissendorfer Street 40, D-21073 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: calmano@tuhh.de; Ecke, H. [Vattenfall Research and Development AB, SE-814 26 Alvkarleby (Sweden)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash residues from combustion often do not meet the criteria neither for reuse as construction materials nor landfilling as non-hazardous waste, mainly because of the high concentration of heavy metals and chlorides. This work aimed to technically evaluate an innovative wet treatment process for the extraction of chloride (Cl{sup -}), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) from fly ashes from a municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant and from a straw combustion (SC) facility. Factors investigated were liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, full carbonation (CO{sub 2} treatment), influence of pH and leaching time, using a two-level full factorial design. The most significant factor for all responses was low pH, followed by L/S ratio. Multiple linear regression models describing the variation in extraction data had R{sup 2} values ranging from 58% to 98%. An optimization of the element extraction models was performed and a set of treatment conditions is suggested.

  4. Congressmember Sam Farr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farmer, Ellen

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    it, and that’s wheat, corn, beans, soybeans, rice, and thebut if you look at rice, beans, corn, soybeans, and wheat,

  5. allohexaploid wheat triticum: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spore yield of wheat is com pared to other substrates. T he study suggest s that the m ost cost Cotty, Peter J. 146 Disease Control Moyens de lutte Biological control of...

  6. affymetrix genechip wheat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spore yield of wheat is com pared to other substrates. T he study suggest s that the m ost cost Cotty, Peter J. 99 Disease Control Moyens de lutte Biological control of...

  7. Manganese in Texas Soils and its Relation to Crops.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlyle, E. C. (Elmer Cardinal)

    1931-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    manganese salts in pot ex1 rnents to a productive Hagerstown loam from the plots of the PC sylvania Experiment Station. The soil was slightly acid, and they tained no beneficial results with wheat. Skinner and Reid ~eported in 1916 (17) a six-year test... wit11 wh rye, corn, and soy beans, on an acicl silty clay loam soil at the Esp ment Station farm at Arlington, Virginia.. When no manganese fate was used, one acre yielded 4192 pounds of wheat straw and grz , with manganese the yielcl was 3258...

  8. Corn Varieties in Texas : Their Regional and Seasonal Adaptation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mangelsdorf, Paul C. (Paul Christoph)

    1929-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    presented in Progress Reports from Angleton, Denton, Beaumont, Troup, Beeville, Temple, Spur, Lubbock, Pecos, and Nacogdoches, and in Bulletin 276, "Corn Variety Experiments, Substation No. 3, Angleton." SCOPE OF THE BULLETIN Two of the most important... to both regional ' and seasonal variations. To determine the adaptation of varieties to these two influences a variety-date-of-planting test was instituted in 1918. This test has been conducted at eleven substations throughout the State, in most cases...

  9. The effect of stress cracked and broken corn kernels on alkaline processing losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, David Scott

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (~. 70, P&. 06). There were significant differences in COD and DML (KRATIO= 100) between highly damaged corn and the less damaged counterpart of the same hybrid. Stress cracked corn, however, only slightly increased COD and DML. The ease of pericarp... Sigruficance of Com and Cooking Parameters . . . LIST OF FIGURES Page Stress Crack, Pericarp, and Broken Kernel Damage of Corn . . Flow Chart of Procedutes and Differences Between Cook Methods I and H 21 24 Correlation between Thousand Kernel Weight...

  10. A Study of the Black and the Yellow Molds of Ear Corn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph)

    1920-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    corn from t Lrne cause, it map be asserted that the Texas growers are sustaini yearly loss of $5,818,349. The thoughtful farmer will at once real the importance of being able to save this unnecessary waste. It sho~ be added that as far as the corn... that in some regions, practically every ear of sweet corn was damaged, and that throughout the entire country 70 to 90 per cer *Monthly Crop Reporter, .U. S. Department of Agriculture, 5:121-11 Dec. 1919. lt. 10, TLTURAL of the ears of field corn were...

  11. alkaline-pretreated corn stover: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stronach) 1931-01-01 68 Researchers use corn waste to generate electricity Renewable Energy Websites Summary: to create hydrogen." The Penn State researcher and colleagues also...

  12. afex-treated corn stover: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stronach) 1931-01-01 68 Researchers use corn waste to generate electricity Renewable Energy Websites Summary: to create hydrogen." The Penn State researcher and colleagues also...

  13. CORN DEVELOPMENT AND KEY GROWTH STAGES Brent Bean and Carl Patrick, Extension Agronomist and Entomologist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    CORN DEVELOPMENT AND KEY GROWTH STAGES Brent Bean and Carl Patrick, Extension Agronomist to have the soil profile full of water prior to tas

  14. Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 2: Cost of heat and power generation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani, Sudhagar [University of Georgia; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Togore, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of corn stover fired process heating (PH) and the combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems for a typical corn ethanol plant (ethanol production capacity of 170 dam3). Discounted cash flow method was used to estimate both the capital and operating costs of each system and compared with the existing natural gas fired heating system. Environmental impact assessment of using corn stover, coal and natural gas in the heat and/or power generation systems was also evaluated. Coal fired process heating (PH) system had the lowest annual operating cost due to the low fuel cost, but had the highest environmental and human toxicity impacts. The proposed combined heat and power (CHP) generation system required about 137 Gg of corn stover to generate 9.5 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat with an overall CHP efficiency of 83.3%. Stover fired CHP system would generate an annual savings of 3.6 M$ with an payback period of 6 y. Economics of the coal fired CHP system was very attractive compared to the stover fired CHP system due to lower fuel cost. But the greenhouse gas emissions per Mg of fuel for the coal fired CHP system was 32 times higher than that of stover fired CHP system. Corn stover fired heat and power generation system for a corn ethanol plant can improve the net energy balance and add environmental benefits to the corn to ethanol biorefinery.

  15. Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle; Orth, Rick; Zacher, Alan

    2007-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the Department of Energy (DOE)-supported corn fiber conversion project, “Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation” is to develop and demonstrate an integrated, economical process for the separation of corn fiber into its principal components to produce higher value-added fuel (ethanol and biodiesel), nutraceuticals (phytosterols), chemicals (polyols), and animal feed (corn fiber molasses). This project has successfully demonstrated the corn fiber conversion process on the pilot scale, and ensured that the process will integrate well into existing ADM corn wet-mills. This process involves hydrolyzing the corn fiber to solubilize 50% of the corn fiber as oligosaccharides and soluble protein. The solubilized fiber is removed and the remaining fiber residue is solvent extracted to remove the corn fiber oil, which contains valuable phytosterols. The extracted oil is refined to separate the phytosterols and the remaining oil is converted to biodiesel. The de-oiled fiber is enzymatically hydrolyzed and remixed with the soluble oligosaccharides in a fermentation vessel where it is fermented by a recombinant yeast, which is capable of fermenting the glucose and xylose to produce ethanol. The fermentation broth is distilled to remove the ethanol. The stillage is centrifuged to separate the yeast cell mass from the soluble components. The yeast cell mass is sold as a high-protein yeast cream and the remaining sugars in the stillage can be purified to produce a feedstock for catalytic conversion of the sugars to polyols (mainly ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) if desirable. The remaining materials from the purification step and any materials remaining after catalytic conversion are concentrated and sold as a corn fiber molasses. Additional high-value products are being investigated for the use of the corn fiber as a dietary fiber sources.

  16. Response of Hard Red Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to Photoperiod and Vernilization in South Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simoneaux, Bryan Edwin

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    ................................. 10 Photoperiod and vernalization interaction of winter wheat .. 13 CHAPTER III EVALUATION OF WINTER WHEAT GENOTYPES IN A FIELD AND CONTROLLED ENVIRO1MENT FOR THEIR RESPONES TO PHOTOPERIOD AND VERNILIZATION.... If the vernalization requirement is not met, winter wheat plants will remain in the vegetative state and will not produce grain 3 (Morgan et al., 2006). An increase in winter temperatures in South Texas could have a negative impact on winter wheat production...

  17. Development of wheat marketing strategies for the Texas Northern High Plains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Karl E

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Marketing Strategy Results Marketing Strategy Comparison 42 55 55 71 72 77 78 SUEY. REFERENCES 83 86 APPENDIX A: Selected Moving Average Combination Results 88 APPENDIX B: February and August Wheat Outlook and Situa- tion Accuracy Plots 90..., 1974-1980. Examples of Buy and Sell Signals Generated by Moving Averages. 14 May Wheat Outlook and Situation Hard Winter Wheat Forecast Beginning Stock and Actual Beginning Stock Values for Crop Years 1975-1979. 44 November Wheat Outlook...

  18. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into Wheat Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and social aspects of wheat paper and 30% recycled paper have been compared. The Carbon Footprint is one footprint of wheat production is actually lower than the wood production if carbon storage is taken.0 Environmental Analysis 6 2.1 Carbon Storage 6 2.1.1 Wheat 6 2.1.2 Wood 7 2.2 Carbon Footprint 7 2.2.1 Wheat 8 2

  19. Nutrient and Residue Management for Improving Productivity and N Use Efficiency of Rice-Wheat-Mungbean Systems in Bangladesh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hossain, Md. Ilias

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thus, our results showed that PRB with straw retention canon permanent raised beds (PRB) compared with those grown onand soil properties on PRB • assess N level effects on

  20. The conversion of corn stover and pig manure to carboxylic acids with the MixAlco process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Amanda Spring

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    of these processes to a feedstock of corn stover and pig manure. During fermentation, corn stover was the energy source (carbohydrates) and pig manure was the nutrient source (vitamins, minerals, and growth factors). A countercurrent fermentation procedure...

  1. Increasing corn for biofuel production reduces biocontrol services in agricultural landscapes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landis, Doug

    November 5, 2008 (received for review May 22, 2008) Increased demand for corn grain as an ethanol feedstock of cellulosic ethanol production processes that use a variety of feedstocks could foster increased diversity has driven a rapid expansion of the corn ethanol industry in the United States. Continuing growth

  2. Global Indirect Effects of U.S. Corn Ethanol Production: A Review of the Evidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    Global Indirect Effects of U.S. Corn Ethanol Production: A Review of the Evidence Energy security) requires 36 billion gallons of ethanol by 2022 to replace about 20 percent of U.S. gasoline consumption. Since 2001 ethanol produc- tion, mainly from corn, has increased dramatically at an annual average

  3. Summary of findings from the Biomass Refining Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation (CAFI): corn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    employed to develop comparative sugar yield data for each pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis (CAFI): corn stover pretreatment Richard T. Elander Æ Bruce E. Dale Æ Mark Holtzapple Æ Michael R, has devel- oped comparative data on the conversion of corn stover to sugars by several leading

  4. Coproducts From Corn Processing 47 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vol. 128, 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    Increased demand for ethanol as a fuel additive has resulted in dramatic growth in ethanol production production was 3 billion gal/yr (1). Much of the fuel ethanol production capacity in the United States. Ethanol is produced from corn by either wet milling or dry-grind processing. In wet milling, the corn

  5. M. Lelic 12/7/99 1CORNING Inc. L 5033PRE PID Controllers in Nineties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gajic, Zoran

    M. Lelic 12/7/99 1CORNING Inc. L 5033PRE PID Controllers in Nineties Muhidin Lelic CorningOverview Purpose: extract the essence of the most recent development of PID control Based on the survey of papers-Nichols based PIDs (10) Frequency domain based PIDs (22) Relay based PIDs (29) Optimization methods based PIDs

  6. 16 CSA News March 2013 thanol from corn has been the primary biofuel for liq-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    16 CSA News March 2013 E thanol from corn has been the primary biofuel for liq- uid fuels in the United States, but perennial cellulosic biofuels are on the horizon. Intensive corn production with large of nitrogen losses on large, tile-drained fields planted with perennial biofuels in the Midwest of the United

  7. Effects of barley flour and beta-glucans in corn tortillas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silva, Laura

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of b-glucan on corn tortilla texture were evaluated. Barley flour (9.7% b-glucan) was substituted at 2.5, 5 and 10% for dry masa flour in corn tortillas. Texture was evaluated after 4 hr and up to 7 d storage ...

  8. Ecology and Management of the Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Corn and Dry Beans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Ecology and Management of the Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Corn and Dry Beans Lansing MI 48824. J. Integ. Pest Mngmt. 1(1): 2010; DOI: 10.1603/IPM10003 ABSTRACT. The western bean mainly on corn and dry beans. The historical geographic range of the western bean cutworm covered

  9. Influence of Genetic Background on Anthocyanin and Co-Pigment Profile and Stability of Colored Corn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collison, Amy Elizabeth

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    stability of several experimental hybrid varieties of corn from four phenotypes (red, purple, blue, and red/blue). The goal was to determine if genetics/phenotype can be utilized to selectively breed for pigmented corn lines with greater stability during...

  10. The effect of CO regulations on the cost of corn ethanol production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    The effect of CO 2 regulations on the cost of corn ethanol production This article has been) 024003 (9pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/3/2/024003 The effect of CO2 regulations on the cost of corn ethanol the effect of CO2 price on the effective cost of ethanol production we have developed a model that integrates

  11. Evaluation of mixing characteristics of corn dry masa flours

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lobeira Massu, Rodrigo

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by loyd . Roon (Chair of Com ' ee) Ronald L. Richter (Member) Ralph D. Waniska (Member) ert Almeida-Dominguez (Member) ry Acu (Chair, Food Science and Technology Faculty) E. C. A. Rung (Head... of the embryonic axis and the scutellum which functions as a nutritive organ for the embryo. The germ makes up 10-12% of the kernel dry weight. About 85'/o of the lipids in corn are in the germ which has a lipid concentration of 30-38'%%d . Mos t lipid sar e fre...

  12. Dow Corning Europe S A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A Potential MicrohydroDistrict ofDongjin Semichem CoDow Corning Europe S A

  13. Robbins Corn & Bulk Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ |Rippey Jump to: navigation, searchRobbins Corn & Bulk

  14. South Corning, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt LtdShawangunk, NewSingaporeSonix Japan IncInformation SouthHeights,Corning,

  15. Corn LP formerly Central Iowa Renewable Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformationNew|Core Analysis At Geysers| Open EnergyAl.,A,CorixBeltCorn

  16. Little Sioux Corn Processors LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |Jilin ZhongdiantouLichuan CityLiqcrytech LLC JumpListLittle Sioux Corn

  17. Gene Controls Flowering Time in Corn - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.Newof EnergyFundingGene Controls Flowering Time in Corn Great

  18. Ash Reduction of Corn Stover by Mild Hydrothermal Preprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Toufiq Reza; Rachel Emerson; M. Helal Uddin; Garold Gresham; Charles J. Coronella

    2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignocellulosic biomass such as corn stover can contain high ash content, which may act as an inhibitor in downstream conversion processes. Most of the structural ash in biomass is located in the cross-linked structure of lignin, which is mildly reactive in basic solutions. Four organic acids (formic, oxalic, tartaric, and citric) were evaluated for effectiveness in ash reduction, with limited success. Because of sodium citrate’s chelating and basic characteristics, it is effective in ash removal. More than 75 % of structural and 85 % of whole ash was removed from the biomass by treatment with 0.1 g of sodium citrate per gram of biomass at 130 °C and 2.7 bar. FTIR, fiber analysis, and chemical analyses show that cellulose and hemicellulose were unaffected by the treatment. ICP–AES showed that all inorganics measured were reduced within the biomass feedstock, except sodium due to the addition of Na through the treatment. Sodium citrate addition to the preconversion process of corn stover is an effective way to reduced physiological ash content of the feedstock without negatively impacting carbohydrate and lignin content.

  19. Update of distillers grains displacement ratios for corn ethanol life-cycle analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, S.; Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Production of corn-based ethanol (either by wet milling or by dry milling) yields the following coproducts: distillers grains with solubles (DGS), corn gluten meal (CGM), corn gluten feed (CGF), and corn oil. Of these coproducts, all except corn oil can replace conventional animal feeds, such as corn, soybean meal, and urea. Displacement ratios of corn-ethanol coproducts including DGS, CGM, and CGF were last updated in 1998 at a workshop at Argonne National Laboratory on the basis of input from a group of experts on animal feeds, including Prof. Klopfenstein (University of Nebraska, Lincoln), Prof. Berger (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign), Mr. Madson (Rapheal Katzen International Associates, Inc.), and Prof. Trenkle (Iowa State University) (Wang 1999). Table 1 presents current dry milling coproduct displacement ratios being used in the GREET model. The current effort focuses on updating displacement ratios of dry milling corn-ethanol coproducts used in the animal feed industry. Because of the increased availability and use of these coproducts as animal feeds, more information is available on how these coproducts replace conventional animal feeds. To glean this information, it is also important to understand how industry selects feed. Because of the wide variety of available feeds, animal nutritionists use commercial software (such as Brill Formulation{trademark}) for feed formulation. The software recommends feed for the animal on the basis of the nutritional characteristics, availability, and price of various animal feeds, as well as on the nutritional requirements of the animal (Corn Refiners Association 2006). Therefore, feed formulation considers both the economic and the nutritional characteristics of feed products.

  20. Original article Digestion of wheat gluten and potato protein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Digestion of wheat gluten and potato protein by the preruminant calf: digestibility, amino acid composition and immunoreactive proteins in ileal digesta P Branco-Pardal, JP Lallès, M-caecal cannulated preruminant calves. The apparent faecal nitrogen digestibility was lower (P

  1. Texas AgriLIFE Research Wheat Cultivar Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Through breeding efforts and better management practices, grain yield of wheat in Texas has increased from Agricultural Statistics Service). The state average yield of 37 bushels per acre in 2007 set an all time record to crown and stem rusts. TAMO 606 (2007) is adapted to North Texas and has excellent grain and good forage

  2. Nutritional value of Quality Protein Maize, food and feed corn for starter and grower pigs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, James Scot

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    corn, 7. 6, , 29, . 054, 4. 01. Growth trials with starter (28-d duration, four pens of six pigs/diet, 6 kg initial weight) and grower (35-d duration, eight pens of two pigs/diet, 23 kg initial weight) pigs evaluated five diets, a QPM-soybean meal... diet formulated on a lysine basis (. 96g in starter and . 70g in grower diets) and four diets arranged in a 2 (food corn vs feed corn) X 2 (Iow vs high soybean meal) factorial, Soybean meal was added to provide the level in the QPM diet...

  3. A Five-Year Assessment of Corn Stover Harvest in Central Iowa, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas L. Karlen; Stuart J. Birell; J. Richard Hess

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sustainable feedstock harvest strategies are needed to ensure bioenergy production does not irreversibly degrade soil resources. The objective for this study was to document corn (Zea mays L.) grain and stover fraction yields, plant nutrient removal and replacement costs, feedstock quality, soil-test changes, and soil quality indicator response to four stover harvest strategies for continuous corn and a corn-soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr.] rotation. The treatments included collecting (1) all standing plant material above a stubble height of 10 cm (whole plant), (2) the upper-half by height (ear shank upward), (3) the lower-half by height (from the 10 cm stubble height to just below the earshank), or (4) no removal. Collectable biomass from Treatment 2 averaged 3.9 ({+-}0.8) Mg ha{sup -1} for continuous corn (2005 through 2009), and 4.8 ({+-}0.4) Mg ha{sup -1} for the rotated corn (2005, 2007, and 2009). Compared to harvesting only the grain, collecting stover increased the average N-P-K removal by 29, 3 and 34 kg ha{sup -1} for continuous corn and 42, 3, and 34 kg ha{sup -1} for rotated corn, respectively. Harvesting the lower-half of the corn plant (Treatment 3) required two passes, resulted in frequent plugging of the combine, and provided a feedstock with low quality for conversion to biofuel. Therefore, Treatment 3 was replaced by a 'cobs-only' harvest starting in 2009. Structural sugars glucan and xylan accounted for up to 60% of the chemical composition, while galactan, arabinan, and mannose constituted less than 5% of the harvest fractions collected from 2005 through 2008. Soil-test data from samples collected after the first harvest (2005) revealed low to very low plant-available P and K levels which reduced soybean yield in 2006 after harvesting the whole-plant in 2005. Average continuous corn yields were 21% lower than rotated yields with no significant differences due to stover harvest. Rotated corn yields in 2009 showed some significant differences, presumably because soil-test P was again in the low range. A soil quality analysis using the Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF) with six indicators showed that soils at the continuous corn and rotated sites were functioning at an average of 93 and 83% of their inherent potential, respectively. With good crop management practices, including routine soil-testing, adequate fertilization, maintenance of soil organic matter, sustained soil structure, and prevention of wind, water or tillage erosion, a portion of the corn stover being produced in central Iowa, USA can be harvested in a sustainable manner.

  4. Corn Meal in the Food Supply of Texans.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winters, Jet C.; Scoular, Florence I.; McLaughlin, Laura; Lamb, Mina W.; Whitacre, Jessie

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the non-enriched meal makes a variable contribution to the value of the corresponding enriched meal. TABLE 2. THIAMINE CONTENT OF CORN ME : ALS Mcg/g wet basis1 Kind of Non-enriched Enriche meal No. No. repli- Range Av. repli- Range Av. cations...-enriched Enriched Non-enriched Enriched bread No. repli- Range Avm NO. repli- Range cations Av. Range Av. Range Av. cations i Texas Tech. Sour milk Everlite 3 1.40 2 1.35 1.35 1.44 1.51 2.29 2.26 i::: 2.36 1.43 2.24 Aunt Jemima Sweet milk 1.28 1.40 2...

  5. Characterization and Combustion Performance of Corn Oil-Based Biofuel Blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savant, Gautam Sandesh

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    into biodiesel. It is well known vegetable oil to biodiesel conversion involves many processes including transesterification, which makes biodiesel costly and time-consuming to produce. In this study, the effects of blending high-viscosity fresh and used corn...

  6. BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM WET OXIDSED CORN STOVER USING PRE-TREATED MANURE AS A NUTRIENT SOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM WET OXIDSED CORN STOVER USING PRE-TREATED MANURE AS A NUTRIENT SOURCE E for the production of bioethanol. This pre-treatment method, similar to other hot water pre-treatments, acts

  7. Iowa farmer hopes corn cobs will bring in extra cash | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    supply the United States with a biofuel that may have a promising future: cellulosic ethanol. He grows corn and soybeans at his farm in Cylinder, a little community of about 100...

  8. STA'n:MENT OF CONSIDERAT IONS REQUEST BY CORNING J 'CORP ORA...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    quality and performance of ceramic electrolyte members and developing th e manufac turing mea ns to dramatically lower their cost. CORNING 's success should enable PolyPus ' s...

  9. The effects of Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus (MDMV) on different corn hybrids (Zea mays L.) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lammoglia Villagomez, Agustin

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus (MDMV) on different agronomic and grain quality characteristics of 106 corn hybrids. A randomized split-plot design with 3 replications was used. The virus isolate obtained...

  10. Tolerance and weed management systems in imidazolinone tolerant corn (Zea mays L.)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Ann Marie

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of imidazolinone weed management systems and tolerance of imidazolinone tolerant corn to imazapic. Field experiments were conducted in 1997 and 1998 at the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station (TAES...

  11. Energy Efficiency Improvements and Cost Saving Opportunities in the Corn Wet Milling Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galitsky, C.; Worrell, E.

    Corn wet milling is the most energy intensive industry in the food and kindred products group (SIC 20). Plants typically spend approximately $15 to 25 million per year on energy, one of its largest operating costs, making energy efficiency...

  12. Interrelationships among alternative export variables and their impacts on corn prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, Somkid Tammakrut

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    export variable. Corn export sales data (collected by USDA since 1973) provide an additional source of information on export movements, thus offering an alternative export demand indicator. Data on commercial stocks at terminals and port elevators...). The primary objective of this study was to assess the impacts of these alternative export variables (sales, stocks, and shipments) on corn prices, and to investigate the dynamic interrelationships among these variables. The observations were carried out...

  13. Determination of total dietary fiber and resistant starch in processed corn and rice products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corujo Martinez, Juan Ignacio

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DETERMINATION OF TOTAL DIETARY FIBER AND RESISTANT STARCH IN PROCESSED CORN AND RICE PRODUCTS A Thesis by JUAN IGNACIO CORUJO MARTINEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree 'of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology DETERMINATION OF TOTAL DIETARY FIBER AND RESISTANT STARCH IN PROCESSED CORN AND RICE PRODUCTS A Thesis by JUAN IGNACIO CORUJO MARTINEZ Approved...

