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1

Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This assessment determines the technology maturity level of the candidate Tank 48H treatment technologies that are being considered for implementation at DOE's SRS - specifically Wet Air Oxidation.

2

Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Westinghouse Savannah River Company LLC Westinghouse Savannah River Company LLC Savannah River Site Aiken, SC 29808 LWO-SPT-2007-00247 Rev. 1 Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) For Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) November, 2007 Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) LWO-SPT-2007-00247 Rev. 1 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared by Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) for the United States Department of Energy under Contract No. DEA-AC09-96SR18500 and is an account of work performed under that contract. Neither the United States Department of Energy, nor WSRC, nor any of their employees makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or

3

Stability of ruthenium catalysts supported by aerogel mixed oxides during the wet air oxidation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid in a continuous reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Continuous catalytic wet air oxidation was investigated as a suitable treatment of p-hydroxybenzoic acid chosen as a phenolic compound typically found in olive mill wastewater. The reaction was conducted in a con...

Mohamed Triki; Anton Dafinov; Jordi Llorca…

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Oxidation Behavior of Mo-Si-B Alloys in Wet Air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multiphase composite alloys based on the Mo-Si-B system are candidate materials for ultra-high temperature applications. In non load-bearing uses such as thermal barrier coatings or heat exchangers in fossil fuel burners, these materials may be ideally suited. The present work investigated the effect of water vapor on the oxidation behavior of Mo-Si-B phase assemblages. Three alloys were studied: Alloy 1 = Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3}B{sub x} (T1)- MoSi{sub 2}- MoB, Alloy 2 = T1- Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2} (T2)- Mo{sub 3}Si, and Alloy 3 = Mo- T2- Mo{sub 3}Si. Tests were conducted at 1000 and 1100C in controlled atmospheres of dry air and wet air nominally containing 18, 55, and 150 Torr H{sub 2}O. The initial mass loss of each alloy was approximately independent of the test temperature and moisture content of the atmosphere. The magnitude of these initial losses varied according to the Mo content of the alloys. All alloys formed a continuous, external silica scale that protected against further mass change after volatilization of the initially formed MoO{sub 3}. All alloys experienced a small steady state mass change, but the calculated rates cannot be quantitatively compared due to statistical uncertainty in the individual mass measurements. Of particular interest is that Alloy 3, which contains a significant volume fraction of Mo metal, formed a protective scale. All alloys formed varying amounts of subscale Mo and MoO{sub 2}. This implies that oxygen transport through the external silica scale has been significantly reduced. For all alloys, water vapor accelerated the growth of a multiphase interlayer at the silica scale/unoxidized alloy interface. This interlayer is likely composed of fine Mo and MoO{sub 2} that is dispersed within a thin silica matrix. Alloy 3 was particularly sensitive to water accelerated growth of this interlayer. At 1100 C, the scale thickness after 300 hours increased from about 20 mm in dry air to nearly 100 mm in wet air.

M. Kramer; A. Thom; O. Degirmen; V. Behrani; M. Akinc

2002-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

5

Constraining Mercury Oxidation Using Wet Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Constraining Mercury Oxidation Using Wet Deposition Noelle E. Selin and Christopher D. Holmes mercury oxidation [Selin & Jacob, Atmos. Env. 2008] 30 60 90 120 150 30 60 90 120 150 30 60 90 120 150 30 Influences on Mercury Wet Deposition · Hg wet dep = f(precipitation, [Hg(II)+Hg(P)]) Correlation (r2) between

Selin, Noelle Eckley

6

TASK TECHNICAL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN FOR OUT-OF-TANK DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE VIA WET AIR OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY: PHASE I - BENCH SCALE TESTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tank 48H return to service is critical to the processing of high level waste (HLW) at Savannah River Site (SRS). Liquid Waste Disposition (LWD) management has the goal of returning Tank 48H to routine service by January 2010 or as soon as practical. Tank 48H currently holds legacy material containing organic tetraphenylborate (TPB) compounds from the operation of the In-Tank Precipitation process. This material is not compatible with the waste treatment facilities at SRS and must be removed or undergo treatment to destroy the organic compounds before the tank can be returned to Tank Farm service. Tank 48H currently contains {approx}240,000 gallons of alkaline slurry with about 2 wt % potassium and cesium tetraphenylborate (KTPB and CsTPB). The main radioactive component in Tank 48H is {sup 137}Cs. The waste also contains {approx}0.15 wt % Monosodium Titanate (MST) which has adsorbed {sup 90}Sr, U, and Pu isotopes. A System Engineering Evaluation of technologies/ideas for the treatment of TPB identified Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) as a leading alternative technology to the baseline aggregation approach. Over 75 technologies/ideas were evaluated overall. Forty-one technologies/ideas passed the initial screening evaluation. The 41 technologies/ideas were then combined to 16 complete solutions for the disposition of TPB and evaluated in detail. Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is an aqueous phase process in which soluble or suspended waste components are oxidized using molecular oxygen contained in air. The process operates at elevated temperatures and pressures ranging from 150 to 320 C and 7 to 210 atmospheres, respectively. The products of the reaction are CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and low molecular weight oxygenated organics (e.g. acetate, oxalate). The basic flow scheme for a typical WAO system is as follows. The waste solution or slurry is pumped through a high-pressure feed pump. An air stream containing sufficient oxygen to meet the oxygen requirements of the waste stream is injected into the pressurized waste stream, and the air/liquid mixture is preheated to the required reactor inlet temperature. The reactor provides sufficient retention time to allow the oxidation to approach the desired level of organic decomposition. Typical reaction time is about 30-120 minutes. Heat exchangers are routinely employed to recover energy contained in the reactor effluent to preheat the waste feed/air entering the reactor. Auxiliary energy, usually steam, is necessary for startup and can provide trim heat if required. Since the oxidation reactions are exothermic, sufficient energy may be released in the reactor to allow the WAO system to operate without any additional heat input. After cooling, the oxidized reactor effluent passes through a pressure control valve where the pressure is reduced. A separator downstream of the pressure control valve allows the depressurized and cooled vapor to separate from the liquid. Typical industrial WAO applications have a feed flow rate of 1 to 220 gallons per minute (gpm) per train, with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) from 10,000 to 150,000 mg/L (higher CODs with dilution). Note that catalysts, such as homogeneous copper and iron, their heterogeneous counterparts, or precious metals can be used to enhance the effectiveness (i.e., to lower temperature, pressure, and residence time as well as increase oxidation efficiencies) of the WAO reaction if deemed necessary.

Adu-Wusu, K

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

7

Catalytic wet oxidation of phenolic wastes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Possible catalyst deactivation problems High capital, low operating Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) Feasible only at high organic concentra- tions High Fast reaction, complete oxidation Severe reaction conditions, canosion problems... of milder reaction conditions and is much less energy intensive. Thus, catalytic wet oxidation would be an alternative to solvent extraction, supercritical water oxidation, homogeneous oxidation, and incineration. It should also be feasible at low...

Thomas, Brook James

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a result of the WAO reaction. (4) Off-gas composition was measured in the resulting gas phase from the reaction. Benzene and hydrogen were formed during the reaction, but they were reasonably low in the off-gas at 0.096 and 0.0063 vol% respectively. Considering the consistency in replicating similar test results with simulated waste and Tank 48H waste under similar test conditions, the results confirm the validity of the simulant for other WAO test conditions.

Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

9

Dry purification of aspirational air in coke-sorting systems with wet slaking of coke  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coke transportation after wet slaking is accompanied by the release of dust in the production building and in the surrounding atmosphere. Wet methods are traditionally used to purify very humid air. Giprokoks has developed designs for highly efficient dry dust-removal methods in such conditions.

T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

10

Interrelationships between air velocity and natural wet-bulb thermometer response  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN AIR VFLOCITY ANO NATURAL WET-BULB THERMOMETER RESPONSE A Thesis by NATHAN GLENN JONES Submitted to the Graduate Colleqe of Texas ASM University i n partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE AUGUST 1983 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN AIR VELOCITY AND NATURAL WET-BULB THERMOMETER RESPONSE A Thesis by NATHAN GLENN JONES Approved as to style an content by: airman o ommittee er Member ~~' A~ Member...

Jones, Nathan Glenn

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Experimental investigation of burning velocities of ultra-wet methane-air-steam mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental investigation of burning velocities of ultra-wet methane-air-steam mixtures Eric Abstract Global burning velocities of methane-air-steam mixtures are measured on prismatic laminar Bunsen flames and lifted turbulent V-flames for various preheating temperatures, equivalence ratios and steam

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

12

Assessment of an Industrial Wet Oxidation System for Burning Waste and Low-Grade Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation, under Department of Energy sponsorship, is developing a wet oxidation system to generate steam for industrial processes by burning industrial waste materials and low-grade fuels. The program involves...

Bettinger, J.; Koppel, P.; Margulies, A.

13

Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report presents and discusses results from a mercury control process development project entitled ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems''. The objective of this project was to demonstrate at pilot scale a mercury control technology that uses solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. Oxidized mercury is removed in downstream wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and leaves with the FGD byproducts. The goal of the project was to achieve 90% oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas and 90% overall mercury capture with the downstream wet FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. Great River Energy (GRE) and City Public Service (now CPS Energy) of San Antonio were also project co-funders and provided host sites. URS Group, Inc. was the prime contractor. Longer-term pilot-scale tests were conducted at two sites to provide catalyst life data. GRE provided the first site, at their Coal Creek Station (CCS), which fires North Dakota lignite, and CPS Energy provided the second site, at their Spruce Plant, which fires Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Mercury oxidation catalyst testing began at CCS in October 2002 and continued through the end of June 2004, representing nearly 21 months of catalyst operation. An important finding was that, even though the mercury oxidation catalyst pilot unit was installed downstream of a high-efficiency ESP, fly ash buildup began to plug flue gas flow through the horizontal catalyst cells. Sonic horns were installed in each catalyst compartment and appeared to limit fly ash buildup. A palladium-based catalyst showed initial elemental mercury oxidation percentages of 95% across the catalyst, declining to 67% after 21 months in service. A carbon-based catalyst began with almost 98% elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst, but declined to 79% oxidation after nearly 13 months in service. The other two catalysts, an SCR-type catalyst (titanium/vanadium) and an experimental fly-ash-based catalyst, were significantly less active. The palladium-based and SCR-type catalysts were effectively regenerated at the end of the long-term test by flowing heated air through the catalyst overnight. The carbon-based catalyst was not observed to regenerate, and no regeneration tests were conducted on the fourth, fly-ash-based catalyst. Preliminary process economics were developed for the palladium and carbon-based catalysts for a scrubbed, North Dakota lignite application. As described above, the pilot-scale results showed the catalysts could not sustain 90% or greater oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas for a period of two years. Consequently, the economics were based on performance criteria in a later DOE NETL solicitation, which required candidate mercury control technologies to achieve at least a 55% increase in mercury capture for plants that fire lignite. These economics show that if the catalysts must be replaced every two years, the catalytic oxidation process can be 30 to 40% less costly than conventional (not chemically treated) activated carbon injection if the plant currently sells their fly ash and would lose those sales with carbon injection. If the plant does not sell their fly ash, activated carbon injection was estimated to be slightly less costly. There was little difference in the estimated cost for palladium versus the carbon-based catalysts. If the palladium-based catalyst can be regenerated to double its life to four years, catalytic oxidation process economics are greatly improved. With regeneration, the catalytic oxidation process shows over a 50% reduction in mercury control cost compared to conventional activated carbon injection for a case where the plant sells its fly ash. At Spruce Plant, mercury oxidation catalyst testing began in September 2003 and continued through the end of April 2005, interrupted only by a

Richard Rhudy

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

14

Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2008 2008 contacts thomas J. Feeley III Technology Manager Environmental & Water Resources National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 412-386-6134 thomas.feeley@netl.doe.gov charles E. Miller Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 412-386-5745 charles.miller@netl.doe.gov Gary Blythe Principal Investigator URS Corp. 9400 Amberglen Blvd. P.O. Box 201088 Austin, Texas 78720 512-419-5321 gary_blythe@urscorp.com Environmental and Water Resources Full-Scale TeSTing oF a Mercury oxidaTion caTalyST upSTreaM oF a WeT Fgd SySTeM Background To provide alternatives for power plant owners to comply with the Clean Air Mercury Rule promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NETL is

15

Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the final technical report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, 'Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,' which was conducted over the time-period January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2010. The objective of this project has been to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid catalysts and/or fixed-structure mercury sorbents to promote the removal of total mercury and oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL), EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Energy (now called Luminant), Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP) and Duke Energy. URS Group was the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses fixed-structure sorbents and/or catalysts to promote the removal of total mercury and/or oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury not adsorbed is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project has tested candidate materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. Pilot-scale catalytic oxidation tests have been completed for periods of approximately 14 to19 months at three sites, with an additional round of pilot-scale fixed-structure sorbent tests being conducted at one of those sites. Additionally, pilot-scale wet FGD tests have been conducted downstream of mercury oxidation catalysts at a total of four sites. The sites include the two of three sites from this project and two sites where catalytic oxidation pilot testing was conducted as part of a previous DOE-NETL project. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests were also conducted at a fifth site, but with no catalyst or fixed-structure mercury sorbent upstream. This final report presents and discusses detailed results from all of these efforts, and makes a number of conclusions about what was learned through these efforts.

Gary Blythe; Conor Braman; Katherine Dombrowski; Tom Machalek

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

16

Heterogeneous catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of phenol over delaminated Fe–Ti-PILC employing microwave irradiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Delaminated Fe-exchanged Ti-pillared interlayered montmorillonite (Fe–Ti-PILC) was prepared and its catalytic performance as heterogeneous catalyst in wet hydrogen peroxide oxidation of phenol employing microwave irradiation was firstly evaluated. The obtained results indicated that the application of the catalyst allows a comparatively high removal of COD and a total elimination of phenol under mild conditions, without obvious leaching of iron species. The introduction of microwave irradiation could greatly shorten the reaction time.

Jian Guo Mei; Shao Ming Yu; Jun Cheng

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents and discusses results from Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42778, 'Full-scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System,' which was conducted over the time-period July 24, 2006 through June 30, 2010. The objective of the project was to demonstrate at full scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in pulverized-coal-fired flue gas. Oxidized mercury is removed downstream in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and collected with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA), who also provided the host site, Great River Energy, Johnson Matthey, Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), NRG Energy, Ontario Power and Westar. URS Group was the prime contractor and also provided cofunding. The scope of this project included installing and testing a gold-based catalyst upstream of one full-scale wet FGD absorber module (about 200-MW scale) at LCRA's Fayette Power Project (FPP) Unit 3, which fires Powder River Basin coal. Installation of the catalyst involved modifying the ductwork upstream of one of three wet FGD absorbers on Unit 3, Absorber C. The FGD system uses limestone reagent, operates with forced sulfite oxidation, and normally runs with two FGD modules in service and one spare. The full-scale catalyst test was planned for 24 months to provide catalyst life data. Over the test period, data were collected on catalyst pressure drop, elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst module, and mercury capture by the downstream wet FGD absorber. The demonstration period began on May 6, 2008 with plans for the catalyst to remain in service until May 5, 2010. However, because of continual increases in pressure drop across the catalyst and concerns that further increases would adversely affect Unit 3 operations, LCRA decided to end the demonstration early, during a planned unit outage. On October 2, 2009, Unit 3 was taken out of service for a fall outage and the catalyst upstream of Absorber C was removed. This ended the demonstration after approximately 17 months of the planned 24 months of operation. This report discusses reasons for the pressure drop increase and potential measures to mitigate such problems in any future application of this technology. Mercury oxidation and capture measurements were made on Unit 3 four times during the 17-month demonstration. Measurements were performed across the catalyst and Absorber C and 'baseline' measurements were performed across Absorber A or B, which did not have a catalyst upstream. Results are presented in the report from all four sets of measurements during the demonstration period. These results include elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst, mercury capture across Absorber C downstream of the catalyst, baseline mercury capture across Absorber A or B, and mercury re-emissions across both absorbers in service. Also presented in the report are estimates of the average mercury control performance of the oxidation catalyst technology over the 17-month demonstration period and the resulting mercury control costs.

Gary Blythe; Jennifer Paradis

2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

18

Comparison of Short-Term Oxidation Behavior of Model and Commercial Chromia-Forming Ferritic Stainless Steels in Air with Water Vapor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high-purity Fe-20Cr and commercial type 430 ferritic stainless steel were exposed at 700 and 800 C in dry air and air with 10% water vapor (wet air) and characterized by SEM, XRD, STEM, SIMS, and EPMA. The Fe-20Cr alloy formed a fast growing Fe-rich oxide scale at 700 C in wet air after 24 h exposure, but formed a thin chromia scale at 700 C in dry air and at 800 C in both dry air and wet air. In contrast, thin spinel + chromia base scales with a discontinuous silica subscale were formed on 430 stainless steel under all conditions studied. Extensive void formation was observed at the alloy-oxide interface for the Fe-20Cr in both dry and wet conditions, but not for the 430 stainless steel. The Fe-20Cr alloy was found to exhibit a greater relative extent of subsurface Cr depletion than the 430 stainless steel, despite the former's higher Cr content. Depletion of Cr in the Fe-20Cr after 24 h exposure was also greater at 700 C than 800 C. The relative differences in oxidation behavior are discussed in terms of the coarse alloy grain size of the high-purity Fe-20Cr material, and the effects of Mn, Si, and C on the oxide scale formed on the 430 stainless steel.

Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Fayek, Mostafa [University of Manitoba, Canada; Walker, Larry R [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta Ann [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Efficient catalytic wet oxidation of phenol using iron acetylacetonate complexes anchored on carbon nanofibres  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Iron acetylacetonate complexes anchored on oxidized carbon nanofibres (CNFs) were prepared by a three steps procedure: (i) oxidation of commercial \\{CNFs\\} by treatment with HNO3, (ii) synthesis of acetylacetonate (acac) functional groups on the oxidized \\{CNFs\\} surfaces (acac/CNFs) and (iii) iron ions complexation on the acac sites of the \\{CNFs\\} (Fe-acac/CNFs). The surface groups exposed on the functionalized \\{CNFs\\} were characterized by using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The functionalized \\{CNFs\\} and the iron complexes anchored on the \\{CNFs\\} were tested as heterogeneous catalysts for the wet oxidation of phenol with pure oxygen. Complete phenol conversion and high mineralization values were achieved with fresh and reused Fe-acac/CNFs catalysts, which demonstrate the improved stability of the catalysts under the phenol degradation reaction conditions. Furthermore these conditions are comparatively mild, typically 413 K of reaction temperature and 2.0 MPa of oxygen pressure.

M. Soria-Sánchez; A. Maroto-Valiente; J. Álvarez-Rodríguez; I. Rodríguez-Ramos; A. Guerrero-Ruíz

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

The effect of palladium additions on the solidus/liquidus temperatures and wetting properties of Ag-CuO based air brazes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new ceramic brazing technique referred to as reactive air brazing (RAB) has recently been developed for potential applications in high temperature devices such as gas concentrators, solid oxide fuel cells, gas turbines, and combustion engines. At present, the technique utilizing a silver-copper oxide system is of great interest. The maximum operating temperature of this system is limited by its eutectic temperature of ~945°C, although in practice the operating temperature will need to be lower. An obvious strategy that can be employed to increase the maximum operating temperature of the braze material is to add a higher melting noble alloying element. In this paper, we report the effects of palladium addition on the melting characteristics of the Ag-CuO system and on the wetting properties of the resulting braze with respect to alumina. It was found that the addition of Pd will cause an increase in the melting temperature of the Ag-CuO braze but possibly at a sacrifice of wetting properties depending on composition.

Darsell, Jens T.; Weil, K. Scott

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Sewage sludge minimisation by means of wet oxidation: process performance and economic sustainability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Today, several technologies and management strategies are proposed and applied in WWTPs to minimise sludge production and contamination and their techno-economic feasibility has to be carefully evaluated. In this work (which is being conducted within the European Union project 'ROUTES'), based on bench results, a mass balance was drawn for a WWTP (500,000 PE), where it was supposed to install a wet oxidation (WO) stage for sludge minimisation. The design of treatment units and the estimation of capital and operation costs were then performed. Subsequently, a procedure for technical-economic assessment was developed. Basically, this procedure consists in the definition and ranking of several technical (e.g., reliability of the technology, complexity and integration with the existing facilities, amount of residues to be disposed of or recovered, etc.) and economic aspects. Preliminary results have shown WO to be a suitable solution for sludge minimisation.

Giorgio Bertanza; Sabrina Zanaboni; Matteo Canato; Giuseppe Laera; Raniero Galessi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Performance of two fluid bed sludge incinerators with air pollution control systems consisting of a venturi scrubber and wet electrostatic precipitator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Performance tests were recently conducted on two new Hankin Fluid Bed Incineration Systems installed at publicly owned sewage treatment works in New Jersey. The purpose of the tests was to show that the systems met emission limits set by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE), and that the systems met throughput and fuel consumption requirements. These systems, consisting of a fluid bed incinerator, heat exchanger, venturi scrubber, tray cooler, and wet electrostatic precipitator, were tested for emissions of heavy metals, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, hydrogen chloride, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, and opacity. Both yielded emissions that were well within the stringent limits set by the NJDEPE in the operating permits. The incinerators exhibited a high level of fuel efficiency with fuel oil consumption averaging 5.5 and 6.0 gallons per ton of wet sludge. In addition, combustion efficiency was high, with a maximum average CO of 7.39 ppmvd and VOCs of 1.39 ppmvd (both corrected to 7% O{sub 2}). The air pollution control equipment showed very high removal efficiencies. Except for Mercury, collection efficiencies for all heavy metals fell within 98.7% to 99.999%. Particulate collection efficiency averaged 99.97 and 99.99%. Collection efficiency for HCl averaged 99.2% and 99.92%, and for SO{sub 2} averages were 97.1% and 94.8%. Finally, the level of NO{sub x} in the stack was extremely low with averages of 17.33 ppmvd and 14.19 ppmvd (corrected to 7% O{sub 2}) for the two systems.

Zaman, R.U. [Hankin Environmental Systems Inc., Somerville, NJ (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

23

Effect of microstructure on air oxidation resistance of nuclear graphite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidation resistance in air of three grades of nuclear graphite with different structures was compared using a standard thermogravimetric method. Differences in the oxidation behavior have been identified with respect to both (i) the rate of oxidation in identical conditions and the derived apparent activation energy and pre-exponential factor and (ii) the penetration depth of the oxidant and the development of the oxidized layer. These differences were ascribed to structural differences between the three graphite grades, in particular the grain size and shape of the graphite filler, and the associated textural properties, such as total BET surface area and porosity distribution in the un-oxidized material. It was also found that the amount of strongly bonded surface oxygen complexes measured by thermodesorption significantly exceeds the amount afforded by the low BET surface area, and therefore low temperature oxygen chemisorption is not a reliable method for determining the amount of surface sites (re)active during air oxidation. The relationship between nuclear graphite microstructure and its oxidation resistance demonstrated in this work underlines the importance of performing comprehensive oxidation characterization studies of the new grades of nuclear graphite considered as candidates for very high temperature gas-cooled reactors.

Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL; Guldan, Tyler R [ORNL; Wang, Peng [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island) Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Rhode Island Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Environmental Management These regulations apply to stationary sources with the potential to emit 50 tons of nitrogen oxides (NOx) per year from all pollutant-emitting equipment or activities. The regulations describe possibilities for exemptions (i.e., for sources which have the potential to emit 50 tons but do not actually reach that level) and Reasonably Available Control

25

E-Print Network 3.0 - air pollution oxidative Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: air pollution oxidative Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Air Pollution Physics and Chemistry...

