Sample records for wet chemistry methods

  1. Nitrogen-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotubes with enhanced photocatalytic activity synthesized by a facile wet chemistry method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng Jiaqing; Yang Dong; Zhu Juhong; Chen Daimei [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Jiang Zhongyi [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)], E-mail: zhyjiang@tju.edu.cn

    2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotubes with enhanced photocatalytic activity were synthesized using titanate nanotubes as raw material by a facile wet chemistry method. The resulting nanotubes were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, etc. The photocatalytic activity of nitrogen-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotubes was evaluated by the decomposition of methylene blue under artificial solar light. And it was found that nitrogen-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotubes exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than undoped titanate nanotubes.

  2. Wet/dry cooling tower and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Rohsenow, Warren R. (Waban, MA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wet/dry cooling tower wherein a liquid to-be-cooled is flowed along channels of a corrugated open surface or the like, which surface is swept by cooling air. The amount of the surface covered by the liquid is kept small compared to the dry part thereof so that said dry part acts as a fin for the wet part for heat dissipation.

  3. Mars Surveyor Program '01 Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment wet chemistry lab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kounaves, Samuel P.

    Mars Surveyor Program '01 Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment wet chemistry lab: A sensor] The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) instrument was designed, built, and flight qualified as the potential habitability of its regolith. INDEX TERMS: 6225 Planetology: Solar System Objects: Mars; 6297

  4. THE MARS ENVIRONMENTAL COMPATIBILITY ASSESSMENT (MECA) WET CHEMISTRY EXPERIMENT ON THE MARS '01 LANDER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kounaves, Samuel P.

    THE MARS ENVIRONMENTAL COMPATIBILITY ASSESSMENT (MECA) WET CHEMISTRY EXPERIMENT ON THE MARS '01, Morgantown, WV, 26507 Introduction. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) is an instrument of acquiring information relevant to HEDS, the WCL will assess the chemical composition and properties

  5. Method for wetting a boron alloy to graphite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Storms, E.K.

    1987-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for wetting a graphite substrate and spreading a a boron alloy over the substrate. The wetted substrate may be in the form of a needle for an effective ion emission source. The method may also be used to wet a graphite substrate for subsequent joining with another graphite substrate or other metal, or to form a protective coating over a graphite substrate. A noneutectic alloy of boron is formed with a metal selected from the group consisting of nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), and platinum (Pt) with excess boron, i.e., and atomic percentage of boron effective to precipitate boron at a wetting temperature of less than the liquid-phase boundary temperature of the alloy. The alloy is applied to the substrate and the graphite substrate is then heated to the wetting temperature and maintained at the wetting temperature for a time effective for the alloy to wet and spread over the substrate. The excess boron is evenly dispersed in the alloy and is readily available to promote the wetting and spreading action of the alloy. 1 fig.

  6. Method for recovering wet buckled pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, D.A.; Gray, W.E. Jr.; Yemington, C.R.

    1991-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a method for severing a submerged pipeline setting on the sea floor. It comprises lowering a deflated lift bag from the water surface to a substantially straight segment of the pipeline; positioning the deflated lift bag under the substantially straight segment of the pipeline; inflating the deflated lift bag with liquid and raising a section of the pipeline off the sea floor; lowering a cutoff saw from the water surface to the raised section of the pipeline; clamping the cutoff saw to the raised section of the pipeline; and severing the pipeline by means of the cutoff saw.

  7. Method and apparatus for combinatorial chemistry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foote, Robert S.

    2007-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for performing light-directed reactions in spatially addressable channels within a plurality of channels. One aspect of the invention employs photoactivatable reagents in solutions disposed into spatially addressable flow streams to control the parallel synthesis of molecules immobilized within the channels. The reagents may be photoactivated within a subset of channels at the site of immobilized substrate molecules or at a light-addressable site upstream from the substrate molecules. The method and apparatus of the invention find particularly utility in the synthesis of biopolymer arrays, e.g., oligonucleotides, peptides and carbohydrates, and in the combinatorial synthesis of small molecule arrays for drug discovery.

  8. Method and apparatus for combinatorial chemistry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for performing light-directed reactions in spatially addressable channels within a plurality of channels. One aspect of the invention employs photoactivatable reagents in solutions disposed into spatially addressable flow streams to control the parallel synthesis of molecules immobilized within the channels. The reagents may be photoactivated within a subset of channels at the site of immobilized substrate molecules or at a light-addressable site upstream from the substrate molecules. The method and apparatus of the invention find particularly utility in the synthesis of biopolymer arrays, e.g., oligonucleotides, peptides and carbohydrates, and in the combinatorial synthesis of small molecule arrays for drug discovery.

  9. Manual of analytical methods for the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greulich, K.A.; Gray, C.E. (comp.)

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Manual is compiled from techniques used in the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The procedures are similar to those used in other laboratories devoted to industrial hygiene practices. Some of the methods are standard; some, modified to suit our needs; and still others, developed at Sandia. The authors have attempted to present all methods in a simple and concise manner but in sufficient detail to make them readily usable. It is not to be inferred that these methods are universal for any type of sample, but they have been found very reliable for the types of samples mentioned.

  10. Conventional Wet Chemistry ICP-AES Development for RPP-WTP AY-102/C-106 Melter Feed Slurry Simulants - A Statistical Review of the Results from the Phase I Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Thomas B.

    2005-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The River Protection Project (RPP)--Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is to prepare and process High Level Waste (HLW) streams into glass waste forms that will meet HLW disposal requirements. Samples of HLW sludge and samples of this sludge mixed with glass-forming chemicals are to be taken and analyzed for process control. Glass characterization from the melter is not included in the scope. The development of viable analytical protocols to provide the required elemental analyses of these samples with rapid turnaround times (before and after addition of the glass-forming chemicals) has been defined as an RPP statement of work for the Analytical Development Section (ADS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Wet chemistry is serving as the baseline comparison to laser ablation for method development. One of the simulants used in this study by ADS was AY-102/C-106 melter feed slurry simulant, a simulant used to represent HLW samples after the addition of glass-forming chemicals. Several different dissolution methods were used by ADS in preparing samples of this simulant for elemental analyses by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The measurements generated by this process were provided to SRNL's Statistical Consulting Section (SCS) for analysis. The measurement data generated for samples of the RPP-WTP AY-102/C-106 melter feed slurry simulant are presented in this report and the different approaches used to prepare the samples are statistically compared. Comparisons among three of the dissolution methods are highlighted in this analysis. The methods are: sodium peroxide fusion in nickel crucibles, acidification with HNO{sub 3}/HCL at room temperature, and cesium carbonate fusion in zirconium crucibles. A summary table of the measurement averages generated by the three methods is presented. The cesium carbonate fusion method yielded measurements with significantly different mean values from the other two preparation methods for several of the elements.

  11. System and method for monitoring wet bulb temperature in a flue gas stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glover, R.L.; Bland, V.V.

    1990-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes in a system for monitoring wet bulb temperature in a flue gas stream means for extracting a sample of the gas from the flue, means for heating the sample to maintain the sample at substantially the same temperature as the gas in the flue, a sensor for measuring the wet bulb temperature of the sample, a reservoir of liquid, a liquid absorbent wick surrounding the sensor and extending into the liquid in the reservoir, and means for maintaining the liquid in the reservoir at a substantially constant level.

  12. Chemistry

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  13. Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  14. Enhanced-wetting, boron-based liquid-metal ion source and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bozack, M.J.; Swanson, L.W.; Bell, A.E.; Clark, W.M. Jr.; Utlaut, M.W.; Storms, E.K.

    1999-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A binary, boron-based alloy as a source for field-emission-type, ion-beam generating devices, wherein boron predominates in the alloy, preferably with a presence of about 60 atomic percent is disclosed. The other constituent in the alloy is selected from the group of elements consisting of nickel, palladium and platinum. Predominance of boron in these alloys, during operation, promotes combining of boron with trace impurities of carbon in the alloys to form B{sub 4}C and thus to promote wetting of an associated carbon support substrate. 1 fig.

  15. Enhanced-wetting, boron-based liquid-metal ion source and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bozack, Michael J. (Opelika, AL); Swanson, Lynwood W. (Portland, OR); Bell, Anthony E. (McMinnville, OR); Clark Jr., William M. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Utlaut, Mark W. (Saugus, CA); Storms, Edmund K. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A binary, boron-based alloy as a source for field-emission-type, ion-beam generating devices, wherein boron predominates in the alloy, preferably with a presence of about 60 atomic percent. The other constituent in the alloy is selected from the group of elements consisting of nickel, palladium and platinum. Predominance of boron in these alloys, during operation, promotes combining of boron with trace impurities of carbon in the alloys to form B.sub.4 C and thus to promote wetting of an associated carbon support substrate.

  16. Bayesian methods for the quantification of uncertainties in syngas chemistry models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raman, Venkat

    Bayesian methods for the quantification of uncertainties in syngas chemistry models Kalen Braman, Todd Oliver and Venkat Raman, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas, 78712 Syngas chemistry modeling is an integral step toward the development of safe and ef- ficient syngas combustors. Although substantial effort

  17. NUMERICAL ALGORITHMS IN CHEMISTRY: ALGEBRAIC METHODS. REPORT ON THE WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Karush) or by conjugate gradient methods. Relatively slow.the standard conjugate gradient methods. We shall restric"tby Reid [13J for the conjugate gradient method. Finally, we

  18. Method for predicting dry mechanical properties from wet wood and standing trees

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meglen, Robert R.; Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for determining the dry mechanical strength for a green wood comprising: illuminating a surface of the wood to be determined with light between 350-2,500 nm, the wood having a green moisture content; analyzing the surface using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data, and using a multivariate analysis to predict the dry mechanical strength of green wood when dry by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data obtained from a reference wood having a green moisture content, the second spectral data correlated with a known mechanical strength analytical result obtained from a reference wood when dried and having a dry moisture content.

  19. Preparation of supported gold nanoparticles by a modified incipient wetness impregnation method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    procedure of impregnation of oxide supports with chloroauric acid, which is well-known to lead to large gold Paris Cedex 05, France Running title: Modified method of impregnation of Au/oxide Figures: 8 Tables: 3 after a treatment of calcination at 300°C on any type of oxide supports (alumina, titania, silica

  20. High Accuracy Numerical Methods for Thermally Perfect Gas Flows with Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soatto, Stefano

    High Accuracy Numerical Methods for Thermally Perfect Gas Flows with Chemistry Ronald P. Fedkiw with calculations of a 1-D reacting shock tube and a 2-D combustor. 2 #12; 1 Introduction Chemically reacting, high or the incineration of waste in a dump combustor. The combination of energetic chemical reactions and compressible gas

  1. Corrosiveness of wet residential building thermal insulation---Mechanisms and evaluation of electrochemical methods for assessing corrosion behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stansbury, E.E. [Stansbury (E.E.), Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An evaluation has been made of the corrosiveness of selected wet residential building thermal insulation materials in contact with low carbon steel. Investigations were conducted both in wet insulations and in filtered leachates from insulations derived from thirteen cellulosic, three mineral fiber and four foam products. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements are reported from which the overall corrosion response was assessed and then the techniques of Tafel and polarization resistance analysis applied to estimate corrosion rates. Corrosion rates were also estimated electrochemically using a direct reading instrument which performs the rate calculation based on the polarization resistance principle. Direct determinations of corrosion rate were based on weight loss measurements.

  2. FULL-SCALE TESTING OF ENHANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.K. McDonald; G.T. Amrhein; G.A. Kudlac; D. Madden Yurchison

    2003-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems are currently installed on about 25% of the coal-fired utility generating capacity in the U.S., representing about 15% of the number of coal-fired units. Depending on the effect of operating parameters such as mercury content of the coal, form of mercury (elemental or oxidized) in the flue gas, scrubber spray tower configuration, liquid-to-gas ratio, and slurry chemistry, FGD systems can provide cost-effective, near-term mercury emissions control options with a proven history of commercial operation. For boilers already equipped with FGD systems, the incremental cost of any vapor phase mercury removal achieved is minimal. To be widely accepted and implemented, technical approaches that improve mercury removal performance for wet FGD systems should also have low incremental costs and have little or no impact on operation and SO{sub 2} removal performance. The ultimate goal of the Full-scale Testing of Enhanced Mercury Control for Wet FGD Systems Program was to commercialize methods for the control of mercury in coal-fired electric utility systems equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD). The program was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development, and Babcock & Wilcox. Host sites and associated support were provided by Michigan South Central Power Agency (MSCPA) and Cinergy. Field-testing was completed at two commercial coal-fired utilities with wet FGD systems: (1) MSCPA's 55 MW{sub e} Endicott Station and (2) Cinergy's 1300 MW{sub e} Zimmer Station. Testing was conducted at these two locations because of the large differences in size and wet scrubber chemistry. Endicott employs a limestone, forced oxidation (LSFO) wet FGD system, whereas Zimmer uses Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime (magnesium enhanced lime) and ex situ oxidation. Both locations burn Ohio bituminous coal.

  3. Tensor product methods and entanglement optimization for ab initio quantum chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szilárd Szalay; Max Pfeffer; Valentin Murg; Gergely Barcza; Frank Verstraete; Reinhold Schneider; Örs Legeza

    2014-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The treatment of high-dimensional problems such as the Schr\\"odinger equation can be approached by concepts of tensor product approximation. We present general techniques that can be used for the treatment of high-dimensional optimization tasks and time-dependent equations, and connect them to concepts already used in many-body quantum physics. Based on achievements from the past decade, entanglement-based methods, -- developed from different perspectives for different purposes in distinct communities already matured to provide a variety of tools -- can be combined to attack highly challenging problems in quantum chemistry. The aim of the present paper is to give a pedagogical introduction to the theoretical background of this novel field and demonstrate the underlying benefits through numerical applications on a text book example. Among the various optimization tasks we will discuss only those which are connected to a controlled manipulation of the entanglement which is in fact the key ingredient of the methods considered in the paper. The selected topics will be covered according to a series of lectures given on the topic "New wavefunction methods and entanglement optimizations in quantum chemistry" at the Workshop on Theoretical Chemistry, 18 - 21 February 2014, Mariapfarr, Austria.

  4. Categorical Exclusion 4497: Lithium Wet Chemistry Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  5. Carbon nanotube fiber spun from wetted ribbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yuntian T; Arendt, Paul; Zhang, Xiefei; Li, Qingwen; Fu, Lei; Zheng, Lianxi

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber of carbon nanotubes was prepared by a wet-spinning method involving drawing carbon nanotubes away from a substantially aligned, supported array of carbon nanotubes to form a ribbon, wetting the ribbon with a liquid, and spinning a fiber from the wetted ribbon. The liquid can be a polymer solution and after forming the fiber, the polymer can be cured. The resulting fiber has a higher tensile strength and higher conductivity compared to dry-spun fibers and to wet-spun fibers prepared by other methods.

  6. Algal Biomass Constituent Analysis: Method Uncertainties and Investigation of the Underlying Measuring Chemistries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurens, L. M. L.; Dempster, T. A.; Jones, H. D. T.; Wolfrum, E. J.; Van Wychen, S.; McAllister, J. S. P.; Rencenberger, M.; Parchert, K. J.; Gloe, L. M.

    2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Algal biomass compositional analysis data form the basis of a large number of techno-economic process analysis models that are used to investigate and compare different processes in algal biofuels production. However, the analytical methods used to generate these data are far from standardized. This work investigated the applicability of common methods for rapid chemical analysis of biomass samples with respect to accuracy and precision. This study measured lipids, protein, carbohydrates, ash, and moisture of a single algal biomass sample at 3 institutions by 8 independent researchers over 12 separate workdays. Results show statistically significant differences in the results from a given analytical method among laboratories but not between analysts at individual laboratories, suggesting consistent training is a critical issue for empirical analytical methods. Significantly different results from multiple lipid and protein measurements were found to be due to different measurement chemistries. We identified a set of compositional analysis procedures that are in best agreement with data obtained by more advanced analytical procedures. The methods described here and used for the round robin experiment do not require specialized instrumentation, and with detailed analytical documentation, the differences between laboratories can be markedly reduced.

  7. 147Chemistry Chemistry (Chem)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dresden, Gregory

    147Chemistry Chemistry (Chem) Bayly Foundation PROFESSORS FRANCE, PLEVA ASSOCIATE PROFESSORS ALty A student may complete only one of the majors listed in the Department of Chemistry. The major in chemistry leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree requires completion of 44 credits as follows: 1. Chemistry 111, 112

  8. Accepted Manuscript Variational formulations for surface tension, capillarity and wetting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Pascal

    Accepted Manuscript Variational formulations for surface tension, capillarity and wetting Gustavo C formulations for surface tension, capillarity and wetting, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. (2011), doi: 10 formulations for surface tension, capillarity and wetting Gustavo C. Buscagliaa,b, , Roberto F. Ausasa,b a

  9. Dynamic wetting on superhydrophobic surfaces: Droplet impact and wetting hysteresis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, Katherine M.

    We study the wetting energetics and wetting hysteresis of sessile and impacting water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces as a function of surface texture and surface energy. For sessile drops, we find three wetting ...

  10. 148 Chemistry/Chinese Chemistry 347 (3)--Advanced Organic Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dresden, Gregory

    148 Chemistry/Chinese Chemistry 347 (3)--Advanced Organic Chemistry Prerequisite: Chemistry 242,syntheticmethodology,mod- ernsyntheticreactions,protectinggroups,naturalprod- uctssynthesis,andcombinatorialchemistry.France. Spring Chemistry 350 (3)--Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Prerequisites: Chemistry 250, 252, and 262. Anintro

  11. Ensuring message embedding in wet paper steganography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Ensuring message embedding in wet paper steganography Daniel Augot1, Morgan Barbier1, and Caroline as a method to stealthily embed a message in a cover-medium through the use of bounded decoding. In 2005-medium and the message. Unfortunately, almost all existing methods solving the bounded decoding syndrome problem

  12. Atmospheric Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finlayson-Pitts, B. J

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in our understanding of important chemistry and highlightedin our knowledge. In summary, the chemistry occurring in theBJ, Pitts JN, Jr (2000) Chemistry of the Upper and Lower

  13. CLUSTER CHEMISTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muetterties, Earl L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 11 Wiley Huetterties and C. M.Submitted to the Journal of Organometallic ChemistryCLUSTER CHEMISTRY Earl L. Muetterties TWO-WEEK LOAN COPY May

  14. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  15. Nanostructure, Chemistry and Crystallography of Iron Nitride...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanostructure, Chemistry and Crystallography of Iron Nitride Magnetic Materials by Ultra-High-Resolution Electron Microscopy and Related Methods Nanostructure, Chemistry and...

  16. Computer simulations of the wetting properties of neon on heterogeneous surfaces Stefano Curtarolo,1,2,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curtarolo, Stefano

    Computer simulations of the wetting properties of neon on heterogeneous surfaces Stefano Curtarolo Received 31 August 1998 We use the grand canonical Monte Carlo method to study the nature of wetting the grand canonical Monte Carlo method of statistical mechanics to compute the nature of wetting transitions

  17. Controllable underwater anisotropic oil-wetting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yong, Jiale; Chen, Feng, E-mail: chenfeng@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Yang, Qing; Farooq, Umar; Bian, Hao; Du, Guangqing; Hou, Xun [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing System Engineering and Key Laboratory of Photonics Technology for Information of Shaanxi Province, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This Letter demonstrates a simple method to achieve underwater anisotropic oil-wetting using silicon surfaces with a microgroove array produced by femtosecond laser ablation. The oil contact angles along the direction perpendicular to the grooves are consistently larger than those parallel to the microgroove arrays in water because the oil droplet is restricted by the energy barrier that exists between the non-irradiated domain and the trapped water in the laser-ablated microgrooves. This underwater anisotropic oil-wetting is able to be controlled, and the anisotropy can be tuned from 0° to ?20° by adjusting the period of the microgroove arrays.

  18. EPA/600/R-99/029 Innovative Urban Wet-Weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitt, Robert E.

    EPA/600/R-99/029 Innovative Urban Wet-Weather Flow Management Systems By James P. Heaney Department Laboratory #12;iv Abstract This research project describes innovative methods to develop improved wet weather

  19. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, L.C.; Simpson, M.L.

    1995-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically. 4 figures.

  20. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically.

  1. Method and apparatus for analyzing the internal chemistry and compositional variations of materials and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kazmerski, L.L.

    1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for obtaining and mapping chemical compositional data for solid devices. It includes a SIMS mass analyzer or similar system capable of being rastered over a surface of the solid to sample the material at a pattern of selected points, as the surface is being eroded away by sputtering or a similar process. The data for each point sampled in a volume of the solid is digitally processed and indexed by element or molecule type, exact spacial location within the volume, and the concentration levels of the detected element or molecule types. This data can then be recalled and displayed for any desired planar view in the volume.

  2. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 2, Sample preparation methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains the interim change notice for sample preparation methods. Covered are: acid digestion for metals analysis, fusion of Hanford tank waste solids, water leach of sludges/soils/other solids, extraction procedure toxicity (simulate leach in landfill), sample preparation for gamma spectroscopy, acid digestion for radiochemical analysis, leach preparation of solids for free cyanide analysis, aqueous leach of solids for anion analysis, microwave digestion of glasses and slurries for ICP/MS, toxicity characteristic leaching extraction for inorganics, leach/dissolution of activated metal for radiochemical analysis, extraction of single-shell tank (SST) samples for semi-VOC analysis, preparation and cleanup of hydrocarbon- containing samples for VOC and semi-VOC analysis, receiving of waste tank samples in onsite transfer cask, receipt and inspection of SST samples, receipt and extrusion of core samples at 325A shielded facility, cleaning and shipping of waste tank samplers, homogenization of solutions/slurries/sludges, and test sample preparation for bioassay quality control program.

  3. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 3, Inorganic instrumental methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The methods cover: C in solutions, F (electrode), elements by atomic emission spectrometry, inorganic anions by ion chromatography, Hg in water/solids/sludges, As, Se, Bi, Pb, data calculations for SST (single shell tank?) samples, Sb, Tl, Ag, Pu, O/M ratio, ignition weight loss, pH value, ammonia (N), Cr(VI), alkalinity, U, C sepn. from soil/sediment/sludge, Pu purif., total N, water, C and S, surface Cl/F, leachable Cl/F, outgassing of Ge detector dewars, gas mixing, gas isotopic analysis, XRF of metals/alloys/compounds, H in Zircaloy, H/O in metals, inpurity extraction, reduced/total Fe in glass, free acid in U/Pu solns, density of solns, Kr/Xe isotopes in FFTF cover gas, H by combustion, MS of Li and Cs isotopes, MS of lanthanide isotopes, GC operation, total Na on filters, XRF spectroscopy QC, multichannel analyzer operation, total cyanide in water/solid/sludge, free cyanide in water/leachate, hydrazine conc., ICP-MS, {sup 99}Tc, U conc./isotopes, microprobe analysis of solids, gas analysis, total cyanide, H/N{sub 2}O in air, and pH in soil.

  4. Environmental Chemistry II (Atmospheric Chemistry)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dibble, Theodore

    SYLLABUS FOR Environmental Chemistry II (Atmospheric Chemistry) FCH 511 Fall 2013 Theodore S/explaining the trends in J as a function of altitude and solar zenith angle. The second involves analyzing real

  5. Investigation of Mineral Transformations in Wet Supercritical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mineral Transformations in Wet Supercritical CO2 by Electron Microscopy. Investigation of Mineral Transformations in Wet Supercritical CO2 by Electron Microscopy. Abstract: The...

  6. Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 3A—Conversion Technologies III: Energy from Our Waste—Will we Be Rich in Fuel or Knee Deep in Trash by 2025? Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes James R. Oyler, President, Genifuel Corporation

  7. Organophosphorus chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanson, Paul R.

    2014-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    2087 Organophosphorus chemistry Paul R. Hanson Editorial Open Access Address: Department of Chemistry, University of Kansas, 1251 Wescoe Hall Drive, Lawrence, KS 66045-7582, USA Email: Paul R. Hanson - phanson@ku.edu. Keywords: organophosphorus... Beilstein J. Org. Chem. 2014, 10, 2087–2088. doi:10.3762/bjoc.10.217 Received: 28 July 2014 Accepted: 06 August 2014 Published: 04 September 2014 This article is part of the Thematic Series "Organophosphorus chemistry" Guest Editor: P. R. Hanson © 2014...

  8. Selenium Speciation and Management in Wet FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Searcy, K; Richardson, M; Blythe, G; Wallschlaeger, D; Chu, P; Dene, C

    2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses results from bench- and pilot-scale simulation tests conducted to determine the factors that impact selenium speciation and phase partitioning in wet FGD systems. The selenium chemistry in wet FGD systems is highly complex and not completely understood, thus extrapolation and scale-up of these results may be uncertain. Control of operating parameters and application of scrubber additives have successfully demonstrated the avoidance or decrease of selenite oxidation at the bench and pilot scale. Ongoing efforts to improve sample handling methods for selenium speciation measurements are also discussed. Bench-scale scrubber tests explored the impacts of oxidation air rate, trace metals, scrubber additives, and natural limestone on selenium speciation in synthetic and field-generated full-scale FGD liquors. The presence and concentration of redox-active chemical species as well as the oxidation air rate contribute to the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) conditions in FGD scrubbers. Selenite oxidation to the undesirable selenate form increases with increasing ORP conditions, and decreases with decreasing ORP conditions. Solid-phase manganese [Mn(IV)] appeared to be the significant metal impacting the oxidation of selenite to selenate. Scrubber additives were tested for their ability to inhibit selenite oxidation. Although dibasic acid and other scrubber additives showed promise in early clear liquor (sodium based and without calcium solids) bench-scale tests, these additives did not show strong inhibition of selenite oxidation in tests with higher manganese concentrations and with slurries from full-scale wet FGD systems. In bench-tests with field liquors, addition of ferric chloride at a 250:1 iron-to-selenium mass ratio sorbed all incoming selenite to the solid phase, although addition of ferric salts had no impact on native selenate that already existed in the field slurry liquor sample. As ORP increases, selenite may oxidize to selenate more rapidly than it sorbs to ferric solids. Though it was not possible to demonstrate a decrease in selenium concentrations to levels below the project�¢����s target of 50 ���µg/L during pilot testing, some trends observed in bench-scale testing were evident at the pilot scale. Specifically, reducing oxidation air rate and ORP tends to either retain selenium as selenite in the liquor or shift selenium phase partitioning to the solid phase. Oxidation air flow rate control may be one option for managing selenium behavior in FGD scrubbers. Units that cycle load widely may find it more difficult to impact ORP conditions with oxidation air flow rate control alone. Because decreasing oxidation air rates to the reaction tank showed that all �¢����new�¢��� selenium reported to the solids, the addition of ferric chloride to the pilot scrubber could not show further improvements in selenium behavior. Ferric chloride addition did shift mercury to the slurry solids, specifically to the fine particles. Several competing pathways may govern the reporting of selenium to the slurry solids: co-precipitation with gypsum into the bulk solids and sorption or co-precipitation with iron into the fine particles. Simultaneous measurement of selenium and mercury behavior suggests a holistic management strategy is best to optimize the fate of both of these elements in FGD waters. Work conducted under this project evaluated sample handling and analytical methods for selenium speciation in FGD waters. Three analytical techniques and several preservation methods were employed. Measurements of selenium speciation over time indicated that for accurate selenium speciation, it is best to conduct measurements on unpreserved, filtered samples as soon after sampling as possible. The capital and operating costs for two selenium management strategies were considered: ferric chloride addition and oxidation air flow rate control. For ferric chloride addition, as migh

  9. US PRACTICE FOR INTERIM WET STORAGE OF RRSNF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinson, D.

    2010-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminum research reactor spent nuclear fuel is currently being stored or is anticipated to be returned to the United States and stored at Department of Energy storage facilities at the Savannah River Site and the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This paper summarizes the current practices to provide for continued safe interim wet storage in the U.S. Aluminum fuel stored in poor quality water is subject to aggressive corrosion attack and therefore water chemistry control systems are essential to maintain water quality. Fuel with minor breaches are safely stored directly in the basin. Fuel pieces and heavily damaged fuel is safely stored in isolation canisters.

  10. Dry purification of aspirational air in coke-sorting systems with wet slaking of coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coke transportation after wet slaking is accompanied by the release of dust in the production building and in the surrounding atmosphere. Wet methods are traditionally used to purify very humid air. Giprokoks has developed designs for highly efficient dry dust-removal methods in such conditions.

  11. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Progress Report for FY 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, D.W.; Boparai, A.S.; Bowers, D.L. [and others

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1994 (October 1993 through September 1994). This annual report is the eleventh for the ACL and describes continuing effort on projects, work on new projects, and contributions of the ACL staff to various programs at ANL. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. The ACL also has a research program in analytical chemistry, conducts instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems. Some routine or standard analyses are done, but it is common for the Argonne programs to generate unique problems that require significant development of methods and adaption of techniques to obtain useful analytical data. The ACL has four technical groups -- Chemical Analysis, Instrumental Analysis, Organic Analysis, and Environmental Analysis -- which together include about 45 technical staff members. Talents and interests of staff members cross the group lines, as do many projects within the ACL. The Chemical Analysis Group uses wet- chemical and instrumental methods for elemental, compositional, and isotopic determinations in solid, liquid, and gaseous samples and provides specialized analytical services. Major instruments in this group include an ion chromatograph (IC), an inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometer (ICP/AES), spectrophotometers, mass spectrometers (including gas-analysis and thermal-ionization mass spectrometers), emission spectrographs, autotitrators, sulfur and carbon determinators, and a kinetic phosphorescence uranium analyzer.

  12. BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE WET WIPES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youmans-Mcdonald, L.

    2011-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant{trademark} Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

  13. Chemistry-nuclear chemistry division. Progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, R.R. (comp.)

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, element migration and fixation, inorganic chemistry, isotope separation and analysis, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, muonic x rays, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research.

  14. Wetting and lubricating film instabilities in microchannels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cubaud, Thomas

    , and silicone oils . Dynamic wetting transitions: a pearl flow thick lubricating film , b spider flow thinWetting and lubricating film instabilities in microchannels Thomas Cubaud Department of Mechanical of partially wetting threads in planar microchannels of height h=100 or 250 m fluids: ethanol, mineral oils

  15. Position: Assistant Professor of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Grey Position: Assistant Professor of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Email: jkgrey@unm.edu Phone: 505.277.1658; Fax: 505.277.2609 Office: Clark Hall B70 Homepage: http://chemistry.unm.edu/faculty_web/jgrey Education B.S. in Chemistry, 1999, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI Ph.D. in Chemistry

  16. Green Chemistry and Workers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. Warner. 1998. Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice. NewNew Science, Green Chemistry and Environmental Health.abstract.html 5. American Chemistry Council. 2003. Guide to

  17. UCLA CHEMISTRY & BIOCHEMISTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Alex J.

    UCLA CHEMISTRY & BIOCHEMISTRY ORIENTATION HANDBOOK 2012-2013 #12;Table of Contents Introduction .............................................................................................................................................2 Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Office ..................................................................................................3 Majors in Chemistry

  18. The microrheology of wet forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraynik, A.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reinelt, D.A. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Mathematics

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Kelvin cell is the only known topology for stable, perfectly ordered, dry foams. During topological transitions (T1s) associated with large elastic-plastic deformations, these cells switch neighbors and some faces gain or lose two sides, but the resulting bubbles with different shape are still Kelvin cells. The bubbles in a stable, perfectly ordered. wet foam are not limited to one topology (or even the two described here). The topological transitions considered here result in gain or loss of two dry films per bubble. The transition from Kelvin to RD topology is triggered by films shrinking in area, as in the dry case. However, the reverse transition from RD to Kelvin topology involves a different mechanism--opposite interfaces of an eight-way vertex touch and a new film grows from the point of contact as the foam is compressed. Microrheological analysis based on 2D models of foam structure has been useful preparation for 3D, despite obvious differences between 2D and 3D. Linear elastic behavior is anisotropic for perfectly ordered 3D foams--nonlinear elastic behavior is isotropic for 2D foams with polydisperse hexagonal structure. The shear moduli of a wet Kelvin foam decrease with increasing {phi}--the shear modulus of a wet 2D foam (with three-way Plateau borders) does not depend on {phi} at all. The effective isotropic shear moduli G of perfectly ordered wet foams tend to decrease with increasing {phi} but do not exhibit linear dependence, which may stem from the disorder of real systems.