  14. Economic Impact of Harvesting Corn Stover under Time Constraint: The Case of North Dakota

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maung, Thein A.; Gustafson, Cole R.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines the impact of stochastic harvest field time on profit maximizing potential of corn cob/stover collection in North Dakota. Three harvest options are analyzed using mathematical programming models. Our findings show that under the first corn grain only harvest option, farmers are able to complete harvesting corn grain and achieve maximum net income in a fairly short amount of time with existing combine technology. However, under the second simultaneous corn grain and cob (one-pass) harvest option, farmers generate lower net income compared to the net income of the first option. This is due to the slowdown in combinemore »harvest capacity as a consequence of harvesting corn cobs. Under the third option of separate corn grain and stover (two-pass) harvest option, time allocation is the main challenge and our evidence shows that with limited harvest field time available, farmers find it optimal to allocate most of their time harvesting grain and then proceed to harvest and bale stover if time permits at the end of harvest season. The overall findings suggest is that it would be more economically efficient to allow a firm that is specialized in collecting biomass feedstock to participate in cob/stover harvest business.« less

  15. Life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission impacts of different corn ethanol plant types.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Wu, M.; Huo, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the United States began a program to develop ethanol as a transportation fuel, its use has increased from 175 million gallons in 1980 to 4.9 billion gallons in 2006. Virtually all of the ethanol used for transportation has been produced from corn. During the period of fuel ethanol growth, corn farming productivity has increased dramatically, and energy use in ethanol plants has been reduced by almost by half. The majority of corn ethanol plants are powered by natural gas. However, as natural gas prices have skyrocketed over the last several years, efforts have been made to further reduce the energy used in ethanol plants or to switch from natural gas to other fuels, such as coal and wood chips. In this paper, we examine nine corn ethanol plant types--categorized according to the type of process fuels employed, use of combined heat and power, and production of wet distiller grains and solubles. We found that these ethanol plant types can have distinctly different energy and greenhouse gas emission effects on a full fuel-cycle basis. In particular, greenhouse gas emission impacts can vary significantly--from a 3% increase if coal is the process fuel to a 52% reduction if wood chips are used. Our results show that, in order to achieve energy and greenhouse gas emission benefits, researchers need to closely examine and differentiate among the types of plants used to produce corn ethanol so that corn ethanol production would move towards a more sustainable path.

  16. Aflatoxin resistance in selected maize (Zea mays L.) varieties as affected by corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea [Boddie]) infestation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uphoff, Michael Donald

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) in preharvest corn is a severe problem in some parts of the U. S. An experiment was designed to determine if the corn earworm (Heli~cov ~ yea a[Boddie]) was an effective vector of g. ~a and if damage caused by the insect predisposed maize varieties.... No differences among overall treatments were found. Apparently, treatment with corn earworm eggs was not effective in causing an increased amount of ear damage. Results showed there were statistically significant differences among varieties for inoculated...

  17. High level expression of Acidothermus cellulolyticus ?-1, 4-endoglucanase in transgenic rice enhances the hydrolysis of its straw by cultured cow gastric fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Hong L.; Dai, Ziyu; Hsieh, Chia W.; Ku, Maurice S.

    2011-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Large-scale production of effective cellulose hydrolytic enzymes is the key to the bioconversion of agricultural residues to ethanol. The goal of this study was to develop a rice plant as a bioreactor for the large-scale production of cellulose hydrolytic enzymes via genetic transformation, and to simultaneously improve rice straw as an efficient biomass feedstock for conversion of cellulose to glucose. In this study, the cellulose hydrolytic enzyme {beta}-1, 4-endoglucanase (E1) from the thermophilic bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus was overexpressed in rice through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The expression of the bacterial gene in rice was driven by the constitutive Mac promoter, a hybrid promoter of Ti plasmid mannopine synthetase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer with the signal peptide of tobacco pathogenesis-related protein for targeting the protein to the apoplastic compartment for storage. A total of 52 transgenic rice plants from six independent lines expressing the bacterial enzyme were obtained, which expressed the gene at high levels with a normal phenotype. The specific activities of E1 in the leaves of the highest expressing transgenic rice lines were about 20 fold higher than those of various transgenic plants obtained in previous studies and the protein amounts accounted for up to 6.1% of the total leaf soluble protein. Zymogram and temperature-dependent activity analyses demonstrated the thermostability of the enzyme and its substrate specificity against cellulose, and a simple heat treatment can be used to purify the protein. In addition, hydrolysis of transgenic rice straw with cultured cow gastric fluid yielded almost twice more reducing sugars than wild type straw. Taken together, these data suggest that transgenic rice can effectively serve as a bioreactor for large-scale production of active, thermostable cellulose hydrolytic enzymes. As a feedstock, direct expression of large amount of cellulases in transgenic rice may also facilitate saccharification of cellulose in rice straw and significantly reduce the costs for hydrolytic enzymes.

  18. Field Experiments at McKinney Sub-Station and Wichita Falls Sub-Station with Wheat, Corn, Cotton, Grasses and Manures. Field Experiments at College Station with Corn, Cotton, Grasses, Peas and Manures.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connell, J. H.; Clayton, James

    1895-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cracken . . ............................... Smooth . . . . . . . . 17 .18 ..... . 206 White Frack .................................. do ......... Hi.29 .... .. 207 Lebanon ................................... Bearded ........ 23.55 3.43. 208 Bodine E., 0. K. West .... . ................. Smooth...

  19. Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 1: Cost of feedstock supply logistics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Mani, Sudhagar [University of Georgia; Togore, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supply of corn stover to produce heat and power for a typical 170 dam3 dry mill ethanol plant is proposed. The corn ethanol plant requires 5.6 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat, which creates the annual stover demand of as much as 140 Gg. The corn stover supply system consists of collection, preprocessing, transportation and on-site fuel storage and preparation to produce heat and power for the ethanol plant. Economics of the entire supply system was conducted using the Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics (IBSAL) simulation model. Corn stover was delivered in three formats (square bales, dry chops and pellets) to the combined heat and power plant. Delivered cost of biomass ready to be burned was calculated at 73 $ Mg-1 for bales, 86 $ Mg-1 for pellets and 84 $ Mg-1 for field chopped biomass. Among the three formats of stover supply systems, delivered cost of pelleted biomass was the highest due to high pelleting cost. Bulk transport of biomass in the form of chops and pellets can provide a promising future biomass supply logistic system in the US, if the costs of pelleting and transport are minimized.

  20. A case study of agricultural residue availability and cost for a cellulosic ethanol conversion facility in the Henan province of China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Erin [ORNL; Wu, Yun [ORNL

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary analysis of the availability and cost of corn stover and wheat straw for the area surrounding a demonstration biorefinery in the Henan Province of China was performed as a case study of potential cooperative analyses of bioenergy feedstocks between researchers and industry in the US and China. Though limited in scope, the purpose of this analysis is to provide insight into some of the issues and challenges of estimating feedstock availability in China and how this relates to analyses of feedstocks in the U.S. Completing this analysis also highlighted the importance of improving communication between U.S. researchers and Chinese collaborators. Understanding the units and terms used in the data provided by Tianguan proved to be a significant challenge. This was further complicated by language barriers between collaborators in the U.S. and China. The Tianguan demonstration biorefinery has a current capacity of 3k tons (1 million gallons) of cellulosic ethanol per year with plans to scale up to 10k tons (3.34 million gallons) per year. Using data provided by Tianguan staff in summer of 2011, the costs and availability of corn stover and wheat straw were estimated. Currently, there are sufficient volumes of wheat straw and corn stover that are considered 'waste' and would likely be available for bioenergy in the 20-km (12-mile) region surrounding the demonstration biorefinery at a low cost. However, as the industry grows, competition for feedstock will grow and prices are likely to rise as producers demand additional compensation to fully recover costs.

  1. Leaf epicuticular wax ultrastructure and trichome presence on Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) resistant and susceptible leaves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leaf epicuticular wax ultrastructure and trichome presence on Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia wax ultrastructure and leaf trichomes were examined on two Russian wheat aphid-susceptible wheat. Comparison of the scanning electron micrographs showed that the epicuticular wax structure was similar

  2. Costs of Harvesting, Storing in a Large Pile, and Transporting Corn Stover in a Wet Form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corn stover is potentially an attractive biomass resource, but must be stored if used to supply a biorefinery year-round. Based on experience with successfully storing water-saturated large piles of bagasse for the pulping industry, Atchison and Hettenhaus (2003) proposed that such a system can also be applied to corn stover. Regardless of the technical feasibility of this system, in this article we estimate the cost of harvesting corn stover in a single pass with corn grain, delivering the chopped biomass to a storage pile, storing the stover in a wet form in a large pile at 75% moisture in a 211,700-dry Mg facility within a radius of 24 km from the field, and transporting the stover 64 km to a biorefinery. Field-ground corn stover can be delivered to a biorefinery by rail for $55 to $61/dry Mg. Truck transport is more expensive, $71 to $77/dry Mg. To achieve a minimum cost in the system proposed by Atchison and Hettenhaus, it is necessary to field densify stover to 74 dry kg/m3, without losing combine field efficiency, have a large storage pile to spread fixed costs of storage over enough biomass, and use rail transportation. Compared to storage in an on-farm bunker silo at $60/dry Mg, there are limited circumstances in which large pile storage has a cost advantage.

  3. Chromosomes form into seven groups in hexaploid and tetraploid wheat as a prelude to meiosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Peter

    Chromosomes form into seven groups in hexaploid and tetraploid wheat as a prelude to meiosis be further divided into seven groups of six chromosomes (one chromosome pair being derived from each tetraploid) wheat associate via the centromeres into seven groups as the telomeres begin to cluster

  4. The Role of Leaf Epicuticular Wax an Improved Adaptation to Moisture Deficit Environments in Wheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammed, Suheb

    2014-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    regions for cooler canopies, heat susceptible index, and grain yield components in winter wheat. This project aims to define the role that leaf epicuticular wax (EW) plays as a drought adaptive trait in terms of yield stability. A spring wheat Len...

  5. The Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol: An Update. By Hosein Shapouri, James A. Duffield, and Michael Wang. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Office of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    #12;The Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol: An Update. By Hosein Shapouri, James A. Duffield.34. Keywords: Ethanol, net energy balance, corn production, energy. About the Authors Shapouri and Duffield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Energy Balance Issue

  6. Elements of Dry-Grind Corn-Processing Streams 113 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vol. 134, 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of ethanol as a fuel additive, ethanol production has increased markedly in the past decade. Ethanol-grind corn process is one of two technologies used to convert corn into ethanol. In this process, all kernel with solubles; ethanol; dry-grind processing; stillage; syrup; element concentrations. #12;114 Belyea et al

  7. Field Experiments at College Station with Corn, Cotton and Forage Plants.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connel, J. H.; Clayton, James

    1896-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    H O J Z m P O P m r i I [ F Z M?Seed from A. W. Burpee, Phila? delphia, Pa.; cost, $2.25 per half-bushel. Same as Waterloo Early Dent; roasting ear, June 14th; yield per acre, 35.8 bushels of corn. One hun? dred pounds shucked ear corn yield 88... medium size; yield per acre, 31.3 bush? els of com. One hundred pounds shucked ear corn yield 87.4 pounds grain. S H o Z t [ m F T H P C Z KF s O P mM?Seed from D. Landreth & Sons, Phila? delphia, Pa.; cost, $1.75 per half-bushel. A white flint...

  8. Factors affecting the efficiency of the mechanical corn picker in Mississippi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimbrough, Emmett Alexander

    1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . piciher s C~eett, Ph pt. hee nee ste-pes en hens Pets seethes e nle harvest approximately h75 acre pex. hour, depending on ths field con ditions and field cise General dimensions and s cificaticns, The machine weighs approxi mateIy 1~509 pounds...) picker net yield& {2) picker losses, (3) loose eax' losses x and (4) shelled cox?l losses s The last operation cr factor studied before the corn pickax' was operated in the corn plots wss to search for loose ears that, msy' have been knocked off...

  9. Factors affecting the efficiency of the mechanical corn picker in Mississippi 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimbrough, Emmett Alexander

    1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . piciher s C~eett, Ph pt. hee nee ste-pes en hens Pets seethes e nle harvest approximately h75 acre pex. hour, depending on ths field con ditions and field cise General dimensions and s cificaticns, The machine weighs approxi mateIy 1~509 pounds...) picker net yield& {2) picker losses, (3) loose eax' losses x and (4) shelled cox?l losses s The last operation cr factor studied before the corn pickax' was operated in the corn plots wss to search for loose ears that, msy' have been knocked off...

  10. Water Conservation in Southern Great Plains Wheat Production.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finnell, H. H. (Henry Howard)

    1944-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and wind erosion damage was reduced. Zievc use 01 areas -.!-P-l ticabili rnethw ertheless, water conservation alone is not enough to make the best F current soil and water resources available in the winter wheat of the Texas high plains. The amount... and distribution of seasonal rainrail naturally vary so much that a definite program of flexibility in the use of summer fallowing, tillage methods, and the rotation of diversi- fied crops becomes a physical necessity. The combined objectives of wind erosion...

  11. The Phosphorus Compounds of Cotton Seed Meal and Wheat Bran.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rather, J. B. (James Burness)

    1913-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the organic silver salt beyond the limit of analytical error. Analysis of the products from the extractions of cottonseed meal gave the following results: .6675 gram of the product from the acid extraction gave .0020 gram combined iron, aluminum, lime... that the products from the acid and ammonia extracts of cottonseed meal and the acid extract of wheat bran are all salts of the same acid, but containing different quantities of silver. The latter is to he expected as no attempt was made to precipitate the salts...

  12. Wheat Belt Public Power Dist | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlin BaxinUmweltVillageGraphWellton-MohawkWesternwish OpenEI wouldWheat

  13. Sources of Corn for Ethanol Production in the United States: A Review and Decomposition Analysis of the Empirical Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Uria Martinez, Rocio [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of corn for ethanol production in the United States quintupled between 2001 and 2009, generating concerns that this could lead to the conversion of forests and grasslands around the globe, known as indirect land-use change (iLUC). Estimates of iLUC and related food versus fuel concerns rest on the assumption that the corn used for ethanol production in the United States would come primarily from displacing corn exports and land previously used for other crops. A number of modeling efforts based on these assumptions have projected significant iLUC from the increases in the use of corn for ethanol production. The current study tests the veracity of these assumptions through a systematic decomposition analysis of the empirical data from 2001 to 2009. The logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method (Type I) was used to estimate contributions of different factors to meeting the corn demand for ethanol production. Results show that about 79% of the change in corn used for ethanol production can be attributed to changes in the distribution of domestic corn consumption among different uses. Increases in the domestic consumption share of corn supply contributed only about 5%. The remaining contributions were 19% from added corn production, and 2% from stock changes. Yield change accounted for about two-thirds of the contributions from production changes. Thus, the results of this study provide little support for large land-use changes or diversion of corn exports because of ethanol production in the United States during the past decade.

  14. Influence of Planting Date on Response of Winter Wheat to Phosphorus.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hipp, Billy W.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ie 245.7 3 .'l5 4 TH TEX A RI / B-1564 April 1987 Influence of Planting Date on Response of Winter Wheat to Phosphorus p T T Billy W. Hipp* LIBRARY JUN 1 5 1987 T ~x s A&M llniveusi Abstract Wheat is grown extensively in the Texas... stages has been demonstrated for several crops. Boatwright and Viets (2) found that adequate P supplied during the first 5 weeks of wheat growth was , enough for maximum yield. Spinks and Barber (5) indicated that applied P was more important...

  15. Dryland Winter Wheat and Grain Sorghum Cropping Systems: Northern High Plains of Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unger, Paul W.

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and wheat seeding or between wheat hanrest and sorghum ~eecling. Three plots were u3ed for this treatment in each replica tion. 4. 14Thea t-sorghum-fallo~v with permanent ridges and furrows on 40-inch spacings (1,ITSF-RF)- this croppins system... and chemical properties of soil. All tillage before seeding wheat and sorghum, except on the TITSF-RF plots, was performed with stub!,le-mulch equipment. This equipment hacl 30- to 40-inch sweeps, and the tillage was limited to about a 5-inch depth...

  16. Companies Participating in the 1996 Corn Performance Trials Company Brand Address

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    CARGILL HYBRID SEEDS CARGILL PO BOX 5645 MINNEAPOLIS MN 55440 DEKALB PLANT GENETICS DEKALB 3100 SYCAMORE MYCOGEN PO BOX 68 TULIA TX 79088 NORTHRUP KING CO. NORTHRUP KING PO BOX 959 MINNEAPOLIS MN 55440 PIONEER-6000 WILSON SEEDS, INC. WILSON PO BOX 391 HARLAN IA 51537 VIRGINIA CORN PERFORMANCE TRIALS IN 1996 Coordinated

  17. Companies Participating in the 1995 Corn Performance Trials Company Brand Address

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    MINNEAPOLIS MN 55440 CAVERNDALE FARMS INC. CAVERNDALE 1921 BLUEGRASS RD DANVILLE KY 40422-9293 DEKALB PLANT MINNEAPOLIS MN 55440 PIONEER HI-BRED INT., INC. PIONEER BRAND 1000 W JEFFERSON ST TIPTON IN 46072 SOUTHERN PO BOX 391 HARLAN IA 51537 VIRGINIA CORN PERFORMANCE TRIALS IN 1995 Coordinated by H. Behl, E. R

  18. Developing and Testing a Trafficability Index for Planting Corn and Cotton in the Texas Blackland Prairie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helms, Adam J.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    to producers because the high water holding capacity is a product of a high clay percentage. This research was aimed to develop and test an expert-based trafficabililty index, based upon soil moisture, for planting cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and corn (Zea...

  19. Fractionation of phenolic compounds from a purple corn extract and evaluation of antioxidant and antimutagenic activities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedreschi, Romina Paola

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    anthocyanin-glucosides. Cyadinin-3glucoside was the main constituent (44.4 ?? 4.7%) followed by the acylated cyanidin-3-glucoside (26.9 ?? 8.0%). Other phenolic compounds present in the purple corn corresponded to protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, and p...

  20. The Integrated Biorefinery: Conversion of Corn Fiber to Value-added Chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susanne Kleff

    2007-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation provides a summary of Michigan Biotechnology Institute's efforts to employ the corn fiber fraction of a dry grind ethanol plant as a feedstock to produce succinic acid which has potential as a building block intermediate for a wide range of commodity chemicals.

  1. Potential impact of Thailand's alcohol program on production, consumption, and trade of cassava, sugarcane, and corn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boonserm, P.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On the first of May 1980, Thailand's fuel-alcohol program was announced by the Thai government. According to the program, a target of 147 million liters of ethanol would be produced in 1981, from cassava, sugarcane, and other biomasses. Projecting increases in output each year, the target level of ethanol produciton was set at 482 million liters of ethanol for 1986. The proposed amount of ethanol production could create a major shift up in the demand schedule of energy crops such as cassava, sugarcane, and corn. The extent of the adjustments in price, production, consumption, and exports for these energy crops need to be evaluated. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential impact of Thailand's fuel-alcohol program on price, production, consumption, and exports of three potential energy crops: cassava, sugarcane, and corn. Econometric commodity models of cassava, sugarcane, and corn are constructed and used as a method of assessment. The overall results of the forecasting simulations of the models indicate that the fuel-alcohol program proposed by the Thai government will cause the price, production, and total consumption of cassava, sugarcane, and corn to increase; on the other hand, it will cause exports to decline. In addition, based on the relative prices and the technical coefficients of ethanol production of these three energy crops, this study concludes that only cassava should be used to produce the proposed target of ethanol production.

  2. Cellulase Adsorption and Relationship to Features of Corn Stover Solids Produced by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    ARTICLE Cellulase Adsorption and Relationship to Features of Corn Stover Solids Produced by Leading to sugars for fermentation to ethanol or other products, enzyme adsorption and its relationship to substrate acid, lime, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) pretreat- ments were measured at 48C. Langmuir adsorption para

  3. FARM NET INCOME IMPACT OF SWITCHGRASS PRODUCTION AND CORN STOVER COLLECTION FOR HEAT AND POWER GENERATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    GENERATION by Mitchell A. Myhre A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree and Corn Stover Collection for Heat and Power Generation Mitchell A. Myhre Advisor: Associate Professor. Last but not least I would like to thank my wife Lisa for her love and support. #12;iv Table

  4. GEOSPATIAL DECISION SUPPORT FOR SEED COMPANIES IN THE CORN BELT Marcus E. Tooze1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reichenbach, Stephen E.

    GEOSPATIAL DECISION SUPPORT FOR SEED COMPANIES IN THE CORN BELT Marcus E. Tooze1 , S. Hatten2 , W in the seed industry, new applications emerge for mapping, analysis, and interpretation of cultivar. In addition, a geospatial framework was developed to identify the soil landscapes that had the best soil

  5. Wednesday, July 19, 2006 Researchers use corn waste to generate electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's process uses a microbial fuel cell to convert organic material into electricity. Previous work has shown compounds in the corn waste and these compounds can be fed to microbial fuel cells. The microbial fuel cells atoms that combine with the electrons and oxygen to form water. The microbial fuel cells were inoculated

  6. Direct application of West Coast geothermal resources in a wet-corn-milling plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The engineering and economic feasibility of using the geothermal resources in East Mesa, California, in a new corn processing plant is evaluated. Institutional barriers were also identified and evaluated. Several alternative plant designs which used geothermal energy were developed. A capital cost estimate and rate of return type of economic analysis were performed to evaluate each alternative. (MHR)

  7. Agricultural Robot Turning in the Headland of Corn Fields Jinlin Xue1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of variable FOV of camera. A settled FOV has been always used in autonomous vehicles for field applications so robot in corn fields. 1. Introduction Since agricultural vehicle navigation based on machine vision was first proposed, methods based on machine vision have been studied extensively in agricultural vehicles

  8. Economic Analysis of Atoxigenic Mitigation Methods for Aflatoxin in Corn in Central Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sampson, Jessica Sue

    2014-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    atoxigenic treatments and each case was simulated across a range of crop insurance options available to corn producers in Bell County. A total of 50 scenarios were simulated and compared based on net revenue. Results show atoxigenics do provide a monetary...

  9. MICHIGAN'S SOIL NITRATE TEST FOR CORN MSU SOIL AND PLANT NUTRIENT LAB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isaacs, Rufus

    MICHIGAN'S SOIL NITRATE TEST FOR CORN MSU SOIL AND PLANT NUTRIENT LAB Michigan State University Extension Crop and Soil Sciences Department Michigan State University WHY TEST SOIL FOR NITRATES Nitrate testing of soil is an excellent and inexpensive way of evaluating the available nitrogen (N) status

  10. Membrane separation of solids from corn processing streams Tricia L. Templin a,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) 1536­1545 #12;requiring use of scrubbers and thermal oxidizers; exposure of coproducts to heat can are characterized by high water content. Removal of water and recovery of solids are major economic and logistical. Ultrafiltration of STW and SKW had little effect on water removal or solids recovery. Corn was processed

  11. Impact of surfactants on pretreatment of corn stover Qing Qing, Bin Yang 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    glycol 4000 during water-only or dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover at 140­220 °C were evaluated energy security, trade deficit, environmental, and economic issues that are becoming more urgent in light of declining petroleum reserves and increasing international demand for transportation fuels. However

  12. Forest Fuel Reduction Survey Analysis: Forest Administrators Cornelis F. de Hoop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Qinglin

    Forest Fuel Reduction Survey Analysis: Forest Administrators by Cornelis F. de Hoop Amith Hanumappa to seriously investigate and execute the methods required to carry out a successful fuel reduction project operations wherein fuel reduction is a primary management objective. Literature on this wave of activity

  13. A Review of "John Milton: Life, Work, and Thought" by Gordon Campbell and Thomas N. Corns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nardo, Anna K.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that no liberal scholar would waste his time on the kind of dross the antiquaries worked on? (356). By contrast, these two modern antiquaries turn dross into true coin. Campbell and Corns do for Milton?s prose what Barbara Lewalski did for Milton?s poetry...

  14. USDA Projections of Bioenergy-Related Corn and Soyoil Use for 2010-2019

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    biofuel policy and trends, and e) bioenergy impacts on U.S. grain prices are explained below. EconomicUSDA Projections of Bioenergy-Related Corn and Soyoil Use for 2010-2019 Daniel M. O through 2019 period included estimates of world and U.S. energy prices, ethanol and biodiesel production

  15. Imaging corn plants with PhytoPET, a modular PET system for plant biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.; Kross, B.; McKisson, J.; McKisson, J. E.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Xi, W.; Zorn, C.; Bonito, G.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Crowell, A.; Cumberbatch, L. C.; Topp, C.; Smith, M. F.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PhytoPET is a modular positron emission tomography (PET) system designed specifically for plant imaging. The PhytoPET design allows flexible arrangements of PET detectors based on individual standalone detector modules built from single Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tubes and pixelated LYSO arrays. We have used the PhytoPET system to perform preliminary corn plant imaging studies at the Duke University Biology Department Phytotron. Initial evaluation of the PhytoPET system to image the biodistribution of the positron emitting tracer {sup 11}C in corn plants is presented. {sup 11}CO{sub 2} is loaded into corn seedlings by a leaf-labeling cuvette and translocation of {sup 11}C-sugars is imaged by a flexible arrangement of PhytoPET modules on each side. The PhytoPET system successfully images {sup 11}C within corn plants and allows for the dynamic measurement of {sup 11}C-sugar translocation from the leaf to the roots.

  16. Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for corn refining plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, G. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; USEPA

    2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing their plant's performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing facilities can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the corn refining industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for facilities that produce a variety of products--including corn starch, corn oil, animal feed, corn sweeteners, and ethanol--for the paper, food, beverage, and other industries in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for corn refining plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

  17. Size reduction of high- and low-moisture corn stalks by linear knife grid system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Narayan, S. [First American Scientific Co.