26

Wet oxidation of phenol on Ce{sub 1{minus}x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 2{minus}{delta}} catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ce{sub 1{minus}x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 2{minus}{delta}} catalysts with 0.05 < x < 0.20 for catalytic wet oxidation of phenol in aqueous solutions have been synthesized using the coprecipitation method. The three most important synthesis parameters, the concentration of the mixed metal salt solution, the rate of coprecipitant addition and the stirrer speed during coprecipitation, were optimized with central composite design using the catalytic activity as a response function. The catalytic activity strongly depends on stirrer speed during coprecipitation. A high mutual dispersion of copper oxide and ceria, having the average crystallite size of about 9 nm, enhances solid solution formation. The unit cell parameter of ceria decreases when the overall concentration of copper in the catalyst increases, most probably obeying Vegard`s law. The catalysts proved to be very stable in hydrothermal reaction conditions at low pH values. After 5 h of reaction in the semibatch CST reactor less than 100 ppm of Cu was leached out of catalyst samples that were calcined in a flow of air for 2 h above 1033 K, and only a very low quantity of carbonaceous deposits were formed on the surface of the catalysts (0.6 wt%). The kinetics of phenol degradation could be interpreted by an equation valid for homogeneous autocatalytic reactions, in which the rate constant depends linearly on the heterogeneous catalyst (Cu) concentrations. This demonstrates that the reaction proceeds through a heterogeneous-homogeneous radical-branched chain mechanism.

Hocevar, S.; Batista, J. [National Inst. of Chemistry, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Lab. of Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering] [National Inst. of Chemistry, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Lab. of Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering; Levec, J. [National Inst. of Chemistry, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Lab. of Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering] [National Inst. of Chemistry, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Lab. of Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering; [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

Syngas Production from Catalytic Partial Oxidation of n-Butane: Comparison between Incipient Wetness and Sol?gel Prepared Pt/Al2O3  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Syngas Production from Catalytic Partial Oxidation of n-Butane: Comparison between Incipient Wetness and Sol?gel Prepared Pt/Al2O3 ... (30, 31) To start the reaction, a Bunsen burner was used to heat the catalyst bed to its ignition temperature. ... for fuel-efficient, lean-burn vehicles, both diesel and spark-ignited. ...

Rainer J. Bass; Timothy M. Dunn; Yu-Chuan Lin; Keith L. Hohn

2008-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

28

Treatment of an agrochemical wastewater by integration of heterogeneous catalytic wet hydrogen peroxide oxidation and rotating biological contactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The treatment of a non-biodegradable agrochemical wastewater has been studied by coupling of heterogeneous catalytic wet hydrogen peroxide oxidation (CWHPO) and rotating biological contactors (RBCs). The influence of the hydrogen peroxide dosage and the organic content of the wastewater (dilution degree) were studied. The CWHPO of the raw wastewater at 80 °C and using a moderate amount of oxidant (0.23 gH2O2/gTOC) reduced significantly its total organic carbon content and increased its biodegradability. Likewise, the iron leaching of the heterogeneous catalyst (Fe2O3/SBA-15) was less than 2 mg/L in the treated effluent. Under the best operating conditions, the resultant CWHPO effluent was successfully co-treated by rotating biological contactors (RBCs) using a simulated municipal wastewater with different percentages of the CWHPO effluent (2.5, 5 and 10% v/v). The \\{RBCs\\} showed high stability for the treatment of the highest percentage of the CWHPO effluent, achieving total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) reductions of ca. 78% and 50%, respectively. The integration of both processes on a continuous mode has been successfully accomplished for the treatment of the as-received agrochemical wastewater.

M.I. Pariente; J.A. Siles; R. Molina; J.A. Botas; J.A. Melero; F. Martinez

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Large-Scale Mercury Control Technology Testing for Lignite-Fired Utilities - Oxidation Systems for Wet FGD  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mercury (Hg) control technologies were evaluated at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young (MRY) Station Unit 2, a 450-MW lignite-fired cyclone unit near Center, North Dakota, and TXU Energy's Monticello Steam Electric Station (MoSES) Unit 3, a 793-MW lignite--Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal-fired unit near Mt. Pleasant, Texas. A cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber are used at MRY and MoSES for controlling particulate and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions, respectively. Several approaches for significantly and cost-effectively oxidizing elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in lignite combustion flue gases, followed by capture in an ESP and/or FGD scrubber were evaluated. The project team involved in performing the technical aspects of the project included Babcock & Wilcox, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and URS Corporation. Calcium bromide (CaBr{sub 2}), calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}), and a proprietary sorbent enhancement additive (SEA), hereafter referred to as SEA2, were added to the lignite feeds to enhance Hg capture in the ESP and/or wet FGD. In addition, powdered activated carbon (PAC) was injected upstream of the ESP at MRY Unit 2. The work involved establishing Hg concentrations and removal rates across existing ESP and FGD units, determining costs associated with a given Hg removal efficiency, quantifying the balance-of-plant impacts of the control technologies, and facilitating technology commercialization. The primary project goal was to achieve ESP-FGD Hg removal efficiencies of {ge}55% at MRY and MoSES for about a month.

Steven A. Benson; Michael J. Holmes; Donald P. McCollor; Jill M. Mackenzie; Charlene R. Crocker; Lingbu Kong; Kevin C. Galbreath

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

30

Evaluation of a Combined Ultraviolet Photocatalytic Oxidation(UVPCO)/Chemisorbent Air Cleaner for Indoor Air Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We previously reported that gas-phase byproducts of incomplete oxidation were generated when a prototype ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaner was operated in the laboratory with indoor-relevant mixtures of VOCs at realistic concentrations. Under these conditions, there was net production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, two important indoor air toxicants. Here, we further explore the issue of byproduct generation. Using the same UVPCO air cleaner, we conducted experiments to identify common VOCs that lead to the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde and to quantify their production rates. We sought to reduce the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde to acceptable levels by employing different chemisorbent scrubbers downstream of the UVPCO device. Additionally, we made preliminary measurements to estimate the capacity and expected lifetime of the chemisorbent media. For most experiments, the system was operated at 680-780 m{sup 3}/h (400-460 cfm). A set of experiments was conducted with common VOCs introduced into the UVPCO device individually and in mixture. Compound conversion efficiencies and the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were determined by comparison of compound concentrations upstream and downstream of the reactor. There was general agreement between compound conversions efficiencies determined individually and in the mixture. This suggests that competition among compounds for active sites on the photocatalyst surface will not limit the performance of the UVPCO device when the total VOC concentration is low. A possible exception was the very volatile alcohols, for which there were some indications of competitive adsorption. The results also showed that formaldehyde was produced from many commonly encountered VOCs, while acetaldehyde was generated by specific VOCs, particularly ethanol. The implication is that formaldehyde concentrations are likely to increase when an effective UVPCO air cleaner is used in buildings containing typical VOC sources. The magnitude of the expected increase will depend upon a number of interrelated factors. Series of experiments were conducted to determine if the oxidizer, sodium permanganate (NaMnO{sub 4}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O), has sufficient reaction rates and capacity to counteract formaldehyde and acetaldehyde production and enable a 50 % reduction in building ventilation rate without net increases in indoor aldehyde concentrations. A commercially produced filter element and two laboratory-fabricated media beds containing NaMnO{sub 4}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O chemisorbent media were evaluated. The effectiveness of a device for removal of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and other VOCs was determined by measurement of concentrations immediately upstream and downstream of the device. In some experiments, conversion efficiencies and byproduct generation by the UVPCO device also were determined. Six experiments were conducted with the commercial filter element installed downstream of the UVPCO reactor. Eleven experiments were conducted with a single panel media bed (30 cm by 61 cm by 2.5 cm deep) installed downstream of the UVPCO reactor; in these, the effects of temperature and air residence time on conversion efficiency were examined. Two experiments were conducted with a four-panel, folded, media bed (approximately four times the size of the single panel bed) installed downstream of the reactor. Because the commercial unit contained activated carbon as an additional component, it was effective at removing lower volatility compounds that typically have low oxidation rates in the UVPCO reactor. The filter element also met the minimum efficiency objective for formaldehyde. However, the removal of acetaldehyde was less than required. The air residence time in the single panel bed was not optimized as the removal efficiencies for both formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were strongly inversely related to the air flow rate through the device. In addition, the acetaldehyde removal efficiency decreased to less than 10% with extended use of the device. The fold

Hodgson, Alfred T.; Destaillats, Hugo; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Fisk,William J.

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Laboratory flammability studies of mixtures of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the request of the Department of Energy and the Westinghouse Hanford Company, the Bureau of Mines has investigated the flammability of mixtures of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and air. This work is relevant to the possible hazards of flammable gas generation from nuclear waste tanks at Hanford, WA. The tests were performed in a 120-L spherical chamber under both quiescent and turbulent conditions using both electric spark and pyrotechnic ignition sources. The data reported here for binary mixtures of hydrogen in air generally confirm the data of previous investigators, but they are more comprehensive than those reported previously. The results clarify to a greater extent the complications associated with buoyancy, turbulence, and selective diffusion. The data reported here for ternary mixtures of hydrogen and nitrous oxide in air indicate that small additions of nitrous oxide (relative to the amount of air) have little effect, but that higher concentrations of nitrous oxide (relative to air) significantly increase the explosion hazard.

Cashdollar, K L; Hertzberg, M; Zlochower, I A; Lucci, C E; Green, G M; Thomas, R A [Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Research Center

1992-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

32

Tin oxide based gas sensor for in-door air quality monitoring  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tin oxide nanograins doped with 0.1 at% of antimony have shown highly sensitivity towards tail gas, carbon monoxide and second-hand smoke. Such sensors are very useful for air quality...

Zhu, Lianfeng; Gai, Guosheng; Zhang, Changyue; Ji, Xuewen; Yao, Youwei

33

Synthesis Gas Production from Partial Oxidation of Methane with Air in AC Electric Gas Discharge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Synthesis Gas Production from Partial Oxidation of Methane with Air in AC Electric Gas Discharge K 73019 Received October 11, 2002 In this study, synthesis gas production in an AC electric gas discharge of methane and air mixtures at room temperature and ambient pressure was investigated. The objective

Mallinson, Richard

34

Chapter 3 - Oxidative Stress Induced by Air Pollution and Exposure to Sunlight  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Air pollution contains small particles, and particles smaller than 10 ?m can generate free radicals when inhaled. In addition, various free radicals may also be present in polluted air. In general, the air quality of urban areas is poorer than that of rural areas. Industrial smoke also contains free radicals and small particles. Breathing polluted air for a long period of time may induce oxidative stress in the body, causing various illnesses including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. Sunlight contains UV radiation, and prolonged exposure to sunlight or sunbathing without application of sunscreen may cause sunburn, skin damage, and even skin cancer including melanoma, which is linked to oxidative stress. During the summer months when the UV index is high, exposure to sunlight should be reduced or protective clothing should be worn. Moreover, use of sunglasses is recommended because UV light can induce oxidative stress in eyes, causing cataract formation and other eye diseases such as macular degeneration.

Amitava Dasgupta; Kimberly Klein

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Trends in wetting behavior for Ag–CuO braze alloys on Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O(3??) at elevated temperatures in air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O(3-?? (BSCF) is a potential oxygen separation membrane material for advanced coal based power plants. For this application, BSCF must be joined to a metal. In the current study, Ag-CuO, a reactive air brazing (RAB) alloy was evaluated for brazing BSCF. In-situ contact angle tests were performed on BSCF using Ag-CuO binary mixtures at 950 and 1000°C and the interfacial microstructures were evaluated. Wetting contact angles (?<90°) were obtained at short times at 950°C and the contact angles remained constant at 1000°C for 1, 2 and 8 mol% CuO contents. Microstructural analysis revealed the dissolution of copper oxide into the BSCF matrix to form copper-cobalt-oxygen rich dissolution products along the BSCF grain boundary. The formation of a thick interfacial reaction product layer and ridging at the sessile drop triple point indicate that the reaction kinetics are very rapid and that it will require careful process control to obtain the desired thin but continuous interfacial product layer.

Joshi, Vineet V.; Meier, Alan; Darsell, Jens T.; Weil, K. Scott; Bowden, Mark E.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Synthesis of Fe-zeolites and Fe-PILC samples and their activity in wet hydrogen peroxide oxidation of p-coumaric acid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The catalytic wet hydrogen peroxide oxidation of p-coumaric acid was investigated over various Fe-ZSM-5, Fe-BEA and Fe-PILC samples. The catalysts differing in the amount of iron were prepared by the solid state ion exchange method and were caracterized by XRD, BET surface area and Chemical analysis. The oxidation reaction was carried out in a batch reactor at 70°C and atmospheric pressure. A great interest has been focused on the leaching-off of iron. Fe-BEA catalysts were found more effective than Fe-ZSM-5 and Fe-PILC samples. At optimal condition, a solution containing 500 ppm of p-coumaric acid, 10?2M of H2O2 and 0.5 g/l of catalyst was degraded in less than 2h with a significant total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Characterization data were correlated with the activity results.

W. Najjar; A. Ghorbel; S. Perathoner; G. Centi

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Air Oxidation Kinetics for Zr-based Alloys [Corrosion and Mechanics of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Air Oxidation Kinetics for Air Oxidation Kinetics for Zr-based Alloys Capabilities Materials Testing Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC) of Reactor Materials Corrosion Performance/Metal Dusting Overview Light Water Reactors Fatigue Testing of Carbon Steels and Low-Alloy Steels Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Ni-Base Alloys Irradiation-Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking of Austenitic Stainless Steels Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program Air Oxidation Kinetics for Zr-based Alloys Fossil Energy Fusion Energy Metal Dusting Publications List Irradiated Materials Steam Generator Tube Integrity Other Facilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Corrosion and Mechanics of Materials Light Water Reactors Bookmark and Share

38

Effect of Gadolinium Doping on the Air Oxidation of Uranium Dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) investigated the effects of gadolinia concentration on the air oxidization of gadolinia-doped uranium dioxide using thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry to determine if such doping could improve uranium dioxide's stability as a nuclear fuel during potential accident scenarios in a nuclear reactor or during long-term disposal. We undertook this study to determine whether the resistance of the uranium dioxide to oxidation to the orthorhombic U3O8 with its attendant crystal expansion could be prevented by addition of gadolinia. Our studies found that gadolinium has little effect on the thermal initiation of the first step of the reported two-step air oxidation of UO2; however, increasing gadolinia content does stabilize the initial tetragonal or cubic product allowing significant oxidation before the second expansive step to U3O8 begins.

Scheele, Randall D.; Hanson, Brady D.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Sell, Rachel L.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Snow, Lanee A.

2004-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

39

Author's personal copy Microbial reduction of chlorite and uranium followed by air oxidation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Author's personal copy Microbial reduction of chlorite and uranium followed by air oxidation, University Park, PA, USA c Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Akron, Akron, OH, USA d Department of Geology, Miami University, Oxford, OH, USA e Biosciences Division, Argonne

Burgos, William

40

Oxidation kinetics of some nickel-based superalloy foils and electronic resistance of the oxide scale formed in air. Part 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Haynes 230, Inconel 625, Inconel 718, and Hastelloy X foil specimens were oxidized in air for several thousand hours in the temperature range of 800--1,100 C. The oxidation kinetics of alloys studied obeyed the parabolic rate law. Haynes 230 exhibited the slowest oxidation kinetics of the alloys studied. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) were the principal characterization tools employed. Chromium oxide, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, was the predominant oxide phase in the oxide scale of all alloys studied. Manganese chromate was also detected in the oxide scales of Haynes 230, Hastelloy X, and Inconel 625. EPMA showed that the concentration of Mn in the oxide scale was much higher than in the alloy, indicating selective oxidation of Mn. The electronic resistance of the oxide scale was measured in air at temperatures up to 800 C on samples oxidized in air for up to several thousand hours. The oxide scale on Haynes 230 exhibited the lowest area-specific resistance, consistent with its slower oxidation kinetics.

England, D.M.; Virkar, A.V.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Oxidation and Volatilization from Tantalum Alloy T-222 During Air Exposure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tantalum alloys are one of the refractory metals with renewed consideration for high temperatures in fusion reactor applications. Tantalum alloys perform well in protective environments but oxidized readily in gases containing higher oxygen levels. In addition, the radioactive isotope Ta-182 would be produced in tantalum and could be a significant contributor to dose if mobilized. Other isotopes of importance are produced from tungsten and hafnium. Mobilization of activated products during an accident with air ingress is therefore a safety issue. In this study, we measured the extent of oxidation and mobilization from tantalum alloy T-222 oxidized in flowing air between 500 and 1200 C. This alloy nominally contains 10 wt% tungsten, 2.5 wt% hafnium and 0.01 wt% carbon. We found that the mobilization of Ta and Hf was closely linked to the occurrence of oxide spalling. These elements showed no migration from the test chamber. Some W was mobilized by volatilization as evidenced by transport from the chamber. Tungsten volatilization could occur primarily during initial stages of oxidation before an oxide scale forms and impedes the process. The mobilization of Ta and W are presented in terms of the mass flux (g/m 2 -h) as a function of test temperature. These measurements along with specific designs, activation calculations, and accident scenarios provide information useful for dose calculations of future fusion devices.

Smolik, G.R.; Petti, D.A.; Sharpe, J.P.; Schuetz, S.T.

2000-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

42

Oxidation and Volatilization from Tantalum Alloy T-222 During Air Exposure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tantalum alloys are one of the refractory metals with renewed consideration for high temperatures in fusion reactor applications. Tantalum alloys perform well in protective environments but oxidized readily in gases containing higher oxygen levels. In addition, the radioactive isotope Ta-182 would be produced in tantalum and could be a significant contributor to dose if mobilized. Other isotopes of importance are produced from tungsten and hafnium. Mobilization of activated products during an accident with air ingress is therefore a safety issue. In this study, we measured the extent of oxidation and mobilization from tantalum alloy T-222 oxidized in flowing air between 500 and 1200°C. This alloy nominally contains 10 wt% tungsten, 2.5 wt% hafnium and 0.01 wt% carbon. We found that the mobilization of Ta and Hf was closely linked to the occurrence of oxide spalling. These elements showed no migration from the test chamber. Some W was mobilized by volatilization as evidenced by transport from the chamber. Tungsten volatilization could occur primarily during initial stages of oxidation before an oxide scale forms and impedes the process. The mobilization of Ta and W are presented in terms of the mass flux (g/m 2 -h) as a function of test temperature. These measurements along with specific designs, activation calculations, and accident scenarios provide information useful for dose calculations of future fusion devices

Smolik, Galen Richard; Petti, David Andrew; Sharpe, John Phillip; Schuetz, Stanley Thomas

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators.

Kuo, Lewis J. H. (Monroeville, PA); Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Vasilow, Theodore R. (Penn Township, PA); Bratton, Raymond J. (Delmont, PA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators. 4 figs.

Kuo, L.J.H.; Singh, P.; Ruka, R.J.; Vasilow, T.R.; Bratton, R.J.

1997-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

45

Selenium Speciation and Management in Wet FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report discusses results from bench- and pilot-scale simulation tests conducted to determine the factors that impact selenium speciation and phase partitioning in wet FGD systems. The selenium chemistry in wet FGD systems is highly complex and not completely understood, thus extrapolation and scale-up of these results may be uncertain. Control of operating parameters and application of scrubber additives have successfully demonstrated the avoidance or decrease of selenite oxidation at the bench and pilot scale. Ongoing efforts to improve sample handling methods for selenium speciation measurements are also discussed. Bench-scale scrubber tests explored the impacts of oxidation air rate, trace metals, scrubber additives, and natural limestone on selenium speciation in synthetic and field-generated full-scale FGD liquors. The presence and concentration of redox-active chemical species as well as the oxidation air rate contribute to the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) conditions in FGD scrubbers. Selenite oxidation to the undesirable selenate form increases with increasing ORP conditions, and decreases with decreasing ORP conditions. Solid-phase manganese [Mn(IV)] appeared to be the significant metal impacting the oxidation of selenite to selenate. Scrubber additives were tested for their ability to inhibit selenite oxidation. Although dibasic acid and other scrubber additives showed promise in early clear liquor (sodium based and without calcium solids) bench-scale tests, these additives did not show strong inhibition of selenite oxidation in tests with higher manganese concentrations and with slurries from full-scale wet FGD systems. In bench-tests with field liquors, addition of ferric chloride at a 250:1 iron-to-selenium mass ratio sorbed all incoming selenite to the solid phase, although addition of ferric salts had no impact on native selenate that already existed in the field slurry liquor sample. As ORP increases, selenite may oxidize to selenate more rapidly than it sorbs to ferric solids. Though it was not possible to demonstrate a decrease in selenium concentrations to levels below the project�¢����s target of 50 ���µg/L during pilot testing, some trends observed in bench-scale testing were evident at the pilot scale. Specifically, reducing oxidation air rate and ORP tends to either retain selenium as selenite in the liquor or shift selenium phase partitioning to the solid phase. Oxidation air flow rate control may be one option for managing selenium behavior in FGD scrubbers. Units that cycle load widely may find it more difficult to impact ORP conditions with oxidation air flow rate control alone. Because decreasing oxidation air rates to the reaction tank showed that all �¢����new�¢��� selenium reported to the solids, the addition of ferric chloride to the pilot scrubber could not show further improvements in selenium behavior. Ferric chloride addition did shift mercury to the slurry solids, specifically to the fine particles. Several competing pathways may govern the reporting of selenium to the slurry solids: co-precipitation with gypsum into the bulk solids and sorption or co-precipitation with iron into the fine particles. Simultaneous measurement of selenium and mercury behavior suggests a holistic management strategy is best to optimize the fate of both of these elements in FGD waters. Work conducted under this project evaluated sample handling and analytical methods for selenium speciation in FGD waters. Three analytical techniques and several preservation methods were employed. Measurements of selenium speciation over time indicated that for accurate selenium speciation, it is best to conduct measurements on unpreserved, filtered samples as soon after sampling as possible. The capital and operating costs for two selenium management strategies were considered: ferric chloride addition and oxidation air flow rate control. For ferric chloride addition, as migh

Searcy, K.; Richardson, M.; Blythe, G.; Wallschlaeger, D.; Chu, P.; Dene, C.

2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

46

Oxidation Of H2S To S By Air With Fe(III)-NTA As A Catalyst: Catalyst Degradation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The oxidation of H2S to S by air is represented by the overall reaction: $$ 2{{\\rm{H}}_2}{\\rm{S}} + {{\\rm{O}}_2} \\to 1/4{{\\rm{S}}_{{8^ \\downar...

Dian Chen; Ramunas J. Motekaitis…

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

ENVITEC shows off air technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ENVITEC International Trade Fair for Environmental Protection and Waste Management Technologies, held in June in Duesseldorf, Germany, is the largest air pollution exhibition in the world and may be the largest environmental technology show overall. Visitors saw thousands of environmental solutions from 1,318 companies representing 29 countries and occupying roughly 43,000 square meters of exhibit space. Many innovations were displayed under the category, ``thermal treatment of air pollutants.`` New technologies include the following: regenerative thermal oxidizers; wet systems for removing pollutants; biological scrubbers;electrostatic precipitators; selective adsorption systems; activated-coke adsorbers; optimization of scrubber systems; and air pollution monitors.

McIlvaine, R.W.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Cast Stone Oxidation Front Evaluation: Preliminary Results For Samples Exposed To Moist Air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The rate of oxidation is important to the long-term performance of reducing salt waste forms because the solubility of some contaminants, e.g., technetium, is a function of oxidation state. TcO{sub 4}{sup ?} in the salt solution is reduced to Tc(IV) and has been shown to react with ingredients in the waste form to precipitate low solubility sulfide and/or oxide phases. Upon exposure to oxygen, the compounds containing Tc(IV) oxidize to the pertechnetate ion, Tc(VII)O{sub 4}{sup ?}, which is very soluble. Consequently the rate of technetium oxidation front advancement into a monolith and the technetium leaching profile as a function of depth from an exposed surface are important to waste form performance and ground water concentration predictions. An approach for measuring contaminant oxidation rate (effective contaminant specific oxidation rate) based on leaching of select contaminants of concern is described in this report. In addition, the relationship between reduction capacity and contaminant oxidation is addressed. Chromate (Cr(VI) was used as a non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate, Tc(VII), in Cast Stone samples prepared with 5 M Simulant. Cast Stone spiked with pertechnetate was also prepared and tested. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Cr were cut from Cast Stone exposed to Savannah River Site (SRS) outdoor ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Tc-99 were cut from Cast Stone exposed to laboratory ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Similar conditions are expected to be encountered in the Cast Stone curing container. The leachability of Cr and Tc-99 and the reduction capacities, measured by the Angus-Glasser method, were determined for each subsample as a function of depth from the exposed surface. The results obtained to date were focused on continued method development and are preliminary and apply to the sample composition and curing / exposure conditions described in this report. The Cr oxidation front (depth to which soluble Cr was detected) for the Cast Stone sample exposed for 68 days to ambient outdoor temperatures and humid air (total age of sample was 131 days) was determined to be about 35 mm below the top sample surface exposed. The Tc oxidation front, depth at which Tc was insoluble, was not determined. Interpretation of the results indicates that the oxidation front is at least 38 mm below the exposed surface. The sample used for this measurement was exposed to ambient laboratory conditions and humid air for 50 days. The total age of the sample was 98 days. Technetium appears to be more easily oxidized than Cr in the Cast Stone matrix. The oxidized forms of Tc and Cr are soluble and therefore leachable. Longer exposure times are required for both the Cr and Tc spiked samples to better interpret the rate of oxidation. Tc spiked subsamples need to be taken further from the exposed surface to better define and interpret the leachable Tc profile. Finally Tc(VII) reduction to Tc(IV) appears to occur relatively fast. Results demonstrated that about 95 percent of the Tc(VII) was reduced to Tc(IV) during the setting and very early stage setting for a Cast Stone sample cured 10 days. Additional testing at longer curing times is required to determine whether additional time is required to reduce 100 % of the Tc(VII) in Cast Stone or whether the Tc loading exceeded the ability of the waste form to reduce 100 % of the Tc(VII). Additional testing is required for samples cured for longer times. Depth discrete subsampling in a nitrogen glove box is also required to determine whether the 5 percent Tc extracted from the subsamples was the result of the sampling process which took place in air. Reduction capacity measurements (per the Angus-Glasser method) performed on depth discrete samples could not be correlated with the amount of chromium or technetium leached from the depth discrete subsamples or with the oxidation front inferred from soluble chromium and technetium (i.e., effective Cr and Tc oxidation fronts). Residual reduction capacity

Langton, C. A.; Almond, P. M.