  19. Actinide Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProducts (VAP) VAP7-0973 1 IntroductionActinide Chemistry Actinide chemistry

  20. Eleventh international symposium on radiopharmaceutical chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains abstracts of papers which were presented at the Eleventh International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry. Sessions included: radiopharmaceuticals for the dopaminergic system, strategies for the production and use of labelled reactive small molecules, radiopharmaceuticals for measuring metabolism, radiopharmaceuticals for the serotonin and sigma receptor systems, labelled probes for molecular biology applications, radiopharmaceuticals for receptor systems, radiopharmaceuticals utilizing coordination chemistry, radiolabelled antibodies, radiolabelling methods for small molecules, analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry.

  1. Lon A. Porter, Jr., Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porter Jr., Lon A.

    Nanotechnology, Industrial Inorganic Chemistry, Materials Chemistry, Forensic Chemistry, and Chemistry, Business in the synthesis of exotic new materials and utilization of cutting edge fabrication/characterization methods Fellowship · Graduated in August 2003 with a Ph. D. in inorganic chemistry, as related to inorganic chemistry

  2. Nanostructure, Chemistry and Crystallography of Iron Nitride...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nanostructure, Chemistry and Crystallography of Iron Nitride Magnetic Materials by Ultra-High-Resolution Electron Microscopy and Related Methods DOE 2011 Vehicle Technologies...

  3. Chemistry 106X -Fall 2010 General Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Diane

    Chemistry 106X - Fall 2010 General Chemistry Instructor: Christopher Iceman Class: MWF 9 bookstore or elsewhere: · Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity 7th Ed. by Kotz, Treichel, and Townsend-0-495-38703-9 Electronic Book - ISBN 978-0-495-68043-7 · OWL pin number for Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity 7th Ed. (1

  4. Chemistry 411/611 Inorganic Chemistry (2011)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 Chemistry 411/611 Inorganic Chemistry (2011) Instructor: Assistant Professor Mathew M. Maye Chemistry", 5th Edition, Freeman Press. Available at SU bookstore. The solution manual is optional. (Suggested for CHE611 Students pursuing Inorganic) Huheey, "Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure

  5. Chemistry 106X -Spring 2011 General Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Diane

    Chemistry 106X - Spring 2011 General Chemistry Instructor: Christopher Iceman Class: MWF 1 and can be purchased in the UAF bookstore or elsewhere: · Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity 7th Ed for Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity 7th Ed. (1 or 2 semester) · TurningPoint Technologies ResponseCard RF

  6. Elucidating the mysteries of wetting.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Edmund Blackburn, III (,; ); Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Grillet, Anne Mary; Sackinger, Philip A.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Emerson, John Allen; Ash, Benjamin Jesse; Heine, David R.; Brooks, Carlton, F.; Gorby, Allen D.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nearly every manufacturing and many technologies central to Sandia's business involve physical processes controlled by interfacial wetting. Interfacial forces, e.g. conjoining/disjoining pressure, electrostatics, and capillary condensation, are ubiquitous and can surpass and even dominate bulk inertial or viscous effects on a continuum level. Moreover, the statics and dynamics of three-phase contact lines exhibit a wide range of complex behavior, such as contact angle hysteresis due to surface roughness, surface reaction, or compositional heterogeneities. These thermodynamically and kinetically driven interactions are essential to the development of new materials and processes. A detailed understanding was developed for the factors controlling wettability in multicomponent systems from computational modeling tools, and experimental diagnostics for systems, and processes dominated by interfacial effects. Wettability probed by dynamic advancing and receding contact angle measurements, ellipsometry, and direct determination of the capillary and disjoining forces. Molecular scale experiments determined the relationships between the fundamental interactions between molecular species and with the substrate. Atomistic simulations studied the equilibrium concentration profiles near the solid and vapor interfaces and tested the basic assumptions used in the continuum approaches. These simulations provide guidance in developing constitutive equations, which more accurately take into account the effects of surface induced phase separation and concentration gradients near the three-phase contact line. The development of these accurate models for dynamic multicomponent wetting allows improvement in science based engineering of manufacturing processes previously developed through costly trial and error by varying material formulation and geometry modification.

  7. School of Chemistry CHEM3100: Chemistry at a Molecular Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rzepa, Henry S.

    School of Chemistry CHEM3100: Chemistry at a Molecular Level Tutorial Groups 2013/14 Name Programme Tutor Ahmed, Zacher Medicinal Chemistry Arif, Saboor Chemistry Bagnall, Samuel Chemistry Barbara, David Chemistry Beaumont, Nicholas Chemistry Quinn, Michael J Chemistry Bennett, Matthew Chemistry Booth, Natalie

  8. CHEMISTRY CURRICULUM SEMESTER I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, N.

    CHEMISTRY CURRICULUM SEMESTER ­ I Chemistry-I: Physical principles (2:1) Atomic structure-state approximation, Arrhenius equation and collision theory and catalysis. SEMESTER ­ II Chemistry-II: Structure orbital theory: polyatomic molecules - Walsh diagram; Main group chemistry: periodic properties, chemistry

  9. BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM WET OXIDSED CORN STOVER USING PRE-TREATED MANURE AS A NUTRIENT SOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM WET OXIDSED CORN STOVER USING PRE-TREATED MANURE AS A NUTRIENT SOURCE E for the production of bioethanol. This pre-treatment method, similar to other hot water pre-treatments, acts

  10. Predictive modeling of reactive wetting and metal joining.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Swol, Frank B.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance, reproducibility and reliability of metal joints are complex functions of the detailed history of physical processes involved in their creation. Prediction and control of these processes constitutes an intrinsically challenging multi-physics problem involving heating and melting a metal alloy and reactive wetting. Understanding this process requires coupling strong molecularscale chemistry at the interface with microscopic (diffusion) and macroscopic mass transport (flow) inside the liquid followed by subsequent cooling and solidification of the new metal mixture. The final joint displays compositional heterogeneity and its resulting microstructure largely determines the success or failure of the entire component. At present there exists no computational tool at Sandia that can predict the formation and success of a braze joint, as current capabilities lack the ability to capture surface/interface reactions and their effect on interface properties. This situation precludes us from implementing a proactive strategy to deal with joining problems. Here, we describe what is needed to arrive at a predictive modeling and simulation capability for multicomponent metals with complicated phase diagrams for melting and solidification, incorporating dissolutive and composition-dependent wetting.

  11. Combustion chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  12. Green Chemistry and Workers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    19. P. Anastas, J. Warner. 1998. Green Chemistry: Theory andto Advance New Science, Green Chemistry and EnvironmentalChronicle Extra: Guide to Green Jobs. Field with a Future.

  13. Wetting and free surface flow modeling for potting and encapsulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Carlton, F.; Brooks, Michael J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Graham, Alan Lyman (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Noble, David F. (David Frederick) (.; )); Notz, Patrick K.; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Mahoney, Leo James (Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, MO); Baer, Thomas A.; Berchtold, Kathryn (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Adolf, Douglas Brian; Wilkes, Edward Dean; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Givler, Richard C.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Cote, Raymond O.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Grillet, Anne Mary; Kraynik, Andrew Michael

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of an effort to reduce costs and improve quality control in encapsulation and potting processes the Technology Initiative Project ''Defect Free Manufacturing and Assembly'' has completed a computational modeling study of flows representative of those seen in these processes. Flow solutions are obtained using a coupled, finite-element-based, numerical method based on the GOMA/ARIA suite of Sandia flow solvers. The evolution of the free surface is solved with an advanced level set algorithm. This approach incorporates novel methods for representing surface tension and wetting forces that affect the evolution of the free surface. In addition, two commercially available codes, ProCAST and MOLDFLOW, are also used on geometries representing encapsulation processes at the Kansas City Plant. Visual observations of the flow in several geometries are recorded in the laboratory and compared to the models. Wetting properties for the materials in these experiments are measured using a unique flowthrough goniometer.

  14. Department of Chemistry "Supramolecular Chemistry in Polymeric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark, James E.

    Department of Chemistry "Supramolecular Chemistry in Polymeric Systems: From Nanoassemblies to Dynamic Materials" Presented by: Professor Stuart J. Rowan Case Western Reserve University Departmental Colloquium Friday, May 15, 2009 3:00 p.m. 502 Rieveschl #12;Supramolecular Chemistry in Polymeric Systems

  15. Chemistry 411/611 Inorganic Chemistry (2010)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -ligand reactivity, and the chemical synthesis of coordination compounds and other "solid" state materials 1 Chemistry 411/611 Inorganic Chemistry (2010) Instructor: Assistant Professor Mathew M. Maye: M-W 4:00-5:00, and by appointment Credits: 3 Text: (Required) Shriver & Atkins, "Inorganic Chemistry

  16. FACULTY POSITION IN INORGANIC CHEMISTRY Department of Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, Robert

    FACULTY POSITION IN INORGANIC CHEMISTRY Department of Chemistry Syracuse University The Department of Chemistry at Syracuse University invites applications for a tenure track faculty position at the Assistant Professor level in inorganic chemistry with specialization in materials chemistry (broadly defined

  17. Order of wetting transitions in electrolyte solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibagon, Ingrid, E-mail: ingrid@is.mpg.de; Bier, Markus, E-mail: bier@is.mpg.de; Dietrich, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Intelligente Systeme, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany and IV. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut für Intelligente Systeme, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany and IV. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    For wetting films in dilute electrolyte solutions close to charged walls we present analytic expressions for their effective interface potentials. The analysis of these expressions renders the conditions under which corresponding wetting transitions can be first- or second-order. Within mean field theory we consider two models, one with short- and one with long-ranged solvent-solvent and solvent-wall interactions. The analytic results reveal in a transparent way that wetting transitions in electrolyte solutions, which occur far away from their critical point (i.e., the bulk correlation length is less than half of the Debye length) are always first-order if the solvent-solvent and solvent-wall interactions are short-ranged. In contrast, wetting transitions close to the bulk critical point of the solvent (i.e., the bulk correlation length is larger than the Debye length) exhibit the same wetting behavior as the pure, i.e., salt-free, solvent. If the salt-free solvent is governed by long-ranged solvent-solvent as well as long-ranged solvent-wall interactions and exhibits critical wetting, adding salt can cause the occurrence of an ion-induced first-order thin-thick transition which precedes the subsequent continuous wetting as for the salt-free solvent.

  18. Identification of High Collision Concentration Locations Under Wet Weather Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, Taesung; Chung, Koohong; Ragland, David; Chan, Chin-Yao

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conducted under wet weather conditions. Observations fromLeahy, M. , and Suggett, J. Weather as a Chronic Hazard forLocations Under Wet Weather Conditions Taesung Hwang,

  19. Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division. Progress report, October 1980-September 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, R.R. (comp.)

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes major progress in the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY 1981. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, medical radioisotopes research, element migration and fixation, nuclear waste isolation research, inorganic and structural chemistry, isotope separation, analysis and applications, the newly established Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Center, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, pion charge exchange, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research.

  20. Maintenance of Stormwater Wetlands and Wet Ponds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, William F.

    constructed across North Carolina. OVERVIEW As its name implies, a stormwater wetland is a wetland system of stormwater wetlands and wet ponds is performed to achieve four goals: efficient hydraulic flow and pollutant

  1. Breakdown in the Wetting Transparency of Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shih, Chih-Jen

    We develop a theory to model the van der Waals interactions between liquid and graphene, including quantifying the wetting behavior of a graphene-coated surface. Molecular dynamics simulations and contact angle measurements ...

  2. Why chemistry? Chemistry is fundamental: it is the enabling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussex, University of

    Chemistry Why chemistry? Chemistry is fundamental: it is the enabling science that underlies many technology. A chemistry degree gives you the understanding to contribute to our future in very topical areas) in Chemistry BSc (Hons) in Chemistry MChem (Hons) in Chemistry (with an industrial placement year) MChem (Hons

  3. Ash Chemistry in MSW Incineration Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ash Chemistry in MSW Incineration Plants: Advanced Characterization and Thermodynamic Introduction to Municipal Solid Waste Incineration 2 Chapter 2 Plants Considered and Samples Collected 5 Chapter 3 Mapping of Ash Chemistry in MSWI Plants 8 Chapter 4 Advanced Characterization Methods 12 4

  4. SCHEDULE OF FEES Wet Milling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    of Agricultural and Biological Engineering Agricultural Engineering Sciences Bldg. 1304 West Pennsylvania Avenue and other factors. Tests follow strict standard operating procedures and follow methods similar to Good Laboratory Practices (GLP). Studies using fully documented GLP methods or large studies can be conducted

  5. Mercury removal in utility wet scrubber using a chelating agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amrhein, Gerald T. (Louisville, OH)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for capturing and reducing the mercury content of an industrial flue gas such as that produced in the combustion of a fossil fuel or solid waste adds a chelating agent, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or other similar compounds like HEDTA, DTPA and/or NTA, to the flue gas being scrubbed in a wet scrubber used in the industrial process. The chelating agent prevents the reduction of oxidized mercury to elemental mercury, thereby increasing the mercury removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. Exemplary tests on inlet and outlet mercury concentration in an industrial flue gas were performed without and with EDTA addition. Without EDTA, mercury removal totaled 42%. With EDTA, mercury removal increased to 71%. The invention may be readily adapted to known wet scrubber systems and it specifically provides for the removal of unwanted mercury both by supplying S.sup.2- ions to convert Hg.sup.2+ ions into mercuric sulfide (HgS) and by supplying a chelating agent to sequester other ions, including but not limited to Fe.sup.2+ ions, which could otherwise induce the unwanted reduction of Hg.sup.2+ to the form, Hg.sup.0.

  6. Wet powder seal for gas containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stang, Louis G. (Sayville, NY)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

  7. Computational Chemistry Robots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend, Joseph A; Murray-Rust, Peter; Tyrrell, Simon M; Zhang, Yong

    Computational Chemistry Robots ACS Sep 2005 Computational Chemistry Robots J. A. Townsend, P. Murray-Rust, S. M. Tyrrell, Y. Zhang jat45@cam.ac.uk Can high-throughput computation provide a reliable “experimental” resource for molecular...

  8. Why chemistry? Chemistry is fundamental: it is the enabling science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussex, University of

    Chemistry Why chemistry? Chemistry is fundamental: it is the enabling science that underlies many technology. A chemistry degree allows you to understand and to contribute to our future. Chemistry is challenging: understanding the very fabric of matter is both stimulating and rewarding. Studying chemistry

  9. Chemistry Division Department of Biological

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    1 Chemistry Division Department of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Illinois Institute-13 Chemistry Division invites nominations for Kilpatrick Fellowship for the academic year 2012's Chemistry Department from 1947­1960. Mary Kilpatrick was a chemistry faculty member from 1947

  10. Chaoticity of the Wet Granular Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Fingerle; S. Herminghaus; V. Yu. Zaburdaev

    2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we derive an analytic expression for the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy of dilute wet granular matter, valid for any spatial dimension. The grains are modelled as hard spheres and the influence of the wetting liquid is described according to the Capillary Model, in which dissipation is due to the hysteretic cohesion force of capillary bridges. The Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy is expanded in a series with respect to density. We find a rapid increase of the leading term when liquid is added. This demonstrates the sensitivity of the granular dynamics to humidity, and shows that the liquid significantly increases the chaoticity of the granular gas.

  11. Chemistry and Biochemistry Scholarships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almor, Amit

    Chemistry and Biochemistry Scholarships Complete Scholarship Name Application Deadline Date Contact Endowment Fund To provide support for undergraduate biomedical research in the Department of Chemistry/or the purchase of supplies. Yes w/recommendation s from faculty Call goes out in February to all chemistry

  12. CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT HANDBOOKFOR STUDENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardy, Christopher R.

    CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT HANDBOOKFOR STUDENTS Millersville University Millersville, Pennsylvania in the ChemistryDepartment. It brings together material not collected in other places and is not meant Resources 2 Programs in Chemistry and The General Education Curriculum Record Form 3 The Major Requirements

  13. Chemistry and Biochemistry Scholarships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almor, Amit

    Chemistry and Biochemistry Scholarships Complete Scholarship Name Application Deadline Date Contact to Chemistry and Biochemistry entering graduate students who have asked for consideration to serve as research@chem.sc.edu Hiram and Lawanda Allen Scholarship for Excellence in Chemistry This award is given to a graduating

  14. Adam Benoit Medicinal Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    #12;Adam Benoit Medicinal Chemistry Ph.D. Thesis Title: Synthesis and Evaluation of Acridine Country: United States #12;Amit Gangar Medicinal Chemistry Ph.D. Thesis Title: Design and Development Wagner Home Country: India #12;Dan Wang Medicinal Chemistry M.S. Thesis Title: Synthesis and Evaluation

  15. WETTABILITY AND IMBIBITION: MICROSCOPIC DISTRIBUTION OF WETTING AND ITS CONSEQUENCES AT THE CORE AND FIELD SCALES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow; Chris Palmer; Purnendu K. Dasgupta

    2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The questions of reservoir wettability have been approached in this project from three directions. First, we have studied the properties of crude oils that contribute to wetting alteration in a reservoir. A database of more than 150 different crude oil samples has been established to facilitate examination of the relationships between crude oil chemical and physical properties and their influence on reservoir wetting. In the course of this work an improved SARA analysis technique was developed and major advances were made in understanding asphaltene stability including development of a thermodynamic Asphaltene Solubility Model (ASM) and empirical methods for predicting the onset of instability. The CO-Wet database is a resource that will be used to guide wettability research in the future. The second approach is to study crude oil/brine/rock interactions on smooth surfaces. Contact angle measurements were made under controlled conditions on mica surfaces that had been exposed to many of the oils in the CO-Wet database. With this wealth of data, statistical tests can now be used to examine the relationships between crude oil properties and the tendencies of those oils to alter wetting. Traditionally, contact angles have been used as the primary wetting assessment tool on smooth surfaces. A new technique has been developed using an atomic forces microscope that adds a new dimension to the ability to characterize oil-treated surfaces. Ultimately we aim to understand wetting in porous media, the focus of the third approach taken in this project. Using oils from the CO-Wet database, experimental advances have been made in scaling the rate of imbibition, a sensitive measure of core wetting. Application of the scaling group to mixed-wet systems has been demonstrated for a range of core conditions. Investigations of imbibition in gas/liquid systems provided the motivation for theoretical advances as well. As a result of this project we have many new tools for studying wetting at microscopic and macroscopic scales and a library of well-characterized fluids for use in studies of crude oil/brine/rock interactions.

  16. Organic Chemistry 51B -Winter 2013 Organic Chemistry Peer Tutoring Program Chemistry 51B Reactions List

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    Organic Chemistry 51B - Winter 2013 Organic Chemistry Peer Tutoring Program Chemistry 51B Reactions(s). Chapter 7: Nucleophilic Substitution + + NaOH CH3O- #12;Organic Chemistry 51B - Winter 2013 Organic Chemistry Peer Tutoring Program Chapter 8: Elimination Reactions #12;Organic Chemistry 51B - Winter 2013

  17. Analysis of Wet Weather Related Collision Concentration Locations: Empirical Assessment of Continuous Risk Profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oh, Soonmi; Chung, Koohong; Ragland, David R; Chan, Ching-Yao

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of Wet Weather Related Collision ConcentrationThe CRP plot displays wet weather related collision profilefactors responsible for wet weather related collisions is

  18. Evaporation-induced non-wetting droplets on superhydrophilic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adera, Solomon (Solomon E.)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A droplet deposited on a rough, lyophilic surface satisfying the imbibition condition, results in spontaneous spreading and hence complete wetting. However, in this thesis, we demonstrate that this wetting behavior can be ...

  19. TCD-IISc Symposium "Chemistry & Chemical Biology"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Mahony, Donal E.

    actinide chemistry, with a focus on coordination and organometallic uranium chemistry. Paula ColavitaTCD-IISc Symposium "Chemistry & Chemical Biology" Trinity College Clive Williams, Dean of Chemistry. Research areas include supramolecular organic and inorganic chemistry and medicinal chemistry

  20. Bond anisotropy and cohesion of wet granular materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    -R, Domaine Universitaire, B.P. 53, 38041 Grenoble, Cedex 9, France. We analyze the Coulomb cohesion of wet. The contact dynamics simulations of a wet material, in which a capillary force law is prescribed, shear strength, Coulomb cohesion, jamming, fragile behavior 1. Introduction Wet granular materials

  1. www.kostic.niu.edu/DRnanofluids Wet-Nanotechnology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    1 www.kostic.niu.edu/DRnanofluids Wet-Nanotechnology: nanofluids at NIU www.kostic.niu.edu/DRnanofluids Dry- vs. Wet-nanotechnology · Fluids (gases & liquids) vs. Solids in Nature and (Chemical & Bio, and processes · Synergy of dry-nanotechnology (solid-state) & wet-nanotechnology (POLY-nanofluids) #12;2 www

  2. Erosion dynamics of a wet granular medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gautier Lefebvre; Pierre Jop

    2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid may give strong cohesion properties to a granular medium, and confer a solid-like behavior. We study the erosion of a fixed circular aggregate of wet granular matter subjected to a flow of dry grains inside a half-filled rotating drum. During the rotation, the dry grains flow around the fixed obstacle. We show that its diameter decreases linearly with time for low liquid content, as wet grains are pulled-out of the aggregate. This erosion phenomenon is governed by the properties of the liquids. The erosion rate decreases exponentially with the surface tension while it depends on the viscosity to the power -1. We propose a model based on the force fluctuations arising inside the flow, explaining both dependencies: the capillary force acts as a threshold and the viscosity controls the erosion time scale. We also provide experiments using different flowing grains confirming our model.

  3. A round robin evaluation of the corrosiveness of wet residential insulation by electrochemical measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stansbury, E.E. (Stansbury (E.E.), Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a round cabin evaluation of the use of an electrochemical method of calculating the corrosion rate of low carbon steel in environments related to cellulosic building insulations are reported. Environments included the leachate from a wet cellulosic insulation and solutions based on pure and commercial grades of borax, ammonium sulfate and aluminum sulfate. The pH values of these environments were in the range of 2.5 to 9.5. Electrochemical measurements were made using a direct reading corrosion rate instrument. The calculated corrosion rates were compared with those determined directly by weight loss measurements. Electrochemical measurements were made over a period of 48 hours and weight loss exposures were for two weeks. Poor agreement was observed for the corrosion rates determined electrochemically and the values were consistently larger than those based on weight loss. Reasons proposed for these results included the complex nature of the corrosion product deposits and the control these deposits have on oxygen diffusion to the metal interface. Both factors influence the validity of the calculation of the corrosion rate by the direct reading instrument. It was concluded that development of a viable electrochemical method of general applicability to the evaluation of the corrosiveness of wet residential building thermal insulations were doubtful. Because of the controlling influence of dissolved oxygen on the corrosion rate in the insulation leachate, an alternate evaluation method is proposed in which a thin steel specimen is partially immersed in wet insulation for three weeks. The corrosiveness of the wet insulation is evaluated in terms of the severity of attack near the metal-air-wet insulation interface. With thin metal specimens, complete penetration along the interface is proposed as a pass/fail criterion. An environment of sterile cotton wet with distilled water is proposed as a comparative standard. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Use of roof temperature modeling to predict necessary conditions for locating wet insulation with infrared thermography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, K.W.

    1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In low-sloped roofing systems using porous insulation, the presence of water can significantly degrade thermal performance. For this reason, it is desirable to develop a reliable method for detecting the presence of water in a roofing system. Because of the different thermal characteristics of wet and dry insulation, there is often a surface temperature differential between areas containing wet insulation and areas containing dry insulation. Under the right circumstances, the areas of wet insulation can be detected by means of infrared sensing techniques. These techniques have already gained widespread acceptance, but there is still some uncertainty as to what are appropriate environmental conditions for viewing. To better define the conditions under which infrared techniques can distinguish between areas of wet and dry insulation, a one-dimensional, transient heat transfer model of a roofing system was developed. The model considers conduction through the roof, insolation on the surface, radiant exchange between the roof and sky, convective heat transfer between the roof and air, and the influence of trapped moisture on the thermal properties of the insulation. A study was undertaken using this model to develop an easily-applied technique for prediction of necessary conditions for locating wet roof insulation using infrared thermography.

  5. CHEMISTRY 450 Spring, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    CHEMISTRY 450 Spring, 2009 Gautam Bhattacharyya, 363 Hunter Labs, phone: 656-1356 gautamb. This course does NOT have a separate laboratory meeting time. Course Goals CH 450 is the Chemistry Capstone to change. #12;CH 450 Spring, 2009 -2- Course Outline (Tentative) Journal due dates are designated each week

  6. Marquette University Department of Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Analysis Inorganic Chemistry Lecture Inorganic Synthesis Lab #12;Our Curriculum Physical Chemistry Lecture.... Directly influence the lives of others? Develop new materials with enhanced flame- retardant properties

  7. CHEMISTRY 1010 CHEMISTRY, HUMANITY AND ENVIRONMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Jack

    day to add classes, select C/NC option or to audit a class is Jan. 23. 3. The last day to withdraw. The University of Utah seeks to provide equal access to its programs, services and activities for people: Chemistry 1010 aims to promote understanding of the basic environmental ingredients, energy, atoms

  8. National Chemistry Week Theme: "Candy: The Sweet Side of Chemistry"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Jacqueline

    National Chemistry Week Theme: "Candy: The Sweet Side of Chemistry" Super Science Saturday Saturday-on chemistry and science demonstrations! All students & families are welcome! Fun & educational for all ages! Sponsored by: American Chemical Society LSU Department of Chemistry LSU Athletic Department Free admission

  9. I. Required core Chemistry Courses (1905 & 1925) Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advisor: Advisee: I. Required core Chemistry Courses (1905 & 1925) Chemistry CH 111 PY 211 _____ PY 212 _____ (or PY 242 _____ or PY 252 ______) II. Chemistry Options (one required) 1905 (Concentration in Chemistry) Option A (2 advanced CH courses, 401 or higher, only one may

  10. Wet-dry cooling demonstration. Test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allemann, R.T.; DeBellis, D.E.; Werry, E.V.; Johnson, B.M.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large-scale test of dry/wet cooling using the ammonia phase-change system, designated the Advanced Concepts Test (ACT), has been operated at Pacific Gas and Electric Company's Kern Station at Bakersfield, California. The facility is capable of condensing 60,000 lbs/h of steam from a small house turbine. Two different modes of combining dry and evaporative cooling have been tested. One uses deluge cooling in which water is allowed to flow over the fins of the dry (air-cooled) heat exchanger on hot days; the other uses a separate evaporative condenser in parallel to the dry heat exchanger. A third mode of enhancing the dry cooling system, termed capacitive cooling has been tested. In this system, the ammonia-cooled steam condenser is supplemented by a parallel conventional water-cooled condenser with water supplied from a closed system. This water is cooled during off-peak hours each night by an ammonia heat pump which rejects heat through the ACT Cooling Tower. If operated over the period of a year, each of the wet/dry systems would use only 25% of the water normally required to reject this heat load in an evaporative cooling tower. The third would consume no water, the evaporative cooling being replaced by the delayed cooling of the closed system water supply.

  11. Analysis Of Post-Wet-Chemistry Heat Treatment Effects On Nb SRF Surface Resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter K.; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the current research in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities is focused on ways to reduce the construction and operating cost of SRF-based accelerators as well as on the development of new or improved cavity processing techniques. The increase in quality factors is the result of the reduction of the surface resistance of the materials. A recent test on a 1.5 GHz single cell cavity made from ingot niobium of medium purity and heat treated at 1400 deg C in a ultra-high vacuum induction furnace resulted in a residual resistance of ~ 1n{Omega} and a quality factor at 2.0 K increasing with field up to ~ 5×10{sup 10} at a peak magnetic field of 90 mT. In this contribution, we present some results on the investigation of the origin of the extended Q{sub 0}-increase, obtained by multiple HF rinses, oxypolishing and heat treatment of ?all Nb? cavities.

  12. Wet Gasification of Ethanol Residue: A Preliminary Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Michael D.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2008-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary technoeconomic assessment has been made of several options for the application of catalytic hydrothermal gasification (wet gasification) to ethanol processing residues.

  13. Optimizing wettability of externally wetted microfabricated silicon electrospray thrusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garza, Tanya Cruz

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrospray propulsion devices with externally wetted architectures have shown favorable performance. The design of microfabricated silicon thrusters and their feed systems requires an understanding of propellant flow ...

  14. Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    Composites Laboratory (ICL), Dan F. Smith Department of Chemical Engineering, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710, USA E-mail: zhanhu.guo@lamar.edu Y. Li, S. Wei Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Lamar

  15. Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    Engineering, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710, USA E-mail: suying.wei@lamar.edu; zhanhu.guo@lamar.edu Q. He, Prof. S. Wei Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710, USA

  16. Chemistry 455 Chemical Nanotechnology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohs, Remo

    Chemistry 455 Chemical Nanotechnology 4 units Prof. Richard Brutchey, Fall 2014 (Lecture = 12:00­12:50 pm MWF) CHEM 455 is an upper-division undergraduate course in Chemical Nanotechnology. The intent

  17. Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

  18. Wetting of metals and glasses on Mo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Saiz, Eduardo; Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Benhassine, Mehdi; de Coninck, Joel; Rauch, Nicole; Ruehle, Manfred

    2008-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The wetting of low melting point metals and Si-Ca-Al-Ti-O glasses on molybdenum has been investigated. The selected metals (Au, Cu, Ag) form a simple eutectic with Mo. Metal spreading occurs under nonreactive conditions without interdiffusion or ridge formation. The metals exhibit low (non-zero) contact angles on Mo but this requires temperatures higher than 1100 C in reducing atmospheres in order to eliminate a layer of adsorbed impurities on the molybdenum surface. By controlling the oxygen activity in the furnace, glass spreading can take place under reactive or nonreactive conditions. We have found that in the glass/Mo system the contact angle does not decrease under reactive conditions. In all cases, adsorption from the liquid seems to accelerate the diffusivity on the free molybdenum surface.

  19. Accurate method to calculate liquid and solid free energies for embedded atom potentials Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Xueyu

    Accurate method to calculate liquid and solid free energies for embedded atom potentials Xueyu Song system we have directly calculated free energies of fluid and solid phases of aluminum with an embedded simulations. Moreover, the free energies of the two different phases are calculated in a single approach

  20. Notes on the efficacy of wet versus dry screening of fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentim, B.; Hower, J.C.; Flores, D.; Guedes, A. [Center and Department of Geology, Oporto (Portugal)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The methodology used to obtain fly ash subsamples of different sizes is generally based on wet or dry sieving methods. However, the worth of such methods is not certain if the methodology applied is not mentioned in the analytical procedure. After performing a fly ash mechanical dry, sieving, the authors compared those results with the ones obtained by laser diffraction on the same samples and found unacceptable discrepancies. A preliminary, study of a wet sieving analysis carried out on an economizer fly ash sample showed that this method was more effective than the dry sieving. The importance of standardizing the way samples are handled, pretreated and presented to the instrument of analysis are suggested and interlaboratory reproducibility trials are needed to create a common standard methodology to obtain large amounts of fly ash size fraction subsamples.

  1. Chemistry Student Handbook College of Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    Chemistry Student Handbook College of Science React. Science #12;Contents 2 Welcome to the Department of Chemistry 2 Course Advice 3 What is Chemistry? 4 Career Profiles in Chemistry 5 An Undergraduate Degree in Chemistry 6 Chemistry Streams 13 Chemistry Honours Programme 14 Research

  2. Wave Energy Test Site (WETS) Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wave Energy Test Site (WETS) Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) Alexandra DeVisser, NAVFAC-EXWC Brian June 10, 2013 #12;Wave Energy Test Site (WETS) Objective: Provide location for year-long in Cable, Sound & Sea Technology (SST) Luis A. Vega, HNEI-University of Hawaii Energy Ocean International

  3. Methods and apparatus for catalytic hydrothermal gasification...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methods and apparatus for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass Re-direct Destination: Continuous processing of wet biomass feedstock by catalytic hydrothermal...

  4. Tensiometer methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grover, Blair K.; Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.; Casper, William L.

    2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for collecting data regarding a matric potential of a media includes providing a tensiometer having a stainless steel tensiometer casing, the stainless steel tensiometer casing comprising a tip portion which includes a wetted porous stainless steel membrane through which a matric potential of a media is sensed; driving the tensiometer into the media using an insertion tube comprising a plurality of probe casing which are selectively coupled to form the insertion tube as the tensiometer is progressively driven deeper into the media, wherein the wetted porous stainless steel membrane is in contact with the media; and sensing the matric potential the media exerts on the wetted porous stainless steel membrane by a pressure sensor in fluid hydraulic connection with the porous stainless steel membrane. A tensiometer includes a stainless steel casing.

