National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for wet bulk density

  1. Development of a Wet Logistics System for Bulk Corn Stover

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1000: Development of a Wet Logistics System for Bulk Corn Stover March 25, 2015 Lynn M. Wendt, William A. Smith, Austin Murphy, and Ian J. Bonner Idaho National Laboratory This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Technology Area Review: Feedstock Supply and Logistics 2 | Bioenergy Technologies Office Overall Project Goal Project Objective * Design a high-moisture, bulk feedstock logistics system that - Reduces the risk of catastrophic

  2. Method of altering the effective bulk density of solid material and the resulting product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kool, Lawrence B. (Ann Arbor, MI); Nolen, Robert L. (Ann Arbor, MI); Solomon, David E. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1983-01-01

    A method of adjustably tailoring the effective bulk density of a solid material in which a mixture comprising the solid material, a film-forming polymer and a volatile solvent are sprayed into a drying chamber such that the solvent evaporates and the polymer dries into hollow shells having the solid material captured within the shell walls. Shell density may be varied as a function of solid/polymer concentration, droplet size and drying temperature.

  3. Modeling target bulk heating resulting from ultra-intense short pulse laser irradiation of solid density targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antici, P.; INRS-EMT, Varennes, Québec; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via E. Fermi, 40-00044 Frascati; LULI, École Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau ; Gremillet, L.; Grismayer, T.; Audebert, P.; Mančic, A.; Fuchs, J.; Borghesi, M.; Cecchetti, C. A.

    2013-12-15

    Isochoric heating of solid-density matter up to a few tens of eV is of interest for investigating astrophysical or inertial fusion scenarios. Such ultra-fast heating can be achieved via the energy deposition of short-pulse laser generated electrons. Here, we report on experimental measurements of this process by means of time- and space-resolved optical interferometry. Our results are found in reasonable agreement with a simple numerical model of fast electron-induced heating.

  4. Investigation of Interfacial and Bulk Dissociation of HBr, HCl, and HNO3 Using Density Functional Theory-Based Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baer, Marcel; Tobias, Douglas J.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2014-12-18

    In this study we investigate the free energy barrier associated with the dissociation of strong acids, XH (HBr, HCl and HNO3) deprotonation, and subsequent formation of ionpairs, X___H3O+ in the vicinity of the air-water interface. We will show that the free energy for acid dissociation for HCl and HNO3 show significant differences at the air-water than under bulk solvation conditions producing a picture where at the interface associated molecular species can be stable. For the strongest acid we consider, HBr the more traditional picture of acids is preserved in the vicinity of the air-water interface. Our results have implications for our understanding of acids, and their surface tensions at the air-water interface.

  5. Wetting of a Chemically Heterogeneous Surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frink, L.J.D.; Salinger, A.G.

    1998-11-20

    Theories for inhomogeneous fluids have focused in recent years on wetting, capillary conden- sation, and solvation forces for model systems where the surface(s) is(are) smooth homogeneous parallel plates, cylinders, or spherical drops. Unfortunately natural systems are more likely to be hetaogeneous both in surt%ce shape and surface chemistry. In this paper we discuss the conse- quences of chemical heterogeneity on wetting. Specifically, a 2-dimensional implementation of a nonlocal density functional theory is solved for a striped surface model. Both the strength and range of the heterogeneity are varied. Contact angles are calculated, and phase transitions (both the wetting transition and a local layering transition) are located. The wetting properties of the surface ase shown to be strongly dependent on the nature of the surface heterogeneity. In addition highly ordered nanoscopic phases are found, and the operational limits for formation of ordered or crystalline phases of nanoscopic extent are discussed.

  6. Rotary bulk solids divider

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maronde, Carl P. (McMurray, PA); Killmeyer, Jr., Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

  7. Investigation of Interfacial and Bulk Dissociation of HBr, HCl...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Investigation of Interfacial and Bulk Dissociation of HBr, HCl, and HNO3 Using Density Functional Theory-Based Molecular Dynamics Simulations Citation Details In-Document Search...

  8. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, L.C.; Simpson, M.L.

    1995-01-17

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically. 4 figures.

  9. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically.

  10. Hanford ETR Bulk Vitrification System - Demonstration Bulk Vitrification

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    System (DBVS) Review Report | Department of Energy Hanford ETR Bulk Vitrification System - Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) Review Report Hanford ETR Bulk Vitrification System - Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) Review Report Full Document and Summary Versions are available for download PDF icon Hanford ETR Bulk Vitrification System - Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) Review Report PDF icon Summary - Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) for

  11. Large area bulk superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Dean J. (Darien, IL); Field, Michael B. (Jersey City, NJ)

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  12. Fiber Bulk Gaseous Carriers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Don Baldwin, Director of Product Development FIBER BULK GASEOUS CARRIERS 26 February 2014, NREL, Golden, CO * Lightweight composite cylinders for the storage and transportation of gas under pressure ̵ Compressed natural gas ̵ Compressed hydrogen gas * Vehicle fuel cylinders ̵ Passenger cars ̵ Buses and ̵ Heavy-duty vehicles * Transport and storage cylinders ̵ Bulk hauling trailers and modules ̵ Ground storage systems HEXAGON COMPOSITES HIGH PRESSURE PRODUCTS * Figures with

  13. Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processing of Wet Wastes James Oyler July 2014 Slide 1 Slide 2 Q: What is possible with Waste-to-Energy (WTE)? A: Up to 25% of US Liquid Fuel Supply. 25% Sounds High-Is That Possible? * Available technology and wet wastes can start toward this goal now * 285,000 barrels of oil per day by 2025 - 3.3 million bbl/d by 2045 (17% of US demand); also produces more than 6 million MCF/d of methane - Continue growing to 25% of US demand by adding more feedstocks (chart shown later) * Using wastes solves

  14. The effects of digital elevation model resolution on the calculation and predictions of topographic wetness indices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drover, Damion, Ryan

    2011-12-01

    One of the largest exports in the Southeast U.S. is forest products. Interest in biofuels using forest biomass has increased recently, leading to more research into better forest management BMPs. The USDA Forest Service, along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Georgia and Oregon State University are researching the impacts of intensive forest management for biofuels on water quality and quantity at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Surface runoff of saturated areas, transporting excess nutrients and contaminants, is a potential water quality issue under investigation. Detailed maps of variable source areas and soil characteristics would therefore be helpful prior to treatment. The availability of remotely sensed and computed digital elevation models (DEMs) and spatial analysis tools make it easy to calculate terrain attributes. These terrain attributes can be used in models to predict saturated areas or other attributes in the landscape. With laser altimetry, an area can be flown to produce very high resolution data, and the resulting data can be resampled into any resolution of DEM desired. Additionally, there exist many maps that are in various resolutions of DEM, such as those acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey. Problems arise when using maps derived from different resolution DEMs. For example, saturated areas can be under or overestimated depending on the resolution used. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of DEM resolution on the calculation of topographic wetness indices used to predict variable source areas of saturation, and to find the best resolutions to produce prediction maps of soil attributes like nitrogen, carbon, bulk density and soil texture for low-relief, humid-temperate forested hillslopes. Topographic wetness indices were calculated based on the derived terrain attributes, slope and specific catchment area, from five different DEM resolutions. The DEMs were resampled from LiDAR, which is a laser altimetry remote sensing method, obtained from the USDA Forest Service at Savannah River Site. The specific DEM resolutions were chosen because they are common grid cell sizes (10m, 30m, and 50m) used in mapping for management applications and in research. The finer resolutions (2m and 5m) were chosen for the purpose of determining how finer resolutions performed compared with coarser resolutions at predicting wetness and related soil attributes. The wetness indices were compared across DEMs and with each other in terms of quantile and distribution differences, then in terms of how well they each correlated with measured soil attributes. Spatial and non-spatial analyses were performed, and predictions using regression and geostatistics were examined for efficacy relative to each DEM resolution. Trends in the raw data and analysis results were also revealed.

  15. Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

  16. Explosive bulk charge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  17. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony; Saldana, Christopher J.; Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John; Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  18. Wet chemical thinning of molybdenum disulfide down to its monolayer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amara, Kiran Kumar; Chu, Leiqiang; Kumar, Rajeev; Toh, Minglin; Eda, Goki

    2014-09-01

    We report on the preparation of mono- and bi-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) from a bulk crystal by facile wet chemical etching. We show that concentrated nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) effectively etches thin MoS{sub 2} crystals from their edges via formation of MoO{sub 3}. Interestingly, etching of thin crystals on a substrate leaves behind unreacted mono- and bilayer sheets. The flakes obtained by chemical etching exhibit electronic quality comparable to that of mechanically exfoliated counterparts. Our findings indicate that the self-limiting chemical etching is a promising top-down route to preparing atomically thin crystals from bulk layer compounds.

  19. Competitive Wetting in Active Brazes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chandross, Michael Evan

    2014-05-01

    We found that the wetting and spreading of molten filler materials (pure Al, pure Ag, and AgAl alloys) on a Kovar ™ (001) substrate was studied with molecular dynamics simulations. A suite of different simulations was used to understand the effects on spreading rates due to alloying as well as reactions with the substrate. Moreover, the important conclusion is that the presence of Al in the alloy enhances the spreading of Ag, while the Ag inhibits the spreading of Al.

  20. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, Carol

    2010-06-08

    A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

  1. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsson, Roy H. (Albuquerque, NM); El-Kady, Ihab F. (Albuquerque, NM); McCormick, Frederick (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, legal representative, Carol (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-11-23

    A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

  2. Bulk Data Mover

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-01-03

    Bulk Data Mover (BDM) is a high-level data transfer management tool. BDM handles the issue of large variance in file sizes and a big portion of small files by managing the file transfers with optimized transfer queue and concurrency management algorithms. For example, climate simulation data sets are characterized by large volume of files with extreme variance in file sizes. The BDN achieves high performance using a variety of techniques, including multi-thraded concurrent transfer connections,more » data channel caching, load balancing over multiple transfer servers, and storage i/o pre-fetching. Logging information from the BDM is collected and analyzed to study the effectiveness of the transfer management algorithms. The BDM can accept a request composed of multiple files or an entire directory. The request also contains the target site and directory where the replicated files will reside. If a directory is provided at the source, then the BDM will replicate the structure of the source directory at the target site. The BDM is capable of transferring multiple files concurrently as well as using parallel TCP streams. The optimal level of concurrency or parallel streams depends on the bandwidth capacity of the storage systems at both ends of the transfer as well as achievable bandwidth of the wide-area network. Hardware req.-PC, MAC, Multi-platform & Workstation; Software req.: Compile/version-Java 1.50_x or ablove; Type of files: source code, executable modules, installation instructions other, user guide; URL: http://sdm.lbl.gov/bdm/« less

  3. Effects of pulverized coal fly-ash addition as a wet-end filler in papermaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinha, A.S.K.

    2008-09-15

    This experimental study is based on the innovative idea of using pulverized coal fly ash as a wet-end filler in papermaking. This is the first evaluation of the possible use of fly ash in the paper industry. Coal-based thermal power plants throughout the world are generating fly ash as a solid waste product. The constituents of fly ash can be used effectively in papermaking. Fly ash has a wide variation in particle size, which ranges from a few micrometers to one hundred micrometers. Fly ash acts as an inert material in acidic, neutral, and alkaline papermaking processes. Its physical properties such as bulk density (800-980 kg/m{sup 3}), porosity (45%-57%), and surface area (0.138-2.3076 m{sup 2}/g) make it suitable for use as a paper filler. Fly ash obtained from thermal power plants using pulverized coal was fractionated by a vibratory-sieve stack. The fine fraction with a particle size below 38 micrometers was used to study its effect on the important mechanical-strength and optical properties of paper. The effects of fly-ash addition on these properties were compared with those of kaolin clay. Paper opacity was found to be much higher with fly ash as a filler, whereas brightness decreased as the filler percentage increased Mechanical strength properties of the paper samples with fly ash as filler were superior to those with kaolin clay.

  4. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  5. Carbon nanotube fiber spun from wetted ribbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yuntian T; Arendt, Paul; Zhang, Xiefei; Li, Qingwen; Fu, Lei; Zheng, Lianxi

    2014-04-29

    A fiber of carbon nanotubes was prepared by a wet-spinning method involving drawing carbon nanotubes away from a substantially aligned, supported array of carbon nanotubes to form a ribbon, wetting the ribbon with a liquid, and spinning a fiber from the wetted ribbon. The liquid can be a polymer solution and after forming the fiber, the polymer can be cured. The resulting fiber has a higher tensile strength and higher conductivity compared to dry-spun fibers and to wet-spun fibers prepared by other methods.

  6. Recent Device Developments with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Device Developments with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric Materials at RTI Recent Device Developments with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric Materials at RTI Reviews work in engineered ...

  7. RAPID/BulkTransmission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    regulatory processes and requirements by searching our regulatory flowchart library. Learn more about bulk transmission. BulkTransCoverage.png Regulations and permitting...

  8. Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste ...

  9. Texas - RRC District 1 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 1 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade...

  10. Texas - RRC District 6 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 6 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade...

  11. Texas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

  12. Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion...

  13. Texas - RRC District 8 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 8 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade...

  14. Texas - RRC District 5 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 5 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade...

  15. MHK Technologies/WET NZ | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to the MHK database homepage WET NZ.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Wave Energy Technology New Zealand WET NZ Technology Resource Click here Wave Technology...

  16. New York Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion...

  17. New York Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

  18. Wet/dry cooling tower and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Rohsenow, Warren R. (Waban, MA)

    1981-01-01

    A wet/dry cooling tower wherein a liquid to-be-cooled is flowed along channels of a corrugated open surface or the like, which surface is swept by cooling air. The amount of the surface covered by the liquid is kept small compared to the dry part thereof so that said dry part acts as a fin for the wet part for heat dissipation.

  19. Thermoelectric Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectric Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation of Nanopowders Describes technique of explosively consolidating nanopowders to yield fully dense, consolidated, ...

  20. Wet powder seal for gas containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stang, Louis G. (Sayville, NY)

    1982-01-01

    A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

  1. Controllable underwater anisotropic oil-wetting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yong, Jiale; Chen, Feng Yang, Qing; Farooq, Umar; Bian, Hao; Du, Guangqing; Hou, Xun

    2014-08-18

    This Letter demonstrates a simple method to achieve underwater anisotropic oil-wetting using silicon surfaces with a microgroove array produced by femtosecond laser ablation. The oil contact angles along the direction perpendicular to the grooves are consistently larger than those parallel to the microgroove arrays in water because the oil droplet is restricted by the energy barrier that exists between the non-irradiated domain and the trapped water in the laser-ablated microgrooves. This underwater anisotropic oil-wetting is able to be controlled, and the anisotropy can be tuned from 0 to ?20 by adjusting the period of the microgroove arrays.

  2. Excitonic exchange splitting in bulk semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, H.; Wang, L.; Zunger, A.

    1999-02-01

    We present an approach to calculate the excitonic fine-structure splittings due to electron-hole short-range exchange interactions using the local-density approximation pseudopotential method, and apply it to bulk semiconductors CdSe, InP, GaAs, and InAs. Comparing with previous theoretical results, the current calculated splittings agree well with experiments. Furthermore, we provide an approximate relationship between the short-range exchange splitting and the exciton Bohr radius, which can be used to estimate the exchange splitting for other materials. The current calculation indicates that a commonly used formula for exchange splitting in quantum dot is not valid. Finally, we find a very large pressure dependence of the exchange splitting: a factor of 4.5 increase as the lattice constant changes by 3.5{percent}. This increase is mainly due to the decrease of the Bohr radius via the change of electron effective mass. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Air Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BulkTransmissionAir Quality < RAPID | BulkTransmission Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission...

  4. Indian Centre for Wind Energy Technology C WET | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Centre for Wind Energy Technology C WET Jump to: navigation, search Name: Indian Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET) Place: Chennai, India Zip: 601 302 Sector: Wind energy...

  5. Texas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

  6. RAPID/Bulk Transmission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Page Edit History RAPIDBulk Transmission < RAPID(Redirected from RAPIDOverviewBulkTransmission) Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT RAPIDBulkTransmission...

  7. Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes Breakout Session 3A-Conversion Technologies III: Energy from Our Waste (Will we Be Rich in Fuel or Knee Deep in Trash by 2025?) Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes James R. Oyler, President, Genifuel Corporation PDF icon oyler_biomass_2014.pdf More Documents & Publications Challenges and Opportunities for Wet-Waste Feedstocks - Resource Assessment Waste-to-Energy Workshop Summary Report Algae-to-Fuel: Integrating

  8. Challenges and Opportunities for Wet-Waste Feedstocks - Resource

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assessment | Department of Energy Challenges and Opportunities for Wet-Waste Feedstocks - Resource Assessment Challenges and Opportunities for Wet-Waste Feedstocks - Resource Assessment Breakout Session 2-C: Biogas and Beyond: Challenges and Opportunities for Advanced Biofuels from Wet-Waste Feedstocks Challenges and Opportunities for Wet-Waste Feedstocks - Resource Assessment Corinne Drennan, Energy & Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PDF icon

  9. Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) Technology for

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) | Department of Energy Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) This assessment determines the technology maturity level of the candidate Tank 48H treatment technologies that are being considered for implementation at DOE's SRS - specifically Wet Air Oxidation. PDF icon Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Wet Air Oxidation (WAO)

  10. Analysis of 1w Bulk Laser Damage in KDP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cross, D A; Carr, C W

    2011-04-11

    The influence of laser parameters on laser-induced damage in the bulk of KDP is difficult to determine because the damage manifests as discrete sites a few microns in diameter distributed throughout a relatively large volume of material. Here, they present a method to directly measure the size and location of many thousands of such sites and correlate them to the laser conditions which produced them. This technique is used to characterize the effects of pulse duration on damage initiated by 1053 nm light in the bulk of KDP crystals. They find that the density of damage sites produced by 1053 nm light is less sensitive to pulse duration than was previously reported for 526 nm and 351 nm light. In addition, the effect of pulse duration on the size of the damage sites produced appears insensitive to wavelength.

  11. Selenium Speciation and Management in Wet FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Searcy, K; Richardson, M; Blythe, G; Wallschlaeger, D; Chu, P; Dene, C

    2012-02-29

    This report discusses results from bench- and pilot-scale simulation tests conducted to determine the factors that impact selenium speciation and phase partitioning in wet FGD systems. The selenium chemistry in wet FGD systems is highly complex and not completely understood, thus extrapolation and scale-up of these results may be uncertain. Control of operating parameters and application of scrubber additives have successfully demonstrated the avoidance or decrease of selenite oxidation at the bench and pilot scale. Ongoing efforts to improve sample handling methods for selenium speciation measurements are also discussed. Bench-scale scrubber tests explored the impacts of oxidation air rate, trace metals, scrubber additives, and natural limestone on selenium speciation in synthetic and field-generated full-scale FGD liquors. The presence and concentration of redox-active chemical species as well as the oxidation air rate contribute to the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) conditions in FGD scrubbers. Selenite oxidation to the undesirable selenate form increases with increasing ORP conditions, and decreases with decreasing ORP conditions. Solid-phase manganese [Mn(IV)] appeared to be the significant metal impacting the oxidation of selenite to selenate. Scrubber additives were tested for their ability to inhibit selenite oxidation. Although dibasic acid and other scrubber additives showed promise in early clear liquor (sodium based and without calcium solids) bench-scale tests, these additives did not show strong inhibition of selenite oxidation in tests with higher manganese concentrations and with slurries from full-scale wet FGD systems. In bench-tests with field liquors, addition of ferric chloride at a 250:1 iron-to-selenium mass ratio sorbed all incoming selenite to the solid phase, although addition of ferric salts had no impact on native selenate that already existed in the field slurry liquor sample. As ORP increases, selenite may oxidize to selenate more rapidly than it sorbs to ferric solids. Though it was not possible to demonstrate a decrease in selenium concentrations to levels below the project?¢????s target of 50 ???µg/L during pilot testing, some trends observed in bench-scale testing were evident at the pilot scale. Specifically, reducing oxidation air rate and ORP tends to either retain selenium as selenite in the liquor or shift selenium phase partitioning to the solid phase. Oxidation air flow rate control may be one option for managing selenium behavior in FGD scrubbers. Units that cycle load widely may find it more difficult to impact ORP conditions with oxidation air flow rate control alone. Because decreasing oxidation air rates to the reaction tank showed that all ?¢????new?¢??? selenium reported to the solids, the addition of ferric chloride to the pilot scrubber could not show further improvements in selenium behavior. Ferric chloride addition did shift mercury to the slurry solids, specifically to the fine particles. Several competing pathways may govern the reporting of selenium to the slurry solids: co-precipitation with gypsum into the bulk solids and sorption or co-precipitation with iron into the fine particles. Simultaneous measurement of selenium and mercury behavior suggests a holistic management strategy is best to optimize the fate of both of these elements in FGD waters. Work conducted under this project evaluated sample handling and analytical methods for selenium speciation in FGD waters. Three analytical techniques and several preservation methods were employed. Measurements of selenium speciation over time indicated that for accurate selenium speciation, it is best to conduct measurements on unpreserved, filtered samples as soon after sampling as possible. The capital and operating costs for two selenium management strategies were considered: ferric chloride addition and oxidation air flow rate control. For ferric chloride addition, as migh

  12. bulk power system | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dc(266) Contributor 31 October, 2014 - 10:58 What do you know about the grid? black out brown out bulk power system electricity grid future grid grid history security Smart Grid...

  13. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Transmission Siting & Interconnection...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    federal review). Bulk Transmission Transmission Siting & Interconnection in New Mexico New Mexico Statutes (N.M.S.) 62-9-1, 62-9-3(B), and 62-9-3.2 No Location Permit may be...

  14. Bulk and mechanical properties of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from boreholes UE25 NRG-4 and -5: Data report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, P.J.; Noel, J.S.; Martin, R.J. [New England Research, Inc., White River Junction, VT (United States); Price, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Experimental results are presented for bulk and mechanical properties measurements on specimens of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from boreholes UE25 NRG-4 and -5, at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Measurements have been performed on three thermal/mechanical units, PTn, TSwl, and TSw2. On each specimen the following bulk properties have been reported: dry bulk density, saturated bulk density, average grain density, and porosity. Unconfined compression to failure, confined compression to failure, and indirect tensile strength tests were performed on selected specimens recovered from the boreholes. In addition, compressional and shear wave velocities were measured on specimens designated for unconfined compression and confined compression experiments. Measurements were conducted at room temperature on nominally water-saturated specimens. The nominal rate for the fracture experiments was 10{sup -5}s{sup -1}.

  15. Wet Chemical Compositional and Near IR Spectra Data Sets for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Like This Return to Search Wet Chemical Compositional and Near IR Spectra Data Sets for Biomass National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology...

  16. Wet Gasification of Ethanol Residue: A Preliminary Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Michael D.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2008-09-22

    A preliminary technoeconomic assessment has been made of several options for the application of catalytic hydrothermal gasification (wet gasification) to ethanol processing residues.

  17. New Mexico Natural Gas Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves in...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    After Lease Separation, Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Billion...

  18. ,"New Mexico Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation",10,"Annual",201...

  19. Challenges and Opportunities for Wet-Waste Feedstocks - Resource...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Challenges and Opportunities for Wet-Waste Feedstocks - Resource Assessment Breakout Session 2-C: Biogas and Beyond: Challenges and Opportunities for Advanced Biofuels from ...

  20. ,"Texas - RRC District 9 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 9 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  1. ,"Texas - RRC District 9 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 9 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion...

  2. ,"Texas - RRC District 6 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 6 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  3. ,"Texas - RRC District 10 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 10 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  4. ,"Texas - RRC District 1 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 1 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  5. ,"Texas - RRC District 5 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 5 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  6. ,"Texas - RRC District 7C Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 7C Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  7. ,"Texas - RRC District 5 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 5 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  8. ,"Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  9. ,"Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  10. ,"Texas - RRC District 6 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 6 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  11. ,"Texas - RRC District 1 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 1 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  12. ,"Texas - RRC District 1 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 1 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion...

  13. ,"Texas - RRC District 7B Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 7B Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  14. ,"Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves...

  15. ,"Texas - RRC District 6 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 6 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion...

  16. ,"Texas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

  17. ,"Texas - RRC District 8 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 8 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  18. ,"Texas - RRC District 10 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 10 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  19. ,"Texas - RRC District 8 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 8 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  20. ,"Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves...

  1. ,"Texas - RRC District 5 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 5 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion...

  2. ,"Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion...

  3. ,"Texas - RRC District 9 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 9 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  4. ,"Texas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

  5. ,"Texas - RRC District 8A Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 8A Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  6. ,"Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  7. ,"Texas - RRC District 8 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 8 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion...

  8. ,"Texas - RRC District 10 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 10 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion...

  9. ,"West Virginia Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","West Virginia Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

  10. ,"West Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","West Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

  11. ,"West Virginia Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","West Virginia Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

  12. Observation of Ordered Structures in Counterion Layers near Wet...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Observation of Ordered Structures in Counterion Layers near Wet Charged Surfaces: A Potential Mechanism for Charge Inversion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Observation ...

  13. ,"California State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

  14. ,"California State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

  15. ,"Louisiana State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

  16. ,"Louisiana State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

  17. ,"Texas State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

  18. ,"Texas State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

  19. ,"Texas State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

  20. ,"New York Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

  1. ,"New York Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion...

  2. ,"New York Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

  3. W.E.T. Automotive Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    E.T. Automotive Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: W.E.T. Automotive Systems Place: Odelzhausen, Germany Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes...

  4. The transfer between electron bulk kinetic energy and thermal energy in collisionless magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, San; Lu, Quanming; Huang, Can; Wang, Shui

    2013-06-15

    By performing two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate the transfer between electron bulk kinetic and electron thermal energy in collisionless magnetic reconnection. In the vicinity of the X line, the electron bulk kinetic energy density is much larger than the electron thermal energy density. The evolution of the electron bulk kinetic energy is mainly determined by the work done by the electric field force and electron pressure gradient force. The work done by the electron gradient pressure force in the vicinity of the X line is changed to the electron enthalpy flux. In the magnetic island, the electron enthalpy flux is transferred to the electron thermal energy due to the compressibility of the plasma in the magnetic island. The compression of the plasma in the magnetic island is the consequence of the electromagnetic force acting on the plasma as the magnetic field lines release their tension after being reconnected. Therefore, we can observe that in the magnetic island the electron thermal energy density is much larger than the electron bulk kinetic energy density.

  5. The Quantum Energy Density: Improved E

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krogel, Jaron; Yu, Min; Kim, Jeongnim; Ceperley, David M.

    2013-01-01

    We establish a physically meaningful representation of a quantum energy density for use in Quantum Monte Carlo calculations. The energy density operator, dened in terms of Hamiltonian components and density operators, returns the correct Hamiltonian when integrated over a volume containing a cluster of particles. This property is demonstrated for a helium-neon \\gas," showing that atomic energies obtained from the energy density correspond to eigenvalues of isolated systems. The formation energies of defects or interfaces are typically calculated as total energy dierences. Using a model of delta-doped silicon (where dopant atoms form a thin plane) we show how interfacial energies can be calculated more eciently with the energy density, since the region of interest is small. We also demonstrate how the energy density correctly transitions to the bulk limit away from the interface where the correct energy is obtainable from a separate total energy calculation.

  6. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Land Use | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RAPIDBulkTransmissionLand Use < RAPID | BulkTransmission Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission...

  7. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Exploration | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us RAPID Bulk Transmission ...

  8. High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material Presents high heat flux thermoelectric module design...

  9. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RAPIDBulkTransmissionPower Plant < RAPID | BulkTransmission Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk...

  10. CMI Unique Facility: Bulk Combinatoric Materials Synthesis Facility...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bulk Combinatoric Materials Synthesis Facility The Bulk Combinatoric Materials Synthesis Facility is one of half a dozen unique facilities developed by the Critical Materials...

  11. RAPID/BulkTransmission/General Construction | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RAPIDBulkTransmissionGeneral Construction < RAPID | BulkTransmission Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk...

  12. Overview of Fraunhofer IPM Activities in High Temperature Bulk...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fraunhofer IPM Activities in High Temperature Bulk Materials and Device Development Overview of Fraunhofer IPM Activities in High Temperature Bulk Materials and Device Development ...

  13. Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for ...

  14. RAPID/Overview/BulkTransmission/Siting/Colorado | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado < RAPID | Overview | BulkTransmission | Siting(Redirected from RAPIDAtlasBulkTransmissionSitingColorado) Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT...