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

49

Lanthanum manganite-based air electrode for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An air electrode material for a solid oxide fuel cell is disclosed. The electrode material is based on lanthanum manganite having a perovskite-like crystal structure ABO.sub.3. The A-site of the air electrode material preferably comprises La, Ca, Ce and at least one lanthanide selected from Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Y and Nd. The B-site of the electrode material comprises Mn with substantially no dopants. The ratio of A:B is preferably slightly above 1. A preferred air electrode composition is of the formula La.sub.w Ca.sub.x Ln.sub.y Ce.sub.z MnO.sub.3, wherein Ln comprises at least one lanthanide selected from Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Y and Nd, w is from about 0.55 to about 0.56, x is from about 0.255 to about 0.265, y is from about 0.175 to about 0.185, and z is from about 0.005 to about 0.02. The air electrode material possesses advantageous chemical and electrical properties as well as favorable thermal expansion and thermal cycle shrinkage characteristics.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Kuo, Lewis (Monroeville, PA); Li, Baozhen (Essex Junction, VT)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Lanthanum manganite-based air electrode for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An air electrode material for a solid oxide fuel cell is disclosed. The electrode material is based on lanthanum manganite having a perovskite-like crystal structure ABO[sub 3]. The A-site of the air electrode material preferably comprises La, Ca, Ce and at least one lanthanide selected from Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Y and Nd. The B-site of the electrode material comprises Mn with substantially no dopants. The ratio of A:B is preferably slightly above 1. A preferred air electrode composition is of the formula La[sub w]Ca[sub x]Ln[sub y]Ce[sub z]MnO[sub 3], wherein Ln comprises at least one lanthanide selected from Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Y and Nd, w is from about 0.55 to about 0.56, x is from about 0.255 to about 0.265, y is from about 0.175 to about 0.185, and z is from about 0.005 to about 0.02. The air electrode material possesses advantageous chemical and electrical properties as well as favorable thermal expansion and thermal cycle shrinkage characteristics. 10 figs.

Ruka, R.J.; Kuo, L.; Li, B.

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

51

Personal and Ambient Air Pollution is Associated with Increased Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Children with Asthma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ambient air pollution and respiratory health in schoolEnvironmental Health Perspectives Air pollution and F ENO inEnvironmental Health Perspectives Air pollution and F ENO in

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model aerosoland its role in regional air quality. Science, 311, 67-70.In United-States Air-Quality Studies. Atmos. Environ. , 27,

Millstein, Dev

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Thermal Cyclability of Reactive Air Braze Seals in Anode Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The popularity of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) has increased in tandem with the ability to fabricate thinner gas-tight yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte layers, which can now be routinely produced on the order of 7 to 10 ?m thick. While this has significantly improved power output and decreased the required fuel cell operating temperatures, the ability to reliably seal fuel cells remains a concern. The seals must be hermetic and be robust enough to retain their hermeticity even under the extreme operating conditions of SOFCs. Perhaps the largest contributor to stresses experienced by the seal is the fact that the SOFC is an assembly of many different materials with different thermal expansion properties. Although every effort is made to minimize thermal expansion mismatches across the seals, the stresses developed during thermal cycling still jeopardize seal integrity. Reactive air brazing (RAB), a method of joining that employs a metallic, and therefore non-brittle, seal material has been used to seal electrolyte/anode bilayers, such as those in anode-supported SOFCs, to Crofer-22 alloy. The results of rupture strength testing will be reported for as-brazed and thermally cycled samples and the effect of thermal cycling on the RAB seal microstructure will be shown

Hardy, John S.; Darsell, Jens T.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Weil, K. Scott

2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

54

Air oxidation and seawater corrosion of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A program is currently under way at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to develop the data and technology needed to permit the licensing of /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ as a radioisotope heat source fuel for terrestrial applications. The WESF /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ storage capsule consists of a Hastelloy C-276 inner capsule (2 in. I.D. x 19 in. long) and a 316L stainless steel outer capsule (2-3/8 in. I.D. x 20 in. long). Preliminary experimental tests and theoretical calculations show that the WESF storage capsule is incapable of meeting current licensing requirements for heat sources that are to be used for terrestrial applications. Therefore, the DOE decision was to develop a new heat source design that would retain the existing WESF Hastelloy C-276 inner capsule and replace the current WESF outer capsule with a new outer capsule capable of meeting current licensing requirements. Based on a number of factors, Hastelloy S was selected as the outer capsule material. Hastelloy C-4 was selected as a backup material in case the Hastelloy S had to be rejected for any reason. This report summarizes the results of studies carried out to determine the effects of both air oxidation at heat source operating temperatures and seawater corrosion on the tensile properties of the outer capsule materials.

Fullam, H.T.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Catalytic oxidation of propylene with air at temperatures near 500° FCatalytic oxidation of propylene with air at temperatures near 500°F?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(9 ), propane was relatively difficult to oxidise. Using an arbitrary scale where the ease of oxidation of pentane equals 1 , the following values were reported} ethane, 0 .0 0 1 1; propane, 0 .1 ; butane, 0 .5 ; hexane, 7 .5 * *hs numbers refer.... They reported a 15 percent conversion to acrolein and a U peroent conversion to carbon dioxide. This was the lowest temperature at which the oxidation was reported to have been accomplished, and it appeared that the work of the present thesis in the region...

Dunlop, Donald Dunwody

1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Oxidative Potential and Inflammatory Impacts of Source Apportioned Ambient Air Pollution in Beijing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Air pollution exposure is associated with a range of adverse health impacts. Knowledge of the chemical components and sources of air pollution most responsible for these health effects could lead to an improved understanding of the mechanisms of such ...

Qingyang Liu; Jill Baumgartner; Yuanxun Zhang; Yanju Liu; Yongjun Sun; Meigen Zhang

2014-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

57

Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

understand and control this air pollutant. The effectivenessair pollution time series requires long records of pollutant concentrations to control

Millstein, Dev

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurements of total nitrate and ammonia were made during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study using a steam

Millstein, Dev

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Air Pollution Control  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Petroleum and chemical processes are responsible for many emissions both into the air. Most relevant emissions into the air are nitrous oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides ... compounds (VOC).The major cause of all air pollution

Alireza Bahadori

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Review of research results for the photocatalytic oxidation of hazardous wastes in air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory experiments of gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) at NREL have focused on measurements that can help commercialize this technology for treating gaseous air streams. This effort proceeds earlier NREL work and studies conducted elsewhere which demonstrated the general applicability of PCO. The more recent work has concentrated on: (1) the kinetics of the PCO process; (2) the formation and destruction of intermediates; and (3) possible enhancements to improve the destruction rates. The results from these studies will be used to help design large scale PCO equipment and they will be used to evaluate the economics of the PCO process. For trichloroethylene and ethanol, extensive studies of the rates of destruction have yielded kinetic parameters for the destruction of intermediates as well as the substrate. The kinetics of intermediates is essential for sizing a large scale reactor, as complete conversion to carbon dioxide is often desired. The kinetic data from these laboratory studies has been used for analyzing IT`s pilot PCO reactor and has been used to suggest modifications to this unit. For compounds that are more difficult to destroy (such as the components of BTEX), rate enhancement experiments have been conducted. These compounds represent a very large market for this technology and improvement of the rate of the process should make it competitive. Towards this goal, the enhancement of the destruction of BTEX components have been studied. Experiments have demonstrated that there is a significant increase in the rates of destruction of BTEX with the addition of ozone. Preliminary economic assessments have shown that PCO with ozone may be cost competitive. Future laboratory experiments of PCO will focus on refinements of what has been learned. Rate measurements will also be expanded to include other compounds representing significant markets for the PCO technology.

Nimlos, M.R.; Wolfrum, E.J.; Gratson, D.A.; Watt, A.S.; Jacoby, W.A.; Turchi, C.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Surface analysis of Zircaloy-2 implanted with carbon before and after oxidation in air at 500 °C  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Zircaloy-2 specimens were implanted with carbon ions in the fluence range from 1 × 1016 to 1 × 1018 ions/cm2, using a MEVVA source at an extraction voltage of 40 kV at a maximum temperature of 380 °C. The valences and depth profiles of elements in the implanted surface of Zircaloy-2 were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the micro-morphology of samples. The color of the oxidized samples was checked with an optical scanner. Glancing-angle X-ray diffraction at 0.3° incident angles was employed to examine the phase transformations of implanted samples before and after oxidation in the air at 500 °C for 2 h. Before oxidation, at fluences less than 5 × 1016 ions/cm2, hexagonal zirconia (H-ZrO0.35) was present. At a fluence of 1 × 1017 ions/cm2, rhombohedral zirconia (R-Zr3O) appeared. When the fluence reached 1 × 1018 ions/cm2, cubic zirconium carbide was produced. There are many pits, both deep and shallow, in the sample surfaces, both prior to oxidation and after oxidation. Oxidation in the air at 500 °C gave rise to black surfaces on all samples. The X-ray diffraction results showed that monoclinic and tetragonal zirconia were present in the surface of as-received sample. For implanted samples, monoclinic and tetragonal zirconia are still present, while cubic zirconium carbide is produced at all fluences. The presence of ZrC is attributed to the high-temperature, long-time (2 h) exposure.

D.Q. Peng; X.D. Bai; F. Pan; H. Sun; B.S. Chen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Wet and Dry Pollutant Deposition to the Mixed Conifer Forest  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Mediterranean climate in southern California regulates wet and dry deposition characteristics in the San Bernardino Mountains (SBM). Long dry periods in combination with the large air pollution emissions f...

A. Bytnerowicz; M. E. Fenn; P. R. Miller…

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Detailed modeling and laser-induced fluorescence imaging of nitric oxide in a NH3-seeded non-premixed methane/air flame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

non-premixed methane/air flame John B. Bell, Marcus S. Day, Joseph F. Grcar Computing Sciences-induced fluorescence imaging of nitric oxide in a NH3-seeded non-premixed methane/air flame Abstract In this paper we study the formation of NO in laminar, nitrogen diluted methane diffusion flames that are seeded

Bell, John B.

64

E-Print Network 3.0 - air oxidation technology Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Materials Science ; Engineering 8 Charge generation during oxidation of thin Hf metal films on silicon Theodosia Gougousi , David B. Terry, Gregory N. Parsons Summary:...

65

Personal and Ambient Air Pollution is Associated with Increased Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Children with Asthma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1994. Nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide: Method 6014. In:Molecular mechanisms of nitrogen dioxide induced epithelialEC, OC), and 24-hr nitrogen dioxide. Ambient exposures

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Physical Aspects of Blade Erosion by Wet Steam in Turbines [and Discussion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Aspects of Blade Erosion by Wet Steam in Turbines [and Discussion] A. Smith J. Caldwell...Christie Blade erosion in wet steam turbines is considered to be preceded by the collection...the trailing edges has been obtained on turbine blade cascades in a wet air tunnel...

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Fixed Bed Counter Current Gasification of Mesquite and Juniper Biomass Using Air-steam as Oxidizer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal gasification of biomass is being considered as one of the most promising technologies for converting biomass into gaseous fuel. Here we present results of gasification, using an adiabatic bed gasifier with air, steam as gasification medium...

Chen, Wei 1981-

2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

68

Design Principles for Oxygen-Reduction Activity on Perovskite Oxide Catalysts for Fuel Cells and Metal-air Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The prohibitive cost and scarcity of the noble-metal catalysts needed for catalysing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal-air batteries limit the commercialization of these clean-energy technologies. Identifying a catalyst design principle that links material properties to the catalytic activity can accelerate the search for highly active and abundant transition-metal-oxide catalysts to replace platinum. Here, we demonstrate that the ORR activity for oxide catalysts primarily correlates to {sigma}*-orbital (e{sub g}) occupation and the extent of B-site transition-metal-oxygen covalency, which serves as a secondary activity descriptor. Our findings reflect the critical influences of the {sigma}* orbital and metal-oxygen covalency on the competition between O{sub 2}{sup 2-}/OH{sup -} displacement and OH{sup -} regeneration on surface transition-metal ions as the rate-limiting steps of the ORR, and thus highlight the importance of electronic structure in controlling oxide catalytic activity.

J Suntivich; H Gasteiger; N Yabuuchi; H Nakanishi; J Goodenough; Y Shao-Horn

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

69

The catalytic oxidation of ethylene and butenes with air: total aldehyde production and selectivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of startup, variation in ca. talyst composition, or by pretreat- ment of tl e catalyst, inadvertently, with a deactivating agent. Pretreate. ent of the catalyst with hydrogen gas be- fore a run proved to have an adverse effect on the forma- tion... for epoinp;, these investi- . gators concluded tliat hydroxylation is not an important factor in the oxidation of 2-butane under tne conditions considered. At 375 0 a slow reaction occurred and the r te of oxidation' increased at l. i, her tcr...

Burns, John Cunningham

1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

SCHEDULE OF FEES Wet Milling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SCHEDULE OF FEES Wet Milling 100 g.......................$120..per sample* 1 kilogram of Illinois offers five milling procedures to determine processing characteristics of corn. Laboratory times. WET MILLING The wet milling process is used to produce starch (99.6% purity) as the primary

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

71

WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The yield locus, tensile strength and fracture mechanisms of wet granular materials were studied. The yield locus of a wet material was shifted to the left of that of the dry specimen by a constant value equal to the compressive isostatic stress due to pendular bridges. for materials with straight yield loci, the shift was computed from the uniaxial tensile strength, either measured in a tensile strength tester or calculated from the correlation, and the angle of internal friction of the material. The predicted shift in the yield loci due to different moisture contents compare well with the measured shift in the yield loci of glass beads, crushed limestone, super D catalyst and Leslie coal. Measurement of the void fraction during the shear testing was critical to obtain the correct tensile strength theoretically or experimentally.

Unknown

2001-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

72

Refractory oxides for high?temperature coal?fired MHD air heaters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In a coal?burning MHD (Magnetohydrodynamic) power plant the use of a regenerative air heater is one option for producing the required high plasma temperatures. However thermal mechanical and chemical stresses which the MHD environment places on materials are enormous and candidate materials must be carefully tested. We report on the results of such testing for a variety of materials studied in heater test facilities at both FluiDyne Engineering Corporation and at Montana State University. We describe the experimental program and test facilities for MHD heater development the rationale for the choice of materials and their performance (success or failure) under various envirnoments (slagging and nonslagging). Future materials needs are discussed in light of the observed effects.

Richard J. Pollina; Ronald R. Smyth

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Impact of Oxidant Air Pollutants on Forest Succession in the Mixed Conifer Forests of the San Bernardino Mountains  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chronic air pollution is an anthropogenic disturbance that may be influencing plant succession in the San Bernardino Mountains. Westman (1979, 1981) suggested that air pollution induced successional changes that ...

Joe R. McBride; Richard D. Laven

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Effects of oxidation on the impact energy of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 Charpy V-notch specimens heated in air at 600 to 800  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ heat source being developed at PNL utilizes a Hastelloy S or Hastelloy C-4 outer capsule having a 0.5-in.-thick wall to contain the Hastelloy C-276 inner capsule. The primary objective of the study was to demonstrate that the air oxidation of the outer capsule that could occur during heat-source service would not degrade the ductility and Charpy impact strength of the capsule below the licensing requirements given in Section 1.1. The /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ heat source under development is intended for general-purpose use. Compatibility considerations limit the interface temperature between the /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ and Hastelloy C-276 inner capsule to a maximum of 800/sup 0/C. The outer capsule surface temperature will be somewhat less than 800/sup 0/C, and depending on the service, may be substantially lower. The oxidation tests were therefore carried out at 600/sup 0/ to 800/sup 0/C for exposures up to 10,000h to cover the range of temperature the outer capsule might expect to encounter in service. The results showed that the oxidation of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 in air at 600/sup 0/ to 800/sup 0/C is very slow, and both alloys form adherent oxide layers that serve to protect the underlying metal. Subsurface attack of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 due to oxidation was greater than expected, considering the slow oxidation rates of the two alloys at 600/sup 0/ to 800/sup 0/C. Estimates of subsurface attack, determined from micrographs of the oxidized specimens, showed erratic results and it was impossible to assign any type of rate equation to the subsurface attack. A conservative estimate of long-term effects can be made using a linear extrapolation of the test results. There were no significant differences between the room-temperature Charpy impact energy of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 specimens oxidized in air at 600/sup 0/ to 800/sup 0/C and control specimens heated in vacuum.

Fullam, H.T.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Investigation of Mineral Transformations in Wet Supercritical...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mineral Transformations in Wet Supercritical CO2 by Electron Microscopy. Investigation of Mineral Transformations in Wet Supercritical CO2 by Electron Microscopy. Abstract: The...

76

Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Breakout Session 3A—Conversion Technologies III: Energy from Our Waste—Will we Be Rich in Fuel or Knee Deep in Trash by 2025? Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes James R. Oyler, President, Genifuel Corporation

77

Wet ethanol in HCCI engines with exhaust heat recovery to improve the energy balance of ethanol fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study explores the use of wet ethanol as a fuel for HCCI engines while using exhaust heat recovery to provide the high input energy required for igniting wet ethanol. Experiments were conducted on a 4-cylinder Volkswagen engine modified for HCCI operation and retrofitted with an exhaust gas heat exchanger connected to one cylinder. Tested fuel blends ranged from 100% ethanol to 80% ethanol by volume, with the balance being water. These blends are directly formed in the process of ethanol production from biomass. Comprehensive data was collected for operating conditions ranging from intake pressures of 1.4–2.0 bar and equivalence ratios from 0.25 to 0.55. The heat exchanger was used to preheat the intake air allowing HCCI combustion without electrical air heating. The results suggest that the best operating conditions for the HCCI engine and heat exchanger system in terms of high power output, low ringing, and low nitrogen oxide emissions occur with high intake pressures, high equivalence ratios, and highly delayed combustion timings. Removing the final 20% of water from ethanol is a major energy sink. The results of this study show that HCCI engines can use ethanol fuels with up to 20% water while maintaining favorable operating conditions. This can remove the need for the most energy-intensive portion of the water removal process.

Samveg Saxena; Silvan Schneider; Salvador Aceves; Robert Dibble

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Activation of VOHPO4 · 0.5H2O in Propane/Air Mixture: Effect on Structural, Morphological, Oxidant’s Behaviour and Catalytic Property of (VO)2P2O7 Catalysts for Propane Oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

VOHPO4 · 0.5H2O synthesized by VOPO4 · 2H2O and isobutanol was activated in a flow of propane/air mixture (1% propane in air) at 673 K for 36 ... VPD75P and VPD132P. The crystallinity of all propane/air pretreate...

Y. H. Taufiq-Yap; C. S. Saw; R. Irmawati

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE WET WIPES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant{trademark} Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

Youmans-Mcdonald, L.

2011-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

80

Critically safe volume vacuum pickup for use in wet or dry cleanup of radioactive enclosures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A physical compact vacuum pickup device of critically safe volume and geometric shape is provided for use in radioactive enclosures, such as a small glove box, to facilitate manual cleanup of either wet or dry radioactive material. The device is constructed and arranged so as to remain safe when filled to capacity with plutonium-239 oxide. Two fine mesh filter bags are supported on the exterior of a rigid fine mesh stainless steel cup. This assembly is sealed within, and spaced from, the interior walls of a stainless steel canister. An air inlet communicates with the interior of the canister. A modified conventional vacuum head is physically connected to, and associated with, the interior of the mesh cup. The volume of the canister, as defined by the space between the mesh cup and the interior walls of the canister, forms a critically safe volume and geometric shape for dry radioactive particles that are gathered within the canister. A critically safe liquid volume is maintained by operation of a suction terminating float valve, and/or by operation of redundant vacuum check/liquid drain valves and placement of the air inlet. 5 figures.

Zeren, J.D.

1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

3D Imaging Of Wet Granular Matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3D Imaging Of Wet Granular Matter Leonard Goff Advisor: Dr. Wolfgang Losert With Application to Penetrometer Insertion #12;3D Imaging Of Wet Granular Matter Leonard Goff, Advisor: Dr. Wolfgang Losert CoffeeSand Gravel Oops! #12;3D Imaging Of Wet Granular Matter Leonard Goff, Advisor: Dr. Wolfgang Losert

Anlage, Steven

82

The catalytic oxidation of propane and propylene with air: total aldehyde production and selectivity at low conversions.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

~ Ths writer is izntebteg to pr, P G~ ~och Tor his assistance azsi guidance in this work aC to Br~ J+ 9 Kinds Tor his aery. suggestions eel Succor~ a The oxidation cf propane~ propylene and prcya~cregyimm mbetccres ctver a ~ aiucdna ~st in a flew... formation of aldehyde fran pure grade propane The ~ce of Within the range of variables of this investigation and with propylene ~& aldehyde pr~cn was f'ennd to bs independent of" residence Qorrcgations relating aldehyde pressure to ~ and cncygsn pressure...

Looney, Franklin Sittig

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

83

11USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-166. 1998. Urban air basin produced oxidants, notably ozone, induce a decline in productivity in plants. This loss of productivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

11USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-166. 1998. Abstract Urban air basin produced oxidants, notably ozone, induce a decline in productivity in plants. This loss of productivity is manifested have been well-studied: increased production and more rapid turnover of antioxidant systems; production

Standiford, Richard B.