  5. Modeling the wet bulb globe temperature using standard meteorological measurements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liljegren, J. C.; Carhart, R. A.; Lawday, P.; Tschopp, S.; Sharp, R.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Army has a need for continuous, accurate estimates of the wet bulb globe temperature to protect soldiers and civilian workers from heat-related injuries, including those involved in the storage and destruction of aging chemical munitions at depots across the United States. At these depots, workers must don protective clothing that increases their risk of heat-related injury. Because of the difficulty in making continuous, accurate measurements of wet bulb globe temperature outdoors, the authors have developed a model of the wet bulb globe temperature that relies only on standard meteorological data available at each storage depot for input. The model is composed of separate submodels of the natural wet bulb and globe temperatures that are based on fundamental principles of heat and mass transfer, has no site-dependent parameters, and achieves an accuracy of better than 1 C based on comparisons with wet bulb globe temperature measurements at all depots.

  6. Chemistry at the Dirac Point of Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Santanu

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Haddon, R. C. Covalent Chemistry for Graphene Electronics.P. K. ; Yang, J. X. The Chemistry of Graphene. J. Mater.R. C. Organometallic Chemistry of Extended Periodic ?-

  7. CMR: Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CMR: Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility CMR: Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR)...

  8. 128 Department of Chemistry Graduate Catalogue 201415

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on nanocapsules, nanocrystals, curcurmin and PAHs for physical and biophysical studies; fluorescence sensing in physical and biophysical chemistry; new methods for depollution of water contaminated by organic pollutants for the degradation of pesticides and chlorinated organic compounds in water; renewable energy, biosensing

  9. Development of a Chemistry-Based, Predictive Method for Determining the Amount of Non-Pertechnetate Technetium in the Hanford Tanks: FY 2012 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Bryant, Janet L.; Chatterjee, Sayandev; Edwards, Matthew K.; Houchin, Joy Y.; Janik, Tadeusz J.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Peterson, James M.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Smith, Frances N.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2013-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes investigations directed toward understanding the extent of the presence of highly alkaline soluble, non-pertechnetate technetium (n-Tc) in the Hanford Tank supernatants. The goals of this report are to: a) present a review of the available literature relevant to the speciation of technetium in the Hanford tank supernatants, b) attempt to establish a chemically logical correlation between available Hanford tank measurements and the presence of supernatant soluble n-Tc, c) use existing measurement data to estimate the amount of n-Tc in the Hanford tank supernatants, and d) report on any likely, process-friendly methods to eventually sequester soluble n-Tc from Hanford tank supernatants.

  10. Chemistry | More Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization ofChemistry and TransportChemistry of

  11. Chemistry | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z CPlasma of theChemistry OxideChemistry Soft Matter

  12. Monitoring the chemistry and materials of the Magma binary-cycle generating plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shannon, D.W.; Elmore, R.P.; Pierce, D.D.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This monitoring program includes studies of the following areas: chemistry of the geothermal brine, chemistry of the cooling water, corrosion of materials in both water systems, scale formation, suspended solids in th brine, and methods and instruments to monitor corrosion and chemistry. (MHR)

  13. Effects of Dopant Metal Variation and Material Synthesis Method on the Material Properties of Mixed Metal Ferrites in Yttria Stabilized Zirconia for Solar Thermochemical Fuel Production

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leonard, Jeffrey; Reyes, Nichole; Allen, Kyle M.; Randhir, Kelvin; Li, Like; AuYeung, Nick; Grunewald, Jeremy; Rhodes, Nathan; Bobek, Michael; Klausner, James F.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixed metal ferrites have shown much promise in two-step solar-thermochemical fuel production. Previous work has typically focused on evaluating a particular metal ferrite produced by a particular synthesis process, which makes comparisons between studies performed by independent researchers difficult. A comparative study was undertaken to explore the effects different synthesis methods have on the performance of a particular material during redox cycling using thermogravimetry. This study revealed that materials made via wet chemistry methods and extended periods of high temperature calcination yield better redox performance. Differences in redox performance between materials made via wet chemistry methods were minimal and thesemore »demonstrated much better performance than those synthesized via the solid state method. Subsequently, various metal ferrite samples (NiFe2O4, MgFe2O4, CoFe2O4, and MnFe2O4) in yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) were synthesized via coprecipitation and tested to determine the most promising metal ferrite combination. It was determined that 10?wt.% CoFe2O4in 8YSZ produced the highest and most consistent yields of O2and CO. By testing the effects of synthesis methods and dopants in a consistent fashion, those aspects of ferrite preparation which are most significant can be revealed. More importantly, these insights can guide future efforts in developing the next generation of thermochemical fuel production materials.« less

  14. Recovery Boiler Corrosion Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    11/13/2014 1 Recovery Boiler Corrosion Chemistry Sandy Sharp and Honghi Tran Symposium on Corrosion of a recovery boiler each cause their own forms of corrosion and cracking Understanding the origin of the corrosive conditions enables us to operate a boiler so as to minimize corrosion and cracking select

  15. Chemistry Portfolio (Revised August, 2011)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltisberger, Jay H.

    at or above the 75th percentile on the American Chemical Society (ACS) Introductory Chemistry Exami- nation

  16. MAC 560 --Tropospheric Chemistry I Spring, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    chemistry · to learn the atmospheric chemistry behind well-known phenomena such as smog, acid rain.3. Sulfur chemistry and acid rain 5.4. Nitrogen chemistry 5.5. Organic acids 5.6. Ecological and structural

  17. Chemistry & Biology Genome-Wide High-Throughput Mining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Jun

    Chemistry & Biology Article Genome-Wide High-Throughput Mining of Natural-Product Biosynthetic Gene.01.006 SUMMARY We have developed a phage-display method for high-throughput mining of bacterial gene clus- ters

  18. Chemistry Department Colloquium: Spring, 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Chemistry Department Colloquium: Spring, 2012 Friday, March 16; 3:30 Seminar Hall (room 1315 Chemistry) Lost in Translation: How Regulators Use Science and How Scientists Can Help Bridge Gaps Stephanie to combine her Chemistry background with a legal education to improve the use of science in environmental

  19. Wetting heterogeneity in mixed-wet porous media controls flow dissipation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julie Murison; Benoît Semin; Jean-Christophe Baret; Stephan Herminghaus; Matthias Schröter; Martin Brinkmann

    2014-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressure controlled displacement of an oil/water interface is studied in dense packings of functionalized glass beads with well-defined spatial wettability correlations. An enhanced dissipation is observed if the typical extension $\\xi$ of the same-type wetting domains is smaller than the average bead diameter $d$. Three dimensional imaging using X-ray microtomography shows that the frequency $n(s)$ of residual droplet volumes $s$ for different $\\xi$ collapse onto the same curve. This indicates that the additional dissipation for small $\\xi$ is due to contact line pinning rather than an increase of capillary break-up/coalescence events.

  20. THE ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Goddard; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang; Lawrence Cathles III

    2004-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In the next decades, oil exploration by majors and independents will increasingly be in remote, inaccessible areas, or in areas where there has been extensive shallow exploration but deeper exploration potential may remain; areas where the collection of data is expensive, difficult, or even impossible, and where the most efficient use of existing data can drive the economics of the target. The ability to read hydrocarbon chemistry in terms of subsurface migration processes by relating it to the evolution of the basin and fluid migration is perhaps the single technological capability that could most improve our ability to explore effectively because it would allow us to use a vast store of existing or easily collected chemical data to determine the major migration pathways in a basin and to determine if there is deep exploration potential. To this end a the DOE funded a joint effort between California Institute of Technology, Cornell University, and GeoGroup Inc. to assemble a representative set of maturity and maturation kinetic models and develop an advanced basin model able to predict the chemistry of hydrocarbons in a basin from this input data. The four year project is now completed and has produced set of public domain maturity indicator and maturation kinetic data set, an oil chemistry and flash calculation tool operable under Excel, and a user friendly, graphically intuitive basin model that uses this data and flash tool, operates on a PC, and simulates hydrocarbon generation and migration and the chemical changes that can occur during migration (such as phase separation and gas washing). The DOE Advanced Chemistry Basin Model includes a number of new methods that represent advances over current technology. The model is built around the concept of handling arbitrarily detailed chemical composition of fluids in a robust finite-element 2-D grid. There are three themes on which the model focuses: chemical kinetic and equilibrium reaction parameters, chemical phase equilibrium, and physical flow through porous media. The chemical kinetic scheme includes thermal indicators including vitrinite, sterane ratios, hopane ratios, and diamonoids; and a user-modifiable reaction network for primary and secondary maturation. Also provided is a database of type-specific kerogen maturation schemes. The phase equilibrium scheme includes modules for primary and secondary migration, multi-phase equilibrium (flash) calculations, and viscosity predictions.

  1. Universiteit Antwerpen Research Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nierstrasz, Oscar

    Methods Science vs. Engineering 5 Science Engineering Physics Chemistry Biology Mathematics ElectroUniversiteit Antwerpen Research Methods in Computer Science (Serge Demeyer -- University of Antwerp Introduction · Origins of Computer Science · Research Philosophy Research Methods · Feasibility study · Pilot

  2. ames wet oxidation process: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ZnO thin films using wet-chemical etching processes on application for organic light emitting diode (OLED) devices Engineering Websites Summary: Fabrication of the ZnO thin films...

  3. assessment meca wet: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the variation of the surface Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 216 Wireless Engineering and Technology, 2013, 4, 117-123 doi:10.4236wet.2013.420018 Published Online April 2013...

  4. Environmental aspects of alternative wet technologies for producing energy/fuel from peat. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.T.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Peat in situ contains up to 90% moisture, with about 50% of this moisture trapped as a colloidal gel. This colloidal moisture cannot be removed by conventional dewatering methods (filter presses, etc.) and must be removed by thermal drying, solvent extraction, or solar drying before the peat can be utilized as a fuel feedstock for direct combustion or gasification. To circumvent the drying problem, alternative technologies such as wet oxidation, wet carbonization, and biogasification are possible for producing energy or enhanced fuel from peat. This report describes these three alternative technologies, calculates material balances for given raw peat feed rates of 1000 tph, and evaluates the environmental consequences of all process effluent discharges. Wastewater discharges represent the most significant effluent due to the relatively large quantities of water removed during processing. Treated process water returned to the harvested bog may force in situ, acidic bog water into recieving streams, disrupting local aquatic ecosystems.

  5. Development studies for a novel wet oxidation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhooge, P.M.; Hakim, L.B.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalytic wet oxidation process (DETOX), which uses an acidic iron solution to oxidize organic compounds to carbon dioxide, water, and other simple products, was investigated as a potential method for the treatment of multicomponent hazardous and mixed wastes. The organic compounds picric acid, poly(vinyl chloride), tetrachlorothiophene, pentachloropyridine, Aroclor 1260 (a polychlorinated biphenyl), and hexachlorobenzene were oxidized in 125 ml reaction vessels. The metals arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cerium (as a surrogate for plutonium), chromium, lead, mercury, neodymium (as a surrogate for uranium), nickel, and vanadium were tested in the DETOX solution. Barium, beryllium, cerium, chromium, mercury, neodymium, nickel, and vanadium were all found to be very soluble (>100 g/l) in the DETOX chloride-based solution. Arsenic, barium, cadmium, and lead solubilities were lower. Lead could be selectively precipitated from the DETOX solution. Chromium(VI) was reduced to relatively non-toxic chromium(III) by the solution. Six soils were contaminated with arsenic, barium, beryllium, chromium, lead, and neodymium oxides at approximately 0.1% by weight, and benzene, trichloroethene, mineral oil, and Aroclor 1260 at approximately 5% by weight total, and 5.g amounts treated with the DETOX solution in unstirred 125. ml reaction bombs. It is felt that soil treatment in a properly designed system is entirely possible despite incomplete oxidation of the less volatile organic materials in these unstirred tests.

  6. Inorganic Chemistry Solutions to Semiconductor Nanocrystal Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarado, Samuel R. [Ames Laboratory; Guo, Yijun [Ames Laboratory; Ruberu, T. Purnima A. [Ames Laboratory; Tavasoli, Elham [Ames Laboratory; Vela, Javier [Ames Laboratory

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The optoelectronic and chemical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals heavily depend on their composition, size, shape and internal structure, surface functionality, etc. Available strategies to alter these properties through traditional colloidal syntheses and ligand exchange methods place a premium on specific reaction conditions and surfactant combinations. In this invited review, we apply a molecular-level understanding of chemical precursor reactivity to reliably control the morphology, composition and intimate architecture (core/shell vs. alloyed) of semiconductor nanocrystals. We also describe our work aimed at achieving highly selective, low-temperature photochemical methods for the synthesis of semiconductor–metal and semiconductor–metal oxide photocatalytic nanocomposites. In addition, we describe our work on surface modification of semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots using new approaches and methods that bypass ligand exchange, retaining the nanocrystal's native ligands and original optical properties, as well as on spectroscopic methods of characterization useful in determining surface ligand organization and chemistry. Using recent examples from our group and collaborators, we demonstrate how these efforts have lead to faster, wider and more systematic application of semiconductor nanocrystal-based materials to biological imaging and tracking, and to photocatalysis of unconventional substrates. We believe techniques and methods borrowed from inorganic chemistry (including coordination, organometallic and solid state chemistry) have much to offer in reaching a better understanding of the synthesis, functionalization and real-life application of such exciting materials as semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots, rods, tetrapods, etc.).

  7. Generalized quantum defect methods in quantum chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Altunata, Serhan

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reaction matrix of multichannel quantum defect theory, K, gives a complete picture of the electronic structure and the electron - nuclear dynamics for a molecule. The reaction matrix can be used to examine both bound ...

  8. Jacob P. Brenner Design Specifications for Wet-Bulb Aspirator Apparatus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Jacob P. Brenner Thesis: Design Specifications for Wet-Bulb Aspirator Apparatus Project Description the concentration of water vapor in the air is the wet-bulb temperature. The wet-bulb temperature along with the dry-bulb for the testing of HVAC&R equipment. The focus of this research is on the accurate measurement of the wet-bulb

  9. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory: Progress report for FY 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Graczyk, D.G.; Lindahl, P.C.; Erickson, M.D.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for fiscal year 1988 (October 1987 through September 1988). The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, the ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems, from routine standard analyses to unique problems that require significant development of methods and techniques.

  10. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Graczyk, D.G.; Lindahl, P.C.; Boparai, A.S.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year 1991 (October 1990 through September 1991). This is the eighth annual report for the ACL. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, the ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems, from routine standard analyses to unique problems that require significant development of methods and techniques.

  11. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Graczyk, D.G.; Lindahl, P.C.; Erickson, M.D.

    1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year 1989 (October 1988 through September 1989). The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, the ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems, from routine standard analyses to unique problems that require significant development of methods and techniques.

  12. International symposium on oilfield chemistry: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains 66 papers presented at the symposium related to the following topics in oil field chemistry: waste treatment of produced waters; methods for enhanced recovery of petroleum (mainly surfactants, polymers, and carbon dioxide injection); cement hydration and additives; drilling fluid stability; paraffin deposition in wells and pipelines; scale control and corrosion inhibitors; displacement fluid wettability and environmental transport; fracturing fluids; formation damage; asphaltene removal; and plugging agents. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: atmospheric chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and atmospheric chemistry that is expected to benefit auto and engine manufacturers, oil and gas utilities, and other industries that employ combustion models. A paper...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: combustion chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and atmospheric chemistry that is expected to benefit auto and engine manufacturers, oil and gas utilities, and other industries that employ combustion models. A paper...

  15. agricultural chemistry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Chemistry Honors in Chemistry Research Instructions (Seniors only) Materials Science Websites Summary: Department of Chemistry Honors in Chemistry Research Instructions...

  16. Environmental Soil Chemistry Second Edition Environmental Soil Chemistry illustrates fundamental principles of soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Environmental Soil Chemistry Second Edition Environmental Soil Chemistry illustrates fundamental principles of soil chemistry with respect to environmental reactions between soils and other natural contemporary training in the basics of soil chemistry and applications to real-world environmental concerns

  17. Chemistry Major and Minor At A Glance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmitt, William R.

    Chemistry Major and Minor At A Glance Major I ­ Pre-professional (Medicine, Dentistry, Business, Law, Engineering) Major II ­ ACS Certified e.g. Graduate Study or Entry Level Chemistry Employment. Major III ­ Forensic Chemistry Major IV** ­ Biochemistry Option Chemistry Minor General Chemistry I & II

  18. Chemistry and Biochemistry Graduate Student Spring 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chemistry and Biochemistry Graduate Student Tutors Spring 2012 (All arrangements are solely between.axelrod@mail.utexas.edu Organic Chemistry Chris Bates chrismbates@gmail.com General Chemistry Lecture/Lab Organic Chemistry Amy Bonaparte abonaparte@mail.utexas.edu General and Organic Chemistry Shelly Casciato slcasciato

  19. Chemistry UMass Lowell Commonwealth Honors Track

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    Chemistry UMass Lowell Commonwealth Honors Track Scholarship Rises. Freshman Year/ Fall Semester Cr) Honors Chemistry I 3 84.136 (H) Honors Chemistry II 3 84.123 (H) Honors Chemistry I Lab 1 84.124 (H) Honors Chemistry II Lab 1 92.131 Calculus I 4 92.132 Honors Calculus II 4 Hon 110 Honors FYSH (AH) 3 Gen

  20. Chemistry and Biochemistry Graduate Student Summer 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chemistry and Biochemistry Graduate Student Tutors Summer 2012 (All arrangements are solely between.axelrod@mail.utexas.edu Organic Chemistry Chris Bates chrismbates@gmail.com General Chemistry Lecture/Lab Organic Chemistry Amy Bonaparte abonaparte@mail.utexas.edu General and Organic Chemistry Shelly Casciato slcasciato

  1. BA in CHEMISTRY (692827) MAP Sheet Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seamons, Kent E.

    BA in CHEMISTRY (692827) MAP Sheet Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry For students entering Chemistry and Biochemistry Department requires the final 10 hours of required chemistry credit to be taken for graduation. Complete the following: Chem 111* Honors Principles of Chemistry Chem 112 Principles of Chemistry

  2. Chemistry -Bachelor of Science (SCHUG) Total Credits Required: 128 Chemistry -ACS Certified

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chemistry - Bachelor of Science (SCHUG) Total Credits Required: 128 Chemistry - ACS Certified Major of the following courses Course Credits Course Credits CH1150 University Chemistry I AND 3 CH4110 Pharmaceutical Chemistry: Drug Action 3 CH1151 University Chemistry Lab 1 AND 1 CH4120 Pharmaceutical Chemistry: Drug

  3. Chemistry -Bachelor of Science (SCH1UG) Total Credits Required: 128 Chemistry/Polymers -ACS Certified

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chemistry - Bachelor of Science (SCH1UG) Total Credits Required: 128 Chemistry/Polymers - ACS credits Course Credits Course Credits CH1150 University Chemistry I AND 3 CH4610 Intro to Polymer Science 3 CH1151 University Chemistry Lab 1 AND 1 CH4620 Polymer Chemistry 3 CH1153 University Chemistry

  4. Wetting of soap bubbles on hydrophilic, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steve Arscott

    2013-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Wetting of sessile bubbles on solid and liquid surfaces has been studied. A model is presented for the contact angle of a sessile bubble based on a modified Young equation - the experimental results agree with the model. A hydrophilic surface results in a bubble contact angle of 90 deg whereas on a superhydrophobic surface one observes 134 deg. For hydrophilic surfaces, the bubble angle diminishes with bubble radius - whereas on a superhydrophobic surface, the bubble angle increases. The size of the Plateau borders governs the bubble contact angle - depending on the wetting of the surface.

  5. Wetting of soap bubbles on hydrophilic, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arscott, Steve

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wetting of sessile bubbles on solid and liquid surfaces has been studied. A model is presented for the contact angle of a sessile bubble based on a modified Young equation - the experimental results agree with the model. A hydrophilic surface results in a bubble contact angle of 90 deg whereas on a superhydrophobic surface one observes 134 deg. For hydrophilic surfaces, the bubble angle diminishes with bubble radius - whereas on a superhydrophobic surface, the bubble angle increases. The size of the Plateau borders governs the bubble contact angle - depending on the wetting of the surface.

  6. Course Syllabus: Chemistry 3AL Course Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    Course Syllabus: Chemistry 3AL Course Information Course Name Chemistry 3AL Course Instructor are online. Chemistry 3AL Syllabus https://elearning.berkeley.edu/AngelUploads/Content/2013SUC... 1 of 5 5

  7. Interface Tensions and Perfect Wetting in the Two-Dimensional Seven-State Potts Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Grossmann; Sourendu Gupta

    1993-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a numerical determination of the order-disorder interface tension, \\sod, for the two-dimensional seven-state Potts model. We find $\\sod=0.0114\\pm0.0012$, in good agreement with expectations based on the conjecture of perfect wetting. We take into account systematic effects on the technique of our choice: the histogram method. Our measurements are performed on rectangular lattices, so that the histograms contain identifiable plateaus. The lattice sizes are chosen to be large compared to the physical correlation length. Capillary wave corrections are applied to our measurements on finite systems.

  8. Mapping the March to Methodical Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping the March to Methodical Materials Mapping the March to Methodical Materials Computational Chemistry Provides Proof of Popular MOF's Reactivity September 18, 2014 | Tags:...

  9. Screen Electrode Materials & Cell Chemistries and Streamlining...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Cell Chemistries and Streamlining Optimization of Electrode Screen Electrode Materials & Cell Chemistries and Streamlining Optimization of Electrode 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies...

  10. Cetane Performance and Chemistry Comparing Conventional Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance and Chemistry Comparing Conventional Fuels and Fuels Derived from Heavy Crude Sources Cetane Performance and Chemistry Comparing Conventional Fuels and Fuels...

  11. A chemistry tale of two carbons | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A chemistry tale of two carbons A chemistry tale of two carbons Released: September 03, 2012 Comprehensive field study of urban, natural emissions interacting to affect climate...

  12. Water chemistry of breeder reactor steam generators. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, J.L.; Robles, M.N.; Spalaris, C.N.; Moss, S.A.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The water quality requirements will be described for breeder reactor steam generators, as well as specifications for balance of plant protection. Water chemistry details will be discussed for the following power plant conditions: feedwater and recirculation water at above and below 5% plant power, refueling or standby, makeup water, and wet layup. Experimental data will be presented from tests which included a departure from nucleate boiling experiment, the Few Tube Test, with a seven tube evaporator and three tube superheater, and a verification of control and on-line measurement of sodium ion in the ppB range. Sampling and instrumentation requirements to insure adherence to the specified water quality will be described. Evaporator cleaning criteria and data from laboratory testing of chemical cleaning solutions with emphasis on flow, chemical composition, and temperature will be discussed.

  13. Directional Wetting in Anisotropic Inverse Opals Katherine R. Phillips,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aizenberg, Joanna

    the nano- to microscale voids. Here, we investigate how liquid wetting in highly ordered inverse opals template of colloidal particles. This highly ordered structure acts as a photonic crystal, strongly or not a given liquid will fill the structure spontaneously upon contact. Using alkylchlorosi- lanes,18 silica

  14. Interference evaluation between manifold and wet Christmas tree CP systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brasil, S.L.D.C.; Baptista, W.

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Offshore production wells are controlled by valves installed in the marine soil, called wet Christmas trees (WCTs). A manifold receives the production of several wells and transports it to the platform. The manifold is cathodically protected by Al anodes and the WCT by Zn anodes. A computer simulation was carried out to evaluate the interference between the equipment cathodic protection systems.

  15. Thermo-Wetting and Friction Reduction Characterization of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hidrovo, Carlos H.

    such surfaces include frost prevention on aircraft flight surfaces to self-cleaning features on solar energy panels [1,5]. One way to achieve superhydrophobicity is through the micro- geometry modification of low energy surfaces. Two models repre- sent the wetting behavior of such microtextured surfaces: the Wenzel

  16. Numerical study of perfect wetting in quenched QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brower, R. (Physics Department, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)); Huang, S. (Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)); Potvin, J. (Physics Department, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States) Department of Science and Mathematics, Parks College of Saint Louis University, Cahokia, Illinois 62206 (United States)); Rebbi, C.; Ross, J. (Physics Department, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States))

    1992-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the quenched approximation of QCD, the high-temperature phase (or gluon plasma phase) will be found in one of three degenerate vacua characterized by the average value of the Polyakov loop. Such vacua can coexist separated by a sharp interface. As {ital T}{r arrow}{ital T}{sub {ital c}}{sup +} (the confinement temperature) confined or glueball matter may be able to grow as a layer along this interface. QCD is said to obey {ital perfect} {ital wetting} if these layers are planar, or {ital imperfect} {ital wetting} if they are shaped like lenses. Evidence for perfect wetting in quenched QCD is studied from a calculation of the surface tension {alpha}{sub {ital p},}{ital p}/{ital T}{sup 3} between two high-temperature plasma phases at {ital T}{sub {ital c}} on a 16{sup 2}{times}32{times}4 lattice. By comparison with the value of the surface tension of a hadron-plasma interface, the data suggest that planar slabs or at least very long lenses develop along the interface, implying that QCD obeys perfect wetting.

  17. Adsorption calorimetry of water-wet and oil-wet minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noll, L.A.

    1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is a continuation of a research program designed to understand and model adsorption of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) chemical flooding material onto reservoir minerals. The understanding and modeling of adsorption will ultimately lead to an effective way to select EOR chemicals which are most cost effective. This report describes progress made from October 1, 1984 to September 30, 1985. It is divided into three parts: (1) modeling of adsorption, (2) adsorption of surfactants from solutions of brine and aqueous cosurfactant, and (3) proving the usefulness of titration calorimetry. In the first part, the surface described was water-wet; in the other parts, surfaces of different wettability were used in the investigations. The adsorption of cosurfactant from hydrocarbon onto silica is modeled by a Langmuir isotherm. This model indicates that the adsorption is driven by enthalpy, taking place with an unfavorable entropy change. It is physical adsorption and does not exceed monolayer coverage. Strong brine seems to have little effect on the adsorption of nonionic surfactant, except in the case of Florisil, a magnesia containing silica. In the presence of cosurfactant, the energy of adsorption is in general higher than that from pure water. All of these enthalpies of adsorption are negative, thus implying lower adsorption as temperature is raised. The titration calorimeter has proved to be a useful instrument for studying adsorption. The measurement of the interaction of nonionic surfactant with silica show satisfactory agreement with the results of the flow calorimeter. Adsorption on kaolin, bentonite, and sandstone can be measured with this instrument, whereas these solids are not amenable to flow calorimetry. 10 figs. 6 tabs.

  18. Forsterite [Mg2SiO4)] Carbonation in Wet Supercritical CO2: An...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Forsterite Mg2SiO4) Carbonation in Wet Supercritical CO2: An in situ High Pressure X-Ray Diffraction Study. Forsterite Mg2SiO4) Carbonation in Wet Supercritical CO2: An in situ...

  19. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanco, Mario; Cathles, Lawrence; Manhardt, Paul; Meulbroek, Peter; Tang, Yongchun

    2003-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to: (1) Develop a database of additional and better maturity indicators for paleo-heat flow calibration; (2) Develop maturation models capable of predicting the chemical composition of hydrocarbons produced by a specific kerogen as a function of maturity, heating rate, etc.; assemble a compositional kinetic database of representative kerogens; (3) Develop a 4 phase equation of state-flash model that can define the physical properties (viscosity, density, etc.) of the products of kerogen maturation, and phase transitions that occur along secondary migration pathways; (4) Build a conventional basin model and incorporate new maturity indicators and data bases in a user-friendly way; (5) Develop an algorithm which combines the volume change and viscosities of the compositional maturation model to predict the chemistry of the hydrocarbons that will be expelled from the kerogen to the secondary migration pathways; (6) Develop an algorithm that predicts the flow of hydrocarbons along secondary migration pathways, accounts for mixing of miscible hydrocarbon components along the pathway, and calculates the phase fractionation that will occur as the hydrocarbons move upward down the geothermal and fluid pressure gradients in the basin; and (7) Integrate the above components into a functional model implemented on a PC or low cost workstation.

  20. National Nuclear Chemistry Summer School

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology of the American Chemical Society (ACS) is sponsoring two INTENSIVE six-week Summer Schools in Nuclear and Radiochemistry for undergraduates. Funding is provided by the US Department of Energy.

  1. National Nuclear Chemistry Summer School

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    he Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology of the American Chemical Society (ACS) is sponsoring two INTENSIVE six-week Summer Schools in Nuclear and Radiochemistry for undergraduates. Funding...

  2. CHEMISTRY 2011 Academic regulations for the Bachelor's degree in Chemistry 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CHEMISTRY 2011 Academic regulations for the Bachelor's degree in Chemistry 2011 1. Framework) in Chemistry. Academic line and main subject areas of the degree The Bachelor's degree in Chemistry students a basic introduction to the Chemistry disciplines. In addition, the Bachelor's degree programme

  3. Preliminary Evaluation of Cesium Distribution for Wet Sieving Process Planned for Soil Decontamination in Japan - 13104

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enokida, Y.; Tanada, Y.; Hirabayashi, D. [Graduate School of Engineering, 1 Furo-cho Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4648603 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Engineering, 1 Furo-cho Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4648603 (Japan); Sawada, K. [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, 1 Furo-cho Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4648603 (Japan)] [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, 1 Furo-cho Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4648603 (Japan)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the purpose of decontaminating radioactive cesium from a huge amount of soil, which has been estimated to be 1.2x10{sup 8} m{sup 3} by excavating to a 5-cm depth from the surface of Fukushima Prefecture where a severe nuclear accident occurred at TEPCO's power generating site and has emitted a significant amount of radioactive materials, mainly radioactive cesium, a wet sieving process was selected as one of effective methods available in Japan. Some private companies have demonstrated this process for soil treatment in the Fukushima area by testing at their plants. The results were very promising, and a full-fledged application is expected to follow. In the present study, we spiked several aqueous samples containing soil collected from an industrial wet sieving plant located near our university for the recycling of construction wastes with non-radioactive cesium hydroxide. The present study provides scientific data concerning the effectiveness in volume reduction of the contaminated soil by a wet sieving process as well as the cesium distribution between the liquid phase and clay minerals for each sub-process of the full-scale one, but a simulating plant equipped with a process of coagulating sedimentation and operational safety fundamentals for the plant. Especially for the latter aspect, the study showed that clay minerals of submicron size strongly bind a high content of cesium, which was only slightly removed by coagulation with natural sedimentation (1 G) nor centrifugal sedimentation (3,700 G) and some of the cesium may be transferred to the effluent or recycled water. By applying ultracentrifugation (257,000 G), most of submicron clay minerals containing cesium was removed, and the cesium amount which might be transferred to the effluent or recycled water, could be reduced to less than 2.3 % of the original design by the addition of a cesium barrier consisting of ultracentrifugation or a hollow fiber membrane. (authors)

  4. Investigation of combined heat and mass transfer from a wet heat exchanger. Part 2. Experimental results and operational characteristics of heat exchangers in dry/wet operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, S.G.; Kreid, D.K.; Johnson, B.M.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This second part of a two-part paper summarizes the experimental evaluation of a plate finned heat exchanger both with and without the surface wetted by a flowing film of water. The results indicate an increase in heat transfer during wet operation of two to five times over that of dry operation for the same meteorological conditions. The deluge model is shown to accurately predict the wet performance using an experimentally determined deluge film coefficient and the dry performance characteristics.

  5. Direct Use of Wet Ethanol in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine: Experimental and Numerical Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, John Hunter; Flowers, Daniel L; Aceves, Salvador M; Dibble, Robert W

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy balance of corn ethanol revisited, Transaction offor autoignition. The wet ethanol modeling study [REF] usedengine running on wet ethanol. Fuel mixtures studied range

  6. Epoxy Nanocomposites - Curing Rheokinetics, Wetting and Adhesion to Fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilyin, S. O.; Kotomin, S. V.; Kulichikhin, V. G. [A.V.Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis, 29, Leninskii Prospect, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2010-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Epoxy nanocomposites considered as challenging polymeric matrix for advanced reinforced plastics. Nanofillers change rheokinetics of epoxy resin curing, affect wetting and adhesion to aramid and carbon fibers. In all cases extreme dependence of adhesive strength vs filler content in the binder was observed. New experimental techniques were developed to study wettability and fiber-matrix adhesion interaction, using yarn penetration path length, aramid fiber knot pull-up test and electrical admittance of the fracture surface of CFRP.

  7. Wetting of mercury electrode by crude oil in surfactant solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuvshinov, V.A.; Altumina, L.K.; Genkina, L.F.

    1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study has been made of electrosurface phenomena in the system consisting of crude oil, mercury, and a surfactant solution. The type of relationship between the wetting of mercury by oil in surfactant solutions and the electric potential of the mercury has been determined. Feasibility has been demonstrated for the use of the mercury/oil/surfactant solution system as a model in studying the oil-displacing capabilities of various surfactants.