  15. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Water Use | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RAPIDBulkTransmissionWater Use < RAPID | BulkTransmission Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission...

  16. Regulatory Roadmap Workshop for Federal Bulk Transmission Regulations...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for bulk transmission. Date: Tuesday, 29 July, 2014 - 09:30 - 15:30 Location: NREL Education Center Auditorium Golden, Colorado Groups: Federal Bulk Transmission Regulatory...

  17. Linux Kernel Co-Scheduling For Bulk Synchronous Parallel Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Linux Kernel Co-Scheduling For Bulk Synchronous Parallel Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Linux Kernel Co-Scheduling For Bulk Synchronous Parallel ...

  18. Micro benchtop optics by bulk silicon micromachining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Pocha, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); McConaghy, Charles F. (Livermore, CA); Deri, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics of bulk silicon and integrating the parallel etch planes of silicon with silicon wafer bonding and impurity doping, enables the fabrication of on-chip optics with in situ aligned etched grooves for optical fibers, micro-lenses, photodiodes, and laser diodes. Other optical components that can be microfabricated and integrated include semi-transparent beam splitters, micro-optical scanners, pinholes, optical gratings, micro-optical filters, etc. Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics thereof can be utilized to develop miniaturization of bio-instrumentation such as wavelength monitoring by fluorescence spectrometers, and other miniaturized optical systems such as Fabry-Perot interferometry for filtering of wavelengths, tunable cavity lasers, micro-holography modules, and wavelength splitters for optical communication systems.

  19. Method for wetting a boron alloy to graphite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Storms, E.K.

    1987-08-21

    A method is provided for wetting a graphite substrate and spreading a a boron alloy over the substrate. The wetted substrate may be in the form of a needle for an effective ion emission source. The method may also be used to wet a graphite substrate for subsequent joining with another graphite substrate or other metal, or to form a protective coating over a graphite substrate. A noneutectic alloy of boron is formed with a metal selected from the group consisting of nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), and platinum (Pt) with excess boron, i.e., and atomic percentage of boron effective to precipitate boron at a wetting temperature of less than the liquid-phase boundary temperature of the alloy. The alloy is applied to the substrate and the graphite substrate is then heated to the wetting temperature and maintained at the wetting temperature for a time effective for the alloy to wet and spread over the substrate. The excess boron is evenly dispersed in the alloy and is readily available to promote the wetting and spreading action of the alloy. 1 fig.

  20. Ensuring a Reliable Bulk Electric System | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ensuring a Reliable Bulk Electric System Ensuring a Reliable Bulk Electric System PowerPoint presentation to the Electricity Advisory Committee by David Nevitus, Senior Vice President at the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) on the reliability of the bulk power system. PDF icon Ensuring a Reliable Bulk Electric System More Documents & Publications North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC): Ensuring a Reliable Bulk Electric System Cooling Tower Report,

  1. Modeling direct interband tunneling. I. Bulk semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Andrew; Chui, Chi On

    2014-08-07

    Interband tunneling is frequently studied using the semiclassical Kane model, despite uncertainty about its validity. Revisiting the physical basis of this formula, we find that it neglects coupling to other bands and underestimates transverse tunneling. As a result, significant errors can arise at low and high fields for small and large gap materials, respectively. We derive a simple multiband tunneling model to correct these defects analytically without arbitrary parameters. Through extensive comparison with band structure and quantum transport calculations for bulk InGaAs, InAs, and InSb, we probe the accuracy of the Kane and multiband formulas and establish the superiority of the latter. We also show that the nonlocal average electric field should be used when applying either of these models to nonuniform potentials. Our findings are important for efficient analysis and simulation of bulk semiconductor devices involving tunneling.

  2. DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM (DBVS) EXTERNAL REVIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HONEYMAN, J.O.

    2007-02-08

    The Hanford mission to retrieve and immobilize 53 million gallons of radioactive waste from 177 underground storage tanks will be accomplished using a combination of processing by the waste treatment plant currently under construction, and a supplemental treatment that would process low-activity waste. Under consideration for this treatment is bulk vitrification, a versatile joule-heated melter technology which could be deployed in the tank farms. The Department proposes to demonstrate this technology under a Research, Development and Demonstration (RD and D) permit issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology using both non-radioactive simulant and blends of actual tank waste. From the demonstration program, data would be obtained on cost and technical performance to enable a decision on the potential use of bulk vitrification as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford. An independent review by sixteen subject matter experts was conducted to assure that the technical basis of the demonstration facility design would be adequate to meet the objectives of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) program. This review explored all aspects of the program, including flowsheet chemistry, project risk, vitrification, equipment design and nuclear safety, and was carried out at a time when issues can be identified and corrected. This paper describes the mission need, review approach, technical recommendations and follow-on activities for the DBVS program.

  3. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knize, Randall J. (Los Angeles, CA); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1990-01-01

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen.

  4. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knize, Randall J. (Los Angeles, CA); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1991-01-01

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen.

  5. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knize, R.J.; Cecchi, J.L.

    1991-08-20

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen. 4 figures.

  6. Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) Technology...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... Design flow rate was 12 gpm. The reactors were operated at 7 LWO-SPT-2007-00084 - Davis, ... Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) Plant at Texas Molecular Site, Deerpark, TX, Revision 0, ...

  7. MHK Technologies/WET EnGen | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Test of Wave Energy Technologies Moored Floating WET EnGen: Regular and Irregular Waves. TR-2009-13, Fraser Winsor and Emile Baddour, June 2009. Date Submitted 1082010 << Return...

  8. Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)...

  9. Texas - RRC District 7B Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 7B Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade...

  10. Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)...

  11. Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)...

  12. Texas - RRC District 7C Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 7C Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade...

  13. New York Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

  14. Nebraska Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) No Data Available For This Series - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Nebraska Associated-Dissolved Natural

  15. Nebraska Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nebraska Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) No Data Available For This Series - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves,

  16. Observation of Ordered Structures in Counterion Layers near Wet Charged

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Surfaces: A Potential Mechanism for Charge Inversion (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Observation of Ordered Structures in Counterion Layers near Wet Charged Surfaces: A Potential Mechanism for Charge Inversion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Observation of Ordered Structures in Counterion Layers near Wet Charged Surfaces: A Potential Mechanism for Charge Inversion Authors: Miller, Mitchell ; Chu, Miaoqi ; Lin, Binhua ; Meron, Mati ; Dutta, Pulak [1] ; NWU) [2] + Show Author

  17. Linear relationship between water wetting behavior and microscopic interactions of super-hydrophilic surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jian; Guo, Pan; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 ; Wang, Chunlei; Shi, Guosheng Fang, Haiping

    2013-12-21

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show a fine linear relationship between surface energies and microscopic Lennard-Jones parameters of super-hydrophilic surfaces. The linear slope of the super-hydrophilic surfaces is consistent with the linear slope of the super-hydrophobic, hydrophobic, and hydrophilic surfaces where stable water droplets can stand, indicating that there is a universal linear behavior of the surface energies with the water-surface van der Waals interaction that extends from the super-hydrophobic to super-hydrophilic surfaces. Moreover, we find that the linear relationship exists for various substrate types, and the linear slopes of these different types of substrates are dependent on the surface atom density, i.e., higher surface atom densities correspond to larger linear slopes. These results enrich our understanding of water behavior on solid surfaces, especially the water wetting behaviors on uncharged super-hydrophilic metal surfaces.

  18. Silicon surface and bulk defect passivation by low temperature PECVD oxides and nitrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Z.; Rohatgi, A.; Ruby, D.

    1995-01-01

    The effectiveness of PECVD passivation of surface and bulk defects in Si, as well as phosphorous diffused emitters, Is investigated and quantified. Significant hydrogen incorporation coupled with high positive charge density in the PECVD SiN layer is found to play an important role in bulk and surface passivation. It is shown that photo-assisted anneal in a forming gas ambient after PECVD depositions significantly improves the passivation of emitter and bulk defects. PECVD passivation of phosphorous doped emitters and boron doped bare Si surfaces is found to be a strong function of doping concentration. Surface recombination velocity of less than 200 cm/s for 0.2 Ohm-cm and less than 1 cm/s for high resistivity substrates ({approximately} Ohm-cm) were achieved. PECVD passivation improved bulk lifetime in the range of 30% to 70% in multicrystalline Si materials. However, the degree of the passivation was found to be highly material specific. Depending upon the passivation scheme, emitter saturation current density (J{sub oe}) can be reduced by a factor of 3 to 9. Finally, the stability of PECVD oxide/nitride passivation under prolonged UV exposure is established.

  19. Improving the bulk data transfer experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guok, Chin; Guok, Chin; Lee, Jason R.; Berket, Karlo

    2008-05-07

    Scientific computations and collaborations increasingly rely on the network to provide high-speed data transfer, dissemination of results, access to instruments, support for computational steering, etc. The Energy Sciences Network is establishing a science data network to provide user driven bandwidth allocation. In a shared network environment, some reservations may not be granted due to the lack of available bandwidth on any single path. In many cases, the available bandwidth across multiple paths would be sufficient to grant the reservation. In this paper we investigate how to utilize the available bandwidth across multiple paths in the case of bulk data transfer.

  20. Towards bulk based preconditioning for quantum dotcomputations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dongarra, Jack; Langou, Julien; Tomov, Stanimire; Channing,Andrew; Marques, Osni; Vomel, Christof; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2006-05-25

    This article describes how to accelerate the convergence of Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) type eigensolvers for the computation of several states around the band gap of colloidal quantum dots. Our new approach uses the Hamiltonian from the bulk materials constituent for the quantum dot to design an efficient preconditioner for the folded spectrum PCG method. The technique described shows promising results when applied to CdSe quantum dot model problems. We show a decrease in the number of iteration steps by at least a factor of 4 compared to the previously used diagonal preconditioner.

  1. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-31

    This document is the final report for DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project has been to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project was intended to demonstrate whether such additives can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project involved pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests were intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and project cost sharing. Southern Company provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested, and project cost sharing. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation provided the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company provided the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies also supplied technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project was conducted in six tasks. Of the six tasks, Task 1 involved project planning and Task 6 involved management and reporting. The other four tasks involved field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. These four tasks included: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests were completed in 2005 and the full-scale test using high-sulfur coal was completed in 2006; only the TMT-15 additive was tested in these efforts. The Task 5 full-scale additive tests conducted at Southern Company's Plant Yates Unit 1 were completed in 2007, and both the TMT-15 and Nalco 8034 additives were tested.

  2. The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on organic bulk heterojunction solar cells The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction solar cells Print Monday, 28 April 2014 09:03 Work done on ALS...

  3. Boundary Entropy Can Increase Under Bulk RG Flow (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Boundary Entropy Can Increase Under Bulk RG Flow Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Boundary Entropy Can Increase Under Bulk RG Flow You are accessing a document from...

  4. Achieving large linear elasticity and high strength in bulk nanocompsite

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    via synergistic effect (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES DOE PAGES Search Results Accepted Manuscript: Achieving large linear elasticity and high strength in bulk nanocompsite via synergistic effect Title: Achieving large linear elasticity and high strength in bulk nanocompsite via synergistic effect Elastic strain in bulk metallic materials is usually limited to only a fraction of 1%. Developing bulk metallic materials showing large linear elasticity and high strength has proven to be

  5. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-01-21

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials’ responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1–x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times duemore » to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. Lastly, this opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.« less

  6. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 3 Full-scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe

    2007-05-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB cofired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. IPL, an AES company, provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program as cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests were completed in 2005 and have been previously reported. This topical report presents the results from the Task 3 full-scale additive tests, conducted at IPL's Petersburg Station Unit 2. The Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2007.

  7. Commercialization of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Commercialization of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation Commercialization of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation Critical aspects of technology commercialization of preproduction high performance thermoelectric materials available for device developers, data analysis, and future plans are discussed PDF icon kossakovski.pdf More Documents & Publications Commercialization of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation Fact #897:

  8. Correlation Between Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of Bulk High

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance Materials for Energy Conversion | Department of Energy Correlation Between Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of Bulk High Performance Materials for Energy Conversion Correlation Between Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of Bulk High Performance Materials for Energy Conversion Rapid solidified precursor converted into crystalline bulks under pressure produced thermoelectric materials of nano-sized grains with strongly coupled grain boundaries, achieving reduced lattice

  9. Bulk amorphous steels based on Fe alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, ZhaoPing; Liu, Chain T.

    2006-05-30

    A bulk amorphous alloy has the approximate composition: Fe.sub.(100-a-b-c-d-e)Y.sub.aMn.sub.bT.sub.cM.sub.dX.sub.e wherein: T includes at least one of the group consisting of: Ni, Cu, Cr and Co; M includes at least one of the group consisting of W, Mo, Nb, Ta, Al and Ti; X includes at least one of the group consisting of Co, Ni and Cr; a is an atomic percentage, and a<5; b is an atomic percentage, and b.ltoreq.25; c is an atomic percentage, and c.ltoreq.25; d is an atomic percentage, and d.ltoreq.25; and e is an atomic percentage, and 5.ltoreq.e.ltoreq.30.

  10. Organic hybrid planar-nanocrystalline bulk heterojunctions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Yang, Fan

    2013-04-09

    A photosensitive optoelectronic device having an improved hybrid planar bulk heterojunction includes a plurality of photoconductive materials disposed between the anode and the cathode. The photoconductive materials include a first continuous layer of donor material and a second continuous layer of acceptor material. A first network of donor material or materials extends from the first continuous layer toward the second continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of holes to the first continuous layer. A second network of acceptor material or materials extends from the second continuous layer toward the first continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of electrons to the second continuous layer. The first network and the second network are interlaced with each other. At least one other photoconductive material is interspersed between the interlaced networks. This other photoconductive material or materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor and acceptor materials.

  11. DEPLOYMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P.

    2013-10-10

    A new Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) was designed by the Savannah River National Laboratory to be a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The BTSP was certified by the National Nuclear Safety Administration in 2011 for shipments of up to 150 grams of Tritium. Thirty packages were procured and are being delivered to various DOE sites for operational use. This paper summarizes the design features of the BTSP, as well as associated engineered material improvements. Fabrication challenges encountered during production are discussed as well as fielding requirements. Current approved tritium content forms (gas and tritium hydrides), are reviewed, as well as, a new content, tritium contaminated water on molecular sieves. Issues associated with gas generation will also be discussed.

  12. Rotary adsorbers for continuous bulk separations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Frederick S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2011-11-08

    A rotary adsorber for continuous bulk separations is disclosed. The rotary adsorber includes an adsorption zone in fluid communication with an influent adsorption fluid stream, and a desorption zone in fluid communication with a desorption fluid stream. The fluid streams may be gas streams or liquid streams. The rotary adsorber includes one or more adsorption blocks including adsorbent structure(s). The adsorbent structure adsorbs the target species that is to be separated from the influent fluid stream. The apparatus includes a rotary wheel for moving each adsorption block through the adsorption zone and the desorption zone. A desorption circuit passes an electrical current through the adsorbent structure in the desorption zone to desorb the species from the adsorbent structure. The adsorbent structure may include porous activated carbon fibers aligned with their longitudinal axis essentially parallel to the flow direction of the desorption fluid stream. The adsorbent structure may be an inherently electrically-conductive honeycomb structure.

  13. Organic hybrid planar-nanocrystalline bulk heterojunctions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI); Yang, Fan (Piscataway, NJ)

    2011-03-01

    A photosensitive optoelectronic device having an improved hybrid planar bulk heterojunction includes a plurality of photoconductive materials disposed between the anode and the cathode. The photoconductive materials include a first continuous layer of donor material and a second continuous layer of acceptor material. A first network of donor material or materials extends from the first continuous layer toward the second continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of holes to the first continuous layer. A second network of acceptor material or materials extends from the second continuous layer toward the first continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of electrons to the second continuous layer. The first network and the second network are interlaced with each other. At least one other photoconductive material is interspersed between the interlaced networks. This other photoconductive material or materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor and acceptor materials.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2008-09-14

    A new radioactive shipping packaging for transporting bulk quantities of tritium, the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP), has been designed for the Department of Energy (DOE) as a replacement for a package designed in the early 1970s. This paper summarizes significant design features and describes how the design satisfies the regulatory safety requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The BTSP design incorporates many improvements over its predecessor by implementing improved testing, handling, and maintenance capabilities, while improving manufacturability and incorporating new engineered materials. This paper also discusses the results from testing of the BTSP to 10 CFR 71 Normal Conditions of Transport and Hypothetical Accident Condition events. The programmatic need of the Department of Energy (DOE) to ship bulk quantities of tritium has been satisfied since the late 1970s by the UC-609 shipping package. The current Certificate of Conformance for the UC-609, USA/9932/B(U) (DOE), will expire in late 2011. Since the UC-609 was not designed to meet current regulatory requirements, it will not be recertified and thereby necessitates a replacement Type B shipping package for continued DOE tritium shipments in the future. A replacement tritium packaging called the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) is currently being designed and tested by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The BTSP consists of two primary assemblies, an outer Drum Assembly and an inner Containment Vessel Assembly (CV), both designed to mitigate damage and to protect the tritium contents from leaking during the regulatory Hypothetical Accident Condition (HAC) events and during Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT). During transport, the CV rests on a silicone pad within the Drum Liner and is covered with a thermal insulating disk within the insulated Drum Assembly. The BTSP packaging weighs approximately 500 lbs without contents and is 50-1/2 inches high by 24-1/2 inches in outside diameter. With contents the gross weight of the BTSP is 650 lbs. The BTSP is designed for the safe shipment of 150 grams of tritium in a solid or gaseous state. To comply with the federal regulations that govern Type B shipping packages, the BTSP is designed so that it will not lose tritium at a rate greater than the limits stated in 10CFR 71.51 of 10{sup -6} A2 per hour for the 'Normal Conditions of Transport' (NCT) and an A2 in 1 week under 'Hypothetical Accident Conditions' (HAC). Additionally, since the BTSP design incorporates a valve as part of the tritium containment boundary, secondary containment features are incorporated in the CV Lid to protect against gas leakage past the valve as required by 10CFR71.43(e). This secondary containment boundary is designed to provide the same level of containment as the primary containment boundary when subjected to the HAC and NCT criteria.

  15. Electro-osmotic transport in wet processing of textiles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, J.F.

    1998-09-22

    Electro-osmotic (or electrokinetic) transport is used to efficiently force a solution (or water) through the interior of the fibers or yarns of textile materials for wet processing of textiles. The textile material is passed between electrodes that apply an electric field across the fabric. Used alone or in parallel with conventional hydraulic washing (forced convection), electro-osmotic transport greatly reduces the amount of water used in wet processing. The amount of water required to achieve a fixed level of rinsing of tint can be reduced, for example, to 1--5 lbs water per pound of fabric from an industry benchmark of 20 lbs water/lb fabric. 5 figs.

  16. Miscellaneous States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 14 1980's 34 12 27 31 14 25 41 13 28 39 1990's 22 14 11 9 11 32 28 31 17 54 2000's 19 19 20 14 12 14 19 15 9 78 2010's 10 104 7 19 18 - = No

  17. Miscellaneous States Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 156 1980's 180 193 74 81 77 77 136 66 84 87 1990's 72 76 93 96 67 69 68 44 39 67 2000's 42 83 100 134 110 132 139 241 272 349 2010's 363 393 233 188 185 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available;

  18. Miscellaneous States Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 142 1980's 146 181 47 50 63 52 95 53 56 48 1990's 50 62 82 87 56 37 40 13 22 13 2000's 23 64 80 120 98 118 120 226 263 271 2010's 353 270 219 169 167 - = No Data

  19. Mississippi Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Mississippi Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 67 1980's 73 66 74 80 114 105 66 61 71 105 1990's 126 108 85 53 43 27 47 51 47 31 2000's 35 26 33 27 20 20 21 30 45 38 2010's 36 62 62 43 58 - = No Data Reported; --

  20. Montana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 51 1980's 122 89 81 108 77 91 98 97 101 68 1990's 86 66 61 53 55 53 51 42 52 67 2000's 70 85 94 112 130 161 195 219 197 312 2010's 302 270 289 304 325 - = No Data

  1. Montana Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 786 1980's 1,186 1,247 789 813 748 793 725 704 733 821 1990's 834 782 814 631 672 739 755 727 737 784 2000's 822 822 820 956 872 837 874 848 817 681 2010's 657 522 327 286 361 - = No Data

  2. Florida Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Florida Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 108 1980's 122 99 86 64 90 81 69 62 69 57 1990's 53 45 55 59 117 110 119 112 106 100 2000's 93 96 102 92 88 87 50 110 1 7 2010's 30 2 0 1 0 - = No Data Reported; -- =

  3. Florida Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Florida Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 108 1980's 122 99 86 64 90 81 69 62 69 57 1990's 53 45 55 59 117 110 119 112 106 100 2000's 93 96 102 92 88 87 50 110 1 7 2010's 56 6 16 15 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  4. Florida Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Florida Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 26 4 16 14 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  5. Kentucky Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2 1980's 11 14 12 19 17 13 17 19 19 22 1990's 8 10 8 6 47 27 24 26 20 29 2000's 27 25 25 25 19 30 36 34 34 32 2010's 111 98 93 44 49 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  6. Louisiana - North Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana - North Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 765 1980's 916 1,040 832 775 690 632 567 488 249 237 1990's 241 192 160 120 134 133 255 287 183 260 2000's 186 168 159 139 107 98 90 73 78 53

  7. Louisiana State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3,269 1,351 1,478 1,209 1,273 1990's 1,019 1,082 845 946 988 862 783 743 571 661 2000's 721 772 512 527 394 433 442 392 934 728 2010's 386 519 519 420 341 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  8. Louisiana State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,820 1,100 1,218 1,002 1,042 1990's 812 875 691 789 820 714 626 613 473 541 2000's 592 627 428 448 333 370 386 327 248 215 2010's 279 468 391 332 273 - =

  9. Michigan Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 733 1980's 883 758 719 824 774 689 577 569 491 432 1990's 408 437 352 328 357 326 347 281 228 227 2000's 214 159 214 269 193 153 192 179 148 77 2010's 72 77 94 125 108

  10. Alabama Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 13 1980's 23 25 1990's 25 23 30 46 56 44 38 30 28 27 2000's 29 26 31 32 32 29 18 20 19 29 2010's 38 48 100 46 141 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  11. Arkansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 166 1980's 194 184 174 194 189 157 150 145 157 145 1990's 67 136 133 93 85 104 89 56 38 41 2000's 39 30 38 37 40 46 44 37 12 20 2010's 29 46 82 135 189 - = No Data

  12. California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 307 1980's 265 265 325 344 256 254 261 243 220 233 1990's 228 220 196 135 145 109 120 129 116 233 2000's 244 185 197

  13. California - Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 395 1980's 330 325 384 405 284 277 275 255 232 238 1990's 232 231 215 201 205 163 168 176 118 233 2000's 244 185 197 174 196 277 214 212 151 169 2010's 180 173 305 284 277 - = No Data Reported;

  14. California - Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 88 1980's 65 60 59 61 28 23 14 12 12 5 1990's 4 11 19 66 60 54 48 47 2 0 2000's 0 0 0 1 8 8 6 1 1 1 2010's 2 1 2 2 8 - = No Data

  15. California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 176 1980's 207 163 104 115 163 188 149 155 158 141 1990's 110 120 103 108 108 115 112 146 154 174 2000's 204 195 218 196 184 186 161 154 81 91 2010's 92 102 98 90 84 - = No Data

  16. California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1 1980's 0 1 1 1 1 3 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 2000's 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  17. California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,784 1980's 1,721 1,566 1,593 1,556 1,538 1,642 1,398 1,196 1,086 972 1990's 901 885 773 749 744 679 560 518 445 336 2000's 748 836

  18. California Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 249 1980's 307 1,110 1,249 1,312 1,252 1990's 1,229 995 987 976 1,077 1,195 1,151 498 437 488 2000's 500 490 459 456 412 776 756

  19. California Federal Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California Federal Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 73 1980's 107 227 217 258 267 1990's 240 179 149 147 110 94 115 58 52 48 2000's 76 50 56 55 47 49 55 53 3 9 2010's 3 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- =

  20. California Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,881 1980's 1,792 1,424 1,230 1,120 1,006 1990's 911 901 799 817 808 736 610 570 453 355 2000's 754 842 796 759 767 799 780 686 621 612 2010's 503 510 272 247 273 - = No Data Reported;

  1. California State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 234 1980's 166 256 254 243 235 1990's 194 60 63 65 63 59 49 56 44 77 2000's 91 85 91 83 87 90 90 83 57 57 2010's 66 82 66 75 76 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to

  2. California State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 8 1980's 6 12 22 22 29 1990's 6 5 4 2 4 3 2 2 5 19 2000's 5 5 6 7 2 1 5 4 3 4 2010's 3 3 1 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  3. Electro-osmotic transport in wet processing of textiles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Electro-osmotic (or electrokinetic) transport is used to efficiently force a solution (or water) through the interior of the fibers or yarns of textile materials for wet processing of textiles. The textile material is passed between electrodes that apply an electric field across the fabric. Used alone or in parallel with conventional hydraulic washing (forced convection), electro-osmotic transport greatly reduces the amount of water used in wet processing. The amount of water required to achieve a fixed level of rinsing of tint can be reduced, for example, to 1-5 lbs water per pound of fabric from an industry benchmark of 20 lbs water/lb fabric.

  4. Texas - RRC District 9 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 9 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 633 1980's 502 796 965 845 786 753 761 717 686 617 1990's 703 674 613 636 715 730 749 785 665 1,180 2000's 1,645 2,428 3,070 3,514 4,445 4,608 6,660 7,846

  5. Texas State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,112 1,073 739 634 564 610 1990's 461 477 350 337 230 313 293 290 350 419 2000's 400 468 436 456 321 265 305 261 220 164 2010's 131 118 94 59 42 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  6. Texas State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,087 1,049 715 624 544 591 1990's 444 469 343 333 227 306 287 280 345 413 2000's 399 466 431 450 312 262 304 258 215 161 2010's 128 113 88 56 42 - = No Data Reported; --

  7. North Dakota Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 485 1980's 594 654 696 673 643 650 610 578 593 625 1990's 650 533 567 585 568 518 512 531 501 475 2000's 487 495 524 497 465 508 539 572 603 1,213 2010's 1,869 2,652 3,974 6,081 6,787 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA =

  8. North Dakota Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 284 1980's 355 401 448 416 376 319 317 302 327 312 1990's 316 290 301 311 293 255 257 274 240 225 2000's 223 225 209 181 145 165 182 155 119 143 2010's 152 141 105 91 45 - = No Data

  9. Ohio Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Ohio Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 432 1980's 282 165 158 396 364 395 522 477 749 686 1990's 844 805 780 763 780 699 715 594 548 777 2000's 717 631 772 823 767 714 801 926 886 799 2010's 742 684 1,012 2,887 6,985 - = No Data Reported; --

  10. Pennsylvania Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 9 1980's 11 14 14 21 78 67 22 21 8 19 1990's 23 20 10 8 9 36 47 92 79 96 2000's 157 168 137 164 125 134 151 130 127 133 2010's 144 134 125 269 299 - = No Data

  11. Wyoming Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,038 1980's 1,374 1,228 1,060 959 867 710 691 691 616 581 1990's 573 572 624 502 611 879 824 850 794 713 2000's 652 488 561 450 362 384 347 365 223 362 2010's 334 318

  12. Low-resistivity bulk silicon prepared by hot-pressing boron- and phosphorus-hyperdoped silicon nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luan, Qingbin; Ni, Zhenyi; Zhu, Tiejun; Yang, Deren; Pi, Xiaodong; Koura, Setsuko

    2014-12-15

    Technologically important low-resistivity bulk Si has been usually produced by the traditional Czochralski growth method. We now explore a novel method to obtain low-resistivity bulk Si by hot-pressing B- and P-hyperdoped Si nanocrystals (NCs). In this work bulk Si with the resistivity as low as ∼ 0.8 (40) mΩ•cm has been produced by hot pressing P (B)-hyperdoped Si NCs. The dopant type is found to make a difference for the sintering of Si NCs during the hot pressing. Bulk Si hot-pressed from P-hyperdoped Si NCs is more compact than that hot-pressed from B-hyperdoped Si NCs when the hot-pressing temperature is the same. This leads to the fact that P is more effectively activated to produce free carriers than B in the hot-pressed bulk Si. Compared with the dopant concentration, the hot-pressing temperature more significantly affects the structural and electrical properties of hot-pressed bulk Si. With the increase of the hot-pressing temperature the density of hot-pressed bulk Si increases. The highest carrier concentration (lowest resistivity) of bulk Si hot-pressed from B- or P-hyperdoped Si NCs is obtained at the highest hot-pressing temperature of 1050 °C. The mobility of carriers in the hot-pressed bulk Si is low (≤  ∼ 30 cm{sup -2}V{sup -1}s{sup -1}) mainly due to the scattering of carriers induced by structural defects such as pores.