84

Identification of the Dinuclear and Tetranuclear Air-Oxidized Products Derived from Labile Phenolate-Bridged Dimanganese(II) Pyridyl-Chelate Compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dioxygen-sensitive dinuclear manganese complexes of the phenoxo-hinged dinucleating ligand 2,6-bis{l_brace}[N,N{prime}-bis(2-picolyl)amino]methyl{r_brace}-4-tert-butylphenolato (bpbp{sup -}) containing exogenous labile THF, water and perchlorato ligands are described. The manganese(II) complexes [Mn{sub 2}(bpbp)(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}(THF)]{sup +} (1) and [Mn{sub 2}(bpbp)(ClO{sub 4})(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sup 2+} (2) have been isolated as the salts 1{center_dot}ClO{sub 4}{center_dot}THF{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O, 1{center_dot}B(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 4}{center_dot}4THF and 2{center_dot}(ClO{sub 4})2{center_dot}H{sub 2}O. Complexes 1 and 2 are spontaneously oxidised in air in solution and the solid state. The reaction products of the air oxidation in THF, water and methanol solutions are labile dinuclear Mn{sup II}-Mn{sup III}, Mn{sup III}{sub 2} and Mn{sup III}-Mn{sup IV} complexes containing water- and methanol-derived exogenous ligands. In addition, a Mn{sub 4} complex has been isolated. Magnetic susceptibility data confirm the Mn{sup II}-Mn{sup III} oxidation state assignment with an S = 2/S = 5/2 model with weak antiferromagnetic coupling (J = -3.7 cm{sup -1}) in [Mn{sub 2}(bpbp)(CH{sub 3}O){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}](ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} [3{center_dot}(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}]. A tetranuclear complex, [Mn{sub 4}(O){sub 4-n}(OH){sub n}(bpbp){sub 2}](ClO{sub 4}){sub 4} [n = 1 or 2; 7{center_dot}(ClO{sub 4}){sub 4}], recovered from THF shows a Mn{sub 4}O{sub 6} adamantane-type core with the O bridges furnished by the two phenolato groups and four hydroxide/oxide bridges. We have arrived at two feasible formulations for the core metal oxidation states and oxo-bridge protonation states, namely [Mn{sup III}{sub 4}(O){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(bpbp){sub 2}]{sup 4+} and [Mn{sup III}{sub 3}Mn{sup IV}(O){sub 3}(OH)(bpbp){sub 2}]{sup 4+}, for 7, on the basis of a bond valence sum analysis of the crystal structure, elemental analysis and XANES. Thus, complex 7 is at least two oxidation state levels lower than known complexes with the Mn{sub 4}O{sub 6} adamantane core structure. The magnetism of 7 was fitted well to an MnIII4 three-J model. Complex cations related to 3 by homology, and to 7 by hydration/solvation, have been identified by ESI mass spectrometry. The [Mn{sub 2}(bpbp)(OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sup 2+} ion (4) present in aqueous solutions on dissolution of 1{center_dot}ClO4{center_dot}THF{center_dot}3H2O in air or by simple dissolution of 3 in water-containing solvent is isoelectronic to 3. In the presence of significant amounts of water the Mn{sup II}-Mn{sup III} complexes 3 and 4 are susceptible to further metal oxidation and concomitant aquo ligand deprotonation to give ions assignable to [Mn{sup III/IV}{sub 2}(bpbp)O(OCH{sub 3}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sup 2+} (5) and [Mn{sup III}{sub 2}(bpbp)(OH){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O)]{sup 2+} (6). ESI mass spectra of water or methanol solutions of 1, 2, 3 and 7 show predominantly an ion assignable to the oxide [Mn{sub 2}(bpbp)(O)]{sup 2+} (8). Cation 8 is most likely not present in solution. Using mild source conditions and MS-MS techniques, the gas-phase fragmentation pathways to generate 8 have been mapped.

Larsen,F.; Boisen, A.; Berry, K.; Moubaraki, B.; Murray, K.; McKee, V.; Scarrow, R.; McKenzie, C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Surface modification of ferritic and Ni based alloys for improved oxidation resistance of SOFC interconnect applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research is aimed at evaluating a surface modification of ferritic stainless steels (Type-430 and Crofer 22APU) and nickel-base alloys (Haynes 230) for use in the SOFC temperature range of 700 to 800°C. A surface treatment was devised to enhance the stability of the base metal oxide that forms and to reduce the oxidation rate of the materials at high temperature. Oxidation tests (in wet air; treated and untreated) were conducted at 800°C to evaulate the corrosion resistance of the alloys. It was found that the surface treatment improved the oxidation resistance of all the alloys tested. However, the treatment improved the performance of 430SS more than that of the other alloys.

Jablonski, Paul D.; Alman, David E.; Kung, Steven C. (SOFCo-EFS, Alliance, OH)

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Electronic environments in Ni{sub 3}Pb{sub 2}S{sub 2} (shandite) and its initial oxidation in air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polycrystalline Ni{sub 3}Pb{sub 2}S{sub 2} (shandite) was synthesised as a non-porous ingot to enable representative surfaces prepared by fracture under UHV to be characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) before and after exposure to air. For an unoxidised surface, the S 2p{sub 3/2} binding energy was found to be significantly lower than those reported previously for shandite itself and other sulfides having shandite structure, and consistent with the physical and chemical properties of the shandites. The core electron binding energies for the three constituent elements were in agreement with the formal oxidation state representation Ni{sup 0}{sub 3}Pb{sup II}{sub 2}S{sup ?II}{sub 2}, analogous to that deduced previously for Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}S{sub 2}. Shandite surfaces were found to oxidise rapidly when initially exposed to air under ambient conditions, and concomitant with the formation of the Ni–O and Pb–O species, to restructure to NiS- and PbS-like surface phases having S core electron binding energies no higher than those for shandite. - Graphical abstract: Shandite ingot fracture surface in sample holder. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Shandite synthesised as ingot so that fracture surfaces were representative of bulk. • Surfaces prepared by fracture in vacuum characterised by XPS. • S 2p{sub 3/2} binding energy in range expected and lower than reported previously. • Ni, Pb and S core electron binding energies consistent with Ni{sup 0}{sub 3}Pb{sup II}{sub 2}S{sup ?II}{sub 2}.

Skinner, William M.; Qian, Gujie [Ian Wark Research Institute, ARC Special Research Centre for Particle and Material Interfaces, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Buckley, Alan N., E-mail: a.buckley@unsw.edu.au [School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

87

Carbon nanotube fiber spun from wetted ribbon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber of carbon nanotubes was prepared by a wet-spinning method involving drawing carbon nanotubes away from a substantially aligned, supported array of carbon nanotubes to form a ribbon, wetting the ribbon with a liquid, and spinning a fiber from the wetted ribbon. The liquid can be a polymer solution and after forming the fiber, the polymer can be cured. The resulting fiber has a higher tensile strength and higher conductivity compared to dry-spun fibers and to wet-spun fibers prepared by other methods.

Zhu, Yuntian T; Arendt, Paul; Zhang, Xiefei; Li, Qingwen; Fu, Lei; Zheng, Lianxi

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

88

,"California Federal Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Federal Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

89

Wet Corn Milling Energy Guide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

307 307 ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Corn Wet Milling Industry An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers Christina Galitsky, Ernst Worrell and Michael Ruth Environmental Energy Technologies Division Sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency July 2003 Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor The Regents of the University of California, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product,

90

Mercury removal in utility wet scrubber using a chelating agent  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for capturing and reducing the mercury content of an industrial flue gas such as that produced in the combustion of a fossil fuel or solid waste adds a chelating agent, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or other similar compounds like HEDTA, DTPA and/or NTA, to the flue gas being scrubbed in a wet scrubber used in the industrial process. The chelating agent prevents the reduction of oxidized mercury to elemental mercury, thereby increasing the mercury removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. Exemplary tests on inlet and outlet mercury concentration in an industrial flue gas were performed without and with EDTA addition. Without EDTA, mercury removal totaled 42%. With EDTA, mercury removal increased to 71%. The invention may be readily adapted to known wet scrubber systems and it specifically provides for the removal of unwanted mercury both by supplying S.sup.2- ions to convert Hg.sup.2+ ions into mercuric sulfide (HgS) and by supplying a chelating agent to sequester other ions, including but not limited to Fe.sup.2+ ions, which could otherwise induce the unwanted reduction of Hg.sup.2+ to the form, Hg.sup.0.

Amrhein, Gerald T. (Louisville, OH)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Wetting of rough surfaces: a homogenization approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...plane xd = 0, and it is rough at a scale , where is...A (2005) Wetting of rough surfaces: a homogenization...where S1 is a closed set in Rd such that {xd 0...is finite, then L is a set with finite perimeter...A (2005) Wetting of rough surfaces: a homogenization...

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Regimes of the North Australian Wet Season  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The variability of the north Australian wet season is examined by performing cluster analysis on the wind and thermodynamic information contained in the 2300 UTC radiosonde data at Darwin for 49 wet seasons (September–April) from 1957/58 to 2005/...

Mick Pope; Christian Jakob; Michael J. Reeder

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Wetting transitions on biomimetic surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...increasing gap size, decreasing pillar height, or decreasing contact...only the pores adjacent to the three-phase (triple) line are...pores in the vicinity of the three-phase line are filled...of surface structure on the sustainability of an air layer on superhydrophobic...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Effect of Key Parameters on the Photocatalytic Oxidation of Toluene at Low Concentrations in Air under 254 + 185 nm UV Irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of key experimental parameters on the removal of toluene under 254 + 185 nm irradiation was investigated using a benchtop photocatalytic flow reactor. Toluenewas introduced at low concentrations between 10 and 500 ppbv, typical of indoorenvironments, and reacted on TiO2-coated Raschig rings. Two different TiO2-coated rings were prepared: in one case, by dip-coating using a P25 aqueous suspension and, on the other, using an organic/inorganic sol-gel method that produced thin films of mesoporous anatase. Flow rates in the photoreactor varied between 4 L min-1 and 125 mL min-1, leading to residence times in the range 100 ms< tau< 2 s. For these conditions, toluene removal efficiencies were between 30 and 90percent, indicating that the system did not achieve total conversion in any case. For each air flow rate, the conversion oftoluene was significantly higher when the reactor length was 10 cm, as compared with 5 cm; however, only marginal increases in conversions were achieved in the two reactor lengths at equal residence time and different concentration of toluene, suggesting that that the reactor is effectively behaving as an ideal reactor and that the reaction is first-order in the concentration of toluene. Experiments were carried out between 0 and 66percent relative humidity (RH), the fastest reaction rate being observed at moderately low humidity conditions (10percent RH), with respect to both dry air and higher humidity levels. Formaldehyde was formed as a partial oxidation byproduct at low and at high residence times (240 and 960 ms), although higher formaldehyde molar yields (up to 20percent) were observed at low tau (240 ms) and moderate humidity conditions (10 and 33percent), suggesting that both tau and RH can be optimized toreduce the formation of harmful intermediates. Toluene removal efficiency increased with the TiO2 thickness (i.e., mass) until a maximum value of 500 nm, beyond which the removal efficiency decreased. This should be attributed to limitations on the rates of toluene decomposition imposed by radiation transport through the film and/or internal diffusion resistances, which can take place within the porous photocatalytic films.

Quici, Natalia; Vera, Maria L.; Choi, Hyeok; Puma, Gianluca Li; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.; Litter, Marta I.; Destaillats, Hugo

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Controlled CO preferential oxidation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method is described for controlling the supply of air to a PROX (PReferential OXidation for CO cleanup) reactor for the preferential oxidation in the presence of hydrogen wherein the concentration of the hydrogen entering and exiting the PROX reactor is monitored, the difference there between correlated to the amount of air needed to minimize such difference, and based thereon the air supply to the PROX reactor adjusted to provide such amount and minimize such difference. 2 figs.

Meltser, M.A.; Hoch, M.M.

1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

96

Enzymatic corn wet milling: engineering process and cost model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Enzymatic corn wet milling (E-milling) is a process derived from conventional wet milling for the recovery and purification of starch ... the total starch production in USA by conventional wet milling equaled 23 ...

Edna C Ramírez; David B Johnston; Andrew J McAloon…

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Improvements to a Transport Model of Asphalt Binder Oxidation in Pavements: Pavement Temperature Modeling, Oxygen Diffusivity in Asphalt Binders and Mastics, and Pavement Air Void Characterization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Although evidence is mounting that asphalt binder oxidizes in pavements, and that oxidation and subsequent hardening of asphalt binder has a profound effect on pavement durability, important implementation issues remain to be better understood...

Han, Rongbin

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

98

MAGNESIUM OXIDE AN ENGINEERED BARRIER 2009 EPA WIPP RECERTIFICATION FACT SHEET United States Environmental Protection Agency | Office of Air and Radiation (6608J) | June 2009  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MAGNESIUM OXIDE ­ AN ENGINEERED BARRIER 2009 EPA WIPP RECERTIFICATION FACT SHEET United States://www.epa.gov/radiation/wipp/index.html MAGNESIUM OXIDE ­ AN ENGINEERED BARRIER Why is MgO Used At WIPP? The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposed the use of magnesium oxide (MgO) as an engineered barrier in the Compliance Certification

99

Indian Centre for Wind Energy Technology C WET | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

WET Jump to: navigation, search Name: Indian Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET) Place: Chennai, India Zip: 601 302 Sector: Wind energy Product: Government backed wind...

100

Colorado Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Oklahoma Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

102

Oklahoma Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oklahoma Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,...

103

Texas State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

104

Texas State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

105

California--State Offshore Natural Gas Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Billion Cubic Feet) California--State Offshore Natural Gas Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves in Nonproducing...

106

Effect of System and Air Contaminants on PEMFC Performance and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Pump Combustor? Radiator H 2 recirc pmp Coolant Loop Water Separator Cathode Loop Anode Loop Air Compressor 90 kWe Table 1. Typical "gas wetted" components used in a PEMFC...

107

Air Conditioning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Air Conditioning ... CHEMISTS and engineers use air conditioning as a valuable tool in more than two hundred industries. ... Air conditioning is a tool with many facets. ...

MARGARET INGELS

1938-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

108

Reducing the atmospheric impact of wet slaking  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Means of reducing the atmospheric emissions due to the wet slaking of coke are considered. One option, investigated here, is to remove residual active silt and organic compounds from the biologically purified wastewater sent for slaking, by coagulation and flocculation.

B.D. Zubitskii; G.V. Ushakov; B.G. Tryasunov; A.G.Ushakov [Kuznetsk Basin State Technical University, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

109

Breakdown in the Wetting Transparency of Graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We develop a theory to model the van der Waals interactions between liquid and graphene, including quantifying the wetting behavior of a graphene-coated surface. Molecular dynamics simulations and contact angle measurements ...

Shih, Chih-Jen

110

Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation of organic waste materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A wet chemical oxidation technology has been developed to address issues facing defense-related facilities, private industry, and small-volume generators such as university and medical laboratories. Initially tested to destroy and decontaminate a heterogenous mixture of radioactive-contaminated solid waste, the technology can also remediate other hazardous waste forms. The process, unique to Savannah River, offers a valuable alternative to incineration and other high-temperature or high-pressure oxidation processes. The process uses nitric acid in phosphoric acid; phosphoric acid allows nitric acid to be retained in solution well above its normal boiling point. The reaction converts organics to carbon dioxide and water, and generates NO{sub x} vapors which can be recycled using air and water. Oxidation is complete in one to three hours. In previous studies, many organic compounds were completely oxidized, within experimental error, at atmospheric pressure below 180{degrees}C; more stable compounds were decomposed at 200{degrees}C and 170 kPa. Recent studies have evaluated processing parameters and potential throughputs for three primary compounds: EDTA, polyethylene, and cellulose. The study of polyvinylchloride oxidation is incomplete at this time.

Pierce, R.A.; Smith, J.R.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Mass and Energy Balances of Wet Torrefaction of Lignocellulosic Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mass and Energy Balances of Wet Torrefaction of Lignocellulosic Biomass† ... Wet torrefaction is a pretreatment process to convert biomass to energy-dense solid fuel, with relatively uniform handling characteristics. ... A wealth of research have been conducted in the wet torrefaction of lignocellulosic biomass,(5-9) but relatively few address the comprehensive mass and energy balance involved in the wet torrefaction. ...

Wei Yan; Jason T. Hastings; Tapas C. Acharjee; Charles J. Coronella; Victor R. Vásquez

2010-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

112

Design consideration for wet welded joints  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wet welding has become a joining technique that under certain circumstances can provide results which cannot be distinguished between wet or dry production and the achievable mechanical quality is comparable to dry atmospheric welds. Wet welding is not a process which can be applied easily and which can be properly handled by untrained diver welders. Wet welding is more than any other kind of welding process or procedure a joining technique that requires the full job-concentration and -knowledge of an excellent trained and skilled diver welder throughout the whole production time, who is 100% identifying himself with his task. Furthermore he must be fully aware of the production requirements and possible metallurgical/environmental reactions and outcomes. He must be able to be fully concentrated on the process performance throughout his total work shift. In short: he must be an outstanding expert in his field. The following paper will highlight these subjects and show the necessity of their exact observation to achieve excellent quality in wet welding.

Szelagowski, P.; Osthus, V. [GKSS Research Center, Geesthacht (Germany); Petershagen, H.; Pohl, R. [Univ. Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Schiffbau; Lafaye, G. [Stolt Comex Seaway S.A., Marseille (France)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Advanced tests of wet welded joints  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wet Welding has in former times only been applied to secondary structural components. Nowadays wet welding has become an upcoming repair process due to high process flexibility, its low investment costs and its high versatility. Even the quality of the wet welded joints has been improved remarkably due to intensive and concentrated development activities. However, especially in the North Sea regions owners of offshore structures and classifying authorities still hesitate to recognize the process as a reliable alternative to dry hyperbaric welding repair methods. It therefore requires further activities especially in the field of data development for life prediction of such repaired components. Advanced testing methods are necessary, additional design criteria are to be developed and achievable weldment quality data are to be included in acknowledged and approved standards and recommendations to improve the credibility of the process and to solve the problem of quality assurance for wet welded joints. A comprehensive project, sponsored by the European Community under the Thermie Programme, is in progress to develop new testing procedures to generate the required data and design criteria for the future application of the wet welding process to main components of offshore structures. It is the aim of the project to establish additional fitness for purpose data for this process.

Pachniuk, I. [Stolt Comex Seaway S.A., Marseille (France); Petershagen, H.; Pohl, R. [Univ. Hamburg (Germany); Szelagowski, P.; Drews, O. [GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

114

Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

W. Windes; R. Smith

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Wet welding qualification trials at 35 MSW  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wet welding is gaining increased attention and attraction for application on marine buildings and offshore structures all over the world because of its versatility, flexibility and mobility in combination with low investment costs. In a common research and development project between PETROBRAS/CENPES, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht, Germany wet welding qualification trials have been performed in different water depths up to 35 msw. The tests have been performed with newly developed electrodes in two different wet welding procedures. The experiments have been carried out on SS- as well as on 5F-specimens acc. ANSI/AWS D 3.6-89. Results will be presented in respect to the performance of the two welding procedures especially with regard to the avoidance of hydrogen induced cold cracking and high hardness values.

Dos Santos, V.R.; Teixeira, C.J. [Petrobras/CENPES, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Szelagowski, P.J.F. [GKSS Research Center, Geesthacht (Germany)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

116

Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

J. O. Marston; I. U. Vakarelski; S. T. Thoroddsen

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

117

Chaoticity of the Wet Granular Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work we derive an analytic expression for the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy of dilute wet granular matter, valid for any spatial dimension. The grains are modelled as hard spheres and the influence of the wetting liquid is described according to the Capillary Model, in which dissipation is due to the hysteretic cohesion force of capillary bridges. The Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy is expanded in a series with respect to density. We find a rapid increase of the leading term when liquid is added. This demonstrates the sensitivity of the granular dynamics to humidity, and shows that the liquid significantly increases the chaoticity of the granular gas.

A. Fingerle; S. Herminghaus; V. Yu. Zaburdaev

2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

118

ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI co-funded this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project has investigated catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems, and to future FGD installations. Field tests were conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit was used to test the activity of four different catalyst materials for a period of up to six months each at three utility sites. Catalyst testing was completed at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, in December 1998; at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal, in November 1999; and at the third site, which fires a medium- to high-sulfur bituminous coal, in January 2001. Results of testing at each of the three sites were reported in previous technical notes. At Site 1, catalysts were tested only as powders dispersed in sand bed reactors. At Sites 2 and 3, catalysts were tested in two forms, including powders dispersed in sand and in commercially available forms such as extruded pellets and coated honeycomb structures. This final report summarizes and presents results from all three sites, for the various catalyst forms tested. Field testing was supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results are also summarized and discussed in this report.

Unknown

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Syngas Oxidation Mechanism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A comprehensive analysis of synthesis gas (syngas) oxidation kinetics in wide ranges of temperature ... on the basis of the reaction mechanism of syngas ignition and combustion in air. A vast set of experimental ...

A. M. Starik; N. S. Titova; A. S. Sharipov…

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Formation of Nanocrystalline Germanium via Oxidation of Si?.??Ge?.?? for Memory Device Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work, we studied the possibility of synthesizing nanocrystalline germanium (Ge) via dry and wet oxidation of both amorphous and polycrystalline Si?.??Ge?.?? films. In dry oxidation, Ge was rejected from the growing ...

Kan, Eric Win Hong

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Corn Wet Milling: Separation Chemistry and Technology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter focuses on the separation chemistry and technology of corn wet milling. The purpose of corn wet milling is to separate the kernel into its constituent chemical components. Wet milling processing begins with steeping whole kernel corn in an aqueous solution of sulfur dioxide and lactic acid (produced by microorganisms) at 50°C for 24–48 hours. The corn is then coarsely ground and the lipid-containing germ and fibrous hull portions are separated. After the remaining components are more finely ground, the starch and protein are separated using hydrocyclones, essentially continuous centrifuges; corn starch is slightly denser than corn protein. Germ is further processed into oil and the protein and fiber components are usually blended and used as animal feeds. The wet starch is either dried, chemically modified to change its functional properties, converted into intermediate-sized glucose polymers, or fully depolymerized into sugars. Starch is also often used as a raw ingredient for adjacent processing facilities that produce ethanol or other alcohols and other industrial chemicals.

David S. Jackson; Donald L. Shandera Jr.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Design of wetted wall bioaerosol concentration cyclones  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

...................................................................................... 24 Aerosol-to-aerosol collection efficiency.................................................... 24 Wetting pattern on the impacting wall ? effect of an atomizer.................. 24..................................................................................... 67 Figure 3.4. Cold temperature experiemental setup ........................................................... 68 Figure 3.5. Preliminary heating system for the 1250 L/min cyclone and thermo-couple locations...

Seo, Youngjin

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

123

Compressed Air  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

BPA Utility Reimbursement Programs for Compressed Air Projects Customer Proposal Template Measurement & Verification Plan for Compressed Air CA 2006-15 A template for utilities to...

124

Wet Chemical Functionalization of III–V Semiconductor Surfaces: Alkylation of Gallium Arsenide and Gallium Nitride by a Grignard Reaction Sequence  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Wet Chemical Functionalization of III–V Semiconductor Surfaces: Alkylation of Gallium Arsenide and Gallium Nitride by a Grignard Reaction Sequence ... These observations are consistent with the known solubility of oxidized As species in water. ... Remote H plasma exposure was effective for removing halogens and hydrocarbons from the surfaces of both nitrides at 450 °C, but was not efficient for oxide removal. ...

Sabrina L. Peczonczyk; Jhindan Mukherjee; Azhar I. Carim; Stephen Maldonado

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

125

Air Quality: Acronym List Department: Chemical and General Safety  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hazard analysis AQPM air quality program manager ARP accidental release prevention ATCM air toxic control Standard NESHAPs National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants NOx oxides of nitrogen NPOC nonAir Quality: Acronym List Department: Chemical and General Safety Program: Air Quality Owner

Wechsler, Risa H.

126

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

Garwin, Edward L. (Los Altos, CA); Nyaiesh, Ali R. (Palo Alto, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

1986-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

128

Ethylene Oxide Explosions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THE occasional occurrence of ethylene oxide explosions during the fumigation of dried fruit has led us to undertake a detailed ... yielded results somewhat like those for acetaldehyde1,2.. Cool flames can be initiated in ethylene oxideair mixtures in the neighbourhood of 330° C. at atmospheric pressure. ...

J. H. BURGOYNE; F. A. BURDEN

1948-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

129

TRL Acid and Solvent Wet Processing Rules and Guidelines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: General rules and guidelines for wet chemical processing in TRL. Author: KFlo hood and when transporting or handling chemicals. An acid-proof apron, sleeveTRL Acid and Solvent Wet Processing Rules and Guidelines Purpose

Reif, Rafael

130

Accepted Manuscript Variational formulations for surface tension, capillarity and wetting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Accepted Manuscript Variational formulations for surface tension, capillarity and wetting Gustavo C formulations for surface tension, capillarity and wetting, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. (2011), doi: 10 formulations for surface tension, capillarity and wetting Gustavo C. Buscagliaa,b, , Roberto F. Ausasa,b a

Frey, Pascal

131

www.kostic.niu.edu/DRnanofluids Wet-Nanotechnology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 www.kostic.niu.edu/DRnanofluids Wet-Nanotechnology: nanofluids at NIU www.kostic.niu.edu/DRnanofluids Dry- vs. Wet-nanotechnology · Fluids (gases & liquids) vs. Solids in Nature and (Chemical & Bio, and processes · Synergy of dry-nanotechnology (solid-state) & wet-nanotechnology (POLY-nanofluids) #12;2 www

Kostic, Milivoje M.