  8. Estimating Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Using Standard Meteorological Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, C.H.

    1999-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat stress management program at the Department of Energy''s Savannah River Site (SRS) requires implementation of protective controls on outdoor work based on observed values of wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT). To ensure continued compliance with heat stress program requirements, a computer algorithm was developed which calculates an estimate of WBGT using standard meteorological measurements. In addition, scripts were developed to generate a calculation every 15 minutes and post the results to an Intranet web site.

  9. The Fernald wet records recovery project: A case history

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterling, H.J.; Devir, B.R.; Hawley, R.A. [Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Freesmeyer, M.T. [USDOE Ohio Field Office (United States)

    1995-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses a project performed to recover wet records discovered in January 1995 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). This paper discusses the emergency and record recovery phases of the project, the technical options considered for records recovery, and special measures which were required due to radiological contamination of the records. Also, the root causes and lessons learned from the incident, and path forward for future records management operations at Fernald, are discussed.

  10. Wet-steam erosion of steam turbine disks and shafts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Averkina, N. V. [JSC 'NPO TsKTI' (Russian Federation); Zheleznyak, I. V. [Leningradskaya AES branch of JSC 'Kontsern Rosenergoatom' (Russian Federation); Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G., E-mail: orlikvg@mail.ru [JSC 'NPO TsKTI' (Russian Federation); Shishkin, V. I. [Leningradskaya AES branch of JSC 'Kontsern Rosenergoatom' (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of wet-steam erosion of the disks and the rotor bosses or housings of turbines in thermal and nuclear power plants shows that the rate of wear does not depend on the diagrammed degree of moisture, but is determined by moisture condensing on the surfaces of the diaphragms and steam inlet components. Renovating the diaphragm seals as an assembly with condensate removal provides a manifold reduction in the erosion.

  11. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Jensen, K.J.

    1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of technical support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems, from routine standard analyses to unique problems that require significant development of methods and techniques. The purpose of this report is to summarize the technical and administrative activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year 1985 (October 1984 through September 1985). This is the second annual report for the ACL. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. 'Elastic' fluctuation-induced effects in smectic wetting films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pikina, E. S., E-mail: elena@ogri.r [Russian Academy of Sciences, Oil and Gas Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Li-Kardar field theory approach is generalized to wetting smectic films and the 'elastic' fluctuation-induced interaction is obtained between the external flat bounding surface and distorted IA (isotropic liquid-smectic A) interface acting as an 'internal' (bulk) boundary of the wetting smectic film under the assumption that the IA interface is essentially 'softer' than the surface smectic layer. This field theory approach allows calculating the fluctuation-induced corrections in Hamiltonians of the so-called 'correlated' liquids confined by two surfaces, in the case where one of the bounding surfaces is 'rough' and with different types of surface smectic layer anchoring. We obtain that in practice, the account of thermal displacements of the smectic layers in a wetting smectic film reduces to the addition of two contributions to the IA interface Hamiltonian. The first, so-called local contribution describes the long-range thermal 'elastic' repulsion of the fluctuating IA interface from the flat bounding surface. The second, so-called nonlocal contribution is connected with the occurrence of an 'elastic' fluctuation-induced correction to the stiffness of the IA interface. An analytic expression for this correction is obtained.

  13. Wetting kinetics of water nano-droplet containing non-surfactant nanoparticles: A molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Gui [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of MOE, Beijing Key Laboratory for CO2 Utilization and Reduction Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China) [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of MOE, Beijing Key Laboratory for CO2 Utilization and Reduction Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Hu, Han; Sun, Ying, E-mail: yyduan@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: ysun@coe.drexel.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Duan, Yuanyuan, E-mail: yyduan@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: ysun@coe.drexel.edu [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of MOE, Beijing Key Laboratory for CO2 Utilization and Reduction Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of MOE, Beijing Key Laboratory for CO2 Utilization and Reduction Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Letter, dynamic wetting of water nano-droplets containing non-surfactant gold nanoparticles on a gold substrate is examined via molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that the addition of non-surfactant nanoparticles hinders the nano-second droplet wetting process, attributed to the increases in both surface tension of the nanofluid and friction between nanofluid and substrate. The droplet wetting kinetics decreases with increasing nanoparticle loading and water-particle interaction energy. The observed wetting suppression and the absence of nanoparticle ordering near the contact line of nano-sized droplets differ from the wetting behaviors reported from nanofluid droplets of micron size or larger.

  14. Unravelling aspects of the gas phase chemistry involved in diamond chemical vapour deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    of thin Đlms of polycrystalline diamond by chemi- cal vapour deposition (CVD) methods,2h4 since which timeUnravelling aspects of the gas phase chemistry involved in diamond chemical vapour deposition been used to unravel details of the gas phase chemistry involved in diamond chemical vapour deposition

  15. The effects of digital elevation model resolution on the calculation and predictions of topographic wetness indices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drover, Damion, Ryan

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the largest exports in the Southeast U.S. is forest products. Interest in biofuels using forest biomass has increased recently, leading to more research into better forest management BMPs. The USDA Forest Service, along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Georgia and Oregon State University are researching the impacts of intensive forest management for biofuels on water quality and quantity at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Surface runoff of saturated areas, transporting excess nutrients and contaminants, is a potential water quality issue under investigation. Detailed maps of variable source areas and soil characteristics would therefore be helpful prior to treatment. The availability of remotely sensed and computed digital elevation models (DEMs) and spatial analysis tools make it easy to calculate terrain attributes. These terrain attributes can be used in models to predict saturated areas or other attributes in the landscape. With laser altimetry, an area can be flown to produce very high resolution data, and the resulting data can be resampled into any resolution of DEM desired. Additionally, there exist many maps that are in various resolutions of DEM, such as those acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey. Problems arise when using maps derived from different resolution DEMs. For example, saturated areas can be under or overestimated depending on the resolution used. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of DEM resolution on the calculation of topographic wetness indices used to predict variable source areas of saturation, and to find the best resolutions to produce prediction maps of soil attributes like nitrogen, carbon, bulk density and soil texture for low-relief, humid-temperate forested hillslopes. Topographic wetness indices were calculated based on the derived terrain attributes, slope and specific catchment area, from five different DEM resolutions. The DEMs were resampled from LiDAR, which is a laser altimetry remote sensing method, obtained from the USDA Forest Service at Savannah River Site. The specific DEM resolutions were chosen because they are common grid cell sizes (10m, 30m, and 50m) used in mapping for management applications and in research. The finer resolutions (2m and 5m) were chosen for the purpose of determining how finer resolutions performed compared with coarser resolutions at predicting wetness and related soil attributes. The wetness indices were compared across DEMs and with each other in terms of quantile and distribution differences, then in terms of how well they each correlated with measured soil attributes. Spatial and non-spatial analyses were performed, and predictions using regression and geostatistics were examined for efficacy relative to each DEM resolution. Trends in the raw data and analysis results were also revealed.

  16. A comparison between semi-spheroid- and dome-shaped quantum dots coupled to wetting layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahzadeh, Mohammadreza; Sabaeian, Mohammad, E-mail: Sabaeian@scu.ac.ir [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, 61357-43135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    During the epitaxial growth method, self-assembled semi-spheroid-shaped quantum dots (QDs) are formed on the wetting layer (WL). However for sake of simplicity, researchers sometimes assume semi-spheroid-shaped QDs to be dome-shaped (hemisphere). In this work, a detailed and comprehensive study on the difference between electronic and transition properties of dome- and semi-spheroid-shaped quantum dots is presented. We will explain why the P-to-S intersubband transition behaves the way it does. The calculated results for intersubband P-to-S transition properties of quantum dots show two different trends for dome-shaped and semi-spheroid-shaped quantum dots. The results are interpreted using the probability of finding electron inside the dome/spheroid region, with emphasis on the effects of wetting layer. It is shown that dome-shaped and semi-spheroid-shaped quantum dots feature different electronic and transition properties, arising from the difference in lateral dimensions between dome- and semi-spheroid-shaped QDs. Moreover, an analogy is presented between the bound S-states in the quantum dots and a simple 3D quantum mechanical particle in a box, and effective sizes are calculated. The results of this work will benefit researchers to present more realistic models of coupled QD/WL systems and explain their properties more precisely.

  17. Silane Modification of Glass and Silica Surfaces to Obtain Equally Oil-Wet Surfaces in Glass-Covered Silicon Micromodel Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Warner, Marvin G.; Pittman, Jonathan W.; Dehoff, Karl J.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Zhang, Changyong; Oostrom, Martinus

    2013-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The wettability of silicon and glass surfaces can be modified by silanization. However, similar treatments of glass and silica surfaces using the same silane do not necessarily yield the same wettability as determined by the oil-water contact angle. In this technical note, surface cleaning pretreatments were investigated to determine conditions that would yield oil-wet surfaces on glass with similar wettability to silica surfaces treated with the same silane, and both air-water and oil-water contact angles were determined. Air-water contact angles were less sensitive to differences between silanized silica and glass surfaces, often yielding similar values while the oil-water contact angles were quite different. Borosilicate glass surfaces cleaned with standard cleaning solution 1 (SC1) yield intermediate-wet surfaces when silanized with hexamethyldisilazane, while the same cleaning and silanization yields oil-wet surfaces on silica. However, cleaning glass in boiling concentrated nitric acid creates a surface that can be silanized to obtain oil-wet surfaces using HDMS. Moreover, this method is effective on glass with prior thermal treatment at an elevated temperature of 400oC. In this way, silica and glass can be silanized to obtain equally oil-wet surfaces using HMDS. It is demonstrated that pretreatment and silanization is feasible in silicon-silica/glass micromodels previously assembled by anodic bonding, and that the change in wettability has a significant observable effect on immiscisble fluid displacements in the pore network.

  18. Steps toward fault-tolerant quantum chemistry.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taube, Andrew Garvin

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Developing quantum chemistry programs on the coming generation of exascale computers will be a difficult task. The programs will need to be fault-tolerant and minimize the use of global operations. This work explores the use a task-based model that uses a data-centric approach to allocate work to different processes as it applies to quantum chemistry. After introducing the key problems that appear when trying to parallelize a complicated quantum chemistry method such as coupled-cluster theory, we discuss the implications of that model as it pertains to the computational kernel of a coupled-cluster program - matrix multiplication. Also, we discuss the extensions that would required to build a full coupled-cluster program using the task-based model. Current programming models for high-performance computing are fault-intolerant and use global operations. Those properties are unsustainable as computers scale to millions of CPUs; instead one must recognize that these systems will be hierarchical in structure, prone to constant faults, and global operations will be infeasible. The FAST-OS HARE project is introducing a scale-free computing model to address these issues. This model is hierarchical and fault-tolerant by design, allows for the clean overlap of computation and communication, reducing the network load, does not require checkpointing, and avoids the complexity of many HPC runtimes. Development of an algorithm within this model requires a change in focus from imperative programming to a data-centric approach. Quantum chemistry (QC) algorithms, in particular electronic structure methods, are an ideal test bed for this computing model. These methods describe the distribution of electrons in a molecule, which determine the properties of the molecule. The computational cost of these methods is high, scaling quartically or higher in the size of the molecule, which is why QC applications are major users of HPC resources. The complexity of these algorithms means that MPI alone is insufficient to achieve parallel scaling; QC developers have been forced to use alternative approaches to achieve scalability and would be receptive to radical shifts in the programming paradigm. Initial work in adapting the simplest QC method, Hartree-Fock, to this the new programming model indicates that the approach is beneficial for QC applications. However, the advantages to being able to scale to exascale computers are greatest for the computationally most expensive algorithms; within QC these are the high-accuracy coupled-cluster (CC) methods. Parallel coupledcluster programs are available, however they are based on the conventional MPI paradigm. Much of the effort is spent handling the complicated data dependencies between the various processors, especially as the size of the problem becomes large. The current paradigm will not survive the move to exascale computers. Here we discuss the initial steps toward designing and implementing a CC method within this model. First, we introduce the general concepts behind a CC method, focusing on the aspects that make these methods difficult to parallelize with conventional techniques. Then we outline what is the computational core of the CC method - a matrix multiply - within the task-based approach that the FAST-OS project is designed to take advantage of. Finally we outline the general setup to implement the simplest CC method in this model, linearized CC doubles (LinCC).

  19. 1997 Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul H. Wine

    1998-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE's Atmospheric Chemistry Program is providing partial funding for the Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists (ACCESS) and FY 1997 Gordon Research Conference in Atmospheric Chemistry

  20. analytical chemistry organic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology 25 SYLLABUS for CHEMISTRY 2310 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 1 Chemistry Websites Summary: Discussion...

  1. applied chemistry organic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology 18 SYLLABUS for CHEMISTRY 2310 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 1 Chemistry Websites Summary: Discussion...

  2. Tensiometer methods and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grover, Blair K.; Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.; Casper, William L.

    2004-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for collecting data regarding a matric potential of a media includes providing a tensiometer having a stainless steel tensiometer casing, the stainless steel tensiometer casing comprising a tip portion which includes a wetted porous stainless steel membrane through which a matric potential of a media is sensed; driving the tensiometer into the media using an insertion tube comprising a plurality of probe casing which are selectively coupled to form the insertion tube as the tensiometer is progressively driven deeper into the media, wherein the wetted porous stainless steel membrane is in contact with the media; and sensing the matric potential the media exerts on the wetted porous stainless steel membrane by a pressure sensor in fluid hydraulic connection with the porous stainless steel membrane. A tensiometer includes a stainless steel casing.

  3. Measurement of vapor phase mercury emissions at coal-fired power plants using regular and speciating sorbent traps with in-stack and out-of-stack sampling methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin-Min Cheng; Chien-Wei Chen; Jiashun Zhu; Chin-Wei Chen; Yao-Wen Kuo; Tung-Han Lin; Shu-Hsien Wen; Yong-Siang Zeng; Juei-Chun Liu; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A systematic investigation of sorbent-trap sampling, which is a method that uses paired sorbent traps to measure total vapor phase mercury (Hg), was carried out at two coal-fired power plants. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects (if any) on data quality when the following aspects of the sorbent trap method are varied: (a) sorbent trap configuration; (b) sampling time; and (c) analytical technique. Also, the performance of a speciating sorbent trap (i.e., a trap capable of separating elemental Hg from oxidized Hg), was evaluated by direct comparison against the Ontario Hydro (OH) reference method. Flue gas samples were taken using both 'regular' and modified sorbent trap measurement systems. Both short-term (1.5 h) and long-term (18 h to 10 days) samples were collected. The in-stack and out-of-stack sampling methods produced satisfactory relative accuracy results for both the short-term and long-term testing. For the short-term tests, the in-stack sampling results compared more favorably to the OH method than did the out-of-stack results. The relative deviation between the paired traps was considerably higher for the short-term out-of-stack tests than for the long-term tests. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.1) between the direct combustion and wet-chemistry analytical methods used in the study; the results from the direct combustion method were consistently higher than the wet-chemistry results. The evaluation of the speciating mercury sorbent trap demonstrated that the trap is capable of providing reasonably accurate total mercury concentrations and speciation data that are somewhat comparable to data obtained with the OH method. 5 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toth, L.M.; Del Cul, G.D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Fission product behavior is described along with processing experience. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior, processing and recycle of the fuel components is a necessary factor if future systems are to be established.

  5. Carbon Chemistry in interstellar clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryvonne Gerin; David Fosse; Evelyne Roueff

    2002-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss new developments of interstellar chemistry, with particular emphasis on the carbon chemistry. We confirm that carbon chains and cycles are ubiquitous in the ISM and closely chemically related to ea ch other, and to carbon. Investigation of the carbon budget in shielded and UV illuminated gas shows that the inventory of interstellar molecules is not complete and more complex molecules with 4 or more carbon atoms must be present. Finally we discuss the consequences for the evolution of clouds and conclude that the ubiquitous presence of carbon chains and cycles is not a necessary consequence of a very young age for interstellar clouds.

  6. Chemistry, Life, and Earth Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z CPlasma of theChemistry OxideChemistry Soft

  7. CHEMISTRY 330 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nickrent, Daniel L.

    and evaluation of error, basic chemical equilibria, acid-base equilibria, solubility product constant equilibria of spectrophotometric analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy, methods of separation, gas and liquid chromatography to develop and apply topics discussed in lecture; short quizzes may be used to assess individual learning

  8. Specifying linepipe suitable for safe operation in sour, wet service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, E.M.; Hansen, D.A.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the specifications recommended by the authors for buying linepipe in grades up to X-70 for wet, sour service. The linepipe is tested to verify that it is resistant to hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC). In addition, fracture control requirements are imposed so that if a failure does occur for any reason, the crack is guaranteed to self arrest, thus minimizing the consequences of the failure. Pipe meeting the specifications described in this paper is readily available from numerous European and Japanese mills.

  9. Bianchi Type-I Universe with Wet Dark Fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Singh; R. Chaubey

    2010-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bianchi type-I universe filled with dark energy from a wet dark fluid has been considered. A new equation of state for the dark energy component of the universe has been used. It is modeled on the equation of state $p=\\gamma (\\rho -\\rho_\\star)$ which can describe a liquid, for example water. The exact solutions to the corresponding field equations are obtained in quadrature form. The solution for constant deceleration parameter have been studied in detail for power-law and exponential forms both. The cases $\\gamma =1$ and $\\gamma =0$ have been also analysed.

  10. Bianchi Type-I Universe with Wet Dark Fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, T

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bianchi type-I universe filled with dark energy from a wet dark fluid has been considered. A new equation of state for the dark energy component of the universe has been used. It is modeled on the equation of state $p=\\gamma (\\rho -\\rho_\\star)$ which can describe a liquid, for example water. The exact solutions to the corresponding field equations are obtained in quadrature form. The solution for constant deceleration parameter have been studied in detail for power-law and exponential forms both. The cases $\\gamma =1$ and $\\gamma =0$ have been also analysed.

  11. Montana Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1 Source: Office of FossilFoot) Year JanCubic Feet) Gas, Wet

  12. Virginia Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content4,367,470 4,364,790 4,363,909 4,363,143 4,363,967 4,363,549 1973-2015 Alaska 14,197 14,197Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease

  13. Virginia Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content4,367,470 4,364,790 4,363,909 4,363,143 4,363,967 4,363,549 1973-2015 Alaska 14,197 14,197Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After

  14. Development of a Wet Logistics System for Bulk Corn Stover

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S HBatteries1000: Development of a Wet Logistics

  15. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. Progress report for FY 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, D.W.; Boparai, A.S.; Bowers, D.L.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1996. This annual report is the thirteenth for the ACL. It describes effort on continuing and new projects and contributions of the ACL staff to various programs at ANL. The ACL operates in the ANL system as a full-cost-recovery service center, but has a mission that includes a complementary research and development component: The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory will provide high-quality, cost-effective chemical analysis and related technical support to solve research problems of our clients -- Argonne National Laboratory, the Department of Energy, and others -- and will conduct world-class research and development in analytical chemistry and its applications. Because of the diversity of research and development work at ANL, the ACL handles a wide range of analytical chemistry problems. Some routine or standard analyses are done, but the ACL usually works with commercial laboratories if our clients require high-volume, production-type analyses. It is common for ANL programs to generate unique problems that require significant development of methods and adaption of techniques to obtain useful analytical data. Thus, much of the support work done by the ACL is very similar to our applied analytical chemistry research.

  16. Thermal chemistry and photochemistry of hexafluoroacetone on...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chemistry and photochemistry of hexafluoroacetone on rutile TiO2(110) . Thermal chemistry and photochemistry of hexafluoroacetone on rutile TiO2(110) . Abstract: The ultraviolet...

  17. Capturing Chemistry in XML/CML

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend, Joseph A; Adams, Sam; Goodman, Jonathan M; Murray-Rust, Peter; Waudby, Chris A

    Chemical Markup Language (CML) is an XML-conformant Schema that describes molecules, spectra, reactions, and computational chemistry. It is capable of capturing the chemistry in a variety of current publications and is becoming adopted by many...

  18. User Manual Frick Chemistry Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torquato, Salvatore

    the atrium connects the laboratory wing with the administrative offices. This provides a light-filled space to make the new Frick Chemistry Laboratory (and the surrounding natural sciences neighborhood) one technologies that reduce energy demand and con- serve water. The design and construction teams have implemented

  19. Theoretical Chemistry Theory, Computation, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gherman, Benjamin F.

    1 23 Theoretical Chemistry Accounts Theory, Computation, and Modeling ISSN 1432-881X Volume 128). In order to explore the origin of this preference, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been-terminus of nascent eubacterial proteins during protein synthesis [1­4]. As PDF is essential for bacterial survival

  20. Interfacial Chemistry and Engineering Annual Report 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.

    2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This annual report describes the research and staff accomplishments in 2000 for the EMSL Interfacial Chemistry and Engineering Directorate.

  1. Technetium Chemistry Science Challenges in Environmental Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technetium Chemistry Science Challenges in Environmental Science and Waste Processing Workshop Sponsored by Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory Richland, Washington July...

  2. Chemistry / Biochemistry B.S. Curriculum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Nicholas

    Chemistry / Biochemistry B.S. Curriculum Freshman Chemistry CHE 133/133L, 134/134L; ENG 131, 132, BIO elective Sophomore Chemistry CHE 231/231L, 241/241L, 331/331L, 332/332L; MTH 233, 234; PHY 241 elective Junior Chemistry CHE 337/337L, 338/338L, 452/452L; CSC 101 or 201, ENG 273, Eng. Lit; Core

  3. Updated March 2011 Ph.D. Chemistry; Option in Chemistry Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    Updated March 2011 Ph.D. Chemistry; Option in Chemistry Education University of New Hampshire below), or candidate can obtain MS at UNH on the way to the PhD with Option in Chemistry Education Cumulative exams are split between education and chemistry cores Professional presentation allowed in place

  4. Roadmap: Chemistry Chemistry -Bachelor of Science [AS-BS-CHEM-CHEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Scott

    Roadmap: Chemistry ­ Chemistry - Bachelor of Science [AS-BS-CHEM-CHEM] College of Arts and Sciences Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry Catalog Year: 2013-2014 Page 1 of 2 | Last Updated: 30-Apr-13/LNHD for certification by the American Chemical Society CHEM 10060 General Chemistry I (4) and CHEM 10062 General

  5. BA in CHEMISTRY (692827) MAP Sheet Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsen Jr., Dan R.

    BA in CHEMISTRY (692827) MAP Sheet Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry For students entering in major courses. --The Chemistry and Biochemistry Department requires the final 10 hours of required chemistry credit to be taken in residence at BYU for this degree program. These hours may also go toward BYU

  6. Minor in Chemistry Handout1.doc (04/30/08) Department of Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Christopher A.

    Minor in Chemistry Handout1.doc (04/30/08) Department of Chemistry Undergraduate Student Academic.fleming@ucr.edu Minor in Chemistry Procedure: It is assumed that you have completed the requirements listed in section to Declare a Minor to Chemistry. Include the following: full name, student identification number, and email

  7. CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY 2011 Academic regulations for the Bachelor's degree in Chemistry and Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY 2011 Academic regulations for the Bachelor's degree in Chemistry Bachelor's degree programme provides graduates with the title Bachelor of Science (BSc) in Chemistry and Technology. Academic line and main subject areas of the degree The Bachelor's degree in Chemistry

  8. Roadmap: Chemistry Chemistry -Bachelor of Science [AS-BS-CHEM-CHEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Scott

    Roadmap: Chemistry ­ Chemistry - Bachelor of Science [AS-BS-CHEM-CHEM] College of Arts and Sciences Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry Catalog Year: 2012­2013 Page 1 of 2 | Last Updated: 17-May-12/LNHD for certification by the American Chemical Society CHEM 10060 General Chemistry I (4) and CHEM 10062 General

  9. Chemistry -Bachelor of Science (SCH5UG) Total Credits Required: 128 Chemistry/Environmental -ACS Certified

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chemistry - Bachelor of Science (SCH5UG) Total Credits Required: 128 Chemistry/Environmental - ACS credits Course Credits Course Credits CH1150 University Chemistry I AND 3 BL1040 Principles of Biology 4 CH1151 University Chemistry Lab 1 AND 1 BL3310 Environmental Microbiology 3 CH1153 University

  10. An implicit wetting and drying approach for non-hydrostatic flows in high aspect ratio domains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Candy, Adam S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wetting and drying approach for free surface flows governed by the three-dimensional, non-hydrostatic Navier-Stokes equations in high aspect ratio domains is developed. This has application in the modelling of inundation processes in geophysical domains, where dynamics takes place over a large horizontal extent relative to vertical resolution, such as in the evolution of a tsunami, or an urban fluvial flooding scenario. The approach is novel in that it solves for three dimensional dynamics in these very high aspect ratio domains, to include non-hydrostatic effects and accurately model dispersive processes. These become important in shallow regions with steep gradients, a particularly acute problem where man-made structures exist such as buildings or flood defences in an urban environment. It is implicit in time to allow efficient time integration over a range of mesh element sizes. Specific regularisation methods are introduced to improve conditioning of the full three-dimensional pressure Poisson problem i...

  11. The School of Chemistry Handbook for Postgraduate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rzepa, Henry S.

    The School of Chemistry Handbook for Postgraduate Research Students 2013/14 School of Chemistry FACULTY OF MATHS AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES #12;2 Welcome The School of Chemistry welcomes new postgraduate that is relevant for your time spent in the School, including information about facilities to support your research

  12. Chemistry Department Assessment Table of Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogaerts, Steven

    0 Chemistry Department Assessment May, 2006 Table of Contents Page Executive Summary 1 Prelude 1 Mission Statement and Learning Goals 1 Facilities 2 Staffing 3 Students: Chemistry Majors and Student Taking Service Courses Table: 1997-2005 graduates profile Table: GRE Score for Chemistry Majors, 1993

  13. 1988 Wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.; Bittner, E.A.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1988 and spatial patterns for 1988. It is the third in a series of reports that investigate the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1988 annual, winter, and summer periods. Temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 35 sites over a 10-year (1979--1988) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites, with greater spatial coverage, over a 7-year (1982--1988) period. The 10-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data available that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. Sen's median trend estimate and Kendall's seasonal tau (KST) test are calculated for each ion species concentration and deposition at each site in both subsets.

  14. 1988 Wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.; Bittner, E.A.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1988 and spatial patterns for 1988. It is the third in a series of reports that investigate the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1988 annual, winter, and summer periods. Temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 35 sites over a 10-year (1979--1988) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites, with greater spatial coverage, over a 7-year (1982--1988) period. The 10-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data available that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. Sen`s median trend estimate and Kendall`s seasonal tau (KST) test are calculated for each ion species concentration and deposition at each site in both subsets.

  15. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, progress report for FY 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 (October 1992 through September 1993). This annual report is the tenth for the ACL and describes continuing effort on projects, work on new projects, and contributions of the ACL staff to various programs at ANL. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. The ACL also has research programs in analytical chemistry, conducts instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems. Some routine or standard analyses are done, but it is common for the Argonne programs to generate unique problems that require development or modification of methods and adaption of techniques to obtain useful analytical data. The ACL is administratively within the Chemical Technology Division (CMT), its principal ANL client, but provides technical support for many of the technical divisions and programs at ANL. The ACL has four technical groups--Chemical Analysis, Instrumental Analysis, Organic Analysis, and Environmental Analysis--which together include about 45 technical staff members. Talents and interests of staff members cross the group lines, as do many projects within the ACL.

  16. Controlling RPV embrittlement through wet annealing in support of life attainment and life extension decisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasikov, E. A. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., 1, Kurchatov Sq., Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a main barrier against radioactivity outlet reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is a key component in terms of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) safety. Therefore present-day demands in RPV reliability enhance have to be met by all possible actions for RPV in-service embrittlement mitigation. Annealing treatment is known to be the effective measure to restore the RPV metal properties deteriorated by neutron irradiation. Low temperature 'wet' annealing at a maximum coolant temperature which can be obtained using the reactor core or primary circuit pumps, although it cannot be expected to produce complete recovery, is more attractive from the practical point of view especially in cases when the removal of the internals is impossible. As a rule there is no recovery effect up to annealing and irradiation temperature difference of 70 deg. C. It is known, however, that along with radiation embrittlement neutron irradiation may mitigate the radiation damage in metals. Therefore we have tried to test the possibility to use the effect of radiation-induced ductilization in 'wet' annealing technology by means of nuclear heat utilization as heat and neutron irradiation sources at once. In support of the above-mentioned conception the 3-year duration reactor experiment on 15Cr3NiMoV type steel with preliminary irradiation at operating Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) at 270 deg. C and following extra irradiation (87 h at 330 deg. C) at IR-8 test reactor was fulfilled. In fact, embrittlement was partly suppressed up to value equivalent to 1,5 fold neutron fluence decrease. The degree of recovery in case of radiation enhanced annealing is equal to 27% whereas furnace annealing results in zero effect under existing conditions. Mechanism of the radiation-induced damage mitigation is proposed. It is hoped that 'wet' annealing technology will help provide a better management of the RPV degradation as a factor affecting the lifetime of nuclear power plants which, together with associated management methods, will help facilitate safe and economic long-term operation of PWRs. (authors)

  17. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  18. Specifying linepipe suitable for safe operation in sour wet service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, E.M. Jr.; Hansen, D.A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The specifications recommended for buying linepipe for wet, sour service are described. A two-fold approach is used. First the linepipe is tested to verify that it is resistant to hydrogen induced cracking (HIC). Second, fracture mechanics requirements are imposed so that if hydrogen induced cracking does occur due to steel-making or operation upsets, a line rupture is guaranteed to self-arrest, thus minimizing the consequences of the failure. Correlations of HIC susceptibility test results with actual service performance are presented. The HIC test acceptance criteria used by the authors are discussed. The fracture mechanics considerations include drop weight tear testing to establish ductile failures and Charpy impact testing to assure self-arrest of an unstable crack, as well as maximum crack initiation energy. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the commercial availability of linepipe produced to the specifications discussed below.

  19. Heterogeneous Chemistry: Understanding Aerosol/Oxidant Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joyce E. Penner

    2005-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Global radiative forcing of nitrate and ammonium aerosols has mostly been estimated from aerosol concentrations calculated at thermodynamic equilibrium or using approximate treatments for their uptake by aerosols. In this study, a more accurate hybrid dynamical approach (DYN) was used to simulate the uptake of nitrate and ammonium by aerosols and the interaction with tropospheric reactive nitrogen chemistry in a three-dimensional global aerosol and chemistry model, IMPACT, which also treats sulfate, sea salt and mineral dust aerosol. 43% of the global annual average nitrate aerosol burden, 0.16 TgN, and 92% of the global annual average ammonium aerosol burden, 0.29 TgN, exist in the fine mode (D<1.25 {micro}m) that scatters most efficiently. Results from an equilibrium calculation differ significantly from those of DYN since the fraction of fine-mode nitrate to total nitrate (gas plus aerosol) is 9.8%, compared to 13% in DYN. Our results suggest that the estimates of aerosol forcing from equilibrium concentrations will be underestimated. We also show that two common approaches used to treat nitrate and ammonium in aerosol in global models, including the first-order gas-to-particle approximation based on uptake coefficients (UPTAKE) and a hybrid method that combines the former with an equilibrium model (HYB), significantly overpredict the nitrate uptake by aerosols especially that by coarse particles, resulting in total nitrate aerosol burdens higher than that in DYN by +106% and +47%, respectively. Thus, nitrate aerosol in the coarse mode calculated by HYB is 0.18 Tg N, a factor of 2 more than that in DYN (0.086 Tg N). Excessive formation of the coarse-mode nitrate in HYB leads to near surface nitrate concentrations in the fine mode lower than that in DYN by up to 50% over continents. In addition, near-surface HNO{sub 3} and NO{sub x} concentrations are underpredicted by HYB by up to 90% and 5%, respectively. UPTAKE overpredicts the NO{sub x} burden by 56% and near-surface NO{sub x} concentrations by a factor of 2-5. These results suggest the importance of using the more accurate hybrid dynamical method in the estimates of both aerosol forcing and tropospheric ozone chemistry.