  13. C60 -induced Devil's Staircase transformation on a Pb/Si(111) wetting layer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Lin -Lin; Johnson, Duane D.; Tringides, Michael C.

    2015-12-03

    Density functional theory is used to study structural energetics of Pb vacancy cluster formation on C60/Pb/Si(111) to explain the unusually fast and error-free transformations between the “Devil's Staircase” (DS) phases on the Pb/Si(111) wetting layer at low temperature (~110K). The formation energies of vacancy clusters are calculated in C60/Pb/Si(111) as Pb atoms are progressively ejected from the initial dense Pb wetting layer. Vacancy clusters larger than five Pb atoms are found to be stable with seven being the most stable, while vacancy clusters smaller than five are highly unstable, which agrees well with the observed ejection rate of ~5 Pbmore » atoms per C60. Furthermore, the high energy cost (~0.8 eV) for the small vacancy clusters to form indicates convincingly that the unusually fast transformation observed experimentally between the DS phases, upon C60 adsorption at low temperature, cannot be the result of single-atom random walk diffusion but of correlated multi-atom processes.« less

  14. Electronegativity calculation of bulk modulus and band gap of ternary ZnO-based alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Keyan; Kang, Congying [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Xue, Dongfeng, E-mail: dongfeng@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2012-10-15

    In this work, the bulk moduli and band gaps of M{sub x}Zn{sub 1?x}O (M = Be, Mg, Ca, Cd) alloys in the whole composition range were quantitatively calculated by using the electronegativity-related models for bulk modulus and band gap, respectively. We found that the change trends of bulk modulus and band gap with an increase of M concentration x are same for Be{sub x}Zn{sub 1?x}O and Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1?x}O, while the change trends are reverse for Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1?x}O and Ca{sub x}Zn{sub 1?x}O. It was revealed that the bulk modulus is related to the valence electron density of atoms whereas the band gap is strongly influenced by the detailed chemical bonding behaviors of constituent atoms. The current work provides us a useful guide to compositionally design advanced alloy materials with both good mechanical and optoelectronic properties.

  15. Effect of mechanical strain on electronic properties of bulk MoS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Sandeep Kumar, Jagdish Sastri, O. S. K. S.

    2015-05-15

    Ab-initio density functional theory based calculations of electronic properties of bulk and monolayer Molybdenum di-Sulfide (MoS{sub 2}) have been performed using all electron Full Potential Linearised Augmentad Plane Wave (FPLAPW) method using Elk code. We have used Generalised Gradient Approximation (GGA) for exchange and correlation functionals and performed calculaitons of Lattice parameters, Density Of States (DOS) and Band Structure (BS). Band structure calculations revealed that bulk MoS{sub 2} has indirect band gap of 0.97 eV and mono-layer MoS{sub 2} has direct band gap which has increased to 1.71 eV. These are in better agreement with experimental values as compared with the other calculations using pseudo-potential code. The effect of mechanical strain on the electronic properties of bulk MoS{sub 2} has also been studied. For the different values of compressive strain (varying from 2% to 8% in steps of 2%) along the c-axis, the corresponding DOS and BS are obtained. We observed that the band gap decreases by about 15% for every 2% increase in strain along the c-axis.

  16. Thermodynamic properties of bulk and confined water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Mallamace, Domenico; Vasi, Sebastiano; Vasi, Cirino; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2014-11-14

    The thermodynamic response functions of water display anomalous behaviors. We study these anomalous behaviors in bulk and confined water. We use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to examine the configurational specific heat and the transport parameters in both the thermal stable and the metastable supercooled phases. The data we obtain suggest that there is a behavior common to both phases: that the dynamics of water exhibit two singular temperatures belonging to the supercooled and the stable phase, respectively. One is the dynamic fragile-to-strong crossover temperature (T{sub L} ? 225K). The second, T{sup *} ? 315 5K, is a special locus of the isothermal compressibility K{sub T}(T, P) and the thermal expansion coefficient ?{sub P}(T, P) in the PT plane. In the case of water confined inside a protein, we observe that these two temperatures mark, respectively, the onset of protein flexibility from its low temperature glass state (T{sub L}) and the onset of the unfolding process (T{sup *})

  17. Determination of Bulk Dimensional Variation in Castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. James F. Cuttino Dr. Edward P. Morse

    2005-04-14

    The purpose of this work is to improve the efficiency of green sand foundries so that they may continue to compete as the most cost-effective method of fabrication while meeting tightening constraints on near-net shape manufacturing. In order to achieve this objective, the study is divided into two major components. The first component concentrated on identifying which processes control surface finish on the castings and which provide potential reductions in variations. The second component identified metrological methods that effectively discern between the geometry of bulk material versus surface finish in order to more accurately determine the quality of a part. The research resulted in the determination of an empirical relationship relating pouring parameters to dimensional variation, with an R2 value of greater than 0.79. A significant difference in variations obtained from vertical vs. horizontal molding machines was also noticed. When analyzed separately, however, the resulting empirical relationships for horizontal and vertical machines had reduced R2 values, probably due to the reduced data sets. Significant parameters when considering vertical and horizontal molding machines together included surface roughness, pattern type, iron type, pouring rate, copper content, amount of Western Bentonite, and permeability.

  18. High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material Presents high heat flux thermoelectric module design for cooling using a novel V-shaped shunt configuration with bulk TE elements achieving high area packing fractions PDF icon crane.pdf More Documents & Publications Potential of Thermoelectrics forOccupant Comfort and Fuel Efficiency Gains in Vehicle Applications Development of a 100-Watt

  19. Design of Bulk Nanocomposites as High Efficiency Thermoelectric Materials |

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Design of Bulk Nanocomposites as High Efficiency Thermoelectric Materials Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights Highlight Archives News & Events Publications History Contact BES Home 04.27.12 Design of Bulk Nanocomposites as High Efficiency Thermoelectric Materials Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page Scientific Achievement A newly synthesized bulk thermoelectric material that contains nanocrystals

  20. Recent Device Developments with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric Materials at

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RTI | Department of Energy Device Developments with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric Materials at RTI Recent Device Developments with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric Materials at RTI Reviews work in engineered thin-film nanoscale thermoelectric materials and nano-bulk materials with high ZT undertaken by RTI in collaboration with its research partners PDF icon venkatasubramanian.pdf More Documents & Publications Nano-structures Thermoelectric Materals - Part 1 Nano-structures Thermoelectric

  1. ARM - Campaign Instrument - ec-convair580-bulk

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsec-convair580-bulk Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Environment Canada Convair 580 Bulk Parameters (EC-CONVAIR580-BULK) Instrument Categories Aerosols, Airborne Observations, Cloud Properties Campaigns Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) [ Download Data ] North Slope Alaska, 2008.04.01 - 2008.04.30 Primary Measurements Taken The following measurements are those considered

  2. Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project is producing high-efficiency semipolar light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on low-defect bulk gallium nitride (GaN) substrates.

  3. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Land Access | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RAPIDBulkTransmissionLand Access < RAPID | BulkTransmission(Redirected from RAPIDBulkTransmissionLeasing) Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting...

  4. Economic manufacturing of bulk metallic glass compositions by microalloying

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Chain T.

    2003-05-13

    A method of making a bulk metallic glass composition includes the steps of:a. providing a starting material suitable for making a bulk metallic glass composition, for example, BAM-11; b. adding at least one impurity-mitigating dopant, for example, Pb, Si, B, Sn, P, to the starting material to form a doped starting material; and c. converting the doped starting material to a bulk metallic glass composition so that the impurity-mitigating dopant reacts with impurities in the starting material to neutralize deleterious effects of the impurities on the formation of the bulk metallic glass composition.

  5. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Site Considerations | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and comparison for Bulk Transmission Site Considerations across various states. To learn more detailed information about Site Considerations in a state, click on the...

  6. Strategies for High Thermoelectric zT in Bulk Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Zintl principle in chemistry, complex electronic band structures, and incorporation of nanometer sized particles were used to explore, optimize and improve bulk thermoelectric materials

  7. Category:Bulk Transmission Regulatory Roadmap Sections | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Login | Sign Up Search Category Edit History Category:Bulk Transmission Regulatory Roadmap Sections Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png Looking for the RAPIDRoadmap?...

  8. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Federal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us Regulatory Information Overviews Search for other...

  9. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Environment | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Policy Act (HEPA) Hawaii Department of Health Office of Environmental Quality Control Bulk Transmission Environment in Idaho Varies by local municipality Varies by...

  10. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Colorado | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System reliability in the Western Interconnection, including in Colorado. In addition, WECC provides...

  11. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Idaho | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System reliability in the Western Interconnection, including in Idaho. In addition, WECC provides an...

  12. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Washington | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System reliability in the Western Interconnection, including in Washington. In addition, WECC provides...

  13. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Nevada | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System reliability in the Western Interconnection, including in Nevada. WECC also provides an...

  14. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Arizona | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System reliability in the Western Interconnection, including Arizona. WECC also provides an...

  15. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Oregon | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System reliability in the Western Interconnection, including Oregon. WECC also provides an environment...

  16. The Best of Both Worlds: Bulk Diamond Properties Realized at...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a level of crystallographic and electronic ordering in purified HPHT nanodiamonds that matches fundamental properties of bulk diamond to the nanoscale while retaining its...

  17. Federal Bulk Transmission Regulatory Roadmapping | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Federal Bulk Transmission Regulatory Roadmapping Home > Features > Groups Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Content type Blog entry Discussion Document Event Poll...

  18. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Hawaii | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    information about BulkTransmission in Hawaii. Use the Edit with form button to editupdate. Planning Organizations not provided Hawaii Owners not provided Current Projects not...

  19. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Alaska | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    information about BulkTransmission in Alaska. Use the Edit with form button to editupdate. Planning Organizations not provided Alaska Owners not provided Current Projects not...

  20. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Texas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    information about BulkTransmission in Texas. Use the Edit with form button to editupdate. Planning Organizations not provided Texas Owners not provided Current Projects not...

  1. Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First Principles and Classical Reactive Molecular Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lithium...

  2. Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First Principles Molecular Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lithium Ion...

  3. Boundary Entropy Can Increase Under Bulk RG Flow (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The boundary entropy log(g) can therefore increase during appropriate bulk flows. This is demonstrated explicitly in flows between minimal models. We discuss the applications of ...

  4. RAPID/BulkTransmission/About | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Current Topics in Bulk Transmission West-Wide Energy Corridor Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement The West-Wide Energy Corridor Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement...

  5. High-Performance All Air-Processed Polymer-Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, C.T.; Nam, C.-Y.; Su, D.

    2009-10-23

    High photovoltaic device performance is demonstrated in ambient-air-processed bulk heterojunction solar cells having an active blend layer of organic poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT): [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), with power conversion efficiencies as high as 4.1%, which is comparable to state-of-the-art bulk heterojunction devices fabricated in air-free environments. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy is combined with detailed analysis of electronic carrier transport in order to quantitatively understand the effects of oxygen exposure and different thermal treatments on electronic conduction through the highly nanostructured active blend network. Improvement in photovoltaic device performance by suitable post-fabrication thermal processing results from the reduced oxygen charge trap density in the active blend layer and is consistent with a corresponding slight increase in thickness of an {approx}4 nm aluminum oxide hole-blocking layer present at the electron-collecting contact interface.

  6. Bulk Vitrification Castable Refractory Block Protection Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Beck, Andrew E.; Brouns, Thomas M.; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Elliott, Michael L.; Matyas, Josef; Minister, Kevin BC; Schweiger, Michael J.; Strachan, Denis M.; Tinsley, Bronnie P.; Hollenberg, Glenn W.

    2005-05-01

    Bulk vitrification (BV) was selected for a pilot-scale test and demonstration facility for supplemental treatment to accelerate the cleanup of low-activity waste (LAW) at the Hanford U.S. DOE Site. During engineering-scale (ES) tests, a small fraction of radioactive Tc (and Re, its nonradioactive surrogate) were transferred out of the LAW glass feed and molten LAW glass, and deposited on the surface and within the pores of the castable refractory block (CRB). Laboratory experiments were undertaken to understand the mechanisms of the transport Tc/Re into the CRB during vitrification and to evaluate various means of CRB protection against the deposition of leachable Tc/Re. The tests used Re as a chemical surrogate for Tc. The tests with the baseline CRB showed that the molten LAW penetrates into CRB pores before it converts to glass, leaving deposits of sulfates and chlorides when the nitrate components decompose. Na2O from the LAW reacts with the CRB to create a durable glass phase that may contain Tc/Re. Limited data from a single CRB sample taken from an ES experiment indicate that, while a fraction of Tc/Re is present in the CRB in a readily leachable form, most of the Tc/Re deposited in the refractory is retained in the form of a durable glass phase. In addition, the molten salts from the LAW, mainly sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates, begin to evaporate from BV feeds at temperatures below 800 C and condense on solid surfaces at temperatures below 530 C. Three approaches aimed at reducing or preventing the deposition of soluble Tc/Re within the CRB were proposed: metal lining, sealing the CRB surface with a glaze, and lining the CRB with ceramic tiles. Metal liners were deemed unsuitable because evaluations showed that they can cause unacceptable distortions of the electric field in the BV system. Sodium silicate and a low-alkali borosilicate glaze were selected for testing. The glazes slowed down molten salt condensate penetration, but did little to reduce the penetration of molten salt. Out of several refractory tile candidates, only greystone and fused-cast alumina-zirconia-silica (AZS) refractory remained intact and well bonded to the CRB after firing to 1000 C. The deformation of the refractory-tile composite was avoided by prefiring the greystone tile to 800 C. Condensed vapors did not penetrate the tiles, but Re salts condensed on their surface. Refractory corrosion tests indicated that a 0.25-inch-thick greystone tile would not corrode during a BV melt. Tiles can reduce both vapor penetration and molten salt penetration, but vapor deposition above the melt line will occur even on tiles. The Tc/Re transport scenario was outlined as follows. At temperatures below 700 C, molten ionic salt (MIS) that includes all the Tc/Re penetrates, by capillarity, from the feed into the CRB open porosity. At approximately 750 C, the MIS decomposes through the loss of NOx, leaving mainly sulfate and chloride salts. The Na2O formed in the decomposition of the nitrates reacts with insoluble grains in the feed and with the aluminosilicates in the CRB to form more viscous liquids that reduce further liquid penetration into the CRB. At 800 to 1000 C, a continuous glass phase traps the remains of the MIS in the form of inclusions in the bulk glass melt. At 1000 to 1200 C, the salt inclusions in the glass slowly dissolve but also rise to the surface. The Tc/Re salts also evaporate from the free surface of the glass melt that is rapidly renewed by convective currents. The vapors condense on cooler surfaces in the upper portion of the CRB, the box lid, and the off-gas system.

  7. Silicon bulk micromachined hybrid dimensional artifact.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claudet, Andre A.; Tran, Hy D.; Bauer, Todd Marks; Shilling, Katherine Meghan; Oliver, Andrew David

    2010-03-01

    A mesoscale dimensional artifact based on silicon bulk micromachining fabrication has been developed and manufactured with the intention of evaluating the artifact both on a high precision coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and video-probe based measuring systems. This hybrid artifact has features that can be located by both a touch probe and a video probe system with a k=2 uncertainty of 0.4 {micro}m, more than twice as good as a glass reference artifact. We also present evidence that this uncertainty could be lowered to as little as 50 nm (k=2). While video-probe based systems are commonly used to inspect mesoscale mechanical components, a video-probe system's certified accuracy is generally much worse than its repeatability. To solve this problem, an artifact has been developed which can be calibrated using a commercially available high-accuracy tactile system and then be used to calibrate typical production vision-based measurement systems. This allows for error mapping to a higher degree of accuracy than is possible with a glass reference artifact. Details of the designed features and manufacturing process of the hybrid dimensional artifact are given and a comparison of the designed features to the measured features of the manufactured artifact is presented and discussed. Measurement results from vision and touch probe systems are compared and evaluated to determine the capability of the manufactured artifact to serve as a calibration tool for video-probe systems. An uncertainty analysis for calibration of the artifact using a CMM is presented.

  8. Pairing in bulk nuclear matter beyond BCS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, D.; Dickhoff, W. H.; Dussan, H.; Witte, S. J.; Rios, A.; Polls, A.

    2014-10-15

    The influence of short-range correlations on the spectral distribution of neutrons is incorporated in the solution of the gap equation for the {sup 3}P{sub 2}?{sup 3}F{sub 2} coupled channel in pure neutron matter. This effect is studied for different realistic interactions including one based on chiral perturbation theory. The gap in this channel vanishes at all relevant densities due to the treatment of these correlations. We also consider the effect of long-range correlations by including polarization terms in addition to the bare interaction which allow the neutrons to exchange density and spin fluctuations governed by the strength of Landau parameters allowed to have reasonable values consistent with the available literature. Preliminary results indicate that reasonable values of these parameters do not generate a gap in the {sup 3}P{sub 2}?{sup 3}F{sub 2} coupled channel either for all three realistic interactions although the pairing interaction becomes slightly more attractive.

  9. Development of a two-body wet abrasion test method with attention...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    wet abrasion test method with attention to the effects of reused abradant Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of a two-body wet abrasion test method with ...

  10. WHAT GOVERNS THE BULK VELOCITY OF THE JET COMPONENTS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chai Bo; Cao Xinwu; Gu Minfeng E-mail: cxw@shao.ac.cn

    2012-11-10

    We use a sample of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with measured black hole masses to explore the jet formation mechanisms in these sources. Based on Koenigl's inhomogeneous jet model, the jet parameters, such as the bulk motion Lorentz factor, magnetic field strength, and electron density in the jet, can be estimated with the very long baseline interferometry and X-ray data.. We find a significant correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample, while no significant correlation is present between the bulk Lorentz factor and the Eddington ratio. The massive black holes will be spun up through accretion, as the black holes acquire mass and angular momentum simultaneously through accretion. Recent investigation indeed suggested that most supermassive black holes in elliptical galaxies have on average higher spins than the black holes in spiral galaxies, where random, small accretion episodes (e.g., tidally disrupted stars, accretion of molecular clouds) might have played a more important role. If this is true, then the correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components found in this work implies that the motion velocity of the jet components is probably governed by the black hole spin. No correlation is found between the magnetic field strength at 10R {sub S} (R {sub S} = 2GM/c {sup 2} is the Schwarzschild radius) in the jets and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample. This is consistent with the black hole spin scenario, i.e., the faster moving jets are magnetically accelerated by the magnetic fields threading the horizon of more rapidly rotating black holes. The results imply that the Blandford-Znajek mechanism may dominate over the Blandford-Payne mechanism for the jet acceleration, at least in these radio-loud AGNs.

  11. Wetting and free surface flow modeling for potting and encapsulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Carlton, F.; Brooks, Michael J.; Graham, Alan Lyman; Noble, David F. ); Notz, Patrick K.; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Mahoney, Leo James; Baer, Thomas A.; Berchtold, Kathryn; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Wilkes, Edward Dean; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Givler, Richard C.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Cote, Raymond O.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Grillet, Anne Mary; Kraynik, Andrew Michael

    2007-06-01

    As part of an effort to reduce costs and improve quality control in encapsulation and potting processes the Technology Initiative Project ''Defect Free Manufacturing and Assembly'' has completed a computational modeling study of flows representative of those seen in these processes. Flow solutions are obtained using a coupled, finite-element-based, numerical method based on the GOMA/ARIA suite of Sandia flow solvers. The evolution of the free surface is solved with an advanced level set algorithm. This approach incorporates novel methods for representing surface tension and wetting forces that affect the evolution of the free surface. In addition, two commercially available codes, ProCAST and MOLDFLOW, are also used on geometries representing encapsulation processes at the Kansas City Plant. Visual observations of the flow in several geometries are recorded in the laboratory and compared to the models. Wetting properties for the materials in these experiments are measured using a unique flowthrough goniometer.

  12. Mississippi Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Mississippi Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,511 1980's 1,776 2,042 1,803 1,603 1,496 1,364 1,304 1,223 1,146 1,108 1990's 1,129 1,061 873 800 653 667 634 583 662 681 2000's 620 663 746 748 692 758 816 958 1,035 922 2010's 858 868 612 600 563 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  13. Mississippi Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Mississippi Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,444 1980's 1,703 1,976 1,729 1,523 1,382 1,259 1,238 1,162 1,075 1,003 1990's 1,003 953 788 747 610 640 587 532 615 650 2000's 585 637 713 721 672 738 795 928 990 884 2010's 822 806

  14. Montana Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 837 1980's 1,308 1,336 870 921 825 884 823 801 834 889 1990's 920 848 875 684 727 792 806 769 789 851 2000's 892 907 914 1,068 1,002 998 1,069 1,067 1,014 993 2010's 959 792 616 590 686 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  15. Colorado Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,838 1980's 3,170 3,228 3,551 3,373 3,140 3,095 3,198 3,131 3,749 4,526 1990's 4,759 6,011 6,463 6,979 7,036 7,592 8,064 7,160 8,208 9,372 2000's 10,837 12,949 14,348 15,893 15,249 17,122 17,682 22,480 24,169 24,081 2010's 25,372 26,151 21,674

  16. Colorado Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,657 1980's 2,970 2,969 3,345 3,200 2,932 2,928 3,008 2,912 3,572 4,290 1990's 4,249 5,329 5,701 5,817 5,948 6,520 7,009 6,627 7,436 8,591 2000's 9,877 11,924 13,251 14,707 13,956 15,796

  17. Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Texas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Texas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 6,411 6,191 6,956 6,739 6,745 6,504 1990's 6,884 6,305 6,353 6,138 5,739 5,674 5,240 4,799 4,452 4,507 2000's 5,030 5,404 4,967

  18. Kansas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 10,824 1980's 10,065 10,443 10,128 10,183 9,981 9,844 11,093 11,089 10,530 10,509 1990's 10,004 9,946 10,302 9,872 9,705 9,093 8,145 7,328 6,862 6,248 2000's 5,682 5,460 5,329 5,143 5,003 4,598 4,197 4,248 3,795 3,500 2010's 3,937 3,747 3,557

  19. Kansas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 10,657 1980's 9,880 10,304 10,016 10,051 9,871 9,729 10,961 10,974 10,427 10,408 1990's 9,890 9,831 10,208 9,779 9,630 9,026 8,063 7,277 6,802 6,196 2000's 5,641 5,355 5,263 5,058 4,923 4,515

  20. Kentucky Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 504 1980's 536 561 592 600 647 806 883 940 957 1,015 1990's 1,047 1,187 1,126 1,036 1,025 1,102 1,046 1,429 1,295 1,530 2000's 1,837 1,950 1,999 1,971 1,982 2,240 2,369 2,588 2,846 2,919 2010's 2,785 2,128 1,515 1,794 1,753 - = No Data Reported;

  1. Kentucky Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 502 1980's 525 547 580 581 630 793 866 921 938 993 1990's 1,039 1,177 1,118 1,030 978 1,075 1,022 1,403 1,275 1,501 2000's 1,810 1,925 1,974 1,946 1,963 2,210 2,333 2,554 2,812 2,887 2010's

  2. Louisiana - North Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana - North Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,869 1980's 3,160 3,358 2,988 3,008 2,546 2,650 2,567 2,350 2,442 2,705 1990's 2,640 2,435 2,363 2,376 2,599 2,863 3,189 3,156 2,943 3,127 2000's 3,344 3,927 4,283 5,137 5,841 6,768 6,795 6,437 7,966 17,273 2010's 26,136

  3. Louisiana - North Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) North Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana - North Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,104 1980's 2,244 2,318 2,156 2,233 1,856 2,018 2,000 1,862 2,193 2,468 1990's 2,399 2,243 2,203 2,256 2,465 2,730 2,934 2,869 2,760 2,867 2000's 3,158 3,759 4,124

  4. Louisiana - South Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana - South Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 14,580 1980's 13,407 13,049 12,153 11,553 10,650 10,120 9,416 9,024 8,969 8,934 1990's 8,492 7,846 7,019 6,219 6,558 6,166 6,105 6,137 5,966 5,858 2000's 5,447 5,341 4,395 3,874 3,557 3,478 3,473 3,463 2,916

  5. Louisiana - South Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana - South Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 12,276 1980's 11,273 11,178 10,364 9,971 9,162 8,328 7,843 7,644 7,631 7,661 1990's 7,386 6,851 6,166 5,570 5,880 5,446 5,478 5,538 5,336 5,259 2000's

  6. Louisiana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3,360 2,391 2,128 1,794 1,741 1990's 1,554 1,394 1,167 926 980 1,001 1,039 1,016 911 979 2000's 807 796 670 586 557 588 561 641 1,235 1,072 2010's 679 639 773 870 908

  7. Louisiana Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 19,676 13,334 12,852 12,620 12,912 1990's 12,151 11,363 10,227 9,541 10,145 9,891 10,077 10,036 9,480 9,646 2000's 9,512 10,040 9,190 9,538 9,792 10,679 10,710 10,292 11,816 20,970 2010's 29,517 30,545 22,135 20,389 23,258 - = No Data Reported;

  8. Louisiana Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 16,316 10,943 10,724 10,826 11,171 1990's 10,597 9,969 9,060 8,615 9,165 8,890 9,038 9,020 8,569 8,667 2000's 8,704 9,245 8,520 8,952 9,235 10,091 10,149 9,651 10,581 19,898 2010's 28,838

  9. Lower 48 States Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Lower 48 States Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 143,852 1980's 139,421 143,515 142,984 143,469 141,226 138,464 139,070 135,256 141,211 139,798 1990's 141,941 140,584 138,883 136,953 138,213 139,369 141,136 140,382 139,015

  10. Michigan Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 601 1980's 668 494 481 529 419 375 665 1,002 943 1,011 1990's 922 967 938 890 1,022 1,018 1,778 1,975 2,158 2,086 2000's 2,558 2,873 3,097 3,219 2,961 2,808 2,925 3,512 3,105 2,728 2010's

  11. Alabama Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 693 1980's 682 683 1990's 4,184 5,460 5,870 5,212 4,898 4,930 5,100 5,013 4,643 4,365 2000's 4,269 3,958 3,922 4,345 4,159 4,006 3,963 4,036 3,379 2,948 2010's 2,724 2,570 2,304 1,670 2,121 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  12. Alabama Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 680 1980's 659 658 1990's 4,159 5,437 5,840 5,166 4,842 4,886 5,062 4,983 4,615 4,338 2000's 4,241 3,931 3,891 4,313 4,127 3,977 3,945 4,016 3,360 2,919 2010's 2,686 2,522 2,204 1,624 1,980

  13. Alaska Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Alaska Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 32,275 1980's 33,395 33,049 35,002 34,291 34,476 34,223 33,355 33,715 9,179 9,019 1990's 9,393 9,653 9,725 9,986 9,813 9,575 9,296 10,673 10,043 9,855 2000's 9,331 8,901 8,533 8,348 8,473 8,237 10,333 12,022 7,766 9,183 2010's 8,917 9,511 9,667

  14. Alaska Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Alaska Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 5,058 1980's 4,828 4,373 4,188 3,883 4,120 3,131 2,462 2,983 2,910 2,821 1990's 2,466 2,924 3,002 3,492 3,326 3,310 3,216 2,957 2,768 2,646 2000's 2,564 2,309 2,157 2,081 2,004 1,875 1,447

  15. Arkansas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,725 1980's 1,796 1,821 1,974 2,081 2,240 2,032 2,011 2,018 2,000 1,782 1990's 1,739 1,672 1,752 1,555 1,610 1,566 1,472 1,479 1,332 1,546 2000's 1,584 1,619 1,654 1,666 1,837 1,967 2,271 3,306 5,628 10,872 2010's 14,181 16,374 11,039 13,524

  16. Arkansas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,559 1980's 1,602 1,637 1,800 1,887 2,051 1,875 1,861 1,873 1,843 1,637 1990's 1,672 1,536 1,619 1,462 1,525 1,462 1,383 1,423 1,294 1,505 2000's 1,545 1,589 1,616 1,629 1,797 1,921 2,227

  17. California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 4,037 1980's 4,434 4,230 4,058 3,964 3,808 3,716 3,404 3,229 3,033 2,899 1990's 2,775 2,703 2,511 2,425 2,130 2,018 1,864 2,012 2,016 2,021 2000's 2,413 2,298 2,190 2,116 2,306