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High- and low-moisture corn stalks were tested using a linear knife grid size reduction device developed for first-stage size reduction. The device was used in conjunction with a universal test machine that quantified shearing stress and energy characteristics for forcing a bed of corn stalks through a grid of sharp knives. No published engineering performance data for corn stover with similar devices are available to optimize performance; however, commercial knife grid systems exist for forage size reduction. From the force displacement data, mean and maximum ultimate shear stresses, cumulative and peak mass-based cutting energies for corn stalks, and mean new surface area-based cutting energies were determined from 4 5 refill runs at two moisture contents (78.8% and 11.3% wet basis), three knife grid spacings (25.4, 50.8, and 101.6 mm), and three bed depths (50.8, 101.6, and 152.4 mm). In general, the results indicated that peak failure load, ultimate shear stress, and cutting energy values varied directly with bed depth and inversely with knife grid spacing. Mean separation analysis established that high- and low-moisture conditions and bed depths 101.6 mm did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) for ultimate stress and cutting energy values, but knife grid spacing were significantly different. Linear knife grid cutting energy requirements for both moisture conditions of corn stalks were much smaller than reported cutting energy requirements. Ultimate shear stress and cutting energy results of this research should aid the engineering design of commercial scale linear knife gird size reduction equipment for various biomass feedstocks.

  18. The Future of Corn-Ethanol in Fuel Sector of United States from Environmental and Economic Standpoint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tulva, Arya Nath

    2007-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    per gallon to the cost. ? Corn production in the U.S. erodes soil about 12 times faster than the soil can be reformed and irrigating corn mines groundwater 25 percent faster than the natural recharge rate of ground water. The environmental system...-products. Shapouri and Graboski estimates NEV of 16,193 Btu/gal. They indicate that ethanol production utilizes abundant domestic energy supplies of coal and natural gas to convert corn into a premium liquid fuel that can replace petroleum imports by a factor of 7...

  19. Corn versus three sorghums grown under the same dryland conditions as feeds for growing-finishing swine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meadows, Doyle Gene

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ), received the same fertilisation rate and. were cleaned prior to feeding. The four gra, ins and the diets in which they werc used were designated. : corn, non-yellow sorghum (N-Y), hetero-yellow sorghum (H-Y) and yellow sorghum (Y). The grains...-Y sorghum to S. 02fo for the N-Y sorghum. Lysinc content was higher in corn than the average of the sorghums (0. 25 us. 0. 22fo). Corn had a. slightly higher gross energy value (8. 97 kcal/g) than the average of the sorghums (g. 94 kcal/g) which resulted...

  20. Corn versus three sorghums grown under the same dryland conditions as feeds for growing-finishing swine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meadows, Doyle Gene

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , (range of 8$. 5 to 102. 4 percent) the value of corn. A wide variation existed in effic'ency due to quality of' grain and protein supplements, creating a need for m &re identification of' ration constituents, More recent trials in which high quality... The data, indicates a 5. Pjo advantage in feed efficI. ency for corn over the average of the sorghum diets ($. 15 vs. 3. 27) . The advan- tage for corn in feed ef'ficiency is less than has been reported by Peo and. Hudman (1958), 11. II@; Danielson and...

  1. Characteristics of dough and tortillas prepared with composite wheat-sorghum flours

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres, Patricia Isabel

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    0, t5, 20, 25, and 30 '4 of wheat. flour. These composite flours were processed into tortillas following tiie hot press procedure. Sorghum Decortication An IDRC abrasive mill developed by Rei chert ( 1982 ) with 12 in diameter carborundum stones...

  2. Training agricultural scientists at the International Center for the Improvement of Maize and Wheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cote?, Michael E.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TRAINING AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS AT THE INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF MAIZE AND WHEAT A PROFESSIONAL PAPER by Michael E. Cote Submitted to the College of Agriculture of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF AGRICULTURE August 1986 Major Subject: Agricultural Development Department of Agricultural Education TRAINING AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS AT THE INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF MAIZE AND WHEAT A...

  3. Identification of added rye chromosomes in wheat-rye addition lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Kuang Shy

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IDENTIFICATION OF ADDED RYE CHROMOSOMES IN WHEAT-RYE ADDITION LINES A Thesis by Kuang Shy Tang Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&K University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1975... Major Subject: Genetics IDENTIFICATION OF ADDED RYE CHROMOSOMES IN WHEAT-RYE ADDITION LINES A Thesis by Kuang Shy Tang Approved as to style and content by: Chairm f Committee ember Head of Dep tment Member May 1975 428045 ABSTRACT...

  4. Effect of Rail Rate Deregulation: The Case of Wheat Exports from the South Plains.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, Stephen; Shanmugham, C.V

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    8-1385 February 1982 Rate Deregulation: The Case of Wheat Exports From the La , ,- .. 2- ', - LA>:^"; South plains-*-? :?:% " %> The Texas Agricultural Experimant Station: lllwEMe P. C i h , The Texas A&#th,-m 6ydem. Cotlaqp Station, Texas.... ....................................... 4 Effect of Rail Rate Deregulation: The Case of Wheat Exports from the South Plains Stephen Fuller and C.V. Shanmugham" a INTRODUCTION Agriculture is an important user of rail services for shipping products to market and for moving produc...

  5. Effects of polyols on processing and qualities of wheat tortillas / by Elly Lusia Dewi Suhendro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suhendro, Elly Lusia Dewi

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1992) Elly Lusia Dewi Suhendro, B. S. , Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Ralph D. Waniska Effects of polyols on processing of hot-press wheat tortillas were evaluated. Hot-press wheat tortillas with 0... mixing characteristics and machinability, tortillas characteristics, rollability over time, sensory evaluation, water holding capacity (WHC), molecular dispersion of starch and water activity were determined. Low protein (10. 2%) flour required less...

  6. The vitamin B? content of rust resistant and susceptible strains of wheat and oats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hobbs, Clifford Dean

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Legend of symbols used in statistical tables . . . . . . . . . . , . . . 51 16 Statistical analysis of the vitamin B6 content of resistant and susceptible isogenic lines 1106 and 1107 of wheat under field conditions in 1957-58 by individual com...- parison 17, Statistical analysis of the vitamin B6 content of resis- tant and susceptible isogenic lines 1106 and 1107 of wheat under field conditions in 1958-59 by individual comparison 18. Statistical analysis of the vitamin B6 content of resis...

  7. Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- Owens Corning Commercial Energy Calculator (OC-CEC) version 1.1

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides required documentation that Owens Corning Commercial Energy Calculator (OC-CEC) version 1.1 meets Internal Revenue Code §179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.

  8. The effect of enzymes and hydrocolloids on the texture of tortillas from fresh nixtamalized masa and nixtamalized corn flour 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutierrez de Velasco, Arturo Carlos

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The texture of tortillas was improved by the addition of maltogenic amylase and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and guar gum to fresh masa from ground nixtamal (FNM) and nixtamalized corn flour (NCF) masa. Differences in the ...

  9. Comparison of lines of corn selected on Lufkin fine sandy loam and Norwood silt loam with and without commercial fertilizer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAfee, Thomas Edison

    1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COMPARISON OF LINES OF CORN SELE CTED ON LUFKIN FINE SANDY LOAM AND NORWOOD SILT LOAM WITH AND WITHOUT COMMERCIAL FERTILIZER A Dissertation By Thomas Edison MoAfee Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee Heac...Kor Department May, 1953 COMPARISON OF LINES OF CORN SELECTED ON LUFKIN FINE SANDY LOAM AND NORWOOD SILT LOAM WITH AND WITHOUT COMMERCIAL FERTILIZER By Thomas Edison McAfee 111 A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural...

  10. Quantifying Cradle-to-Farm Gate Life-Cycle Impacts Associated with Fertilizer used for Corn, Soybean, and Stover Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, S. E.

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fertilizer use can cause environmental problems, particular eutrophication of water bodies from excess nitrogen or phosphorus. Increased fertilizer runoff is a concern for harvesting corn stover for ethanol production. This modeling study found that eutrophication potential for the base case already exceeds proposed water quality standards, that switching to no-till cultivation and collecting stover increased that eutrophication potential by 21%, and that switching to continuous-corn production on top of that would triple eutrophication potential.

  11. Fuel ethanol produced from U.S. Midwest corn : help or hindrance to the vision of Kyoto?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Saricks, C.; Wu, M.; Energy Systems

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we examined the role of corn-feedstock ethanol in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, given present and near-future technology and practice for corn farming and ethanol production. We analyzed the full-fuel-cycle GHG effects of corn-based ethanol using updated information on corn operations in the upper Midwest and existing ethanol production technologies. Information was obtained from representatives of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, faculty of midwestern universities with expertise in corn production and animal feed, and acknowledged authorities in the field of ethanol plant engineering, design, and operations. Cases examined included use of E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume) and E10 (10% ethanol and 90% gasoline). Among key findings is that Midwest-produced ethanol outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG emissions (on a mass emission per travel mile basis). The superiority of the energy and GHG results is well outside the range of model noise. An important facet of this work has been conducting sensitivity analyses. These analyses let us rank the factors in the corn-to-ethanol cycle that are most important for limiting GHG generation. These rankings could help ensure that efforts to reduce that generation are targeted more effectively.

  12. Energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of corn and cellulosic ethanol with technology improvements and land use changes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Han, J.; Haq, Z; Tyner, .W.; Wu, M.; Elgowainy, A. (Energy Systems)

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Use of ethanol as a transportation fuel in the United States has grown from 76 dam{sup 3} in 1980 to over 40.1 hm{sup 3} in 2009 - and virtually all of it has been produced from corn. It has been debated whether using corn ethanol results in any energy and greenhouse gas benefits. This issue has been especially critical in the past several years, when indirect effects, such as indirect land use changes, associated with U.S. corn ethanol production are considered in evaluation. In the past three years, modeling of direct and indirect land use changes related to the production of corn ethanol has advanced significantly. Meanwhile, technology improvements in key stages of the ethanol life cycle (such as corn farming and ethanol production) have been made. With updated simulation results of direct and indirect land use changes and observed technology improvements in the past several years, we conducted a life-cycle analysis of ethanol and show that at present and in the near future, using corn ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emission by more than 20%, relative to those of petroleum gasoline. On the other hand, second-generation ethanol could achieve much higher reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In a broader sense, sound evaluation of U.S. biofuel policies should account for both unanticipated consequences and technology potentials. We maintain that the usefulness of such evaluations is to provide insight into how to prevent unanticipated consequences and how to promote efficient technologies with policy intervention.

  13. Enzymatic Digestibility of Corn Stover Fractions in Response to Fungal Pretreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Z. F.; Wan, C. X.; Shi, J.; Sykes, R. W.; Li, Y. B.

    2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Corn stover fractions (leaves, cobs, and stalks) were studied for enzymatic digestibility after pretreatment with a white rot fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. Among the three fractions, leaves had the least recalcitrance to fungal pretreatment and the lignin degradation reached 45% after 30 days of pretreatment. The lignin degradation of stalks and cobs was similar but was significantly lower than that of leaves (p < 0.05). For all fractions, xylan and glucan degradation followed a pattern similar to lignin degradation, with leaves having a significantly higher percentage of degradation (p < 0.05). Hydrolytic enzyme activity also revealed that the fungus was more active in the degradation of carbohydrates in leaves. As a result of fungal pretreatment, the highest sugar yield, however, was obtained with corn cobs.

  14. Development and evaluation of corn cooking procedures for the production of tortillas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Des Rosiers, Mary Candace

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    each cooking treatment. The texture of the tortillas was then measured by the Instron. Extent of gelatinization via enzyme susceptibility was negatively correlated with the Instron grain shear values. Amylograph peaks and particle size determination... Samples of Corn. Chemical Analysis. Preparation of Nixtamal Preparation of Masa. Preparation of Tortillas Evaluation of Particle Size Measurement of Gelatinization. Evaluation of Optimum Cook Time. Color Measurement and Subjective Tests Evaluation...

  15. Creating Reliable Data and Reporting to Support Strategic Energy Management at Corning Incorporated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garforth, P.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Creating Reliable Data & Reporting to Support Strategic Energy Management at Corning Incorporated Industrial Energy Technology Conference May 20th, 2014 New Orleans, Louisiana Peter Garforth Garforth International llc Energy Managers’ Workshop ESL... relevant energy data to support Corporate performance targets ESL-IE-14-05-29 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 Performance Reporting Totals – Usage, Cost, GHG-Emissions Corp Division...

  16. Prececal, postileal and total tract starch digestion in ponies fed corn, oats, barley or sorghum grain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Fairfax Ferguson

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the foot during the acute disease . J. Equine Mad . and Surg. 2: 439. Householder, D. D. 1978. Prececal, postileal and total tract digestion and growth performance in horses fed concentrate rations containing oats or sorghum grain processed by crimping...PRECECAL, POSTILEAL AND TOTAL TRACT STARCH DIGESTION IN PONIES FED CORN, OATS, BARLEY OR SORGHUM GRAIN A Thesis by FAIRFAX FERGUSON ARNOLD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  17. Life-cycle assessment of corn-based butanol as a potential transportation fuel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Liu, J.; Huo, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Butanol produced from bio-sources (such as corn) could have attractive properties as a transportation fuel. Production of butanol through a fermentation process called acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) has been the focus of increasing research and development efforts. Advances in ABE process development in recent years have led to drastic increases in ABE productivity and yields, making butanol production worthy of evaluation for use in motor vehicles. Consequently, chemical/fuel industries have announced their intention to produce butanol from bio-based materials. The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential life-cycle energy and emission effects associated with using bio-butanol as a transportation fuel. The study employs a well-to-wheels analysis tool--the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory--and the Aspen Plus{reg_sign} model developed by AspenTech. The study describes the butanol production from corn, including grain processing, fermentation, gas stripping, distillation, and adsorption for products separation. The Aspen{reg_sign} results that we obtained for the corn-to-butanol production process provide the basis for GREET modeling to estimate life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. The GREET model was expanded to simulate the bio-butanol life cycle, from agricultural chemical production to butanol use in motor vehicles. We then compared the results for bio-butanol with those of conventional gasoline. We also analyzed the bio-acetone that is coproduced with bio-butanol as an alternative to petroleum-based acetone. Our study shows that, while the use of corn-based butanol achieves energy benefits and reduces greenhouse gas emissions, the results are affected by the methods used to treat the acetone that is co-produced in butanol plants.

  18. Recovery of Recombinant and Native Proteins from Rice and Corn Seed 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilken, Lisa Rachelle

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    .5 precipitation and pH 6 adsorption and 2) pH 4.5 extraction and pH 6 adsorption in the presence of TRIS counter-ions. Both methods improved the binding capacity from 8.6 mg/mL to >25 mg/mL and maintained HuLZ purity. Processing of dry-milled corn germ to increase...

  19. Succinic Acid as a Byproduct in a Corn-based Ethanol Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MBI International

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    MBI endeavored to develop a process for succinic acid production suitable for integration into a corn-based ethanol biorefinery. The project investigated the fermentative production of succinic acid using byproducts of corn mill operations. The fermentation process was attuned to include raw starch, endosperm, as the sugar source. A clean-not-sterile process was established to treat the endosperm and release the monomeric sugars. We developed the fermentation process to utilize a byproduct of corn ethanol fermentations, thin stillage, as the source of complex nitrogen and vitamin components needed to support succinic acid production in A. succinogenes. Further supplementations were eliminated without lowering titers and yields and a productivity above 0.6 g l-1 hr-1was achieved. Strain development was accomplished through generation of a recombinant strain that increased yields of succinic acid production. Isolation of additional strains with improved features was also pursued and frozen stocks were prepared from enriched, characterized cultures. Two recovery processes were evaluated at pilot scale and data obtained was incorporated into our economic analyses.

  20. Structure and dynamics of the microbial communities underlying the carboxylate platform for biofuel production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollister, E.B.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pretreatment of crop residues bagasse and wheat straw. Appl.Fermentation of sugarcane bagasse and chicken manure toConversion of sugarcane bagasse to carboxylic acids using a

  1. Soil microbe Bacillus subtilis (GB03) induces biomass accumulation and salt tolerance with lower sodium accumulation in wheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paré, Paul W.

    Soil microbe Bacillus subtilis (GB03) induces biomass accumulation and salt tolerance with lower sodium accumulation in wheat Jin-Lin ZhangA,B,E , Mina AzizB , Yan QiaoC , Qing-Qiang HanA , Jing Li to promote biomass accumulation and increase salt tolerance was investigated in wheat (Triticum aestivum

  2. Using Wild Oat Growth and Development to Develop a Predictive Model for Spring Wheat Growers and Consultants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Using Wild Oat Growth and Development to Develop a Predictive Model for Spring Wheat Growers Introduction: Wild oat has become an invasive and economically important weedy species in most cereal growing% of the wheat and 72% of barley acres seeded in northwestern Minnesota are infested with wild oat. In the past

  3. Uncertainty in Simulating Wheat Yields Under Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asseng, S.; Ewert, F.; Rosenzweig, C.; Jones, J.W.; Hatfield, Jerry; Ruane, Alex; Boote, K. J.; Thorburn, Peter; Rotter, R.P.; Cammarano, D.; Brisson, N.; Basso, B.; Martre, P.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Angulo, C.; Bertuzzi, P.; Biernath, C.; Challinor, AJ; Doltra, J.; Gayler, S.; Goldberg, R.; Grant, Robert; Heng, L.; Hooker, J.; Hunt, L.A.; Ingwersen, J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Kersebaum, K.C.; Mueller, C.; Naresh Kumar, S.; Nendel, C.; O'Leary, G.O.; Olesen, JE; Osborne, T.; Palosuo, T.; Priesack, E.; Ripoche, D.; Semenov, M.A.; Shcherbak, I.; Steduto, P.; Stockle, Claudio O.; Stratonovitch, P.; Streck, T.; Supit, I.; Tao, F.; Travasso, M.; Waha, K.; Wallach, D.; White, J.W.; Williams, J.R.; Wolf, J.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anticipating the impacts of climate change on crop yields is critical for assessing future food security. Process-based crop simulation models are the most commonly used tools in such assessments1,2. Analysis of uncertainties in future greenhouse gas emissions and their impacts on future climate change has been increasingly described in the literature3,4 while assessments of the uncertainty in crop responses to climate change are very rare. Systematic and objective comparisons across impact studies is difficult, and thus has not been fully realized5. Here we present the largest coordinated and standardized crop model intercomparison for climate change impacts on wheat production to date. We found that several individual crop models are able to reproduce measured grain yields under current diverse environments, particularly if sufficient details are provided to execute them. However, simulated climate change impacts can vary across models due to differences in model structures and algorithms. The crop-model component of uncertainty in climate change impact assessments was considerably larger than the climate-model component from Global Climate Models (GCMs). Model responses to high temperatures and temperature-by-CO2 interactions are identified as major sources of simulated impact uncertainties. Significant reductions in impact uncertainties through model improvements in these areas and improved quantification of uncertainty through multi-model ensembles are urgently needed for a more reliable translation of climate change scenarios into agricultural impacts in order to develop adaptation strategies and aid policymaking.

  4. Imaging Local Chemical Microstructure of Germinated Wheat with Synchrotron Infrared Microspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koc,H.; Wetzel, D.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial resolution enabled by in situ Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy as predicted from our earlier report in Spectroscopy (1) is applied to localized chemical analysis in this vital biological process of seed germination. Germination includes several different biochemical and structural processes. Ultimately, the entire seed is consumed in sustaining the new life that results after sprouting and growth (2-4). Alpha amylase production is the standard evidence for detection of sprouted (germinated) wheat at harvest. Moist preharvest conditions can cause devastating losses and render the harvested wheat unfit for flour production. Dormancy of dry seeds following harvest retards sprouting under proper storage.

  5. Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Management for Winter Wheat Production in the Blackland Prairie. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knowles, Tim C.; Hipp, Billy W.; Marshall, David S.; Sutton, Russelll L.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    such as pollution of ground and surface water with nitrate, and are expensive to growers since very little of the total applied fertilizer can be utilized by the wheat crop. Therefore, understanding dynamic processes occurring in the plant, soil, and climate... ppm for nitrate-N and TAEX-phosphorus, respectively. Phosphorus Fertilization A soil sample taken up to one month prior to plant ing winter wheat, and analyzed for available P con tent should be used to predict if additional P fertili zation may...

  6. WMU Power Generation Study Task 2.0 Corn Cob Co-Combustion Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Much attention has been focused on renewable energy use in large-scale utilities and very small scale distributed energy systems. However, there is little information available regarding renewable energy options for midscale municipal utilities. The Willmar Municipal Utilities Corn Cob-Coal Co-Combustion Project was initiated to investigate opportunities available for small to midscale municipal utilities to "go green". The overall goal of the Project was to understand the current t'enewable energy research and energy efficiency projects that are or have been implemented at both larger and smaller scale and determine the applicability to midscale municipal utilities. More specific objectives for Task 2.0 of this project were to determine the technical feasibility of co-combusting com cobs with coal in the existing WMU boiler, and to identify any regulatory issues that might need to be addressed if WMU were to obtain a significant portion of its heat from such co-combustion. This report addresses the issues as laid out in the study proposal. The study investigated the feasibility of and demonstrated the technical effectiveness of co-combusting corn cobs with coal in the Willmar Municipal Utilities stoker boiler steam generation power plant. The results of the WMU Co-Combustion Project will serve as a model for other midscale utilities who wish to use corn cobs to generate renewable electrical energy. As a result of the Co-Combustion Project, the WMU plans to upgrade their stoker boiler to accept whole corn cobs as well as other types of biomass, while still allowing the fuel delivery system to use 100% coal as needed. Benefits of co-combustion will include: energy security, reduced Hg and CO2 air emissions, improved ash chemistry, potential future carbon credit sales, an immediate positive effect on the local economy, and positive attention focused on the WMU and the City of Willmar. The first step in the study was to complete a feasibility analysis. The feasibility analysis anticipated only positive results from the combustion of corn cobs with coal in the WMU power plant boiler, and therefore recommended that the project proceed. The study proceeded with a review of the existing WMU Power Plant configuration; cob fuel analyses; an application for an Air Quality Permit from the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency to conduct the co-combustion test burns; identification of and a site visit to a similar facility in Iowa; an evaluation of cob grinding machines; and agreements with a corn grower, a cob harvester, and the City of Willmar to procure, harvest, and store cobs. The WMU power plant staff constructed a temporary cob feed system whereby the cobs could be injected into the #3 Boiler firebox, at rates up to 40% of the boiler total heat input. Test burns were conducted, during which air emissions were monitored and fuel and ash samples analyzed. The results of the test burns indicated that the monitored flue gas quality improved slightly during the test burns. The WMU was able to determine that modifications to the #3 Boiler fuel feed system to accept com cobs on a permanent basis would be technically feasible and would enable the WMU to generate electricity from renewable fuels on a dispatchable basis.

  7. Fattening Steers on Cottonseed Meal and Cottonseed Hulls With and Without Corn; The Influence of Age on Fattening Steers.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, J. M. (John McKinley); Lush, Jay L. (Jay Laurence); Jones, James Hazlitt

    1923-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    111 llsteers Lot IV 10 steers Third thirty days. ..... 115.6C.S.M 274.6corn ......... 612.8 hulls. ....... 210.2C.S.M ..... 871.1 hulls. ....... I 3.54C.S.M ...... 8.41corn .......... 18.77 hulls. ........ 5.39C.S.M ...... 22.34 hulls.... ........ Lot I11 11 steers Lot IV 10 steers Fourth thirty days. $10.11 8.17 ...... 3.23C.S.M 10.41 corn.. ........ 23.21 hulls. ........ ...... 6.18C.S.M 26.54 hulls. ........ Lot 111 llsteers Lot IV 10 steers (If the steer with the abscess were...

  8. A comparison of silage and grain yields of four corn hybrids at three locations in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martelino, Rafael Agcaoili

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A (X)HPARISOM Of SILAGM AND GRAIN YI~ QF FODR ~ HYBRIDS AT THRE1'' LOGATIONS IM TzXAS A Thesis RAPAol, A. I JKThI, INO Approve as to stgrle aml content Qs (~chairmen of GcnsmLtt ( Haad Department June, 1&54 , ;. RY OF TE A v..., grain yield and lodging peroentage of four corn hybrids and three spacings& Tyler . . ~ 17 ') ~ bined analysis of varianoe of silage yields for the tmo locations ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 20 10. Combined analysis of varianoe of grain...

  9. Effect of genotype on cooking and texture of corn for tortilla production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bedolla, Santiago

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cell to measure n1xtamal texture . . . Plunger (A) and Ottawa cell (C) to measure tortilla texture Page 13 17 Effect of cook1ng time on n1xtamal texture of corneous, 1ntermediate and floury hybrids (Linear model) Effect of cooking time... composition of corn on the average is: water, 13. 5K; protein, 10K; oil, 4%; carbohydrates 70. 7X; and ash, 1. 4X. The germ contains about 35% oil, 20K protein and 10% ash (Hopkins et al. , 1903; Katz et al. , 1974). Nixtamal Preparation Nethods...