  20. Experimental evaluation of dry/wet air-cooled heat exchangers. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, S.G.; Gruel, R.L.; Huenefeld, J.C.; Eschbach, E.J.; Johnson, B.M.; Kreid, D.K.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultimate goal of this project was to contribute to the development of improved cooling facilities for power plants. Specifically, the objective during FY-81 was to experimentally determine the thermal performance and operating characteristics of an air-cooled heat exchanger surface manufactured by the Unifin Company. The performance of the spiral-wound finned tube surface (Unifin) was compared with two inherently different platefin surfaces (one developed by the Trane Co. and the other developed by the HOETERV Institute) which were previously tested as a part of the same continuing program. Under dry operation the heat transfer per unit frontal area per unit inlet temperature difference (ITD) of the Unifin surface was 10% to 20% below that of the other two surfaces at low fan power levels. At high fan power levels, the performances of the Unifin and Trane surfaces were essentially the same, and 25% higher than the HOETERV surface. The design of the Unifin surface caused a significantly larger air-side pressure drop through the heat exchanger both in dry and deluge operation. Generally higher overall heat transfer coefficients were calculated for the Unifin surface under deluged operation. They ranged from 2.0 to 3.5 Btu/hr-ft/sup 2/-/sup 0/F as compared to less than 2.0 Btu hr-ft/sup 2/-/sup 0/F for the Trane and HOETERV surfaces under similar conditions. The heat transfer enhancement due to the evaporative cooling effect was also measureably higher with the Unifin surface as compared to the Trane surface. This can be primarily attributed to the better wetting characteristics of the Unifin surface. If the thermal performance of the surfaces are compared at equal face velocities, the Unifin surface is as much as 35% better. This method of comparison accounts for the wetting characteristics while neglecting the effect of pressure drop. Alternatively the surfaces when compared at equal pressure drop essentially the same thermal performance.

  1. Hiking the valleys of quatum chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aikens, Christine Marie

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is concerned with both the application and the extension of quantum chemical methods. Each chapter of the thesis represents a paper that has been published in or will be submitted to a scientific journal. The first three chapters of this thesis describe contributions made to chemistry through the use of quantum chemical methods, while the final two chapters illustrate the development of new methods. Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 characterize a study of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of homodinuclear titanium(III) complexes, in order to determine trends related to their potential use as molecular magnets. Chapter 2 focuses on hydride and halide bridging and terminal ligands, while Chapter 3 explores bridging ligands from other groups in the periodic table. Chapter 4 portrays a study of the solvation of glycine. Microsolvation and continuum solvation approaches are investigated in order to study the structures of small glycine-water clusters and determine the energy difference between the zwitterionic and nonionized forms of glycine, the simplest amino acid. Chapters 5 and 6 describe the implementation of analytic gradients, which are required for efficient molecular geometry optimizations, for two open-shell second-order perturbation theory methods. Chapter 5 discusses gradients for unrestricted Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory, and Chapter 6 describes gradients for Z-averaged perturbation theory.

  2. Vol. 82, No. 4, 2005 431 Phosphorus Concentrations and Flow in Maize Wet-Milling Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    gluten meal (CGM) and corn gluten feed (CGF) is important to the maize wet-milling industry. High [CGM]). CGF is produced from mixing heavy steep- water with maize fiber (Fig. 1); it has high fiber and CGM is important to the economic viability of the wet-milling industry because it partially offsets

  3. Quantifying wet scavenging processes in aircraft observations of nitric acid and cloud condensation nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Paul

    Quantifying wet scavenging processes in aircraft observations of nitric acid and cloud condensation indicator for quantifying wet scavenging. Specifically, nitric acid (HNO3), produced as a by-product of combustion, is highly soluble and removed efficiently from clouds by rain. Regional carbon monoxide (CO

  4. Experimental investigation of burning velocities of ultra-wet methane-air-steam mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , steam, burning velocity, chemiluminescence, OH Introduction In ultra-wet gas turbines, the heatExperimental investigation of burning velocities of ultra-wet methane-air-steam mixtures Eric Abstract Global burning velocities of methane-air-steam mixtures are measured on prismatic laminar Bunsen

  5. Stochastic modeling of hourly dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kline, D.E.; Woeste, F.E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A stochastic model of hourly dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures was developed. The periodic variations over the course of a year were estimated by least-square approximation. A multisite Markov model was used to simulate the stochastic nature of the data. These two models were combined to simulate years of hourly dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures.

  6. Pressure and partial wetting effects on superhydrophobic friction reduction in microchannel flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hidrovo, Carlos H.

    Pressure and partial wetting effects on superhydrophobic friction reduction in microchannel flow://pof.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 24, 112003 (2012) Pressure and partial wetting effects on superhydrophobic- ing that can lead to a superhydrophobic Cassie-Baxter state. The Cassie-Baxter state is characterized

  7. Method of fabricating metal- and ceramic- matrix composites and functionalized textiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, James L. (Jemez Springs, NM); Chavez, Craig A. (Los Alamos, NM); Black, Marcie R. (Lincoln, MA)

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of manufacturing an article comprises providing a first sheet, wetting the first sheet with a liquid precursor to provide a first wet sheet, and irradiating the first wet sheet in a pattern corresponding to a first cross section of the article such that the liquid precursor is at least partially converted to a solid in the first cross section. A second sheet is disposed adjacent to the first sheet. The method further comprises wetting the second sheet with the liquid precursor to provide a second wet sheet, and irradiating the second wet sheet in a pattern corresponding to a second cross section of the article such that the liquid precursor is at least partially converted to a solid in the second cross section. In particular the liquid precursor may be converted to a metal, ceramic, semiconductor, semimetal, or a combination of these materials.

  8. Chemistry and line emission from evolving Herbig Ae disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Jonkheid; C. P. Dullemond; M. R. Hogerheijde; E. F. van Dishoeck

    2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Aims: To calculate chemistry and gas temperature of evolving protoplanetary disks with decreasing mass or dust settling, and to explore the sensitivity of gas-phase tracers. Methods: The density and dust temperature profiles for a range of models of flaring and self-shadowed disks around a typical Herbig Ae star are used together with 2-dimensional ultraviolet (UV) radiative transfer to calculate the chemistry and gas temperature. In each model the line profiles and intensities for the fine structure lines of [O I], [C II] and [C I] and the pure rotational lines of CO, CN, HCN and HCO+ are determined. Results: The chemistry shows a strong correlation with disk mass. Molecules that are easily dissociated, like HCN, require high densities and large extinctions before they can become abundant. The products of photodissociation, like CN and C2H, become abundant in models with lower masses. Dust settling mainly affects the gas temperature, and thus high temperature tracers like the O and C+ fine structure lines. The carbon chemistry is found to be very sensitive to the adopted PAH abundance. The line ratios CO/13CO, CO/HCO+ and [O I] 63 um/146 um can be used to distinguish between disks where dust growth and settling takes place, and disks that undergo overall mass loss.

  9. Novel Aryne Chemistry in Organic Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhijian Liu

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Arynes are among the most intensively studied systems in chemistry. However, many aspects of the chemistry of these reactive intermediates are not well understood yet and their use as reagents in synthetic organic chemistry has been somewhat limited, due to the harsh conditions needed to generate arynes and the often uncontrolled reactivity exhibited by these species. Recently, o-silylaryl triflates, which can generate the corresponding arynes under very mild reaction conditions, have been found very useful in organic synthesis. This thesis describes several novel and useful methodologies by employing arynes, which generate from o-silylaryl triflates, in organic synthesis. An efficient, reliable method for the N-arylation of amines, sulfonamides and carbamates, and the O-arylation of phenols and carboxylic acids is described in Chapter 1. Amines, sulfonamides, phenols, and carboxylic acids are good nucleophiles, which can react with arynes generated from a-silylaryl triflates to afford the corresponding N- and O-arylated products in very high yields. The regioselectivity of unsymmetrical arynes has also been studied. A lot of useful, functional groups can tolerate our reaction conditions. Carbazoles and dibenzofurans are important heteroaromatic compounds, which have a variety of biological activities. A variety of substituted carbazoles and dibenzofwans are readily prepared in good to excellent yields starting with the corresponding o-iodoanilines or o-iodophenols and o-silylaryl triflates by a treatment with CsF, followed by a Pd-catalyzed cyclization, which overall provides a one-pot, two-step process. By using this methodology, the carbazole alkaloid mukonine has been concisely synthesized in a very good yield. Insertion of an aryne into a {sigma}-bond between a nucleophile and an electrophile (Nu-E) should potentially be a very beneficial process from the standpoint of organic synthesis. A variety of substituted ketones and sulfoxides have been synthesized in good yields via the intermolecular C-N {sigma}-bond addition of amides and S-N {sigma}-bond addition of sulfinamides to arynes under mild reaction conditions. The indazole moiety is a frequently found subunit in drug substances with important biological activities. Indazole analogues have been readily synthesized under mild reaction conditions by the [3+2] cycloaddition of a variety of diazo compounds with o-silylaryl triflates in the presence of CsF or TBAF. Polycyclic aromatic and heteroaromatic hydrocarbons have been synthesized in high yields by two different processes involving the Pd-catalyzed annulation of arynes. Both processes appear to involve the catalytic, stepwise coupling of two very reactive substrates, an aryne and an organopalladium species, to generate excellent yields of cross-coupled products.

  10. Chemistry Add-In for Word

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend, Joseph A

    2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Add-In (.NET) links a semantic chemistry engine (.NUMBO) through a command interface (CID) to a chemistry zone. Chemistry zones are textual or graphic renderings within a Word document (DOCX). All content and relationships are bound to CML... OOXML + CML •Data publication difficult and unsupported •Insufficient data to fully support research •Data preparation integrated into user workflow •Open Standards promote Open Semantic Science Domain aware software and semantic data allows...

  11. Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization of SelectiveBrownFirstU.S. DOEChemistry

  12. Direct Use of Wet Ethanol in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine: Experimental and Numerical Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, John Hunter; Flowers, Daniel L; Aceves, Salvador M; Dibble, Robert W

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for 4 different water-in-ethanol fuel blends at a variety ofmotivation for using wet ethanol fuel is that significantengine running on wet ethanol. Fuel mixtures studied range

  13. CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DIVISION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof Energy FutureDepartmentCAIRSPlanning TimelineChemistry |CHARTERExponent,

  14. Better Enzymes for Biofuels and Green Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Better Enzymes for Biofuels and Green Chemistry: Solving the Cofactor Imbalance Problem Imbalances for the production of biofuels or other valuable chemicals. Though several research groups have re

  15. 2005 American Conference on Theoretical Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, Emily A

    2006-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The materials uploaded are meant to serve as final report on the funds provided by DOE-BES to help sponsor the 2005 American Conference on Theoretical Chemistry.

  16. Chemistry of Organic Electronic Materials 6483-Fall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherrill, David

    Chemistry of Organic Electronic Materials 6483- Fall Tuesdays organic materials. The discussion will include aspects of synthesis General introduction to the electronic structure of organic materials with connection

  17. Lithium Insertion Chemistry of Some Iron Vanadates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patoux, Sebastien; Richardson, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in A. Nazri, G.Pistoia (Eds. ), Lithium batteries, Science &structure materials in lithium cells, for a lower limitLithium Insertion Chemistry of Some Iron Vanadates Sébastien

  18. Introduction to Chemistry and Material Sciences Applications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intro Chem and MatSci Apps Introduction to Chemistry and Material Sciences Applications June 26, 2012 L ast edited: 2014-06-02 08:56:54...

  19. Chemistry for Measurement and Detection Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    forensics, and consequence management," Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 1-18 (2012). Magen E. Coleman, Evelyn M. Bond, W. Allen Moody, and Lav Tandon,...

  20. Analytical Chemistry Core Capability Assessment - Preliminary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barr, Mary E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farish, Thomas J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of 'core capability' can be nebulous one. Even at a fairly specific level, where core capability equals maintaining essential services, it is highly dependent upon the perspective of the requestor. Samples are submitted to analytical services because the requesters do not have the capability to conduct adequate analyses themselves. Some requests are for general chemical information in support of R and D, process control, or process improvement. Many analyses, however, are part of a product certification package and must comply with higher-level customer quality assurance requirements. So which services are essential to that customer - just those for product certification? Does the customer also (indirectly) need services that support process control and improvement? And what is the timeframe? Capability is often expressed in terms of the currently utilized procedures, and most programmatic customers can only plan a few years out, at best. But should core capability consider the long term where new technologies, aging facilities, and personnel replacements must be considered? These questions, and a multitude of others, explain why attempts to gain long-term consensus on the definition of core capability have consistently failed. This preliminary report will not try to define core capability for any specific program or set of programs. Instead, it will try to address the underlying concerns that drive the desire to determine core capability. Essentially, programmatic customers want to be able to call upon analytical chemistry services to provide all the assays they need, and they don't want to pay for analytical chemistry services they don't currently use (or use infrequently). This report will focus on explaining how the current analytical capabilities and methods evolved to serve a variety of needs with a focus on why some analytes have multiple analytical techniques, and what determines the infrastructure for these analyses. This information will be useful in defining a roadmap for what future capability needs to look like.

  1. Discovery of An Aurora Kinase Inhibitor Through Site-Specific Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cancilla, M.T.; He, M.M.; Viswanathan, N.; Simmons, R.L.; Taylor, M.; Fung, A.D.; Cao, K.; Erlanson, D.A.

    2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a fragment-based lead discovery method that combines site-directed ligand discovery with dynamic combinatorial chemistry. Our technique targets dynamic combinatorial screening to a specified region of a protein by using reversible disulfide chemistry. We have used this technology to rapidly identify inhibitors of the drug target Aurora A that span the purine-binding site and the adaptive pocket of the kinase. The binding mode of a noncovalent inhibitor has been further characterized through crystallography.

  2. CHEMISTRY 1 Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CHEMISTRY 1 Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of --Chemistry This publication refers.imperial.ac.uk/pgprospectus. Chemistry Interests in chemistry at Imperial College cover physical, organic, inorganic, analytical, polymer and biological chemistry and chemical crystallography, as well as intersectional and medical topics

  3. Rev. 3/1/10 NEW.........Minor in Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatterjee, Avik P.

    Rev. 3/1/10 NEW.........Minor in Chemistry The Department of Chemistry offers a minor in chemistry to students who wish to enhance their degrees with a strong concentration in this area. The Chemistry minor and enhances the records of students. The Chemistry minor provides a broad and general exposure

  4. ADVANCED INORGANIC LABORATORY FALL 2008 CHEMISTRY 410 (CRN 11299:), CHEMISTRY 510 (CRN 11315)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    materials and announcements will be posted on the site. Required Text: "Synthesis and Technique in InorganicADVANCED INORGANIC LABORATORY ­ FALL 2008 CHEMISTRY 410 (CRN 11299:), CHEMISTRY 510 (CRN 11315 to a wide range of conceptual and practical (laboratory) inorganic chemistry. Because of the introductory

  5. Air Pollution Physics and Chemistry EAS 6790 Home Work Assignment Ozone Chemistry 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Rodney

    1 Air Pollution Physics and Chemistry EAS 6790 Fall 2010 Home Work Assignment Ozone Chemistry 2 Problem 1: Nighttime loss of NOx in the lower troposphere proceeds by: 1 Air Pollution Physics and 2 only). Daniel Jacob, Atmospheric Chemistry #12;2 Problem 2: 2 2. Consider an air parcel ventilated

  6. Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Chemistry and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CMR Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) building supports research and experimental activities for plutonium and uranium analytical chemistry and metallurgy. In 1952, the first LANL CMR facility was completed. At that time

  7. Effects of Ruminally Degradable Nitrogen in Diets Containing Wet Distiller’s Grains with Solubles and Steam-flaked Corn on Feedlot Cattle Performance and Carcass Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, Christian

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    plants, certain deviations of methods due to technologies employed at specific plants might explain some of the variation in nutritive value of the co-products. Holt and Pritchard (2004) determined nutrient variations of wet distiller?s grains... disappearance was 3.9%/h, and 47% of the CP present was ruminal escape protein. Crude protein values of up to 37.6% have been determined on samples collected directly from 4 plants (Holt and Pritchard, 2004). One nutritional limitation of WDGS...

  8. Wetting and strength issues at Al/alpha-alumina interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The wetting behavior and strength at aluminum/alumina interfaces has been an active subject of research. Al/alumina applications include ceramic-metal composites and several applications for electronic industries. In this paper the interface strength and microstructure of Al/alpha-alumina was investigated. We discovered that in a solid-state joining, the strength of the joint increases with increasing joining temperature. In a liquid-state joining, the strength of the joint gradually decreases due to the formation of unbonded areas. The strength, sigma sub b, is expressed by the following equation as a function of unbonded area, A: sigma sub b = 2.22 A + 143 (70 percent {le} A {le} 100 percent). The highest strength reached 400 MPa when the interface was formed at around the melting temperature of aluminum. An aluminum layer close to the interface became a single crystal when it was bonded to a sapphire. The following crystallographic orientation relationship is established: (1{bar 1}1){sub Al}//(001){sub {alpha}}-Al{sub 2} O{sub 3}, (110){sub Al}//<100>{sub {alpha}}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Amorphous alumina islands were formed at the interface. In the amorphous alumina, gamma-alumina nanocrystals grew from the sapphire, with the same orientation relationship to sapphire as above.

  9. Contact angles in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann modeling of wetting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Q. Li; K. H. Luo; Q. J. Kang; Q. Chen

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we aim to investigate the implementation of contact angles in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann modeling of wetting at a large density ratio. The pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model [X. Shan and H. Chen, Phys. Rev. E 49, 2941 (1994)] is a popular mesoscopic model for simulating multiphase flows and interfacial dynamics. In this model, the contact angle is usually realized by a fluid-solid interaction. Two widely used fluid-solid interactions: the density-based interaction and the pseudopotential-based interaction, as well as a modified pseudopotential-based interaction formulated in the present paper, are numerically investigated and compared in terms of the achievable contact angles, the maximum and the minimum densities, and the spurious currents. It is found that the pseudopotential-based interaction works well for simulating small static (liquid) contact angles, however, is unable to reproduce static contact angles close to 180 degrees. Meanwhile, it is found that the proposed modified pseudopotential-based interaction performs better in light of the maximum and the minimum densities and is overall more suitable for simulating large contact angles as compared with the other two types of fluid-solid interactions. Furthermore, the spurious currents are found to be enlarged when the fluid-solid interaction force is introduced. Increasing the kinematic viscosity ratio between the vapor and liquid phases is shown to be capable of reducing the spurious currents caused by the fluid-solid interactions.

  10. Development studies for a novel wet oxidation process. Phase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DETOX{sup SM} is a catalyzed wet oxidation process which destroys organic materials in an acidic water solution of iron at 373 to 473 K. The solution can be used repeatedly to destroy great amounts of organic materials. Since the process is conducted in a contained vessel, air emissions from the process can be well controlled. The solution is also capable of dissolving and concentrating many heavy and radioactive metals for eventual stabilization and disposal. The Phase 2 effort for this project is site selection and engineering design for a DETOX demonstration unit. Site selection was made using a set of site selection criteria and evaluation factors. A survey of mixed wastes at DOE sites was conducted using the Interim Mixed Waste Inventory Report. Sites with likely suitable waste types were identified. Potential demonstration sites were ranked based on waste types, interest, regulatory needs, scheduling, ability to provide support, and available facilities. Engineering design for the demonstration unit is in progress and is being performed by Jacobs Applied Technology. The engineering design proceeded through preliminary process flow diagrams (PFDs), calculation of mass and energy balances for representative waste types, process and instrumentation diagrams (P and IDs), preparation of component specifications, and a firm cost estimate for fabrication of the demonstration unit.

  11. Gallium nitride microcavities formed by photoenhanced wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, L.-H.; Lu, C.-Y.; Wu, W.-H.; Wang, S.-L. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2005-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the formation of gallium nitride (GaN) microcavities by manipulating a photoenhanced oxidation rate difference between the polar and nonpolar crystallographic planes of GaN. When immersed in a buffered acetic (CH{sub 3}COOH) electrolyte of pH{approx}6.2 at room temperature, it is shown that the photo-oxidation can proceed at a rate that is one order of magnitude slower on the nonpolar plane of {l_brace}1100{r_brace}{sub GaN} than on the polar plane of {l_brace}0001{r_brace}{sub GaN} due to the reduced surface field action. Gallium nitride microcavities bounded by optically smooth {l_brace}1100{r_brace} and {l_brace}1103{r_brace} facets can thus be preferentially formed on the c-plane sapphire substrate after dissolving the oxide layer. The optical properties of these GaN hexagonal cavities reveal characteristic peaks of whispering gallery modes in resonance with the GaN band edge emission spectrum. A typical cavity Q factor of 10{sup 3} is observed in these GaN microcavities due to a reduced optical scattering loss in the wet chemical reaction process.

  12. Chemistry -Bachelor of Science (SCH3UG) Total Credits Required: 128 Chemistry/Secondary Education -ACS Certified

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chemistry - Bachelor of Science (SCH3UG) Total Credits Required: 128 Chemistry/Secondary Education - 40 credits Course Credits Course Credits CH1150 University Chemistry I AND 3 CH3020 Laboratory Teaching Internship 2 CH1151 University Chemistry Lab 1 AND 1 CH4810 Design/Oper of High School Chemistry

  13. Improved Wetting of Mixed Ionic/Electronic Conductors Used in Electrochemical Devices with Ternary Reactive Air Braze Filler Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardy, John S.; Kim, Jin Yong Y.; Thomsen, Ed C.; Weil, K. Scott

    2007-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the wetting behavior, reactivity, and long-term electrical conductance of a series of ternary filler metals being considered for brazing lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) based oxygen separation membranes. Mixed ionic/electronic conducting perovskite oxides such as LSCF and various doped barium cerates are currently being considered for use in high-temperature electrochemical devices such as oxygen and hydrogen concentrators and solid oxide fuel cells. However to take full advantage of the unique properties of these materials, reliable joining techniques need to be developed. Furthermore, if the proposed joining technique were to yield a hermetic ceramic-to-metal junction that was also electrically conductive, it would additionally benefit the device by allowing current to be drawn from or carried to the electrochemically active mixed conducting oxide component without requiring an separate current collector. A newly developed brazing technique known as air brazing is one such method of joining. In its present form, air brazing uses a silver-copper oxide based filler metal that can be melted directly in air to form a compliant joint that is electrically conductive. Recently, it has been shown that the addition of titania can enhance the wetting behavior of Ag-CuO filler metals on alumina. Here the effect of this wetting agent on the surface wettability, long-term electrical resistance at 750°C, and reactivity with La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-? (LSCF-6428 or LSCF) substrates is discussed.

  14. Comparison of thermoelectric and permeation dryers for sulfur dioxide removal during sample conditioning of wet gas streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunder, T.A. [Entropy, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Research Div.; Leighty, D.A. [Perma Pure, Inc., Toms River, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Flue gas conditioning for moisture removal is commonly performed for criteria pollutant measurements, in particular for extractive CEM systems at combustion sources. An implicit assumption is that conditioning systems specifically remove moisture without affecting pollutant and diluent concentrations. Gas conditioning is usually performed by passing the flue gas through a cold trap (Peltier or thermoelectric dryer) to remove moisture by condensation, which is subsequently extracted by a peristaltic pump. Many air pollutants are water-soluble and potentially susceptible to removal in a condensation dryer from gas interaction with liquid water. An alternative technology for gas conditioning is the permeation dryer, where the flue gas passes through a selectively permeable membrane for moisture removal. In this case water is transferred through the membrane while other pollutants are excluded, and the gas does not contact condensed liquid. Laboratory experiments were performed to measure the relative removal of a water-soluble pollutant (sulfur dioxide, SO{sub 2}) by the two conditioning techniques. A wet gas generating system was used to create hot, wet gas streams of known composition (15% and 30% moisture, balance nitrogen) and flow rate. Pre-heated SO{sub 2} was dynamically spiked into the wet stream using mass flow meters to achieve concentrations of 20, 50, and 100 ppm. The spiked gas was directed through a heated sample line to either a thermoelectric or a permeation conditioning system. Two gas analyzers (Western Research UV gas monitor, KVB/Analect FTIR spectrometer) were used to measure the SO{sub 2} concentration after conditioning. Both analytic methods demonstrated that SO{sub 2} is removed to a significantly greater extent by the thermoelectric dryer. These results have important implications for SO{sub 2} monitoring and emissions trading.

  15. Mass fractal characteristics of wet sonogels as determined by small-angle x-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vollet, D. R.; Donatti, D. A.; Ibanez Ruiz, A.; Gatto, F. R. [Departamento de Fisica, Unesp-Univerisdade Estadual Paulista, IGCE, P.O. Box 178 CEP 13500-970 Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low density silica sonogels were prepared from acid sonohydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane. Wet gels were studied by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The DSC tests were carried out under a heating rate of 2 deg. C/min from -120 deg. C up to 30 deg. C. Aerogels were obtained by CO{sub 2} supercritical extraction and characterized by nitrogen adsorption and SAXS. The DSC thermogram displays two distinct endothermic peaks. The first, a broad peak extending from about -80 deg. C up to practically 0 deg. C, was associated to the melting of ice nanocrystals with a crystal size distribution with 'pore' diameter ranging from 1 or 2 nm up to about 60 nm, as estimated from Thomson's equation. The second, a sharp peak with onset temperature close to 0 deg. C, was attributed to the melting of macroscopic crystals. The DSC incremental 'nanopore' volume distribution is in reasonable agreement with the incremental pore volume distribution of the aerogel as determined from nitrogen adsorption. No macroporosity was detected by nitrogen adsorption, probably because the adsorption method applies stress on the sample during measurement, leading to a underestimation of pore volume, or because often positive curvature of the solid surface is in aerogels, making the nitrogen condensation more difficult. According to the SAXS results, the solid network of the wet gels behaves as a mass fractal structure with mass fractal dimension D=2.20{+-}0.01 in a characteristic length scale below {xi}=7.9{+-}0.1 nm. The mass fractal characteristics of the wet gels have also been probed from DSC data by means of an earlier applied modeling for generation of a mass fractal from the incremental ''pore'' volume distribution curves. The results are shown to be in interesting agreement with the results from SAXS.

  16. The Streaming Potential Generated by Flow of Wet Steam in Capillary Tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsden, S.S. Jr.; Tyran, Craig K.

    1986-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    For a constant pressure differential, the flow of wet steam generated electric potentials which increased with time and did not reach equilibrium values. These potentials were found to increase to values greater than 100 volts. The reason for this kind of potential build-up behavior was the presence of tiny flowing water slugs which were interspersed with electrically nonconductive steam vapor slugs. The measured electric potential for wet steam increased with pressure differential, but the relationship was not linear. The increase in potential with pressure drop was attributed both to an increase in fluid flow rate and changes in the wet steam quality.

  17. Postdoctoral Researcher, Materials Chemistry (2 year contract)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humphrys, Mark

    Postdoctoral Researcher, Materials Chemistry (2 year contract) Adaptive Sensors Group Dublin City Foundation Ireland through the CLARITY CSET (www.clarity- centre.org), supplemented by significant project partners. The group's research strategy in materials chemistry research is to closely align activity

  18. Analytical Chemistry Division's sample transaction system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanton, J.S.; Tilson, P.A.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Analytical Chemistry Division uses the DECsystem-10 computer for a wide range of tasks: sample management, timekeeping, quality assurance, and data calculation. This document describes the features and operating characteristics of many of the computer programs used by the Division. The descriptions are divided into chapters which cover all of the information about one aspect of the Analytical Chemistry Division's computer processing.

  19. Richard T. Oakley FRSC, Professor of Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le Roy, Robert J.

    Interests: Synthesis and solid state transport properties of open shell inorganic and organic ring systems. Heavy atom radicals as multifunctional molecular conductors and magnetic materials. Academic Background: B.Sc., 1969, Honours Chemistry, University of British Columbia M.Sc., 1970, Inorganic Chemistry

  20. Exploring Chemistry Using SMT Rolf Fagerberg1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flamm, Christoph

    Exploring Chemistry Using SMT Rolf Fagerberg1 , Christoph Flamm2 , Daniel Merkle1 , Philipp Peters1 power of Satisfiability Modulo Theory (SMT) solvers. We show results for an analysis of the Pentose in the usage of SMT for expressing search problems in chemistry, and in the generality of its resulting

  1. Chemistry 593: Stirling's Formula David Ronis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronis, David M.

    Chemistry 593: Stirling's Formula © David Ronis McGill University There is a simple way to obtain) Winter, 2014 #12;Chemistry 593 -2- Stirling's Formula which implies that ln(x!)x ln(x) - x + ln[(2 x)1/2 ]. (4') Clearly, for xO(1023 ), the last logarithm is negligible, and the simple form of Stirling

  2. advanced organic chemistry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 21 SYLLABUS for CHEMISTRY 2310 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 1 Chemistry Websites Summary: Discussion...

  3. Chemistry -Bachelor of Science (SCH4UG) Total Credits Required: 128 Chemistry/Chemical Physics -ACS Certified

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chemistry I 3 PH4210 Electricity and Magnetism I 3 CH3511 Physical Chemistry Lab I 2 PH4510 Intro to Solid Analysis 5 General Education Requirements - 28 credits CH4310 Inorganic Chemistry I 3 UN1001 Perspectives

  4. NERSC training events: Data Transfer and Archiving; Chemistry...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    training events: Data Transfer and Archiving; Chemistry and Material Sciences Applications NERSC training events: Data Transfer and Archiving; Chemistry and Material Sciences...

  5. June 26 Training: Using Chemistry and Material Sciences Applications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 26 Training: Using Chemistry and Material Sciences Applications June 26 Training: Using Chemistry and Material Sciences Applications June 15, 2012 by Francesca Verdier (0...

  6. Materials Science and Materials Chemistry for Large Scale Electrochemi...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science and Materials Chemistry for Large Scale Electrochemical Energy Storage: From Transportation to Electrical Grid Materials Science and Materials Chemistry for Large Scale...

  7. analytical chemistry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from Analytical Chemistry, 1990, 62. Copyright 0 1990 by the American Chemical Society Ion Source Mark van Straaten,* Akos Vertes,' and Renaat Gijbels Department of Chemistry,...

  8. analytical chemistry division: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from Analytical Chemistry, 1990, 62. Copyright 0 1990 by the American Chemical Society Ion Source Mark van Straaten,* Akos Vertes,' and Renaat Gijbels Department of Chemistry,...

  9. analytical chemistry biochemical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from Analytical Chemistry, 1990, 62. Copyright 0 1990 by the American Chemical Society Ion Source Mark van Straaten,* Akos Vertes,' and Renaat Gijbels Department of Chemistry,...

  10. analytical chemistry dac: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from Analytical Chemistry, 1990, 62. Copyright 0 1990 by the American Chemical Society Ion Source Mark van Straaten,* Akos Vertes,' and Renaat Gijbels Department of Chemistry,...

  11. Enriched Stable Isotope Materials and Chemistry | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Chemistry SHARE Enriched Stable Isotope Materials and Chemistry Reductiondistillation of calcium-48 metal valued at over 900,000. An inventory of 2,300 batches of...

  12. Private Company Uses EERE-Supported Chemistry Model to Substantially...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Private Company Uses EERE-Supported Chemistry Model to Substantially Improve Combustion Engine Simulation Software Private Company Uses EERE-Supported Chemistry Model to...

  13. association chemistry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Gao, Chemistry Don Truhlar, Chemistry February 2007 12;Zn Metalloprotein Force Field Design Zn: unusual coordination, charge distribution at transition states in...

  14. activation chemistry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Gao, Chemistry Don Truhlar, Chemistry February 2007 12;Zn Metalloprotein Force Field Design Zn: unusual coordination, charge distribution at transition states in...

  15. applied chemistry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Gao, Chemistry Don Truhlar, Chemistry February 2007 12;Zn Metalloprotein Force Field Design Zn: unusual coordination, charge distribution at transition states in...

  16. applied edman chemistry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Gao, Chemistry Don Truhlar, Chemistry February 2007 12;Zn Metalloprotein Force Field Design Zn: unusual coordination, charge distribution at transition states in...

  17. ainse radiation chemistry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Gao, Chemistry Don Truhlar, Chemistry February 2007 12;Zn Metalloprotein Force Field Design Zn: unusual coordination, charge distribution at transition states in...

  18. atropisomeric lactam chemistry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Gao, Chemistry Don Truhlar, Chemistry February 2007 12;Zn Metalloprotein Force Field Design Zn: unusual coordination, charge distribution at transition states in...

  19. Distance-dependent radiation chemistry: Oxidation versus hydrogenation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Distance-dependent radiation chemistry: Oxidation versus hydrogenation of CO in electron-irradiated H2OCOH2O ices. Distance-dependent radiation chemistry: Oxidation versus...

  20. High Level Computational Chemistry Approaches to the Prediction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Level Computational Chemistry Approaches to the Prediction of Energetic Properties of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Systems High Level Computational Chemistry Approaches to the...

  1. applied inorganic chemistry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bus.Admin.Public Admin. Chemical Engineering Chem. Eng.Comp. Sci. Chemistry Civil Engineering Heller, Barbara 6 Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined...

  2. Molecular Chemistry of Organic Aerosols Through the Application...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry of Organic Aerosols Through the Application of High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Molecular Chemistry of Organic Aerosols Through the Application of High Resolution Mass...