  18. California Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,961 1980's 3,345 2,660 2,663 2,546 2,507 1990's 2,400 2,213 2,093 1,982 1,698 1,619 1,583 1,820 1,879 2,150 2000's 2,198 1,922 1,900 1,810 2,006 2,585 2,155 2,193

  19. California Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 322 1980's 414 1,337 1,466 1,570 1,519 1990's 1,469 1,174 1,136 1,123 1,187 1,289 1,266 556 489 536 2000's 576 540 515 511 459 825 811 805 705 740 2010's 725 711 652 264 243 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  20. California Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 4,842 1980's 5,137 4,084 3,893 3,666 3,513 1990's 3,311 3,114 2,892 2,799 2,506 2,355 2,193 2,390 2,332 2,505 2000's 2,952 2,763 2,696 2,569 2,773 3,384 2,935 2,879 2,538 2,926 2010's 2,785 3,042 2,119 2,023 2,260 - = No Data Reported; -- =

  1. Colorado Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 181 1980's 200 259 206 173 208 167 190 219 177 236 1990's 510 682 762 1,162 1,088 1,072 1,055 533 772 781 2000's 960 1,025 1,097 1,186 1,293 1,326 1,541 1,838 2,010

  2. Texas - RRC District 1 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 1 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 732 1980's 683 870 708 960 714 754 716 639 1,002 1,037 1990's 744 660 606 540 586 498 523 950 1,101 1,165 2000's 1,037 1,024 1,047 1,047 1,184 1,148 1,048

  3. Texas - RRC District 10 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 10 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 10 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 6,805 1980's 6,381 6,264 6,242 5,948 5,443 5,484 5,320 5,030 4,876 4,849 1990's 4,608 4,763 4,463 4,214 4,405 4,656 4,592 4,386 4,510 4,447 2000's 4,143

  4. Texas - RRC District 5 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 5 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 5 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,127 1980's 1,117 1,265 1,322 1,477 1,911 2,100 2,169 2,106 1,989 1,789 1990's 1,835 1,841 1,692 1,790 1,926 1,876 2,088 1,681 1,906 2,301 2000's 3,089

  5. Texas - RRC District 6 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 6 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 6 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,710 1980's 3,622 3,653 3,749 4,279 4,087 4,274 4,324 4,151 4,506 5,201 1990's 5,345 4,856 4,987 5,170 5,131 5,425 5,690 5,616 5,691 5,562 2000's 5,901

  6. Texas - RRC District 8 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 8 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 8,073 1980's 7,216 6,620 6,084 6,064 5,362 5,246 5,254 4,973 4,738 4,403 1990's 4,323 4,023 3,792 3,569 3,267 3,218 3,069 2,886 2,727 2,947 2000's 3,345

  7. New Mexico - East Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) East Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico - East Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,634 1980's 2,266 2,377 2,331 2,214 2,117 2,001 1,750 1,901 2,030 2,131 1990's 2,290 2,073 1,948 1,860 1,791 1,648 1,612 1,694 1,694 1,880 2000's 2,526 2,571 2,632

  8. New Mexico - West Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) - West Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico - West Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 9,934 1980's 10,001 10,536 9,231 8,654 8,341 7,947 9,344 9,275 15,000 13,088 1990's 14,804 16,131 16,854 16,494 15,156 15,421 14,620 13,586 13,122 13,292 2000's

  9. New Mexico Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 12,568 1980's 12,267 12,913 11,562 10,868 10,458 9,948 11,094 11,176 17,030 15,219 1990's 17,094 18,204 18,802 18,354 16,947 17,069 16,232 15,280 14,816 15,172 2000's 16,922 17,112 16,971

  10. Oklahoma Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,246 1980's 2,252 2,441 2,426 2,269 2,244 2,149 2,191 2,017 1,894 1,785 1990's 1,820 1,406 1,483 1,550 1,342 1,228 1,023 1,015 1,196 1,238 2000's 1,113 1,109 1,177

  11. Oklahoma Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 14,545 1980's 13,908 15,507 17,140 17,261 17,102 17,078 17,779 17,703 17,450 16,733 1990's 16,967 15,518 14,732 14,099 14,323 14,295 13,952 14,311 14,517 13,490 2000's 14,543 14,366 15,753 16,231 17,200 18,146 18,535 20,184 22,113 24,207 2010's

  12. Oklahoma Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 12,299 1980's 11,656 13,066 14,714 14,992 14,858 14,929 15,588 15,686 15,556 14,948 1990's 15,147 14,112 13,249 12,549 12,981 13,067 12,929 13,296 13,321 12,252 2000's 13,430 13,256 14,576

  13. Pennsylvania Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,516 1980's 951 1,265 1,430 1,882 1,576 1,618 1,562 1,650 2,074 1,644 1990's 1,722 1,631 1,533 1,722 1,806 1,488 1,702 1,861 1,848 1,780 2000's 1,740 1,782 2,225 2,497 2,371 2,793 3,064 3,377 3,594 7,018 2010's 14,068 26,719 36,543

  14. Pennsylvania Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,507 1980's 940 1,251 1,416 1,861 1,498 1,551 1,540 1,629 2,066 1,625 1990's 1,699 1,611 1,523 1,714 1,797 1,452 1,655 1,769 1,769 1,684 2000's 1,583 1,614 2,088 2,333 2,246 2,659

  15. Wyoming Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 7,834 1980's 9,413 9,659 10,155 10,728 11,014 11,229 10,393 10,572 10,903 11,276 1990's 10,433 10,433 11,305 11,387 11,351 12,712 13,084 14,321 14,371 14,809 2000's 17,211 19,399 21,531 22,716 23,640 24,722 24,463 30,896 32,399 36,748 2010's

  16. Wyoming Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 6,796 1980's 8,039 8,431 9,095 9,769 10,147 10,519 9,702 9,881 10,287 10,695 1990's 9,860 9,861 10,681 10,885 10,740 11,833 12,260 13,471 13,577 14,096 2000's 16,559 18,911 20,970 22,266

  17. Utah Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 650 1980's 870 1,722 1,928 2,112 1,984 1,897 1,795 1,870 1,509 1,498 1990's 1,432 1,532 1,709 1,909 1,631 1,424 1,446 1,695 2,293 3,050 2000's 4,125 4,450 3,915 3,318 3,661 4,051 4,894 6,095 6,393 6,810

  18. Virginia Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 122 175 216 235 253 248 230 217 1990's 138 225 904 1,322 1,833 1,836 1,930 2,446 1,973 2,017 2000's 1,704 1,752 1,673 1,717 1,742 2,018 2,302 2,529 2,378 3,091 2010's 3,215 2,832 2,579 2,373 2,800 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA =

  19. Virginia Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 122 175 216 235 253 248 230 217 1990's 138 225 904 1,322 1,833 1,836 1,930 1,923 1,973 2,017 2000's 1,704 1,752 1,673 1,717 1,742 2,018 2,302 2,529 2,378 3,091 2010's 3,215 2,832 2,579

  20. West Virginia Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,669 1980's 2,559 1,944 2,252 2,324 2,246 2,177 2,272 2,360 2,440 2,342 1990's 2,329 2,672 2,491 2,598 2,702 2,588 2,793 2,946 2,968 3,040 2000's 3,062 2,825 3,498 3,399 3,509 4,572 4,654 4,881 5,266 6,090 2010's 7,163 10,532

  1. West Virginia Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,593 1980's 2,437 1,881 2,169 2,238 2,173 2,104 2,207 2,210 2,299 2,244 1990's 2,243 2,513 2,293 2,408 2,569 2,514 2,722 2,887 2,925 2,952 2000's 2,929 2,777 3,477 3,376 3,489 4,553

  2. Wet-steam erosion of steam turbine disks and shafts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Averkina, N. V.; Zheleznyak, I. V.; Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G.; Shishkin, V. I.

    2011-01-15

    A study of wet-steam erosion of the disks and the rotor bosses or housings of turbines in thermal and nuclear power plants shows that the rate of wear does not depend on the diagrammed degree of moisture, but is determined by moisture condensing on the surfaces of the diaphragms and steam inlet components. Renovating the diaphragm seals as an assembly with condensate removal provides a manifold reduction in the erosion.

  3. Bulk Hauling Equipment for CHG | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bulk Hauling Equipment for CHG Bulk Hauling Equipment for CHG This presentation by Don Baldwin of Hexagon Composites was given at the DOE Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Workshop in March 2013. PDF icon csd_workshop_8_baldwin.pdf More Documents & Publications Tank Manufacturing, Testing, Deployment and Field Performance Hydrogen Delivery Roadmap US DRIVE Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team Roadmap

  4. Hydrologic Behavior of Two Engineered Barriers Following Extreme Wetting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porro, I.

    2000-09-30

    Many engineered barriers are expected to function for hundreds of years or longer. Over the course of time, it is likely that some barriers will experience infiltration to the point of breakthrough. This study compares the recovery from breakthrough of two storage- evapotranspiration type engineered barriers. Replicates of test plots comprising thick soil and capillary/biobarrier covers were wetted to breakthrough in 1997. Test plots were kept cleared of vegetation to maximize hydrologic stress during recovery. Following cessation of drainage resulting from the wetting irrigations, water storage levels in all plots were at elevated levels compared to pre-irrigation levels. As a result, infiltration of melting snow during the subsequent spring overloaded the storage capacity and produced drainage in all plots. Relatively rapid melting of accumulated snowfall produced the most significant infiltration events each year during the study. Capillary barriers yielded less total drainage than thick soil barriers. By limiting drainage, capillary barriers increased water storage in the upper portions of the test plots, which led to increased evaporation from the capillary barrier plots compared to thick soil plots. Increased evaporation in the capillary barrier plots allowed more water to infiltrate in the second season following the wetting tests without triggering drainage. All thick soil plots again yielded drainage in the second season. Within two years of intentionally induced breakthrough, evaporation alone (without transpiration) restored the capability of the capillary barrier covers to function as intended, although water storage in these covers remained at elevated levels.

  5. Mercury removal in utility wet scrubber using a chelating agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amrhein, Gerald T. (Louisville, OH)

    2001-01-01

    A method for capturing and reducing the mercury content of an industrial flue gas such as that produced in the combustion of a fossil fuel or solid waste adds a chelating agent, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or other similar compounds like HEDTA, DTPA and/or NTA, to the flue gas being scrubbed in a wet scrubber used in the industrial process. The chelating agent prevents the reduction of oxidized mercury to elemental mercury, thereby increasing the mercury removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. Exemplary tests on inlet and outlet mercury concentration in an industrial flue gas were performed without and with EDTA addition. Without EDTA, mercury removal totaled 42%. With EDTA, mercury removal increased to 71%. The invention may be readily adapted to known wet scrubber systems and it specifically provides for the removal of unwanted mercury both by supplying S.sup.2- ions to convert Hg.sup.2+ ions into mercuric sulfide (HgS) and by supplying a chelating agent to sequester other ions, including but not limited to Fe.sup.2+ ions, which could otherwise induce the unwanted reduction of Hg.sup.2+ to the form, Hg.sup.0.

  6. Carbon nanotubes grown on bulk materials and methods for fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menchhofer, Paul A. (Clinton, TN); Montgomery, Frederick C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Baker, Frederick S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2011-11-08

    Disclosed are structures formed as bulk support media having carbon nanotubes formed therewith. The bulk support media may comprise fibers or particles and the fibers or particles may be formed from such materials as quartz, carbon, or activated carbon. Metal catalyst species are formed adjacent the surfaces of the bulk support material, and carbon nanotubes are grown adjacent the surfaces of the metal catalyst species. Methods employ metal salt solutions that may comprise iron salts such as iron chloride, aluminum salts such as aluminum chloride, or nickel salts such as nickel chloride. Carbon nanotubes may be separated from the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species by using concentrated acids to oxidize the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species.

  7. Visualization of electronic density

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Grosso, Bastien; Cooper, Valentino R.; Pine, Polina; Hashibon, Adham; Yaish, Yuval; Adler, Joan

    2015-04-22

    An atoms volume depends on its electronic density. Although this density can only be evaluated exactly for hydrogen-like atoms, there are many excellent numerical algorithms and packages to calculate it for other materials. 3D visualization of charge density is challenging, especially when several molecular/atomic levels are intertwined in space. We explore several approaches to 3D charge density visualization, including the extension of an anaglyphic stereo visualization application based on the AViz package to larger structures such as nanotubes. We will describe motivations and potential applications of these tools for answering interesting questions about nanotube properties.

  8. Coal combustion by wet oxidation. Wet oxidation of coal for energy production: test plan and partial results. Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettinger, J.A.

    1980-07-10

    A test plan has been developed which will provide the data necessary to carry out design and economic studies of a steam generating facility, employing the wet oxidation of coal as a heat source. It is obvious, from the literature search and preliminary testing, that the higher the reaction temperature, the more complete the combustion of coal. However, operation at elevated temperatures and pressures present difficult design problems, and the necessary equipment is costly. Operation under these conditions can only be justified by the higher economic value of high pressure and temperature steam. With a reduction in temperature from 550/sup 0/F (228/sup 0/C) to 450/sup 0/F (232/sup 0/C), the operating pressure is reduced by more than half, thus holding down the overall cost of the system. For this reason, our plan is to study both the enhancement of low temperature wet oxidation of coal, and the higher operating regions. The coal selected for the first portion of this test is an Eastern Appalachian high-volatile-A Bituminous type, from the Upper Clarion seam in Pennsylvania. This coal was selected as being a typical high sulfur, eastern coal. The wet oxidation of coal to produce low pressure steam is a process suited for a high sulfur, low grade, coal. It is not intended that wet oxidation be used in all applications with all types of coals, as it does not appear to be competitive, economically, with conventional combustion, therefore the testing will focus on using high sulfur, low grade coals. In the later portion of testing all the available coals will be tested. In addition, a sample of Minnesota peat will be tested to determine if it also can be used in the process.

  9. Density-dependent covariant energy density functionals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lalazissis, G. A.

    2012-10-20

    Relativistic nuclear energy density functionals are applied to the description of a variety of nuclear structure phenomena at and away fromstability line. Isoscalar monopole, isovector dipole and isoscalar quadrupole giant resonances are calculated using fully self-consistent relativistic quasiparticle randomphase approximation, based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubovmodel. The impact of pairing correlations on the fission barriers in heavy and superheavy nuclei is examined. The role of pion in constructing desnity functionals is also investigated.

  10. Wetting kinetics of water nano-droplet containing non-surfactant nanoparticles: A molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Gui; Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 ; Hu, Han; Sun, Ying E-mail: ysun@coe.drexel.edu; Duan, Yuanyuan E-mail: ysun@coe.drexel.edu

    2013-12-16

    In this Letter, dynamic wetting of water nano-droplets containing non-surfactant gold nanoparticles on a gold substrate is examined via molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that the addition of non-surfactant nanoparticles hinders the nano-second droplet wetting process, attributed to the increases in both surface tension of the nanofluid and friction between nanofluid and substrate. The droplet wetting kinetics decreases with increasing nanoparticle loading and water-particle interaction energy. The observed wetting suppression and the absence of nanoparticle ordering near the contact line of nano-sized droplets differ from the wetting behaviors reported from nanofluid droplets of micron size or larger.

  11. Hydrogen bond dynamics in bulk alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinokita, Keisuke; Cunha, Ana V.; Jansen, Thomas L. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.

    2015-06-07

    Hydrogen-bonded liquids play a significant role in numerous chemical and biological phenomena. In the past decade, impressive developments in multidimensional vibrational spectroscopy and combined molecular dynamicsquantum mechanical simulation have established many intriguing features of hydrogen bond dynamics in one of the fundamental solvents in nature, water. The next class of a hydrogen-bonded liquidalcoholshas attracted much less attention. This is surprising given such important differences between water and alcohols as the imbalance between the number of hydrogen bonds, each molecule can accept (two) and donate (one) and the very presence of the hydrophobic group in alcohols. Here, we use polarization-resolved pump-probe and 2D infrared spectroscopy supported by extensive theoretical modeling to investigate hydrogen bond dynamics in methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol employing the OH stretching mode as a reporter. The sub-ps dynamics in alcohols are similar to those in water as they are determined by similar librational and hydrogen-bond stretch motions. However, lower density of hydrogen bond acceptors and donors in alcohols leads to the appearance of slow diffusion-controlled hydrogen bond exchange dynamics, which are essentially absent in water. We anticipate that the findings herein would have a potential impact on fundamental chemistry and biology as many processes in nature involve the interplay of hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups.

  12. Direct Measurements of Pore Fluid Density by Vibrating Tube Densimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruszkiewicz, Miroslaw {Mirek} S; Rother, Gernot; Wesolowski, David J; Cole, David R; Wallacher, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The densities of pore-confined fluids were measured for the first time by means of a vibrating tube method. Isotherms of total adsorption capacity were measured directly making the method complementary to the conventional gravimetric or volumetric/piezometric adsorption techniques, which yield the excess adsorption (the Gibbsian surface excess). A custom-made high-pressure, high-temperature vibrating tube densimeter (VTD) was used to measure the densities of subcritical and supercritical propane (between 35 C and 97 C) and supercritical carbon dioxide (between 32 C and 50 C) saturating hydrophobic silica aerogel (0.2 g/cm3, 90% porosity) synthesized inside Hastelloy U-tubes. Additionally, excess adsorption isotherms for supercritical CO2 and the same porous solid were measured gravimetrically using a precise magnetically-coupled microbalance. Pore fluid densities and total adsorption isotherms increased monotonically with increasing density of the bulk fluid, in contrast to excess adsorption isotherms, which reached a maximum at a subcritical density of the bulk fluid, and then decreased towards zero or negative values at supercritical densities. Compression of the confined fluid significantly beyond the density of the bulk liquid at the same temperature was observed at subcritical temperatures. The features of the isotherms of confined fluid density are interpreted to elucidate the observed behavior of excess adsorption. The maxima of excess adsorption were found to occur below the critical density of the bulk fluid at the conditions corresponding to the beginning of the plateau of total adsorption, marking the end of the transition of pore fluid to a denser, liquid-like pore phase. The results for propane and carbon dioxide showed similarity in the sense of the principle of corresponding states. No measurable effect of pore confinement on the liquid-vapor critical point was found. Quantitative agreement was obtained between excess adsorption isotherms determined from VTD total adsorption results and those measured gravimetrically at the same temperature, confirming the validity of the vibrating tube measurements. Vibrating tube densimetry was demonstrated as a novel experimental approach capable of providing the average density of pore-confined fluids.

  13. Change of variables as a method to study general ?-models: Bulk universality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shcherbina, M.

    2014-04-15

    We consider ? matrix models with real analytic potentials. Assuming that the corresponding equilibrium density ? has a one-interval support (without loss of generality ? = [?2, 2]), we study the transformation of the correlation functions after the change of variables ?{sub i} ? ?(?{sub i}) with ?(?) chosen from the equation ?{sup ?}(?)?(?(?)) = ?{sub sc}(?), where ?{sub sc}(?) is the standard semicircle density. This gives us the deformed ?-model which has an additional interaction term. Standard transformation with the Gaussian integral allows us to show that the deformed ?-model may be reduced to the standard Gaussian ?-model with a small perturbation n{sup ?1}h(?). This reduces most of the problems of local and global regimes for ?-models to the corresponding problems for the Gaussian ?-model with a small perturbation. In the present paper, we prove the bulk universality of local eigenvalue statistics for both one-cut and multi-cut cases.

  14. Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016

  15. Bulk viscosity of anisotropically expanding hot QCD plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandra, Vinod

    2011-11-01

    The bulk viscosity, {zeta} and its ratio with the shear viscosity, {zeta}/{eta} have been studied in an anisotropically expanding pure glue plasma in the presence of turbulent color fields. It has been shown that the anisotropy in the momentum distribution function of gluons, which has been determined from a linearized transport equation eventually leads to the bulk viscosity. For the isotropic (equilibrium) state, a recently proposed quasiparticle model of pure SU(3) lattice QCD equation of state has been employed where the interactions are encoded in the effective fugacity. It has been argued that the interactions present in the equation of state, significantly contribute to the bulk viscosity. Its ratio with the shear viscosity is significant even at 1.5T{sub c}. Thus, one needs to take in account the effects of the bulk viscosity while studying the hydrodynamic expansion of quark-gluon plasma in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider.

  16. Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    diodes (LEDs) on low-defect bulk gallium nitride (GaN) substrates. Peak internal quantum efficiency (IQE) values of greater than 80% are achieved over a wide wavelength range...

  17. ,"Finished Motor Gasoline Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1252016 6:37:20 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Finished Motor Gasoline Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks" "Sourcekey","MGFSXUS1"...

  18. Bulk Energy Storage Webinar Rescheduled for February 9, 2012...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    webinar, Lessons from Iowa: The Economic, Market, and Organizational Issues in Making Bulk Energy Storage Work, on Thursday, February 9, 2012 at 1 p.m. ET. Presenters include Dr. ...

  19. The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cells The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction solar cells The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction solar cells Print Monday, 28 April 2014 09:03 Work done on ALS Beamlines 11.0.1.2, 7.3.3, and 5.3.2.2. reveals that preferential orientation of polymer chains with respect to the fullerene domain leads to a high photovoltaic performance. Featured on the cover of Nature Photonics 8. Article link

  20. Intrinsic carrier multiplication efficiency in bulk Si crystals evaluated

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    by optical-pump/terahertz-probe spectroscopy (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Intrinsic carrier multiplication efficiency in bulk Si crystals evaluated by optical-pump/terahertz-probe spectroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Intrinsic carrier multiplication efficiency in bulk Si crystals evaluated by optical-pump/terahertz-probe spectroscopy We estimated the carrier multiplication efficiency in the most common solar-cell material, Si, by using optical-pump/terahertz-probe

  1. Linux Kernel Co-Scheduling For Bulk Synchronous Parallel Applications

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Linux Kernel Co-Scheduling For Bulk Synchronous Parallel Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Linux Kernel Co-Scheduling For Bulk Synchronous Parallel Applications This paper describes a kernel scheduling algorithm that is based on co-scheduling principles and that is intended for parallel applications running on 1000 cores or more where inter-node scalability is key. Experimental results for a Linux implementation on a Cray XT5 machine are

  2. Linux Kernel Co-Scheduling and Bulk Synchronous Parallelism (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Linux Kernel Co-Scheduling and Bulk Synchronous Parallelism Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Linux Kernel Co-Scheduling and Bulk Synchronous Parallelism This paper describes a kernel scheduling algorithm that is based on coscheduling principles and that is intended for parallel applications running on 1000 cores or more. Experimental results for a Linux implementation on a Cray XT5 machine are presented. The results indicate that Linux is a suitable

  3. Overview of Fraunhofer IPM Activities in High Temperature Bulk Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Device Development | Department of Energy Fraunhofer IPM Activities in High Temperature Bulk Materials and Device Development Overview of Fraunhofer IPM Activities in High Temperature Bulk Materials and Device Development Presentation given at the 2011 Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop including an overview about Fraunhofer IPM, new funding situation in Germany, high temperature material and modules, energy-autarkic sensors, and thermoelectric metrology. PDF icon konig.pdf More

  4. Compositional ordering and stability in nanostructured, bulk thermoelectric alloys.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hekmaty, Michelle A.; Faleev, S.; Medlin, Douglas L.; Leonard, F.; Lensch-Falk, J.; Sharma, Peter Anand; Sugar, J. D.

    2009-09-01

    Thermoelectric materials have many applications in the conversion of thermal energy to electrical power and in solid-state cooling. One route to improving thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency in bulk material is to embed nanoscale inclusions. This report summarize key results from a recently completed LDRD project exploring the science underpinning the formation and stability of nanostructures in bulk thermoelectric and the quantitative relationships between such structures and thermoelectric properties.

  5. Enhancing covalent mechanochemistry in bulk polymers using electrospun ABA

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    triblock copolymers (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Enhancing covalent mechanochemistry in bulk polymers using electrospun ABA triblock copolymers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enhancing covalent mechanochemistry in bulk polymers using electrospun ABA triblock copolymers Authors: Black Ramirez, A.L. ; Schmitt, A.K. ; Mahanthappa, M.K. ; Craig, S.L. [1] ; Duke) [2] + Show Author Affiliations (UW) ( Publication Date: 2016-01-20 OSTI Identifier: 1235465 Resource Type: Journal

  6. Bulk Electronic Structure of Quasicrystals (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bulk Electronic Structure of Quasicrystals « Prev Next » Title: Bulk Electronic Structure of Quasicrystals Authors: Nayak, J. ; Maniraj, M. ; Rai, Abhishek ; Singh, Sanjay ; Rajput, Parasmani ; Gloskovskii, A. ; Zegenhagen, J. ; Schlagel, D. L. ; Lograsso, T. A. ; Horn, K. ; Barman, S. R. Publication Date: 2012-11-20 OSTI Identifier: 1101813 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review Letters Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 109; Journal Issue: 21;

  7. Bulk Electronic Structure of Quasicrystals (Journal Article) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Bulk Electronic Structure of Quasicrystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Bulk Electronic Structure of Quasicrystals Authors: Nayak, J. ; Maniraj, M. ; Rai, Abhishek ; Singh, Sanjay ; Rajput, Parasmani ; Gloskovskii, A. ; Zegenhagen, J. ; Schlagel, D. L. ; Lograsso, T. A. ; Horn, K. ; Barman, S. R. Publication Date: 2012-11-20 OSTI Identifier: 1101813 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review Letters Additional Journal Information: Journal

  8. Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficient Waste Heat Recovery | Department of Energy High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Proposed two-stage TEG system with half-heusler as the first stage, and Bi2Te3 as the low temperature stage expected to show a 5% fuel efficiency improvement in vehicle platform under US06 drive cycle PDF icon caylor.pdf More Documents &

  9. Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery | Department of Energy High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace082_caylor_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Nanostructured High

  10. Reliability of Transport Properties for Bulk Thermoelectrics | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy of Transport Properties for Bulk Thermoelectrics Reliability of Transport Properties for Bulk Thermoelectrics Presents international round-robin study to ensure quality of transport data and figure of merit of thermoelectric materials PDF icon deer12_wang_2.pdf More Documents & Publications International Round-Robin on Transport Properties of Bismuth Telluride Thermoelectric Mechanical Reliability Standardization of Transport Properties Measurements: Internal Energy Agency

  11. THRESHOLD RADIOACTIVITY FOR BULK FOOD SAMPLES BY GAMMA SPECTROSCOPY

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect THRESHOLD RADIOACTIVITY FOR BULK FOOD SAMPLES BY GAMMA SPECTROSCOPY Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THRESHOLD RADIOACTIVITY FOR BULK FOOD SAMPLES BY GAMMA SPECTROSCOPY Authors: Yakabe, H.M. ; Neilson, H. Publication Date: 1965-02-01 OSTI Identifier: 4654936 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: J. Assoc. Offic. Agr. Chemists; Journal Volume: Vol: 48; Other Information: Orig. Receipt Date: 31-DEC-65 Research Org: Div. of

  12. Thermoelectric Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanopowders | Department of Energy Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation of Nanopowders Thermoelectric Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation of Nanopowders Describes technique of explosively consolidating nanopowders to yield fully dense, consolidated, nanostructured thermoelectric material PDF icon nemir.pdf More Documents & Publications The Bottom-Up Approach forThermoelectric Nanocomposites, plusƒ Enhancing the Figure-of-Merit in Half-Heuslers for Vehicle Waste

  13. Waste Form Qualification Compliance Strategy for Bulk Vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagaasen, Larry M.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Brouns, Thomas M.

    2005-01-03

    The Bulk Vitrification System is being pursued to assist in immobilizing the low-activity tank waste from the 53 million gallons of radioactive waste in the 177 underground storage tanks on the Hanford Site. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the bulk vitrification process, a research and development facility known as the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) is being built to demonstrate the technology. Specific performance requirements for the final packaged bulk vitrification waste form have been identified. In addition to the specific product-performance requirements, performance targets/goals have been identified that are necessary to qualify the waste form but do not lend themselves to specifications that are easily verified through short-term testing. Collectively, these form the product requirements for the DBVS. This waste-form qualification (WFQ) strategy document outlines the general strategies for achieving and demonstrating compliance with the BVS product requirements. The specific objectives of the WFQ activities are discussed, the bulk vitrification process and product control strategy is outlined, and the test strategy to meet the WFQ objectives is described. The DBVS product performance targets/goals and strategies to address those targets/goals are described. The DBVS product-performance requirements are compared to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant immobilized low-activity waste product specifications. The strategies for demonstrating compliance with the bulk vitrification product requirements are presented.