  10. Wheat Gray Shorts for the Prevention of Slipped Tendons in Battery Brooder Chicks.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison); Couch, James Russell

    1936-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) for their perosis index was used. Table 1-Percentage composition of feeds Feed I sample Protein 12.65 9.60 20.46 21.63 21.45 20.30 20.48 14.88 19.48 31.80 44.35 51.39 25.73 26.48 Ground kafir ................ ......... Ground yellow corn...

  11. Effect of Enrichment on the Thiamine, Riboflavin and Niacin of Corn Meal and Grits as Prepared for Eating.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitacre, Jessie; Pace, June K.; Thomas, Kathreen

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects of Enrichment on the Thiamine, Riboflavin and Niacin of Corn Meal and Grits as Prepared for Eating [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] DIGEST This bulletin deals with the increase in the vitamin value of corn meal and grits dishes due... was as nearly as possible like Texas home procedure. Each prepar- ation was analyzed to find out how much of each vitamin was left in the cooked product. Approximately the same amount of riboflavin and niacin was in each preparation after cooking as before...

  12. Hairy Vetch, Bur Clover and Oats as Soil-Building Crops for Cotton and Corn in Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, H. F. (Harry Forest); Johnson, P. R. (Paul Rufus); Reynolds, E. B. (Elbert Brunner)

    1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for soil improvement increased the average yields of cot- ton ancl corn about 40 percent at College Station for the 11 years, 1937-47. Vetch increased the average yield of cotton 75 to 84 percent and practically doubled the yield of corn at Tyler... yields of cotton than the use of 400 pounds of a 4-8-4 fertilizer per acre at Tyler and Nacog- doches. Hairy vetch was a better green-manure crop than oats at Tyler and oats or bur clover at Nacogdoches. The effects of plowing under hairy vetch lasted...

  13. To place your meal order please dial MEAL (ext. 6325)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    Marinara/Garlic Butter/Pesto/Meatballs a: Rotini or Whole Wheat Penne w/ your choice of: General Tso Provolone Breads White, Wheat, Rye, Kaiser Roll, Hoagie Roll of Wheat Oatmeal Blueberry Mini Muffin Corn Mini Muffin Hash Brown Bagel

  14. A profit-maximizing criterion of fertilizer usage for wheat producers in Paraguay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nunez Oritz, Mario Antonio

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that are relevant to this study are summarized in this section. Senigagliesi cr a/. , in a three year fertilizer experiment on wheat in Argentina, used the quadratic equation for optimum estimation of N and P. Although additional variables outside of N-P-K were...

  15. IMPACT OF HEAVY METALS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE ON SOIL AND PLANTS (COLZA and WHEAT)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    IMPACT OF HEAVY METALS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE ON SOIL AND PLANTS (COLZA and WHEAT) Najla LASSOUED1@emse.fr Abstract We are testing the impact of heavy metals in sludge from urban and industrial wastewater treatment> Cu> Ni> Co> Cd The contents of heavy metals in the sludge is made very high and exceed European

  16. Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Management for Winter Wheat Production in the Blackland Prairie.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knowles, Tim C.; Hipp, Billy W.; Marshall, David S.; Sutton, Russelll L.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Edward A. Hiler, Director The Texas A&M University System College Station, Texas B-1725 July 1995 Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Management for Winter Wheat Production in the Blackland Prairie Tim C... .. ... ............ ....... ......... ..... ... ... ........ .............................. ................... .. .. .... ............. .. ..... ... .. ........ 2 Soil Nutrient Status ..... ......... .. .. ........ ... .......... ... ........ ... ....... .... .. ..................... .. ....... .... .. .... ...... .. .......... .. .......... ... ... ...... 2 Phosphorus Fertilization...

  17. Molecular Characterization of Durable Yellow and Leaf Rust Resistance in Two Wheat Populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basnet, Bhoja

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    , characterize and utilize Adult Plant Resistance (APR), a.k.a. slow rusting resistance, in wheat germplasm to promote durability of resistance against rust. The objectives of this study were to 1) understand the genetics of APR to YR and/or LR present in two...

  18. EFFECT OF ANATOMICAL FRACTIONATION ON THE ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF ACID AND ALKALINE PRETREATED CORN STOVER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. B. Duguid; M. D. Montross; C. W. Radtke; C. L. Crofcheck; L. M. Wendt; S. A. Shearer

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to concerns with biomass collection systems and soil sustainability there are opportunities to investigate the optimal plant fractions to collect for conversion. An ideal feedstock would require low severity pretreatment to release a maximum amount of sugar during enzymatic hydrolysis. Corn stover fractions were separated by hand and analyzed for glucan, xylan, acid soluble lignin, acid insoluble lignin, and ash composition. The stover fractions were also pretreated with either 0, 0.4, or 0.8% NaOH for 2 hours at room temperature, washed, autoclaved and saccharified. In addition, acid pretreated samples underwent simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to ethanol. In general, the two pretreatments produced similar trends with cobs, husks, and leaves responding best to the pretreatments, the tops of stalks responding slightly less, and the bottom of the stalks responding the least. For example, corn husks pretreated with 0.8% NaOH released over 90% (standard error of 3.8%) of the available glucan, while only 45% (standard error of 1.1%) of the glucan was produced from identically treated stalk bottoms. Estimates of the theoretical ethanol yield using acid pretreatment followed by SSF were 65% (standard error of 15.9%) for husks and 29% (standard error of 1.8%) for stalk bottoms. This suggests that integration of biomass collection systems to remove sustainable feedstocks could be integrated with the processes within a biorefinery to minimize overall ethanol production costs.

  19. Modification of Corn Starch Ethanol Refinery to Efficiently Accept Various High-Impact Cellulosic Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derr, Dan

    2013-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the Corn-to-Cellulosic Migration (CCM) pilot facility was to demonstrate the implementation of advanced technologies and methods for conversion of non-food, cellulosic feedstocks into ethanol, assess the economics of the facility and evaluate potential environmental benefits for biomass to fuels conversion. The CCM project was comprised of design, build, and operate phases for the CCM pilot facility as well as research & development, and modeling components. The CCM pilot facility was designed to process 1 tonne per day of non-food biomass and biologically convert that biomass to ethanol at a rate of 70 gallons per tonne. The plant demonstrated throughputs in excess of 1 tonne per day for an extended run of 1400 hours. Although target yields were not fully achieved, the continuous operation validated the design and operability of the plant. These designs will permit the design of larger scale operations at existing corn milling operations or for greenfield plants. EdeniQ, a partner in the project and the owner of the pilot plant, continues to operate and evaluate other feedstocks.

  20. Modeled Impacts of Cover Crops and Vegetative Barriers on Corn Stover Availability and Soil Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian J. Bonner; David J. Muth Jr.; Joshua B. Koch; Douglas L. Karlen

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmentally benign, economically viable, and socially acceptable agronomic strategies are needed to launch a sustainable lignocellulosic biofuel industry. Our objective was to demonstrate a landscape planning process that can ensure adequate supplies of corn (Zea mays L.) stover feedstock while protecting and improving soil quality. The Landscape Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) was used to develop land use strategies that were then scaled up for five U.S. Corn Belt states (Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Minnesota) to illustrate the impact that could be achieved. Our results show an annual sustainable stover supply of 194 million Mg without exceeding soil erosion T values or depleting soil organic carbon [i.e., soil conditioning index (SCI)?>?0] when no-till, winter cover crop, and vegetative barriers were incorporated into the landscape. A second, more rigorous conservation target was set to enhance soil quality while sustainably harvesting stover. By requiring erosion to be <1/2 T and the SCI-organic matter (OM) subfactor to be >?0, the annual sustainable quantity of harvestable stover dropped to148 million Mg. Examining removal rates by state and soil resource showed that soil capability class and slope generally determined the effectiveness of the three conservation practices and the resulting sustainable harvest rate. This emphasizes that sustainable biomass harvest must be based on subfield management decisions to ensure soil resources are conserved or enhanced, while providing sufficient biomass feedstock to support the economic growth of bioenergy enterprises.

  1. Effect of pelleting on the recalcitrance and bioconversion of dilute-acid pretreated corn stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison E Ray; Amber Hoover; Gary Gresham

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Background: Knowledge regarding the performance of densified biomass in biochemical processes is limited. The effects of densification on biochemical conversion are explored here. Methods: Pelleted corn stover samples were generated from bales that were milled to 6.35 mm. Low-solids acid pretreatment and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation were performed to evaluate pretreatment efficacy and ethanol yields achieved for pelleted and ground stover (6.35 mm and 2 mm) samples. Both pelleted and 6.35-mm ground stover were evaluated using a ZipperClave® reactor under high-solids, process-relevant conditions for multiple pretreatment severities (Ro), followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the washed, pretreated solids. Results: Monomeric xylose yields were significantly higher for pellets (approximately 60%) than for ground formats (approximately 38%). Pellets achieved approximately 84% of theoretical ethanol yield (TEY); ground stover formats had similar profiles, reaching approximately 68% TEY. Pelleting corn stover was not detrimental to pretreatment efficacy for both low- and high-solids conditions, and even enhanced ethanol yields.

  2. International symposium on life cycle assessment and construction 2012, Nantes (France), July 10-12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . One can cite hemp, flax, cellulose, straw, cotton, cork, coconut, sugar beet, wood, casein, corn, jute that seem the most promising in terms of industrial development: wood, hemp, flax, straw, cork, straw blocks and self-supporting blocks based on hemp. Wood is already on the market, while the two

  3. Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U.S. Midwest Corn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    #12;Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U on a mass emission per travel mile basis, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol% of total domestic ethanol production. That is, while the model still covers all alternative fuels and five

  4. Soil compaction is a manageable factor that can lim-it grain or silage yield on many Virginia soils. Corn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Soil compaction is a manageable factor that can lim- it grain or silage yield on many Virginia soils. Corn plants growing on compacted areas are often stunted and have slower root penetration rates grown in these areas. Compaction is created when soil particles are pressed together, reducing the pore

  5. A Review of "The Complete Works of Gerrard Winstanley" edited by Thomas N. Corns, Ann Hughes, and David Loewenstein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, Tom

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -modern English politics for some time to come. Thomas N. Corns, Ann Hughes, and David Loewenstein, eds. The Complete Works of Gerrard Winstanley. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Vol. I. xi+600pp. Vol. II. 465pp. $335. Review by tom hayes, baruch...

  6. As corn-based biofuels reach their practical limits, advanced algae-based biofuels are poised to supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reisslein, Martin

    SEMTE abstract As corn-based biofuels reach their practical limits, advanced algae-based biofuels of Energy, General Electric, Algenol Biofuels, and Southern Company. Currently a post-doctoral fellow working for Algenol Biofuels, Dr. Lively is expanding his expertise in gas and liquid separations

  7. Current biofuel feedstock crops such as corn lead to large environmental losses of N through nitrate leaching and N2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    219 Current biofuel feedstock crops such as corn lead to large environmental losses of N through biofuel crops established on a rich Mollisol soil. Reduced Nitrogen Losses after Conversion of Row Crop Agriculture to Perennial Biofuel Crops Candice M. Smith, Mark B. david,* Corey A. Mitchell, Michael d. Masters

  8. Keeping Corn Farmers Seeing Green As recently as 100 years ago, farmers plowed their fields with horses and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and agencies such as U.S. Department of Agriculture have long relied on NOAA's weather and climate begins. The economic ties between climate information and agriculture are considerable. For example: Global Climate Change Impacts in the U.S., 2009) #12;impacts. Corn is particularly susceptible to heat

  9. Land Use and Water Efficiency in Current and Potential Future U.S. Corn and Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ethanol Systems Ethan Warner1, Yimin Zhang1, Helena Chum2 , Robin Newmark1 Biofuels represent technological learning, sugarcane and corn ethanol industries have achieved steady improvements in resource Scope Abstract Conclusions The GHG savings and land energy productivity of both ethanol systems have

  10. Owens Corning

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Residential Insulation, Frank O'Brien Bernini, VP & Chief Sustainability Officer, Paul Smith, VP Building Materials Group Marketing, John Libonati, VP Government and Public...

  11. Corn fodder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curtis, Geo. W. (George Washington)

    1891-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from stalks below; 4th best-or poorest plan of all-to strip leaves from entire stalk. PLAT 1. Tope cut, only, above eara 14.375 4.258 2.145 65.558 1.587 9.750 -- Protein ....................... Fat .......................... Crude Fibre...

  12. Owens Corning

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagementOPAM PolicyOfEnergyOutreach toOverviewOverview

  13. NATIVEPLANTS | FALL 2005 all-sown seeds of many tree and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    we began using straw as mulch at Vallonia Nursery in Indiana, significant losses of 30% to 90 A C T A combination of cover crops and straw mulch effectively protect fall-sown hard- wood seeds from Figure 1. Supply of large round bales of wheat straw covered with plastic sleeves. Photos by Jeanie

  14. Genetic Analysis of Bread Making Quality Stability in Wheat using a Halberd X Len Recombinant Inbred Line Population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poudel, Ashima

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Co-Chairs of Committee, Dirk B. Hays Amir M. H. Ibrahim Committee Members, Joseph Awika Russell Jessup Head..., Purbanchal University, Nepal Co-Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Dirk B. Hays Dr. Amir M. H. Ibrahim Wheat grain quality has a complex genetic architecture heavily influenced by the growing environment. Consistency in wheat quality...

  15. A diallel analysis of six components of partial resistance to Leptosphaeria nodorum in seedlings of six winter wheats 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruno, Hans Henning

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in progenies of parents with moderate levels of resistance. Similar results were obtained by Eyal et al. (1976) who tested the symptom response in seedlings of wheat lines and segregating F2 populations. The heritability etimates for the resistance... analysis, Mullaney et al. (1982) studied the gene effects on two components of resistance (necrosis and infection frequency) in crosses between one susceptible and two resistant spring wheats. Reciprocal crosses were included to determine maternal...

  16. Comparison of Dow Corning 544 antifoam to IIT747 antifoam in the 1/240 SRAT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D.C.

    2000-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility requested that the Immobilization Technology Section compare the relative foaming tendencies of sludge simulant during simulated Chemical Processing Cell operations (HLW-DWPF-TTR-99-0012). Dow Corning 544 antifoam, currently used in DWPF, was compared to a new antifoam formulation developed at the Illinois Institute of Technology. A task plan was written and approved. The task plan deliverables included a recommendation on the choice of antifoam, an evaluation of the influence of solids concentration on foaming, an evaluation on the effect of boil-up rate on foaming, an estimate of the mass of steam stripped to remove 90 percent of the mercury, and a determination of the fate of mercury. Additional parameters to be investigated during experimentation included the maximum foam height observed, hydrogen generation rates, and nitrite destruction rates.

  17. Effects of feeding stimulant and insecticide mixtures on feeding response and morality of adult male corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)(Lepidoptera:Noctuidae)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clemens, Christopher Glen

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    stimulants on feeding behavior and mortality of pheromone trap captured adult male corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), to screen and evaluate toxicants for use in an attracticide formulation. Commercially-available formulations of acephate, boric acid...

  18. Effects of feeding stimulant and insecticide mixtures on feeding response and morality of adult male corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)(Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clemens, Christopher Glen

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    stimulants on feeding behavior and mortality of pheromone trap captured adult male corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), to screen and evaluate toxicants for use in an attracticide formulation. Commercially-available formulations of acephate, boric acid...

  19. Training agricultural scientists at the International Center for the Improvement of Maize and Wheat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cote?, Michael E.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    agricultural production" (World Food Conference, 1974). At a meeting of the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) held at CIMMYT in Mexico during October, 1975, the consensus of those...TRAINING AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS AT THE INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF MAIZE AND WHEAT A PROFESSIONAL PAPER by Michael E. Cote Submitted to the College of Agriculture of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  20. Effects of method of wheat streak mosaic virus transmission on the resistance of selected hosts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Han Yong

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of these hybrids, which showed resistance to infection, were frequently reclassified as a susceptible host after reinoculation. The efficiency of transmission of WSMV to wheat by the mite, artist's airbrush, and carborundum rub inoculations were 49. 2, and 41... OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I INTRODUCTION II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE III GENERAL MATERIALS AND METHODS Plant Materials Virus and Vector Virus Mite Transmission Carborundum rub Artist's airbrush Mite transmission 10 10 11 11 11 1. 2 12 12 13...

  1. Response of hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to nitrogen and growth regulants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mages, Kevin Lee

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    vars may have responded negatively with respect to grain yield. Brown and Earley (1973) suggested examining growth regulators in different environments and with different cu lti- vars before suggesting general use of PGRs. Yields of the hybrid...RESPONSE OF HARO REO WINTER WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L. ) TO NITROGEN ANO GROWTH REGULANTS A Thesis by KEVIN LEE MAGES Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AlLM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  2. Phenotypic and Molecular Genetic Analysis of Reproductive Stage Heat Tolerance in Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mason, Richard Esten

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    population (n=121) for yield and yield components in the field that show co-localization with heat susceptibility index from the greenhouse .......... 137 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION: PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR GENETIC BREEDING STRATEGIES... and susceptible backgrounds. The working hypothesis is that major QTL regulating reproductive stage heat tolerance in wheat are stable across genetic backgrounds and in different environments. A comparative analysis combining genetic maps from both RIL...

  3. Effect of reducing amino acid excess in a corn-soybean meal diet on performance, nitrogen balance and nutrient digestibilities of growing pigs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, Katherine Ann

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECT OF REDUCING AMINO ACID EXCESS IN A CORN-SOYBEAN MEAL DIET ON PERFORMANCE, NITROGEN BALANCE AND NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITIES OF GROWING PIGS A Thesis by KATHERINE ANN KELLY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1988 Major Subject: Nutrition EFFECT OF REDUCING AMINO ACID EXCESS IN A CORN-SOYBEAN MEAL DIET ON PERFORMANCE, NITROGEN BALANCE AND NUTRIFNT DIGESTIBILITIES OF GROWING...

  4. Effect of plant populations and row spacings on plant and ear characters and grain yield of corn hybrids 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silapapun, Anek

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    break- age and barren stalks increased with increase in population densities. Allessi and Power (2) also found that number of barren stalks increased and ear weight decreased with increased plant population. Bleasdale (7) proposed that if a crop...EFFECT OF PLANT POPULATIONS AND ROW SPACINGS ON PLANT AND EAR CHARACTERS AND GRAIN YIELD OF CORN HYBRIDS A Thesis by ANEK SILAPAPUN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement...

  5. Forecasting Mexican imports of U.S. corn, sorghum and soybeans under free trade and debt reduction scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyford, Conrad Power

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INFORMATION Mexican External Debt and Structural Adjustment U. S. - Mexico Agricultural Trade Commodity Specific Factors LITERATURE REVIEW Economic Integration and the Welfare Impacts of a FTA Modeling Methods METHOD OF ANALYSIS AND DATA Description... BACKGROUND INFORMATION To analyze corn, sorghum and soybean trade it is useful to outline several background factors. First, Mexican external debt and its impact on U. S. -Mexican agricultural trade will be discussed. Second, U. S. -Mexican agricultural...

  6. Response Surface Analysis of Elemental Composition and Energy Properties of Corn Stover During Torrefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Richard D. Boardman; Christopher T. Wright

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research studied the effects of torrefaction temperature (250-250 C) and time (30-120 minutes) on elemental composition and energy properties changes in corn stover. Torrefied material was analyzed for moisture content, moisture-free carbon (%), hydrogen (%), nitrogen (%), sulfur (%), and higher heating value (MJ/kg). Results at 350 C and 120 minutes indicated a steep decrease in moisture content to a final value of about 1.48% - a reduction of about 69%. With respect to carbon content, the increase was about 23%, while hydrogen and sulfur content decreased by about 46.82% and 66.6%, respectively. The hydrogen-to-carbon ratio decreased as torrefaction temperature and time increased, with the lowest value of 0.6 observed at 350 C and 120 minutes. Higher heating value measured at 350 C and 60 minutes increased by about 22% and the maximum degree of carbonization observed was about 1.21. Further, the regression models developed for chemical composition in terms of torrefaction temperature and time adequately described the process with coefficient of determination values (R2) in the range of 0.92-0.99 for the elemental composition and energy properties studied. Response surface plots indicated that increasing both torrefaction temperature and time resulted in decreased moisture content, hydrogen content, and the hydrogen to-carbon ratio, and increased carbon content and higher heating value. This effect was more significant at torrefaction temperatures and times >280 C and >30 minutes.

  7. STABILITY OF DOW CORNING Q2-3183A ANTIFOAM IN IRRADIATED HYDROXIDE SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, T; Crawford, C; Burket, P; Calloway, B

    2009-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) examined the stability of Dow Corning Q2-3183A antifoam to radiation and aqueous hydroxide solutions. Initial foam control studies with Hanford tank waste showed the antifoam reduced foaming. The antifoam was further tested using simulated Hanford tank waste spiked with antifoam that was heated and irradiated (2.1 x 10{sup 4} rad/h) at conditions (90 C, 3 M NaOH, 8 h) expected in the processing of radioactive waste through the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at Hanford. After irradiation, the concentration of the major polymer components polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polypropylene glycol (PPG) in the antifoam was determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). No loss of the major polymer components was observed after 24 h and only 15 wt% loss of PDMS was reported after 48 h. The presence of degradation products were not observed by gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) or high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). G values were calculated from the GPC analysis and tabulated. The findings indicate the antifoam is stable for 24 h after exposure to gamma radiation, heat, and alkaline simulated waste.

  8. Impacts of Farm Policies and Technology on the Economic Viability of Texas Southern High Plains Wheat Farms.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, James W.; Smith, Edward G.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lOC :A245.7 H3~ :) ,'---( _..----' I ... - Impacts of Farm Policies and Technology on the Economic Viability of Southern High Plains Wheat Farms tiD'" A".,V SEP 04 1985 8-1506 August 1985 THE TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION.../Neville P. Clarke, DirectorlThe Texas A&M University System/College Station, Texas (Blank Pale In OrigIIW BuUetinl :. ' , ' .. ; ~ :.' IMPACTS OF? FARM POLICIES AND TECHNOLOGY ON THE ECONOMIC VIABILITY OF SOUTHERN HIGH PLAINS WHEAT FARMS James W...

  9. Modeling Cotton and Winter Wheat Growth and Yield Responses to Irrigation Management in the Texas High Plains and Rolling Plains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attia Mohamed, Ahmed

    2014-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    and the dashed line is the ordinary least- squares linear regression line………………………………..…………… 96 5.3. Results of DSSAT-CSM-Wheat for grain yield as affected by one dryland (T1), four single irrigation (T2 to T5), two double irrigation (T6 and T7...), above average (c), and overall seasons (d)…………………………………………………… 101 5.4. Results of DSSAT-CSM-Wheat for biomass yield as affected by one dryland (T1), four single irrigation (T2 to T5), two double irrigation (T6 and T7), one triple...

  10. Variability of biomass chemical composition and rapid analysis using FT-NIR techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Lu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ye, Philip [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A quick method for analyzing the chemical composition of renewable energy biomass feedstock was developed by using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis. The study presents the broad-based model hypothesis that a single FT-NIR predictive model can be developed to analyze multiple types of biomass feedstock. The two most important biomass feedstocks corn stover and switchgrass were evaluated for the variability in their concentrations of the following components: glucan, xylan, galactan, arabinan, mannan, lignin, and ash. A hypothesis test was developed based upon these two species. Both cross-validation and independent validation results showed that the broad-based model developed is promising for future chemical prediction of both biomass species; in addition, the results also showed the method's prediction potential for wheat straw.

  11. Moisture Metrics Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuchmann, Mark

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    the goal of this project was to determine the optimum moisture levels for biomass processing for pellets commercially, by correlating data taken from numerous points in the process, and across several different feedstock materials produced and harvested using a variety of different management practices. This was to be done by correlating energy consumption and material through put rates with the moisture content of incoming biomass ( corn & wheat stubble, native grasses, weeds, & grass straws), and the quality of the final pellet product.This project disseminated the data through a public website, and answering questions form universities across Missouri that are engaged in biomass conversion technologies. Student interns from a local university were employed to help collect data, which enabled them to learn firsthand about biomass processing.

  12. Genetic control of adenylate kinase and fructokinase in hexaploid wheat and other Triticeae species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yaw-Ching

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and ditelo-3Dq. (II) Ditelo-3Bp. (III) Ditelo-3Ap and ditelo-3Dp- 45 50 xvt Figure 16 Diagrams of FRK-I zymogram phenotypes observed in the study of the T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring-T. Page longissimum chromosome addition series. (I) Chinese... number of aneuploid derivatives of Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring and for six wheat-alien species chromosome addition series. Examination of the available compensating nullisomic-tetrasomic and homoeologous group 3 and 7 ditelosomic lines...