  3. analytical chemistry general: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for students who have a prepared background in chemistry Ravikumar, B. 4 General syllabus for third-cycle studies in Technical Analytical Chemistry This syllabus has been...

  4. advanced physical chemistry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    material listed extended material on chemical kinetcs. (The topics covered are in the Syllabus below.) This means that Raina, Ramesh 2 CHEMISTRY 521 GRADUATE PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY...

  5. atmospheric physical chemistry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1999, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI Ph.D. in Chemistry 8 Course Syllabus ATMO 613: Advanced Atmospheric Chemistry (Spring 2014) Geosciences Websites Summary:...

  6. Plastic Bags to Batteries: A Green Chemistry Solution | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plastic Bags to Batteries: A Green Chemistry Solution Share Description Plastic bags are the scourge of roadsides, parking lots and landfills. But chemistry comes to the rescue At...

  7. MAY 14, 2008 Chemistry and environmental science professor receives Carroll

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    MAY 14, 2008 Chemistry and environmental science professor receives Carroll College faculty award WAUKESHA, WIS.-- An associate professor of chemistry and environmental science has received an annual

  8. aggregation chemistry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mission Statement The Sawyer Environmental Chemistry Research Laboratory is a multi industry. The Sawyer Environmental Chemistry Research Laboratory employs advanced analytical...

  9. Fuel Chemistry and Cetane Effects on HCCI Performance, Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chemistry and Cetane Effects on HCCI Performance, Combustion, and Emissions Cetane Performance and Chemistry Comparing Conventional Fuels and Fuels Derived from Heavy Crude Sources...

  10. applied chemistry division: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    their independent research identity and become a chemistry research leader of the future. Funding for the most Oxford, University of 6 DIVISION OF MARINE AND ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY...

  11. Substrate Changes Associated with the Chemistry of Self-Assembled...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substrate Changes Associated with the Chemistry of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Silicon. Substrate Changes Associated with the Chemistry of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Silicon....

  12. New Mass Spectrometry Techniques for Studying Physical Chemistry...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mass Spectrometry Techniques for Studying Physical Chemistry of Atmospheric Heterogeneous Processes. New Mass Spectrometry Techniques for Studying Physical Chemistry of Atmospheric...

  13. Redox Chemistry in Thin Layers of Organometallic Complexes Prepared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Redox Chemistry in Thin Layers of Organometallic Complexes Prepared Using Ion Soft Landing. Redox Chemistry in Thin Layers of Organometallic Complexes Prepared Using Ion Soft...

  14. Soil water content dependent wetting front characteristics in sands T.W.J. Bautersa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    affects wetting front instability. A series of experiments were conducted where water was infiltrated in a 0.94 cm thick, 30 cm wide, and 55 cm long polycarbonate chamber filled with clean, 20­30 (US sieve

  15. Restoration of resaca wetlands and associated wet prairie habitats at Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Margo, Michael Ray

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Cultivation and drainage projects associated with livestock production have substantially disturbed resaca wetlands and wet prairie habitats in southern Texas. As a consequence of the anthropogenic disturbances, the area of these wetlands has been...

  16. 1 Mathematical Model The mass consevation equations are for wetting phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    la wetting phase (brine, digamos). Menos aun para un gas, o sea si el CO2 no estuviera en estado se tiene en cuenta la compresibilidad del CO2, y ademas de la solubilidad en brine, pero eso es

  17. ChemCam follows the 'Yellowknife Road' to Martian wet area

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the 'Yellowknife Road' to martian wet area Researchers have tracked a trail of minerals that point to the prior presence of water at the Curiosity rover site on Mars....

  18. Wetting and phase-change phenomena on micro/nanostructures for enhanced heat transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Rong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Micro/nanostructures have been extensively studied to amplify the intrinsic wettability of materials to create superhydrophilic or superhydrophobic surfaces. Such extreme wetting properties can influence the heat transfer ...

  19. Feeding Value of Wet Sorghum Distillers Grains for Growing and Finishing Beef Cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feeding Value of Wet Sorghum Distillers Grains for Growing and Finishing Beef Cattle Ethanol, but sorghum grain is commonly either blended with corn before use or used as the sole grain for ethanol

  20. Assessment of an Industrial Wet Oxidation System for Burning Waste and Low-Grade Fuels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bettinger, J.; Koppel, P.; Margulies, A.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    "Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation, under Department of Energy sponsorship, is developing a wet oxidation system to generate steam for industrial processes by burning industrial waste materials and low-grade fuels. The program involves...

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - ashing wet Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences and Ecology 4 By-Products Utilization Summary: A3, containing 20% clean coal ash and 5% wet collected Class F ash had compressive strengths... 0 Center for...

  2. The Effect of Deformation on Grain Boundary Wetness in Partially Molten Peridotite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Stephen E.

    2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial distribution of the melt phase can affect many properties of partially molten rocks, including viscosity and seismic wave velocity. A good way to quantify this distribution is the grain boundary wetness, the fraction of total grain...

  3. Simulation of Oil Displacement from Oil-Wet Cores by Interfacial Tension Reduction and Wettability Alteration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalaei, Mohammad Hosein

    2010-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    wettability toward water-wet may increase spontaneous imbibition of water. This change in rock wettability leads to positive capillary pressure and results in higher brine counter-current imbibition and therefore a higher oil production rate. A three...

  4. Energy Efficiency Improvements and Cost Saving Opportunities in the Corn Wet Milling Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galitsky, C.; Worrell, E.

    Corn wet milling is the most energy intensive industry in the food and kindred products group (SIC 20). Plants typically spend approximately $15 to 25 million per year on energy, one of its largest operating costs, making energy efficiency...

  5. Wetting transition behavior of Xe on Cs and Cs/graphite Stefano Curtarolo,1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curtarolo, Stefano

    Wetting transition behavior of Xe on Cs and Cs/graphite Stefano Curtarolo,1, * Milton W. Cole,2 surface, covered by a monolayer of Cs. With data obtained from grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations

  6. Wet-Weather Flow Characterization for the Rock Creek through Monitoring and Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    District of Columbia, University of the

    support of the following organizations: ­ DC Water Resources Research Institute ­ U.S. Geological Survey..................................................................16 Modeling of Urban Stormwater Management discharged to receiving waters demand that wet-weather flow control systems be planned and engineered

  7. Wetting hysteresis and droplet roll off behavior on superhydrophobic surfaces by Katherine Marie Smyth.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, Katherine Marie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various states of hydrophobic wetting and hysteresis are observed when water droplets are deposited on micro-post surfaces of different post densities. Hysteresis is commonly defined as the difference between the advancing ...

  8. Rapid Deceleration-Driven Wetting Transition during Pendant Drop Deposition on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwon, HyukMin

    A hitherto unknown mechanism for wetting transition is reported. When a pendant drop settles upon deposition, there is a virtual “collision” where its center of gravity undergoes rapid deceleration. This induces a high ...

  9. Modeling of wet gas compression in twin-screw multiphase pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jian

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Twin-screw multiphase pumps experience a severe decrease in efficiency, even the breakdown of pumping function, when operating under wet gas conditions. Additionally, field operations have revealed significant vibration and thermal issues which can...

  10. Permeability and wet-out characterization of SRIM automotive bumper beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morse, Christopher Todd

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PERMEABILITY AND WET-OUT CHARACTERIZATION OF SRIM AUTOMOTIVE BUMPER BEAMS A Thesis CHRISTOPHER TODD MORSE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering PERMEABILITY AND WET-OUT CHARACTERIZATION OF SRIM AUTOMOTIVE BUMPER BEAMS A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER TODD MORSE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University...

  11. Interrelationships between air velocity and natural wet-bulb thermometer response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Nathan Glenn

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN AIR VFLOCITY ANO NATURAL WET-BULB THERMOMETER RESPONSE A Thesis by NATHAN GLENN JONES Submitted to the Graduate Colleqe of Texas ASM University i n partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE AUGUST 1983 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN AIR VELOCITY AND NATURAL WET-BULB THERMOMETER RESPONSE A Thesis by NATHAN GLENN JONES Approved as to style an content by: airman o ommittee er Member ~~' A~ Member...

  12. A rapid method for the determination of water in wet soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burdick, Robert Linn

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dimmit 29 Q 22 20 5. 2 1. 77 A 2 31 LL liquid limit. Pl~plasticity index FME field moisture equivalent, S~hrinkage limit. LS~lineal shrinkage. fSR shrinkage ratio. The Wheatstone bridge is supplied with 1009 cycle alternating current from an integral...

  13. Method for protecting chip corners in wet chemical etching of wafers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hui, W.C.

    1994-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a corner protection mask design that protects chip corners from undercutting during anisotropic etching of wafers. The corner protection masks abut the chip corner point and extend laterally from segments along one or both corner sides of the corner point, forming lateral extensions. The protection mask then extends from the lateral extensions, parallel to the direction of the corner side of the chip and parallel to scribe lines, thus conserving wafer space. Unmasked bomb regions strategically formed in the protection mask facilitate the break-up of the protection mask during etching. Corner protection masks are useful for chip patterns with deep grooves and either large or small chip mask areas. Auxiliary protection masks form nested concentric frames that etch from the center outward are useful for small chip mask patterns. The protection masks also form self-aligning chip mask areas. The present invention is advantageous for etching wafers with thin film windows, microfine and micromechanical structures, and for forming chip structures more elaborate than presently possible. 63 figures.

  14. Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending January 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported in the following fields: coal chemistry, aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures, geochemistry, high-temperature chemistry and thermodynamics of structural materials, chemistry of transuranium elements and compounds, separations chemistry, elecrochemistry, catalysis, chemical physics, theoretical chemistry, nuclear waste chemistry, chemistry of hazardous chemicals, and thermal energy storage.

  15. Intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, G.W.; Giesler, G.C.; Liu, L.C.; Dropesky, B.J.; Knight, J.D.; Lucero, F.; Orth, C.J.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Chemistry Workshop held in Los Alamos, New Mexico, June 23-27, 1980. The first two days of the Workshop were devoted to invited review talks highlighting current experimental and theoretical research activities in intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry and physics. Working panels representing major topic areas carried out indepth appraisals of present research and formulated recommendations for future research directions. The major topic areas were Pion-Nucleus Reactions, Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions and Nuclei Far from Stability, Mesonic Atoms, Exotic Interactions, New Theoretical Approaches, and New Experimental Techniques and New Nuclear Chemistry Facilities.

  16. Chemistry of Cobalt-Platinum Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z CPlasma of theChemistry OxideChemistry ofChemistry

  17. The Use of Electrochemical Techniques to Characterize Wet Steam Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce W. Bussert; John A. Crowley; Kenneth J. Kimball; Brian J. Lashway

    2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The composition of a steam phase in equilibrium with a water phase at high temperature is remarkably affected by the varying capabilities of the water phase constituents to partition into the steam. Ionic impurities (sodium, chloride, sulfate, etc.) tend to remain in the water phase, while weakly ionic or gaseous species (oxygen) partition into the steam. Analysis of the water phase can provide misleading results concerning the steam phase composition or environment. This paper describes efforts that were made to use novel electrochemical probes and sampling techniques to directly characterize a wet steam phase environment in equilibrium with high temperature water. Probes were designed to make electrochemical measurements in the thin film of water existing on exposed surfaces in steam over a water phase. Some of these probes were referenced against a conventional high temperature electrode located in the water phase. Others used two different materials (typically tungsten and platinum) to make measurements without a true reference electrode. The novel probes were also deployed in a steam space removed from the water phase. It was necessary to construct a reservoir and an external, air-cooled condenser to automatically keep the reservoir full of condensed steam. Conventional reference and working electrodes were placed in the water phase of the reservoir and the novel probes protruded into the vapor space above it. Finally, water phase probes (both reference and working electrodes) were added to the hot condensed steam in the external condenser. Since the condensing action collapsed the volatiles back into the water phase, these electrodes proved to be extremely sensitive at detecting oxygen, which is one of the species of highest concern in high temperature power systems. Although the novel steam phase probes provided encouraging initial results, the tendency for tungsten to completely corrode away in the steam phase limited their usefulness. However, the conventional water phase electrodes, installed both in the reservoir and in the external condensing coil, provided useful data showing the adverse impact of oxygen and carbon dioxide on the REDOX potential and high temperature pH, respectively.

  18. Contained radiological analytical chemistry module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barney, David M. (Scotia, NY)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system which provides analytical determination of a plurality of water chemistry parameters with respect to water samples subject to radiological contamination. The system includes a water sample analyzer disposed within a containment and comprising a sampling section for providing predetermined volumes of samples for analysis; a flow control section for controlling the flow through the system; and a gas analysis section for analyzing samples provided by the sampling system. The sampling section includes a controllable multiple port valve for, in one position, metering out sample of a predetermined volume and for, in a second position, delivering the material sample for analysis. The flow control section includes a regulator valve for reducing the pressure in a portion of the system to provide a low pressure region, and measurement devices located in the low pressure region for measuring sample parameters such as pH and conductivity, at low pressure. The gas analysis section which is of independent utility provides for isolating a small water sample and extracting the dissolved gases therefrom into a small expansion volume wherein the gas pressure and thermoconductivity of the extracted gas are measured.

  19. Contained radiological analytical chemistry module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barney, David M. (Scotia, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system which provides analytical determination of a plurality of water chemistry parameters with respect to water samples subject to radiological contamination. The system includes a water sample analyzer disposed within a containment and comprising a sampling section for providing predetermined volumes of samples for analysis; a flow control section for controlling the flow through the system; and a gas analysis section for analyzing samples provided by the sampling system. The sampling section includes a controllable multiple port valve for, in one position, metering out sample of a predetermined volume and for, in a second position, delivering the material sample for analysis. The flow control section includes a regulator valve for reducing the pressure in a portion of the system to provide a low pressure region, and measurement devices located in the low pressure region for measuring sample parameters such as pH and conductivity, at low pressure. The gas analysis section which is of independent utility provides for isolating a small water sample and extracting the dissolved gases therefrom into a small expansion volume wherein the gas pressure and thermoconductivity of the extracted gas are measured.

  20. Pollution of Natural Waters 1. Redox chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Jeremy

    . Eutrophication 4. Water treatment 1. Redox chemistry #15; Principle of equilibration of chemical system R Keq;sh and other aquatic life { Shift to anaerobic metabolic mechanisms #15; Eutrophication: agin

  1. CHEMISTRY OF SILICA IN CERRO PRIETO BRINES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weres, O.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chemistry of silica in Cerro Prieto brine may profitably be14 mg·l-1 AND SYNTHFTIC CERRO PRIETO BRINES High Ca We112Q.by the CFE Laboratory at Cerro Prieto and kindly provided to

  2. Computational Science and Engineering Certification for Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Matthew

    Computational Science and Engineering Certification for Chemistry The Computational Science that are distinct from already- required coursework. To receive a certificate in "Computational Science a solid base in problem solving using computation as a major tool for modeling complicated problems

  3. Eugene R. Zubarev Department of Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zubarev, Eugene

    , amphiphilic structures. Experimental: organic synthesis, polymerization, synthesis of inorganic nanocrystals-2005 Assistant Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University 2000-2002 Research Associate and supramolecular chemistry, molecular self-assembly, organic-inorganic hybrid structures, nanoparticle catalysts

  4. February 11, 1987 I Inorganic Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Girolami, Gregory S.

    Volume 26 Number 3 February 11, 1987 I Inorganic Chemistry 0 Copyright 1987 by the American uranium phthalocyanine derivatives have been crystallographically (I) (a) Kasuga, K.; Tsutsui, M. Coord

  5. Graduate Profile Chemistry & PhysiCs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graduate Profile Chemistry & PhysiCs "...I am helping to develop low-cost solar technology." Ricky to develop low-cost solar technology. The aim of my project is to achieve increased light absorption in thin

  6. Physics and chemistry of gas in discs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilling, Ian

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Protoplanetary discs set the initial conditions for planet formation. By combining observations with detailed modelling, it is possible to constrain the physics and chemistry in such discs. I have used the detailed ...

  7. Chemistry in Higher What's available and where is the info?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Jim

    Chemistry in Higher Education What's available and where is the info? What does studying chemistry? Where does it lead and what might a chemistry career look like? Dr. David Read, Director of Outreach 2013 #12;310 (294) HE courses with chemistry offered as a single subject hosted at 53 universities 699

  8. Chemistry 100 Fall 2011 Page 1 of 5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indiana University

    Chemistry 100 ­ Fall 2011 Page 1 of 5 The World of Chemistry ­ Course Syllabus Instructor Kirkwood Hall 212 Texts: Required: Chemistry in Context (CC) Course information is online through OnCourse. Course Objective(s): The primary goal of this course is to teach you about the chemistry that surrounds

  9. MAJOR TO CAREER GUIDE B.A. Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    MAJOR TO CAREER GUIDE B.A. Chemistry College of Sciences www.unlv.edu/chemistry Mission of the College of Sciences The College of Sciences offers programs in life sciences, chemistry, geoscience: 702-895-2077 Campus Location: MPE-A 130 www.unlv.edu/sciences/advising About the Chemistry Career

  10. MAJOR TO CAREER GUIDE B.S. Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    MAJOR TO CAREER GUIDE B.S. Chemistry College of Sciences www.unlv.edu/chemistry Mission of the College of Sciences The College of Sciences offers programs in life sciences, chemistry, geoscience: 702-895-2077 Campus Location: MPE-A 130 www.unlv.edu/sciences/advising Chemistry Career Options

  11. Chemistry Major and Minor www.chem.pitt.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Huiqiang

    Chemistry Major and Minor www.chem.pitt.edu Revised: 10/2012 Chemistry is the most central disease, and processes to provide energy for societal needs. Chemistry plays an ever-increasing role design and ceramics. The bachelor's degree in chemistry consists of core courses in four primary areas

  12. ISSN 1463-9076 Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alavi, Ali

    on structural a London Centre for Nanotechnology and Department of Chemistry, University College London, London

  13. Sampling for Beryllium Surface Contamination using Wet, Dry and Alcohol Wipe Sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, Kent

    2004-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project was conducted at the National Nuclear Security Administration's Kansas City Plant, operated by Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, in conjunction with the Safety Sciences Department of Central Missouri State University, to compare relative removal efficiencies of three wipe sampling techniques currently used at Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling with dry Whatman 42 filter paper, with water-moistened (Ghost Wipe) materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Test plates were prepared using 100 mm X 15 mm Pyrex Petri dishes with interior surfaces spray painted with a bond coat primer. To achieve uniform deposition over the test plate surface, 10 ml aliquots of solution containing 1 beryllium and 0.1 ml of metal working fluid were transferred to the test plates and subsequently evaporated. Metal working fluid was added to simulate the slight oiliness common on surfaces in metal working shops where fugitive oil mist accumulates over time. Sixteen test plates for each wipe method (dry, water, and methanol) were processed and sampled using a modification of wiping patterns recommended by OSHA Method 125G. Laboratory and statistical analysis showed that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed significantly more (about twice as much) beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes (p< 0.001), which removed significantly more (about twice as much) residue as dry wipes (p <0.001). Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced residue removal efficiency.

  14. Chemistry -Bachelor of Science (SCH2UG) Total Credits Required: 128 Chemistry/Biochemistry -ACS Certified

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the following courses 3 CH1122 University Chemistry - Studio Lab II 5 BL3300 Introduction to Genomics 3 CH1130

  15. Ramon Eritja Nucleic Acid Chemistry Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritort, Felix

    Ramon Eritja Nucleic Acid Chemistry Group Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology Dpt. IRB Barcelona nanoparticle assemblies. #12;The DNA can be used as template for the fabrication of silver nanowires between;Preparation of thiol-functionalized arrays N N O NH S-St Bu N N O NH S-St Bu N N O NH S-St BuO DMT-O O P O N

  16. Chemistry 365: Stirling's Formula David Ronis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronis, David M.

    Chemistry 365: Stirling's Formula © David Ronis McGill University There is a simple way to obtain;Chemistry 365 -2- Stirling's Formula x!(2 )1/2 xx+1/2 e-x , (4) which implies that ln(x!)x ln(x) - x + ln[(2 of Stirling's formula ln(x!)x[ln(x) - 1], is obtained. With a little extra effort you can work out the next

  17. Exhaust Phosphorous Chemistry | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisoryStandardGenerationEducationalChemistry Exhaust Phosphorous Chemistry

  18. Stephen L. Morgan, Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, 2014. 1 Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morgan, Stephen L.

    "that is "similar to gasoline in flammability," said Rick L. Danheiser, professor of chemistry and chairStephen L. Morgan, Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, 2014. 1 Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry The University of South Carolina USC Chemistry & Biochemistry Safety

  19. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery in Fractional-Wet Systems: A Pore-Scale Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, Ryan T.; Wildenschild, Dorthe (Oregon State U.)

    2012-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a technology that could potentially increase the tertiary recovery of oil from mature oil formations. However, the efficacy of this technology in fractional-wet systems is unknown, and the mechanisms involved in oil mobilization therefore need further investigation. Our MEOR strategy consists of the injection of ex situ produced metabolic byproducts produced by Bacillus mojavensis JF-2 (which lower interfacial tension (IFT) via biosurfactant production) into fractional-wet cores containing residual oil. Two different MEOR flooding solutions were tested; one solution contained both microbes and metabolic byproducts while the other contained only the metabolic byproducts. The columns were imaged with X-ray computed microtomography (CMT) after water flooding, and after MEOR, which allowed for the evaluation of the pore-scale processes taking place during MEOR. Results indicate that the larger residual oil blobs and residual oil held under relatively low capillary pressures were the main fractions recovered during MEOR. Residual oil saturation, interfacial curvatures, and oil blob sizes were measured from the CMT images and used to develop a conceptual model for MEOR in fractional-wet systems. Overall, results indicate that MEOR was effective at recovering oil from fractional-wet systems with reported additional oil recovered (AOR) values between 44 and 80%; the highest AOR values were observed in the most oil-wet system.

  20. Instrument uncertainty effect on calculation of absolute humidity using dewpoint, wet-bulb, and relative humidity sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slayzak, S.J.; Ryan, J.P.

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the US Department of Energy`s Advanced Desiccant Technology Program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is characterizing the state-of-the-art in desiccant dehumidifiers, the key component of desiccant cooling systems. The experimental data will provide industry and end users with independent performance evaluation and help researchers assess the energy savings potential of the technology. Accurate determination of humidity ratio is critical to this work and an understanding of the capabilities of the available instrumentation is central to its proper application. This paper compares the minimum theoretical random error in humidity ratio calculation for three common measurement methods to give a sense of the relative maximum accuracy possible for each method assuming systematic errors can be made negligible. A series of experiments conducted also illustrate the capabilities of relative humidity sensors as compared to dewpoint sensors in measuring the grain depression of desiccant dehumidifiers. These tests support the results of the uncertainty analysis. At generally available instrument accuracies, uncertainty in calculated humidity ratio for dewpoint sensors is determined to be constant at approximately 2%. Wet-bulb sensors range between 2% and 6% above 10 g/kg (4%--15% below), and relative humidity sensors vary between 4% above 90% rh and 15% at 20% rh. Below 20% rh, uncertainty for rh sensors increases dramatically. Highest currently attainable accuracies bring dewpoint instruments down to 1% uncertainty, wet bulb to a range of 1%--3% above 10 g/kg (1.5%--8% below), and rh sensors between 1% and 5%.

  1. Low cost manufacturing of light trapping features on multi-crystalline silicon solar cells : jet etching method and cost analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berrada Sounni, Amine

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was conducted in order to determine low cost methods to improve the light trapping ability of multi-crystalline solar cells. We focused our work on improving current wet etching methods to achieve the ...

  2. Sem. Chemistry Materials Science Electrical Engineering Miscellaneous CP Introduction to General Chemistry,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Holger

    Sem. Chemistry Materials Science Electrical Engineering Miscellaneous CP Introduction to General & Inorganic Materials Chemistry (4 CP) Energy Science and Technology I (5 CP) Surfaces/Interfaces/ Heterogen. Catalysis/ Electrocatalysis (5 CP) Materials Science II (5 CP) Energy Science and Technology II ( 5 CP

  3. Inorganic water chemistry 71 Chapter 4 -Inorganic Water Chemistry of the Boulder Creek

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inorganic water chemistry 71 Chapter 4 - Inorganic Water Chemistry of the Boulder Creek Watershed Creek Watershed, Colorado were determined on a suite of water samples collected during high and low flow sixteen stream sites, twelve tributaries/inflows, and Saint Vrain Creek. The most upstream site was above

  4. Pre-photolithographic GaAs surface treatment for improved photoresist adhesion during wet chemical etching and improved wet etch profiles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, Marino John; Clevenger, Jascinda; Austin, Franklin H., IV (, LMATA, Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, Charles Thomas; Patrizi, Gary A.; Romero, Katherine (LMATA, Albuquerque, NM); Timon, Robert P.; Vigil, Pablita S. (LMATA, Albuquerque, NM); Grine, Alejandro J.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of several experiments aimed at remedying photoresist adhesion failure during spray wet chemical etching of InGaP/GaAs NPN HBTs are reported. Several factors were identified that could influence adhesion and a Design of Experiment (DOE) approach was used to study the effects and interactions of selected factors. The most significant adhesion improvement identified is the incorporation of a native oxide etch immediately prior to the photoresist coat. In addition to improving adhesion, this pre-coat treatment also alters the wet etch profile of (100) GaAs so that the reaction limited etch is more isotropic compared to wafers without surface treatment; the profiles have a positive taper in both the [011] and [011] directions, but the taper angles are not identical. The altered profiles have allowed us to predictably yield fully probe-able HBTs with 5 x 5 {micro}m emitters using 5200 {angstrom} evaporated metal without planarization.

  5. A theory for heat exchangers with liquid-desiccant-wetted surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otterbein, R.T. [Otterbein Engineering, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following theory extends the wet surface model of Maclaine-cross and Banks (1981) to include heat exchangers that heat or cool moist air with liquid-desiccant-wetted surfaces. The theory uses a wall boundary condition that forces the moist air to be at an arbitrary relative humidity that is less than totally saturated. The theory defines a new temperature scale (brine-bulb temperature) for which the wet-bulb temperature is a special case. Brine-bulb heat capacitance and heat transfer coefficient are defined. By using an analogy to the dry surface heat exchanger theory, the performance of these heat exchangers can then be estimated from the performance of geometrically identical heat exchangers with a dry surface. Charts to utilize the theory at various elevations are shown.

  6. "Wet-to-Dry" Conformational Transition of Polymer Layers Grafted to Nanoparticles in Nanocomposite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chloé Chevigny; Jacques Jestin; Didier Gigmes; Ralph Schweins; Emanuela Null Di Cola; Florent Dalmas; Denis Bertin; François Boué

    2010-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The present communication reports the first direct measurement of the conformation of a polymer corona grafted around silica nano-particles dispersed inside a nanocomposite, a matrix of the same polymer. This measurement constitutes an experimental breakthrough based on a refined combination of chemical synthesis, which permits to match the contribution of the neutron silica signal inside the composite, and the use of complementary scattering methods SANS and SAXS to extract the grafted polymer layer form factor from the inter-particles silica structure factor. The modelization of the signal of the grafted polymer on nanoparticles inside the matrix and the direct comparison with the form factor of the same particles in solution show a clear-cut change of the polymer conformation from bulk to the nanocomposite: a transition from a stretched and swollen form in solution to a Gaussian conformation in the matrix followed with a compression of a factor two of the grafted corona. In the probed range, increasing the interactions between the grafted particles (by increasing the particle volume fraction) or between the grafted and the free matrix chains (decreasing the grafted-free chain length ratio) does not influence the amplitude of the grafted brush compression. This is the first direct observation of the wet-to-dry conformational transition theoretically expected to minimize the free energy of swelling of grafted chains in interaction with free matrix chains, illustrating the competition between the mixing entropy of grafted and free chains, and the elastic deformation of the grafted chains. In addition to the experimental validation of the theoretical prediction, this result constitutes a new insight for the nderstanding of the general problem of dispersion of nanoparticles inside a polymer matrix for the design of new nanocomposites materials.

  7. Chemistry Impacts in Gasoline HCCI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in internal combustion engines is of interest because it has the potential to produce low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions while providing diesel-like efficiency. In HCCI combustion, a premixed charge of fuel and air auto-ignites at multiple points in the cylinder near top dead center (TDC), resulting in rapid combustion with very little flame propagation. In order to prevent excessive knocking during HCCI combustion, it must take place in a dilute environment, resulting from either operating fuel lean or providing high levels of either internal or external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Operating the engine in a dilute environment can substantially reduce the pumping losses, thus providing the main efficiency advantage compared to spark-ignition (SI) engines. Low NOx and PM emissions have been reported by virtually all researchers for operation under HCCI conditions. The precise emissions can vary depending on how well mixed the intake charge is, the fuel used, and the phasing of the HCCI combustion event; but it is common for there to be no measurable PM emissions and NOx emissions <10 ppm. Much of the early HCCI work was done on 2-stroke engines, and in these studies the CO and hydrocarbon emissions were reported to decrease [1]. However, in modern 4-stroke engines, the CO and hydrocarbon emissions from HCCI usually represent a marked increase compared with conventional SI combustion. This literature review does not report on HCCI emissions because the trends mentioned above are well established in the literature. The main focus of this literature review is the auto-ignition performance of gasoline-type fuels. It follows that this discussion relies heavily on the extensive information available about gasoline auto-ignition from studying knock in SI engines. Section 2 discusses hydrocarbon auto-ignition, the octane number scale, the chemistry behind it, its shortcomings, and its relevance to HCCI. Section 3 discusses the effects of fuel volatility on fuel and air mixing and the consequences it has on HCCI. The effects of alcohol fuels on HCCI performance, and specifically the effects that they have on the operable speed/load range, are reviewed in Section 4. Finally, conclusions are drawn in Section 5.

  8. ,"Louisiana Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;NetPriceNonassociated Natural Gas, WetGas, Wet After Lease

  9. Performance Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Various Chemistries for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Whether any of the lithium battery chemistries can meetgeneral the higher cost lithium battery chemistries have thecosts for various lithium battery chemistries Electrode

  10. Reduction Chemistry of Rare-Earth Metal Complexes: Toward New Reactivity and Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Wenliang

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Chemistry of Rare Earths; Karl A. Gschneidner, Jr. ,and Chemistry of Rare Earths; Karl A. Gschneidner, Jr. ,and Chemistry of Rare Earths; Gschneidner, K. A. , Bünzli,

  11. Chemistry of bimetallic linked cyclopentadienyl complexes: Progress report, 1 December 1986--30 November 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrock, R.R.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research continued on the chemistry and preparation of bimetallic cyclopentadienyl complexes containing up to two tungsten or one tungsten and a cobalt, rhodium, or ruthenium. The general method for preparation and analysis of polyenes is also discussed. 7 figs., 2 tabs. (CBS)

  12. Green Chemistry The smartest way to cut pollution is to prevent it. That's the motto of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maoz, Shahar

    ­ in this case oil ­ interacts with oxygen. However, common indus- trial oxidation methods are highly polluting31 Green Chemistry The smartest way to cut pollution is to prevent it. That's the motto of "green Add Oxygen Oil is not only the major energy source on our planet but also the basis for producing

  13. Advanced fuel chemistry for advanced engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Zador, Judit; Fernandes, Ravi X.; Miller, James A.

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Autoignition chemistry is central to predictive modeling of many advanced engine designs that combine high efficiency and low inherent pollutant emissions. This chemistry, and especially its pressure dependence, is poorly known for fuels derived from heavy petroleum and for biofuels, both of which are becoming increasingly prominent in the nation's fuel stream. We have investigated the pressure dependence of key ignition reactions for a series of molecules representative of non-traditional and alternative fuels. These investigations combined experimental characterization of hydroxyl radical production in well-controlled photolytically initiated oxidation and a hybrid modeling strategy that linked detailed quantum chemistry and computational kinetics of critical reactions with rate-equation models of the global chemical system. Comprehensive mechanisms for autoignition generally ignore the pressure dependence of branching fractions in the important alkyl + O{sub 2} reaction systems; however we have demonstrated that pressure-dependent 'formally direct' pathways persist at in-cylinder pressures.

  14. Chemistry of Low Mass Substellar Objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katharina Lodders; Bruce Fegley, Jr

    2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    "Brown dwarfs" is the collective name for objects more massive than giant planets such as Jupiter but less massive than M dwarf stars. This review gives a brief description of the classification and chemistry of low mass dwarfs. The current spectral classification of stars includes L and T dwarfs that encompass the coolest known stars and substellar objects. The relatively low atmospheric temperatures and high total pressures in substellar dwarfs lead to molecular gas and condensate chemistry. The chemistry of elements such as C, N, O, Ti, V, Fe, Cr, and the alkali elements play a dominant role in shaping the optical and infrared spectra of the "failed" stars. Chemical diagnostics for the subclassifications are described.