132

Categorical Exclusion 4497: Lithium Wet Chemistry Project  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

8/2012 07:36 8/2012 07:36 8655749041 ENVIRONMENTAL COMPL U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion Detennination Form Proposed Action Tills: Lithium W@t Chemistry Project (4597) Program or Fi~ld Oftke: Y-12 Site Office L&cationfs) (CiWLCount:r/State): Oak Ridge, Anderson County; Tennessee Proposed Action Description: PAGE 03/04 r: :;: :: !: s .a : brnl, i ~ y. : $ ~-rtl~il : t·:~::;J The proposed action is to develop a small lithium wet chemistry operation for the following purposes: (1) to capture wet chemistry operations, (2) to provide processing path for Lithium materials such as machine dust, (3) to provide lithium based materials, and (4) to produce the littlium hydroxide needed to support production. CategQrj~l Exclusion(s) Applied

133

Air Quality Standards & ATOC/CHEM 5151  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Lecture 22 Air Quality Standards & Control ATOC/CHEM 5151 #12;2 Primary Pollutants Things to reduce air pollution emissions ­ Latest version ­ 1990 (original, 1963) ­ What is an "air pollutant that are directly emitted Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Hydrocarbons (VOCs) Carbon Monoxide (CO) #12;3 Secondary Pollutants

Toohey, Darin W.

134

Urban and Regional Air Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

equipment equipment Urban and Regional Air Quality Research in this area is concerned with regional air quality issues such as: Controlling nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds, to manage tropospheric ozone pollution. Hazardous air pollutants: using science to base standards on rigorously studied risks. Air quality and climate: how does climate influence air quality at a regional or local level? Current modeling practices often do not capture variations in pollutants such as ozone-they represent a limited sample of the diverse meteorology and human behavior that affect air pollution. Improved modeling of regional air quality will help understand variability, reveal patterns of behavior, and pollutant transport issues. Controlled experiments in lab and field can help validate improved models.

135

Air Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

What We Monitor & Why » What We Monitor & Why » Air Quality Air Quality To preserve our existing wilderness-area air quality, LANL implements a conscientious program of air monitoring. April 12, 2012 Real-time data monitoring for particulate matter An air monitoring field team member tests one of LANL's tapered element oscillating microbalance samplers, which collects real-time particulate matter data. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email LANL monitors air quality 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Why we monitor air LANL monitors many different pathways in order to assess their impact on workers, the public, animals, and plants. We monitor the air around the Laboratory to ensure our operations are not affecting the air of nearby

136

Electrode electrolyte interlayers containing cerium oxide for electrochemical fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical cell is made having a porous fuel electrode (16) and a porous air electrode (13), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) therebetween, where the air electrode surface opposing the electrolyte has a separate, attached, dense, continuous layer (14) of a material containing cerium oxide, and where electrolyte (16) contacts the continuous oxide layer (14), without contacting the air electrode (13).

Borglum, Brian P. (Edgewood, PA); Bessette, Norman F. (N. Huntingdon, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Fabrication of Semiconductors by Wet Chemical Etch  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arsenide. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1994. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK A selective wet etch process to re- move GaAs epitaxial cap layers from underlying InGaP layers has been de- veloped using a solution of H2SO4: H2O2:deionized water at a rate... the computing and electronics industries. Semiconducting materials, such as silicon, germanium, gallium ar- senide, and indium phosphide, are neither good insulators nor good con- ductors, but they have intrinsic electri- cal properties so that by controlled...

Francoviglia, Laura

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Use of Air2Air Technology to Recover Fresh-Water from the Normal Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program was undertaken to build and operate the first Air2Air{trademark} Water Conservation Cooling Tower at a power plant, giving a validated basis and capability for water conservation by this method. Air2Air{trademark} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10%-25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate).

Ken Mortensen

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

139

Electrically Heated High Temperature Incineration of Air Toxics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In-Process Technology has placed a prototype of its patented, electrically heated, packed-bed air toxics oxidizer at a northern California chemical plant. This thermal oxidizer is capable of handling a wide range of chlorinated and non...

Agardy, F. J.; Wilcox, J. B.

140

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

143

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

144

Chapter 28 - Air Quality Status and Trends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter describes the condition of air quality, based on air pollutant concentrations, i.e. criteria pollutants, in airsheds around the world, as well as certain air toxics in urban areas and hot spots. The variability of pollutant concentrations in space and time are discussed, as well as differences in air pollution between more industrialized and economically developed regions vs developing nations. The status and trends of atmospheric concentrations of tropospheric ozone, oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulfur, carbon monoxide, lead, and particulate matter are discussed. Examples of air toxics include benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, aldehydes, and metals, e.g. mercury. Regional and global trends include acid deposition, depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, and climate change. Indoor air quality is discussed. The chapter concludes with a description of an air quality index.

Daniel Vallero

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Effect of drying, initial moisture and variety in corn wet milling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A laboratory wet-milling process was used to determine starch yield and starch recovery of dent and flint corn dried under different drying conditions. A comparison with undried samples was performed. For the undried samples the starch recovery was not significantly different between both varieties. It decreased as both initial moisture content of the grains and drying air temperature increased. The reduction in starch recovery as well as the contamination by protein was greater for the flint than for the dent corn. Swelling, solubility and initial gelatinization temperatures of the starch derived from both varieties were affected by the drying conditions.

Mónica Haros; Costantino Suarez

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

W.E.T. Automotive Systems | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Automotive Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: W.E.T. Automotive Systems Place: Odelzhausen, Germany Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes...

147

,"Colorado Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

148

,"Colorado Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

149

,"Colorado Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

150

,"New York Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation",10,"Annual",2013...

151

,"New Mexico Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation",10,"Annual",201...

152

New Mexico Natural Gas Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves in...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

After Lease Separation, Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Billion...

153

,"New York Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion...

154

,"New York Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

155

,"New York Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

156

,"U.S. Federal Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Federal Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

157

,"California Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

158

,"California State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

159

,"Louisiana State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

160

,"Texas State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

ame","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

,"Texas State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

ame","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

162

,"California State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

163

,"Texas State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

ame","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

164

,"Louisiana State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

165

,"California Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation",10,"Annual",2...

166

,"New York Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation",10,"Annual",2012...

167

Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

168

The wetting behavior of NiAl and NiPtAl on polycrystalline alumina  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to understand the beneficial effect of Pt on the adherence of thermally grown alumina scales, sessile drop experiments were performed to study the wetting of poly-crystalline alumina by nickel-aluminum alloys with or without platinum addition where the amount of Pt ranged from 2.4 to 10 at.%. Subsequent interfacial structure was evaluated using atomic force microscopy. Platinum addition enhances the wettability of NiAl alloys on alumina, reduces the oxide/alloy interface energy and increases the interfacial mass transport rates.

Saiz, Eduardo; Gauffier, Antoine; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Hou, Peggy Y.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Additional wet milling step for fractionation of barley flour after hull separation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fuel ethanol production from barley is increasing and there is a need to develop more efficient production processes. In the conventional ethanol production process, the hulls (fiber) in barley do not get fermented. The objective of this study is to evaluate a wet fractionation method, similar to the one used in corn wet milling in the endosperm fiber separation step, on the flour remaining after hull separation from barley in order to increase the starch content of barley flour. Hulls were separated from hammer milled barley flour using a combination of sieving and air classification. The remaining flour was soaked in water and the slurry was ground using an attrition mill. The cell wall material was screened out from the fine slurry. The fermentation material produced by hull separation followed by wet fractionation comprised 80.9% by weight of the original flour and contained 10.1% higher starch and 7.9% lower fiber (neutral detergent fiber; NDF) contents than the original flour. The cell wall coproduct has potential as a functional food ingredient because it has high fiber (NDF of 42.7%), high beta-glucan (4.5%) and high protein (20.2%) contents. The increase in starch content may be beneficial in fuel ethanol production.

Radhakrishnan Srinivasan; Kaleb Smith

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Geothermal Power Plants — Meeting Clean Air Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Geothermal power plants can meet the most stringent clean air standards. They emit little carbon dioxide, very low amounts of sulfur dioxide, and no nitrogen oxides. See Charts 1, 2, and 3 below.

171

Secondary imbibition in NAPL-invaded mixed-wet sediments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Secondary imbibition in NAPL-invaded mixed-wet sediments Ahmed Al-Futaisia,b , Tad W. Patzekb to study the spontaneous and forced secondary imbibition of a NAPL-invaded sediment, as in the displacement-wet sediment, i.e., the receding contact angles are very small. However, depending on the surface mineralogy

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

172

Wave Energy Test Site (WETS) Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wave Energy Test Site (WETS) Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) Alexandra DeVisser, NAVFAC-EXWC Brian June 10, 2013 #12;Wave Energy Test Site (WETS) Objective: Provide location for year-long in Cable, Sound & Sea Technology (SST) Luis A. Vega, HNEI-University of Hawaii Energy Ocean International

173

Introduction High-shear wet granulation by twin screw extrusion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and compaction16,17 . Wet granulation in a twin screw extruder is particularly useful with many investigates foam granulation in a twin screw extruder as a new continuous wet granulation technique drop or spray liquid addition in batch granulation. This work demonstrates a twin screw extruder

Thompson, Michael

174

Hydrogen penetration into silicon during wet-chemical etching  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen incorporation during wet-chemical etching into p-type silicon was studied by CV measurements. Etching rates between 0.08 and 0.5 µm/s were generated by different ratios of HF:HNO3:CH3COOH solutions. CV measurements ... Keywords: Schottky diodes, hydrogen, silicon, wet chemical etching

J. Weber; S. Knack; O. V. Feklisova; N. A. Yarykin; E. B. Yakimov

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-Wet FGD  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mercury control for Plants firing Mercury control for Plants firing texas lignite and equiPPed with esP-wet fgd Background The 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule will require significant reductions in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. One promising mercury control technology involves the use of sorbents such as powdered activated carbon. Full-scale sorbent injection tests conducted for various combinations of fuel and plant air pollution control devices have provided a good understanding of variables that affect sorbent performance. However, many uncertainties exist regarding long-term performance, and data gaps remain for specific plant configurations. Sorbent injection has not been demonstrated at full-scale for plants firing Texas lignite coal, which are responsible for about 10 percent of annual U.S. power plant

176

Alabama Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 13 1980's 23 25 1990's 25 23 30 46 56 44 38 30 28 27 2000's 29 26 31 32 32 29 18 20 19 29 2010's 38 48 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Alabama Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After

177

California State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 234 1980's 166 256 254 243 235 1990's 194 60 63 65 63 59 49 56 44 77 2000's 91 85 91 83 87 90 90 83 57 57 2010's 66 82 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 CA, State Offshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31 Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec.

178

Miscellaneous States Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 142 1980's 146 181 47 50 63 52 95 53 56 48 1990's 50 62 82 87 56 37 40 13 22 13 2000's 23 64 80 120 98 118 120 226 263 271 2010's 353 270 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Miscellaneous Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After

179

Ohio Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Ohio Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 432 1980's 282 165 158 396 364 395 522 477 749 686 1990's 844 805 780 763 780 699 715 594 548 777 2000's 717 631 772 823 767 714 801 926 886 799 2010's 742 684 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Ohio Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

180

Florida Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Florida Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 26 4 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Florida Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

California Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,881 1980's 1,792 1,424 1,230 1,120 1,006 1990's 911 901 799 817 808 736 610 570 453 355 2000's 754 842 796 759 767 799 780 686 621 612 2010's 503 510 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 California Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After

182

Texas State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,112 1,073 739 634 564 610 1990's 461 477 350 337 230 313 293 290 350 419 2000's 400 468 436 456 321 265 305 261 220 164 2010's 131 118 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 TX, State Offshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31 Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec.

183

Louisiana State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,820 1,100 1,218 1,002 1,042 1990's 812 875 691 789 820 714 626 613 473 541 2000's 592 627 428 448 333 370 386 327 248 215 2010's 279 468 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 LA, State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet

184

California State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 8 1980's 6 12 22 22 29 1990's 6 5 4 2 4 3 2 2 5 19 2000's 5 5 6 7 2 1 5 4 3 4 2010's 3 3 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 CA, State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet

185

Preparation and performances of Co–Mn spinel coating on a ferritic stainless steel interconnect material for solid oxide fuel cell application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Ferritic stainless steels have become the candidate materials for interconnects of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The present issues to be solved urgently for the application of ferritic stainless steel interconnects are their rapid increase in contact resistance and Cr poisoning. In the present study, a chloride electrolyte suspension has been developed to electro-deposit a Co–Mn alloy on a type 430 stainless steel, followed by heat treatment at 750 °C in argon and at 800 °C in air to obtain Co–Mn spinel coatings. The experimental results indicate that an adhesive and compact Co–Mn alloy layer can be deposited in the chloride solution. After heat treatment, a complex coating composed of an external MnCo2O4 layer and an inner Cr-rich oxide layer has been formed on 430SS. The coating improves the oxidation resistance of the steel at 800 °C in air, especially in wet air, and inhibits the outward diffusion of Cr from the Cr-rich scale. Moreover, a low contact resistance has been achieved with the application of the spinel coatings.

H.H. Zhang; C.L. Zeng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Air Pollution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Both natural processes and human activities contribute to air pollution, with the combustion of fossil fuels being the largest anthropogenic source of air pollutants. Adverse health effects (above all respiratory and cardiovascular complications), damage to crops, natural vegetation and materials, reduced visibility and changed radiation balance of the atmosphere are the major consequences of high concentrations of air pollutants. Technical fixes can sharply reduce emissions from large stationary sources and lower the rates of automotive emissions, but the rising number of vehicles and longer time spent on the road will call for more radical solutions to traffic-generated photochemical smog now present in all major urban areas.

V. Smil

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL USING MEMBRANE--BASED UP-FLOW WET ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the Final Report of the ''Multi-Pollutant Control Using Membrane-Based Up-flow Wet Electrostatic Precipitation'' project funded by the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41592 to Croll-Reynolds Clean Air Technologies (CRCAT). In this 18 month project, CRCAT and its team members conducted detailed emission tests of metallic and new membrane collection material within a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) at First Energy's Penn Power's Bruce Mansfield (BMP) plant in Shippingport, Pa. The Membrane WESP was designed to be as similar as the metallic WESP in terms of collection area, air-flow, and electrical characteristics. Both units are two-field units. The membrane unit was installed during the 2nd and 3rd quarters of 2003. Testing of the metallic unit was performed to create a baseline since the Mansfield plant had installed selective catalytic reduction equipment for NOx control and a sodium bisulfate injection system for SO3 control during the spring of 2003. Tests results on the metallic WESP were consistent with previous testing for PM2.5, SO3 mist and mercury. Testing on the membrane WESP demonstrated no adverse impact and equivalent removal efficiencies as that of the metallic WESP. Testing on both units was performed at 8,000 acfm and 15,000 acfm. Summary results are shown.

James Reynolds

2004-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

188

A study of the interaction of gallium arsenide with wet chemical formulations using thermodynamic calculations and spectroscopic ellipsometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates the effectiveness of different wet chemical treatments and their ability to produce/regrow a thin, stable surface oxide layer on GaAs. Results from thermodynamic considerations indicate that a stable surface oxide layer, free of excess arsenic and arsenic oxides, can be achieved by properly choosing aqueous solutions targeted within the GaAs solubility range (pH  11) followed by deionized (DI) water rinsing. This is further corroborated by spectroscopic ellipsometric data that can qualitatively, but correctly, identify the thickness of the surface oxide layer after different wet chemical treatments. Specifically, samples treated with acidic solutions based on HCl, HF, and H3PO4 and diluted ammonium hydroxide solution produce a more stable surface layer that is thinner than the native oxide layer on GaAs. The results and subsequent discussion are presented in the context of an attempt at achieving a well passivated GaAs surface, free of excessive surface state defects responsible for Fermi-level pinning.

J. Price; J. Barnett; S. Raghavan; M. Keswani; R. Govindarajan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Bos > AIR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The advent of air travel has produced a building typology completely new to the 20th century. The outdated planning of regions for airports render most existing airports as isolated, autonomous instances in the urban ...

Lee, Kevin Young

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Biomass Control in Waste Air Biotrickling Filters by Protozoan Predation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biomass Control in Waste Air Biotrickling Filters by Protozoan Predation Huub H. J. Cox, Marc A as a means of biomass control. Wet biomass for- mation in 23.6-L reactors over a 77-day period was reduced in the biotrickling filter enriched with protozoa. The lower rate of biomass accumulation after the addi- tion

191

Oxidative Degradation of Monoethanolamine  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxidative Degradation of Monoethanolamine Oxidative Degradation of Monoethanolamine Susan Chi Gary T. Rochelle* (gtr@che.utexas.edu, 512-471-7230) The University of Texas at Austin Department of Chemical Engineering Austin, Texas 78712 Prepared for presentation at the First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, Washington, DC, May 14-17, 2001 Abstract Oxidative degradation of monoethanolamine (MEA) was studied under typical absorber condition of 55°C. The rate of evolution of NH 3 , which was indicative of the overall rate of degradation, was measured continuously in a batch system sparged with air. Dissolved iron from 0.0001 mM to 1 mM yields oxidation rates from 0.37 to 2 mM/hr in MEA solutions loaded with 0.4 mole CO 2 / mole MEA. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and N,N-bis(2- hydroxyethyl)glycine effectively decrease the rate of oxidation in the presence of iron by 40 to

192

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic ethanol oxidation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

) Thermophilic Fermentation (Xylose) Wet oxidation 196C, 12 Bar O2 NaCO2 Biogas Ethanol 55C 32C 70C 12... 90% of new cars have engines specially designed to...

193

Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air Pollution, Air Quality Classifications and Standards, and Air Quality Area Classifications (New York) Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air Pollution, Air Quality Classifications and Standards, and Air Quality Area Classifications (New York) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Fuel Distributor Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State New York Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider NY Department of Environmental Conservation These regulations establish emissions limits and permitting and operational

194

California Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 249 1980's 307 1,110 1,249 1,312 1,252 1990's 1,229 995 987 976 1,077 1,195 1,151 498 437 488 2000's 500 490 459 456 412 776 756 752 702 731 2010's 722 711 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

195

Michigan Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 733 1980's 883 758 719 824 774 689 577 569 491 432 1990's 408 437 352 328 357 326 347 281 228 227 2000's 214 159 214 269 193 153 192 179 148 77 2010's 72 77 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31

196

Louisiana State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3,269 1,351 1,478 1,209 1,273 1990's 1,019 1,082 845 946 988 862 783 743 571 661 2000's 721 772 512 527 394 433 442 392 934 728 2010's 386 519 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 LA, State Offshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

197

Miscellaneous States Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 156 1980's 180 193 74 81 77 77 136 66 84 87 1990's 72 76 93 96 67 69 68 44 39 67 2000's 42 83 100 134 110 132 139 241 272 349 2010's 363 393 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Miscellaneous Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

198

North Dakota Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 485 1980's 594 654 696 673 643 650 610 578 593 625 1990's 650 533 567 585 568 518 512 531 501 475 2000's 487 495 524 497 465 508 539 572 603 1,213 2010's 1,869 2,652 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 North Dakota Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

199

North Dakota Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 284 1980's 355 401 448 416 376 319 317 302 327 312 1990's 316 290 301 311 293 255 257 274 240 225 2000's 223 225 209 181 145 165 182 155 119 143 2010's 152 141 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31

200

Miscellaneous States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 14 1980's 34 12 27 31 14 25 41 13 28 39 1990's 22 14 11 9 11 32 28 31 17 54 2000's 19 19 20 14 12 14 19 15 9 78 2010's 10 104 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Wyoming Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,038 1980's 1,374 1,228 1,060 959 867 710 691 691 616 581 1990's 573 572 624 502 611 879 824 850 794 713 2000's 652 488 561 450 362 384 347 365 223 362 2010's 334 318 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

202

Arkansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 166 1980's 194 184 174 194 189 157 150 145 157 145 1990's 67 136 133 93 85 104 89 56 38 41 2000's 39 30 38 37 40 46 44 37 12 20 2010's 29 46 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31

203

California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 307 1980's 265 265 325 344 256 254 261 243 220 233 1990's 228 220 196 135 145 109 120 129 116 233 2000's 244 185 197 173 188 269 208 211 150 168 2010's 178 172 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

204

Montana Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 837 1980's 1,308 1,336 870 921 825 884 823 801 834 889 1990's 920 848 875 684 727 792 806 769 789 851 2000's 892 907 914 1,068 1,002 998 1,069 1,067 1,014 993 2010's 959 792 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Montana Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

205

Montana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 51 1980's 122 89 81 108 77 91 98 97 101 68 1990's 86 66 61 53 55 53 51 42 52 67 2000's 70 85 94 112 130 161 195 219 197 312 2010's 302 270 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31

206

Louisiana - North Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana - North Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 765 1980's 916 1,040 832 775 690 632 567 488 249 237 1990's 241 192 160 120 134 133 255 287 183 260 2000's 186 168 159 139 107 98 90 73 78 53 2010's 73 98 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

207

New York Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 211 1980's 208 262 226 295 387 367 457 410 351 364 1990's 354 331 329 264 240 195 229 223 217 212 2000's 320 311 315 365 324 346 361 365 360 196 2010's 271 245 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31

208

California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 176 1980's 207 163 104 115 163 188 149 155 158 141 1990's 110 120 103 108 108 115 112 146 154 174 2000's 204 195 218 196 184 186 161 154 81 91 2010's 92 102 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 CA, Los Angeles Basin Onshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of

209

Montana Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 786 1980's 1,186 1,247 789 813 748 793 725 704 733 821 1990's 834 782 814 631 672 739 755 727 737 784 2000's 822 822 820 956 872 837 874 848 817 681 2010's 657 522 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31

210

Accident Simulation Tests on a Wet-Wall LNG Design  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The “wet wall” design concept for containing cryogenic Hquids has been successfully employed in the Apollo space program [1...] and may be described as a double-hulled tank with a liquid-tight insulation system. ...

P. O. Metz; R. W. Lautensleger; D. A. Sarno

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Wet-gas compression in twin-screw multiphase pumps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

encountered when operating under conditions with high gas volume fractions (GVF). Twin-screw multiphase pumps experience a severe decrease in efficiency when operating under wet-gas conditions, GVF over 95%. Field operations have revealed severe vibration...

Chan, Evan

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

212

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

(Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

213

California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1 1980's 0 1 1 1 1 3 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 2000's 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 CA, Los Angeles Basin Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved

214

California - Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 395 1980's 330 325 384 405 284 277 275 255 232 238 1990's 232 231 215 201 205 163 168 176 118 233 2000's 244 185 197 174 196 277 214 212 151 169 2010's 180 173 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 CA, Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec.

215

California Federal Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California Federal Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 73 1980's 107 227 217 258 267 1990's 240 179 149 147 110 94 115 58 52 48 2000's 76 50 56 55 47 49 55 53 3 9 2010's 3 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Federal Offshore California Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved

216

United States Environmental Protection Agency | Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (6608J) | EPA 402-F-07-010 | May 2007 WIPP: Planned Change Request for Magnesium Oxide (MgO)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

402-F-07-010 | May 2007 WIPP: Planned Change Request for Magnesium Oxide (MgO) The U.S. Department Request for Magnesium Oxide." The document includes information regarding the detailed proposal

217

New development activities in the field of wet welding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Wet Welding process has now become an interesting alternative repair process due to its high flexibility, its low investment costs and its high versatility. However, due to the prior bad reputation of the in former times achievable low weldment quality, due to extremely high hardness, high porosity, high hydrogen contamination and in combination with this high cracking susceptibility the wet welding process nowadays requires further activities to improve its reputation and credibility. New acceptance criteria, more detailed information on the achievable weldment quality and especially the development of life prediction data for wet welded components are now required. Advanced testing methods are necessary, additional design criteria are to be developed and achievable weldment quality data are to be included in acknowledged and approved standards and recommendations. Only by the provision of such data the credibility of the process and the problem of quality assurance for wet welded joints can be improved. In two comprehensive projects, sponsored by the European Community under the Thermie Programme, process development and new testing procedures have bene procured and are still under progress to generate the required data and new design criteria for the future application of the wet welding process to main components of offshore structures. The water depths in the range of 50 to 100 msw have been selected for the application of the wet welding process to structural components, as these depths include that range of application in which this process can become competitive to the hyperbaric dry welding process. The international trend to mechanize and automate the hyperbaric welding processes in dry environments can even be completed by the application of a semiautomatic wet welding process, which has already shown very promising results. This process is applicable to mechanized systems (e.g. to a wet robot system).