  13. Effect of row spacing on yield and yield components of winter wheat cultivars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Ross Jay

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF SCIENCE August 19I7 Nsj or Subject: Plant Breeding EFFECT OF ROii SPACING GN YIELD AND YLELD GGMPONENFS OF WINIER WHEAT CULTIVARS A Thesis ROSS JAY PETERS (Chairman of Committee of De artme t) p( (Member (Membe r) August 1977 EFFECT OF BC...!A SPACINC ON YL LD AND YLELD C(24PONENJS OF MINTER VREAT CDLTIVABS. (August 19i7) BOSS . TAY PETERS S. S. , Arisona State University Chairman of Adviso"y Commi t tee; Dr. Earl Gilmore Tn 197 ~ six locally adapted winter w! est (Trit'. curn acstiv::m L...

  14. Nitrogen fertilization timing effect on wheat production and nitrogen uptake efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alcoz Sartori, Maria Mercedes

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on wheat yield and apparent fertilizer N recovery. Vegetative samples were also collected at Feekes' growth stages 4, 6, and 10 for correlation of tissue N concentration with grain yield. Soil samples were collected after harvest to evaluate N leaching... obtained with 75 kg N ha ' as compared to the 0 N controls in 1989 and 1991. Significant grain yield increases were achieved with split applications of N fertilizer when N was topdressed at growth stage 4 or 6 in 1989. No advantages of split N...

  15. Characteristics of dough and tortillas prepared with composite wheat-sorghum flours 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres, Patricia Isabel

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design of Experiments. xi 6 6 8 8 8 9 ID I4 19 20 2O 2Q 2 x 21 2 x 22 24 24 25 28 2g 34 3 i 31 32 32 32 CHAPTER IV VI TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Experiment I. Experiment II. Experiment III PRELIMINARY RESULTS... in 2u'K Wneat-Sorgnum Tortilla Firmness Dougn Improvers and 2ux wheat-Sorghum Tortilla Ro liability Page 33 33 33 35 35 42 4e 47 46 48 Su 5U 56 62 62 02 6o 68 7U 73 76 7d 76 v111 VI I CONCLUSIONS LITERATURE CITED. TABLE...

  16. Engineering, Nutrient Removal, and Feedstock Conversion Evaluations of Four Corn Stover Harvest Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed L. Hoskinson; Douglas L. Karlen; Stuart J. Birrell; Corey W. Radtke; W.W. Wilhelm

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crop residue has been identified as a near-term source of biomass for renewable fuel, heat, power, chemicals and other bio-materials. Replicated plots were established in a corn (Zea mays L.) field near Ames, IA to evaluate four harvest scenarios (low cut, high-cut top, high-cut bottom, and normal cut). A prototype one-pass harvest system was used to collect the residue samples. High-cut top and high-cut bottom samples were obtained from the same plots in two separate operations. Chemical composition, dilute acid pretreatment response, ethanol conversion efficiency and gasification parameters for each scenario were determined. Mean grain yield (10.1 Mg ha-1 dry weight) was representative of the area. The four harvest scenarios removed 6.7, 4.9, 1.7, and 5.1 Mg ha-1 of dry matter. Expressed as harvest indices (HI) the values were 0.60 for low cut, 0.66 for normal cut, and 0.61 for the total high-cut (top + bottom) scenarios, which are probably realistic for machine harvest and current hybrids. The macro-nutrient replacement value for the normal harvest scenario under our conditions was $57.36 ha-1 or $11.27 Mg-1. Harvesting stalk bottoms increased the water content, the risk of combine damage, the transportation costs, and left insufficient soil cover, while also producing a problematic feedstock. Harvesting stover at current combine height (~40 cm) would be best for farmers and ethanol producers because of better harvest speed and efficiency as well as the quality of the ethanol feedstock.

  17. Influence of Airflow on Laboratory Storage of High Moisture Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn M. Wendt; Ian J. Bonner; Amber N. Hoover; Rachel M. Emerson; William A. Smith

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Storing high moisture biomass for bioenergy use is a reality in many areas of the country where wet harvest conditions and environmental factors prevent dry storage from being feasible. Aerobic storage of high moisture biomass leads to microbial degradation and self-heating, but oxygen limitation can aid in material preservation. To understand the influence of oxygen presence on high moisture biomass (50 %, wet basis), three airflow rates were tested on corn stover stored in laboratory reactors. Temperature, carbon dioxide production, dry matter loss, chemical composition, fungal abundance, pH, and organic acids were used to monitor the effects of airflow on storage conditions. The results of this work indicate that oxygen availability impacts both the duration of self-heating and the severity of dry matter loss. High airflow systems experienced the greatest initial rates of loss but a shortened microbially active period that limited total dry matter loss (19 %). Intermediate airflow had improved preservation in short-term storage compared to high airflow systems but accumulated the greatest dry matter loss over time (up to 27 %) as a result of an extended microbially active period. Low airflow systems displayed the best performance with the lowest rates of loss and total loss (10 %) in storage at 50 days. Total structural sugar levels of the stored material were preserved, although glucan enrichment and xylan loss were documented in the high and intermediate flow conditions. By understanding the role of oxygen availability on biomass storage performance, the requirements for high moisture storage solutions may begin to be experimentally defined.

  18. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; Whitmer, Lysle; Smith, Ryan; Brown, Robert C.

    2015-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreatingmore »the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.« less

  19. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Elliott, Douglas C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Huamin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rover, Majorie [Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States); Whitmer, Lysle [Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States); Smith, Ryan [Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States); Brown, Robert C. [Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States)

    2015-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreating the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.

  20. Tolerance of spring wheat to a salt-fluxing residue containing potassium and magnesium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahler, R.L.; Menser, H.A.; Lutcher, L.K.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field and greenhouse studies were conducted in Idaho in 1985 to document the maximum levels of a salt fluxing residue (slag) material that can be safely applied to agricultural soils without reducing spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) growth. The slag material, which contains significant quantities of Mg and K, was applied to Mission (coarse-silty, mixed, frigid Andic Fragiochrepts) and Palouse (fine-silty, mixed, mesic Pachic Ultic Haploxerolls) silt loam soils at rates ranging from 0 to 40,000 kg/ha. Parameters evaluated included: (1) germination, (2) plant vigor, (3) yield, and (4) soil and plant tissue K, Ca and Mg. Under field conditions slag application rates of 4000 and 8000 kg/ha reduced wheat stands and vigor; however, yields were not adversely affected when compared with the control. Application rates in excess of 8000 kg/ha resulted in reduced germination, plant vigor, and yield and are consequently not recommended. Greenhouse studies provided further evidence to substantiate the field results.

  1. A physiological basis for determining a possible mechanism for migration in Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), the corn earworm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weise, Carolyn Joan

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the stimulation and capacity of a migratory insect. 13 2. Restraining of the insect in the dissecting dish using modeling clay (a), so that the neck membrane is exposed (b) for the allatectomy procedure... 18 3. Tethered corn earworm moth on a flight mill 19 4... dissecting dish. To restrain the insect, a clay "seat" was molded in the bottom of the dish. The insect was then laid in the seat with its ventral side up and held by placing one strip of clay across the thorax, as illustrated in Figure 2a. The head...

  2. Characterization of a gene from breeding line WX93D180 conferring resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) in wheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hung, Hsiao-Yi

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell, 2n=6x=42, AABBDD) is subjected to significant yield losses by the endemic leaf rust pathogen, Puccinia triticina (Roberge ex Desmaz. F. sp. tritici). Breeding for resistance to this disease is a more...

  3. Characterization of a gene from breeding line WX93D180 conferring resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) in wheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hung, Hsiao-Yi

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell, 2n=6x=42, AABBDD) is subjected to significant yield losses by the endemic leaf rust pathogen, Puccinia triticina (Roberge ex Desmaz. F. sp. tritici). Breeding for resistance to this disease is a more...

  4. Defining the Molecular and Physiological Role of Leaf Cuticular Waxes in Reproductive Stage Heat Tolerane in Wheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mondal, Suchismita

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    high temperature stress. At maturity the percent reduction in yield components in each cultivar was calculated. The wheat cultivars 'Kauz' and 'Halberd' had significantly high leaf cuticular wax content of 2.91mg/dm^-2 and 2.36mg/dm^-2 respectively...

  5. Glutamine-Binding Protein from Escherichia Coli Specifically Binds a Wheat Gliadin Peptide. 2. Resonance Energy Transfer Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammerton, James

    fluorescence energy transfer, polarization, and solvent sensitiv- ity have been shown to offer high signal- to. Resonance Energy Transfer Studies Suggest a New Sensing Approach for an Easy Detection of Wheat Gliadin for celiac patients. Affinity chromatography experiments together with mass spectrometry experiments demon

  6. Seed Treatment Decisions for Use on Winter Wheat Ronald French, Greta Schuster, Brent Bean and Carl Patrick1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Seed Treatment Decisions for Use on Winter Wheat Ronald French, Greta Schuster, Brent Bean and Carl. In affected plants, the crown and root tissues may be destroyed and water and nutrient uptake restricted and Extension Plant Pathologist-Kingsville (greta.schuster@tamuk.edu); Brent Bean, Professor and Extension

  7. Abbreviated life tables of natural populations of the corn earworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on peanuts in Comanche and Erath Counties, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sears, Darrell Eugene

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the corn earworm on irrigated peanuts in Comanche and Erath Counti es, Texas, 1973 21 4 Abbreviated natural mortality table for the corn earworm on dryland peanuts in Comanche and Erath Counties, Texas, 1973 23 5 Partial mortality budget for the July...); the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema ~1 ~ (L)(Shed t 1. 1970); th p p1 9 11 , d ~Sa erda inornata Say (Gimbl e and Knight 1970) . In addition, Harcourt (1963) initiated a th) ee-part study on the popu- 1 ti dy i 6 th 6 1 d p t t 6 tl, 6~it decemlineata (Say...

  8. Metabolism of carbaryl, chloropyrifos, DDT, and parathion in the European corn borer: effects of microsporidiosis on toxicity and detoxication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tetreault, G.E.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation was conducted to examine the effects of microsporidiosis on an insect's response to insecticide intoxication. Healthy European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, larvae and those heavily infected with the microsporidian pathogen, Nosema pyrausta, were bioassayed with ten insecticides. The compounds used were carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, DDT, diazinon, fonofos, methomyl, parathion, permethrin, and terbufos. Third instar larvae were used for topical bioassays. The compounds carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, methomyl and terbufos were found to be significantly more toxic to diseased insects than healthy insects at the 0.05 probability level. To examine the effect of Nosema pyrausta infection on the European corn borer's ability to detoxify insecticides, /sup 14/C ring-labeled carbaryl, chlorophrifos, DDT, and parathion were topically applied to fourth instar larvae. Qualitative differences between healthy and diseased insects were found in the metabolic pathways of carbaryl, DDT, and parathion. The degradative fate of chlorophrifos was the same in both groups. Quantitatively, each insecticide penetrated diseased larvae faster. This resulted in larger amounts of the applied dose of parent compound and metabolites being found in the feces from diseased insects. Conversely, healthy insects had more of these materials present in the body and associated with the cuticle.

  9. Ecological and molecular investigation of wheat bulb fly (Delia coarctata, Fallén, Diptera: Anthomyiidae) for the advancement of population monitoring and control methodologies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, Craig David

    2012-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Wheat bulb fly (WBF) (Delia coarctata, Fallén, Diptera: Anthomyiidae) is a pest of commercial importance in cereal crops. Control is dependent on organophosphates some of which are restricted in the UK, while current ...

  10. The effects of flour types and storage temperatures on the staling of wheat flour tortillas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelekci, Nurettin Nuri

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 1 4. 8 3 5 TX93U3137 28. 3 2. 1 32. 1 49. 3 45 9 10. 8 11. 3 8. 0 2. 9 TX96U1143 28. 9 2. 1 63. 1 55. 6 40. 7 10 6 11. 2 5. 4 2. 8 TX95U4806 31. 2 2. 3 53. 9 50. 0 45. 3 12. 1 11. 1 4. 4 3. 9 TX96U1029 32. 9 2. 4 54. 8 52. 6 40. 6 10. 5 11. 1 4... 59 63 64 69 VITA. 73 vs 1 LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page Formulation of Tortillas for Hot Pressing . . 13 Stress Relaxation in Compression Mode Setting for the Texture Analyzer. 14 Effects of Wheat Cultivars Grown in Uvalde (2000) on Kernel...

  11. A novel mechanism and kinetic model to explain enhanced xylose yields from dilute sulfuric acid compared to hydrothermal pretreatment of corn stover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    A novel mechanism and kinetic model to explain enhanced xylose yields from dilute sulfuric acid stover Dilute sulfuric acid Hydrothermal pretreatment Kinetic model Xylose a b s t r a c t Pretreatment of corn stover in 0.5% sulfuric acid at 160 °C for 40 min realized a maximum monomeric plus oligomeric

  12. Investment in Corn-Ethanol Plants in the Midwestern United States: An Analysis Using Reduced-Form and Structural Models1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    1 Investment in Corn-Ethanol Plants in the Midwestern United States: An Analysis Using Reduced-Form and Structural Models1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lin and Karen E. Thome Abstract Ethanol has attracted considerable policy policy and strategic interactions affect decisions about when and where to invest in building new ethanol

  13. Consequences of reproductive barriers for genealogical discordance in the European corn Erik B. Dopman, Luisa Prez, Steven M. Bogdanowicz, and Richard G. Harrison

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dopman, Erik B.

    borer Consequences of reproductive barriers for genealogical discordance in the European corn Erik, see: Notes: #12;Consequences of reproductive barriers for genealogical discordance in the European is often incomplete, gene genealogies will be discordant, and most regions of the genome will display

  14. Determining Fiber and Protein Degradation Rates of Corn Milling (Co)Products and Their Effects on Rumen Bacterial Populations and Lactating Dairy Cow Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Whitney

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    as within a single ethanol plant (Belyea et al., 2004). As more information about the quality of corn (co)products becomes available, new strategies of (co)product feeding will be developed. Feedstuff processing methods have been shown to affect feed...

  15. Is New Zealand's food supply under threat? What have we learned from the escape of genetically modified (GM) corn throughout New

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    Is New Zealand's food supply under threat? What have we learned from the escape of genetically. This realization undermines claims that uses of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) outside of the laboratory can modified (GM) corn throughout New Zealand? The most alarming outcome of the recently concluded

  16. Regional-Scale Assessment of Nitrous Oxide Emissions within the US Corn Belt: The Impact of Precipitation and Agricultural Drainage on Indirect Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Regional-Scale Assessment of Nitrous Oxide Emissions within the US Corn Belt: The Impact of Precipitation and Agricultural Drainage on Indirect Emissions Tim Griffis1, Xuhui Lee2, John Baker3, Peter, but mitigation strategies have been limited by the large uncertainties in both direct and indirect emission

  17. Instructions for Corning Model 220 pH Meter The electrode tip is a fragile glass bulb. Be careful or you will break it with a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cross, George

    Instructions for Corning Model 220 pH Meter The electrode tip is a fragile glass bulb. Be careful a polymer body electrode can create sufficient internal pressure to "explode" the glass bulb. When of cotton in the plastic electrode cover sleeve, add pH 7 buffer, and insert the electrode bulb

  18. Crop Nutrient Needs in South and Southwest Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stichler, Charles; McFarland, Mark L.

    2001-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication explains the nutrient needs of corn, grain sorghum, cotton, wheat and warm-season perennial grasses in South and Southwest Texas....

  19. A diallel analysis of six components of partial resistance to Leptosphaeria nodorum in seedlings of six winter wheats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruno, Hans Henning

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    significant differences for these traits to be inflated. The most important source of variation for all four components exhibiting significant variability was general combining ability (GCA), indicating additive gene action. Specific combining ability (SCA... spore production of L. nodorum. 7 Estimated general combining ability (GCA) effects for 48 48 four components of partial resistance to L. nodorum in a diallel cross among six winter wheats. 50 8 Specific combining ability (SCA) and reciprocal...

  20. Changes in niacin content produced by nickel-chloride in a rust susceptible wheat and oat variety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lacy, Logan Wayne

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ONANNES IN NIACIN CONTENT PRODUOE9 BT NICKEL-CNLORIBE IN k RSST SOSOEPTIBLE NNEST SNB OST VSRXETT k Thesis Suhnitted to the Graduate School of the SSricultural and Nechanical Collage- of Tunas in partial fulfillment of the requireneat.... d typical standard curve for tha growth of 17-5 f Idee b ill d l . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . 12 I, The affeot of nickel-chloride sprays on niacin content of 131 wheat conpared to controls at thre~ ages4 ~ 4 ~ ~ 4...

  1. Population dynamics and within field distribution of the greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), and its parasitoids in Central Texas winter wheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kring, T. J

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    throughout the study period. The low greenbug densities prevented descriptton of a meaning- ful szgntficant immigration and/or emigration pattern based on slate p d ' . R. d ' b d h pl p production of the panicle. Primary parasitotds reared from... in the Texas Panhandle. Descriptions of greenbug age distribution as it changes through time on wheat is limited zn the United States to Kieckhefer's (1975) work rn South Dakota. Kieckhefer distinguished density gradients of nymphal, apterous and slate...

  2. Effects of two naphthoquinone compounds on wheat seedlings, germination of urediospores of Puccinia graminis tritici and the host parasite relationship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez Campos, Enrique

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECTS OF TWO NAPHTHOQUINONE COMPOUNDS ON WHEAT SEEDLINGS, GERMINATION OF UREDIOSPORES OF PUCCINIA GRAMINIS TRITICI AND THE HOST PARASITE RELATIONSHIP A thesis Enrique Rodrigues Campos Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas Ak... TRITICI AND THE HOST PARASITE RELATIONSHIP A thesis by Enrique Rodriguez Campos Approved. as to style and content by: Ch irman of Committee omm tee Member o ittee ember Committee Member ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author wishes to acknowledge Dr. Maurice...

  3. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) Associated with Maintenance of Bread Making Quality under Heat Stress in Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beecher, Francis Ward

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    , Dirk B. Hays Amir M. H. Ibrahim Committee Member, Joseph Awika Head of Department, Jean H. Gould August 2009 Major Subject: Molecular and Environmental Plant Sciences iii ABSTRACT Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) Associated... with Maintenance of Bread Making Quality under Heat Stress in Wheat (Triticum aestivum). (August 2009) Francis Ward Beecher, B.S., Gannon University Co-Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Dirk B. Hays Dr. Amir M. H. Ibrahim The aim of this study was to identify QTLs...

  4. Biolistic and agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of immature and mature embryos of spring wheat cultivar Saratovskaya-29

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kopbayev, Arman A.

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    of the vector pAHC25 ???????????.. 22 Fig. 2-3 Culture schedule for wheat cultivar Saratovskaya-29 ???????.. 34 Fig. 2-4 Transient GUS expression in calli inoculated with Agrobacterium and assayed with X...) ?????????????.. 36 Table 2-4 Transient GUS expression in calli transformed either by Agrobacterium or microprojectile bombardment ???????????????.. 37 Table 2-5 PCR amplification and PCR-based Southern blot of primary regenerated...

  5. A pilot plant scale reactor/separator for ethanol from cellulosics. ERIP/DOE quarterly report no. 3 and 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, M.C.; Moelhman, M.; Butters, R.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a continuous, low energy process for the conversion of cellulosics to ethanol. This process involves a pretreatment step followed by enzymatic release of sugars and the consecutive simultaneous saccharification/fermentation (SSF) of cellulose (glucans) followed by hemi-cellulose (pentosans) in a multi-stage continuous stirred reactor separator (CSRS). During quarters 3 and 4, we have completed a literature survey on cellulase production, activated one strain of Trichoderma reesei. We continued developing our proprietary Steep Delignification (SD) process for biomass pretreatment. Some problems with fermentations were traces to bad cellulase enzyme. Using commercial cellulase enzymes from Solvay & Genecor, SSF experiments with wheat straw showed 41 g/L ethanol and free xylose of 20 g/L after completion of the fermentation. From corn stover, we noted 36 g/L ethanol production from the cellulose fraction of the biomass, and 4 g/L free xylose at the completion of the SSF. We also began some work with paper mill sludge as a cellulose source, and in some preliminary experiments obtained 23 g/L ethanol during SSF of the sludge. During year 2, a 130 L process scale unit will be operated to demonstrate the process using straw or cornstalks. Co-sponsors of this project include the Indiana Biomass Grants Program, Bio-Process Innovation.

  6. Biofuels supply chain characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Anindya, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol can be made from agricultural residues like wheat straw and from crops dedicated to energy use, like switchgrass. We study the logistics aspects of this transformation and determine the main characteristics of the ...

  7. Comparison of the chemical composition and the particle size of alimentary bolus in goats and sheep fed various diets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    + 200 g maize; diet 2: 1000 g wheat straw + 135 g soya bean cake + 150 g maize). For the measurements, the ani- mals, fed at maintenance level, received a for- age meal during a 30 min period. Water was re

  8. The effects of Biozyme on the germination and emergence of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and sweet corn (Zea mays L.) seeds under suboptimal temperatures, pesticide overdose, and salinity stress 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campos Cruz, Armando

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECTS OF BIOZYME? ON THE GERMINATION AND EMERGENCE OF BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L) AND SWEET CORN (Zea mays L. ) SEEDS UNDER SUBOPTIMAL TEMPERATURES, PESTICIDE OVERDOSE, AND SALINITY STRESS A Thesis by ARMANDO CAMPOS CRUZ Submitted... vulgaris L) AND SWEET CORN (Zea mays I ) SEEDS UNDER SUBOPTIMAL TEMPERATURES, PESTICIDE OVERDOSE, AND SALINITY STRESS A Thesis by ARMANDO CAMPOS CRUZ Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  9. This experiment demonstrated the beneficial effect of increasing dietary supplies during pregnancy and lactation on numerical productivity of sows and weight of piglets. The effect of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    (wheat straw, lucerne meal) J. NOBLET J.Y. DOURMAD S. DUBOIS J. LE DIVIDICH INRA, Station de Recherches straw and lucerne meal as affected by environmental temperature. Trial 1 : Four multiparous pregnant of control diet + 600 g of lucerne meal. They were kept in respiratory chamber at environmental temperatures

  10. Evaluation of lysine deficient grower diets for heavy breed replacement pullets and a comparison of sorghum grains and corn as a carbohydrate source for broiler-breeder hens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolan, Alan

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EVALUATION OF LYSINE DEFICIENT GROWER DIETS FOR HEAVY BREED REPLACEMENT PULLETS AND A COMPARISON OF SORGHUM GRAINS AND CORN AS A CARBOHYDRATE SOURCE FOR BROILER-BREEDER HENS A Thesis ALAN TOLAN Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas... ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1967 Major Subject: Animal Nutrition EVALUATION OF LYSINE DEFICIENT GROWER DIETS FOR HEAVY BREED REPLACEMENT PULLETS AND A COMPARISON OF SORGHUM...

  11. Analyzing the Effect of Variations in Soil and Management Practices on the Sustainability of Corn Stover-Based Bioethanol Production in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woli, Prem; Paz, Joel

    2011-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The inherent variability in corn stover productivity due to variations in soils and crop management practices might contribute to a variation in corn stover-based bioethanol sustainability. This study was carried out to examine how changes in soil types and crop management options would affect corn stover yield (CSY) and the sustainability of the stover-based ethanol production in the Delta region of Mississippi. Based on potential acreage and geographical representation, three locations were selected. Using CERES-Maize model, stover yields were simulated for several scenarios of soils and crop management options. Based on 'net energy value (NEV)' computed from CSYs, a sustainability indicator for stover-based bioethanol production was established. The effects of soils and crop management options on CSY and NEV were determined using ANOVA tests and regression analyses. Both CSY and NEV were significantly different across sandy loam, silt loam, and silty clay loam soils and also across high-, mid-, and low-yielding cultivars. With an increase in irrigation level, both CSY and NEV increased initially and decreased after reaching a peak. A third-degree polynomial relationship was found between planting date and CSY and NEV each. By moving from the lowest to the highest production scenario, values of CSY and NEV could be increased by 86 to 553%, depending on location and weather condition. The effects of variations in soils and crop management options on NEV were the same as on CSY. The NEV was positive for all scenarios, indicating that corn stover-based ethanol production system in the Delta region is sustainable.

  12. Direct application of west coast geothermal resources in a wet corn milling plant supplementary analyses and information dissemination. Final report, addendum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In an extension to the scope of the previous studies, supplementary analyses were to be performed for both plants which would assess the economics of geothermal energy if coal had been the primary fuel rather than oil and gas. The studies include: supplementary analysis for a coal fired wet corn milling plant, supplementary analysis for an East Coast frozen food plant with coal fired boilers, and information dissemination activities.

  13. The effect of varying degrees of infection of wheat stem rust and of oat smuts on yields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrett, Wiley Nathan

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    date, and. severity of stem rust at harvest as affected. by number of stem rust centers in the 1957 58 season . . . . . ~ . ~ . . . . . . . . . 14 7 ~ The number of plants that emerged in a ten foot row in each treatment in each variety... for s given azea of wheat. Bovie vhest vss grown in 12 foot X 12 foot plots and inoculated wi. th race 29 stem rust in 1956-57. A plot of' equal size wss sprayed with msneb to obtain ss near ss possible optimum yields in the absence af rue+. These plots...