  15. Simultaneous assessment of phase chemistry, phase abundance and bulk chemistry with statistical electron probe micro-analyses: Application to cement clinkers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, William; Krakowiak, Konrad J.; Ulm, Franz-Josef, E-mail: ulm@mit.edu

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    According to recent developments in cement clinker engineering, the optimization of chemical substitutions in the main clinker phases offers a promising approach to improve both reactivity and grindability of clinkers. Thus, monitoring the chemistry of the phases may become part of the quality control at the cement plants, along with the usual measurements of the abundance of the mineralogical phases (quantitative X-ray diffraction) and the bulk chemistry (X-ray fluorescence). This paper presents a new method to assess these three complementary quantities with a single experiment. The method is based on electron microprobe spot analyses, performed over a grid located on a representative surface of the sample and interpreted with advanced statistical tools. This paper describes the method and the experimental program performed on industrial clinkers to establish the accuracy in comparison to conventional methods. -- Highlights: •A new method of clinker characterization •Combination of electron probe technique with cluster analysis •Simultaneous assessment of phase abundance, composition and bulk chemistry •Experimental validation performed on industrial clinkers.

  16. Structure, chemistry, and properties of mineral nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waychunas, G.A.; Zhang, H.; Gilbert, B.

    2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoparticle properties can depart markedly from their bulk analog materials, including large differences in chemical reactivity, molecular and electronic structure, and mechanical behavior. The greatest changes are expected at the smallest sizes, e.g. 10 nm and below, where surface effects are expected to dominate bonding, shape and energy considerations. The precise chemistry at nanoparticle interfaces can have a profound effect on structure, phase transformations, strain, and reactivity. Certain phases may exist only as nanoparticles, requiring transformations in chemistry, stoichiometry and structure with evolution to larger sizes. In general, mineralogical nanoparticles have been little studied.

  17. Chemistry for Measurement and Detection Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization ofChemistry and Transport Chemistry

  18. Chemistry: Theory - Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization ofChemistry and TransportChemistryTheory

  19. Chemistry for Measurement and Detection Science publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z CPlasma of theChemistry Oxide InterfacesChemistry

  20. Chemistry of Cobalt-Platinum Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z CPlasma of theChemistry OxideChemistry of

  1. Chemistry of Cobalt-Platinum Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z CPlasma of theChemistry OxideChemistry

  2. Chemistry @ Imperial College 2007 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    techniques from a wide variety of disciplines, they are able to directly observe, model or even manipulate and protein biosynthesis, as well as how these events are regulated. By drawing knowledge and experimental-molecule control of protein function and properties, methods for predicting which molecules will display desirable

  3. Coupled electromechanical effects in wurtzite quantum dots with wetting layers in gate controlled electric fields: The multiband case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melnik, Roderick

    Coupled electromechanical effects in wurtzite quantum dots with wetting layers in gate controlled quantifies the electromechanical effects on the band structure of wurtzite quantum dots. c Systematic study on the band structure calculations of wurtzite AlN/GaN quantum dots with wetting layers (WLs). Based

  4. Conversion of Full-Scale Wet Scrubbers to Biotrickling Filters for H2S Control at Publicly Owned Treatment Works

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conversion of Full-Scale Wet Scrubbers to Biotrickling Filters for H2S Control at Publicly Owned. This paper discusses the conversion of chemical scrubbers to biological trickling filters. Initially in determining the general suitability of converting wet scrubbers to biotrickling filters were identified

  5. Critical angle of wet sandpiles T. G. Mason, A. J. Levine,* D. Ertas, and T. C. Halsey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Alex J.

    with a surface roughness theory. Electron and fluorescence microscopy of the dry and wet surfaces of the grains . In this, the problem of wet sand brings to mind the problem of friction in sandpiles, a problem to which Mohr-Coulomb analysis 1 applied to cohesive sandpiles reveals that the stability criterion govern- ing

  6. Chemical Processing in High-Pressure Aqueous Environments. 7. Process Development for Catalytic Gasification of Wet Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gasification of Wet Biomass Feedstocks Douglas C. Elliott,* Gary G. Neuenschwander, Todd R. Hart, R. Scott the preliminary results of continuous-flow reactor studies with wet biomass feedstocks using new catalyst systems of con- tinuous reactor tests with biomass feedstocks provide preliminary short-term processing results,8

  7. Method for dispersing catalyst onto particulate material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Utz, Bruce R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Cugini, Anthony V. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for dispersing finely divided catalyst precursors onto the surface of coal or other particulate material includes the steps of forming a wet paste mixture of the particulate material and a liquid solution containing a dissolved transition metal salt, for instance a solution of ferric nitrate. The wet paste mixture is in a state of incipient wetness with all of this solution adsorbed onto the surfaces of the particulate material without the presence of free moisture. On adding a precipitating agent such as ammonia, a catalyst precursor such as hydrated iron oxide is deposited on the surfaces of the coal. The catalyst is activated by converting it to the sulfide form for the hydrogenation or direct liquefaction of the coal.

  8. Flow coating apparatus and method of coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanumanthu, Ramasubrahmaniam; Neyman, Patrick; MacDonald, Niles; Brophy, Brenor; Kopczynski, Kevin; Nair, Wood

    2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a flow coating apparatus, comprising a slot that can dispense a coating material in an approximately uniform manner along a distribution blade that increases uniformity by means of surface tension and transfers the uniform flow of coating material onto an inclined substrate such as for example glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed is a method of flow coating a substrate using the apparatus such that the substrate is positioned correctly relative to the distribution blade, a pre-wetting step is completed where both the blade and substrate are completed wetted with a pre-wet solution prior to dispensing of the coating material onto the distribution blade from the slot and hence onto the substrate. Thereafter the substrate is removed from the distribution blade and allowed to dry, thereby forming a coating.

  9. OPERATIONAL WINDOWS FOR DRY-WALL AND WETTED-WALL IFE CHAMBERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    subsystems was performed parametrically to uncover key physics/technology uncertainties and to iden- tify be necessary that may preclude propagation of the laser driver and require assisted pinch transport issue for wetted-wall concepts. KEYWORDS: inertial fusion, fusion technology, IFE chambers *E

  10. Modeling of wet gas compression in twin-screw multiphase pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jian

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fig. 1.4 Subsea multiphase pumping system in Ceiba Field, West Africa............................................................... 8 Fig. 1.5 Twin-screw pump cutaway ............................................................... 12 Fig... Page Table 1.1 Summary of subsea multiphase pumping projects............................ 9 Table 1.2 Summary of subsea wet gas compression projects ........................... 10 Table 2.1 Summary of current models for twin-screw pump...

  11. DELETERIOUS EXPANSION OF CEMENT PASTE SUBJECTED TO WET-DRY CYCLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ·I CEMENT PASTE SUBJECTED TO WET-DRY CYCLES John A. Wells*, Emmanuel K with five cements produced in different regions of Canada. Test specimens with nominal diameters of 25 mm program show that cement paste specimens exhibit significant differences in the magnitude of expansion

  12. Portable XRF and wet materials: application to dredged contaminated sediments1 from waterways2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Portable XRF and wet materials: application to dredged contaminated sediments1 from waterways2 7 ABSTRACT: The sustainable management of dredged waterway sediments requires on-site determination8 commonly used for similar applications with contaminated soil, but the high water content of dredged10

  13. An efficient scheme on wet/dry transitions for Shallow Water Equations with friction Christophe Berthona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coudière, Yves

    An efficient scheme on wet/dry transitions for Shallow Water Equations with friction Christophe discrepancy between both source terms comes from their relevance in dry regions. Indeed, the friction term the friction source terms in the shallow-water model. Such additional source terms are known to be very stiff

  14. Effect of Roughness as Determined by Atomic Force Microscopy on the Wetting Properties of PTFE Thin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drelich, Jaroslaw W.

    Engineering College of Mines and Earth Sciences University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 and G. YAMAUCHI decreases the spreading of a non-wetting liquid on low energy solids (1­4). Similar work with high energy ratio (r a/A (da/dA) 1), a is the apparent contact angle, a is the actual area of surface

  15. 1 Mathematical Model The mass consevation equations are for wetting phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    que para el CO2 no se puede no se puede asumir que es incompresible como para la wetting phase (brine compresibilidad del CO2, y ademas de la solubilidad en brine, pero eso es harina de otro costal... Otra cosa: vos

  16. Stable isotope fractionation by thermal diffusion through partially molten wet and dry silicate rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bindeman, Ilya N.

    isotope redistribution by thermal diffusion leading to enrichment of light isotopes at the hot endStable isotope fractionation by thermal diffusion through partially molten wet and dry silicate 2012 Editor: T.M. Harrison Keywords: thermal diffusion hydrogen isotope separation oxygen isotopes

  17. Heat Transfer Performance of a Dry and Wet / Dry Advanced Cooling Tower Condenser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fricke, H. D.; Webster, D. J.; McIlroy, K.; Bartz, J. A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an EPRI-funded experimental evaluation of advanced air-cooled ammonia condensers for a phase. Change dry/wet cooling system for power plants. Two condenser surfaces with different air-side augmentation were tested in an ammonia...

  18. Eos, Vol. 91, No. 29, 20 July 2010 Water and wet sediments under ice sheets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priscu, John C.

    Eos, Vol. 91, No. 29, 20 July 2010 Water and wet sediments under ice sheets can play an important role in regulating the rate of ice stream flow in Antarctica, particularly over short time scales. Indeed, the discharge of subglacial lakes has been linked to an increase in ice velocity of Byrd Glacier

  19. Production and Pressure Decline Curves for Wet Gas Sands With Closed Outer Boundaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    . SPE SPE 23442 Production and Pressure Decline Curves for Wet Gas Sands With Closed Outer, Richardson, TX 7S0834S36 U.5A. Telex, 730989 SPEDAL. ABSTRACT A family of pressure and production decline as gas reservoirs which produce substan- tial amounts of water together with ~as. Production of water

  20. Rheology of weakly wetted granular materials - a comparison of experimental and numerical data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruediger Schwarze; Anton Gladkyy; Fabian Uhlig; Stefan Luding

    2014-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Shear cell simulations and experiments of weakly wetted particles (a few volume percent liquid binders) are compared, with the goal to understand their flow rheology. Application examples are cores for metal casting by core shooting made of sand and liquid binding materials. The experiments are carried out with a Couette-like rotating viscometer. The weakly wetted granular materials are made of quartz sand and small amounts of Newtonian liquids. For comparison, experiments on dry sand are also performed with a modified configuration of the viscometer. The numerical model involves spherical, monodisperse particles with contact forces and a simple liquid bridge model for individual capillary bridges between two particles. Different liquid content and properties lead to different flow rheology when measuring the shear stress-strain relations. In the experiments of the weakly wetted granular material, the apparent shear viscosity $\\eta_g$ scales inversely proportional to the inertial number $I$, for all shear rates. On the contrary, in the dry case, an intermediate scaling regime inversely quadratic in $I$ is observed for moderate shear rates. In the simulations, both scaling regimes are found for dry and wet granular material as well.

  1. Universal scaling of spontaneous imbibition for water-wet systems K. S. Schmid1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    -phase Darcy model. The group is derived rigorously from the only known exact analytical solution the validity of the group by applying it to 42 published SI studies for water-oil and water-air experiments length-scales. In all cases, water was the wetting phase. Our group serves as a ``master equation'' whose

  2. Assessment of an Industrial Wet Oxidation System for Burning Waste and Low-Grade Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bettinger, J.; Koppel, P.; Margulies, A.

    an assessment of wet oxidation technologies, followed by bench-scale and pilot unit testing and by eventual demonstration of the pilot unit at an industrial host site. This paper discusses the assessment conducted under the first phase of this effort, which...

  3. Analysis of uncertainties in CRAC2 calculations: wet deposition and plume rise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, R.C.; Kocher, D.C.; Hicks, B.B.; Hosker, R.P. Jr.; Ku, J.Y.; Rao, K.S.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the sensitivity of results from the CRAC2 computer code, which predicts health impacts from a reactor-accident scenario, to uncertainties in selected meteorological models and parameters. The sources of uncertainty examined include the models for plume rise and wet deposition and the meteorological bin-sampling procedure. An alternative plume-rise model usually had little effect on predicted health impacts. In an alternative wet-deposition model, the scavenging rate depends only on storm type, rather than on rainfall rate and atmospheric stability class as in the CRAC2 model. Use of the alternative wet-deposition model in meteorological bin-sampling runs decreased predicted mean early injuries by as much as a factor of 2 to 3 and, for large release heights and sensible heat rates, decreased mean early fatalities by nearly an order of magnitude. The bin-sampling procedure in CRAC2 was expanded by dividing each rain bin into four bins that depend on rainfall rate. Use of the modified bin structure in conjunction with the CRAC2 wet-deposition model changed all predicted health impacts by less than a factor of 2. 9 references.

  4. A model for reactive porous transport during re-wetting of hardened concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockie, John

    A model for reactive porous transport during re-wetting of hardened concrete Michael Chapwanya residing in the porous concrete matrix. The main hypothesis in this model is that the reaction product hydration; Porous media; Reaction-diffusion equations; Vari- able porosity. 1. Introduction Concrete

  5. Surface phase behavior in binary polymer mixtures. III. Temperature dependence of surface enrichment and of wetting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Jacob

    enrichment and of wetting A. Budkowski,a) F. Scheffold, and J. Klein Department of Materials and Interfaces model systems, surface enrichment from polymer blends has clear technological implications-same mixtures--surface enrichment characteristics of the air- surface preferred phases. In these binary pairs

  6. Computational chemistry in Argonne`s Reactor Analysis Division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelbard, E.; Agrawal, R.; Fanning, T.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Roughly 3 years ago work on Argonne`s Integral Fast Reactor ({open_quotes}IFR{close_quotes}) was terminated and at that time, ANL funding was redirected to a number of alternative programs. One such alternative was waste management and, since disposal of spent fuel from ANL`s EBR-II reactor presents some special problems, this seemed an appropriate area for ANL work. Methods for the treatment and disposal of spent fuel (particularly from EBR-II but also from other sources) are now under very active investigation at ANL. The very large waste form development program is mainly experimental at this point, but within the Reactor Analysis ({open_quotes}RA{close_quotes}) Division a small computational chemistry program is underway, designed to supplement the experimental program. One of the most popular proposals for the treatment of much of our high-level wastes is vitrification. As noted below, this approach has serious drawbacks for EBR-II spent fuel. ANL has proposed, instead, that spent fuel first be pretreated by a special metallurgical process which produces, as waste, chloride salts of the various fission products; these salts would then be adsorbed in zeolite A, which is subsequently bonded with glass to produce a waste form suitable for disposal. So far it has been the main mission of RA`s computational chemistry program to study the process by which leaching occurs when the glass-bonded zeolite waste form is exposed to water. It is the purpose of this paper to describe RA`s computational chemistry program, to discuss the computational techniques involved in such a program, and in general to familiarize the M. and C. Division with a computational area which is probably unfamiliar to most of its member. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Phase chemistry and radionuclide retention from simulated tank sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; LIU,J.; ARTHUR,SARA E.; HUTCHERSON,SHEILA K.; QIAN,MORRIS; ANDERSON,HOWARD L.

    2000-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Decommissioning high level nuclear waste tanks will leave small amounts of residual sludge clinging to the walls and floor of the structures. The permissible amount of material left in the tanks depends on the radionuclide release characteristics of the sludge. At present, no systematic process exists for assessing how much of the remaining inventory will migrate, and which radioisotopes will remain relatively fixed. Working with actual sludges is both dangerous and prohibitively expensive. Consequently, methods were developed for preparing sludge simulants and doping them with nonradioactive surrogates for several radionuclides and RCRA metals of concern in actual sludges. The phase chemistry of these mixes was found to be a reasonable match for the main phases in actual sludges. Preliminary surrogate release characteristics for these sludges were assessed by lowering the ionic strength and pH of the sludges in the manner that would occur if normal groundwater gained access to a decommissioned tank. Most of the Se, Cs and Tc in the sludges will be released into the first pulse of groundwater passing through the sludge. A significant fraction of the other surrogates will be retained indefinitely by the sludges. This prolonged sequestration results from a combination coprecipitated and sorbed into or onto relatively insoluble phases such as apatite, hydrous oxides of Fe, Al, Bi and rare earth oxides and phosphates. The coprecipitated fraction cannot be released until the host phase dissolves or recrystallizes. The sorbed fraction can be released by ion exchange processes as the pore fluid chemistry changes. However, these releases can be predicted based on a knowledge of the fluid composition and the surface chemistry of the solids. In this regard, the behavior of the hydrous iron oxide component of most sludges will probably play a dominant role for many cationic radionuclides while the hydrous aluminum oxides may be more important in governing anion releases.

  8. On the capillary stress tensor in wet granular materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luc Scholtčs; Pierre-Yves Hicher; François Nicot; Bruno Chareyre; Félix Darve

    2011-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a micromechanical study of unsaturated granular media in the pendular regime, based upon numerical experiments using the discrete element method, compared to a microstructural elastoplastic model. Water effects are taken into account by adding capillary menisci at contacts and their consequences in terms of force and water volume are studied. Simulations of triaxial compression tests are used to investigate both macro and micro-effects of a partial saturation. The results provided by the two methods appear to be in good agreement, reproducing the major trends of a partially saturated granular assembly, such as the increase in the shear strength and the hardening with suction. Moreover, a capillary stress tensor is exhibited from capillary forces by using homogenisation techniques. Both macroscopic and microscopic considerations emphasize an induced anisotropy of the capillary stress tensor in relation with the pore fluid distribution inside the material. In so far as the tensorial nature of this fluid fabric implies shear effects on the solid phase associated with suction, a comparison has been made with the standard equivalent pore pressure assumption. It is shown that water effects induce microstrural phenomena that cannot be considered at the macro level, particularly when dealing with material history. Thus, the study points out that unsaturated soil stress definitions should include, besides the macroscopic stresses such as the total stress, the microscopic interparticle stresses such as the ones resulting from capillary forces, in order to interpret more precisely the implications of the pore fluid on the mechanical behaviour of granular materials.

  9. ASTRONOMY BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY COMPUTER-SCIENCE GEOGRAPHY MATHEMATICS PHYSICS STATISTICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Phil

    BIOMEDICAL-ENGINEERING ELECTRONIC- ENGINEERING ASTRONOMY BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY COMPUTER-SCIENCE GEOGRAPHY MATHEMATICS PHYSICS STATISTICS HEALTHCARE BIOMEDICAL-ENGINEERING ELECTRONIC-ENGINEERING ASTRONOMY BIOLOGY C H HEALTHCARE BIOMEDICAL-ENGINEERING ELECTRONIC-ENGINEERING ASTRONOMY BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY COMPUTER

  10. 5.301 Chemistry Laboratory Techniques, January IAP 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tabacco, Sarah

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This course is an intensive introduction to the techniques of experimental chemistry and gives first year students an opportunity to learn and master the basic chemistry lab techniques for carrying out experiments. Students ...

  11. Microfluidics for High School Chemistry Students Melissa Hemling,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weibel, Douglas B.

    Microfluidics for High School Chemistry Students Melissa Hemling,, John A. Crooks,§ Piercen M present a laboratory experiment that introduces high school chemistry students to microfluidics while microfluidic systems using nonspecialized equipment that is available in high school classrooms and reagents

  12. Linking local air pollution to global chemistry and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayer, Monika.; Wang, Chien.; Webster, Mort David.; Prinn, Ronald G.

    We have incorporated a reduced-form urban air chemistry model in MIT's 2D-LO coupled chemistry-climate model. The computationally efficient reduced-form urban model is derived from the California Institute of Technology-Carnegie ...

  13. analytical chemistry laboratory: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: 12;12;A BRIEF HISTORY THE ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY DIVISION OF OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY 1950 hiembers of the Chemistry Division R-on: J. A. Swartout In...

  14. Forrest S. Schultz, PhD Professor of Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Mingshen

    to support programs in Nanoscience, Biotechnology, Computer and Electrical Engineering and Plastics with the Chemistry Department to most effectively meet the challenge of a growing demand for chemistry courses

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM University of Wisconsin-Madison

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprott, Julien Clinton

    ­ Material damage · Ecosystem Impacts ­ Nutrients ­ Toxics · Climate Change #12;ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRYENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM University of Wisconsin-Madison Optimizing University of Wisconsin-Madison #12;ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM University of Wisconsin

  16. Cost benefits from applying advanced heat rejection concepts to a wet/dry-cooled binary geothermal plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faletti, D.W.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimized ammonia heat rejection system designs were carried out for three water allocations equivalent to 9, 20, and 31% of that of a 100% wet-cooled plant. The Holt/Procon design of a 50-MWe binary geothermal plant for the Heber site was used as a design basis. The optimization process took into account the penalties for replacement power, gas turbine capital, and lost capacity due to increased heat rejection temperature, as well as added base plant capacity and fuel to provide fan and pump power to the heat rejection system. Descriptions of the three plant designs are presented. For comparison, a wet tower loop was costed out for a 100% wet-cooled plant using the parameters of the Holt/Procon design. Wet/dry cooling was found to increase the cost of electricity by 28% above that of a 100% wet-cooled plant for all three of the water allocations studied (9, 20, and 31%). The application selected for a preconceptual evaluation of the BCT (binary cooling tower) system was the use of agricultural waste water from the New River, located in California's Imperial Valley, to cool a 50-MWe binary geothermal plant. Technical and cost evaluations at the preconceptual level indicated that performance estimates provided by Tower Systems Incorporated (TSI) were reasonable and that TSI's tower cost, although 2 to 19% lower than PNL estimates, was also reasonable. Electrical cost comparisonswere made among the BCT system, a conventional 100% wet system, and a 9% wet/dry ammonia system, all using agricultural waste water with solar pond disposal. The BCT system cost the least, yielding a cost of electricity only 13% above that of a conventional wet system using high quality water and 14% less than either the conventional 100% wet or the 9% wet/dry ammonia system.

  17. Quantum Chemistry, and Eclectic Mix: From Silicon Carbide to Size Consistency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamie Marie Rintelman

    2004-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemistry is a field of great breadth and variety. It is this diversity that makes for both an interesting and challenging field. My interests have spanned three major areas of theoretical chemistry: applications, method development, and method evaluation. The topics presented in this thesis are as follows: (1) a multi-reference study of the geometries and relative energies of four atom silicon carbide clusters in the gas phase; (2) the reaction of acetylene on the Si(100)-(2x1) surface; (3) an improvement to the Effective Fragment Potential (EFP) solvent model to enable the study of reactions in both aqueous and nonaqueous solution; and (4) an evaluation of the size consistency of Multireference Perturbation Theory (MRPT). In the following section, the author briefly discusses two topics central to, and present throughout, this thesis: Multi-reference methods and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) methods.

  18. Safety Training Policy Virginia Tech Chemistry Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford, T. Daniel

    Safety Training Policy Virginia Tech Chemistry Department Approved by the Executive Committee on 06 at specific training sessions or programs is mandatory. Tenure-track faculty members may choose their level research are exempt, as their safety training is incorporated into their laboratory courses. The first step

  19. 1999 Gordon Research Conference on Atmospheric Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storm, C.

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Atmospheric Chemistry was held at Salve Regina University in Newport, Rhode Island, June 13-18, 1999. The conference was well attended with 151 participants. The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both US and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students.

  20. Chemical Transport Policy Virginia Tech Chemistry Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford, T. Daniel

    Chemical Transport Policy Virginia Tech Chemistry Department This policy was enacted. The purpose of this policy is to ensure the safety of personnel transporting chemicals and anyone who might be affected by a problem occurring during such transport. The policy also helps to shield stockroom personnel

  1. Spin Contamination in Inorganic Chemistry Calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    R EVISED PAG E PR O O FS ia617 Spin Contamination in Inorganic Chemistry Calculations Jason L . In such cases, 0 is said to be spin contaminated owing to incorporation of higher spin state character of Iron­Sulfur ia618 Clusters). It is important to note that while spin-contaminated and broken

  2. Mathematical Review for Physical Chemistry 1. Integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kirk A.

    Mathematical Review for Physical Chemistry Outline: 1. Integration (a) Important Integrals (b) Tricks for evaluating integrals 2. Derivatives (a) Important derivatives (b) Tricks 3. Expansions 4 dierentials 6. Properties of Logs 7. Review of Trigonometry 1 Integration: 1.1 Integrals you should know: 1

  3. Environmental Analytical Chemistry (ENERGY, POWER AND ENVIRONMENT)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherrill, David

    /or irrational emotions rather than by the sound scientific principles. Since its large-scale introduction half using sound scientific principles. Chemistry occupies central position in discussion of any production sites (movie: Hanford today) 11/2-4 Nuclear Energy production (civilian); Safe reactor designs 11

  4. CHEM 4170, Medicinal Chemistry University of Missouri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Kent. S.

    CHEM 4170, Medicinal Chemistry University of Missouri Computer Graphics Visualization of Proteins "pockets" or "clefts" on the surface of their macromolecular targets. A favorable free energy of binding the best way to visualize these structures is using computer graphics. In this assignment, we will use

  5. Adam D. McFarland Chemistry Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janssen, Michel

    Involving Sulfur Compounds@ 2001 M.S., Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 2004 Ph Northwestern University, Department of Materials Science. Present Design and Construction of a low temperature optical ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscope. 1999-2004 Teaching Assistant Northwestern

  6. The Influence of Chemistry, Production and Community

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and their interaction on leaf litter chemistry and decomposition in pure stands of aspen (Populus tremuloides) and mixed stands of birch (Betula pa- pyrifera) and aspen at the Aspen Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment in the second year. For aspen litter but not mixed birch-aspen litter, decomposition rates were negatively

  7. Ice chemistry in starless molecular cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalvans, Juris

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Starless molecular cores are natural laboratories for interstellar molecular chemistry research. The chemistry of ices in such objects was investigated with a three-phase (gas, surface, and mantle) model. We considered the center part of five starless cores, with their physical conditions derived from observations. The ice chemistry of oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and complex organic molecules (COMs) was analyzed. We found that an ice-depth dimension, measured, e.g., in monolayers, is essential for modeling of chemistry in interstellar ices. Particularly, the H2O:CO:CO2:N2:NH3 ice abundance ratio regulates the production and destruction of minor species. It is suggested that photodesorption during core collapse period is responsible for high abundance of interstellar H2O2 and O2H, and other species synthesized on the surface. The calculated abundances of COMs in ice were compared to observed gas-phase values. Smaller activation barriers for CO and H2CO hydrogenation may help explain the production of a number of...

  8. Chemistry 180, Section 1 Spring 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nickrent, Daniel L.

    -mail: mmccarroll@chem.siu.edu Text Beer: Tap into the Art and Science of Brewing By Charles Bamforth Oxford 218 Course Description The course covers the science and chemistry of beer and brewing. The history of beer and brewing will be introduced to follow the evolution of beer as a food and beverage, including

  9. Chemistry 181, Section 1 Spring 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nickrent, Daniel L.

    to CHEM 180, The Chemistry of Beer and Brewing. The laboratory will cover various aspects of beer of the various style categories of beer, using the Beer Judge Certificate Program (BJCP) Style Guideline, working in brewing beer from base ingredients using common homebrewing techniques and laboratory scale experiments

  10. Exploring Tuning Strategies for Quantum Chemistry Computations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sosonkina, Masha

    to an efficient execution. General Atomic and Molecular Electronic Structure (GAMESS), used for ab-initio molecular quantum chemistry calculations, uses NICAN for dynamically making adaptations so as to improve calculations. These calculations include a wide range of Hartree-Fock (HF) wave function (RHF, ROHF, UHF, GVB

  11. Chemistry and Society December 16, 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viola, Ronald

    Chemistry and Society Final Exam December 16, 2011 Answer all multiple choice questions (Part I energy content per gram? A. gasoline B. propane C. hard coal D. hydrogen 3. Which of the following chains 14. A higher octane rating means smoother burning gasoline. Octane rating is increased by: A

  12. 1Fractions and Chemistry Because molecules and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1Fractions and Chemistry Because molecules and atoms come in 'integer' packages, the ratios of gasoline (ethane) are combined with 7 molecules of oxygen you get 4 molecules of carbon dioxide and 6;1 Answer Key Problem 1 - What makes your car go: When 2 molecules of gasoline (ethane) are combined with 7

  13. Dilution physics modeling: Dissolution/precipitation chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onishi, Y.; Reid, H.C.; Trent, D.S.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents progress made to date on integrating dilution/precipitation chemistry and new physical models into the TEMPEST thermal-hydraulics computer code. Implementation of dissolution/precipitation chemistry models is necessary for predicting nonhomogeneous, time-dependent, physical/chemical behavior of tank wastes with and without a variety of possible engineered remediation and mitigation activities. Such behavior includes chemical reactions, gas retention, solids resuspension, solids dissolution and generation, solids settling/rising, and convective motion of physical and chemical species. Thus this model development is important from the standpoint of predicting the consequences of various engineered activities, such as mitigation by dilution, retrieval, or pretreatment, that can affect safe operations. The integration of a dissolution/precipitation chemistry module allows the various phase species concentrations to enter into the physical calculations that affect the TEMPEST hydrodynamic flow calculations. The yield strength model of non-Newtonian sludge correlates yield to a power function of solids concentration. Likewise, shear stress is concentration-dependent, and the dissolution/precipitation chemistry calculations develop the species concentration evolution that produces fluid flow resistance changes. Dilution of waste with pure water, molar concentrations of sodium hydroxide, and other chemical streams can be analyzed for the reactive species changes and hydrodynamic flow characteristics.

  14. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY AND BIOCHEMISTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    in Chemistry or a related field and at least one year of additional research training such as postdoctoral

  15. Special Topics in Organic Chemistry Biorenewable Polymers 8833

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherrill, David

    Biorefinery b. Pretreatment Chemistry Lignocellulosics c. SSF/CBP Conversion of Biomass to BioEthanol d. Third

  16. Department of Chemistry | Center for Catalytic HydrocarbonFunctionali...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry Faculty & Research Outreach Programs Graduate Studies Events & Seminars Undergraduate Studies Contact Us Faculty & Research > Research Centers & Programs > Center for...

  17. Supramolecular Chemistry DOI: 10.1002/anie.200905460

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angewandte Chemie Supramolecular Chemistry DOI: 10.1002/anie.200905460 Porous Capsules {(M)M5}12FeIII 30 (M = MoVI , WVI ): Sphere Surface Supramolecular Chemistry with 20 Ammonium Ions, Related Solution materials scientific aspects;[1] for general aspects of the chemistry, see referen- ces [1­3d

  18. School of Chemistry FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rzepa, Henry S.

    School of Chemistry FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES CHEMISTRYPOSTGRADUATE MASTERS DEGREES #12;WWW.CHEM.LEEDS.AC.UK 02 School of Chemistry // MASTERS PROGRAMMES contents 03 Welcome 04 Study and Accommodation 19 Visit Us #12;SCHOOLOFCHEMISTRY 03 Welcome to the School of Chemistry The School warmly welcomes

  19. Course Syllabus: Chem W1A General Chemistry Course Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    Course Syllabus: Chem W1A General Chemistry Course Information Course Number Chemistry W1A Course) Themed Problems.3. Participation in the discussion forums.4. Chem W1A General Chemistry Syllabus https Syllabus https://elearning.berkeley.edu/AngelUploads/Content/2013SUC... 2 of 10 5/28/13 10:13 AM #12;We

  20. INTERNATIONAL PERCEPTIONS OF THE UK CHEMISTRY RESEARCH BASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medical Research Council INTERNATIONAL PERCEPTIONS OF THE UK CHEMISTRY RESEARCH BASE Chemistry advances in many areas. Chemistry research underpins a wide range of activities that benefit society also thank our colleagues from the Medical Research Council (MRC), the Biotechnology and Biological

  1. CHEMISTRY COURSE OFFERINGS, FALL, 2013 (Updated 8/1/13)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kounaves, Samuel P.

    in Chemistry 61. Techniques in synthesis, spectroscopy, and reactivity studies. Applications of inorganic compounds in synthesis, catalysis, materials sciences, and biology. One laboratory, one lecture, one and chemistry of materials. Three lectures, one laboratory, one recitation. Only one of Chemistry 1, 11, or 16

  2. Chemistry at IIT: Where Can It Take You?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    Chemistry at IIT: Where Can It Take You? CCHEMISTRY CCHEMISTRY To Learn More and How To Apply http://www.iit.edu/csl/pathways/ Undergraduate Admissions: http://www.iit.edu/undergrad_admission/ 800.448.2329 The IIT Legacy in Chemistry opportunities, help you steer your course. The IIT chemistry program is approved by the American Chemical

  3. Chemistry B.S. Fall--First Year

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gering, Jon C.