  14. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 5 Full-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and cost sharing. Southern Company has provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company is providing the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies are also supplying technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests and the full-scale test using high-sulfur coal were completed in 2005 and 2006 and have been previously reported. This topical report presents the results from the Task 5 full-scale additive tests, conducted at Southern Company's Plant Yates Unit 1. Both additives were tested there.

  15. 1986 wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, A.R.

    1989-07-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1986 and spatial patterns for 1986. The report provides statistical distribution summaries of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. The data in the report are from the Acid Depositing System (ADS) for the statistical reporting of North American deposition data. Isopleth maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1986 annual, winter, and summer periods. The temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 30 sites over an 8-year (1979-1986) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites with greater spatial coverage over a 5-year (1982-1986) period. The 8-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data unavailable that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. 19 refs., 105 figs., 29 tabs.

  16. Predictive modeling of reactive wetting and metal joining.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Swol, Frank B.

    2013-09-01

    The performance, reproducibility and reliability of metal joints are complex functions of the detailed history of physical processes involved in their creation. Prediction and control of these processes constitutes an intrinsically challenging multi-physics problem involving heating and melting a metal alloy and reactive wetting. Understanding this process requires coupling strong molecularscale chemistry at the interface with microscopic (diffusion) and macroscopic mass transport (flow) inside the liquid followed by subsequent cooling and solidification of the new metal mixture. The final joint displays compositional heterogeneity and its resulting microstructure largely determines the success or failure of the entire component. At present there exists no computational tool at Sandia that can predict the formation and success of a braze joint, as current capabilities lack the ability to capture surface/interface reactions and their effect on interface properties. This situation precludes us from implementing a proactive strategy to deal with joining problems. Here, we describe what is needed to arrive at a predictive modeling and simulation capability for multicomponent metals with complicated phase diagrams for melting and solidification, incorporating dissolutive and composition-dependent wetting.

  17. Michigan Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,334 1980's 1,551 1,252 1,200 1,353 1,193 1,064 1,242 1,571 1,434 1,443 1990's 1,330 1,404 1,290 1,218 1,379 1,344 2,125 2,256 2,386 2,313 2000's 2,772 3,032 3,311 3,488 3,154 2,961 3,117 3,691 3,253 2,805 2010's 2,975 2,549 1,781 1,839 1,873 -

  18. Bulk Nanostructured FCC Steels With Enhanced Radiation Tolerance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xinghang; Hartwig, K. Ted; Allen, Todd; Yang, Yong

    2012-10-27

    The objective of this project is to increase radiation tolerance in austenitic steels through optimization of grain size and grain boundary (GB) characteristics. The focus will be on nanocrystalline austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni alloys with an fcc crystal structure. The long-term goal is to design and develop bulk nanostructured austenitic steels with enhanced void swelling resistance and substantial ductility, and to enhance their creep resistance at elevated temperatures via GB engineering. The combination of grain refinement and grain boundary engineering approaches allows us to tailor the material strength, ductility, and resistance to swelling by 1) changing the sink strength for point defects, 2) by increasing the nucleation barriers for bubble formation at GBs, and 3) by changing the precipitate distributions at boundaries. Compared to ferritic/martensitic steels, austenitic stainless steels (SS) possess good creep and fatigue resistance at elevated temperatures, and better toughness at low temperature. However, a major disadvantage of austenitic SS is that they are vulnerable to significant void swelling in nuclear reactors, especially at the temperatures and doses anticipated in the Advanced Burner Reactor. The lack of resistance to void swelling in austenitic alloys led to the switch to ferritic/martensitic steels as the preferred material for the fast reactor cladding application. Recently a type of austenitic stainless steel, HT-UPS, was developed at ORNL, and is expected to show enhanced void swelling resistance through the trapping of point defects at nanometersized carbides. Reducing the grain size and increasing the fraction of low energy grain boundaries should reduce the available radiation-produced point defects (due to the increased sink area of the grain boundaries), should make bubble nucleation at the boundaries less likely (by reducing the fraction of high-energy boundaries), and improve the strength and ductility under radiation by producing a higher density of nanometer sized carbides on the boundaries. This project will focus on void swelling but advances in processing of austenitic steels are likely to also improve the radiation response of the mechanical properties.

  19. Mechanically robust, electrically conductive ultralow-density carbon nanotube-based aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worsley, Marcus A; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr., Joe H

    2014-04-01

    A method of making a mechanically robust, electrically conductive ultralow-density carbon nanotube-based aerogel, including the steps of dispersing nanotubes in an aqueous media or other media to form a suspension, adding reactants and catalyst to the suspension to create a reaction mixture, curing the reaction mixture to form a wet gel, drying the wet gel to produce a dry gel, and pyrolyzing the dry gel to produce the mechanically robust, electrically conductive ultralow-density carbon nanotube-based aerogel. The aerogel is mechanically robust, electrically conductive, and ultralow-density, and is made of a porous carbon material having 5 to 95% by weight carbon nanotubes and 5 to 95% carbon binder.

  20. Density Equalizing Map Projections

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    A geographic map is mathematically transformed so that the subareas of the map are proportional to a given quantity such as population. In other words, population density is equalized over the entire map. The transformed map can be used as a display tool, or it can be statistically analyzed. For example, cases of disease plotted on the transformed map should be uniformly distributed at random, if disease rates are everywhere equal. Geographic clusters of diseasemore »can be readily identified, and their statistical significance determined, on a density equalized map.« less

  1. WPN 97-6: Approval of Wet-Spray Cellulose Insulation as an Allowable Weatherization Material

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To provide states with information about the approved use of wet-spray cellulose for use in the low-income Weatherization Assistance Program.

  2. ,"Texas - RRC District 7B Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 7B Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  3. ,"Texas - RRC District 8A Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 8A Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  4. ,"Texas - RRC District 7C Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 7C Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  5. ,"Texas - RRC District 8A Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 8A Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion...

  6. ,"Texas - RRC District 7B Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 7B Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion...

  7. ,"Texas - RRC District 7C Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 7C Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion...

  8. MHK Projects/US Navy Wave Energy Technology WET Program at Marine...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    US Navy Wave Energy Technology WET Program at Marine Corps Base Hawaii MCBH < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map......

  9. Patterned functional arrays by selective de-wetting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FAN,HONGYOU; DOSHI,DHAVAL; LU,YUNFENG; BRINKER,C. JEFFREY

    2000-05-11

    Using a micro-Contact Printing ({mu}-CP) technique, substrates are prepared with patterns of hydrophilic, hydroxyl-terminated SAMS and hydrophobic methyl-terminated SAMS. Beginning with a homogeneous solution of silica, surfactant, ethanol, water, and functional silane, preferential ethanol evaporation during dip-coating, causes water enrichment and selective de-wetting of the hydrophobic SAMS. Correspondingly, film deposition occurs exclusively on the patterned hydrophilic SAMS. In addition, by co-condensation of tetrafunctional silanes (Si(OR){sub 4}) with tri-functional organosilanes ((RO){sub 3}Si(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}NH{sub 2}), the authors have selectively derived the silica framework with functional amine NH{sub 2} groups. A pH sensitive, micro-fluidic system was formed by further conjugation reactions with pH sensitive dye molecules.

  10. Crude Oil and Lease Condensate Wet Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. proved reserves, and reserves changes, 2013-2014 Crude Oil and Lease Condensate Wet Natural Gas billion barrels trillion cubic feet U.S. proved reserves at December 31, 2013 36.5 354.0 Total discoveries 5.4 50.5 Net revisions 0.4 1.0 Net Adjustments, Sales, Acquisitions 0.8 11.5 Production -3.2 -28.1 Net additions to U.S. proved reserves 3.4 34.8 U.S. proved reserves at December 31, 2014 39.9 388.8 Percent change in U.S. proved reserves 9.3% 9.8% Percent change calculated from unrounded

  11. Wet oxidation of high-concentration reactive dyes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, G.; Lei, L.; Yue, P.L.

    1999-05-01

    Advanced oxidation methods were used to degrade reactive dyes at high concentrations in aqueous solutions. Wet peroxide oxidation (WPO) was found to be the best method in terms of the removal of color and total organic carbon (TOC). Reactive blue (Basilen Brilliant Blue P-3R) was chosen as a model dye for determining the suitable reaction conditions. The variables studied include reaction temperature, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dosage, solution pH, dye concentration, and catalyst usage. The removal of TOC and color by wet oxidation is very sensitive to the reaction temperature. At 150 C, the removal of 77% TOC and 90% color was obtained in less than 30 min. The initial TOC removal rate is proportional to the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dosage. The TOC removal is insignificant even when 50% of the stoichiometric amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is used. No color change is observed until the dosage of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is 100% of the stoichiometric amount. The color removal is closely related to TOC removal. When the pH of the solution is adjusted to 3.5, the dye degradation rate increases significantly. The rates of TOC and color removal are enhanced by using a Cu{sup 2+} catalyst. Another four reactive dyes, Procion Red PX-4B, Cibacron Yellow P-6GS, Cibacron Brown P-6R, and Procion Black PX-2R, were treated at 150 C using WPO. More than 80% TOC was removed from the solution in less than 15 min. The process can remove the colors of al these dyes except Procion Black PX-2R.

  12. Mass fractal characteristics of wet sonogels as determined by small-angle x-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vollet, D. R.; Donatti, D. A.; Ibanez Ruiz, A.; Gatto, F. R. [Departamento de Fisica, Unesp-Univerisdade Estadual Paulista, IGCE, P.O. Box 178 CEP 13500-970 Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    Low density silica sonogels were prepared from acid sonohydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane. Wet gels were studied by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The DSC tests were carried out under a heating rate of 2 deg. C/min from -120 deg. C up to 30 deg. C. Aerogels were obtained by CO{sub 2} supercritical extraction and characterized by nitrogen adsorption and SAXS. The DSC thermogram displays two distinct endothermic peaks. The first, a broad peak extending from about -80 deg. C up to practically 0 deg. C, was associated to the melting of ice nanocrystals with a crystal size distribution with 'pore' diameter ranging from 1 or 2 nm up to about 60 nm, as estimated from Thomson's equation. The second, a sharp peak with onset temperature close to 0 deg. C, was attributed to the melting of macroscopic crystals. The DSC incremental 'nanopore' volume distribution is in reasonable agreement with the incremental pore volume distribution of the aerogel as determined from nitrogen adsorption. No macroporosity was detected by nitrogen adsorption, probably because the adsorption method applies stress on the sample during measurement, leading to a underestimation of pore volume, or because often positive curvature of the solid surface is in aerogels, making the nitrogen condensation more difficult. According to the SAXS results, the solid network of the wet gels behaves as a mass fractal structure with mass fractal dimension D=2.20{+-}0.01 in a characteristic length scale below {xi}=7.9{+-}0.1 nm. The mass fractal characteristics of the wet gels have also been probed from DSC data by means of an earlier applied modeling for generation of a mass fractal from the incremental ''pore'' volume distribution curves. The results are shown to be in interesting agreement with the results from SAXS.

  13. Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical Investigation Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical Investigation Print Wednesday,...

  14. Palladium diffusion into bulk copper via the (100) surface.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bussmann, Ezra; Pohl, Karsten; Sun, Jiebing; Kellogg, Gary Lee

    2009-01-01

    Using low-energy electron microscopy, we measure the diffusion of Pd into bulk Cu at the Cu(100) surface. Interdiffusion is tracked by measuring the dissolution of the Cu(100)-c(2 x 2)-Pd surface alloy during annealing (T > 240 C). The activation barrier for Pd diffusion from the surface alloy into the bulk is determined to be (1.8 {+-} 0.6) eV. During annealing, we observe the growth of a new layer of Cu near step edges. Under this new Cu layer, dilute Pd remaining near the surface develops a layered structure similar to the Cu{sub 3}Pd L 1{sub 2} bulk alloy phase.

  15. Preparation of bulk superhard B-C-N nanocomposite compact

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yusheng; He, Duanwei

    2011-05-10

    Bulk, superhard, B--C--N nanocomposite compacts were prepared by ball milling a mixture of graphite and hexagonal boron nitride, encapsulating the ball-milled mixture at a pressure in a range of from about 15 GPa to about 25 GPa, and sintering the pressurized encapsulated ball-milled mixture at a temperature in a range of from about 1800-2500 K. The product bulk, superhard, nanocomposite compacts were well sintered compacts with nanocrystalline grains of at least one high-pressure phase of B--C--N surrounded by amorphous diamond-like carbon grain boundaries. The bulk compacts had a measured Vicker's hardness in a range of from about 41 GPa to about 68 GPa.

  16. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.W.

    1994-09-06

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed which provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation. 4 figs.

  17. Energy in density gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vranjes, J.; Kono, M.

    2015-01-15

    Inhomogeneous plasmas and fluids contain energy stored in inhomogeneity and they naturally tend to relax into lower energy states by developing instabilities or by diffusion. But the actual amount of energy in such inhomogeneities has remained unknown. In the present work, the amount of energy stored in a density gradient is calculated for several specific density profiles in a cylindrical configuration. This is of practical importance for drift wave instability in various plasmas, and, in particular, in its application in models dealing with the heating of solar corona because the instability is accompanied with stochastic heating, so the energy contained in inhomogeneity is effectively transformed into heat. It is shown that even for a rather moderate increase of the density at the axis in magnetic structures in the corona by a factor 1.5 or 3, the amount of excess energy per unit volume stored in such a density gradient becomes several orders of magnitude greater than the amount of total energy losses per unit volume (per second) in quiet regions in the corona. Consequently, within the life-time of a magnetic structure such energy losses can easily be compensated by the stochastic drift wave heating.

  18. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed wh provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation.

  19. Properties of Bulk Sintered Silver As a Function of Porosity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Vuono, Daniel J; Wang, Hsin; Ferber, Mattison K; Liang, Zhenxian

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes a study where various properties of bulk-sintered silver were investigated over a range of porosity. This work was conducted within the National Transportation Research Center's Power Device Packaging project that is part of the DOE Vehicle Technologies Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program. Sintered silver, as an interconnect material in power electronics, inherently has porosity in its produced structure because of the way it is made. Therefore, interest existed in this study to examine if that porosity affected electrical properties, thermal properties, and mechanical properties because any dependencies could affect the intended function (e.g., thermal transfer, mechanical stress relief, etc.) or reliability of that interconnect layer and alter how its performance is modeled. Disks of bulk-sintered silver were fabricated using different starting silver pastes and different sintering conditions to promote different amounts of porosity. Test coupons were harvested out of the disks to measure electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress. The authors fully recognize that the microstructure of processed bulk silver coupons may indeed not be identical to the microstructure produced in thin (20-50 microns) layers of sintered silver. However, measuring these same properties with such a thin actual structure is very difficult, requires very specialized specimen preparation and unique testing instrumentation, is expensive, and has experimental shortfalls of its own, so the authors concluded that the herein measured responses using processed bulk sintered silver coupons would be sufficient to determine acceptable values of those properties. Almost all the investigated properties of bulk sintered silver changed with porosity content within a range of 3-38% porosity. Electrical resistivity, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress all depended on the porosity content in bulk-sintered silver. The only investigated property that was independent of porosity in that range was coefficient of thermal expansion.

  20. On-Site and Bulk Hydrogen Storage | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Delivery » On-Site and Bulk Hydrogen Storage On-Site and Bulk Hydrogen Storage On-site hydrogen storage is used at central hydrogen production facilities, transport terminals, and end-use locations. Storage options today include insulated liquid tanks and gaseous storage tanks. The four types of common high pressure gaseous storage vessels are shown in the table. Type I All-metal cylinder Type II Load-bearing metal liner hoop wrapped with resin-impregnated continuous filament Type III

  1. High density crystalline boron prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoenig, C.L.

    1993-08-31

    Boron powder is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce a solid boron monolith with a bulk density at least 2.22 g/cc and up to or greater than 2.34 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed or chemical vapor deposited onto a powder compact. Hot isostatic pressing at 1,800 C and 30 PSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for four hours produces a bulk density of 2.34 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made.

  2. High density-high purity graphite prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoenig, C.L.

    1994-08-09

    Porous graphite in solid form is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce a solid graphite monolith with a bulk density greater than or equal to 2.10 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed, chemically vapor deposited, or coated by some other suitable means onto graphite. Hot isostatic pressing at 2,200 C and 30 KSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for two hours produces a bulk density of 2.10 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made. 1 fig.

  3. High density crystalline boron prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoenig, Clarence L. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    Boron powder is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce a solid boron monolith with a bulk density at least 2.22 g/cc and up to or greater than 2.34 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed or chemical vapor deposited onto a powder compact. Hot isostatic pressing at 1800.degree. C. and 30 KSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for four hours produces a bulk density of 2.34 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made.

  4. High density-high purity graphite prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoenig, Clarence L. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    Porous graphite in solid form is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce a solid graphite monolith with a bulk density greater than or equal to 2.10 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed, chemically vapor deposited, or coated by some other suitable means onto graphite. Hot isostatic pressing at 2200.degree. C. and 30 KSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for two hours produces a bulk density of 2.10 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made.

  5. Density Log | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Density Log Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Density Log Details Activities (7) Areas (6) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration...

  6. Rock Density | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Density Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Rock Density Details Activities (2) Areas (2) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique...

  7. Synthesis of bulk superhard semiconducting B-C material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solozhenko, Vladimir L.; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia A.; Dubrovinsky, Leonid S.

    2004-08-30

    A bulk composite superhard material was synthesized from graphitelike BC{sub 3} at 20 GPa and 2300 K using a multianvil press. The material consists of intergrown boron carbide B{sub 4}C and B-doped diamond with 1.8 at.%B. The material exhibits semiconducting behavior and extreme hardness comparable with that of single-crystal diamond.

  8. Permanent magnet with MgB{sub 2} bulk superconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Akiyasu, E-mail: yamamoto@appchem.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); JST-PRESTO, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Ishihara, Atsushi; Tomita, Masaru [Railway Technical Research Institute, 2-8-38 Hikari, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8540 (Japan); Kishio, Kohji [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-07-21

    Superconductors with persistent zero-resistance currents serve as permanent magnets for high-field applications requiring a strong and stable magnetic field, such as magnetic resonance imaging. The recent global helium shortage has quickened research into high-temperature superconductors (HTSs)materials that can be used without conventional liquid-helium cooling to 4.2?K. Herein, we demonstrate that 40-K-class metallic HTS magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}) makes an excellent permanent bulk magnet, maintaining 3?T at 20?K for 1 week with an extremely high stability (<0.1 ppm/h). The magnetic field trapped in this magnet is uniformly distributed, as for single-crystalline neodymium-iron-boron. Magnetic hysteresis loop of the MgB{sub 2} permanent bulk magnet was determined. Because MgB{sub 2} is a simple-binary-line compound that does not contain rare-earth metals, polycrystalline bulk material can be industrially fabricated at low cost and with high yield to serve as strong magnets that are compatible with conventional compact cryocoolers, making MgB{sub 2} bulks promising for the next generation of Tesla-class permanent-magnet applications.

  9. Bulk and surface controlled diffusion of fission gas atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersson, Anders D.

    2012-08-09

    Fission gas retention and release impact nuclear fuel performance by, e.g., causing fuel swelling leading to mechanical interaction with the clad, increasing the plenum pressure and reducing the gap thermal conductivity. All of these processes are important to understand in order to optimize operating conditions of nuclear reactors and to simulate accident scenarios. Most fission gases have low solubility in the fuel matrix, which is especially pronounced for large fission gas atoms such as Xe and Kr, and as a result there is a significant driving force for segregation of gas atoms to extended defects such as grain boundaries or dislocations and subsequently for nucleation of gas bubbles at these sinks. Several empirical or semi-empirical models have been developed for fission gas release in nuclear fuels, e.g. [1-6]. One of the most commonly used models in fuel performance codes was published by Massih and Forsberg [3,4,6]. This model is similar to the early Booth model [1] in that it applies an equivalent sphere to separate bulk UO{sub 2} from grain boundaries represented by the sphere circumference. Compared to the Booth model, it also captures trapping at grain boundaries, fission gas resolution and it describes release from the boundary by applying timedependent boundary conditions to the circumference. In this work we focus on the step where fission gas atoms diffuse from the grain interior to the grain boundaries. The original Massih-Forsberg model describes this process by applying an effective diffusivity divided into three temperature regimes. In this report we present results from density functional theory calculations (DFT) that are relevant for the high (D{sub 3}) and intermediate (D{sub 2}) temperature diffusivities of fission gases. The results are validated by making a quantitative comparison to Turnbull's [8-10] and Matzke's data [12]. For the intrinsic or high temperature regime we report activation energies for both Xe and Kr diffusion in UO{sub 2{+-}x}, which compare favorably to available experiments. This is an extension of previous work [13]. In particular, it applies improved chemistry models for the UO{sub 2{+-}x} nonstoichiometry and its impact on the fission gas activation energies. The derivation of these models follows the approach that used in our recent study of uranium vacancy diffusion in UO{sub 2} [14]. Also, based on the calculated DFT data we analyze vacancy enhanced diffusion mechanisms in the intermediate temperature regime. In addition to vacancy enhanced diffusion we investigate species transport on the (111) UO{sub 2} surface. This is motivated by the formation of small voids partially filled with fission gas atoms (bubbles) in UO{sub 2} under irradiation, for which surface diffusion could be the rate-limiting transport step. Diffusion of such bubbles constitutes an alternative mechanism for mass transport in these materials.

  10. Gedanken densities and exact constraints in density functional theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perdew, John P.; Department of Chemistry, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 ; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Sun, Jianwei; Burke, Kieron

    2014-05-14

    Approximations to the exact density functional for the exchange-correlation energy of a many-electron ground state can be constructed by satisfying constraints that are universal, i.e., valid for all electron densities. Gedanken densities are designed for the purpose of this construction, but need not be realistic. The uniform electron gas is an old gedanken density. Here, we propose a spherical two-electron gedanken density in which the dimensionless density gradient can be an arbitrary positive constant wherever the density is non-zero. The Lieb-Oxford lower bound on the exchange energy can be satisfied within a generalized gradient approximation (GGA) by bounding its enhancement factor or simplest GGA exchange-energy density. This enhancement-factor bound is well known to be sufficient, but our gedanken density shows that it is also necessary. The conventional exact exchange-energy density satisfies no such local bound, but energy densities are not unique, and the simplest GGA exchange-energy density is not an approximation to it. We further derive a strongly and optimally tightened bound on the exchange enhancement factor of a two-electron density, which is satisfied by the local density approximation but is violated by all published GGA's or meta-GGAs. Finally, some consequences of the non-uniform density-scaling behavior for the asymptotics of the exchange enhancement factor of a GGA or meta-GGA are given.

  11. A COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-09-29

    In May 2006, CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. chartered an Expert Review Panel (ERP) to review the current status of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS). It is the consensus of the ERP that bulk vitrification is a technology that requires further development and evaluation to determine its potential for meeting the Hanford waste stabilization mission. No fatal flaws (issues that would jeopardize the overall DBVS mission that cannot be mitigated) were found, given the current state of the project. However, a number of technical issues were found that could significantly affect the project's ability to meet its overall mission as stated in the project ''Justification of Mission Need'' document, if not satisfactorily resolved. The ERP recognizes that the project has changed from an accelerated schedule demonstration project to a formally chartered project that must be in full compliance with DOE 413.3 requirements. The perspective of the ERP presented herein, is measured against the formally chartered project as stated in the approved Justification of Mission Need document. A justification of Mission Need document was approved in July 2006 which defined the objectives for the DBVS Project. In this document, DOE concluded that bulk vitrification is a viable technology that requires additional development to determine its potential applicability to treatment of a portion of the Hanford low activity waste. The DBVS mission need statement now includes the following primary objectives: (1) process approximately 190,000 gallons of Tank S-109 waste into fifty 100 metric ton boxes of vitrified product; (2) store and dispose of these boxes at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF); (3) evaluate the waste form characteristics; (4) gather pilot plant operability data, and (5) develop the overall life cycle system performance of bulk vitrification and produce a comparison of the bulk vitrification process to building a second LAW Immobilization facility or other supplemental treatment alternatives as provided in M-62-08.

  12. Preparation of extrusions of bulk mixed oxide compounds with high macroporosity and mechanical strength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA); Jothimurugesan, Kandaswami (Baton Rouge, LA)

    1990-01-01

    A simple and effective method for producing bulk single and mixed oxide absorbents and catalysts is disclosed. The method yields bulk single oxide and mixed oxide absorbent and catalyst materials which combine a high macroporosity with relatively high surface area and good mechanical strength. The materials are prepared in a pellet form using as starting compounds, calcined powders of the desired composition and physical properties these powders are crushed to broad particle size distribution, and, optionally may be combined with an inorganic clay binder. The necessary amount of water is added to form a paste which is extruded, dried and heat treated to yield and desired extrudate strength. The physical properties of the extruded materials (density, macroporosity and surface area) are substantially the same as the constituent powder is the temperature of the heat treatment of the extrudates is approximately the same as the calcination temperature of the powder. If the former is substantially higher than the latter, the surface area decreases, but the macroporosity of the extrusions remains essentially constant.

  13. Achieving large linear elasticity and high strength in bulk nanocompsite via synergistic effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, Shijie; Cui, Lishan; Guo, Fangmin; Liu, Yinong; Shi, Xiaobin; Jiang, Daqiang; Brown, Dennis E.; Ren, Yang

    2015-03-09

    Elastic strain in bulk metallic materials is usually limited to only a fraction of 1%. Developing bulk metallic materials showing large linear elasticity and high strength has proven to be difficult. Here, based on the synergistic effect between nanowires and orientated martensite NiTi shape memory alloy, we developed an in-situ Nb nanowires -orientated martensitic NiTi matrix composite showing an ultra-large linear elastic strain of 4% and an ultrahigh yield strength of 1.8 GPa. This material also has a high mechanical energy storage efficiency of 96% and a high energy storage density of 36 J/cm that is almost one order of larger than that of spring steel. It is demonstrated that the synergistic effect allows the exceptional mechanical properties of nanowires to be harvested at macro scale and the mechanical properties of matrix to be greatly improved, resulting in these superior properties. This study provides new avenues for developing advanced composites with superior properties by using effective synergistic effect between components.

  14. Effects of Magnetic Nanoparticles and External Magnetostatic Field on the Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Kai; Yi, Chao; Liu, Chang; Hu, Xiaowen; Chuang, Steven; Gong, Xiong

    2015-03-18

    The price of energy to separate tightly bound electron-hole pair (or charge-transfer state) and extract freely movable charges from low-mobility materials represents fundamental losses for many low-cost photovoltaic devices. In bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs), approximately 50% of the total efficiency lost among all energy loss pathways is due to the photogenerated charge carrier recombination within PSCs and low charge carrier mobility of disordered organic materials. To address these issues, we introduce magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and orientate these MNPS within BHJ composite by an external magnetostatic field. Over 50% enhanced efficiency was observed from BHJ PSCs incorporated with MNPs and an external magnetostatic field alignment when compared to the control BHJ PSCs. The optimization of BHJ thin film morphology, suppression of charge carrier recombination, and enhancement in charge carrier collection result in a greatly increased short-circuit current density and fill factor, as a result, enhanced power conversion efficiency.

  15. 1987 wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.

    1990-03-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1987 and spatial patterns for 1987. The report investigates the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Data are from the Acid Deposition System (ADS) for the statistical reporting of North American deposition data which includes the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN), the MAP3S precipitation chemistry network, the Utility Acid Precipitation Study Program (UAPSP), the Canadian Precipitation Monitoring Network (CAPMoN), and the daily and 4-weekly Acidic Precipitation in Ontario Study (APIOS-D and APIOS-C). Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1987 annual, winter, and summer periods. The temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 39 sites over a 9-year (1979--1987) period and an expanded subset of 140 sites with greater spatial coverage over a 6-year (1982--1987) period. 68 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Quantitative comparison of organic photovoltaic bulk heterojunction photostability under laser illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesoine, Michael D.; Bobbitt, Jonathan M.; Carr, John A.; Elshobaki, Moneim; Chaudhary, Sumit; Smith, Emily A.