Szelagowski, P.; Osthus, V. [GKSS Research Center, Geesthacht (Germany); Petershagen, H.; Pohl, R. [Univ. Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Schiffbau; Lafaye, G. [Stolt Comex Seaway, S.A., Marseille (France)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

218

Influence of drying temperature on the wet-milling performance and the proteins solubility indexes of corn kernels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of air drying temperature on the wet-milling performance and the proteins solubility indexes were investigated for corn kernels dried between 54 °C and 130 °C. It was observed that when the drying temperature increases, the starch yield drops significantly. The gluten recovered increased abruptly for drying temperatures up to 80 °C. The albumin, globulin and zein solubility indexes decreased continuously when corn drying temperatures increased. According to the temperatures used, the starch yield, the gluten recovered and the salt-soluble proteins solubility indexes were adjusted satisfactorily by using a two asymptotic logistic model. This model has the advantage of supplying information on the dynamic of the variation of described parameters. The solubility index of total salt-soluble proteins was shown to be a suitable indicator of the severity of the drying treatment in regard to the corn wet-milling performance.

Paul Malumba; Sébastien Janas; Thaddée Masimango; Mariane Sindic; Claude Deroanne; François Béra

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Morphology and Electronic Structure of the Oxide Shell on the...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Structure of the Oxide Shell on the Surface of Iron Nanoparticles. Abstract: A iron nanoparticle exposed to air at room temperature will be instantly covered by an oxide shell of...

220

Air Conservation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...all sources refinery operations, oil burning, and gasoline...significant con-tribution to fundamental problems in chemistry...be ob-tained through boiler modification or changes...at times surpass the safe limits, or, rather, what we now believe are safe limits. Oxides of nitro-gen...

A. J. Haagen-Smit

1958-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

The Use of Electrochemical Techniques to Characterize Wet Steam Environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The composition of a steam phase in equilibrium with a water phase at high temperature is remarkably affected by the varying capabilities of the water phase constituents to partition into the steam. Ionic impurities (sodium, chloride, sulfate, etc.) tend to remain in the water phase, while weakly ionic or gaseous species (oxygen) partition into the steam. Analysis of the water phase can provide misleading results concerning the steam phase composition or environment. This paper describes efforts that were made to use novel electrochemical probes and sampling techniques to directly characterize a wet steam phase environment in equilibrium with high temperature water. Probes were designed to make electrochemical measurements in the thin film of water existing on exposed surfaces in steam over a water phase. Some of these probes were referenced against a conventional high temperature electrode located in the water phase. Others used two different materials (typically tungsten and platinum) to make measurements without a true reference electrode. The novel probes were also deployed in a steam space removed from the water phase. It was necessary to construct a reservoir and an external, air-cooled condenser to automatically keep the reservoir full of condensed steam. Conventional reference and working electrodes were placed in the water phase of the reservoir and the novel probes protruded into the vapor space above it. Finally, water phase probes (both reference and working electrodes) were added to the hot condensed steam in the external condenser. Since the condensing action collapsed the volatiles back into the water phase, these electrodes proved to be extremely sensitive at detecting oxygen, which is one of the species of highest concern in high temperature power systems. Although the novel steam phase probes provided encouraging initial results, the tendency for tungsten to completely corrode away in the steam phase limited their usefulness. However, the conventional water phase electrodes, installed both in the reservoir and in the external condensing coil, provided useful data showing the adverse impact of oxygen and carbon dioxide on the REDOX potential and high temperature pH, respectively.

Bruce W. Bussert; John A. Crowley; Kenneth J. Kimball; Brian J. Lashway

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

222

A summary of SNCR applications to two coal-fired wet bottom boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to NO{sub x} reductions mandated under Title I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), Public Service Electric & Gas and Atlantic Electric of New Jersey evaluated Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for NO{sub x} control under separate programs at Mercer Station and B.L. England Station, respectively. Mercer Station is comprised of twin 321 MW Foster Wheeler coal-fired wet bottom boilers, with natural gas capability up to 100% load. B.L. England Station has three units, two of which are cyclone boilers of 136 MW and 163 MW. These furnace designs are of particular interest in that nominally 23,000 MW of cyclone boiler capacity and 6,900 MW of wall- or turbo-fired wet bottom boiler capacity will be faced with NO{sub x} reductions to be mandated under Title IV - Phase II for Group II boilers. Both stations evaluated Nalco Fuel Tech`s SNCR system using a portable test skid, with urea as the reducing chemical. The Mercer Unit 2 demonstration was performed with a low sulfur coal (nominally 0.8%), while the B.L. England Unit 1 demonstration utilized a medium sulfur coal (nominally 2.4%), and also re-injects fly ash back into the cyclones for ultimate collection and removal as slag. To address concerns over potential Ljungstrom air heater fouling, due to reactions between ammonia and SO{sub 3} in the air heater, and fly ash salability at Mercer Station, both sites targeted no greater than 5-10 ppmv ammonia emissions at the economizer exit. At Mercer Unit 2, air heater fouling was only experienced during system start-up when the ammonia emissions at the economizer exit were estimated at levels approaching 60 ppmv. B.L. England Unit 1, however, experienced frequent fouling of the air heater. NO{sub x} reductions achieved at both sites ranged between 30%-40% from nominal baseline NO{sub x} levels of 1.1-1.6 lb/MMBtu. Each site is currently undergoing installation of commercial SNCR systems.

Himes, R.; Hubbard, D.; West, Z. [Carnot, Tustin, CA (United States)] [and others

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Microfiltration of gluten processing streams from corn wet milling C.I. Thompson a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microfiltration of gluten processing streams from corn wet milling C.I. Thompson a , K.D. Rausch b 2005; accepted 6 February 2005 Available online 12 April 2005 Abstract In corn wet milling, dry matter composition; Corn processing; Membrane filtration; Corn gluten meal; Wet milling 1. Introduction Wet milling

224

96 CEREAL CHEMISTRY Comparison Between Alkali and Conventional Corn Wet-Milling: 100-g Procedures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

96 CEREAL CHEMISTRY Comparison Between Alkali and Conventional Corn Wet-Milling: 100-g Procedures S ABSTRACT Cereal Chem. 76(1):96-99 A corn wet-milling process in which alkali was used was studied as an alternative to the conventional corn wet-milling procedure. In the alkali wet-milling process, corn was soaked

225

Kentucky Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2 1980's 11 14 12 19 17 13 17 19 19 22 1990's 8 10 8 6 47 27 24 26 20 29 2000's 27 25 25 25 19 30 36 34 34 32 2010's 111 98 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Kentucky Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After

226

Florida Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Florida Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 108 1980's 122 99 86 64 90 81 69 62 69 57 1990's 53 45 55 59 117 110 119 112 106 100 2000's 93 96 102 92 88 87 50 110 1 7 2010's 30 2 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Florida Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After

227

Fundamentals of wetting and spreading with emphasis on soldering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soldering is often referred to as a mature technology whose fundamentals were established long ago. Yet a multitude of soldering problems persist, not the least of which are related to the wetting and spreading of solder. The Buff-Goodrich approach to thermodynamics of capillarity is utilized in a review of basic wetting principles. These thermodynamics allow a very compact formulation of capillary phenomena which is used to calculate various meniscus shapes and wetting forces. These shapes and forces lend themselves to experimental techniques, such as the sessile drop and the Wilhelmy plate, for measuring useful surface and interfacial energies. The familiar equations of Young, Wilhelmy, and Neumann are all derived with this approach. The force-energy duality of surface energy is discussed and the force method is developed and used to derive the Herring relations for anisotropic surfaces. The importance of contact angle hysteresis which results from surface roughness and chemical inhomogeneity is presented and Young's equation is modified to reflect these ever present effects. Finally, an analysis of wetting with simultaneous metallurigical reaction is given and used to discuss solder wetting phenomena. 60 refs., 13 figs.

Yost, F.G.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Tetraalklylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H{sub e{minus}z}[(n-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N]{sub z}(XM{sub 11}M{prime}O{sub 39}){sup {minus}e}. The M{prime} (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

Ellis, P.E.; Lyons, J.E.; Myers, H.K. Jr.; Shaikh, S.N.

1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

229

Tetraalykylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H.sub.e-z ›(n-C.sub.4 H.sub.9).sub.4 N!.sub.z (XM.sub.11 M'O.sub.39).sup.-e The M' (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

Ellis, Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Myers, Jr., Harry K. (Cochranville, PA); Shaikh, Shahid N. (Media, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Regenerative catalytic oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Currently Regenerative Thermal Oxidizers (R.T.O.`s) are an accepted technology for the control of volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) and hazardous air pollutants (HAP`s). This control technology, when introduced, offered substantial reductions in operating costs, especially auxiliary fuel requirements when compared to existing control technologies such as recuperative thermal and recuperative catalytic oxidizers. While these savings still exist, there is a demand for control of new and/or hybrid technologies, one of which is Regenerative Catalytic Oxidizers (R.C.O.`s). This paper will explore the development of regenerative catalytic oxidation from the theoretical stage through pilot testing through a commercial installation. The operating cost of R.C.O.`s will be compared to R.T.O.`s to verify the savings that are achievable through the use of regenerative catalytic oxidation. In the development of this technology, which is a combination of two (2) existing technologies, R.T.O.`s and catalysis, a second hybrid technology was explored and pilot tested. This is a combination R.C.O. for VOC and HAP control and simultaneous SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) for NOx (Oxides of Nitrogen) control. Based on the pilot and full scale testing, both regenerative catalytic oxidizers and systems which combine R.C.O. with SCR for both VOC and NOx reduction are economically viable and are in fact commercially available. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Gribbon, S.T. [Engelhard Process Emission Systems, South Lyon, MI (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

231

Momentum and heat fluxes in a turbulent air flow over a wet, smooth boundary  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are negligible in directions other than those normal to the boundary surface. Such equa? tions were first employed by Boussinesq (5* 6). For turbulent flow, he suggested the equatiisns, ? IS ^7/ (momentum flux)/ - U and ^ =. Kh (beat flux) where KM and c... of a pre? cision potentiometer. Continuous, uniform water supply to the test surface was achieved by a distilled water supply system composed of glass bottles and copper tubing arranged to supply water at any required rate without attention from...

Rice, Warren

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

232

MHK Technologies/WET NZ | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

NZ NZ < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage WET NZ.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Wave Energy Technology New Zealand WET NZ Technology Resource Click here Wave Technology Type Click here Point Absorber - Floating Technology Readiness Level Click here TRL 5 6 System Integration and Technology Laboratory Demonstration Technology Description The WET NZ device is planned to have a modular generation capability of up to 500 kW with onboard controls that will be able to accurately forecast incoming waves and adjust the response to changing wave patterns The device will be largely sub surface so that as much of the device as possible interacts directly with the wave energy Technology Dimensions

233

Wetting of Emulsions Droplets: From Macroscopic to Colloidal Scale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By using large oil-in-water droplets covered with ionic surfactant we measure contact angles to deduce the adhesive energy between macroscopic interfaces as a function of the temperature T and the salt concentration C. A wetting transition takes place at a well defined temperature T*(C). At the colloidal scale, we have observed that submicron droplets covered by the same monolayers undergo a phases separation. We show that the phases diagram can be quantitatively predicted from the macroscopic contact angles. However, to describe the colloidal phase separation we have to account for both the entropy and the deformation induced by the wetting of the droplets. Finally, our results show how the macroscopic wetting transition can be shifted at the colloidal scale where droplets entropy plays an important role.

P. Poulin and J. Bibette

1997-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

234

Reactive Air Aluminization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ferritic stainless steels and other alloys are of great interest to SOFC developers for applications such as interconnects, cell frames, and balance of plant components. While these alloys offer significant advantages (e.g., low material and manufacturing cost, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature oxidation resistance), there are challenges which can hinder their utilization in SOFC systems; these challenges include Cr volatility and reactivity with glass seals. To overcome these challenges, protective coatings and surface treatments for the alloys are under development. In particular, aluminization of alloy surfaces offers the potential for mitigating both evaporation of Cr from the alloy surface and reaction of alloy constituents with glass seals. Commercial aluminization processes are available to SOFC developers, but they tend to be costly due to their use of exotic raw materials and/or processing conditions. As an alternative, PNNL has developed Reactive Air Aluminization (RAA), which offers a low-cost, simpler alternative to conventional aluminization methods.

Choi, Jung-Pyung; Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

235

Assessment of Oxidation in Carbon Foam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon foams exhibit numerous unique properties which are attractive for light weight applications such as aircraft and spacecraft as a tailorable material. Carbon foams, when exposed to air, oxidize at temperatures as low as 500-600 degrees Celsius...

Lee, Seung Min

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

236

JV Task-123 Determination of Trace Element Concentrations at an Eastern Bituminous Coal Plant Employing an SCR and Wet FGD  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) and with funding from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducting tests to prove that a high level of mercury control (>90%) can be achieved at a power plant burning a high-sulfur eastern bituminous coal. With funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), DOE, and Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates Program, the EERC completed an additional sampling project to provide data as to the behavior of a number of trace elements across the various pollution control devices, with a special emphasis on the wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. Results showed that the concentrations of almost all the elements of interest leaving the stack were very low, and a high percentage of the trace elements were captured in the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) (for most, >80%). Although, with a few exceptions, the overall mass balances were generally quite good, the mass balances across the wet FGD were more variable. This is most likely a result of some of the concentrations being very low and also the uncertainties in determining flows within a wet FGD.

Dennis Laudal

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Air emissions inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory -- 1995 emissions report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the 1995 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources. The air contaminants reported include nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulates, and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs).

NONE

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Impact of additives for enhanced sulfur dioxide removal on re-emissions of mercury in wet flue gas desulfurization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The wet flue gas desulfurization process (FGD) in fossil fired power plants offers the advantage of simultaneously removing SO2 and other water soluble pollutants, such as certain oxidized mercury compounds (Hg2+). In order to maximize SO2 removal efficiency of installed FGD units, organic additives can be utilized. In the context of multi-pollutant control by wet FGD, the effect of formic and adipic acid on redox reactions of dissolved mercury compounds is investigated with a continuously operated lab-scale test-rig. For sulfite ( SO 3 2 - ) concentrations above a certain critical value, their potential as reducing agent leads to rapidly increasing formation and re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg0). Increasing chloride concentration and decreasing pH and slurry temperature have been identified as key factors for depressing Hg0 re-emissions. Both organic additives have a negative impact on Hg-retention and cause increased Hg0 re-emissions in the wet FGD process, with formic acid being the significantly stronger reducing agent. Different pathways of Hg2+ reduction were identified by qualitative interpretation of the pH-dependence and by comparison of activation enthalpies and activation entropies. While the first mechanism proposed identifies SO 3 2 - as reducing agent and is therefore relevant for any FGD process, the second mechanism involves the formate anion, thus being exclusively relevant for \\{FGDs\\} utilizing formic acid as additive.

Barna Heidel; Melanie Hilber; Günter Scheffknecht

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Texas - RRC District 9 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 9 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 633 1980's 502 796 965 845 786 753 761 717 686 617 1990's 703 674 613 636 715 730 749 785 665 1,180 2000's 1,645 2,428 3,070 3,514 4,445 4,608 6,660 7,846 9,390 11,100 2010's 12,587 9,963 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

240

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Texas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Texas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 6,411 6,191 6,956 6,739 6,745 6,504 1990's 6,884 6,305 6,353 6,138 5,739 5,674 5,240 4,799 4,452 4,507 2000's 5,030 5,404 4,967 4,235 3,258 2,807 2,360 2,173 1,937 1,822 2010's 1,456 1,015 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

West Virginia Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,593 1980's 2,437 1,881 2,169 2,238 2,173 2,104 2,207 2,210 2,299 2,244 1990's 2,243 2,513 2,293 2,408 2,569 2,514 2,722 2,887 2,925 2,952 2000's 2,929 2,777 3,477 3,376 3,489 4,553 4,638 4,865 5,243 6,066 2010's 7,134 10,480 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

242

Michigan Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,334 1980's 1,551 1,252 1,200 1,353 1,193 1,064 1,242 1,571 1,434 1,443 1990's 1,330 1,404 1,290 1,218 1,379 1,344 2,125 2,256 2,386 2,313 2000's 2,772 3,032 3,311 3,488 3,154 2,961 3,117 3,691 3,253 2,805 2010's 2,975 2,549 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec.

243

California Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 4,842 1980's 5,137 4,084 3,893 3,666 3,513 1990's 3,311 3,114 2,892 2,799 2,506 2,355 2,193 2,390 2,332 2,505 2000's 2,952 2,763 2,696 2,569 2,773 3,384 2,935 2,879 2,538 2,926 2010's 2,785 3,042 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 California Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

244

Louisiana Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 19,676 13,334 12,852 12,620 12,912 1990's 12,151 11,363 10,227 9,541 10,145 9,891 10,077 10,036 9,480 9,646 2000's 9,512 10,040 9,190 9,538 9,792 10,679 10,710 10,292 11,816 20,970 2010's 29,517 30,545 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Louisiana Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

245

Michigan Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 601 1980's 668 494 481 529 419 375 665 1,002 943 1,011 1990's 922 967 938 890 1,022 1,018 1,778 1,975 2,158 2,086 2000's 2,558 2,873 3,097 3,219 2,961 2,808 2,925 3,512 3,105 2,728 2010's 2,903 2,472 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

246

Virginia Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 122 175 216 235 253 248 230 217 1990's 138 225 904 1,322 1,833 1,836 1,930 1,923 1,973 2,017 2000's 1,704 1,752 1,673 1,717 1,742 2,018 2,302 2,529 2,378 3,091 2010's 3,215 2,832 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31

247

Virginia Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 122 175 216 235 253 248 230 217 1990's 138 225 904 1,322 1,833 1,836 1,930 2,446 1,973 2,017 2000's 1,704 1,752 1,673 1,717 1,742 2,018 2,302 2,529 2,378 3,091 2010's 3,215 2,832 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Virginia Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

248

West Virginia Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,669 1980's 2,559 1,944 2,252 2,324 2,246 2,177 2,272 2,360 2,440 2,342 1990's 2,329 2,672 2,491 2,598 2,702 2,588 2,793 2,946 2,968 3,040 2000's 3,062 2,825 3,498 3,399 3,509 4,572 4,654 4,881 5,266 6,090 2010's 7,163 10,532 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec.

249

Arkansas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,725 1980's 1,796 1,821 1,974 2,081 2,240 2,032 2,011 2,018 2,000 1,782 1990's 1,739 1,672 1,752 1,555 1,610 1,566 1,472 1,479 1,332 1,546 2000's 1,584 1,619 1,654 1,666 1,837 1,967 2,271 3,306 5,628 10,872 2010's 14,181 16,374 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec.

250

Kansas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 10,824 1980's 10,065 10,443 10,128 10,183 9,981 9,844 11,093 11,089 10,530 10,509 1990's 10,004 9,946 10,302 9,872 9,705 9,093 8,145 7,328 6,862 6,248 2000's 5,682 5,460 5,329 5,143 5,003 4,598 4,197 4,248 3,795 3,500 2010's 3,937 3,747 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec.

251

Colorado Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,657 1980's 2,970 2,969 3,345 3,200 2,932 2,928 3,008 2,912 3,572 4,290 1990's 4,249 5,329 5,701 5,817 5,948 6,520 7,009 6,627 7,436 8,591 2000's 9,877 11,924 13,251 14,707 13,956 15,796 16,141 20,642 22,159 22,199 2010's 23,001 23,633 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

252

Colorado Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 181 1980's 200 259 206 173 208 167 190 219 177 236 1990's 510 682 762 1,162 1,088 1,072 1,055 533 772 781 2000's 960 1,025 1,097 1,186 1,293 1,326 1,541 1,838 2,010 1,882 2010's 2,371 2,518 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

253

Wyoming Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 7,834 1980's 9,413 9,659 10,155 10,728 11,014 11,229 10,393 10,572 10,903 11,276 1990's 10,433 10,433 11,305 11,387 11,351 12,712 13,084 14,321 14,371 14,809 2000's 17,211 19,399 21,531 22,716 23,640 24,722 24,463 30,896 32,399 36,748 2010's 36,526 36,930 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec.

254

Arkansas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,559 1980's 1,602 1,637 1,800 1,887 2,051 1,875 1,861 1,873 1,843 1,637 1990's 1,672 1,536 1,619 1,462 1,525 1,462 1,383 1,423 1,294 1,505 2000's 1,545 1,589 1,616 1,629 1,797 1,921 2,227 3,269 5,616 10,852 2010's 14,152 16,328 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

255

Texas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 46,803 46,620 44,319 42,192 41,404 41,554 1990's 41,411 39,288 38,141 37,847 39,020 39,736 41,592 41,108 40,793 43,350 2000's 45,419 46,462 47,491 48,717 53,275 60,178 65,805 76,357 81,843 85,034 2010's 94,287 104,454 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Texas Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

256

Mississippi Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Mississippi Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,511 1980's 1,776 2,042 1,803 1,603 1,496 1,364 1,304 1,223 1,146 1,108 1990's 1,129 1,061 873 800 653 667 634 583 662 681 2000's 620 663 746 748 692 758 816 958 1,035 922 2010's 858 868 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Mississippi Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

257

Texas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 35,971 35,867 34,584 32,852 32,309 32,349 1990's 32,412 30,729 29,474 29,967 31,071 31,949 33,432 33,322 33,429 35,470 2000's 38,585 40,376 41,104 42,280 46,728 53,175 58,736 68,827 74,284 76,272 2010's 84,157 90,947 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

258

California Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,961 1980's 3,345 2,660 2,663 2,546 2,507 1990's 2,400 2,213 2,093 1,982 1,698 1,619 1,583 1,820 1,879 2,150 2000's 2,198 1,922 1,900 1,810 2,006 2,585 2,155 2,193 1,917 2,314 2010's 2,282 2,532 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

259

Pennsylvania Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,516 1980's 951 1,265 1,430 1,882 1,576 1,618 1,562 1,650 2,074 1,644 1990's 1,722 1,631 1,533 1,722 1,806 1,488 1,702 1,861 1,848 1,780 2000's 1,740 1,782 2,225 2,497 2,371 2,793 3,064 3,377 3,594 7,018 2010's 14,068 26,719 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec.

260

Kentucky Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 504 1980's 536 561 592 600 647 806 883 940 957 1,015 1990's 1,047 1,187 1,126 1,036 1,025 1,102 1,046 1,429 1,295 1,530 2000's 1,837 1,950 1,999 1,971 1,982 2,240 2,369 2,588 2,846 2,919 2010's 2,785 2,128 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Kentucky Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Kentucky Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 502 1980's 525 547 580 581 630 793 866 921 938 993 1990's 1,039 1,177 1,118 1,030 978 1,075 1,022 1,403 1,275 1,501 2000's 1,810 1,925 1,974 1,946 1,963 2,210 2,333 2,554 2,812 2,887 2010's 2,674 2,030 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

262

Louisiana Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 16,316 10,943 10,724 10,826 11,171 1990's 10,597 9,969 9,060 8,615 9,165 8,890 9,038 9,020 8,569 8,667 2000's 8,704 9,245 8,520 8,952 9,235 10,091 10,149 9,651 10,581 19,898 2010's 28,838 29,906 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

263

Variational formulations for surface tension, capillarity and wetting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Variational formulations for surface tension, capillarity and wetting Gustavo C. Buscagliaa of flows with significant surface tension effects has grown significantly in recent years. This has been, since at small length scales surface phenomena are dominant. In this article, surface tension

Buscaglia, Gustavo C.

264

Microfiltration of gluten processing streams from corn wet milling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In corn wet milling, dry matter can be separated from liquids in process streams with centrifuges or vacuum belt filtration (VBF). Because separations usually are not complete, dry matter can be lost in the liquid streams (overflow from the gluten thickener centrifuge and filtrate from VBF). This represents a loss of nutrients, especially protein, to low valued coproducts and reduces quality of water for recycling within the process. The objective was to compare microfiltration of light and heavy gluten process streams to conventional separation methods. Batches of light and heavy gluten were obtained from a wet mill plant and processed by microfiltration. Samples of permeate and concentrate from microfiltration were analyzed and compared to corresponding streams from wet milling. Microfiltration of light gluten resulted in concentrate and permeate streams similar in composition to conventionally processed light gluten using a centrifuge, suggesting that microfiltration is as effective as centrifugation in partitioning solids and water in light gluten. Dewatering of heavy gluten found that conventional VBF caused dry matter concentrations in gluten cake to be higher than concentrate from microfiltration. Permeate from microfiltration of heavy gluten had higher concentrations of ash and lower soluble nitrogen than filtrate from VBF. Microfiltration was able to remove more ash from concentrate, which may improve the value of wet milling coproducts. These data demonstrated microfiltration has potential for separation of light and heavy gluten streams, but more data are needed on effectiveness and practicality.