    Chemistry B.S. Fall--First Year · CHEM 130 Chemical Principles I* · CHEM 145 Freshman Seminar · CHEM 222 Intro to Quant Analysis · CHEM 245 Sophomore Seminar · CHEM 329 Organic Chemistry I · MATH 264 Calculus III · LSP coursework Fall--Third Year · CHEM 345 Junior Seminar · CHEM 323/324 Physical Chemistry

  4. Ris National Laboratory Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø National Laboratory Postprint Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Year 2007 Paper Højgaard Jensen1, Jørgen B. Bilde-Sørensen3, Mogens Mogensen1 1Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry-Sørensen3 , Mogens Mogensen1 1 Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department, Risø National Laboratory

  5. Interfacial chemistry and structure in ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.H.; Saenz, N.T.; Schilling, C.H.

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The interfacial chemistry and structure of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) play a major role in the properties of these materials. Fiber-matrix interfaces chemistries are vitally important in the fracture strength, fracture toughness, and fracture resistance of ceramic composites because they influence fiber loading and fiber pullout. Elevated-temperature properties are also linked to the interfacial characteristics through the chemical stability of the interface in corrosive environments and the creep/pullout behavior of the interface. Physical properties such as electrical and thermal conductivity are also dependent on the interface. Fiber-matrix interfaces containing a 1-{mu}m-thick multilayered interface with amorphous and graphitic C to a 1-nm-thick SiO{sub 2} layer can result from sintering operations for some composite systems. Fibers coated with C, BN, C/BC/BN, and Si are also used to produce controlled interface chemistries and structures. Growth interfaces within the matrix resulting from processing of CMCs can also be crucial to the behavior of these materials. Evaluation of the interfacial chemistry and structure of CMCs requires the use of a variety of analytical tools, including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray analysis. A review of the interfacial chemistry and structure of SiC whisker- and fiber-reinforced Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and SiC/SiC materials is presented. Where possible, correlations with fracture properties and high-temperature stability are made. 94 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending July 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research is reported on: chemistry of coal liquefaction, aqueous chemistry at high temperatures, geosciences, high-temperature chemistry and thermodynamics of structural materials, chemistry of TRU elements and compounds, separations chemistry, electrochemistry, nuclear waste chemistry, chemical physics, theoretical chemistry, inorganic chemistry of hydrogen cycles, molten salt systems, and enhanced oil recovery. Separate abstracts were prepared for the sections dealing with coal liquefaction, TRU elements and compounds, separations, nuclear wastes, and enhanced oil recovery. (DLC)

  7. Tree-ring growth and wood chemistry response to manipulated precipitation variation for two temperate Quercus species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Rebekah J. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Kaye, Margot W. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Abrams, Marc D. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Martin, Madhavi Z [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examined the relationship among ambient and manipulated precipitation, wood chemistry, and their relationship with radial growth for two oak species in eastern Tennessee. The study took place on the Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment (TDE) site, located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, TN. Two dominant species, white oak (Quercus alba) and chestnut oak (Quercus prinus), were selected for study from a 13-year experiment of whole-stand precipitation manipulation (wet, ambient and dry). The relationships between tree-ring width and climate were compared for both species to determine the impact of precipitation manipulations on ring width index. This study used experimental spectroscopy techniques to measure the sensitivity of tree-ring responses to directional changes in precipitation over 13 years, and the results suggest that oaks at this study site are resilient to imposed changes, but sensitive to inter-annual variations in climate. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) allowed us to measure nutrient intensities (similar to element concentrations) at 0.5-1.0 mm spacing along the radial growth axis of trees growing in the wet, ambient, and dry treatment sites. A difference in stemwood nutrient levels was observed between the two oak species and among the three treatments. Significant variation in element intensity was observed across treatments for some elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na, N and P) suggesting the potential for long-term impacts on growth under a changing climate regimes for southeastern oaks.

  8. Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending January 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report has been indexed by 11 separate chapters. The subjects covered are: coal chemistry, aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures, geochemistry, materials chemistry, chemistry of transuranium elements and compounds, separations chemistry, catalysis, electron spectroscopy, nuclear waste chemistry, heuristic modeling, and special topics. (PLG)

  9. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, ''Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive.'' The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemissions of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate that the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project will conduct pilot and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosage requirements to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. A third utility, to be named later, will provide the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. This topical report presents the results from the Task 2 and Task 4 pilot-scale additive tests. The Task 3 and Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2006.

  10. Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe; Conor Braman; Katherine Dombrowski; Tom Machalek

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the final technical report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, 'Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,' which was conducted over the time-period January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2010. The objective of this project has been to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid catalysts and/or fixed-structure mercury sorbents to promote the removal of total mercury and oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL), EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Energy (now called Luminant), Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP) and Duke Energy. URS Group was the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses fixed-structure sorbents and/or catalysts to promote the removal of total mercury and/or oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury not adsorbed is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project has tested candidate materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. Pilot-scale catalytic oxidation tests have been completed for periods of approximately 14 to19 months at three sites, with an additional round of pilot-scale fixed-structure sorbent tests being conducted at one of those sites. Additionally, pilot-scale wet FGD tests have been conducted downstream of mercury oxidation catalysts at a total of four sites. The sites include the two of three sites from this project and two sites where catalytic oxidation pilot testing was conducted as part of a previous DOE-NETL project. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests were also conducted at a fifth site, but with no catalyst or fixed-structure mercury sorbent upstream. This final report presents and discusses detailed results from all of these efforts, and makes a number of conclusions about what was learned through these efforts.

  11. Submitted to the Journal of the American Water Resources Association Potential Human Health Effects Associated with Pathogens in Urban Wet Weather Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitt, Robert E.

    Effects Associated with Pathogens in Urban Wet Weather Flows Robert Pitt1 , Melinda Lalor2 , and John stormwater conveyance systems, or wet weather sewage overflows, may adversely impact many of the desired uses. Urban runoff or wet weather flows include not only precipitation and washoff from lawns and landscaped

  12. Wetting of Sodium on ??-Al2O3/YSZ Composites for Low Temperature Planar Sodium-Metal Halide Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, David M.; Coffey, Greg W.; Mast, Eric S.; Canfield, Nathan L.; Mansurov, Jirgal; Lu, Xiaochuan; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wetting of Na on B”-Al2O3/YSZ composites was investigated using the sessile drop technique. The effects of moisture and surface preparation were studied at low temperatures. Electrical conductivity of Na/B”-Al2O3-YSZ/Na cells was also investigated at low temperatures and correlated to the wetting behavior. The use of planar B”-Al2O3 substrates at low temperature with low cost polymeric seals is realized due to improved wetting at low temperature and conductivity values consistent with the literature.

  13. Audit of wet gas processing at Chevron's McKittrick Plant, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the audit was to determine if: (1) volumes of wet gas delivered to the McKittrick plant were properly calculated and reported; (2) processing fees paid to Chevron conformed to contract provisions; (3) wet gas processing at Chevron's facility was economical; and (4) controls over natural gas liquid sales were adequate. Our review showed that there were weaknesses in internal controls, practices and procedures regarding the Department's management of the wet gas which is processed by Chevron under contract to the Reserve. The findings, recommendations and management comments are synopsized in the Executive Summary.

  14. Excerpted from: R. Pitt, M. Lilburn. S.R. Durrans, S. Burian, S. Nix, J. Vorhees, and J. Martinson (I had a lot of help from my friends). Guidance Manual for Integrated Wet Weather Flow (WWF) Collection and Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitt, Robert E.

    . Martinson (I had a lot of help from my friends). Guidance Manual for Integrated Wet Weather Flow (WWF.....................................................................................................................................7 Wet Weather Flow Management: Lessons Learned from the Past

  15. Wet to dry crossover and a flow vortex-lattice in active nematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doostmohammadi, Amin; Thampi, Sumesh P; Yeomans, Julia M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Active systems, from bacterial suspensions to vibrated granular matter, are continuously driven out of equilibrium by local injection of energy from their constituent elements. The energy input leads to exotic behaviour such as collective motion, pattern formation, topological defects and active turbulence, but theories that link the different manifestations of activity across systems and length scales are lacking. Here we unify two different classes of active matter by using friction as a control parameter to interpolate between wet active systems, whose behaviour is dominated by hydrodynamics, and dry active matter where any flow is screened. At the wet-dry crossover, we find a novel lattice of flow vortices interleaved with an ordered network of topological defects which arises from the competition between friction and viscous dissipation. Our results contribute to understanding the physics of matter operating out-of-equilibrium, with its potential in the design of active micro- and nano-machines.

  16. Wet to dry crossover and a flow vortex-lattice in active nematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin Doostmohammadi; Michael Adamer; Sumesh P. Thampi; Julia M. Yeomans

    2015-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Active systems, from bacterial suspensions to vibrated granular matter, are continuously driven out of equilibrium by local injection of energy from their constituent elements. The energy input leads to exotic behaviour such as collective motion, pattern formation, topological defects and active turbulence, but theories that link the different manifestations of activity across systems and length scales are lacking. Here we unify two different classes of active matter by using friction as a control parameter to interpolate between wet active systems, whose behaviour is dominated by hydrodynamics, and dry active matter where any flow is screened. At the wet-dry crossover, we find a novel lattice of flow vortices interleaved with an ordered network of topological defects which arises from the competition between friction and viscous dissipation. Our results contribute to understanding the physics of matter operating out-of-equilibrium, with its potential in the design of active micro- and nano-machines.

  17. Dynamic Imaging of Au-nanoparticles via Scanning Electron Microscopy in a Graphene Wet Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wayne Yang; Yuning Zhang; Michael Hilke; Walter Reisner

    2015-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    High resolution nanoscale imaging in liquid environments is crucial for studying molecular interactions in biological and chemical systems. In particular, electron microscopy is the gold-standard tool for nanoscale imaging, but its high-vacuum requirements make application to in-liquid samples extremely challenging. Here we present a new graphene based wet cell device where high resolution SEM (scanning electron microscope) and Energy Dispersive X-rays (EDX) analysis can be performed directly inside a liquid environment. Graphene is an ideal membrane material as its high transparancy, conductivity and mechanical strength can support the high vacuum and grounding requirements of a SEM while enabling maximal resolution and signal. In particular, we obtain high resolution (graphene wet cell and EDX analysis of nanoparticle composition in the liquid enviornment. Our obtained resolution surpasses current conventional silicon nitride devices imaged in both SEM and TEM under much higher electron doses.

  18. New MV cable design for wet environments in underground distribution systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teixeira, M.D.R. Jr. (Ficap Fios e Cabos Plasticos do Brasil SA, Rio De Janeiro (BR))

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the development of new wet design MV power cables, up to 35 kV, using EPDM compound as insulation and longitudinal water tightness. The combination of the cable design and the type of insulation compound allow for reduction of the insulation thickness in such a way, as to have an electrical stress at the conductor of 4 kV/mm which is significantly greater than used in MV distribution cables. Following a methodology established, at the author's company, the reliability of this design, cable and EPDM's formulation, in wet location, without metallic water barriers, was well demonstrated. Mini-installation of model cables in service-like conditions, to estimate the ageing rate, are presented and discussed.

  19. Chemistry and materials science research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The research reported here in summary form was conducted under the auspices of Weapons-Supporting Research (WSR) and Institutional Research and Development (IR D). The period covered is the first half of FY90. The results reported here are for work in progress; thus, they may be preliminary, fragmentary, or incomplete. Research in the following areas are briefly described: energetic materials, tritium, high-Tc superconductors, interfaces, adhesion, bonding, fundamental aspects of metal processing, plutonium, synchrotron-radiation-based materials science, photocatalysis on doped aerogels, laser-induced chemistry, laser-produced molecular plasmas, chemistry of defects, dta equipment development, electronic structure study of the thermodynamic and mechanical properties of Al-Li Alloys, and the structure-property link in sub-nanometer materials.

  20. Study of the effect of seasonal desiccation and wetting on the strength of highway subgrade soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biswas, Bhupati Ranjan

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for possible deteriora- tion of soil strength due to cyolic drying and wetting. Likewise the test procedure (28) used by the Kansas State Highway Commission provides for saturation ranging from a few minutes to two weeks, depending on the density... (il, ). East Pakistan can be divided into three broad geological divisions: (a) the deltaic coastal areas; (b) the broad alluvial valleys of the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers through the central, western and northern portion of the country; and (c...

  1. ,"Pennsylvania Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ Lease Condensate ProvedGas, Wet After Lease Separation

  2. The Chemistry of Flammable Gas Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ZACH, J.J.

    2000-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The document collects information from field instrumentation, laboratory tests, and analytical models to provide a single source of information on the chemistry of flammable gas generation at the Hanford Site. It considers the 3 mechanisms of formation: radiolysis, chemical reactions, and thermal generation. An assessment of the current models for gas generation is then performed. The results are that the various phenomena are reasonably understood and modeled compared to field data.

  3. CHEMISTRY 3311, Fall 1998 Professor Walba

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walba, David

    Name: -1- CHEMISTRY 3311, Fall 1998 Professor Walba Third Hour Exam November 19, 1998 scores: 1) 2) 3) 4) PLEASE read the questions carefully! This is a closed-book "open model" exam. You may use for scratch. H He Li Be B C N O F Na Mg Al Si P S Ne Cl Ar Br I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

  4. CHEMISTRY 3311, Fall 2000 Professor Walba

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walba, David

    Name: -1- CHEMISTRY 3311, Fall 2000 Professor Walba Third Hour Exam November 16, 2000 scores: 1) 2) 3) 4) PLEASE read the questions carefully! This is a closed-book "open model" exam. You may use for scratch. H He Li Be B C N O F Na Mg Al Si P S Ne Cl Ar Br I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

  5. CHEMISTRY 3311, Fall 2000 Professor Walba

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walba, David

    Name: -1- CHEMISTRY 3311, Fall 2000 Professor Walba Second Hour Exam October 26, 2000 scores: 1) 2) 3) 4) PLEASE read the questions carefully! This is a closed-book "open model" exam. You may use for scratch. H He Li Be B C N O F Na Mg Al Si P S Ne Cl Ar Br I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF WET-OXIDATION TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR FILTER BACKWASH SLUDGE AND ION EXCHANGE RESINS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyamoto, T.; Motoyama, M.; Shibuya, M.; Wada, H.; Yamazaki, K.

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Decomposition of organic compounds contained in filter backwash sludge and spent ion exchange resins is considered effective in reducing the waste volume. A system using the wet-oxidation process has been studied for the treatment of the sludge and resins stored at Tsuruga Power Station Unit 1, 357MWe BWR, owned by The Japan Atomic Power Company. Compared with various processes for treating sludge and resin, the wet-oxidation system is rather simple and the process conditions are mild. Waste samples collected from storage tanks were processed by wet-oxidation and appropriate decomposition of the organic compounds was verified. After the decomposition the residue can be solidified with cement or bitumen for final disposal. When compared with direct solidification without decomposition, the number of waste packages can be reduced by a factor of a few dozens for the sludge and three for the resin. Additional measures for conditioning secondary waste products have also been studied, and their applicability to the Tsuruga Power Station was verified. Some of the conditions studied were specific to the Tsuruga Power Station, but it is expected that the system will provide an effective solution for sludge and resin treatment at other NPPs.

  7. On atomic structure of Ge huts growing on the Ge/Si(001) wetting layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arapkina, Larisa V.; Yuryev, Vladimir A. [A. M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilov Street, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)] [A. M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilov Street, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Structural models of growing Ge hut clusters—pyramids and wedges—are proposed on the basis of data of recent STM investigations of nucleation and growth of Ge huts on the Si(001) surface in the process of molecular beam epitaxy. It is shown that extension of a hut base along <110> directions goes non-uniformly during the cluster growth regardless of its shape. Growing pyramids, starting from the second monolayer, pass through cyclic formation of slightly asymmetrical and symmetrical clusters, with symmetrical ones appearing after addition of every fourth monolayer. We suppose that pyramids of symmetrical configurations composed by 2, 6, 10, etc., monolayers over the wetting layer are more stable than asymmetrical ones. This might explain less stability of pyramids in comparison with wedges in dense arrays forming at low temperatures of Ge deposition. Possible nucleation processes of pyramids and wedges on wetting layer patches from identical embryos composed by 8 dimers through formation of 1 monolayer high 16-dimer nuclei different only in their symmetry is discussed. Schematics of these processes are presented. It is concluded from precise STM measurements that top layers of wetting layer patches are relaxed when huts nucleate on them.

  8. Numerical simulation of laminar reacting flows with complex chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day, Marcus S.; Bell, John B.

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an adaptive algorithm for low Mach number reacting flows with complex chemistry. Our approach uses a form of the low Mach number equations that discretely conserves both mass and energy. The discretization methodology is based on a robust projection formulation that accommodates large density contrasts. The algorithm uses an operator-split treatment of stiff reaction terms and includes effects of differential diffusion. The basic computational approach is embedded in an adaptive projection framework that uses structured hierarchical grids with subcycling in time that preserves the discrete conservation properties of the underlying single-grid algorithm. We present numerical examples illustrating the performance of the method on both premixed and non-premixed flames.

  9. Unified views of quantum simulation algorithms for chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitfield, James Daniel

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Time evolution of quantum systems is of interest in physics, in chemistry, and, more recently, in computer science. Quantum computers are suggested as one route to propagating quantum systems far more efficiently than ordinary numerical methods. In the past few years, researchers have actively been improving quantum simulation algorithms, especially those in second quantization. This work continues to advance the state-of-the-art by unifying several diverging approaches under a common framework. In particular, it highlights the similarities and differences of the first and second quantized algorithms which are usually presented in a distinct fashion. By combining aspects of the two approaches, this work moves towards an online second quantized algorithm operating within a single-Fock space. This paper also unifies a host of approaches to algorithmic quantum measurement by removing superficial differences. The aim of the effort is not only to give a high-level understanding of quantum simulation, but to move t...

  10. Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems'', during the time-period January 1 through March 31, 2006. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, and the use of a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system downstream to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Generation Company LP, the Southern Company, and Duke Energy. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified catalyst materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for approximately 14 months or longer at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests are being conducted periodically at each site to confirm the ability to scrub the catalytically oxidized mercury at high efficiency. This is the ninth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts primarily consisted of operating the catalyst pilot units at the TXU Generation Company LP's Monticello Steam Electric Station and at Georgia Power's Plant Yates. Two catalyst activity measurement trips were made to Plant Yates during the quarter. This Technical Progress Report presents catalyst activity results from the oxidation catalyst pilot unit at Plant Yates and discusses the status of the pilot unit at Monticello.

  11. Overview of actinide chemistry in the WIPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borkowski, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lucchini, Jean - Francois [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Richmann, Michael K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reed, Donald T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Khaing, Hnin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swanson, Juliet [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The year 2009 celebrates 10 years of safe operations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the only nuclear waste repository designated to dispose defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste in the United States. Many elements contributed to the success of this one-of-the-kind facility. One of the most important of these is the chemistry of the actinides under WIPP repository conditions. A reliable understanding of the potential release of actinides from the site to the accessible environment is important to the WIPP performance assessment (PA). The environmental chemistry of the major actinides disposed at the WIPP continues to be investigated as part of the ongoing recertification efforts of the WIPP project. This presentation provides an overview of the actinide chemistry for the WIPP repository conditions. The WIPP is a salt-based repository; therefore, the inflow of brine into the repository is minimized, due to the natural tendency of excavated salt to re-seal. Reducing anoxic conditions are expected in WIPP because of microbial activity and metal corrosion processes that consume the oxygen initially present. Should brine be introduced through an intrusion scenario, these same processes will re-establish reducing conditions. In the case of an intrusion scenario involving brine, the solubilization of actinides in brine is considered as a potential source of release to the accessible environment. The following key factors establish the concentrations of dissolved actinides under subsurface conditions: (1) Redox chemistry - The solubility of reduced actinides (III and IV oxidation states) is known to be significantly lower than the oxidized forms (V and/or VI oxidation states). In this context, the reducing conditions in the WIPP and the strong coupling of the chemistry for reduced metals and microbiological processes with actinides are important. (2) Complexation - For the anoxic, reducing and mildly basic brine systems in the WIPP, the most important inorganic complexants are expected to be carbonate/bicarbonate and hydroxide. There are also organic complexants in TRU waste with the potential to strongly influence actinide solubility. (3) Intrinsic and pseudo-actinide colloid formation - Many actinide species in their expected oxidation states tend to form colloids or strongly associate with non actinide colloids present (e.g., microbial, humic and organic). In this context, the relative importance of actinides, based on the TRU waste inventory, with respect to the potential release of actinides from the WIPP, is greater for plutonium and americium, and to less extent for uranium and thorium. The most important oxidation states for WIPP-relevant conditions are III and IV. We will present an update of the literature on WIPP-specific data, and a summary of the ongoing research related to actinide chemistry in the WIPP performed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Actinide Chemistry and Repository Science (ACRSP) team located in Carlsbad, NM [Reed 2007, Lucchini 2007, and Reed 2006].

  12. ,"Louisiana Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;NetPriceNonassociated Natural Gas, WetGas, Wet After

  13. WETTABILITY ALTERATION OF POROUS MEDIA TO GAS-WETTING FOR IMPROVING PRODUCTIVITY AND INJECTIVITY IN GAS-LIQUID FLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wettability alteration to intermediate gas-wetting in porous media by treatment with FC-759, a fluoropolymer polymer, has been studied experimentally. Berea sandstone was used as the main rock sample in our work and its wettability before and after chemical treatment was studied at various temperatures from 25 to 93 C. We also studied recovery performance for both gas/oil and oil/water systems for Berea sandstone before and after wettability alteration by chemical treatment. Our experimental study shows that chemical treatment with FC-759 can result in: (1) wettability alteration from strong liquid-wetting to stable intermediate gas-wetting at room temperature and at elevated temperatures; (2) neutral wetting for gas, oil, and water phases in two-phase flow; (3) significant increase in oil mobility for gas/oil system; and (4) improved recovery behavior for both gas/oil and oil/water systems. This work reveals a potential for field application for improved gas-well deliverability and well injectivity by altering the rock wettability around wellbore in gas condensate reservoirs from strong liquid-wetting to intermediate gas-wetting.

  14. Big Data meets Quantum Chemistry Approximations: The $\\Delta$-Machine Learning Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan; Rupp, Matthias; von Lilienfeld, O Anatole

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemically accurate and comprehensive studies of the virtual space of all possible molecules are severely limited by the computational cost of quantum chemistry. We introduce a composite strategy that adds machine learning corrections to computationally inexpensive approximate legacy quantum methods. After training, highly accurate predictions of enthalpies, free energies, entropies, and electron correlation energies are possible, for significantly larger molecular sets than used for training. For thermochemical properties of up to 16k constitutional isomers of C$_7$H$_{10}$O$_2$ we present numerical evidence that chemical accuracy can be reached. We also predict electron correlation energy in post Hartree-Fock methods, at the computational cost of Hartree-Fock, and we establish a qualitative relationship between molecular entropy and electron correlation. The transferability of our approach is demonstrated, using semi-empirical quantum chemistry and machine learning models trained on 1 and 10\\% of 134k organ...

  15. Systems, Methods and Computer Readable Media for Modeling Cell Performance Fade, Kinetic Performance, Capacity Loss, of Rechargeable Electrochemical Devices

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2014-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

     INL has developed a set of methods to define measure, evaluate, track and predict performance and aging trends for advanced chemistry batteries, including lithium-ion batteries.  ...

  16. Open Data, Open Source and Open Standards in chemistry: The Blue Obelisk five years on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Boyle, Noel M; Guha, Rajarshi; Willighagen, Egon L; Adams, Samuel E; Alvarsson, Jonathan; Apodaca, Richard L; Bradley, Jean-Claude; Filippov, Igor V; Hanson, Robert M; Hanwell, Marcus D; Hutchison, Geoffrey R; James, Craig A; Jeliazkova, Nina; Lang, Andrew S I D; Langner, Karol M; Lonie, David C; Lowe, Daniel M; Pansanel, Jerome; Pavlov, Dmitry; Spjuth, Ola; Steinbeck, Christoph; Tenderholt, Adam L; Theisen, Kevin J; Murray-Rust, Peter

    2011-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Ideaconsult Ltd., 4.A.Kanchev str., Sofia 1000, Bulgaria 14Department of Engineering, Computer Science, Physics, and Mathematics, Oral Roberts University, 7777 S. Lewis Ave. Tulsa, OK 74171, USA 15Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, Einsteinweg... the fundamental tenants of the scientific method for data sharing and reproducibility. The Blue Obelisk was first described in the CDK News [2] and later as a formal paper by Guha et al. [3] in 2006. Its home on the web is at http...

  17. Cooperative Research in C1 Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2000-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    C1 chemistry refers to the conversion of simple carbon-containing materials that contain one carbon atom per molecule into valuable products. The feedstocks for C1 chemistry include natural gas, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methanol and synthesis gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Synthesis gas, or syngas, is produced primarily by the reaction of natural gas, which is principally methane, with steam. It can also be produced by gasification of coal, petroleum coke, or biomass. The availability of syngas from coal gasification is expected to increase significantly in the future because of increasing development of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation. Because of the abundance of remote natural gas, the advent of IGCC, and environmental advantages, C1 chemistry is expected to become a major area of interest for the transportation fuel and chemical industries in the relatively near future. The CFFLS will therefore perform a valuable national service by providing science and engineering graduates that are trained in this important area. Syngas is the source of most hydrogen. Approximately 10 trillion standard cubic feet (SCF) of hydrogen are manufactured annually in the world. Most of this hydrogen is currently used for the production of ammonia and in a variety of refining and chemical operations. However, utilization of hydrogen in fuel cells is expected to grow significantly in the next century. Syngas is also the feedstock for all methanol and Fischer-Tropsch plants. Currently, world consumption of methanol is over 25 million tons per year. There are many methanol plants in the U.S. and throughout the world. Methanol and oxygenated transportation fuel products play a significant role in the CFFLS C1 program. Currently, the only commercial Fischer-Tropsch plants are overseas, principally in South Africa (SASOL). However, new plants are being built or planned for a number of locations. One possible location for future F-T plant development in the U.S. is in the Alaskan oil fields.

  18. Environmental Chemistry Division annual report, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newman, L.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research activities making up the programs in the Environmental Chemistry Division of the Department of Applied Science are presented. Some of the more significant accomplishments during 1989 are described and plans for 1990 are discussed briefly. Publications for the period are listed and abstracts are provided. Research objectives and principal investigators are given for each of the active programs. A list of personnel and collaborators during the past year is presented. The support distribution of FY 1989 is approximately 85% from the Department of Energy (65% Office of Health and Environmental Research), and 15% other agencies (principally from the Electric Power Research Institute).

  19. Radiation Chemistry of Advanced TALSPEAK Flowsheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mincher, Bruce; Peterman, Dean; Mcdowell, Rocklan; Olson, Lonnie; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of initial experiments designed to understand the radiation chemistry of an Advanced TALSPEAK process for separating trivalent lanthanides form the actinides. Biphasic aerated samples were irradiated and then analyzed for post-irradiation constituent concentrations and solvent extraction distribution ratios. The effects of irradiation on the TALSPEAK and Advanced TALSPEAK solvents were similar, with very little degradation of the organic phase extractant. Decomposition products were detected, with a major product in common for both solvents. This product may be responsible for the slight increase in distribution ratios for Eu and Am with absorbed dose, however; separation factors were not greatly affected.

  20. Chemistry of Cobalt-Platinum Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization ofChemistry and Transport

  1. Chemistry Controls Material's Nanostructure | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z CPlasma of theChemistry Oxide Interfaces

  2. Chemistry of Cobalt-Platinum Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z CPlasma of theChemistry Oxide

  3. Chemistry and Materials Science at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms AboutRESEARCH CAPABILITIES Thematerials | CenterChemistry

  4. Exploring Ultrafast Chemistry with Long Pulses: Beyond Pump-Probe...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    relevance with respect to electron-driven chemistry and radiation damage in biological systems by low-energy secondary electrons. I will also discuss our very recent experiments...

  5. actinides separation chemistry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for those course guides came largely from Chuck Spuches of the Instructional Development Dibble, Theodore 228 Student Orientation Guide Organic Chemistry Engineering Websites...

  6. actinide chemistry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for those course guides came largely from Chuck Spuches of the Instructional Development Dibble, Theodore 189 Student Orientation Guide Organic Chemistry Engineering Websites...

  7. actinide chemistry progress: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for those course guides came largely from Chuck Spuches of the Instructional Development Dibble, Theodore 210 Student Orientation Guide Organic Chemistry Engineering Websites...

  8. Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    examined Inorganic chemistry can provide insight and improve technical issues surrounding nuclear power production and waste disposition. July 31, 2013 Aspects of inorganic...

  9. Boston University's Department of Chemistry Selection of Dissertation Advisory Committee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boston University's Department of Chemistry Selection of Dissertation Advisory Committee, will select the members of a Dissertation Advisory Committee and submit the list of names to the chair

  10. adaptive chemistry dac: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tool Needs for Faster Mainstream Acceptance of 3D Lim, Sung Kyu 5 Ethical Conduct in Science and Engineering Adapted from Chemistry-Biology Interface Program Ethics Materials...

  11. Variable Charge Soils: Their Mineralogy, Chemistry and Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nik; Van Ranst, Eric; Noble, Andrew; Baert, Geert

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, the mineralogy, chemistry and management of variable charge soils that are spread throughout the world are treated in details.

  12. Rye Patch geothermal development, hydro-chemistry of thermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    development, hydro-chemistry of thermal water applied to resource definition Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Rye Patch geothermal...

  13. Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report, FY 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiken, J.H.; Lindberg, H.A. (eds.)

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes progress in the major research and development programs carried out in FY 1983 by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division. It covers radiochemical diagnostics of weapons tests; weapons radiochemical diagnostics research and development; other unclassified weapons research; stable and radioactive isotope production, separation, and applications (including biomedical applications); element and isotope transport and fixation; actinide and transition metal chemistry; structural chemistry, spectroscopy, and applications; nuclear structure and reactions; irradiation facilities; advanced analytical techniques; development and applications; atmospheric chemistry and transport; and earth and planetary processes.

  14. Chemistry Division annual progress report, February 29, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 12 of the 13 sections of this report. The remaining section, Chemistry In Support of the Nuclear Fuel Cycles, is very brief. (DLC)

  15. 3.091 Introduction to Solid State Chemistry, Fall 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald R.

    Basic principles of chemistry and their application to engineering systems. The relationship between electronic structure, chemical bonding, and atomic order. Characterization of atomic arrangements in crystalline and ...

  16. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Perkin Elmer 500, Chemistry & Biochemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, Daniel S.

    Atomic Absorption Spectrometry · Perkin Elmer 500, Chemistry & Biochemistry · Perkin Elmer 560 AA Harvester-Luminometer scintillation counter, CBMG Centrifuges · Beckman Coulter Optima XL-I Analytical

  17. Surveys of research in the Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grazis, B.M. (ed.)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research reports are presented on reactive intermediates in condensed phase (radiation chemistry, photochemistry), electron transfer and energy conversion, photosynthesis and solar energy conversion, metal cluster chemistry, chemical dynamics in gas phase, photoionization-photoelectrons, characterization and reactivity of coal and coal macerals, premium coal sample program, chemical separations, heavy elements coordination chemistry, heavy elements photophysics/photochemistry, f-electron interactions, radiation chemistry of high-level wastes (gas generation in waste tanks), ultrafast molecular electronic devices, and nuclear medicine. Separate abstracts have been prepared. Accelerator activites and computer system/network services are also reported.

  18. Surveys of research in the Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grazis, B.M. [ed.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research reports are presented on reactive intermediates in condensed phase (radiation chemistry, photochemistry), electron transfer and energy conversion, photosynthesis and solar energy conversion, metal cluster chemistry, chemical dynamics in gas phase, photoionization-photoelectrons, characterization and reactivity of coal and coal macerals, premium coal sample program, chemical separations, heavy elements coordination chemistry, heavy elements photophysics/photochemistry, f-electron interactions, radiation chemistry of high-level wastes (gas generation in waste tanks), ultrafast molecular electronic devices, and nuclear medicine. Separate abstracts have been prepared. Accelerator activites and computer system/network services are also reported.

  19. Fundamental Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry PI: Nitash Balsara LBNL June 17, 2014 Project ID ESS224 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise...

  20. Research degrees MPhil, PhD in Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussex, University of

    nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers, with multinuclear capability · high-res mass spectrometers second-class undergraduate honours degree in chemistry or a related discipline English language