    2014-11-20

    The photostability of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic films containing a polymer donor and a fullerene-derivative acceptor was examined using resonance Raman spectroscopy and controlled laser power densities. The polymer donors were poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT), poly[[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophenediyl] (PCDTBT), or poly({4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl}) (PTB7). Four sample preparation methods were studied: (i) thin or (ii) thick films with fast solvent evaporation under nitrogen, (iii) thick films with slow solvent evaporation under nitrogen, and (iv) thin films dried under nitrogen followed by thermal annealing. Polymer order was assessed by monitoring a Raman peaks full width at half-maximum and location as a function of illumination time and laser power densities from 2.5 103 to 2.5 105 W cm2. Resonance Raman spectroscopy measurements show that before prolonged illumination, PCDTBT and PTB7 have the same initial order for all preparation conditions, while P3HT order improves with slow solvent drying or thermal annealing. All films exhibited changes to bulk heterojunction structure with 2.5 105 Wcm2 laser illumination as measured by resonance Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy images show evidence of sample heating that affects the polymer over an area greater than the illumination profile. Furthermore, photostability data are important for proper characterization by techniques involving illumination and the development of devices suitable for real-world applications.

  17. Quantitative comparison of organic photovoltaic bulk heterojunction photostability under laser illumination

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lesoine, Michael D.; Bobbitt, Jonathan M.; Carr, John A.; Elshobaki, Moneim; Chaudhary, Sumit; Smith, Emily A.

    2014-11-20

    The photostability of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic films containing a polymer donor and a fullerene-derivative acceptor was examined using resonance Raman spectroscopy and controlled laser power densities. The polymer donors were poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT), poly[[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophenediyl] (PCDTBT), or poly({4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl}) (PTB7). Four sample preparation methods were studied: (i) thin or (ii) thick films with fast solvent evaporation under nitrogen, (iii) thick films with slow solvent evaporation under nitrogen, and (iv) thin films dried under nitrogen followed by thermal annealing. Polymer order was assessed by monitoring a Raman peak’s full width at half-maximum and location as a function of illumination time and laser powermore » densities from 2.5 × 103 to 2.5 × 105 W cm–2. Resonance Raman spectroscopy measurements show that before prolonged illumination, PCDTBT and PTB7 have the same initial order for all preparation conditions, while P3HT order improves with slow solvent drying or thermal annealing. All films exhibited changes to bulk heterojunction structure with 2.5 × 105 Wcm–2 laser illumination as measured by resonance Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy images show evidence of sample heating that affects the polymer over an area greater than the illumination profile. Furthermore, photostability data are important for proper characterization by techniques involving illumination and the development of devices suitable for real-world applications.« less

  18. High Energy Density Capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: Recapping is developing a capacitor that could rival the energy storage potential and price of todays best EV batteries. When power is needed, the capacitor rapidly releases its stored energy, similar to lightning being discharged from a cloud. Capacitors are an ideal substitute for batteries if their energy storage capacity can be improved. Recapping is addressing storage capacity by experimenting with the material that separates the positive and negative electrodes of its capacitors. These separators could significantly improve the energy density of electrochemical devices.

  19. Method of fabricating an optoelectronic device having a bulk heterojunction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shtein, Max (Ann Arbor, MI); Yang, Fan (Princeton, NJ); Forrest, Stephen R. (Princeton, NJ)

    2008-10-14

    A method of fabricating an optoelectronic device comprises: depositing a first layer having protrusions over a first electrode, in which the first layer comprises a first organic small molecule material; depositing a second layer on the first layer such that the second layer is in physical contact with the first layer; in which the smallest lateral dimension of the protrusions are between 1 to 5 times the exciton diffusion length of the first organic small molecule material; and depositing a second electrode over the second layer to form the optoelectronic device. A method of fabricating an organic optoelectronic device having a bulk heterojunction is also provided and comprises: depositing a first layer with protrusions over an electrode by organic vapor phase deposition; depositing a second layer on the first layer where the interface of the first and second layers forms a bulk heterojunction; and depositing another electrode over the second layer.

  20. High-Quality, Low-Cost Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Quality, Low- Cost Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrates Electrochemical Solution Growth: A Scalable Semiconductor Manufacturing Process The ever-growing demand in the past decade for more energy effcient solid-state lighting and electrical power conversion is leading to a higher demand for wide bandgap semiconductor-based devices, such as gallium nitride (GaN), over traditional silicon (Si)-based devices. High cost and limited availability, how- ever, have hindered the adoption of GaN substrates

  1. A restoration model of distorted electron density in wave-cutoff probe measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jun, Hyun-Su Lee, Yun-Seong

    2014-02-15

    This study investigates the problem of electron density distortion and how the density can be restored in a wave-cutoff probe. Despite recent plasma diagnostics research using a wave-cutoff probe, the problem of electron density distortion caused by plasma conditions has not been resolved. Experimental results indicate that electron density measured using the wave-cutoff method is highly susceptible to variations in the probe tip gap. This electron density distortion is caused by the bulk plasma disturbance between probe tips, and it must be removed for calculating the absolute electron density. To do this, a detailed analytic model was developed using the power balance equation near probe tips. This model demonstrates the characteristics of plasma distortion in wave-cutoff probe measurement and successfully restored the absolute value of electron density with varying probe tip gaps.

  2. Dynamics of dendritic polymers in the bulk and under confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrissopoulou, K.; Fotiadou, S.; Androulaki, K.; Anastasiadis, S. H.; Tanis, I.; Karatasos, K.; Prevosto, D.; Labardi, M.; Frick, B.

    2014-05-15

    The structure and dynamics of a hyperbranched polyesteramide (Hybrane S 1200) polymer and its nanocomposites with natural montmorillonite (Na{sup +}-MMT) are investigated by XRD, DSC, QENS, DS and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation. In bulk, the energy-resolved elastically scattered intensity from the polymer exhibits two relaxation steps, one attributed to sub-T{sub g} motions and one observed at temperatures above the glass transition, T{sub g}. The QENS spectra measured over the complete temperature range are consistent with the elastic measurements and can be correlated to the results emerging from the detailed description afforded by the atomistic simulations, which predict the existence of three relaxation processes. Moreover, dielectric spectroscopy shows the sub- T{sub g} beta process as well as the segmental relaxation. For the nanocomposites, XRD reveals an intercalated structure for all hybrids with distinct interlayer distances due to polymer chains residing within the galleries of the Na{sup +}-MMT. The polymer chains confined within the galleries show similarities in the behavior with that of the polymer in the bulk for temperatures below the bulk polymer T{sub g}, whereas they exhibit frozen dynamics under confinement at temperatures higher than that.

  3. Low density microcellular foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeMay, J.D.

    1991-11-19

    Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular foam which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 [mu]m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process. 8 figures.

  4. Low density microcellular foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeMay, James D. (Castro Valley, CA)

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular foam which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 .mu.m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process.

  5. Low density microcellular foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeMay, James D. (Castro Valley, CA)

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular from which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 .mu.m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process.

  6. Low density microcellular foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aubert, James H. (Albuquerque, NM); Clough, Roger L. (Albuquerque, NM); Curro, John G. (Placitas, NM); Quintana, Carlos A. (Albuquerque, NM); Russick, Edward M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shaw, Montgomery T. (Mansfield Center, CT)

    1987-01-01

    Low density, microporous polymer foams are provided by a process which comprises forming a solution of polymer and a suitable solvent followed by rapid cooling of the solution to form a phase-separated system and freeze the phase-separated system. The phase-separated system comprises a polymer phase and a solvent phase, each of which is substantially continuous within the other. The morphology of the polymer phase prior to and subsequent to freezing determine the morphology of the resultant foam. Both isotropic and anisotropic foams can be produced. If isotropic foams are produced, the polymer and solvent are tailored such that the solution spontaneously phase-separates prior to the point at which any component freezes. The morphology of the resultant polymer phase determines the morphology of the resultant foam and the morphology of the polymer phase is retained by cooling the system at a rate sufficient to freeze one or both components of the system before a change in morphology can occur. Anisotropic foams are produced by forming a solution of polymer and solvent that will not phase separate prior to freezing of one or both components of the solution. In such a process, the solvent typically freezes before phase separation occurs. The morphology of the resultant frozen two-phase system determines the morphology of the resultant foam. The process involves subjecting the solution to essentially one-dimensional cooling. Means for subjecting such a solvent to one-dimensional cooling are also provided. Foams having a density of less than 0.1 g/cc and a uniform cell size of less than 10 .mu.m and a volume such that the foams have a length greater than 1 cm are provided.

  7. Low density microcellular foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aubert, J.H.; Clough, R.L.; Curro, J.G.; Quintana, C.A.; Russick, E.M.; Shaw, M.T.

    1985-10-02

    Low density, microporous polymer foams are provided by a process which comprises forming a solution of polymer and a suitable solvent followed by rapid cooling of the solution to form a phase-separated system and freeze the phase-separated system. The phase-separated system comprises a polymer phase and a solvent phase, each of which is substantially continuous within the other. The morphology of the polymer phase prior to and subsequent to freezing determine the morphology of the resultant foam. Both isotropic and anisotropic foams can be produced. If isotropic foams are produced, the polymer and solvent are tailored such that the solution spontaneously phase-separates prior to the point at which any component freezes. The morphology of the resultant polymer phase determines the morphology of the reusltant foam and the morphology of the polymer phase is retained by cooling the system at a rate sufficient to freeze one or both components of the system before a change in morphology can occur. Anisotropic foams are produced by forming a solution of polymer and solvent that will not phase separate prior to freezing of one or both components of the solution. In such a process, the solvent typically freezes before phase separation occurs. The morphology of the resultant frozen two-phase system determines the morphology of the resultant foam. The process involves subjecting the solution to essentially one-dimensional cooling. Foams having a density of less than 0.1 g/cc and a uniform cell size of less than 10 ..mu..m and a volume such that the foams have a length greater than 1 cm are provided.

  8. Passivation dynamics in the anisotropic deposition and stripping of bulk magnesium electrodes during electrochemical cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetzel, David J.; Malone, Marvin A.; Haasch, Richard T.; Meng, Yifei; Vieker, Henning; Hahn, Nathan; Golzhauser, Armin; Zuo, Jian-Min; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Gewirth, Andrew A.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.

    2015-08-10

    Rechargeable magnesium (Mg) batteries show promise for use as a next generation technology for high-density energy storage, though little is known about the Mg anode solid electrolyte interphase and its implications for the performance and durability of a Mg-based battery. We explore in this report passivation effects engendered during the electrochemical cycling of a bulk Mg anode, characterizing their influences during metal deposition and dissolution in a simple, nonaqueous, Grignard electrolyte solution (ethylmagnesium bromide, EtMgBr, in tetrahydrofuran). Scanning electron microscopy images of Mg foil working electrodes after electrochemical polarization to dissolution potentials show the formation of corrosion pits. The pit densities so evidenced are markedly potential-dependent. When the Mg working electrode is cycled both potentiostatically and galvanostatically in EtMgBr these pits, formed due to passive layer breakdown, act as the foci for subsequent electrochemical activity. Detailed microscopy, diffraction, and spectroscopic data show that further passivation and corrosion results in the anisotropic stripping of the Mg {0001} plane, leaving thin oxide-comprising passivated side wall structures that demark the {0001} fiber texture of the etched Mg grains. Upon long-term cycling, oxide side walls formed due to the pronounced crystallographic anisotropy of the anodic stripping processes, leading to complex overlay anisotropic, columnar structures, exceeding 50 ?m in height. Finally, the passive responses mediating the growth of these structures appear to be an intrinsic feature of the electrochemical growth and dissolution of Mg using this electrolyte.

  9. Passivation Dynamics in the Anisotropic Deposition and Stripping of Bulk Magnesium Electrodes During Electrochemical Cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetzel, David J.; Malone, Marvin A.; Haasch, Richard T.; Meng, Yifei; Vieker, Henning; Hahn, Nathan; Golzhauser, Armin; Zuo, Jian-Min; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Gewirth, Andrew A.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.

    2015-08-10

    Rechargeable magnesium (Mg) batteries show promise for use as a next generation technology for high-density energy storage, though little is known about the Mg anode solid electrolyte interphase and its implications for the performance and durability of a Mg-based battery. We explore in this report passivation effects engendered during the electrochemical cycling of a bulk Mg anode, characterizing their influences during metal deposition and dissolution in a simple, nonaqueous, Grignard electrolyte solution (ethylmagnesium bromide, EtMgBr, in tetrahydrofuran). Scanning electron microscopy images of Mg foil working electrodes after electrochemical polarization to dissolution potentials show the formation of corrosion pits. The pit densities so evidenced are markedly potential-dependent. When the Mg working electrode is cycled both potentiostatically and galvanostatically in EtMgBr these pits, formed due to passive layer breakdown, act as the foci for subsequent electrochemical activity. Detailed microscopy, diffraction, and spectroscopic data show that further passivation and corrosion results in the anisotropic stripping of the Mg {0001} plane, leaving thin oxide-comprising passivated side wall structures that demark the {0001} fiber texture of the etched Mg grains. Upon long-term cycling, oxide side walls formed due to the pronounced crystallographic anisotropy of the anodic stripping processes, leading to complex overlay anisotropic, columnar structures, exceeding 50 ?m in height. Finally, the passive responses mediating the growth of these structures appear to be an intrinsic feature of the electrochemical growth and dissolution of Mg using this electrolyte.

  10. WETTABILITY AND IMBIBITION: MICROSCOPIC DISTRIBUTION OF WETTING AND ITS CONSEQUENCES AT THE CORE AND FIELD SCALES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow; Chris Palmer; Purnendu K. Dasgupta

    2003-02-01

    The questions of reservoir wettability have been approached in this project from three directions. First, we have studied the properties of crude oils that contribute to wetting alteration in a reservoir. A database of more than 150 different crude oil samples has been established to facilitate examination of the relationships between crude oil chemical and physical properties and their influence on reservoir wetting. In the course of this work an improved SARA analysis technique was developed and major advances were made in understanding asphaltene stability including development of a thermodynamic Asphaltene Solubility Model (ASM) and empirical methods for predicting the onset of instability. The CO-Wet database is a resource that will be used to guide wettability research in the future. The second approach is to study crude oil/brine/rock interactions on smooth surfaces. Contact angle measurements were made under controlled conditions on mica surfaces that had been exposed to many of the oils in the CO-Wet database. With this wealth of data, statistical tests can now be used to examine the relationships between crude oil properties and the tendencies of those oils to alter wetting. Traditionally, contact angles have been used as the primary wetting assessment tool on smooth surfaces. A new technique has been developed using an atomic forces microscope that adds a new dimension to the ability to characterize oil-treated surfaces. Ultimately we aim to understand wetting in porous media, the focus of the third approach taken in this project. Using oils from the CO-Wet database, experimental advances have been made in scaling the rate of imbibition, a sensitive measure of core wetting. Application of the scaling group to mixed-wet systems has been demonstrated for a range of core conditions. Investigations of imbibition in gas/liquid systems provided the motivation for theoretical advances as well. As a result of this project we have many new tools for studying wetting at microscopic and macroscopic scales and a library of well-characterized fluids for use in studies of crude oil/brine/rock interactions.

  11. High Energy Density Microwaves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, R.M. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States)

    1999-04-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the RF98 Workshop entitled `High Energy Density Microwaves` held in California in October, 1998. The topics discussed were predominantly accelerator{minus}related. The Workshop dealt, for the most part, with the generation and control of electron beams, the amplification of RF signals, the design of mode converters, and the effect of very high RF field gradients. This Workshop was designed to address the concerns of the microwave tube industry worldwide, the plasma physicists who deal with very high beam currents and gigawatts of RF power, and researchers in accelerator centers around the world. Papers were presented on multibeam klystrons, gyrotron development, plasmas in microwave tubes, RF breakdown, and alternatives to conventional linear coliders at 1 TeV and above. The Workshop was partially sponsored by the US Department of Energy. There were 46 papers presented at the conference,out of which 19 have been abstracted for the Energy,Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  12. ChemCam follows the 'Yellowknife Road' to Martian wet area

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    'Yellowknife Road' to martian wet area ChemCam follows the 'Yellowknife Road' to martian wet area Researchers have tracked a trail of minerals that point to the prior presence of water at the Curiosity rover site on Mars. January 15, 2013 The Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity Rover recently took this photo of the Martian landscape looking toward Mount Sharp while on its way toward Yellowknife Bay-an area where researchers have found minerals indicating the past presence of water. (NASA Photo)

  13. Safety Aspects of Wet Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel, OAS-L-13-11

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Safety Aspects of Wet Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel OAS-L-13-11 July 2013 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 July 10, 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR THE SENIOR ADVISOR FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT FROM: Daniel M. Weeber Assistant Inspector General for Audits and Administration Office of Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Audit Report on "Safety Aspects of Wet Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel" BACKGROUND The Department of Energy (Department) is responsible for managing and storing spent

  14. Heat Transfer Characteristics of the Wet Thermal Insulator with Multi-layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jong-Won Kim; Goon-Cherl Park; Tae-Wan Kim; Doo-Jeong Lee

    2006-07-01

    SMART developed in KAERI is an integral type nuclear cogeneration reactor. SMART uses a nitrogen-filled gas pressurizer so that the steam partial pressure should be minimized and the pressurizer should be under low temperature condition. To sustain the low temperature condition, the wet thermal insulator and pressurizer cooler are installed in the pressurizer. Since the performance of wet thermal insulator is an important parameter to determine the size of the pressurizer cooler, it is important to evaluate the insulation performance of the wet thermal insulator. The wet thermal insulators with 20 layers are installed in SMART. In the design of SMART, the empirical correlation by Adamovich was used to estimate the thermal resistance of the wet thermal insulator. However, the experimental condition and results are not clear so that this correlation should be verified. To analyze the heat transfer characteristics of the multi-layer wet thermal insulator, natural convective heat transport through horizontal and vertical water-filled layers is investigated. Experiments and numerical analyses have been performed to evaluate the heat transfer rates through multi-layer and verify Adamovich correlation. In addition, a new multi-layer correlation was obtained. (authors)

  15. Method for providing a low density high strength polyurethane foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whinnery, Jr., Leroy L.; Goods, Steven H.; Skala, Dawn M.; Henderson, Craig C.; Keifer, Patrick N.

    2013-06-18

    Disclosed is a method for making a polyurethane closed-cell foam material exhibiting a bulk density below 4 lbs/ft.sup.3 and high strength. The present embodiment uses the reaction product of a modified MDI and a sucrose/glycerine based polyether polyol resin wherein a small measured quantity of the polyol resin is "pre-reacted" with a larger quantity of the isocyanate in a defined ratio such that when the necessary remaining quantity of the polyol resin is added to the "pre-reacted" resin together with a tertiary amine catalyst and water as a blowing agent, the polymerization proceeds slowly enough to provide a stable foam body.

  16. Recent progress in the morphology of bulk heterojunction photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael A.; Su, Gregory M.; Chabinyc, Michael L.

    2011-10-06

    A review of current research in the characterization of the morphology of semiconducting polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunctions (BHJs) is presented. BHJs are complex blends of polymers and fullerenes with nanostructures that are highly dependent on materials, processing conditions, and post-treatments to films. Recent work on the study of the morphology of BHJs is surveyed. Emphasis is placed on emerging work on BHJs of poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, PCBM, along with BHJs of donoracceptor polymers that have high power conversion efficiency.

  17. Radiative cooling of bulk silicon by incoherent light pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malyutenko, V. K. Bogatyrenko, V. V.; Malyutenko, O. Yu.

    2013-12-23

    In contrast to radiative cooling by light up conversion caused exclusively by a low-entropy laser pump and employing thermally assisted fluorescence/luminescence as a power out, we demonstrate light down conversion cooling by incoherent pumps, 0.470.94??m light emitting diodes, and employing thermal emission (TE) as a power out. We demonstrate ?3.5?K bulk cooling of Si at 450?K because overall energy of multiple below bandgap TE photons exceeds the energy of a single above bandgap pump photon. We show that using large entropy TE as power out helps avoid careful tuning of an incoherent pump wavelength and cool indirect-bandgap semiconductors.

  18. Multifunctional bulk plasma source based on discharge with electron injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klimov, A. S.; Medovnik, A. V.; Tyunkov, A. V.; Savkin, K. P.; Shandrikov, M. V.; Vizir, A. V.

    2013-01-15

    A bulk plasma source, based on a high-current dc glow discharge with electron injection, is described. Electron injection and some special design features of the plasma arc emitter provide a plasma source with very long periods between maintenance down-times and a long overall lifetime. The source uses a sectioned sputter-electrode array with six individual sputter targets, each of which can be independently biased. This discharge assembly configuration provides multifunctional operation, including plasma generation from different gases (argon, nitrogen, oxygen, acetylene) and deposition of composite metal nitride and oxide coatings.

  19. Neutron interaction and their transport with bulk materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rani, Esther Kalpana; Radhika, K.

    2015-05-15

    In the current paper an attempt was made to study and provide fundamental information about neutron interactions that are important to nuclear material measurements. The application of this study is explained about macroscopic interactions with bulk compound materials through a program in DEV C++ language which is done by enabling interaction of neutrons in nature. The output of the entire process depends upon the random number (i.e., incident neutron number), thickness of the material and mean free path as input parameters. Further the current study emphasizes on the usage of materials in shielding.

  20. Development of bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery using LiBH{sub 4} electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unemoto, Atsushi, E-mail: unemoto@imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Ikeshoji, Tamio [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Yasaku, Syun; Matsuo, Motoaki [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nogami, Genki; Tazawa, Masaru; Taniguchi, Mitsugu [Mitsubishi Gas Chemicals Co., Ltd., 182 Tayuhama Shinwari, Kita-ku, Niigata 950-3112 (Japan); Orimo, Shin-ichi [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-08-25

    Stable battery operation of a bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery was demonstrated by using a LiBH{sub 4} electrolyte. The electrochemical activity of insulating elemental sulfur as the positive electrode was enhanced by the mutual dispersion of elemental sulfur and carbon in the composite powders. Subsequently, a tight interface between the sulfur-carbon composite and the LiBH{sub 4} powders was manifested only by cold-pressing owing to the highly deformable nature of the LiBH{sub 4} electrolyte. The high reducing ability of LiBH{sub 4} allows using the use of a Li negative electrode that enhances the energy density. The results demonstrate the interface modification of insulating sulfur and the architecture of an all-solid-state Li-S battery configuration with high energy density.

  1. Achieving large linear elasticity and high strength in bulk nanocompsi...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This material also has a high mechanical energy storage efficiency of 96% and a high energy storage density of 36 Jcm that is almost one order of larger than that of spring ...

  2. High-Density Infrared Surface Treatments of Refractories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiegs, T.N.

    2005-03-31

    Refractory materials play a crucial role in all energy-intensive industries and are truly a crosscutting technology for the Industries of the Future (IOF). One of the major mechanisms for the degradation of refractories and a general decrease in their performance has been the penetration and corrosion by molten metals or glass. Methods and materials that would reduce the penetration, wetting, and corrosive chemistry would significantly improve refractory performance and also maintain the quality of the processed liquid, be it metal or glass. This report presents the results of an R&D project aimed at investigating the use of high-density infrared (HDI) heating to surface treat refractories to improve their performance. The project was a joint effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR). HDI is capable of heating the near-surface region of materials to very high temperatures where sintering, diffusion, and melting can occur. The intended benefits of HDI processing of refractories were to (1) reduce surface porosity (by essentially sealing the surface to prevent liquid penetration), (2) allow surface chemistry changes to be performed by bonding an adherent coating onto the underlying refractory (in order to inhibit wetting and/or improve corrosion resistance), and (3) produce noncontact refractories with high-emissivity surface coatings.

  3. Comment on ""bulk-plasmon contribution to the work function of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Comment on ""bulk-plasmon contribution to the work function of metals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comment on ""bulk-plasmon contribution to the work function of...

  4. Development of a Bulk-Format System to Harvest, Handle, Store...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a Bulk-Format System to Harvest, Handle, Store, and Deliver High-Tonnage generaprojectabstract1.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of a Bulk-Format System to Harvest,...

  5. File:08COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:08COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdf Size of this preview: 463 599...

  6. Laboratory Study Of Magnetic Reconnection With A Density Asymmetry Across The Current Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Joseph; Yamada, Massaaki; Ji, Hantao; Meyers,, Clayton E.; Jara-Almonte,; Chen, Li-Jen

    2014-04-18

    The effects of an upstream density asymmetry on magnetic reconnection are studied systematically in a laboratory plasma. Despite a significant upstream density asymmetry of up to 10, the reconnecting magnetic field pro file is not signifi cantly changed. On the other hand, the out-of-plane magnetic field profile is considerably modified; it is almost bipolar in structure with the density asymmetry, as compared to the quadrupolar structure in the symmetric configuration. The in-plane ion flow pattern and the electrostatic potential pro file are also affected by the density asymmetry. Strong bulk electron heating is observed near the low-density-side separatrix together with electromagnetic fluctuations in the lower hybrid frequency range. The dependence of the ion outflow and reconnection electric field on the density asymmetry is measured and compared with theoretical expectations.

  7. Strategies for High Thermoelectric zT in Bulk Materials | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy High Thermoelectric zT in Bulk Materials Strategies for High Thermoelectric zT in Bulk Materials Zintl principle in chemistry, complex electronic band structures, and incorporation of nanometer sized particles were used to explore, optimize and improve bulk thermoelectric materials PDF icon snyder.pdf More Documents & Publications Strategies for High Thermoelectric zT in Bulk Materials Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Thermoelectric

  8. Powder metallurgy processing and deformation characteristics of bulk multimodal nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farbaniec, L.; Dirras, G.; Krawczynska, A.; Mompiou, F.; Couque, H.; Naimi, F.; Bernard, F.; Tingaud, D.

    2014-08-15

    Spark plasma sintering was used to process bulk nickel samples from a blend of three powder types. The resulting multimodal microstructure was made of coarse (average size ? 135 ?m) spherical microcrystalline entities (the core) surrounded by a fine-grained matrix (average grain size ? 1.5 ?m) or a thick rim (the shell) distinguishable from the matrix. Tensile tests revealed yield strength of ? 470 MPa that was accompanied by limited ductility (? 2.8% plastic strain). Microstructure observation after testing showed debonding at interfaces between the matrix and the coarse entities, but in many instances, shallow dimples within the rim were observed indicating local ductile events in the shell. Dislocation emission and annihilation at grain boundaries and twinning at crack tip were the main deformation mechanisms taking place within the fine-grained matrix as revealed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. Estimation of the stress from loop's curvature and dislocation pile-up indicates that dislocation emission from grain boundaries and grain boundary overcoming largely contributes to the flow stress. - Highlights: Bulk multi-modal Ni was processed by SPS from a powder blend. Ultrafine-grained matrix or rim observed around spherical microcrystalline entities Yield strength (470 MPa) and ductility (2.8% plastic strain) were measured. Debonding was found at the matrix/microcrystalline entity interfaces. In-situ TEM showed twinning, dislocation emission and annihilation at grain boundaries.

  9. Method of fabricating an optoelectronic device having a bulk heterojunction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shtein, Max (Princeton, NJ); Yang, Fan (Princeton, NJ); Forrest, Stephen R. (Princeton, NJ)

    2008-09-02

    A method of fabricating an organic optoelectronic device having a bulk heterojunction comprises the steps of: depositing a first layer over a first electrode by organic vapor phase deposition, wherein the first layer comprises a first organic small molecule material; depositing a second layer on the first layer such that the second layer is in physical contact with the first layer, wherein the interface of the second layer on the first layer forms a bulk heterojunction; and depositing a second electrode over the second layer to form the optoelectronic device. In another embodiment, a first layer having protrusions is deposited over the first electrode, wherein the first layer comprises a first organic small molecule material. For example, when the first layer is an electron donor layer, the first electrode is an anode, the second layer is an electron acceptor layer, and the second electrode is a cathode. As a further example, when the first layer is an electron acceptor layer, the first electrode is a cathode, the second layer is an electron donor layer, and the second electrode is an anode.

  10. Thermodynamics of technetium: Reconciling theory and experiment using density functional perturbation analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Weck, Philippe F.; Kim, Eunja

    2015-06-11

    The structure, lattice dynamics and thermodynamic properties of bulk technetium were investigated within the framework of density functional theory. The phonon density of states spectrum computed with density functional perturbation theory closely matches inelastic coherent neutron scattering measurements. The thermal properties of technetium were derived from phonon frequencies calculated within the quasi-harmonic approximation (QHA), which introduces a volume dependence of phonon frequencies as a part of the anharmonic effect. As a result, the predicted thermal expansion and isobaric heat capacity of technetium are in excellent agreement with available experimental data for temperatures up to ~1600 K.