  14. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, L; Opilla, R; Surles, T

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. The use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - is reviewed as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. The environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass are covered. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  15. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Opilla, R.; Dale, L.; Surles, T.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of carbohydrate sources can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Section 1 is a review of technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. Section 2 is a review of the use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. Section 3 deals with the environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  16. Agricultural and Forest Entomology (2011), 13, 197204 DOI: 10.1111/j.1461-9563.2010.00511.x Arthropod food webs in organic and conventional wheat farming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Arthropod food webs in organic and conventional wheat farming systems of an agricultural long, Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Ackerstraße, 5070 Frick, Switzerland, Department (15N/14N and 13C/12C) of fertilizers, plants, prey and generalist predators in organic

  17. Effect of process variables on the density and durability of the pellets made from high moisture corn stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flat die pellet mill was used to understand the effect of high levels of feedstock moisture content in the range of 28–38% (w.b.), with die rotational speeds of 40–60 Hz, and preheating temperatures of 30–110 °C on the pelleting characteristics of 4.8 mm screen size ground corn stover using an 8 mm pellet die. The physical properties of the pelletised biomass studied are: (a) pellet moisture content, (b) unit, bulk and tapped density, and (c) durability. Pelletisation experiments were conducted based on central composite design. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that feedstock moisture content influenced all of the physical properties at P < 0.001. Pellet moisture content decreased with increase in preheating temperature to about 110 °C and decreasing the feedstock moisture content to about 28% (w.b.). Response surface models developed for quality attributes with respect to process variables has adequately described the process with coefficient of determination (R2) values of >0.88. The other pellet quality attributes such as unit, bulk, tapped density, were maximised at feedstock moisture content of 30–33% (w.b.), die speeds of >50 Hz and preheating temperature of >90 °C. In case of durability a medium moisture content of 33–34% (w.b.) and preheating temperatures of >70 °C and higher die speeds >50 Hz resulted in high durable pellets. It can be concluded from the present study that feedstock moisture content, followed by preheating, and die rotational speed are the interacting process variables influencing pellet moisture content, unit, bulk and tapped density and durability.

  18. Development of Advanced CdTe Solar Cells Based on High Temperature Corning Glass Substrates: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-373

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, T.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL has developed advanced processes for CdTe solar cells, but because of the temperature limitations of conventional soda lime glass, many of these processes have not been transferred to manufacturing. Corning is developing high temperature substrate glasses that are believed to be manufacturable and will lead to lower $/watt modules costs. The purpose of this CRADA is to evaluate these glasses in the advanced NREL processes. In addition, the CRADA seeks to develop manufacturable processes for transparent conductive oxide layers based on cadmium stannate.

  19. Owens Corning and Silicon Valley Power Partner to Make Energy Savings a Reality, Save Energy Now (SEN), Industrial Technologies Program (ITP), Utility Case Study (Brochure)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in ManyDepartmentOutreachDepartment ofProgram49, the Owens Corning Santa

  20. Good Meals Every Day.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Maeona; Reasonover, Frances; Harris, Jimmie Nell; Mason, Louise

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Toast Cups Milk Tea or Coffee Dinner Fried Chicken Gravy Mashed Potatoes Fresh Peas Tomato and Cottage Cheese Salad Whole Wheat Biscuits Butter or Margarine Angel Food Cake with Strawberries and Cream Milk Tea Supper (In Backyard) Broiled... Berries Prunes Figs Nectarines Calories for energy Whole wheat flour Whole grain corn-meal Whole wheat bread Oats Brown rice Rye bread Certain ready- to-eat and uncooked cereals Popcorn Millet bread Pumpernickel bread Enriched corn...

  1. The effects of calcitic and dolomitic limestone rates and particle sizes on soil chemical changes, plant nutrient concentration, and yields of corn and Coastal bermudagrass on two acid Texas soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haby, Vincent A

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    significantly increased Ca to 18 inches, while only the 6-ton/acre rate of fine dolomitic lime- stone increased Ca into the same depth. All dolomitic treatments increased Mg to 18-inch depths. Sampling deeper than 18 inches in the 6 ton/acre dolomitic fine... formed soluble salts with the NO and were leached down as Ca(ND ) Limestone treatments did not produce significant increases in yield of corn or Coastal bermudagrass. The no-lime plots produced 70 bushels of corn and 9. 2 tons of oven-dry Coastal...

  2. Toplaceyourmealorderpleasedial MEAL(ext.6325)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    /Stuffing&Gravy Meatloaf TurkeyPotPie Macaroni&Cheese SouthwestVegetarianChili Pasta:RotiniorWholeWheatBeef PeanutButter&Jelly BreadsWhite,Wheat,Rye,KaiserRoll ExtrasToast Pancakes CreamofWheat Oatmeal EnglishMuffin CornMiniMuffin BlueberryMiniMuffin Bagel Breakfast

  3. Toplaceyourmealorderpleasedial MEAL(ext.6325)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    : Panko&DijonCrustedTilapia PotRoast Turkeyw/Stuffing&Gravy ChickenMarsala TurkeyPotPie Pasta:RotiniorWholeWheatBeef ChickenSalad Ham BreadsWhite,Wheat,Rye,KaiserRoll,HoagieRoll PeanutSausage Bacon FrenchToast CreamofWheat Oatmeal EnglishMuffin Croissant CornMiniMuffin Bagel Breakfast

  4. To place your meal order please dial MEAL (ext. 6325)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    & Cheese Turkey Pot Pie Chicken Marsala Pot Roast Meatloaf Pasta: Rotini or Whole Wheat Penne w/ your Provolone Breads White, Wheat, Rye, Kaiser Roll, Hoagie Roll Peanut Butter & Jelly Turkey Club (w Toast Pancakes Cream of Wheat Oatmeal English Muffin Croissant Blueberry Mini Muffin Corn Mini Muffin

  5. Influence on Grain Yields and Yield Components of Leaf Rust of Wheat and Crown Rust of Oats as Measured by Isogenic Resistant and Susceptible Lines.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkins, I. M.; Alcala de Stephano, Maximino; Merkle, O. G.; Kilpatrick, R. A.

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ., and Allard, R. W. 1965. Genetic variability in highly inbred isogenic lines of the lima bean. Crop Sci. 5 1203-206. Hilu, H. M. 1965. Host-pathogen relationship of Pllrccinia ~orghi in nearly isogenic resistant and susceptible seedling corn...IIVFLUENm ON GRAIN Y_LEI;DS AND YZZXD COMPONENTS OF LEAF RUST OF l+%?EAT AND CROWN RUST OF OATS m fl2kmured by ISOGENIC RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE LINES Contents SUMMARY...

  6. Slice Straw Proposal (slice/phase2)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9Morgan McCorkleSingin'ixSlISANA

  7. Cotton and Corn Experiments.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittuck, B. C.

    1897-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the different characteristics, if any, of the entiTe :field: Soil Plot. No.- 1. 3. I 5. 7. 9. 11. 13. 15. 17. 20. 25. 26. ------------------ ---- Silica and Sand ..... 94.39 94.28 94.4 94.62 94.11 95.15 94.63 94.06 93.65 94.81 94.07 93.85 Water-air dry....89 38.89 42.45 44.84 41.06 55.01 Diameter-Sand. Between .05 and 0.01 mm. 10.71 6. 87 4. 70 5. 37 8. 40 8. 44 6. 71 10.01 14. 93 3. 78 8. 57 13.18 6. 61 5.06 3. 74 3. 59 15.23 8. 62 14.22 9. 26 2. 76 4. 99 3. 98 5. 87 6. 32 10.02 Diameter-Silt. ? Below...

  8. Southern corn rootworm control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wipprecht, Read

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in all tbe plots ssjcing reylaccting neoesssrN, Expericent No, 4. vas a dupjisate of lbrperisant No, 1 aud vas oondust ed aa Nurleson else ~ soL1 and ad)aoent to Rq?raiment N'o, 2, Cbcs occrn rootsorm damaged plant vas found in a obeob plcct, R... Vg 0 7$ 0 74 0 7& 0 0 0 0 93 0 0 92 0 90 0 90 0 88 0 88 0 95 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 78 73 Vg 75 XETAIL OF TABES 1 Kxyer %naacp Ro RHLLKIS OF VARIA5CE 30, 00 33, 21 0 00 0~00 10, 00 14~ 5 V5 33, %j K, 9Q 27 A +36 ~65 RC $2 35~4~ 365T...

  9. Corn Hybrids for Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bockholt, A. J.; Collier, J. W.

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Loams and sandy loams Sandy soils Coast Prairie Blackland Loams and sandy loams Blackland Prairies Blackland Mixed land Grand Prairie Blackland Mixed land West Cross Timbers Rio Grande Plain Blackland Sands and sandy loams Lower Rio Grande... Valley and Winter Garden Dist. (under irrigation) Clays and loams Sands and sandy loams Rolling Plains Clay loams Sands and sandy loams High Plains (irrigated) Clay loams Sandy loams Sands Spac- Fertilizer dress- I " ing at ing of Planting...

  10. Corn Hybrids for Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, J. S.; Bockholt, A. J.; Collier, J. W.

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Root Stalk Unsound Worm dam- Shelling, % Days to Ears per Entries bushels lodging, % breakage, % ears, % age score1 silk plant Texas 28 ."-' Texas 26 Texas 32 Texas 30 Texas 15W Texas 17W Asgrow lOlW United U72 Keystone 222 Funk G711 De....0 6.3 8.2 9.9 10.1 13.0 13.1 16.9 193 16.7 38 40 43 Texas 28 Texas 26 Texas 30 Texas 15W United U72 Keystone 222 Funk G711 TRF 3 Surcropper Ferguson's Yellow Dent Number of tests included 6-YEAR AVERAGE, 1951-56 'Refers to the relative...

  11. Corn Hybrids for Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, J. S.; McAfee, T. E.

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hybrid, was superior to all othey hybrids in freedom from root lodging. Watsrr 124, Keystone 222, Texas 24, Funk G711 an( Texas 30 were superior to other yellow hybrid\\ in resistance to root lodging. Texas 15W agair Angleton Lake Charles clay... degrees of damage. hybrids in resistance to stalk breakage. Ic.\\db L4, Texas 30 and Watson 124 were the I :ellow hybrids most resistant to stalk breakage. 3nk G711 and Keystone 222 were especially ' :u~eeptible to stalk breakage. a Growers who plan...

  12. The effect of maleic hydrazide and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on the carbohydrate content and leaf and stem rust response of wheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyles, William Earl

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and susceptible isogenic wheat lines at the seedling stage of growth. 34 LIST OF TABLES Table Page A summary of the individual fractions and total carbohydrates as percentage of dry weight of treated and untreated expressed as an average of the four... carbohydrates than the susceptible line. The differ- ence was primarily due to the starch fraction. Determina- tions for carbohydrate and soluble nitrogen of individual plants of F2 generations segregating for resistance suggested that resistance...

  13. Generation of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accumulating heterologous endo-xylanase or ferulic acid esterase in the endosperm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harholt, Jesper; Bach, Inga C; Lind-Bouquin, Solveig; Nunan, Kylie J.; Madrid, Susan M.; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Holm, Preben B.; Scheller, Henrik V.

    2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Endo-xylanase (from Bacillus subtilis) or ferulic acid esterase (from Aspergillus niger) were expressed in wheat under the control of the endosperm specific 1DX5 glutenin promoter. Constructs both with and without the endoplasmic reticulum retention signal KDEL were used. Transgenic plants were recovered in all four cases but no qualitative differences could be observed whether KDEL was added or not. Endo-xylanase activity in transgenic grains was increased between two and three fold relative to wild type. The grains were shriveled and had a 25-33% decrease in mass. Extensive analysis of the cell walls showed a 10-15% increase in arabinose to xylose ratio, a 50% increase in the proportion of water extractable arabinoxylan, and a shift in the MW of the water extractable arabinoxylan from being mainly larger than 85 kD to being between 2 kD and 85 kD. Ferulic acid esterase expressing grains were also shriveled and the seed weight was decreased by 20-50%. No ferulic acid esterase activity could be detected in wild type grains whereas ferulic acid esterase activity was detected in transgenic lines. The grain cell walls had 15-40% increase in water unextractable arabinoxylan and a decrease in monomeric ferulic acid between 13 and 34%. In all the plants the observed changes are consistent with a plant response that serves to minimize the effect of the heterologously expressed enzymes by increasing arabinoxylan biosynthesis and cross-linking.

  14. The effects of Biozyme on the germination and emergence of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and sweet corn (Zea mays L.) seeds under suboptimal temperatures, pesticide overdose, and salinity stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campos Cruz, Armando

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Biozyme on the Germination and Emergence of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L ) and Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. ) Seeds Under Suboptimal Temperatures, Pesticide Overdose, and Salinity Stress. (May 1994) Armando Campos Cruz, B S. , Instituto Tecnologico y de... thanks go to Grupo Bioquimico Mexicano S. A. de C. V. , for their financial assistance and support of my research project without which this work could not have been completed, and to the Department of Horticultural Sciences of Texas A&M University...

  15. The bulking effect of dietary fiber in the rat large intestine: an in vivo study of cellulose, guar, pectin, wheat bran and oat bran

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gazzaniga, Jeanne Marie

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE BULKING EFFECT OF DIETARY FIBER IN THE RAT LARGE INTESTINE: AN IN VIVO STUDY OF CELLULOSE, GUAR, PECTIN, WHEAT BRAN AND OAT BRAN A Thesis by JEANNE MARIE GAZZANIGA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... JEANNE MARIE GAZZANIGA Approved as to style and content by: o~P L sc J nne R. Lupton (Chair of Committee) Karen S. Kubena (Member) ayne Suter (Member) G. C. Smith (Head of Department) December 1985 ABSTRACT The Bulking Effect of Dietary Fiber...

  16. Preprocessing Moist Lignocellulosic Biomass for Biorefinery Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal Yancey; Christopher T. Wright; Craig Conner; J. Richard Hess

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass preprocessing is one of the primary operations in the feedstock assembly system of a lignocellulosic biorefinery. Preprocessing is generally accomplished using industrial grinders to format biomass materials into a suitable biorefinery feedstock for conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Many factors affect machine efficiency and the physical characteristics of preprocessed biomass. For example, moisture content of the biomass as received from the point of production has a significant impact on overall system efficiency and can significantly affect the characteristics (particle size distribution, flowability, storability, etc.) of the size-reduced biomass. Many different grinder configurations are available on the market, each with advantages under specific conditions. Ultimately, the capacity and/or efficiency of the grinding process can be enhanced by selecting the grinder configuration that optimizes grinder performance based on moisture content and screen size. This paper discusses the relationships of biomass moisture with respect to preprocessing system performance and product physical characteristics and compares data obtained on corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw as model feedstocks during Vermeer HG 200 grinder testing. During the tests, grinder screen configuration and biomass moisture content were varied and tested to provide a better understanding of their relative impact on machine performance and the resulting feedstock physical characteristics and uniformity relative to each crop tested.

  17. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humbird, D.; Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Kinchin, C.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.; Olthof, B.; Worley, M.; Sexton, D.; Dudgeon, D.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes one potential biochemical ethanol conversion process, conceptually based upon core conversion and process integration research at NREL. The overarching process design converts corn stover to ethanol by dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and co-fermentation. Building on design reports published in 2002 and 1999, NREL, together with the subcontractor Harris Group Inc., performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process. This update reflects NREL's current vision of the biochemical ethanol process and includes the latest research in the conversion areas (pretreatment, conditioning, saccharification, and fermentation), optimizations in product recovery, and our latest understanding of the ethanol plant's back end (wastewater and utilities). The conceptual design presented here reports ethanol production economics as determined by 2012 conversion targets and 'nth-plant' project costs and financing. For the biorefinery described here, processing 2,205 dry ton/day at 76% theoretical ethanol yield (79 gal/dry ton), the ethanol selling price is $2.15/gal in 2007$.

  18. NREL 2012 Achievement of Ethanol Cost Targets: Biochemical Ethanol Fermentation via Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, L.; Schell, D.; Davis, R.; Tan, E.; Elander, R.; Bratis, A.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office, the annual State of Technology (SOT) assessment is an essential activity for quantifying the benefits of biochemical platform research. This assessment has historically allowed the impact of research progress achieved through targeted Bioenergy Technologies Office funding to be quantified in terms of economic improvements within the context of a fully integrated cellulosic ethanol production process. As such, progress toward the ultimate 2012 goal of demonstrating cost-competitive cellulosic ethanol technology can be tracked. With an assumed feedstock cost for corn stover of $58.50/ton this target has historically been set at $1.41/gal ethanol for conversion costs only (exclusive of feedstock) and $2.15/gal total production cost (inclusive of feedstock) or minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). This year, fully integrated cellulosic ethanol production data generated by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers in their Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF) successfully demonstrated performance commensurate with both the FY 2012 SOT MESP target of $2.15/gal (2007$, $58.50/ton feedstock cost) and the conversion target of $1.41/gal through core research and process improvements in pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation.

  19. FINDINGS IN BRIEF 2008 S W E D I S H U N I V E R S I T Y O F A G R I C U LT U R A L S C I E N C E S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Bioethanol is currently mainly made from cultivated crops such as sugar cane, sugar beet, wheat and corn.Sandgren@molbio.slu.se Johan.Schnurer@mikrob.slu.se microdrive.slu.se Efficient production of bioethanol from cellulose

  20. Characterization of Sclerotinia minor populations in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henry, Merribeth Annette

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Agriculture is a crucial component of the economy of Texas with millions of pounds of peanuts, cotton, wheat, and corn produced annually. However, Texas agricultural crops are not exempt from pathogens, especially Sclerotinia minor Jagger, which...

  1. Biofuels: Review of Policies and Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janda, Karel; Kristoufek, Ladislav; Zilberman, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    model in which exoge- nous shocks from the oil market areoil market. Chang and Su (2010) use the bivariate EGARCH modeloil price volatility to agricultural markets (speci?cally corn and wheat). In their pa- per, stochastic volatility models

  2. Studies of yield and quality of grain, yield components, effect of leaf rust, and forage production of mixed varietal populations, and pure stands of varieties in wheat and oats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Da Gama Rose, Renaud Wilfred

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    determined (. z analysis of variance as outlined ty Dtee' and Torrie (29), Tr e analys?. of variar;c fo? i m- of wheat grown at College Statior, . ' given in Appendix T. =hie ' ?(eplications were highly sign?fi?an? at Gi 'cv. 1? indic ~ ti:?= thai soil...

  3. Comparison of different liquid anaerobic digestion effluents as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Fuqing; Shi Jian [Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691 (United States); Lv Wen; Yu Zhongtang [Department of Animal Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Li Yebo, E-mail: li.851@osu.edu [Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691 (United States)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared methane production of solid AD inoculated with different effluents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Food waste effluent (FWE) had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with FWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dairy waste effluent (DWE) was rich of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with DWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 2. - Abstract: Effluents from three liquid anaerobic digesters, fed with municipal sewage sludge, food waste, or dairy waste, were evaluated as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover in mesophilic reactors. Three feedstock-to-effluent (F/E) ratios (i.e., 2, 4, and 6) were tested for each effluent. At an F/E ratio of 2, the reactor inoculated by dairy waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 238.5 L/kgVS{sub feed}, while at an F/E ratio of 4, the reactor inoculated by food waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 199.6 L/kgVS{sub feed}. The microbial population and chemical composition of the three effluents were substantially different. Food waste effluent had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens, while dairy waste effluent had the largest populations of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Dairy waste also had the highest C/N ratio of 8.5 and the highest alkalinity of 19.3 g CaCO{sub 3}/kg. The performance of solid-state batch anaerobic digestion reactors was closely related to the microbial status in the liquid anaerobic digestion effluents.

  4. The effects of calcitic and dolomitic limestone rates and particle sizes on soil chemical changes, plant nutrient concentration, and yields of corn and Coastal bermudagrass on two acid Texas soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haby, Vincent A

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory study. Particle size. Field study. Source. . 26 . 26 Rate. . 28 Particle size. . . $0 Soil pH change with depth. Influence oi' Limestone on Ca and Ng at Different Soil Depths. . Influence of Limestone on Yields oi' Corn and Coastal... to increase the downward movement of Ca and Mg snd to reduce soil acidity as determined by pH measurements (2, 3, 4, 26, 45, 46, 54, 56). Adams et al. (3) using dolomitic lime- stone, have shown that on a Cecil sandy loam soil, N rates of 0, 400, snd 800...

  5. Confetti Bean Salsa Ingredients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Confetti Bean Salsa Ingredients: 15 ounces black beans, canned 11 ounces corn, sweet 1 cup salsa 8 ounces low sodium whole-wheat crackers Directions 1. Open beans and corn and pour into a colander. Rinse under running water to remove sodium. Allow to drain, and add to medium size bowl. 2. Measure salsa

  6. Black Bean Burrito Ingredients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    under running water to remove sodium. 2. Heat beans, corn and salsa together. 3. Spread 1/8 salsaBlack Bean Burrito Ingredients: 15 ounces black beans, canned, drained and rinsed 10 ounces corn cheddar cheese, low-fat, shredded 8 whole wheat flour tortillas Directions 1. Drain and rinse black beans

  7. The Economic Impact of Drought and Mitigation in Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    The Economic Impact of Drought and Mitigation in Agriculture Texas Drought and Beyond CIESS Austin · In Agriculture, it Began in 2010 ­ Wheat and other winter grazing crops are planted in the Fall ­ Lost value ­ Infrastructure losses #12;Agricultural Costs of Drought · Estimated $7.62 Billion ­ Corn, cotton, wheat, hay $4

  8. RADIOLOGYandPACUMenu NAME:ROOMDATE:_______

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    Toast Pancakes CreamofWheat Oatmeal CornMiniMuffin BlueberryMiniMuffin EnglishMuffin Croissant Hash TunaSalad Turkey American EggSalad RoastBeef Swiss ChickenSalad Ham Provolone BreadsWhite,WheatVanillaCake PoundCake Brownie FrostedChocolateCake AngelFoodCake Cookies

  9. Toplaceyourmealorderpleasedial MEAL(ext.6325)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    SaladTurkeyAmerican EggSaladRoastBeefSwiss ChickenSaladHamProvolone BreadsWhite,Wheat,Rye,KaiserRoll, Peanut CreamofWheat Oatmeal EnglishMuffin Croissant BlueberryMiniMuffin CornMiniMuffin HashChocolateCake Brownie AngelFoodCake Cookies:ChocolateChip,PeanutButter Sherbet:Raspberry,Orange Pudding

  10. BREAKFAST MENU 5 Yourmenuwillbecorrectedaccordingtothe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    Krispies SpecialKCheerios CreamofWheat Oatmeal BreakfastBreads BlueberryMiniMuffin (1CHO) CornMiniMuffin(1CHO) ChickenMarsala(1CHO) Meatloaf(1CHO)PotRoast Pasta:RotiniorWholeWheatPenne w,1mustbefruit)(Each 1CHO) AngelFoodCake FreshFruit:Apple,Grapes,Pineapple, CannedFruit:Peaches,Pears, Applesauce

  11. BREAKFASTMenu1+3 Yourmenuwillbecorrectedaccording

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    Oatmeal CreamofWheat BreakfastBreads(Limit1) EnglishMuffin Croissant BlueberryMiniMuffin Corn&Cheese Meatloaf ChickenMarsala PotRoast Pasta:RotiniorWholeWheatPenne w/yourchoiceof: Marinara) FrostedVanillaCakePoundCake BrownieFrostedChocolateCake AngelFoodCake Cookies

  12. BREAKFASTMenu1+3 Yourmenuwillbecorrectedaccording

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    CreamofWheat BreakfastBreads(Limit1) EnglishMuffin Croissant CornMiniMuffin BreakfastPotatoes BagelPotPie Turkeyw/Stuffing&Gravy ChickenMarsala GrilledChicken PotRoast Pasta:Rotini,WholeWheatPenne orw,1mustbefruit) AngelFoodCake Cookies:ChocolateChip,PeanutButter ItalianIce:Cherry,Watermelon,Lemon Fresh

  13. BREAKFASTMenu1+3 Yourmenuwillbecorrectedaccording

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    K Cheerios Oatmeal CreamofWheat BreakfastBreads(Limit1) EnglishMuffin BlueberryMiniMuffin Corn Macaroni&CheeseChickenMarsala Pasta:RotiniorWholeWheatPenne w/yourchoiceof:Marinara/ GarlicVanillaCakePoundCake BrownieFrostedChocolateCake AngelFoodCake Cookies:ChocolateChip,OatmealRaisin, PeanutButter Sherbet

  14. BREAKFAST MENU 5 Yourmenuwillbecorrectedaccordingtothe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    K Cheerios Oatmeal CreamofWheat BreakfastBreads(Limit1) EnglishMuffin BlueberryMiniMuffin Corn Macaroni&CheeseChickenMarsala Pasta:RotiniorWholeWheatPenne w/yourchoiceof:Marinara/ GarlicFrostedChocolateCake AngelFoodCake Cookies:ChocolateChip,OatmealRaisin, PeanutButter Sherbet:Raspberry,Orange Pudding

  15. BREAKFAST MENU 5 Yourmenuwillbecorrectedaccordingtothe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    CreamofWheat BreakfastBreads(Limit1) EnglishMuffin CornMiniMuffin BreakfastPotatoes Croissant Bagel&DijonCrustedTilapia Turkeyw/Stuffing&Gravy TurkeyPotPie ChickenMarsala PotRoast Pasta:Rotini,WholeWheatPennew/ yourchoiceof,1mustbefruit) AngelFoodCake Cookies:ChocolateChip,PeanutButter ItalianIce:Cherry,Watermelon,Lemon Fresh

  16. MSU Extension Publication Archive Archive copy of publication, do not use for current recommendations. Up-to-date

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    % in crude protein. Most Midwest wheat averages around 12% crude pro- tein, which is high enough to satisfy averages about 10% crude protein, which falls short of the steer's requirements. Table 1. Nutrient Content of Shelled Corn and Wheat Versus Steer's Requirement. Item TDN, % of DM Net energy (gain), Mcal/lb DM Crude

  17. Contact:Duane Dailey Senior Writer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, James S.

    projects an average wheat price of $5.10 per bushel for the current market year. Total wheat use, including prices are projected to average $3.68 per bushel for the crop harvested this fall. USDA estimates record yields this year, which moderates price increases for corn, Gerlt said FAPRI projects a soybean price

  18. Overproduction of ligninolytic enzymes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elisashvili, Vladimir; Kachlishvili, Eva; Torok, Tamas

    2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods, compositions, and systems for overproducing ligninolytic enzymes from the basidiomycetous fungus are described herein. As described, the method can include incubating a fungal strain of Cerrena unicolor IBB 303 in a fermentation system having growth medium which includes lignocellulosic material and then cultivating the fungal strain in the fermentation system under conditions wherein the fungus expresses the ligninolytic enzymes. In some cases, the lignocellulosic material is mandarin peel, ethanol production residue, walnut pericarp, wheat bran, wheat straw, or banana peel.