C.I. Thompson; K.D. Rausch; R.L. Belyea; M.E. Tumbleson

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Wet-Weather Pollution Prevention through Materials Substitution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Wet-Weather Pollution Prevention through Materials Substitution Shirley E. Clark, Ph.D., P the potential pollutant release from common building materials both when the materials are new and after aging often used to increase the operating range of asphalts and to prevent stripping of asphalt from binders

Clark, Shirley E.

266

California Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 322 1980's 414 1,337 1,466 1,570 1,519 1990's 1,469 1,174 1,136 1,123 1,187 1,289 1,266 556 489 536 2000's 576 540 515 511 459 825 811 805 705 740 2010's 725 711 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Federal Offshore, Pacific (California) Natural Gas Reserves Summary

267

Texas - RRC District 1 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 1 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 732 1980's 683 870 708 960 714 754 716 639 1,002 1,037 1990's 744 660 606 540 586 498 523 950 1,101 1,165 2000's 1,037 1,024 1,047 1,047 1,184 1,148 1,048 1,029 987 1,456 2010's 2,332 5,227 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

268

Alabama Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 680 1980's 659 658 1990's 4,159 5,437 5,840 5,166 4,842 4,886 5,062 4,983 4,615 4,338 2000's 4,241 3,931 3,891 4,313 4,127 3,977 3,945 4,016 3,360 2,919 2010's 2,686 2,522 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31

269

Alaska Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Alaska Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 5,058 1980's 4,828 4,373 4,188 3,883 4,120 3,131 2,462 2,983 2,910 2,821 1990's 2,466 2,924 3,002 3,492 3,326 3,310 3,216 2,957 2,768 2,646 2000's 2,564 2,309 2,157 2,081 2,004 1,875 1,447 1,270 1,139 1,090 2010's 1,021 976 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

270

California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 4,037 1980's 4,434 4,230 4,058 3,964 3,808 3,716 3,404 3,229 3,033 2,899 1990's 2,775 2,703 2,511 2,425 2,130 2,018 1,864 2,012 2,016 2,021 2000's 2,413 2,298 2,190 2,116 2,306 2,831 2,470 2,430 2,249 2,609 2010's 2,447 2,685 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec.

271

Alabama Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 693 1980's 682 683 1990's 4,184 5,460 5,870 5,212 4,898 4,930 5,100 5,013 4,643 4,365 2000's 4,269 3,958 3,922 4,345 4,159 4,006 3,963 4,036 3,379 2,948 2010's 2,724 2,570 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Alabama Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

272

Louisiana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3,360 2,391 2,128 1,794 1,741 1990's 1,554 1,394 1,167 926 980 1,001 1,039 1,016 911 979 2000's 807 796 670 586 557 588 561 641 1,235 1,072 2010's 679 639 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31

273

Louisiana - South Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana - South Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 14,580 1980's 13,407 13,049 12,153 11,553 10,650 10,120 9,416 9,024 8,969 8,934 1990's 8,492 7,846 7,019 6,219 6,558 6,166 6,105 6,137 5,966 5,858 2000's 5,447 5,341 4,395 3,874 3,557 3,478 3,473 3,463 2,916 2,969 2010's 2,995 2,615 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec.

274

Energy Recovery Efficiency and Cost Analysis of VOC Thermal Oxidation Pollution Control Technology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Respective cost models were derived for recuperative thermal oxidizer (TO) and regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO). ... In a thermal oxidation process, VOC-laden air is thermally treated (oxidized/decomposed) at temperatures about 730?850 °C. ... Choi and Yi(4) worked on the simulation and optimization of regenerative thermal oxidizers. ...

Aruna S. K. Warahena; Yew Khoy Chuah

2009-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

275

Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Title Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-5553E Year of Publication 2010 Authors Walker, Iain S., Mile Lubliner, Darryl J. Dickerhoff, and William W. Delp Journal 2010 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings The Climate for efficiency is now Date Published 08/2010 Abstract In recent years, great strides have been made in reducing air leakage in residential and to a lesser extent small commercial forced air duct systems. Several authorities have introduced low leakage limits for thermal distribution systems; for example, the State of California Energy Code for Buildings gives credit for systems that leak less than 6% of the total air flow at 25 Pa.

276

Polymorphous Transformations of Nanometric Iron(III) Oxide: A Review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Because of its polymorphism, iron(III) oxide (ferric oxide, Fe2O3) is one of the most interesting and potentially useful phases of the iron oxides. ... Structural and magnetic properties, methods of synthesis, and applications of seven Fe(III) oxide polymorphs, including rare beta, epsilon, amorphous, and high-pressure forms, are reviewed. ... Films of ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized by oxidizing Fe films rapidly in air. ...

Libor Machala; Ji?í Tu?ek; Radek Zbo?il

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Influence of corn drying on its quality for the wet-milling process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flint and dent corn were forced air-dried at 70–110 °C to a final moisture of about 12.0%. The rates of water absorption of both hybrids in the presence of 0.25% SO2 aqueous solution were evaluated in terms of the diffusion coefficient. Drying temperature affected negatively the rate of absorption of both hybrids. A laboratory wet-milling procedure was developed to evaluate starch recovery of corn samples. For flint corn starch recovery drop from 96.5% (undried) to 82% (dried at 110 °C); for dent corn the drop was from 97.5% to 90%. The starch isolated from air-dried corn contained greater amounts of protein than starch originated from undried corn. The effect was more marked for flint than for dent corn and increased with the drying temperature. Sorptional characteristics of starch were practically unaffected by drying temperature. DSC transition temperatures of starch showed an increasing tendency with drying temperature. For both hybrids the gelatinization enthalpy of starch decreased with the increasing of drying temperature, the effect being more marked for flint than for dent corn.

Mónica Haros; Marcela P Tolaba; Constantino Suárez

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Metal-Air Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Evaluating Environmental Influences Oxidation Kinetics by a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

strategies for remediation of As-contaminated waters. In this study, the influence of goethite (R D O N A L D L . S P A R K S Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, The University of As-Mn systems demonstrate rapid oxidation of AsIII , catalyzed by Mn-oxides, producing less toxic

Sparks, Donald L.

280

Brucite [Mg(OH2)] Carbonation in Wet Supercritical CO2: An in...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Brucite Mg(OH2) Carbonation in Wet Supercritical CO2: An in situ High Pressure X-Ray Diffraction Study. Brucite Mg(OH2) Carbonation in Wet Supercritical CO2: An in situ High...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Extraction and Functional Properties of Non-Zein Proteins in Corn Germ from Wet-Milling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study was conducted to evaluate the extractability of wet-milled corn germ protein, characterize the recovered protein and ... potential applications. Protein was extracted from both wet germ and finished (d...

Mila P. Hojilla-Evangelista

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Metal Oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Metal oxides are the class of materials having the widest application in gas sensors. This chapter presents information related to the application of various metal oxides in gas sensors designed on different p...

Ghenadii Korotcenkov

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Process for the recovery of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a process for the recovery of uranium from a wet-process phosphoric acid, comprising treating in an extraction step the preliminarily oxidized acid first with an organic solvent consisting essentially of a dialkylphosphoric acid and a trialkyphosphine oxide dissolved in an inert and unreactive organic solvent whereby there are obtained a uranium-free phosphoric acid and an organic extract consisting essentially of the solvent containing the major portion of uranium; then, in a reextraction step, separating the uranium from the organic extract as ammonium uranyl tricarbonate by reacting the organic extract with ammonium hydroxide and ammonium carbonate; and recycling the uranium-free solvent to the extraction step; an improvement comprises treating the organic extract in a reextraction apparatus having at least two stages, by (A) introducing the extract at the head of the first stage; (B) countercurrently introducing ammonia or ammonium hydroxide solution at the bottom of the first stage; the ph of the first stage being controlled and maintained at a value of 8.0 to 8.5; (C) introducing an ammonium carbonate aqueous solution at the bottom of the last stage; the amount of ammonium carbonate employed being 50-80 percent by weight of the theoretical molar quantity which is necessary to neutralize the dialkylphosphoric acid contained in the solvent and to convert the uranium to ammonium uranyl tricarbonate; and (D) regenerating the ammoniated solvent obtained after the reextraction step by treating it with an acid before recycling it to the extraction step.

Francois, A.; Sialino, A.

1980-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

284

Studies on nickel nanoparticle attachment on surface modified carbon nanotubes by wet chemical method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Wet chemical method is a relatively simple technique, which has been used for attaching nickel nanoparticles homogeneously on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). The MWCNT was synthesised by catalytic chemical vapour deposition (CCVD) method. The surface of MWCNT was modified by treating with boiling conc. nitric acid. Carbon nanotubes dispersed in nickel nitrate solution were heat treated with particular heating rate of 8°C/min from room temperature to 100°C under argon atmosphere and soaked at this temperature for 1 h before heating to 500°C at 4C/min. The resultant product is found to be nanostructured nickel oxide attached to MWCNT. Subsequent reduction of the metal oxide in hydrogen atmosphere yielded nickel nanoparticles anchored to the surface of nanotubes. Chemical impregnation resulted in homogeneously dispersed nickel particles on the surface of oxidised MWCNT whereas in the case of unoxidised MWCNT uneven dispersion of nickel particle was observed. Results obtained on the characterisation of the products from XRD, SEM, TEM and EDX are presented. This simple method could allow large-scale production of functionalised MWCNT, which can be used as catalyst supports with high stability.

Jyoti Prakash; Ramani Venugopalan; D. Sathiyamoorthy

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Hickam Air Force Base  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hickam Air Force Base spans 2,850 acres in Honolulu, Hawaii. The military base is home to the 15th Airlift Wing, the Hawaii Air National Guard, and the Pacific Air Forces headquarters.

286

OLYMPIC AIR QUALITY QUESTIONABLE  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

OLYMPIC AIR QUALITY QUESTIONABLE ... Athletes GOING FOR GOLD worry about Beijing’s air ... Atmospheric chemists say the air quality during the Beijing Games literally rests on which direction the winds blow. ...

RACHEL PETKEWICH

2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

287

Air Quality and Pollution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Air quality refers to the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of air, both in outside space and in enclosed ... other non?industrial working places, and residencies. Air pollution is the abnormal ...

Zoran Marmut

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Vol. 82, No. 4, 2005 431 Phosphorus Concentrations and Flow in Maize Wet-Milling Streams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gluten meal (CGM) and corn gluten feed (CGF) is important to the maize wet-milling industry. HighVol. 82, No. 4, 2005 431 Phosphorus Concentrations and Flow in Maize Wet-Milling Streams Kent D in animal wastes. The objective was to measure the concentration and flow of phosphorus in the wet-milling

289

Characterization of light gluten and light steep water from a corn wet milling plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Characterization of light gluten and light steep water from a corn wet milling plant K.D. Rausch March 2003; accepted 10 March 2003 Abstract The primary commodity of corn wet milling is starch, but two Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Coproducts; Corn gluten meal; Corn gluten feed; Corn wet milling

290

ENGINEERING AND PROCESSING A 100-g Laboratory Corn Wet-Milling Procedure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENGINEERING AND PROCESSING A 100-g Laboratory Corn Wet-Milling Procedure S. R. ECKHOFF,' S. K in replicates of 0.36% when the replicates were per- The feasibility of corn wet-milling facilities processing of biotechnology and genetic engineering in corn hybrid development. Identification of better wet-milling hybrids

291

Reduction of Water Use in Wet FGD Systems  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reduction of WateR use in Wet fGd Reduction of WateR use in Wet fGd systems Background Coal-fired power plants require large volumes of water for efficient operation, primarily for cooling purposes. Public concern over water use is increasing, particularly in water stressed areas of the country. Analyses conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory predict significant increases in power plant freshwater consumption over the coming years, encouraging the development of technologies to reduce this water loss. Power plant freshwater consumption refers to the quantity of water withdrawn from a water body that is not returned to the source but is lost to evaporation, while water withdrawal refers to the total quantity of water removed from a water source.

292

Wetting and free surface flow modeling for potting and encapsulation.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of an effort to reduce costs and improve quality control in encapsulation and potting processes the Technology Initiative Project ''Defect Free Manufacturing and Assembly'' has completed a computational modeling study of flows representative of those seen in these processes. Flow solutions are obtained using a coupled, finite-element-based, numerical method based on the GOMA/ARIA suite of Sandia flow solvers. The evolution of the free surface is solved with an advanced level set algorithm. This approach incorporates novel methods for representing surface tension and wetting forces that affect the evolution of the free surface. In addition, two commercially available codes, ProCAST and MOLDFLOW, are also used on geometries representing encapsulation processes at the Kansas City Plant. Visual observations of the flow in several geometries are recorded in the laboratory and compared to the models. Wetting properties for the materials in these experiments are measured using a unique flowthrough goniometer.

Brooks, Carlton, F.; Brooks, Michael J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Graham, Alan Lyman (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Noble, David F. (David Frederick) (.; )); Notz, Patrick K.; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Mahoney, Leo James (Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, MO); Baer, Thomas A.; Berchtold, Kathryn (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Adolf, Douglas Brian; Wilkes, Edward Dean; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Givler, Richard C.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Cote, Raymond O.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Grillet, Anne Mary; Kraynik, Andrew Michael

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Nitrogen Oxides Emission Control Options  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Oxides Emission Control Options for Coal-Fired Electric Utility Boilers Ravi K. Srivastava and Robert E. Hall U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division, Research Triangle Park, NC Sikander Khan and Kevin Culligan U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Clean Air Markets Division, Washington, DC Bruce W. Lani U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Environmental Projects Division, Pittsburgh, PA ABSTRACT Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increas- ingly important to implement state-of-the-art NO x con- trol technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NO x control

294

Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation Erica Bickford  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation by Erica Bickford A dissertation rights reserved. #12;Abstract Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation Erica Bickford.S. transportation is the largest source of national nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions and the third largest source

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

295

CRITICAL BEHAVIOR OF INTERFACES: ROUGHENING AND WETTING PHENOMENA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The critical behavior of interfaces is discussed from a theoretical point of view. Two classes of critical phenomena will be considered: (i) Roughening phenomena related to changes in the interfacial morphology; and (ii) Wetting phenomena related to changes in the interfacial structure. In two dimensions, the critical behavior can be determined exactly for a variety of models. As a result, one obtains different universality classes depending on the nature of the intermolecular forces. 1.

unknown authors

296

Wet-steam erosion of steam turbine disks and shafts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study of wet-steam erosion of the disks and the rotor bosses or housings of turbines in thermal and nuclear power plants shows that the rate of wear does not depend on the diagrammed degree of moisture, but is determined by moisture condensing on the surfaces of the diaphragms and steam inlet components. Renovating the diaphragm seals as an assembly with condensate removal provides a manifold reduction in the erosion.

Averkina, N. V. [JSC 'NPO TsKTI' (Russian Federation); Zheleznyak, I. V. [Leningradskaya AES branch of JSC 'Kontsern Rosenergoatom' (Russian Federation); Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G., E-mail: orlikvg@mail.ru [JSC 'NPO TsKTI' (Russian Federation); Shishkin, V. I. [Leningradskaya AES branch of JSC 'Kontsern Rosenergoatom' (Russian Federation)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

297

A model cerium oxide matrix composite reinforced with a homogeneous dispersion of silver particulate - prepared using the glycine-nitrate process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently a new method of ceramic brazing has been developed. Based on a two-phase liquid composed of silver and copper oxide, brazing is conducted directly in air without the need of an inert cover gas or the use of surface reactive fluxes. Because the braze displays excellent wetting characteristics on a number ceramic surfaces, including alumina, various perovskites, zirconia, and ceria, we were interested in investigating whether a metal-reinforced ceramic matrix composite (CMC) could be developed with this material. In the present study, two sets of homogeneously mixed silver/copper oxide/ceria powders were synthesized using a combustion synthesis technique. The powders were compacted and heat treated in air above the liquidus temperature for the chosen Ag-CuO composition. Metallographic analysis indicates that the resulting composite microstructures are extremely uniform with respect to both the size of the metallic reinforcement as well as its spatial distribution within the ceramic matrix. The size, morphology, and spacing of the metal particulate in the densified composite appears to be dependent on the original size and the structure of the starting combustion synthesized powders.

Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.

2005-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

298

Louisiana - South Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana - South Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 12,276 1980's 11,273 11,178 10,364 9,971 9,162 8,328 7,843 7,644 7,631 7,661 1990's 7,386 6,851 6,166 5,570 5,880 5,446 5,478 5,538 5,336 5,259 2000's 4,954 4,859 3,968 3,506 3,168 3,051 3,058 2,960 2,445 2,463 2010's 2,496 2,125 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages:

299

Texas - RRC District 5 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 5 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 5 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,127 1980's 1,117 1,265 1,322 1,477 1,911 2,100 2,169 2,106 1,989 1,789 1990's 1,835 1,841 1,692 1,790 1,926 1,876 2,088 1,681 1,906 2,301 2000's 3,089 4,206 4,588 5,398 6,525 9,560 12,591 17,224 20,420 22,602 2010's 24,686 28,147 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages:

300

Texas - RRC District 8 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 8 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 8,073 1980's 7,216 6,620 6,084 6,064 5,362 5,246 5,254 4,973 4,738 4,403 1990's 4,323 4,023 3,792 3,569 3,267 3,218 3,069 2,886 2,727 2,947 2000's 3,345 3,405 3,284 3,032 3,266 3,829 3,891 4,267 4,506 3,950 2010's 3,777 3,006 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages:

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

New Mexico - West Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

- West Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) - West Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico - West Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 9,934 1980's 10,001 10,536 9,231 8,654 8,341 7,947 9,344 9,275 15,000 13,088 1990's 14,804 16,131 16,854 16,494 15,156 15,421 14,620 13,586 13,122 13,292 2000's 14,396 14,541 14,339 14,476 15,632 15,114 14,727 13,923 12,855 12,004 2010's 11,704 11,111 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014

302

Wyoming Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 6,796 1980's 8,039 8,431 9,095 9,769 10,147 10,519 9,702 9,881 10,287 10,695 1990's 9,860 9,861 10,681 10,885 10,740 11,833 12,260 13,471 13,577 14,096 2000's 16,559 18,911 20,970 22,266 23,278 24,338 24,116 30,531 32,176 36,386 2010's 36,192 36,612 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages:

303

Oklahoma Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 12,299 1980's 11,656 13,066 14,714 14,992 14,858 14,929 15,588 15,686 15,556 14,948 1990's 15,147 14,112 13,249 12,549 12,981 13,067 12,929 13,296 13,321 12,252 2000's 13,430 13,256 14,576 15,176 16,301 17,337 17,735 19,225 21,155 23,115 2010's 26,873 27,683 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014

304

New Mexico - East Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

East Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) East Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico - East Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,634 1980's 2,266 2,377 2,331 2,214 2,117 2,001 1,750 1,901 2,030 2,131 1990's 2,290 2,073 1,948 1,860 1,791 1,648 1,612 1,694 1,694 1,880 2000's 2,526 2,571 2,632 2,205 2,477 2,569 2,605 2,633 2,737 2,658 2010's 2,612 2,475 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages:

305

New Mexico Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 12,568 1980's 12,267 12,913 11,562 10,868 10,458 9,948 11,094 11,176 17,030 15,219 1990's 17,094 18,204 18,802 18,354 16,947 17,069 16,232 15,280 14,816 15,172 2000's 16,922 17,112 16,971 16,681 18,109 17,683 17,332 16,556 15,592 14,662 2010's 14,316 13,586 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014

306

Texas - RRC District 6 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 6 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 6 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,710 1980's 3,622 3,653 3,749 4,279 4,087 4,274 4,324 4,151 4,506 5,201 1990's 5,345 4,856 4,987 5,170 5,131 5,425 5,690 5,616 5,691 5,562 2000's 5,901 6,016 6,161 6,572 7,564 8,999 9,205 11,468 12,207 12,806 2010's 14,958 15,524 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages:

307

Lower 48 States Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Lower 48 States Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 143,852 1980's 139,421 143,515 142,984 143,469 141,226 138,464 139,070 135,256 141,211 139,798 1990's 141,941 140,584 138,883 136,953 138,213 139,369 141,136 140,382 139,015 142,098 2000's 154,113 159,612 163,863 166,512 171,547 183,197 189,329 213,851 224,873 249,406 2010's 280,880 305,010 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013

308

Primary zone air proportioner  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

Cleary, Edward N. G. (San Diego, CA)

1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

309

Mechanical Engineering Manufacturing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Improved Electro-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Uday Pal Mechanical Engineering Manufacturing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Improved Electro- chemical for the commercialization of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are its high manufacturing and material costs expressed in terms at 800oC with humidified hydrogen (3% H2O) as the fuel and air as the oxidant. The cells were also tested

Lin, Xi

310

An improved wetted-wall bioaerosol sampling cyclone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

line and The presence of a liquid recirculation ring at the skimmer location (Figure 5). EDM Inlet Air Water Compressed Air Air 5 Figure 3. Experimental set-up of White-type cyclone. Figure 4. Water bypass on the White... the skimmer Corroded Area 8 and the cyclone body and resulted in an increased response time and a high probability of water bypass. This problem was solved by machining a cyclone body with no divergent section. This new cyclone body was a...

Phull, Manpreet Singh

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

311

Direct Use of Wet Ethanol in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine: Experimental and Numerical Results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The energy balance of corn ethanol revisited, Transaction offor autoignition. The wet ethanol modeling study [REF] usedengine running on wet ethanol. Fuel mixtures studied range

Mack, John Hunter; Flowers, Daniel L; Aceves, Salvador M; Dibble, Robert W

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Interfacial material for solid oxide fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

Baozhen, Li (Essex Junction, VT); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Wetting kinetics of water nano-droplet containing non-surfactant nanoparticles: A molecular dynamics study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this Letter, dynamic wetting of water nano-droplets containing non-surfactant gold nanoparticles on a gold substrate is examined via molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that the addition of non-surfactant nanoparticles hinders the nano-second droplet wetting process, attributed to the increases in both surface tension of the nanofluid and friction between nanofluid and substrate. The droplet wetting kinetics decreases with increasing nanoparticle loading and water-particle interaction energy. The observed wetting suppression and the absence of nanoparticle ordering near the contact line of nano-sized droplets differ from the wetting behaviors reported from nanofluid droplets of micron size or larger.

Lu, Gui [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of MOE, Beijing Key Laboratory for CO2 Utilization and Reduction Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China) [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of MOE, Beijing Key Laboratory for CO2 Utilization and Reduction Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Hu, Han; Sun, Ying, E-mail: yyduan@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: ysun@coe.drexel.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Duan, Yuanyuan, E-mail: yyduan@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: ysun@coe.drexel.edu [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of MOE, Beijing Key Laboratory for CO2 Utilization and Reduction Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of MOE, Beijing Key Laboratory for CO2 Utilization and Reduction Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

314

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline wet oxidation Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

University Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology ; Geosciences 80 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Fiera Milano, Italy, 3-7 September 2007 Version: 30...

315

Disability-Adjusted Life Years in the Assessment of Health Effects of Traffic-Related Air Pollution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Road transport plays a vital role in air pollution emissions, especially in large cities. According...10...and 32 % of nitrogen oxides in the European Union. An adverse influence of high air pollution on human he...