  11. Soil Density/Moisture Gauge

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This scenario provides the planning instructions, guidance, and evaluation forms necessary to conduct an exercise involving a highway shipment of a soil moisture/density gauge (Class 7 -...

  12. Comparative Reactivity Study of Forsterite and Antigorite in Wet Supercritical CO2 by In Situ Infrared Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Christopher J.; Loring, John S.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Wang, Zheming

    2013-10-01

    The carbonation reactions of forsterite (Mg2SiO4) and antigorite [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4], representatives of olivine and serpentine minerals, in dry and wet supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) at conditions relevant to geologic carbon sequestration (35 C and 100 bar) were studied by in-situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Our results confirm that water plays a critical role in the reactions between metal silicate minerals and scCO2. For neat scCO2, no reaction was observed in 24 hr for either mineral. When water was added to the scCO2, a thin water film formed on the minerals surfaces, and the reaction rates and extents increased as the water saturation level was raised from 54% to 116% (excess water). For the first time, the presence of bicarbonate, a key reaction intermediate for metal silicate reactions with scCO2, was observed in a heterogeneous system where mineral solids, an adsorbed water film, and bulk scCO2 co-exist. In excess-water experiments, approximately 4% of forsterite and less than 2% of antigorite transformed into hydrated Mg-carbonates. A precipitate similar to nesquehonite (MgCO33H2O) was observed for forsterite within 6 hr of reaction time, but no such precipitate was formed from antigorite until after water was removed from the scCO2 following a 24-hr reaction period. The reduced reactivity and carbonate-precipitation behavior of antigorite was attributed to slower, incongruent dissolution of the mineral and lower concentrations of Mg2+ and HCO3- in the water film. The in situ measurements employed in this work make it possible to quantify metal carbonate precipitates and key reaction intermediates such as bicarbonate for the investigation of carbonation reaction mechanisms relevant to geologic carbon sequestration.

  13. Corrosion of Metal Inclusions In Bulk Vitrification Waste Packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Strachan, Denis M.; Josephson, Gary B.

    2006-07-31

    The primary purpose of the work reported here is to analyze the potential effect of the release of technetium (Tc) from metal inclusions in bulk vitrification waste packages once they are placed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). As part of the strategy for immobilizing waste from the underground tanks at Hanford, selected wastes will be immobilized using bulk vitrification. During analyses of the glass produced in engineering-scale tests, metal inclusions were found in the glass product. This report contains the results from experiments designed to quantify the corrosion rates of metal inclusions found in the glass product from AMEC Test ES-32B and simulations designed to compare the rate of Tc release from the metal inclusions to the release of Tc from glass produced with the bulk vitrification process. In the simulations, the Tc in the metal inclusions was assumed to be released congruently during metal corrosion as soluble TcO4-. The experimental results and modeling calculations show that the metal corrosion rate will, under all conceivable conditions at the IDF, be dominated by the presence of the passivating layer and corrosion products on the metal particles. As a result, the release of Tc from the metal particles at the surfaces of fractures in the glass releases at a rate similar to the Tc present as a soluble salt. The release of the remaining Tc in the metal is controlled by the dissolution of the glass matrix. To summarize, the release of 99Tc from the BV glass within precipitated Fe is directly proportional to the diameter of the Fe particles and to the amount of precipitated Fe. However, the main contribution to the Tc release from the iron particles is over the same time period as the release of the soluble Tc salt. For the base case used in this study (0.48 mass% of 0.5 mm diameter metal particles homogeneously distributed in the BV glass), the release of 99Tc from the metal is approximately the same as the release from 0.3 mass% soluble Tc salt in the castable refractory block and it is released over the same time period as the salt. Therefore, to limit the impact of precipitated Fe on the release of 99Tc, both the amount of precipitated Fe in the BV glass and the diameter of these particles should be minimized.

  14. EIA Open Data - Bulk - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bulk download facility The bulk download facility provides the entire contents of each major API data set in a single ZIP file. A small JSON formatted manifest file lists the bulk files and the update date of each file. The manifest is generally updated daily and can be downloaded from http://api.eia.gov/bulk/manifest.txt. The manifest contains information about the bulk files, including all required common core attributes: identifier data_set last_updated modified category_id title description

  15. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery in Fractional-Wet Systems: A Pore-Scale Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, Ryan T.; Wildenschild, Dorthe

    2012-10-24

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a technology that could potentially increase the tertiary recovery of oil from mature oil formations. However, the efficacy of this technology in fractional-wet systems is unknown, and the mechanisms involved in oil mobilization therefore need further investigation. Our MEOR strategy consists of the injection of ex situ produced metabolic byproducts produced by Bacillus mojavensis JF-2 (which lower interfacial tension (IFT) via biosurfactant production) into fractional-wet cores containing residual oil. Two different MEOR flooding solutions were tested; one solution contained both microbes and metabolic byproducts while the other contained only the metabolic byproducts. The columns were imaged with X-ray computed microtomography (CMT) after water flooding, and after MEOR, which allowed for the evaluation of the pore-scale processes taking place during MEOR. Results indicate that the larger residual oil blobs and residual oil held under relatively low capillary pressures were the main fractions recovered during MEOR. Residual oil saturation, interfacial curvatures, and oil blob sizes were measured from the CMT images and used to develop a conceptual model for MEOR in fractional-wet systems. Overall, results indicate that MEOR was effective at recovering oil from fractional-wet systems with reported additional oil recovered (AOR) values between 44 and 80%; the highest AOR values were observed in the most oil-wet system.

  16. Coherent rho 0 photoproduction in bulk matter at high energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couderc, Elsa; Klein, Spencer

    2009-01-09

    The momentum transfer {Delta}k required for a photon to scatter from a target and emerge as a {rho}{sup 0} decreases as the photon energy k rises. For k > 3 x 10{sup 14} eV, {Delta}k is small enough that the interaction cannot be localized to a single nucleus. At still higher energies, photons may coherently scatter elastically from bulk matter and emerge as a {rho}{sup 0}, in a manner akin to kaon regeneration. Constructive interference from the different nuclei coherently raises the cross section and the interaction probability rises linearly with energy. At energies above 10{sup 23} eV, coherent conversion is the dominant process; photons interact predominantly as {rho}{sup 0}. We compute the coherent scattering probabilities in slabs of lead, water and rock, and discuss the implications of the increased hadronic interaction probabilities for photons on ultra-high energy shower development.

  17. Interaction of graphene quantum dots with bulk semiconductor surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohapatra, P. K.; Singh, B. P.; Kushavah, Dushyant; Mohapatra, J.

    2015-05-15

    Highly luminescent graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are synthesized through thermolysis of glucose. The average lateral size of the synthesized GQDs is found to be ?5 nm. The occurrence of D and G band at 1345 and 1580 cm{sup ?1} in Raman spectrum confirms the presence of graphene layers. GQDs are mostly consisting of 3 to 4 graphene layers as confirmed from the AFM measurements. Photoluminescence (PL) measurement shows a distinct broadening of the spectrum when GQDs are on the semiconducting bulk surface compared to GQDs in water. The time resolved PL measurement shows a significant shortening in PL lifetime due to the substrate interaction on GQDs compared to the GQDs in solution phase.

  18. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, J.

    2010-06-02

    The Bulk Tritium Shipping Package was designed by Savannah River National Laboratory. This package will be used to transport tritium. As part of the requirements for certification, the package must be shown to meet the scenarios of the Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) defined in Code of Federal Regulations Title 10 Part 71 (10CFR71). The conditions include a sequential 30-foot drop event, 30-foot dynamic crush event, and a 40-inch puncture event. Finite Element analyses were performed to support and expand upon prototype testing. Cases similar to the tests were evaluated. Additional temperatures and orientations were also examined to determine their impact on the results. The peak stress on the package was shown to be acceptable. In addition, the strain on the outer drum as well as the inner containment boundary was shown to be acceptable. In conjunction with the prototype tests, the package was shown to meet its confinement requirements.

  19. Methods of synthesizing hydroxyapatite powders and bulk materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luo, P.

    1999-01-12

    Methods are provided for producing non-porous controlled morphology hydroxyapatite granules of less than 8 {micro}m by a spray-drying process. Solid or hollow spheres or doughnuts can be formed by controlling the volume fraction and viscosity of the slurry as well as the spray-drying conditions. Methods of providing for homogeneous cellular structure hydroxyapatite granules are also provided. Pores or channels or varying size and number can be formed by varying the temperature at which a hydroxyapatite slurry formed in basic, saturated ammonium hydroxide is spray-dried. Methods of providing non-porous controlled morphology hydroxyapatite granules in ammonium hydroxide are also provided. The hydroxyapatite granules and bulk materials formed by these methods are also provided. 26 figs.

  20. Methods of synthesizing hydroxyapatite powders and bulk materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luo, Ping (2843A Forest Ave., Berkeley, CA 94705)

    1999-01-12

    Methods are provided for producing non-porous controlled morphology hydroxyapatite granules of less than 8 .mu.m by a spray-drying process. Solid or hollow spheres or doughnuts can be formed by controlling the volume fraction and viscosity of the slurry as well as the spray-drying conditions. Methods of providing for homogenous cellular structure hydroxyapatite granules are also provided. Pores or channels or varying size and number can be formed by varying the temperature at which a hydroxyapatite slurry formed in basic, saturated ammonium hydroxide is spray-dried. Methods of providing non-porous controlled morphology hydroxyapatite granules in ammonium hydroxide are also provided. The hydroxyapatite granules and bulk materials formed by these methods are also provided.

  1. Category:Rock Density | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rock Density Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Rock Density page? For detailed information on Rock Density as...

  2. Passivation dynamics in the anisotropic deposition and stripping of bulk magnesium electrodes during electrochemical cycling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wetzel, David J.; Malone, Marvin A.; Haasch, Richard T.; Meng, Yifei; Vieker, Henning; Hahn, Nathan; Golzhauser, Armin; Zuo, Jian-Min; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Gewirth, Andrew A.; et al

    2015-08-10

    Rechargeable magnesium (Mg) batteries show promise for use as a next generation technology for high-density energy storage, though little is known about the Mg anode solid electrolyte interphase and its implications for the performance and durability of a Mg-based battery. We explore in this report passivation effects engendered during the electrochemical cycling of a bulk Mg anode, characterizing their influences during metal deposition and dissolution in a simple, nonaqueous, Grignard electrolyte solution (ethylmagnesium bromide, EtMgBr, in tetrahydrofuran). Scanning electron microscopy images of Mg foil working electrodes after electrochemical polarization to dissolution potentials show the formation of corrosion pits. The pitmore » densities so evidenced are markedly potential-dependent. When the Mg working electrode is cycled both potentiostatically and galvanostatically in EtMgBr these pits, formed due to passive layer breakdown, act as the foci for subsequent electrochemical activity. Detailed microscopy, diffraction, and spectroscopic data show that further passivation and corrosion results in the anisotropic stripping of the Mg {0001} plane, leaving thin oxide-comprising passivated side wall structures that demark the {0001} fiber texture of the etched Mg grains. Upon long-term cycling, oxide side walls formed due to the pronounced crystallographic anisotropy of the anodic stripping processes, leading to complex overlay anisotropic, columnar structures, exceeding 50 μm in height. Finally, the passive responses mediating the growth of these structures appear to be an intrinsic feature of the electrochemical growth and dissolution of Mg using this electrolyte.« less

  3. Measurement of the density profile of pure and seeded molecular beams by femtosecond ion imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng, Congsen; Janssen, Maurice H. M.

    2015-02-15

    Here, we report on femtosecond ion imaging experiments to measure the density profile of a pulsed supersonic molecular beam. Ion images are measured for both a molecular beam and bulk gas under identical experimental conditions via femtosecond multiphoton ionization of Xe atoms. We report the density profile of the molecular beam, and the measured absolute density is compared with theoretical calculations of the centre line beam density. Subsequently, we discuss reasons accounting for the differences between measurements and calculations and propose that strong skimmer interference is the most probable cause for the differences. Furthermore, we report on experiments measuring the centre line density of seeded supersonic beams. The femtosecond ion images show that seeding the heavy Xe atom at low relative seed fractions (1%-10%) in a light carrier gas like Ne results in strong relative enhancements of up to two orders of magnitude.

  4. A round robin evaluation of the corrosiveness of wet residential insulation by electrochemical measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stansbury, E.E. , Knoxville, TN )

    1991-10-01

    The results of a round cabin evaluation of the use of an electrochemical method of calculating the corrosion rate of low carbon steel in environments related to cellulosic building insulations are reported. Environments included the leachate from a wet cellulosic insulation and solutions based on pure and commercial grades of borax, ammonium sulfate and aluminum sulfate. The pH values of these environments were in the range of 2.5 to 9.5. Electrochemical measurements were made using a direct reading corrosion rate instrument. The calculated corrosion rates were compared with those determined directly by weight loss measurements. Electrochemical measurements were made over a period of 48 hours and weight loss exposures were for two weeks. Poor agreement was observed for the corrosion rates determined electrochemically and the values were consistently larger than those based on weight loss. Reasons proposed for these results included the complex nature of the corrosion product deposits and the control these deposits have on oxygen diffusion to the metal interface. Both factors influence the validity of the calculation of the corrosion rate by the direct reading instrument. It was concluded that development of a viable electrochemical method of general applicability to the evaluation of the corrosiveness of wet residential building thermal insulations were doubtful. Because of the controlling influence of dissolved oxygen on the corrosion rate in the insulation leachate, an alternate evaluation method is proposed in which a thin steel specimen is partially immersed in wet insulation for three weeks. The corrosiveness of the wet insulation is evaluated in terms of the severity of attack near the metal-air-wet insulation interface. With thin metal specimens, complete penetration along the interface is proposed as a pass/fail criterion. An environment of sterile cotton wet with distilled water is proposed as a comparative standard. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Attractor comparisons based on density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, T. L.

    2015-01-15

    Recognizing a chaotic attractor can be seen as a problem in pattern recognition. Some feature vector must be extracted from the attractor and used to compare to other attractors. The field of machine learning has many methods for extracting feature vectors, including clustering methods, decision trees, support vector machines, and many others. In this work, feature vectors are created by representing the attractor as a density in phase space and creating polynomials based on this density. Density is useful in itself because it is a one dimensional function of phase space position, but representing an attractor as a density is also a way to reduce the size of a large data set before analyzing it with graph theory methods, which can be computationally intensive. The density computation in this paper is also fast to execute. In this paper, as a demonstration of the usefulness of density, the density is used directly to construct phase space polynomials for comparing attractors. Comparisons between attractors could be useful for tracking changes in an experiment when the underlying equations are too complicated for vector field modeling.

  6. Bulk amorphous Pd{endash}Ni{endash}Fe{endash}P alloys: Preparation and characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, T.D.; He, Y.; Schwarz, R.B. [Materials Science and Technology Division, MS K765, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Bulk amorphous alloys of Pd{sub x}Ni{sub y}Fe{sub 80{minus}x{minus}y}P{sub 20} (25{le}x{le}60, 20{le}y{le}55, x+y{ge}60) were prepared by a flux-melting and water-quenching method. Seven-mm diameter glassy rods of Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40{minus}x}Fe{sub x}P{sub 20} (0{le}x{le}20) were studied in greater detail. For these alloys, the difference between the crystallization and glass transition temperatures ranges from 102 K for x=0 to 53 K for x=20. In this composition range, the reduced glass transition temperature, T{sub rg}, ranges from 0.66 to 0.57. The change in density upon crystallization ranges from 0.24{plus_minus}0.04{percent} for x=0 to 1.33{plus_minus}0.24{percent} for x=10. The partial molar volume of Fe in amorphous Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40{minus}x}Fe{sub x}P{sub 20} alloys is significantly larger than the molar volume of (metastable) fcc Fe. This, as well as a comparison with the molar volumes of crystalline compounds, suggests chemically selective Fe{endash}Pd bonding in these glasses. {copyright} {ital 1999 Materials Research Society.}

  7. Polydimethylsiloxane as a Macromolecular Additive for Enhanced Performance of Molecular Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, Kenneth R.; Mei, Jianguo; Stalder, Romain; Shim, Jae Won; Cheun, Hyeunseok; Steffy, Fred; So, Franky; Kippelen, Bernard; Reynolds, John R.

    2011-03-15

    The effect of the macromolecular additive, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), on the performance of solution processed molecular bulk heterojunction solar cells is investigated, and the addition of PDMS is shown to improve device power conversion efficiency by ~70% and significantly reduce cell-to-cell variation, from a power conversion efficiency of 1.25 0.37% with no PDMS to 2.16 0.09% upon the addition of 0.1 mg/mL PDMS to the casting solution. The cells are based on a thiophene and isoindigo containing oligomer as the electron donor and [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) as the electron acceptor. PDMS is shown to have a strong influence on film morphology, with a significant decrease in film roughness and feature size observed. The morphology change leads to improved performance parameters, most notably an increase in the short circuit current density from 4.3 to 6.8 mA/cm2 upon addition of 0.1 mg/mL PDMS. The use of PDMS is of particular interest, as this additive appears frequently as a lubricant in plastic syringes commonly used in device fabrication; therefore, PDMS may unintentionally be incorporated into device active layers.

  8. Efficient solution-processed small molecule: Cadmium selenide quantum dot bulk heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Vinay; Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 ; Upreti, Tanvi; Chand, Suresh

    2013-12-16

    We report bulk heterojunction solar cells based on blends of solution-processed small molecule [7,7?-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b?]dithiophene-2,6-diyl) bis(6-fluoro-4-(5?-hexyl-[2,2?-bithiophen]-5yl)benzo[c] [1,2,5] thiadiazole)] p-DTS(FBTTh{sub 2}){sub 2}: Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) (70:30, 60:40, 50:50, and 40:60) in the device configuration: Indium Tin Oxide /poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/p-DTS(FBTTh{sub 2}){sub 2}: CdSe/Ca/Al. The optimized ratio of p-DTS(FBTTh{sub 2}){sub 2}:CdSe::60:40 leads to a short circuit current density (J{sub sc})?=?5.45?mA/cm{sup 2}, open circuit voltage (V{sub oc})?=?0.727?V, and fill factor (FF)?=?51%, and a power conversion efficiency?=?2.02% at 100 mW/cm{sup 2} under AM1.5G illumination. The J{sub sc} and FF are sensitive to the ratio of p-DTS(FBTTh{sub 2}){sub 2}:CdSe, which is a crucial factor for the device performance.

  9. Doped Interlayers for Improved Selectivity in Bulk Herterojunction Organic Photovoltaic Devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mauger, Scott A.; Glasser, Melodie P.; Tremolet de Villers, Bertrand J.; Duong, Vincent V.; Ayzner, Alexander L.; Olson, Dana C.

    2016-01-21

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is less selective for holes in inverted-architecture organic photovoltaic (OPV) than it is in a conventional-architecture OPV device due differences between the interfacial-PSS concentration at the top and bottom of the PEDOT:PSS layer. In this work, thin layers of polysulfonic acids are inserted between the P3HT:ICBA bulk heterojunction (BHJ) active layer and PEDOT:PSS to create a higher concentration of acid at this interface and, therefore, mimic the distribution of materials present in a conventional device. Upon thermal annealing, this acid layer oxidizes P3HT, creating a thin p-type interlayer of P3HT+/acid- on top of the BHJ. Using x-raymore » absorption spectroscopy, Kelvin probe and ellipsometry measurements, this P3HT+/acid- layer is shown to be insoluble in water, indicating it remains intact during the subsequent deposition of PEDOT:PSS. Current density - voltage measurements show this doped interlayer reduces injected dark current while increasing both open-circuit voltage and fill factor through the creation of a more hole selective BHJ-PEDOT:PSS interface.« less

  10. Effects of Magnetic Nanoparticles and External Magnetostatic Field on the Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Kai; Yi, Chao; Liu, Chang; Hu, Xiaowen; Chuang, Steven; Gong, Xiong

    2015-03-18

    The price of energy to separate tightly bound electron-hole pair (or charge-transfer state) and extract freely movable charges from low-mobility materials represents fundamental losses for many low-cost photovoltaic devices. In bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs), approximately 50% of the total efficiency lost among all energy loss pathways is due to the photogenerated charge carrier recombination within PSCs and low charge carrier mobility of disordered organic materials. To address these issues, we introduce magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and orientate these MNPS within BHJ composite by an external magnetostatic field. Over 50% enhanced efficiency was observed from BHJ PSCs incorporated withmore » MNPs and an external magnetostatic field alignment when compared to the control BHJ PSCs. The optimization of BHJ thin film morphology, suppression of charge carrier recombination, and enhancement in charge carrier collection result in a greatly increased short-circuit current density and fill factor, as a result, enhanced power conversion efficiency.« less

  11. Kansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 167 1980's 185 139 112 132 110 115 132 115 103 101 1990's 114 115 94 93 75 67 82 51 60 52 2000's 40 105 66 85 80 83 82 83 85 83 2010's 79 127 326 433 657 - = No Data Reported;

  12. Louisiana - South Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) South Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana - South Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,304 1980's 2,134 1,871 1,789 1,582 1,488 1,792 1,573 1,380 1,338 1,273 1990's 1,106 995 853 649 678 720 627 599 630 599

  13. Louisiana State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 449 251 260 207 231 1990's 207 207 154 157 168 148 157 130 98 120 2000's 129 145 84 79 61 63 56 65 686 513 2010's 107 51 128 88 68 - = No

  14. California State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 226 1980's 160 244 232 221 206 1990's 188 55 59 63 59 56 47 54 39 58 2000's 86 80 85 76 85 89 85 79 54 53 2010's 63 79 65 75 76 - = No Data

  15. Development of a two-body wet abrasion test method with attention to the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    effects of reused abradant (Conference) | SciTech Connect Development of a two-body wet abrasion test method with attention to the effects of reused abradant Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of a two-body wet abrasion test method with attention to the effects of reused abradant Abrasive wear is among the most common and costliest causes for material wastage, and it occurs in many forms. A simple method has been developed to quantify the response of metals and alloys to

  16. ,"Montana Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Montana Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  17. ,"Ohio Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Ohio Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  18. ,"Oklahoma Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Oklahoma Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  19. ,"Pennsylvania Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Pennsylvania Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  20. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation",10,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1979" ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","12/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  1. ,"U.S. Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation",10,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1979" ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","12/31/2016"

  2. ,"Utah Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Utah Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  3. ,"Virginia Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Virginia Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  4. ,"Wyoming Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Wyoming Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  5. Texas - RRC District 1 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 1 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 209 1980's 172 180 216 175 170 260 241 205 204 251 1990's 333 401 361 191 151 248 446 68 51 67 2000's 69 43 47 48 45 57 61 72 60 67 2010's 267

  6. Texas - RRC District 10 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 0 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 10 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 484 1980's 546 456 489 537 617 560 537 482 424 364 1990's 311 298 396 264 264 254 253 227 234 241 2000's 289 255 271 252 249 253 316 436

  7. Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 2 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 955 1980's 921 806 780 747 661 570 517 512 428 430 1990's 407 352 308 288 299 245 252 235 204 202 2000's 115 65 70 81

  8. Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 4 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,416 1980's 1,292 1,005 890 765 702 684 596 451 393 371 1990's 301 243 228 215 191 209 246 368 394 182 2000's 176 140

  9. Texas - RRC District 5 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 5 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 5 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 62 1980's 75 44 47 52 44 40 69 118 101 136 1990's 116 89 126 141 148 47 53 68 89 49 2000's 128 83 65 62 58 51 57 50 40 21 2010's 8 40 53 177

  10. Texas - RRC District 6 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 6 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 6 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 868 1980's 954 869 881 943 938 874 822 811 728 695 1990's 668 638 606 607 547 611 562 578 580 545 2000's 464 412 400 387 402 344 276 247 412

  11. Texas - RRC District 7B Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 7B Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 7B Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 234 1980's 332 292 214 338 292 276 244 282 264 196 1990's 214 157 170 187 181 276 232 260 204 190 2000's 114 88 57 69 76 73 74 62 68 102

  12. Texas - RRC District 7B Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) B Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 7B Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 608 1980's 530 655 733 872 645 574 589 546 576 364 1990's 413 379 380 393 332 263 378 299 306 275 2000's 242 203 237 314 288 859 1,589 2,350 2,682 2,322

  13. Texas - RRC District 7C Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) C Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 7C Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 653 1980's 520 685 704 705 776 780 666 737 727 721 1990's 768 759 748 633 631 640 692 596 557 616 2000's 693 634 737 927 994 1,037 1,196

  14. Texas - RRC District 8A Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 8A Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 8A Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 71 1980's 69 59 37 44 43 39 34 30 24 16 1990's 21 21 13 12 15 15 18 41 18 44 2000's 69 82 101 100 95 85 82 88 63 43 2010's 58 31 20 23 24 - = No Data

  15. Texas - RRC District 9 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 9 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 9 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 175 1980's 249 274 299 255 274 290 263 267 241 212 1990's 214 200 184 178 148 138 121 147 199 180 2000's 209 124 140 125 110 126 105 139 158

  16. Texas State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 25 24 24 10 20 19 1990's 17 8 7 4 3 7 6 10 5 6 2000's 1 2 5 6 9 3 1 3 5 3 2010's 3 5 6 3 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  17. New Mexico - West Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) West Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico - West Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 151 1980's 156 150 146 180 194 181 214 213 259 178 1990's 184 156 127 107 97 119 108 106 98 92 2000's 115 99 103 89 90 98 82 87 86 82 2010's

  18. North Dakota Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 201 1980's 239 253 248 257 267 331 293 276 266 313 1990's 334 243 266 274 275 263 255 257 261 250 2000's 264 270 315 316 320 343 357 417 484 1,070 2010's 1,717

  19. Ohio Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Ohio Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,047 1980's 1,417 800 984 1,635 1,178 938 898 594 480 589 1990's 371 376 381 343 315 355 399 391 342 402 2000's 469 340 346 304 208 184 174 101 99 97 2010's 90 74 223 314 208 - =

  20. ,"Alabama Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alabama Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  1. ,"Alaska Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alaska Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  2. ,"Arkansas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Arkansas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  3. ,"California Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  4. ,"Colorado Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  5. ,"Florida Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Florida Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  6. ,"Kansas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kansas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  7. ,"Kentucky Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kentucky Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  8. ,"Louisiana Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  9. ,"Michigan Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Michigan Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  10. ,"Mississippi Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Mississippi Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  11. Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 367 1980's 414 335 325 360 341 391 410 471 475 442 1990's 455 469 309 289 286 277 301 310 209 321 2000's 348 303 359 299 290 308 317 368 321 601 2010's 631 909 1,001 895 872 - =

  12. West Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 76 1980's 122 63 83 86 73 73 65 150 141 98 1990's 86 159 198 190 133 74 71 59 43 88 2000's 98 48 21 23 20 19 16 16 23 24 2010's 29 52 21 70 32 - = No Data

  13. Phenomenological Relativistic Energy Density Functionals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lalazissis, G. A.; Kartzikos, S.; Niksic, T.; Paar, N.; Vretenar, D.; Ring, P.

    2009-08-26

    The framework of relativistic nuclear energy density functionals is applied to the description of a variety of nuclear structure phenomena, not only in spherical and deformed nuclei along the valley of beta-stability, but also in exotic systems with extreme isospin values and close to the particle drip-lines. Dynamical aspects of exotic nuclear structure is explored using the fully consistent quasiparticle random-phase approximation based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model. Recent applications of energy density functionals with explicit density dependence of the meson-nucleon couplings are presented.

  14. Sandia Energy - Statistical Mechanics with Density Functional...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Statistical Mechanics with Density Functional Theory Accuracy Home Highlights - HPC Statistical Mechanics with Density Functional Theory Accuracy Previous Next Statistical...

  15. Low density carbonized composite foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Fung-Ming (Pleasanton, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A carbonized composite foam having a density less than about 50 mg/cm.sup.3 and individual cell sizes no greater than about 1 .mu.m in diameter is described, and the process of making it.

  16. Low density metal hydride foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maienschein, Jon L. (Oakland, CA); Barry, Patrick E. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a low density foam having a porosity of from 0 to 98% and a density less than about 0.67 gm/cc, prepared by heating a mixture of powered lithium hydride and beryllium hydride in an inert atmosphere at a temperature ranging from about 455 to about 490 K for a period of time sufficient to cause foaming of said mixture, and cooling the foam thus produced. Also disclosed is the process of making the foam.

  17. Tuned critical avalanche scaling in bulk metallic glasses

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Antonaglia, James; Xie, Xie; Schwarz, Gregory; Wraith, Matthew; Qiao, Junwei; Zhang, Yong; Liaw, Peter K.; Uhl, Jonathan T.; Dahmen, Karin A.