  19. Wheat Production in Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkins, I. M.; Porter, K. B.; Merkle, O. G.; Lahr, K. A.; Gilmore, E. C.

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    locations L-1 Research Extension area districts I 1.2 11 3,6.7 I11 4,s IV 8.9.11 v 10,12 l 1. Perryton 814. Denton a 2. Etter e15. Shennan m 3. Bushland m16. Overton a 4. Wellington 817. McGregor a 5. Plainview m18. Temple 8 6. ~ubbock m19... Research testing area I I1 I11 IV v perrpnt j Extension district 1, 2 3, 6, 7 4, 5 8, 9, 11 10, 12 Total of tnta Varietv i Atlas 66 0 0 700 7,937 50 8,687 0.1R Bison 13,620 0 0 0 0 13,620 0.2? Caddo 138,411 152,257 35,184 123,186 1,375 450,413 9,:s...

  20. Wheat Production in Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkins, I. M.; Porter, K. B.; Lahr, Keith; Merkle, Owen G.; Futrell, M. C.

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -27 19 10 34.3 87 Tascosa 20.0 13 60.7 4-24 5-29 49 3 1 32.8 92 Early Blackhull 19.7 25 59.7 4-18 5-24 53 12 35.5 87 Comanche 19.4 9 56.9 4-26 5-29 38 14 34.6 82 Tenmarq 16.8 25 56.7 4-27 6- 1 53 25 35.2 88 Triumph 12.0 3 58.8 4-20 5-27 70 84....5 137 Atlas 66 19.7 15 55.0 4-17 5-26 28 4 34.4 108 Red May 18.0 10 56.5 4-24 5-26 44 45 32.8 92 Denton' 17.3 24 55.8 4-29 6-1 29 38 35.8 91 Austin 19.6 25 56.1 4-21 5-27 34 9 36.4 100 DURUM VARIETIES Sentry 24.4 15 61.2 4-12 5-22 14 Tr 37.2 106...

  1. Staling in corn tortillas prepared from nixtamalized corn flour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez de Castro, Deborah Ann

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in starch pasting properties after baking. Amylopectin retrograded slowly and imparted softness and extensibility when present in a gelatinized state. Extensive amylopectin retrogradation occurred after 24 h storage, yielding a brittle, less flexible...

  2. DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass conversion for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by means of bio-ethanol Transportation in Denmark and other EU countries: 5.75 % bioethanol in diesel oil and gasoline 1.2 - 1.7% CO2 reduction #12;DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Bio-ethanol can replace MTBE and gasoline #12) Others % #12;DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Danish Bioethanol Concept Wet Oxidation In: Wheat Straw Water SSF

  3. Effects of natural and synthetic plant oestrogens on rumen fluid degradation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effects of natural and synthetic plant oestrogens on rumen fluid degradation of some feedstuffs. V interfere with the rumen degradation of feeds, an extract from SC was prepared, purified, freeze-dried and utilized for in vitro trials of rumen degradability on several feeds: wheat straw (WS), cocksfoot hay (DH

  4. Molecular weight and humification index as predictors of adsorption for plant-and manure-derived dissolved

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chorover, Jon

    -derived dissolved organic matter to goethite T. OHNO a , J. CHOROVER b , A. OMOIKE b & J. HUNT a a Department the sorption to goethite (a-FeOOH) of DOM extracted from: (i) above-ground biomass of wheat straw (Triticum with goethite. The multiple regression equation, based only on MWAP and HIX parameters, explained 76

  5. The Heating of Corn Chops.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S.

    1912-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF SUB-STATIONS. E. E. B in fobd , Beeville Sub-Station......... ................................... Beeville, Bee County W, S. H o tc h k is s , Troup Sub-Station........................................ Troup, Smith County E. M. J oh n s to n... , Cooperative Rice Station................Beaumont, Jefferson County I. S. Y o rk , Spur Sub-Station.......................................................... Spur, Dickens County T. W . B u e l l , Denton, Sub...

  6. marrow with beans and corn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    When the marrow is *almost* cooked, add the beans and the sweetcorn and cook until the ... If you do need to add water during cooking, keep it to a minimum.

  7. Integrated Corn-Based Biorefinery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet summarizes a U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program research and development project.

  8. Cooking with Corn Syrup (Spanish)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2001-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    utilizar. Para asegurar una mejor calidad utilice el jarabe en un periodo que no exceda un a?o desde el momento en que lo adquiri?. Imitaci?n de Pay de Nuez (rinde 8 porciones) Ingredientes 1 /2 taza de az?car 1 /4 de taza (media barrita) de mantequilla o... Extensionista Especialista en Nutrici?n, El Sistema Universitario Texas A&M. Producido por Agricultural Communications, El Sistema Universitario Texas A&M. Conforme a la ley federal y la pol...

  9. Cooking with Corn Syrup (Spanish) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2001-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    fuente de energ?a: 1 cucharada sopera de jarabe de ma?z con- tiene aproximadamente 56 calor?as. Almacenamiento Guarde el jarabe de ma?z sin abrir en un sitio fresco y seco. No lo guarde en el refrigerador por que se pondr? muy espeso y ser? dif?cil de...

  10. Corn Plus | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformationNew|Core Analysis At Geysers| Open

  11. Cost Effective Bioethanol via Acid Pretreatment of Corn Stover, Saccharification, and Conversion via a Novel Fermentation Organism: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number: CRD-12-485

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowe, N.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research program will convert acid pretreated corn stover to sugars at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and then transfer these sugars to Honda R&D and its partner the Green Earth Institute (GEI) for conversion to ethanol via a novel fermentation organism. In phase one, NREL will adapt its pretreatment and saccharification process to the unique attributes of this organism, and Honda R&D/GEI will increase the sugar conversion rate as well as the yield and titer of the resulting ethanol. In later phases, NREL, Honda R&D, and GEI will work together at NREL to optimize and scale-up to pilot-scale the Honda R&D/GEI bioethanol production process. The final stage will be to undertake a pilot-scale test at NREL of the optimized bioethanol conversion process.

  12. Creep Feeding Beef Calves.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, A. L. (Albert Lorenzo)

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (Month) MONTH April May June July August September October FEED (Pounds) FEED PER DAY Whole oats 100 1 to 3 1b. Corn 65, oats 35 2 to 3 Ib. Corn 70, oats 30 3 4 1b. Corn 65, oats 25, c.s.m. 10 4 to 6 lb. Corn 70, oats 20,c.s.m. 10 6 to 7 1b.... Corn 80, oats 10, c.s.m. 10 7 to 9 1b. Corn 85, c.s.m. 15 9 to 11 lb. In the above ration, grain sor- ghums may be interchanged with corn. Ground wheat should not comprise more than 50 percent of the grain ration. Barley may be substituted pound...

  13. In vivo toxicity and immunogenicity of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles for intranasal delivery to the brain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Qingfeng; Shao Xiayan; Chen Jie; Shen Yehong; Feng Chengcheng; Gao Xiaoling; Zhao Yue; Li Jingwei; Zhang Qizhi, E-mail: qzzhang70@yahoo.com.cn; Jiang, Xinguo

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Biodegradable polymer-based nanoparticles have been widely studied to deliver therapeutic agents to the brain after intranasal administration. However, knowledge as to the side effects of nanoparticle delivery system to the brain is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo toxicity and immunogenicity of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) conjugated poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles (WGA-NP) after intranasal instillation. Sprague-Dawley rats were intranasally given WGA-NP for 7 continuous days. Amino acid neurotransmitters, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH), acetylcholine, acetylcholinesterase activity, tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in rat olfactory bulb (OB) and brain were measured to estimate the in vivo toxicity of WGA-NP. Balb/C mice were intranasally immunized by WGA-NP and then WGA-specific antibodies in serum and nasal wash were detected by indirect ELISA. WGA-NP showed slight toxicity to brain tissue, as evidenced by increased glutamate level in rat brain and enhanced LDH activity in rat OB. No significant changes in acetylcholine level, acetylcholinesterase activity, GSH level, TNF-{alpha} level and IL-8 level were observed in rat OB and brain for the WGA-NP group. WGA-specific antibodies in mice serum and nasal wash were not increased after two intranasal immunizations of WGA-NP. These results demonstrate that WGA-NP is a safe carrier system for intranasal delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain.

  14. Evaluation of High Solids Alkaline Pretreatment of Rice Straw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Yu-Shen; Zheng, Yi; Yu, Chao Wei; Dooley, Todd M.; Jenkins, Bryan M.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulase (Celluclast 1.5 L; Novozymes, Franklinton, NC) and?-glucosidase (Novo 188, Novozymes) were added at 15 filter

  15. The villa : an architectural study in straw building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buck-Mayer, Lindsey L

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design and develop an environmentally sound home for a single family. Explore the concept that making a that making a home "green" or "sustainable" need not overwhelm the aesthetic, spatial or conceptual components of a house.

  16. Boron-Lined Straw-Tube Neutron Detector Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Stromswold, David C.

    2010-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. Reported here are the results of tests of a boron-lined proportional counter design variation. In the testing described here, the neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a system manufactured by Proportional Technologies, Inc, was tested.

  17. Ammonia volatilization from soils with surface rice straw residue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barghassa, Peyam

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rice residue and related factors on NH3 volatilization from an acid Beaumont clay (pH 5.4) and an alkaline Lake Charles clay (pH 7.4). The treatments in the greenhouse and lab consisted of all possible combinations of the following variables: surface...

  18. Shakumbhri Straw Products Ltd SSPL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt Ltd JumpInformationScottsOklahoma:Sevin RosenEnergyHollow,Shakopee

  19. Yancheng Chuangneng Straw Electricity Generation Co Ltd | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin: EnergyWyandanch, NewYancey County, North Carolina:

  20. Cottonseed Products as Feed, Fertilizer, and Human Food. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1926-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    corn, worth. kchaser J--- -- eddieh respect meal ?ated sf ore Duse. 1 ig tne feed- sed as rtion ASH CONSTITUENTS Cottonseed meal contains about 2.5 per cent total phosphori and 1.8 per cent potash, but is low in lime, containing about 0... cent. It resembles wheat bran and wheat shorts closely in i,, -,A- content. The phosphoric acid is chiefly present in the form of phytin. For pigs, milk corns, and young animals especially it should be sup- plemented with lime, unless...

  1. Warming Your Hands with Moonlight: Lavrung Tibetan Oral Traditions and Culture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G.yu lha

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ,000 to 28 Gsong chabs are small earth balls that are consecrated by chanting. Containing a high lama's urine, they are considered sacred, and put in water that is drunk to prevent diseases and contamination by evil. •29• 4,000 RMB per year selling... about half of the butter and cheese they produce. Locals grow barley, wheat, soybeans, mung beans, corn, and potatoes that are all locally consumed rather than sold (except for corn – see below). Cabbages, turnips, tomatoes, and spinach...

  2. Effects of CGA-43089 and related oximes on the response of grain sorghum to selected herbicides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Tsern-Shi

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    enhanced the normal enzyme systems which con- verted DS-5328 (cis-2, 5-dimethyl-l-pyrrolidinecarboxanilide) to water soluble, nonherbicidal metabolites in corn tissue. Lay et al. (22, 23) also showed that R-25788 enhanced the GSH (glutathione) content... in root cells of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ) and corn. In studies with isolated spinach (S inacia oleracea L. ) chloroplasts and mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb. ) mitochondria, Moreland et al. (25) indicated that twelve substituted 2, 6-dinitro...

  3. Feeding for Efficient Growth and Prevention of Slipped Tendons in Chickens.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison); Couch, James Russell

    1933-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    better than those obtained with the original ration, md they were made with d. A ration composed of orn meal 44 7-8 4 [rated alfalfa leaf meal 5 % , dric milk 696, cottons 16%, meat and bone scrap 6 %, wheat gray shorts 20 a, rice bran 10 %, >yster... .__...._..__-.-_------- 6 Rice Bran Compared with Yellow Corn Meal .._-__._...____..---..----..-..------.. 9 Ground Oat Groats Compared with Yellow Corn Meal ..-..__.-....._.._---.-.__- 9 Meat and Bone Scrap Compared with Dried Buttermilk, Cottonseed Meal, and Whole...

  4. Food quality and properties of quality protein maize.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leal Diaz, Ana Maria

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    grade maize (W-FGM)??????????.. 49 14 Pericarp removal of corn alkaline-cooked 20 min with no steeping and cooked at optimum cooking time???????... 53 15 Masa subjective evaluation for machinability, hardness and stickiness... and has the highest genetic yield potential of all the cereal grains (CIMMYT 2001). In the year 2002, corn was the leading cereal crop with 29.7% of the world cereal production followed by rice and wheat (FAOSTAT 2003). Maize protein has deficiencies...

  5. Hessian Fly in Texas Wheat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morgan, Gaylon; Sansone, Chris; Knutson, Allen E.

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hessian fly came from Russia and may have been introduced into the United States during the Revolutionary War. It has since spread to many parts of the country. By 2005, more than 67 counties in Texas reported Hessian fly infestations...

  6. Hessian Fly in Texas Wheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morgan, Gaylon; Sansone, Chris; Knutson, Allen E.

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hessian fly came from Russia and may have been introduced into the United States during the Revolutionary War. It has since spread to many parts of the country. By 2005, more than 67 counties in Texas reported Hessian fly infestations...

  7. The Utilization of the Energy of Feed by Growing Chickens.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Carlyle, E. C. (Elmer Cardinal)

    1939-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of equal value for digestible nutrients would give five times the actual value found by experiment with the wheat straw, nearly 1.5 times the actual value of meadow hay or clover hay, and 1.3 times the actual value of wheat bran. After establishing...); phosphorus for beef heifers, according to Kleiber, Goss, and Guilbert (20); iron and copper for rats, as found by Black et al., (4); sodium for rats, as found by Kahlenberg, Black, and Forbes (18); vitamin G for rats, as found by Braman et al., (5...

  8. Composition and Productive Energy of Poultry Feeds and Rations.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1946-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , 43 for alfalfa leaf meal, 204 for TI-hole barley, 129 for dried buttermilk, 114 for corn gluten feed, 120 for cottonseed meal, 121 for meat and bone scraps, 114 for dried skim milk, 13 for oat hulls, and 206 for whole wheat, compared with 241... of corn meal was produc- tire energy and could be stored as protein or fat. That is to say, the loss of utilization of metabolizable energy for production of protein and fat fronz corn meal was approximately 28 percent. Within the same experiments...

  9. Countercurrent Process for Lignin Separation from Biomass Matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiran Kadam; Ed Lehrburger

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of the project was to test the concept of using a twin-screw extruder to conduct autohydrolysis pretreatment of wheat straw in countercurrent fashion, demonstrate in situ solid/liquid separation, and produce a low-lignin cellulose product using ethanol as an extractant. The resultant solid product is suitable for sugar production through enzymatic hydrolysis and for pulp applications. Pilot-scale equipment was used to successfully demonstrate the process both for sugar and pulp applications.

  10. Experimental investigation into fast pyrolysis of biomass using an entrained-flow reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohn, M.; Benham, C.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pyrolysis experiments were performed using 30 and 90cm entrained-flow reactors, with steam as a carrier gas and two different feedstocks - wheat straw and powdered material drived from municipal solid waste (ECO-II TM). Reactor wall temperature was varied from 700/sup 0/ to 1400/sup 0/C. Gas composition data from the ECO-II tests were comparable to previously reported data but ethylene yield appeared to vary with reactor wall temperature and residence time. The important conclusion from the wheat straw tests is that olefin yields are about one half that obtained from ECO-II. Evidence was found that high olefin yields from ECO-II are due to the presence of plastics in the feedstock. Batch experiments were run on wheat straw using a Pyroprobe/sup TM/. The samples were heated at a high rate (20,000/sup 0/ C/sec) to 1000/sup 0/ and held at 1000/sup 0/C for a variable period of time from 0.05 to 4.95s. For times up to 0.15s volume fractions of ethylene, propylene, and methane increase while that of carbon dioxide decreases. Subsequently, only carbon monoxide and hydrogen are produced. The change may be related to poor thermal contact and suggests caution in using the Pyroprobe.

  11. Cooking with Black-Eyed Peas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    the most protein from the peas, serve them with grain foods such as corn, rice or wheat. A serving size is ? cup. Uses Use black-eyed peas as a tasty side dish or include it in casseroles, soups, and salads. Black-eyed peas are often packaged in 1- or 2...

  12. State Laboratory Program -Calibration Scope Summary Certificate Date Comments Mass I Mass II Mass III

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to 3000 lb 500 gal to 1 gal 500 gal to 20 gal LPG Corn 21 % to 14 % Wheat 18 % to 13 % Soy Bean 17 % to 12 gal Los Angeles County 2014 10 kg to 100 g 5000 lb to 1 lb 8 oz to 4 oz 5 gal to 1 gal Louisiana 2014

  13. Transportation accounts for a quarter of the United States green house gases. With this statistic being so high and the need for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Ethanol Transportation accounts for a quarter of the United States green house gases at alternative fuels. Ethanol has recently been gaining popularity throughout recent years for it's clean burning properties and its availability. Ethanol is produced from plant matter (i.e. corn, sugar cane, wheat, barley

  14. Agriculture Will Turn Up, But Just a Bit In 1999* A fter a difficult 1998, Indi-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , not counting food and fuel. With falling oil prices, over- all inflaction is less than 2 percent. Only modes will be related to modest reductions in input costs. Wheat prices are expected to be about 20 cents per bushel higher than for the 1998 crop, with corn prices unchanged and soybean prices down 20 cents. The animal

  15. Energy and the Environment: Photosynthesis Questions 1. Good job! You've landed a position as a research assistant in a Biology lab here at UW. Your first

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy and the Environment: Photosynthesis Questions 1. Good job! You've landed a position evolutionary strategies in the context of photosynthesis. You plant a C3 plant (wheat) and a C4 plant (corn the concentration of O2 will steadily increase if photosynthesis is occurring). 4. Jan Van Helmont was a Renaissance

  16. University of California, Berkeley 2222 Bancroft Way

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Dried beans, cooked 1/2 cup 35-48 Tortilla, corn 1 medium 60 (lima, navy and kidney) Bread, whole wheat sauce, casseroles just before taking out of the oven. Use milk instead of water when you cook hot and Vegetables Group Amount mg Yogurt, plain lowfat 1 cup 415 Collards, cooked 1/2 cup 168 Milk, nonfat dry 1

  17. Vol. 78, No. 1, 2001 97 Characterization of Extruded Plant Protein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (Gennadios et al 1993). The research has shown films cast with food proteins lack important barrierVol. 78, No. 1, 2001 97 Characterization of Extruded Plant Protein and Petroleum-Based Packaging- mentioned market segments. Many reports have been published on cast films using corn and wheat protein (Aydt

  18. add green bean fair trade organic coffee or fair trade tea to your breakfast for $1.5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Jeff

    add green bean fair trade organic coffee or fair trade tea to your breakfast for $1.5 BUILD YOUR eggs · mesa red sauce · cheddar · salsa · pinto beans BREAKFAST BUN 5 toasted whole wheat bun · fried two locally made corn tortillas · smoky pinto beans · salsa · red sauce Bothwell cheddar · two eggs

  19. authentic food -simply prepared add green bean fair trade organic coffee or fair trade tea to your meal for $1.5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Jeff

    brunch authentic food - simply prepared #12;BREAKFAST add green bean fair trade organic coffee locally made corn tortillas · smoky pinto beans · salsa · red sauce Bothwell cheddar · two eggs (any style eggs · mesa red sauce · cheddar · salsa · pinto beans BREAKFAST BUN 5 toasted whole wheat bun · fried

  20. agbioresearch.msu.edu/centers/saginawvalley Picture Tour: Dry Beans Diseases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 agbioresearch.msu.edu/centers/saginawvalley Picture Tour: Dry Beans Diseases Saginaw Valley beans in Michigan. It is a collective term used to describe the symptoms on beans caused by one or more. Rotation of beans with non-host crops such as corn, wheat, barley, or alfalfa will usually reduce root rot

  1. www.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications and Marketing, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    You May Want To Try alalfa barley buckwheat celery chia corn dill fenugreek kidney beans lentils lettuce mung beans onion parsley peanut pumpkin radish rye sesame squash sunflower (raw) wheat Many others tow- els. Seeds are spread thinly between the paper towels, then the towels are moistened.Add water

  2. ater balance irrigation scheduling methods are more likely to be used when producers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steele, Dean D.

    to estimate local ETc for alfalfa, turf grass, corn, potatoes, wheat, barley, dry beans, and sugarbeets. Water are confident of the methods' accuracies and when the methods are easy to use. Because water balance techniques should be used to correct or "reset" a water balance to accurately reflect field conditions during

  3. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 78 (1999) 177 OVER-WINTER CONDITION CHANGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    had increased body and lipid mass and more metabolizable energy in their crops compared to individuals and subsequent spring condition of females. Food plots can benefit the condition levels of wintering northern bob- whites (Colinus virginianus). Northern bobwhites using food plots (corn, sorghum, and wheat) in Kansas

  4. Grain Sorghum Vs. Corn for Fattening Lambs.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, J. M. (John McKinley); Brewer, Roy A.; Dickson, R. E.

    1920-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , Ezecutive Assisfant Apiculturist CHARLES SOSOLIK. Technical Assistant C. 's.' RGDE: B. 's.','A ssistant EntornoIog~ VETERINARY SCIENCE *M FRANCIS D. V M Chief H. SCHMIDT, D. V. s., herinarian D. H. BENNETT. V. M. D., Veterinarian CHEMISTRY G S FRAPS...

  5. Maximizing the enzymic saccharification of corn stover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaar, William Edward

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    /g i3-glucosidase (Novozyme 188) and 5 FPU/g cellulase (Spezyme-CP) were added The flasks were then cultured in an incubated shaker (50 'C, 100 rpm, Amerex Instruments ' All enzyme loadings given as activity units per gram of dry biomass. Orbital...

  6. Factors affecting viscosity changes in corn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGill, Kendra Louise

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of heating rate, holding temperature and CMC. Differences were found to exist between meals from different crop years which were not attributable to particle size. When tested at 13, 15 and 17% solids, new meal consistently developed viscosity earliest...

  7. 2013 New York Hybrid Corn Grain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Hall Ithaca, NY 14853-1901 Building Strong and Vibrant New York Communities Cornell Cooperative Extension provides equal program and employment opportunities. NYS College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, NYS College of Human Ecology, and NYS College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University

  8. 2012 New York Hybrid Corn Grain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    -1901 Building Strong and Vibrant New York Communities Cornell Cooperative Extension provides equal program and employment opportunities. NYS College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, NYS College of Human Ecology, and NYS

  9. 2010 New York Hybrid Corn Grain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    -1901 Building Strong and Vibrant New York Communities Cornell Cooperative Extension provides equal program and employment opportunities. NYS College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, NYS College of Human Ecology, and NYS

  10. 2011 New York Hybrid Corn Grain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    -1901 Building Strong and Vibrant New York Communities Cornell Cooperative Extension provides equal program and employment opportunities. NYS College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, NYS College of Human Ecology, and NYS

  11. 2008 New York Hybrid Corn Grain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    -1901 Building Strong and Vibrant New York Communities Cornell Cooperative Extension provides equal program and employment opportunities. NYS College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, NYS College of Human Ecology, and NYS

  12. 2009 New York Hybrid Corn Grain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    -1901 Building Strong and Vibrant New York Communities Cornell Cooperative Extension provides equal program and employment opportunities. NYS College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, NYS College of Human Ecology, and NYS

  13. Corn and Cotton Experiments for 1908.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welborn, W. C. (Wayne C.)

    1908-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be judged. The beds were dragged down, and planted at the usual time. No. 2 was center furro~ved and bedded, the plow running six inches deep as nearly as could be judged, and the beds were dragged down as before. Acre No. 3 v,-as flat broken 6 inches.... Rennett's. Dallas Fair No. 12, Dallas Fair No. 5. - -. - Bennett's. 31.66 Da1la.j Fair No. 6. 28.33 Dallas Fair No. 2. 27.08 Crib. 24.16 - . -- - -- Bennett's. Dallas Fair No. 4. Crib. Dallas Fair No. 3. Kennett's. 'Jrih. Dallas Fair No...