    2014-03-17

    In this study, ingots of the bulk metallic glass (BMG), Zr64.13Cu15.75Ni10.12Al10 in atomic percent (at. %), are compressed at slow strain rates. The deformation behavior is characterized by discrete, jerky stress-drop bursts (serrations). Here we present a quantitative theory for the serration behavior of BMGs, which is a critical issue for the understanding of the deformation characteristics of BMGs. The mean-field interaction model predicts the scaling behavior of the distribution, D(S), of avalanche sizes, S, in the experiments. D(S) follows a power law multiplied by an exponentially-decaying scaling function. The size of the largest observed avalanche depends on experimental tuning-parameters,more » such as either imposed strain rate or stress. Similar to crystalline materials, the plasticity of BMGs reflects tuned criticality showing remarkable quantitative agreement with the slip statistics of slowly-compressed nanocrystals. The results imply that material-evaluation methods based on slip statistics apply to both crystalline and BMG materials.« less

  18. International Round-Robin Testing of Bulk Thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D; Bottner, Harold; Konig, Jan; Chen, Lidong; Bai, Shengqiang; Tritt, Terry M.; Mayolett, Alex; Smith, Charlene; Harris, Fred; Sharp, Jeff; Lo, Jason; Keinke, Holger; Kiss, Laszlo I.

    2011-11-01

    Two international round-robin studies were conducted on transport properties measurements of bulk thermoelectric materials. The study discovered current measurement problems. In order to get ZT of a material four separate transport measurements must be taken. The round-robin study showed that among the four properties Seebeck coefficient is the one can be measured consistently. Electrical resistivity has +4-9% scatter. Thermal diffusivity has similar +5-10% scatter. The reliability of the above three properties can be improved by standardizing test procedures and enforcing system calibrations. The worst problem was found in specific heat measurements using DSC. The probability of making measurement error is great due to the fact three separate runs must be taken to determine Cp and the baseline shift is always an issue for commercial DSC. It is suggest the Dulong Petit limit be always used as a guide line for Cp. Procedures have been developed to eliminate operator and system errors. The IEA-AMT annex is developing standard procedures for transport properties testing.

  19. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of bulk dysprosium chromite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDannald, A.; Institute of Material Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 ; Kuna, L.; Jain, M.; Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269

    2013-09-21

    In this work, a polycrystalline bulk DyCrO{sub 3} sample was prepared by a solution route and the structural and magnetic properties were investigated. The phase purity and ionic valence state of the DyCrO{sub 3} sample were determined by x-ray diffraction/Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The AC and DC magnetization measurements revealed the onset of antiferromagnetic order at 146 K with an effective moment of 8.88 μ{sub B}. Isothermal magnetization measurements of this material are presented for the first time, showing a peak in the coercive field at 80 K that is explained by the competition between the paramagnetic Dy{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+} sublattices. DyCrO{sub 3} was found to display a large magnetocaloric effect (8.4 J/kg K) and relative cooling power (217 J/kg) at 4 T applied field, which renders DyCrO{sub 3} useful for magnetic refrigeration between 5 K and 30 K.

  20. C60 -induced Devil's Staircase transformation on a Pb/Si(111) wetting layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lin -Lin; Johnson, Duane D.; Tringides, Michael C.

    2015-12-03

    Density functional theory is used to study structural energetics of Pb vacancy cluster formation on C60/Pb/Si(111) to explain the unusually fast and error-free transformations between the “Devil's Staircase” (DS) phases on the Pb/Si(111) wetting layer at low temperature (~110K). The formation energies of vacancy clusters are calculated in C60/Pb/Si(111) as Pb atoms are progressively ejected from the initial dense Pb wetting layer. Vacancy clusters larger than five Pb atoms are found to be stable with seven being the most stable, while vacancy clusters smaller than five are highly unstable, which agrees well with the observed ejection rate of ~5 Pb atoms per C60. Furthermore, the high energy cost (~0.8 eV) for the small vacancy clusters to form indicates convincingly that the unusually fast transformation observed experimentally between the DS phases, upon C60 adsorption at low temperature, cannot be the result of single-atom random walk diffusion but of correlated multi-atom processes.

  1. A new class of high ZT doped bulk nanothermoelectrics through bottom-up

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    synthesis | Department of Energy new class of high ZT doped bulk nanothermoelectrics through bottom-up synthesis A new class of high ZT doped bulk nanothermoelectrics through bottom-up synthesis Reports on synthesis of large quantities of p- and n-type nanocrystals then sintered into bulk samples with high power factors and low thermal conductivity through impurity doping and nanostructuring PDF icon ramanath.pdf More Documents & Publications Nano-structures Thermoelectric Materals -

  2. Bulk Fuel Procurement Process & Alternative Drop-in Fuel | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Bulk Fuel Procurement Process & Alternative Drop-in Fuel Bulk Fuel Procurement Process & Alternative Drop-in Fuel Jeanne Binder, DLA Energy, presentation on Bulk Fuel Procurement Process & Alternative Drop-in Fuel at the Advanced Biofuels Industry Roundtable. PDF icon 7_binder_roundtable.pdf More Documents & Publications DLA Energy: Your Supplemental Energy Contracting Venue Advanced Drop-In Biofuels Initiative Agenda FUPWG Spring 2015 Agenda and Presentations

  3. High density hexagonal boron nitride prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoenig, Clarence L. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    Boron nitride powder with less than or equal to the oxygen content of starting powder (down to 0.5% or less) is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce hexagonal boron nitride with a bulk density greater than 2.0 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed or chemical vapor deposited onto a powder compact. Hot isostatic pressing at 1800.degree. C. and 30 KSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for four hours produces a bulk density of 2.21 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made.

  4. Performance evaluation of half-wetted hydrodynamic bearings with DLC coated surfaces.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eryilmaz, O.; Erdemir, A.; Energy Systems

    2008-01-01

    In conventional liquid lubrication it is assumed that surfaces are fully wetted and no slip occurs between the fluid and the solid boundary. Under the 'no slip' condition the maximum shear gradient occurs at the fluid-surface interface. When one or both surfaces are non-wetted by the fluid, boundary slip can occur due to weak bonding between the fluid and the solid surface, which reduces shear stresses in the fluid adjacent to the non-wetted surface. A thrust bearing tribometer was used to compare the performance of 'no slip' hydrodynamic thrust bearings with bearings surfaces that were made to slip at the interface between the surface and fluid. Hydrophobic surfaces on both runner and bearing were achieved with the deposition of hydrogenated diamond like carbon (H-DLC) films, produced by plasma-enhanced CVD on titanium alloy surfaces. Hydrophilic surfaces were created through the surface modification of DLC. A mixtures of water and glycerol was used as the lubricant. The tests were conducted using different constant bearing gaps. The normal load and the torque or traction force between the rotating runner and hydrodynamic thrust bearing were measured with load cells. The experimental results confirmed that load support is still possible when surfaces are partially-wetted or nonwetted.

  5. Enhanced NO{sub x} removal in wet scrubbers using metal chelates. Final report, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Lani, B.; Berisko, D.; Schultz, C.; Carlson, W.; Benson, L.B.

    1992-12-01

    Successful pilot plant tests of simultaneous removal of S0{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in a wet lime flue gas desulfurization system were concluded in December. The tests, at up to 1.5 MW(e) capacity, were conducted by the Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company and Dravo Lime Company for the US Department of Energy at a pilot facility at the Miami Fort station of CG&E near Cincinnati, Ohio. The pilot plant scrubbed a slipstream of flue gas from Unit 7, a 530 MW coal-fired electric generating unit. Tests were conducted in three phases between April and December. The technology tested was wet scrubbing with Thiosorbic{reg_sign} magnesium-enhanced lime for S0{sub 2} removal and simultaneous NO scrubbing with ferrous EDTA, a metal chelate. Magnesium-enhanced lime-based wet scrubbing is used at 20 full-scale high-sulfur coal-fired electric generating units with a combined capacity of 8500 NW. Ferrous EDTA reacts with nitric oxide, NO, which comprises about 95% of NO{sub x} from coal-fired boilers. In this report, although not precise, NO and NO{sub x} are used interchangably. A major objective of the tests was to combine NO{sub x} removal using ferrous EDTA, a developing technology, with SO{sub 2} removal using wet lime FGD, already in wide commercial use. If successful, this could allow wide application of this NO{sub x} removal technology.

  6. WET-NZ Multi-Mode Wave Energy Converter Advancement Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klure, Justin

    2011-11-01

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review in which the principal investigator discussed the next steps to verify a multi-mode functionality of the WET-NZ device. This included overview of the approaches taken to perform wave tank testing, open ocean deployment, synthesis and analysis.

  7. Unpaired Majorana modes in Josephson-Junction Arrays with gapless bulk excitations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pino, M.; Tsvelik, A.; Ioffe, L. B.

    2015-11-06

    In this study, the search for Majorana bound states in solid-state physics has been limited to materials that display a gap in their bulk spectrum. We show that such unpaired states appear in certain quasi-one-dimensional Josephson-junction arrays with gapless bulk excitations. The bulk modes mediate a coupling between Majorana bound states via the Ruderman-Kittel-Yosida-Kasuya mechanism. As a consequence, the lowest energy doublet acquires a finite energy difference. For a realistic set of parameters this energy splitting remains much smaller than the energy of the bulk eigenstates even for short chains of length L~10.

  8. The Role of Surface Chemistry and Bulk Properties on the Cycling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Role of Surface Chemistry and Bulk Properties on the Cycling and Rate Capability of Lithium Positive Electrode Materials The Role of Surface Chemistry on the Cycling and ...

  9. Raman vibrational spectra of bulk to monolayer Re S 2 with lower...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Raman vibrational spectra of bulk to monolayer Re S 2 with lower symmetry Authors: Feng, Yanqing ; Zhou, Wei ; Wang, Yaojia ; Zhou, Jian ; Liu, Erfu ; Fu, Yajun ; Ni, ...

  10. First-principles study on the interaction of nitrogen atom with ?uranium: From surface adsorption to bulk diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Qiulei; Deng, Huiqiu E-mail: hqdeng@gmail.com; Xiao, Shifang; Li, Xiaofan; Hu, Wangyu; Ao, Bingyun; Chen, Piheng

    2014-04-28

    Experimental studies of nitriding on uranium surfaces show that the modified layers provide considerable protection against air corrosion. The bimodal distribution of nitrogen is affected by both its implantation and diffusion, and the diffusion of nitrogen during implantation is also governed by vacancy trapping. In the present paper, nitrogen adsorption, absorption, diffusion, and vacancy trapping on the surface of and in the bulk of ?uranium are studied with a first-principles density functional theory approach and the climbing image nudged elastic band method. The calculated results indicate that, regardless of the nitrogen coverage, a nitrogen atom prefers to reside at the hollow1 site and octahedral (Oct) site on and below the surface, respectively. The lowest energy barriers for on-surface and penetration diffusion occur at a coverage of 1/2 monolayer. A nitrogen atom prefers to occupy the Oct site in bulk ?uranium. High energy barriers are observed during the diffusion between neighboring Oct sites. A vacancy can capture its nearby interstitial nitrogen atom with a low energy barrier, providing a significant attractive nitrogen-vacancy interaction at the trapping center site. This study provides a reference for understanding the nitriding process on uranium surfaces.

  11. Highly transparent ammonothermal bulk GaN substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, WK; Ehrentraut, D; Downey, BC; Kamber, DS; Pakalapati, RT; Do Yoo, H; D'Evelyn, MP

    2014-10-01

    A novel apparatus has been employed to grow ammonothermal (0001) gallium nitride (GaN) with diameters up to 2 in The crystals have been characterized by x-ray diffraction rocking-curve (XRC) analysis, optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cathodoluminescence (CL), and optical spectroscopy. High crystallinity GaN with FWHM values about 20-50 arcsec and dislocation densities below 1 x 10(5) cm(-2) have been obtained. High optical transmission was achieved with an optical absorption coefficient below 1 cm(-1) at a wavelength of 450 nm. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. High Density Sensor Network Development | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Density Sensor Network Development

  13. Charging and de-charging of dust particles in bulk region of a radio frequency discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Misra, Shikha; Sodha, M. S. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2013-03-15

    An analysis to investigate the effect of the dust particle size and density on the floating potential of the dust particles of uniform radius and other plasma parameters in the bulk region plasma of a RF-discharge in collisionless/collisional regime has been presented herein. For this purpose, the average charge theory based on charge balance on dust and number balance of plasma constituents has been utilized; a derivation for the accretion rate of electrons corresponding to a drifting Maxwellian energy distribution in the presence of an oscillatory RF field has been given and the resulting expression has been used to determine the floating potential of the dust grains. Further, the de-charging of the dust grains after switching off the RF field has also been discussed.

  14. In situ observation of defect annihilation in Kr ion-irradiated bulk Fe/amorphous-Fe 2 Zr nanocomposite alloy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, K. Y.; Fan, Z.; Chen, Y.; Song, M.; Liu, Y.; Wang, H.; Kirk, M. A.; Li, M.; Zhang, X.

    2014-08-26

    Enhanced irradiation tolerance in crystalline multilayers has received significant attention lately. However, little is known on the irradiation response of crystal/amorphous nanolayers. We report on in situ Kr ion irradiation studies of a bulk Fe96Zr4 nanocomposite alloy. Irradiation resulted in amorphization of Fe2Zr and formed crystal/amorphous nanolayers. α-Fe layers exhibited drastically lower defect density and size than those in large α-Fe grains. In situ video revealed that mobile dislocation loops in α-Fe layers were confined by the crystal/amorphous interfaces and kept migrating to annihilate other defects. This study provides new insights on the design of irradiation-tolerant crystal/amorphous nanocomposites.

  15. The impact of gas bulk rotation on the Ly? line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garavito-Camargo, Juan N.; Forero-Romero, Jaime E.; Dijkstra, Mark E-mail: je.forero@uniandes.edu.co

    2014-11-10

    We present results of radiative transfer calculations to measure the impact of gas bulk rotation on the morphology of the Ly? emission line in distant galaxies. We model a galaxy as a sphere with an homogeneous mixture of dust and hydrogen at a constant temperature. These spheres undergo solid-body rotation with maximum velocities in the range 0-300 km s{sup 1} and neutral hydrogen optical depths in the range ?{sub H} = 10{sup 5}-10{sup 7}. We consider two types of source distributions in the sphere: central and homogeneous. Our main result is that rotation introduces a dependence of the line morphology with viewing angle and rotational velocity. Observations with a line of sight parallel to the rotation axis yield line morphologies similar to the static case. For lines of sight perpendicular to the rotation axis, both the intensity at the line center and the line width increase with rotational velocity. Along the same line of sight, the line becomes single peaked at rotational velocities close to half the line width in the static case. Notably, we find that rotation does not induce any spatial anisotropy in the integrated line flux, the escape fraction or the average number of scatterings. This is because Lyman scattering through a rotating solid-body proceeds identically to the static case. The only difference is the Doppler shift from the different regions in the sphere that move with respect to the observer. This allows us to derive an analytic approximation for the viewing-angle dependence of the emerging spectrum, as a function of rotational velocity.

  16. High-density fluid compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanders, D.C.

    1981-09-29

    Clear, high-density fluids suitable for use as well completion, packing, and perforation media comprise aqueous solutions of zinc bromide and calcium bromide having densities lying in the range of about 14.5 up to about 18.0 pounds per gallon and measured PH's lying in the range of about 3.5 up to about 6.0. Optionally, such fluids may also comprise calcium chloride and/or a soluble film-forming amine-based corrosion inhibitor. Such fluids under conditions of ordinary use exhibit low corrosion rates and have crystallization points lying well below the range of temperatures under which they are used.

  17. Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe; Conor Braman; Katherine Dombrowski; Tom Machalek

    2010-12-31

    This document is the final technical report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, 'Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,' which was conducted over the time-period January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2010. The objective of this project has been to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid catalysts and/or fixed-structure mercury sorbents to promote the removal of total mercury and oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL), EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Energy (now called Luminant), Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP) and Duke Energy. URS Group was the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses fixed-structure sorbents and/or catalysts to promote the removal of total mercury and/or oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury not adsorbed is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project has tested candidate materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. Pilot-scale catalytic oxidation tests have been completed for periods of approximately 14 to19 months at three sites, with an additional round of pilot-scale fixed-structure sorbent tests being conducted at one of those sites. Additionally, pilot-scale wet FGD tests have been conducted downstream of mercury oxidation catalysts at a total of four sites. The sites include the two of three sites from this project and two sites where catalytic oxidation pilot testing was conducted as part of a previous DOE-NETL project. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests were also conducted at a fifth site, but with no catalyst or fixed-structure mercury sorbent upstream. This final report presents and discusses detailed results from all of these efforts, and makes a number of conclusions about what was learned through these efforts.

  18. Charge density wave transition in single-layer titanium diselenide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, P.; Chan, Y. -H.; Fang, X. -Y.; Zhang, Y.; Chou, M. Y.; Mo, S. -K.; Hussain, Z.; Fedorov, A. -V.; Chiang, T. -C.

    2015-11-16

    A single molecular layer of titanium diselenide (TiSe2) is a promising material for advanced electronics beyond graphene--a strong focus of current research. Such molecular layers are at the quantum limit of device miniaturization and can show enhanced electronic effects not realizable in thick films. We show that single-layer TiSe2 exhibits a charge density wave (CDW) transition at critical temperature TC=232±5 K, which is higher than the bulk TC=200±5 K. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements reveal a small absolute bandgap at room temperature, which grows wider with decreasing temperature T below TC in conjunction with the emergence of (2 × 2) ordering.more » The results are rationalized in terms of first-principles calculations, symmetry breaking and phonon entropy effects. The behavior of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) gap implies a mean-field CDW order in the single layer and an anisotropic CDW order in the bulk.« less

  19. Charge density wave transition in single-layer titanium diselenide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, P.; Chan, Y. -H.; Fang, X. -Y.; Zhang, Y.; Chou, M. Y.; Mo, S. -K.; Hussain, Z.; Fedorov, A. -V.; Chiang, T. -C.

    2015-11-16

    A single molecular layer of titanium diselenide (TiSe2) is a promising material for advanced electronics beyond graphene--a strong focus of current research. Such molecular layers are at the quantum limit of device miniaturization and can show enhanced electronic effects not realizable in thick films. We show that single-layer TiSe2 exhibits a charge density wave (CDW) transition at critical temperature TC=232±5 K, which is higher than the bulk TC=200±5 K. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements reveal a small absolute bandgap at room temperature, which grows wider with decreasing temperature T below TC in conjunction with the emergence of (2 × 2) ordering. The results are rationalized in terms of first-principles calculations, symmetry breaking and phonon entropy effects. The behavior of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) gap implies a mean-field CDW order in the single layer and an anisotropic CDW order in the bulk.

  20. Explosively driven low-density foams and powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viecelli, James A. (Orinda, CA); Wood, Lowell L. (Simi Valley, CA); Ishikawa, Muriel Y. (Livermore, CA); Nuckolls, John H. (Danville, CA); Pagoria, Phillip F. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-05-04

    Hollow RX-08HD cylindrical charges were loaded with boron and PTFE, in the form of low-bulk density powders or powders dispersed in a rigid foam matrix. Each charge was initiated by a Comp B booster at one end, producing a detonation wave propagating down the length of the cylinder, crushing the foam or bulk powder and collapsing the void spaces. The PdV work done in crushing the material heated it to high temperatures, expelling it in a high velocity fluid jet. In the case of boron particles supported in foam, framing camera photos, temperature measurements, and aluminum witness plates suggest that the boron was completely vaporized by the crush wave and that the boron vapor turbulently mixed with and burned in the surrounding air. In the case of PTFE powder, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of residues recovered from fragments of a granite target slab suggest that heating was sufficient to dissociate the PTFE to carbon vapor and molecular fluorine which reacted with the quartz and aluminum silicates in the granite to form aluminum oxide and mineral fluoride compounds.

  1. Statistical density modification using local pattern matching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2007-01-23

    A computer implemented method modifies an experimental electron density map. A set of selected known experimental and model electron density maps is provided and standard templates of electron density are created from the selected experimental and model electron density maps by clustering and averaging values of electron density in a spherical region about each point in a grid that defines each selected known experimental and model electron density maps. Histograms are also created from the selected experimental and model electron density maps that relate the value of electron density at the center of each of the spherical regions to a correlation coefficient of a density surrounding each corresponding grid point in each one of the standard templates. The standard templates and the histograms are applied to grid points on the experimental electron density map to form new estimates of electron density at each grid point in the experimental electron density map.

  2. Density Distributions and CO2 Sorption in a Confined Coal Sample for Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jikich, S.A.; McLendon, T.R.; Smith, D.H.

    2007-04-01

    A confined core of a Pittsburgh #8 coal obtained from a mine near Waynesburg, Pennsylvania, has been investigated using computerized tomography. The 3-D density distribution of the coal was calculated for the stressed and confined core with, and without CO2 sorption. We used a dual energy technique to quantify volumetric variations in bulk density and effective atomic number. CO2 sorption of coal was then investigated at predetermined injection pressures. The density changes in the coal matrix were calculated and correlated with the CO2 adsorbed for a multitude of regions of interest (ROI) chosen in slices perpendicular to the bedding plane. The results show that even in small core samples, coal heterogeneity is high. Large variation of density was observed in small regions of interest compared to the average density of slices. Also, the coal density distribution was changed significantly due to the CO2 uptake. This technique seems very useful in calculating density distribution for stressed and confined coal samples and the change in volumetric density distribution due to CO2 adsorption. Furthermore the kinetics of heterogeneous adsorption and swelling in coal can be determined.

  3. Recovery of Uranium from Wet Phosphoric Acid by Solvent Extraction Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beltrami, Denis; Cote, Grard; Mokhtari, Hamid; Courtaud, Bruno; Moyer, Bruce A; Chagnes, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Between 1951 and 1991, about 17 processes were developed to recover uranium from wet phosphoric acid (WPA), but the viability of these processes was subject to the variation of the uranium price market. Nowadays, uranium from WPA appears to be attractive due to the increase of the global uranium demand resulting from the emergence of developing countries. The increasing demand provides impetus for a new look at the applicable technology with a view to improvements as well as altogether new approaches. This paper gives an overview on extraction processes developed in the past to recover uranium from wet phosphoric acid (WPA) as well as the physicochemistry involved in these processes. Recent advances concerning the development of new extraction systems are also reported and discussed.

  4. Environmental aspects of alternative wet technologies for producing energy/fuel from peat. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.T.

    1981-05-01

    Peat in situ contains up to 90% moisture, with about 50% of this moisture trapped as a colloidal gel. This colloidal moisture cannot be removed by conventional dewatering methods (filter presses, etc.) and must be removed by thermal drying, solvent extraction, or solar drying before the peat can be utilized as a fuel feedstock for direct combustion or gasification. To circumvent the drying problem, alternative technologies such as wet oxidation, wet carbonization, and biogasification are possible for producing energy or enhanced fuel from peat. This report describes these three alternative technologies, calculates material balances for given raw peat feed rates of 1000 tph, and evaluates the environmental consequences of all process effluent discharges. Wastewater discharges represent the most significant effluent due to the relatively large quantities of water removed during processing. Treated process water returned to the harvested bog may force in situ, acidic bog water into recieving streams, disrupting local aquatic ecosystems.

  5. Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Louisiana and Alabama Natural Gas, Wet

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Louisiana and Alabama Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 28,772 1990's 23,050 22,028 20,006 19,751 21,208 21,664 22,119 22,428 21,261 20,172 2000's 20,466 20,290 19,113 17,168 15,144 14,073 12,201 11,458

  6. Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Texas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Texas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 6,885 6,511 7,497 7,261 7,277 6,998 1990's 7,330 6,712 7,044 6,712 6,418 6,565 6,034 6,027 5,676 5,890 2000's 6,425 6,810 6,234 5,354 4,144 3,354 2,738 2,550 2,402 2,451 2010's

  7. Lower 48 States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Lower 48 States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 32,208 1980's 33,443 32,870 31,268 31,286 30,282 29,515 28,684 27,457 26,609 26,611 1990's 26,242 25,088 24,701 23,551 23,913 24,532 24,715 24,666

  8. Lower 48 States Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Lower 48 States Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 176,060 1980's 172,864 176,385 174,252 174,755 171,508 167,979 167,754 162,713 167,820 166,409 1990's 168,183 165,672 163,584 160,504 162,126 163,901 165,851 165,048 162,400 166,304 2000's 177,179 182,842 187,028 188,797 192,727

  9. Alaska Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Alaska Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 27,217 1980's 28,567 28,676 30,814 30,408 30,356 31,092 30,893 30,732 6,269 6,198 1990's 6,927 6,729 6,723 6,494 6,487 6,265 6,080 7,716 7,275 7,209 2000's 6,768 6,592 6,376

  10. Recovery of Uranium from Wet Phosphoric Acid by Solvent Extraction Processes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Beltrami, Denis; Cote, Gérard; Mokhtari, Hamid; Courtaud, Bruno; Moyer, Bruce A; Chagnes, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Between 1951 and 1991, about 17 processes were developed to recover uranium from wet phosphoric acid (WPA), but the viability of these processes was subject to the variation of the uranium price market. Nowadays, uranium from WPA appears to be attractive due to the increase of the global uranium demand resulting from the emergence of developing countries. The increasing demand provides impetus for a new look at the applicable technology with a view to improvements as well as altogether new approaches. This paper gives an overview on extraction processes developed in the past to recover uranium from wet phosphoric acidmore » (WPA) as well as the physicochemistry involved in these processes. Recent advances concerning the development of new extraction systems are also reported and discussed.« less

  11. U.S. Natural Gas Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves in Nonproducing

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reservoirs (Billion Cubic Feet) Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 33,049 33,157 36,047 36,873 2000's 42,834 52,948 49,974 49,068 51,412 59,658 66,714 78,094 85,543 98,092 2010's 113,439 118,224 110,351 115,915 147,732 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  12. U.S. Nonassociated Natural Gas, Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs, Wet

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs, Wet (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Nonassociated Natural Gas, Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs, Wet (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 27,760 27,526 30,570 31,235 2000's 37,639 46,321 43,401 43,165 45,996 53,387 60,669 71,204 78,863 90,477 2010's 104,340 104,964 90,801 93,697 120,492 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  13. Texas - RRC District 10 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 10 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 7,289 1980's 6,927 6,720 6,731 6,485 6,060 6,044 5,857 5,512 5,300 5,213 1990's 4,919 5,061 4,859 4,478 4,669 4,910 4,845 4,613 4,744 4,688 2000's 4,433 4,263 4,299 4,510 5,383 5,430 5,950 6,932 7,601

  14. Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 2 Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,079 1980's 1,645 1,920 1,785 1,890 1,965 1,895 1,760 1,861 1,703 1,419 1990's 1,418 1,127 1,176 1,137 1,169 1,126 1,178 1,497 1,516

  15. Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 3 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,513 1980's 2,429 2,080 1,881 1,784 1,756 1,537 1,405 1,296 1,226 1,148 1990's 1,056 1,123 1,206 1,159 1,063 960

  16. Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 3 Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 4,052 1980's 3,333 3,466 3,167 3,220 3,264 2,940 2,605 2,563 2,400 2,278 1990's 2,024 1,987 1,723 2,092 2,590 3,196 3,612 3,539 3,275

  17. Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 4 Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 7,143 1980's 7,074 7,251 7,802 7,847 8,094 7,825 7,964 7,317 6,891 7,009 1990's 7,473 7,096 6,813 7,136 7,679 7,812 7,877 8,115 8,430

  18. Texas - RRC District 7C Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 7C Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 7C Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,427 1980's 2,023 2,065 2,224 2,150 2,393 2,475 2,373 2,295 2,374 2,776 1990's 3,061 2,833 2,873 2,945 3,029 2,828 3,371 3,247 2,939 2,977 2000's 3,439

  19. Texas - RRC District 8 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 8 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 8 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,645 1980's 2,569 2,630 2,908 3,014 2,932 3,004 3,076 2,898 3,072 3,128 1990's 3,068 2,770 2,742 2,562 2,751 2,834 2,981 3,144 2,820 3,175

  20. Texas - RRC District 8A Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) A Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 8A Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,485 1980's 1,396 1,486 1,420 1,301 1,272 1,314 1,275 1,271 1,267 1,534 1990's 1,526 1,521 1,585 1,451 1,572 1,318 1,276 1,206 1,097 1,513