  14. Grain Sorghums Versus Corn for Fattening Lambs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, J. M. (John McKinley); Brewer, Roy A.

    1922-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    total gain, lbs. ........... Average daily gain, lbs. ........... Average daily ration: 1. Grain, lbs.. ................. 2. Cottonseed meal, Ibs.. ....... 3. Alfalfa hay, lbs.. ............ Total feed consumed per lamb: 1. Grain, Ibs..... ................. 2. Cottonseed meal, Ibs. ........ 3. Alfalfa hay, lbs.. .... .; ...... Concentrates per 100 lbs. gain, lbs.. Hay per 100 lbs. gain. lbs. : ....... Cost of feed per 100 lbs. galn. ..... Averagefeedcostperlamb ........ Initial cost per lamb...

  15. Al Corn Clean Fuel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1AMEEAisin Seiki G60 Jump2008 | OpenOhio:Akuo EnergyFuel Jump

  16. Quad County Corn Processors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag Jump to:ID8/OrganizationTechProbSolutionsPublic ArtTexasUnst,PyronGeneralQnovo

  17. Heartland Corn Products | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetec AG|Information OpenEIHas BeenLegalHeard County, Georgia:Products Jump

  18. Corn Belt Energy Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovationinConcentratingEnergyCoosa Valley Electric Coop

  19. Pro Corn LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkins County, Nebraska:Precourt Institute for EnergyWister| OpenEI CommunityPrismLLC

  20. Dow Corning Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale,South, New Jersey: Energy Resources

  1. Corn Belt Power Coop | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformationNew|Core Analysis At Geysers| Open EnergyAl.,A,CorixBelt

  2. Corning, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformationNew|Core Analysis At Geysers| Open5.4868032°,FuelCornia

  3. Superior Corn Products LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with formSoutheastern ILSunseeker Energy Holding AG JumpSunways AGSuperBulbs

  4. Corn Plus Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.pngRoofs and Heat Islands2007) | Open EnergyTexas:Plus Wind

  5. Corn Silage The Minnesota Hybrid Corn Silage Evaluation Program evaluates the silage potential of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiblen, George D

    and Elbow Lake, May 29 and September 25, respectively. Planting at all locations was delayed by the cool are listed. Hybrids are ranked in descending order of milk yield per acre (Milk Yield, lb/acre). Genetic. NDFD is expressed as a percent of NDF. Milk production potential per ton (lb milk/ ton forage) and per

  6. Crop Revenue Coverage (CRC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stokes, Kenneth; Barnaby, G. A. Art; Waller, Mark L.; Outlaw, Joe

    2008-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Futures contract Base price month Harvest price month Corn before 3/15 CBOT Sept Dec 15 to Jan 14 Aug Corn on 3/15 CBOT Dec Feb Oct Soybeans before 3/15 CBOT Sept Dec 15 to Jan 14 Aug Soybeans on 3/15 CBOT Nov Feb Oct Winter wheat on 9.../30 KCBOT July Aug 15 to Sept 14 Jun Cotton on 1/31 NYCE Oct Dec 15 to Jan 14 Sept Cotton on 2/28 or 3/15 NYCE Dec Jan 15 to Feb 14 Nov Grain sorghum* before 3/15 CBOT Corn Sept Dec 15 to Jan 14 Aug Grain sorghum* on 3/15 CBOT Corn Dec...

  7. California Fruit & Vegetable Intake Calibration Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DiSogra, Charles; Hudes, Mark

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SPINACH SALAD/CELERY/TOMATO SALAD/CORN SALAD/CORN/CARROT SALAD/CORN/LETTUCE SALAD/CORN/PEAS SALAD/CORN/TOMATO SALAD/CORN/WATER

  8. Texas Wheat Flows and Transportation Modes, 1975.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, Stephen; Paggi, Mechel; Engler, Dwayne

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 4 SOUTHERN HIGH PLAINS .. PECOS i>LATEAU .. Crop Reporting District 1-S Crop Reporting Districts 6 and 7 Crop Reporting 0 istricts _ 10-N and 10-S ROLLING PLAINS Crop Reporting Districts l 2-N, 2-S and 3 Crop Reporting Districts 4, 5...- State Capacity High High Plains Texas Coast Grande Plateau Average Plains Plains Plains (bushels) ------------ - - ----------------------- ~ 500,000 2.39 2.77 2.66 2.18 2.02 1. 91 4.07 2.34 500,001-1,000,000 1. 75 1. 55 0.64 1.64 1.?40 2.24 bl 1...

  9. Impact of United States international wheat policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richards, Dean

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ; and the OPEC grouP. Developed importers consist of centrally planned and non-centrally planned countries. With the exception of Argentina, all major exporters are developed na t ious. Each of these world economic sectors has a different idea of what... with the poorer developing countries, however, this group has a rapidly growing population. Consequently, they are looking for sure supplies that can meet this expanding need -- again, at low, stable prices. Although Argentina currently supplies Latin America...

  10. Wheat Versus Milo for Dairy Cows.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Copeland, O. C. (Orlin Cephas)

    1933-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ., Asst. Chemist Jessie Whitacre, Ph. D., Chief W. H. Walker. Asst. Chemist Mary Anna Grimes. M. S.. Textilt!~ Velma Graham. Asst. Chemist Nutrition Jeanne F. DeMottier, Asst. Chemist Soil Survey: R. L. Schwartz, B. S.. Asst. Chemist **W. T. Carter. B...

  11. Couscous Salad 1 box whole wheat couscous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jawitz, James W.

    cup garbanzo beans 1 cup lemon juice ½ cup feta cheese (crumbled) 2 tablespoons garlic powder Directions: 1. In a small saucepan, bring water to a boil. Stir in couscous, cover and remove from heat, cilantro, zucchini, tomatoes, Olives, garbanzo beans, lemon juice, garlic powder, olive oil, black pepper

  12. Wheat Ridge Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri GlobalJump to:Westwood Renewables Jump to:meaning of this

  13. TASK 3.4--IMPACTS OF COFIRING BIOMASS WITH FOSSIL FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Melanie D. Hetland; Mark A. Musich; Charlene R. Crocker; Jonas Dahl; Stacie Laducer

    2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With a major worldwide effort now ongoing to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, cofiring of renewable biomass fuels at conventional coal-fired utilities is seen as one of the lower-cost options to achieve such reductions. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has undertaken a fundamental study to address the viability of cofiring biomass with coal in a pulverized coal (pc)-fired boiler for power production. Wheat straw, alfalfa stems, and hybrid poplar were selected as candidate biomass materials for blending at a 20 wt% level with an Illinois bituminous coal and an Absaloka subbituminous coal. The biomass materials were found to be easily processed by shredding and pulverizing to a size suitable for cofiring with pc in a bench-scale downfired furnace. A literature investigation was undertaken on mineral uptake and storage by plants considered for biomass cofiring in order to understand the modes of occurrence of inorganic elements in plant matter. Sixteen essential elements, C, H, O, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, B, Mo, and Cl, are found throughout plants. The predominant inorganic elements are K and Ca, which are essential to the function of all plant cells and will, therefore, be evenly distributed throughout the nonreproductive, aerial portions of herbaceous biomass. Some inorganic constituents, e.g., N, P, Ca, and Cl, are organically associated and incorporated into the structure of the plant. Cell vacuoles are the repository for excess ions in the plant. Minerals deposited in these ubiquitous organelles are expected to be most easily leached from dry material. Other elements may not have specific functions within the plant, but are nevertheless absorbed and fill a need, such as silica. Other elements, such as Na, are nonessential, but are deposited throughout the plant. Their concentration will depend entirely on extrinsic factors regulating their availability in the soil solution, i.e., moisture and soil content. Similarly, Cl content is determined less by the needs of the plant than by the availability in the soil solution; in addition to occurring naturally, Cl is present in excess as the anion complement in K fertilizer applications. An analysis was performed on existing data for switchgrass samples from ten different farms in the south-central portion of Iowa, with the goal of determining correlations between switchgrass elemental composition and geographical and seasonal changes so as to identify factors that influence the elemental composition of biomass. The most important factors in determining levels of various chemical compounds were found to be seasonal and geographical differences related to soil conditions. Combustion testing was performed to obtain deposits typical of boiler fouling and slagging conditions as well as fly ash. Analysis methods using computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy and chemical fractionation were applied to determine the composition and association of inorganic materials in the biomass samples. Modified sample preparation techniques and mineral quantification procedures using cluster analysis were developed to characterize the inorganic material in these samples. Each of the biomass types exhibited different inorganic associations in the fuel as well as in the deposits and fly ash. Morphological analyses of the wheat straw show elongated 10-30-{micro}m amorphous silica particles or phytoliths in the wheat straw structure. Alkali such as potassium, calcium, and sodium is organically bound and dispersed in the organic structure of the biomass materials. Combustion test results showed that the blends fed quite evenly, with good burnout. Significant slag deposit formation was observed for the 100% wheat straw, compared to bituminous and subbituminous coals burned under similar conditions. Although growing rapidly, the fouling deposits of the biomass and coal-biomass blends were significantly weaker than those of the coals. Fouling was only slightly worse for the 100% wheat straw fuel compared to the coals. The wheat straw ash was found to show the greatest similar

  14. Conversion of rice straw to bio-based chemicals: an integrated process using Lactobacillus brevis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jae-Han; Block, David E.; Shoemaker, Sharon P.; Mills, David A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    acetic acid, and ethanol concentration increased only for the initial 34 h then remained constant suggesting fermentationacetic acid, and ethanol were 0.92, 0.63, and 0.32 (mM/mM), respectively. Fermentation

  15. Rice Straw Fiber Reinforced High Density Polyethylene Composite: Effect of Coupled Compatibilizating and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , which are unfunctionalized ethylene/propylene copolymer (uEPR), maleic anhydride grafted EPR (EPR sty- rene/ethylene-butylenes/styrene triblock copolymer (SEBS)5,7,10­12 and ethylene/propylene

  16. Mainstreaming straw as a construction material : understanding the future of bio-based architectural materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbone, Christopher M. (Christopher Martin), 1975-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a current trend in design and construction towards the use of distinct prefabricated components in the production of buildings. There is also a growing awareness by architects and builders of the environmental ...

  17. Selected Vegetable Diseases Allen Straw, Extension Specialist, Southwest Virginia Agricultural Research and Extension Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Beans Cucumbers Cantaloupes Watermelons Peppers Tomatoes Check for reddish-brown or black sunken spots, greenish-black, water- soaked spots develop on leaves, petioles, and stems. May resemble sunscald or frost seed with hot water. Control weeds, especially of solanaceous family. Pick off affected leaves

  18. Integrated Assessment of Hadley Centre (HadCM2) Climate-Change Impacts on Agricultural Productivity and Irrigation Water Supply in the Conterminous United States. Part II. Regional Agricultural Production in 2030 and 2095.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Rosenberg, Norman J.; Brown, Robert A.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This study used scenarios of the HadCM2 GCM and the EPIC agroecosystem model to evaluate climate change impacts on crop yields and ecosystem processes. Baseline climate data were obtained from records for 1961-1990. The scenario runs for 2025-2034 and 2090-2099 were extracted from a HadCM2 run. EPIC was run on 204 representative farms under current climate and two 10-y periods centered on 2030 and 2095, each at CO2 concentrations of 365 and 560 ppm. Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and California are projected to experience significant temperature increases by 2030. Slight cooling is expected by 2030 in Alabama, Florida, Maine, Montana, Idaho, and Utah. Larger areas are projected to experience increased warming by 2095. Uniform precipitation increases are expected by 2030 in the NE. These increases are predicted to expand to the eastern half of the country by 2095. EPIC simulated yield increases for the Great Lakes, Corn Belt and Northeast regions. Simulated yields of irrigated corn yields were predicted to increase in almost all regions. Soybean yields could decrease in the Northern and Southern Plains, the Corn Belt, Delta, Appalachian, and Southeast regions and increase in the Lakes and Northeast regions. Simulated wheat yields exhibited upward yield trends under scenarios of climate change. National corn production in 2030 and 2095 could be affected by changes in three major producing regions. In 2030, corn production could increase in the Corn Belt and Lakes regions but decrease in the Northern Plains leading to an overall decrease in national production. National wheat production is expected to increase during both future periods. A proxy indicator was developed to provide a sense of where in the country, and when water would be available to satisfy change in irrigation demand for corn and alfalfa production as these are influenced by the HadCM2 scenarios and CO2-fertilization.

  19. Determination of saccharides and ethanol from biomass conversion using Raman spectroscopy: Effects of pretreatment and enzyme composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, Chien-Ju

    2010-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation focuses on the development of facile and rapid quantitative Raman spectroscopy measurements for the determination of conversion products in producing bioethanol from corn stover. Raman spectroscopy was chosen to determine glucose, xylose and ethanol in complex hydrolysis and fermentation matrices. Chapter 1 describes the motives and main goals of this work, and includes an introduction to biomass, commonly used pretreatment methods, hydrolysis and fermentation reactions. The principles of Raman spectroscopy, its advantages and applications related to biomass analysis are also illustrated. Chapter 2 and 3 comprise two published or submitted manuscripts, and the thesis concludes with an appendix. In Chapter 2, a Raman spectroscopic protocol is described to study the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by measuring the main product in hydrolysate, glucose. Two commonly utilized pretreatment methods were investigated in order to understand their effect on glucose measurements by Raman spectroscopy. Second, a similar method was set up to determine the concentration of ethanol in fermentation broth. Both of these measurements are challenged by the presence of complex matrices. In Chapter 3, a quantitative comparison of pretreatment protocols and the effect of enzyme composition are studied using systematic methods. A multipeak fitting algorithm was developed to analyze spectra of hydrolysate containing two analytes: glucose and xylose. Chapter 4 concludes with a future perspective of this research area. An appendix describes a convenient, rapid spectrophotometric method developed to measure cadmium in water. This method requires relatively low cost instrumentation and can be used in microgravity, such as space shuttles or the International Space Station. This work was performed under the supervision of Professor Marc Porter while at Iowa State University. Research related to producing biofuel from bio-renewable resources, especially bioethanol from biomass, has grown significantly in the past decade due to the high demand and rising costs of fossil fuels. More than 3 percent of the energy consumption in the U.S. is derived from renewable biomass, mostly through industrial heat and steam production by the pulp and paper industry, and electricity generation from municipal solid waste (MSW) and forest industry residues. The utilization of food-based biomass to make fuels has been widely criticized because it may increase food shortages throughout the world and raise the cost of food. Thus, nonfood-based and plentiful lignocellulosic feedstocks, such as corn stover, perennial grass, bagasse, sorghum, wheat/rice straw, herbaceous and woody crops, have great potential to be new bio-renewable sources for energy production. Given that many varieties of biomass are available, there is need for a rapid, simple, high-throughput method to screen the conversion of many plant varieties. The most suitable species for each geographic region must be determined, as well as the optimal stage of harvest, impacts of environmental conditions (temperature, soil, pH, etc.). Various genetically modified plants should be studied in order to establish the desired biomass in bioethanol production. The main screening challenge, however, is the complexity of plant cell wall structures that make reliable and sensitive analysis difficult. To date, one of the most popular methods to produce lignocellulosic ethanol is to perform enzymatic hydrolysis followed by fermentation of the hydrolysate with yeast. There are several vital needs related to the field of chemistry that have been suggested as primary research foci needed to effectively improve lignocellulosic ethanol production. These topics include overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass, the pervasiveness of pretreatment, advanced biological processing and better feedstocks. In this thesis, a novel approach using Raman spectroscopy has been developed to address important issues related to bioethanol generation, which will aid the research aimed to solve the topics m

  20. Calcium hydroxide pretreatment of biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagwani, Murlidhar

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : lime loading = 2 to 30 g Ca(OH)2/100 g dry material, water loading = 6 to 19 g water/g dry material, treatment temperature = 50 to 145'C, and treatment time = 1 to 36 h. High sugar yields were obtained from bagasse and wheat straw. For bagasse.... There was no significant effect of water loading on sugar yields, although 10 g water/g dry material produced slightly higher yields. Lime loadings of 10 and 15 g Ca(OH)2/100 g dry material were best. The effects of treatment time and temperature were interdependent...

  1. Examination of the benefits of the reduced planting alternatives of the 1985 farm bill for crop producers in the Blacklands land resource area of Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Troy Neal

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    process. A decision tree formulation of the decision process for wheat, corn, and grain sorghum production was constructed. In this model, optimal planting decisions were conditioned on climatological information available at the time. Prices were... treated as random events. Farm program provisions were those under 1988 provisions of the 1985 farm bill A full model containing the 0/92 option and a reduced model restricting the decision set to eliminate the 0/92 option were solved iv for three...

  2. Relationships among distribution of milk proteins and transmitting ability and yield of milk, efficiency of protein yield and biochemical polymorphisms in Holstein and Jersey cows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nmai, Iris Bella

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for first and second stages (trimesters) of lactation. Concentrate Ingredient Stage 1 Stage 2 Corn Kilo 21 55 49 35 Wheat bran Cottonseed meal 9. 60 Limestone Trace minera1 salt Dicalcium phosphate Magnesium oxide Sulfur Vitamin A 1. 00 . 10... to differences in stage of lacta- tion, parity or somatic cell counts. Variation in CN was greater among Holsteins than Jerseys. In early lactation, Jerseys had 4. 7' more protein as casein than Holsteins. Over the two trimesters of lactation, casein...

  3. Multiplication of soilborne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) in wheat roots infected by a soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , Fortuna, Moulitt, Pernel, Sabre, Tarasque. Sabre and Avalon showed the same virus concentration as Hardi 33 cultivars étudiés, 9 d'entre eux : « Capitole, Cargo, Fortuna, Moulin, Rescler, Albatros, Fidel

  4. Factors affecting the color of corn tortillas and tortilla chips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mireles, Raquel C

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to increase or decrease pH. Hydrogen, benzoyl and calcium peroxide were added as bleaching agents to improve tortilla chip color. Masa was sheeted, baked, cut, equilibrated and fried to produce tortillas and chips using pilot plant equipment. The color (L, a...

  5. 2014 Soil Testing Form Corn, Forage, Pasture & Hay Instructions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    Access Solid Earth OpenAccess The Cryosphere OpenAccess Retrieving simulated volcanic, desert dust and sea with T-matrix numerical simulations and air mass back tra- jectories. The Lyon UV-VIS polarization lidar, related to the mixing of Eyjafjallaj¨okull volcanic ash with sulfate particles (case of a two

  6. asian corn borer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    activity. In this talk, Pamela Mar will highlight society can help spur a more sustainable growth. Pamela Mar's work focuses on Asian development, corporate Hall, Sharon J....

  7. Grain Sorghums Versus Corn for Fattening Lambs : Third Experiment.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, J. M. (Joseph McKinley); Dickson, R. E.

    1923-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . gain. ..... Average feed cbost per lamb. ....... Iqitial cost per lamb at feed lot at 13Mcentsperpound ......... Interest, labor, shipping and selling .. charges per head, estimated.. Total cost per lamb.. ............. Estimated selling weight... at Fort Worth, lbs. .......... .: ..... Sellinq price per lamb at Fort Worth ........... at $19.50 per cwt.. Estimated net profit per lamb.. .... Necessary selling price per cwt. to ................ break even.. 20 59.880 95.250 35.370 0.393 1...

  8. The Real Corn-Ethanol Transportation Tad W. Patzek

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    of ethanol in the US is essentially equal to the unleaded gasoline prices in Europe at http://- zfacts.com/p/60.html, see Table 1 for details. Figure 1 shows that the energy-equivalent price. But there is a fundamental difference. The gasoline taxes in Europe find their way back to the society and fund energy

  9. Collection, Commercial Processing, and Utilization of Corn Stover

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet summarizes a U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program research and development project.

  10. Life Cycle of the Corn-Soybean Agroecosystem for Biobased

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    increasingly important with the growth of biofuels (i.e., biodiesel, ethanol) and biobased products (e alternative. Bioproduct LCAs, such as for biodiesel and PLA, can be compared to their petrobased counterparts

  11. Functionality of alkaline cooked corn bran on tortilla texture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guajardo Flores, Sara

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    0. 34 0. 79 0. 46 0. 95 ' Values are means of 3 replicates, 3 duplicates per replicate. P = percent pericarp remaining. ' MCM = moisture content of fresh masa. MCT = moisture content of tortillas. ' Least significant difference (P = 0. 05). 22...

  12. Corn Variety Experiments, Substation no. 3, Angleton, Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, E. B. (Elbert Brunner)

    1921-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . omid, Soils H. SCHMIDT b. V. s Veterinarian E. B. REYNOLDS, M. S., Agronom~st, Small Grains D. H. BENP~~T. V. M. D.,Veferinarian E. W. GEYER. B. S., Agronomist; Farm Super iniendenl CHEMISTRY **SALOME COMSTOCK, B. S., Seed Analvd G S FRAPS...

  13. Assessing Hail and Freeze Damage to Field Corn and Sorghum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Livingston, Stephen

    1995-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    When a crop has been damaged by hail, it is important to be able to gauge the extent of the damage, the potential for recovery of the damaged crop, and the actions that might be necessary to maximize the recovery process. This publication tells how...

  14. CURRICULUM VITA Cornelis Folkert de Hoop May 22, 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . * Expert system to diagnose electrical, mechanical and product-quality problems with veneer lathes and pulpwood. Budgets always met at competitive rates. * Reports on government sale methodology for industry stormwater runoff, biomass energy production/consumption, firelog development and GIS applications. My

  15. PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF SYLVANIA-CORNING NUCLEAR CORPORATION METALLURGIC...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    was sponsored by the AEC reactor development group as well as by Oak Ridge and Savannah River Operations Offices, Lockland Area Office, Argonne National Laboratory, and...

  16. RESEARCH Open Access Comparison of enzymatic reactivity of corn stover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    , USA 2 Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Bourns College of Engineering, University of the article © 2014 Gao et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under is properly credited. Gao et al. Biotechnology for Biofuels 2014, 7:71 http

  17. A comparison of assay techniques of corn and sorghum viruses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huebner, Rae Allison

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Colowick and N. O. Kaplan, eds. Methods in enzymology. Vol. I. Academic Press, New York. 31. NAKANE, P. K. and A. KAWAOI. 1974. Peroxidase- labelled antibody ? a new method of conjugation. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 22:1084-1091. 32. NIKOLIC, V. and D..., was also studied. Immunosorbent plates were coated rv with gamma globulin specific for NDMV. Two enzymes, horse- radish peroxidase and alkaline phosphatase, were each conjugated to NDMV specific antisera. Each worked well being as sensitive as 50 pg...

  18. Grain Sorghums Versus Corn for Fattening Baby Beeves.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, J. M. (John McKinley); Brewer, Roy A.; Dickson, R. E.

    1922-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S. D. PEARCR. JnspecIor J. 13. ROGERS, Inspector \\\\r. H. WOOD, Inspector SUBSTATIONS No. 1. Beeville. Bee County No. 8. Lubbock. Lubbock County I. E. COWART, RI. S., Superintendenf R. E. I~ARPER. B. S., Superinfendent No. 2. Troup. Smith... County W. S. HOTCHKISS, Superintendent No. 9. Pecos. Reeves County V. L. CORY. B. S., Superinfendent No. 3. Angleton. Brazoria County V. E. HAFNER, B. S., Superintendent No. 10. Co!lege Station. Brazos Count (Feeding and Breeding Substatic L. J...

  19. Alternative corn (Zea mays L.) production methods for Central Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Curtis Anthony

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at least 94% control of all species. Row spacing had little effect on weed control in this study. In 1998 at Burleson County, the 51-cm spacing provided 77 % control of johnsongrass 28 DAT, while the 102-cm spacing provided 75% control. Crop injury...

  20. The effect of flaxseed hulls on expanded corn meal products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barron, Marc Edward

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Page 14 Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope images of extruadates containing brown flaxseed hulls. A) 25% Brown flaxseed hulls (15% feed moisture); B). 25% Brown flaxseed hulls (12% feed moisture)...56 15 Environmental Scanning Electron...) with 20% brown flaxseed hulls, D) whole ground white (ATX631xRTX436)?????? 80 26 Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope images of Sumac extruadates with and with out brown flaxseed hulls. A) Extrudate with 80% Sumac and 20% Brown...