?. Adamkiewicz; A. J. Badyda; A. Gayer; D. Mucha

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Wet Chemical Synthesis of Graphene for Battery Applications.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? In this thesis, an improved Hummers method is used to produce graphene oxide, while thermal treatment has been used as the reduction process to… (more)

Johansen, Ida

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Air Pollution Spring 2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and control. 6. Examine regional and global air pollution issues. Prerequisite: CHEM 113 and (MATH 261 or MATHATS 555 Air Pollution Spring 2010 T Th 11:00 ­ 12:15, NESB 101 Instructor: Prof. Sonia Kreidenweis an understanding of types and sources of air pollution. 2. Examine concentrations of air pollutants

318

Pulsed quantum cascade laser instrument with compact design for rapid, high sensitivity measurements of trace gases in air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have developed a compact instrument for sensitive, rapid and continuous measurement of trace gases in air, with results presented here for methane (CH4), nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3

J.B. McManus; J.H. Shorter; D.D. Nelson; M.S. Zahniser; D.E. Glenn…

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Measuring the Kinetics of the Reduction of Iron Oxide with Carbon Monoxide in a Fluidized Bed  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Combusting a solid fuel in the presence of a metal oxide rather than air, chemical looping combustion, generates CO2suitable for sequestration and the reduced metal. For the case of iron, the reduced oxide can be...

C. D. Bohnt; J. P. Cleeton; C. M. Miiller…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Improvements to laboratory-scale maize wet-milling procedures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The wet milling of maize is difficult to study in the laboratory because some of the required separation steps are challenging to implement at bench-scale. This work was conducted to develop an improved 100-g wet-milling procedure that better models the industrial process. Several separation steps were modified from previously reported methods. Among the changes, germ was recovered by a flotation/skimming technique that is normally used on larger-scale procedures. Starch was recovered by tabling, but the flow profile at the end of the table was changed to reduce gluten settling and the partitioning and pumping of slurry fractions was changed to allow the tabling process to begin immediately after fiber recovery. Gluten was dewatering directly on the table overflow, and starch was recovered from the table before drying. These modifications eliminated some problems associated with other procedures, e.g. the scraping of tabled starch to reduce protein contamination, the loss of germ due to size reduction, and the separate recovery of coarse and fine fiber fractions. Compared with routine tabling methods, the modified method used in this work produced starch with less protein (0.42 versus 0.55% for the maize variety tested); however, the improvement was achieved at the expense of a slightly lower starch yield (64.4 versus 65.4%). Standard deviations for the product yields were 0.28% for starch, 0.27% for gluten, 0.24% for fiber, 0.13% for germ, and 0.07% for total solubles. The procedure will be beneficial for some maize wet-milling experiments.

Michael K. Dowd

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Hanford Site air operating permit application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which amended the Federal Clean Air Act of 1977, required that the US Environmental Protection Agency develop a national Air Operating Permit Program, which in turn would require each state to develop an Air Operating Permit Program to identify all sources of ``regulated`` pollutants. Regulated pollutants include ``criteria`` pollutants (oxides of nitrogen, sulfur oxides, total suspended particulates, carbon monoxide, particulate matter greater than 10 micron, lead) plus 189 other ``Hazardous`` Air Pollutants. The Hanford Site, owned by the US Government and operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, is located in southcentral Washington State and covers 560 square miles of semi-arid shrub and grasslands located just north of the confluence of the Snake and Yakima Rivers with the Columbia River. This land, with restricted public access, provides a buffer for the smaller areas historically used for the production of nuclear materials, waste storage, and waste disposal. About 6 percent of the land area has been disturbed and is actively used. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application consists of more than 1,100 sources and in excess of 300 emission points. Before January 1995, the maintenance and operations contractor and the environmental restoration contractor for the US Department of Energy completed an air emission inventory on the Hanford Site. The inventory has been entered into a database so that the sources and emission points can be tracked and updated information readily can be retrieved. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application contains information current as of April 19, 1995.

NONE

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Microstructure-based solid oxide fuel cell seal design using statistical mechanics.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) in a flat-plate configuration require a hermetic seal between the fuel and air sides of the electrodes, and this seal… (more)

Milhans, Jacqueline Linda

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

US PRACTICE FOR INTERIM WET STORAGE OF RRSNF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aluminum research reactor spent nuclear fuel is currently being stored or is anticipated to be returned to the United States and stored at Department of Energy storage facilities at the Savannah River Site and the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This paper summarizes the current practices to provide for continued safe interim wet storage in the U.S. Aluminum fuel stored in poor quality water is subject to aggressive corrosion attack and therefore water chemistry control systems are essential to maintain water quality. Fuel with minor breaches are safely stored directly in the basin. Fuel pieces and heavily damaged fuel is safely stored in isolation canisters.

Vinson, D.

2010-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

324

Analysis of wet deposition at an urban location  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wet deposition data collected at the Detroit Edison urban site provided a clear chemical profile at this location for the period studied. Correlations of major anions with acidity indicate that decreases in pH are associated with increases in sulfates and nitrates. However, other components not measured may have a bearing on pH reductions. The differences between two locations 70 km apart were quite small on the average. Strong local source influences at the urban location were not evident in the limited data set available for study. Wind direction can help determine the ultimate origins of pollutants.

Foltman, R.A.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Two air path observers for turbocharged SI engines with Guillaume Colina,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and an efficient control of the air actuators is required for engine torque control. Two non-linear estimators decreases pollutants emission, especially nitrogen oxides (NOx). 1.2. System description The air intakeTwo air path observers for turbocharged SI engines with VCT Guillaume Colina, , G´erard Blochb

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

326

Comparison of thermoelectric and permeation dryers for sulfur dioxide removal during sample conditioning of wet gas streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flue gas conditioning for moisture removal is commonly performed for criteria pollutant measurements, in particular for extractive CEM systems at combustion sources. An implicit assumption is that conditioning systems specifically remove moisture without affecting pollutant and diluent concentrations. Gas conditioning is usually performed by passing the flue gas through a cold trap (Peltier or thermoelectric dryer) to remove moisture by condensation, which is subsequently extracted by a peristaltic pump. Many air pollutants are water-soluble and potentially susceptible to removal in a condensation dryer from gas interaction with liquid water. An alternative technology for gas conditioning is the permeation dryer, where the flue gas passes through a selectively permeable membrane for moisture removal. In this case water is transferred through the membrane while other pollutants are excluded, and the gas does not contact condensed liquid. Laboratory experiments were performed to measure the relative removal of a water-soluble pollutant (sulfur dioxide, SO{sub 2}) by the two conditioning techniques. A wet gas generating system was used to create hot, wet gas streams of known composition (15% and 30% moisture, balance nitrogen) and flow rate. Pre-heated SO{sub 2} was dynamically spiked into the wet stream using mass flow meters to achieve concentrations of 20, 50, and 100 ppm. The spiked gas was directed through a heated sample line to either a thermoelectric or a permeation conditioning system. Two gas analyzers (Western Research UV gas monitor, KVB/Analect FTIR spectrometer) were used to measure the SO{sub 2} concentration after conditioning. Both analytic methods demonstrated that SO{sub 2} is removed to a significantly greater extent by the thermoelectric dryer. These results have important implications for SO{sub 2} monitoring and emissions trading.

Dunder, T.A. [Entropy, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Research Div.; Leighty, D.A. [Perma Pure, Inc., Toms River, NJ (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

327

Moving zone Marangoni drying of wet objects using naturally evaporated solvent vapor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A surface tension gradient driven flow (a Marangoni flow) is used to remove the thin film of water remaining on the surface of an object following rinsing. The process passively introduces by natural evaporation and diffusion of minute amounts of alcohol (or other suitable material) vapor in the immediate vicinity of a continuously refreshed meniscus of deionized water or another aqueous-based, nonsurfactant rinsing agent. Used in conjunction with cleaning, developing or wet etching application, rinsing coupled with Marangoni drying provides a single-step process for 1) cleaning, developing or etching, 2) rinsing, and 3) drying objects such as flat substrates or coatings on flat substrates without necessarily using heat, forced air flow, contact wiping, centrifugation or large amounts of flammable solvents. This process is useful in one-step cleaning and drying of large flat optical substrates, one-step developing/rinsing and drying or etching/rinsing/drying of large flat patterned substrates and flat panel displays during lithographic processing, and room-temperature rinsing/drying of other large parts, sheets or continuous rolls of material.

Britten, Jerald A. (Oakley, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Moving zone Marangoni drying of wet objects using naturally evaporated solvent vapor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A surface tension gradient driven flow (a Marangoni flow) is used to remove the thin film of water remaining on the surface of an object following rinsing. The process passively introduces by natural evaporation and diffusion of minute amounts of alcohol (or other suitable material) vapor in the immediate vicinity of a continuously refreshed meniscus of deionized water or another aqueous-based, nonsurfactant rinsing agent. Used in conjunction with cleaning, developing or wet etching application, rinsing coupled with Marangoni drying provides a single-step process for (1) cleaning, developing or etching, (2) rinsing, and (3) drying objects such as flat substrates or coatings on flat substrates without necessarily using heat, forced air flow, contact wiping, centrifugation or large amounts of flammable solvents. This process is useful in one-step cleaning and drying of large flat optical substrates, one-step developing/rinsing and drying or etching/rinsing/drying of large flat patterned substrates and flat panel displays during lithographic processing, and room-temperature rinsing/drying of other large parts, sheets or continuous rolls of material. 5 figs.

Britten, J.A.

1997-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

329

Cyclic testing of continuously wetted synthetic fiber ropes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A laboratory study of the cyclic loading endurance properties of continuously wetted synthetic, or manmade, fibre ropes has been conducted on ropes of various materials and forms of construction. The materials investigated were polyamides, polyester and polypropylene. Forms of construction studied were braid-on-braid, eight strand (square) and parallel lay. Rope sizes researched were 100 kN (10 tonf) nominal breaking force and up to 1.0 MN (100 tonf) nominal breaking force. All specimens were single leg. The test results indicate the superior bollard abrasion resistance and interstrand friction wear resistance of polyester and polypropylene over the polyamides. Trends, where observed, are also reported upon for the cyclic endurance performance of the forms of construction investigated. The improvements (or otherwise) in endurance effected by sheathing, coating and thimble protection of the eyes are also discussed. The results and performance trends observed on this test programme will be of interest to designers and users of mooring or tethering systems which operate continuously wet.

Crawford, H.; McTernan, L.M.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Oxidation kinetics of aluminum diboride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation characteristics of aluminum diboride (AlB{sub 2}) and a physical mixture of its constituent elements (Al+2B) were studied in dry air and pure oxygen using thermal gravimetric analysis to obtain non-mechanistic kinetic parameters. Heating in air at a constant linear heating rate of 10 °C/min showed a marked difference between Al+2B and AlB{sub 2} in the onset of oxidation and final conversion fraction, with AlB{sub 2} beginning to oxidize at higher temperatures but reaching nearly complete conversion by 1500 °C. Kinetic parameters were obtained in both air and oxygen using a model-free isothermal method at temperatures between 500 and 1000 °C. Activation energies were found to decrease, in general, with increasing conversion for AlB{sub 2} and Al+2B in both air and oxygen. AlB{sub 2} exhibited O{sub 2}-pressure-independent oxidation behavior at low conversions, while the activation energies of Al+2B were higher in O{sub 2} than in air. Differences in the composition and morphology between oxidized Al+2B and AlB{sub 2} suggested that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} interactions slowed Al+2B oxidation by converting Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on aluminum particles into a Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} shell, while the same Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} developed a needle-like morphology in AlB{sub 2} that reduced oxygen diffusion distances and increased conversion. The model-free kinetic analysis was critical for interpreting the complex, multistep oxidation behavior for which a single mechanism could not be assigned. At low temperatures, moisture increased the oxidation rate of Al+2B and AlB{sub 2}, but both appear to be resistant to oxidation in cool, dry environments. - Graphical abstract: Isothermal kinetic data for AlB{sub 2} in air, showing a constantly decreasing activation energy with increasing conversion. Model-free analysis allowed for the calculation of global kinetic parameters despite many simultaneous mechanisms occurring concurrently. (a) Time–temperature plots, (b) conversion as a function of time, (c) Arrhenius plots used to calculate activation energies, and (d) activation energy as a function of conversion. Display Omitted - Highlights: • First reported kinetic parameters for AlB{sub 2} and Al+2B oxidation in air and O{sub 2}. • Possible mechanism of enhanced boron combustion presented. • Moisture sensitivity shown to be problematic for AlB{sub 2}, less for Al+2B.

Whittaker, Michael L., E-mail: michaelwhittaker2016@u.northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, 122S. Central Campus Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Sohn, H.Y. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, University of Utah, 135S 1460 E, Rm 00412, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Cutler, Raymond A. [Ceramatec, Inc., 2425S. 900W., Salt Lake City, UT 84119 (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

331

Nitrogen oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

quality regulations may not effectively target a large source of fine, organic particle pollutants that contribute to hazy skies and poor air quality over the Los Angeles region. See also:

Tropospheric Ozone

332

Healthy Air Act (Maryland)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Maryland Healthy Air Act was developed with the purpose of bringing Maryland into attainment with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and fine particulate matter by the...

333

Air and Water Pollution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Air Pollution.... Many pollutants enter our bodies through the air we breathe at 13,000 l/day ... to quantitatively understand the basic environmental physics of pollution. This chapter covers the foll...

David Hafemeister

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Aesculap, Inc. Air Products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aesculap, Inc. Air Products Air Products Foundation Alaric Compliance Services, LLC Alvin H. Butz & Herger, Inc. Sodexo Campus Services Sodexo Inc. and Affiliates Stupp Bros., Inc. Sugarbush Products, Inc

Napier, Terrence

335

Chemical Effect of Dry and Wet Cleaning of the Ru Protective Layer of the Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography Reflector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors report the chemical influence of cleaning of the Ru capping layer on the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflector surface. The cleaning of EUV reflector to remove the contamination particles has two requirements: to prevent corrosion and etching of the reflector surface and to maintain the reflectivity functionality of the reflector after the corrosive cleaning processes. Two main approaches for EUV reflector cleaning, wet chemical treatments [sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide mixture (SPM), ozonated water, and ozonated hydrogen peroxide] and dry cleaning (oxygen plasma and UV/ozone treatment), were tested. The changes in surface morphology and roughness were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, while the surface etching and change of oxidation states were probed with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Significant surface oxidation of the Ru capping layer was observed after oxygen plasma and UV/ozone treatment, while the oxidation is unnoticeable after SPM treatment. Based on these surface studies, the authors found that SPM treatment exhibits the minimal corrosive interactions with Ru capping layer. They address the molecular mechanism of corrosive gas and liquid-phase chemical interaction with the surface of Ru capping layer on the EUV reflector.

Belau, Leonid; Park, Jeong Y.; Liang, Ted; Seo, Hyungtak; Somorjai, Gabor A.

2009-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

336

Sustained impact of drought on wet shrublands mediated by soil physical changes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Projected climate warming may substantially increase carbon emissions from wet organic soils, contributing to a positive feedback between the terrestrial carbon cycle and climate change. Evidence suggests that...

María T. Domínguez; Alwyn Sowerby; Andrew R. Smith; David A. Robinson…

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Photomicrography for the measurement of steam wetness fraction in low pressure turbines.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The measurement of steam wetness fraction at the exit of a low-pressure (LP) turbine stage is important if the highest turbine performance is to be… (more)

Veeder, Tricia Sue

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Systematic Errors in Measuring the Energy of Wet Steam with Dry-Steam Meters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Systematic errors are considered in measuring mass flow rate, specific enthalpy, thermal power, and energy for wet steam by means of meters intended for dry saturated steam.

E. G. Abarinov; K. S. Sarelo

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Application of hazard analysis (HACCP) in starch production by the wet milling of maize.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study is based on the Hazard Analysis in the Wet Milling of maize for the production of starch at the Bellville plant of African… (more)

Samuels, R. C.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Contamination issues in a continuous ethanol production corn wet milling facility  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Low ethanol yields and poor yeast viability were investigated at a continuous ethanol production corn wet milling facility. Using starch slurries and recycle streams...

Esha Khullar; Angela D. Kent…

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

,"U.S. Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

342

,"U.S. Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

343

,"U.S. Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

344

,"U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

345

SPOILAGE OF WET DISTILLERS GRAINS PLUS SOLUBLES WHEN STORED IN A BUNKER.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Five studies evaluated the impact of spoilage of wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) on nutrient composition, nutrient losses, and cattle performance. Exp. 1 and… (more)

Harding, Jana L

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Minimize Compressed Air Leaks  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet outlines a strategy for compressed air leak detection and provides a formula for cost savings calculations.

347

Air Products effective way  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PE O A e s a b O T A O ENNST Overview Air Products effective way standard me Departm Shipping has recently y of shipping eans. Air Pro ontainer that es of this pro onduct mark eep accelera eep the cost tilize widely a earch and m m visited Air er needs wer model was cr m approache ms

Demirel, Melik C.

348

Kinetics of Diesel Nanoparticle Oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The oxidation rates in air of diesel nanoparticles sampled directly from the exhaust stream of a medium-duty diesel engine were measured over the temperature range of 800?1140 °C using online aerosol techniques. ... Particulate emission from diesel engines is currently a topic of great concern from both pollution and public health standpoints. ... In addition, the fundamental carbon-to-hydrogen ratio may be different in diesel particles as compared to the commonly used surrogates (15). ...

Kelly J. Higgins; Heejung Jung; David B. Kittelson; Jeffrey T. Roberts; Michael R. Zachariah

2003-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

349

MHK Technologies/WET EnGen | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

EnGen EnGen < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage WET EnGen.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Wave Energy Technologies Inc Project(s) where this technology is utilized *MHK Projects/Sandy Cove Technology Resource Click here Wave Technology Type Click here Point Absorber Technology Readiness Level Click here TRL 5/6: System Integration and Technology Laboratory Demonstration Technology Description The EnGen point absorber, which features 'Smart Float' technology that allows the device to travel along a rigid spar at an incline of 45 degrees. The spar is moored at a single point of contact which allows the device to be fully compliant on all three axes (pitch, roll and yaw). Mooring Configuration Proprietary

350

Z(N) model of grain-boundary wetting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Even though van der Waals forces should prevent the wetting of a grain boundary by a liquid at the melting temperature, experiment and simulations indicate an instability in grain-boundary structure in the vicinity of this temperature. We study the structure of analogous boundaries in a Z(N) model in which a region of solid with a given orientation is replaced by a spin in that orientation. Different interfacial behaviors are found for different regions of a model parameter which is related to N. For the value appropriate to grain boundaries, our model suggests that boundaries of a sufficiently large angle should be unstable, not to the intrusion of a layer of liquid, however, but to the intrusion of solid of intermediate orientation. Such an intrusion can occur below the melting temperature.

M. Schick and Wei-Heng Shih

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Contact angles in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann modeling of wetting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we aim to investigate the implementation of contact angles in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann modeling of wetting at a large density ratio. The pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model [X. Shan and H. Chen, Phys. Rev. E 49, 2941 (1994)] is a popular mesoscopic model for simulating multiphase flows and interfacial dynamics. In this model, the contact angle is usually realized by a fluid-solid interaction. Two widely used fluid-solid interactions: the density-based interaction and the pseudopotential-based interaction, as well as a modified pseudopotential-based interaction formulated in the present paper, are numerically investigated and compared in terms of the achievable contact angles, the maximum and the minimum densities, and the spurious currents. It is found that the pseudopotential-based interaction works well for simulating small static (liquid) contact angles, however, is unable to reproduce static contact angles close to 180 degrees. Meanwhile, it is found that the proposed modif...

Li, Q; Kang, Q J; Chen, Q

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Penetration depth scaling for impact into wet granular packings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present experimental measurements of penetration depths for the impact of spheres into wetted granular media. We observe that the penetration depth in the liquid saturated case scales with projectile density, size, and drop height in a fashion consistent with the scaling observed in the dry case, but that penetration depths into saturated packings tend to be smaller. This result suggests that, for the range of impact energies observed, the stopping force is set by static contact forces between grains within the bed, and that the presence of liquid serves, primarily, to enhance these contact forces. The enhancement to the stopping force has a complicated dependence on liquid fraction, accompanied by a change in the drop-height dependence, that must be the consequence of accompanying changes in the conformation of the liquid phase in the interstices.

Theodore A. Brzinski III; Jorin Schug; Kelly Mao; Douglas J. Durian

2015-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

353

Influence of wet underwater welding on fracture values  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fracture behavior of welds is influenced by residual stresses. The influence of residual stresses on fracture parameters is investigated through the comparison of wet underwater welds, dry welds and welds without residual stresses. The fracture parameters for a sharp, stationary crack on the surface of a bead on plate weld under bending are determined by the finite element method. The geometric influence of weld on fracture parameters is investigated. The stress intensity factor for linear elastic fracture mechanics, the J-integral and the crack tip opening displacement for plastic fracture mechanics are calculated. The material behavior is assumed as linear elastic or linear elastic/ideal plastic or elastic plastic with multilinear isotropic hardening. The numerical data are compared with the experiments.

Lindhorst, L.; Hamann, R.; Mahrenholtz, O. [Technical Univ. of Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Offshore Engineering Section 2; Kocak, M. [GKSS Research Center, Geesthacht (Germany). Inst. of Material Research

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

354

Indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

Feng, Tom (Morris Plains, NJ); Ghosh, Amal K. (New Providence, NJ)

1982-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

355

INVESTIGATION OF NOVEL ALLOY TiC-Ni-Ni3Al FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL INTERCONNECT APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cell interconnect materials must meet stringent requirements. Such interconnects must operate at temperatures approaching 800 C while resisting oxidation and reduction, which can occur from the anode and cathode materials and the operating environment. They also must retain their electrical conductivity under these conditions and possess compatible coefficients of thermal expansion as the anode and cathode. Results are presented in this report for fuel cell interconnect candidate materials currently under investigation based upon nano-size titanium carbide (TiC) powders. The TiC is liquid phase sintered with either nickel (Ni) or nickel-aluminide (Ni{sub 3}Al) in varying concentrations. The oxidation resistance of the submicron grain TiC-metal materials is presented as a function weight change versus time at 700 C and 800 C for varying content of metal/intermetallic in the system. Electrical conductivity at 800 C as a function of time is also presented for TiC-Ni to demonstrate the vitality of these materials for interconnect applications. TGA studies showed that the weight gain was 0.8 mg/cm{sup 2} for TiC(30)-Ni(30wt.%) after 100 hours in wet air at 800 C and the weight gain was calculated to be 0.5205 mg/cm{sup 2} for TiC(30)- Ni(10 wt.%) after 100 hours at 700 C and 100 hours at 800 C. At room temperature the electrical conductivity was measured to be 2444 1/[ohm.cm] for TiC-Ni compositions. The electrical conductivities at 800 C in air was recorded to be 19 1/[ohm.cm] after 125 hours. Two identical samples were supplied to PNNL (Dr. Jeff Stevenson) for ASR testing during the pre-decision period and currently they are being tested there. Fabrication, oxidation resistance and electrical conductivity studies indicate that TiC-Ni-Ni{sub 3}Al ternary appears to be a very important system for the development of interconnect composition for solid oxide fuel cells.

Rasit Koc; Geoffrey Swift; Hua Xie

2005-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

356

Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet outlines the main factors for determining the right air quality for compressed air systems.

357

Clean Air and Climate Protection Software 2009 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Clean Air and Climate Protection Software 2009 Clean Air and Climate Protection Software 2009 Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Clean Air and Climate Protection Software 2009 Focus Area: Low Carbon Communities Topics: Opportunity Assessment & Screening Website: www.icleiusa.org/tools/cacp-2009/cacp-software-2009/ Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/clean-air-and-climate-protection-soft CACP 2009 is a one-stop emissions management tool that calculates and tracks emissions and reductions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide) and criteria air pollutants (NOx, SOx, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, PM10, PM 2.5) associated with electricity, fuel use, and waste disposal. References Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Clean_Air_and_Climate_Protection_Software_2009&oldid=51434

358

Steam Oxidation of Advanced Steam Turbine Alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Power generation from coal using ultra supercritical steam results in improved fuel efficiency and decreased greenhouse gas emissions. Results of ongoing research into the oxidation of candidate nickel-base alloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines are presented. Exposure conditions range from moist air at atmospheric pressure (650°C to 800°C) to steam at 34.5 MPa (650°C to 760°C). Parabolic scale growth coupled with internal oxidation and reactive evaporation of chromia are the primary corrosion mechanisms.

Holcomb, Gordon R.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Thin Air Breathing  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Thin Air Breathing Thin Air Breathing Name: Amy Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Why is it hard to breathe in thin air? What health dangers do mountain climbers face at high altitudes? Replies: Among the obvious dangers of losing ones footing, the oxygen available in the air is considerable less at higher altitudes. If I recall correctly, 21% of the atmosphere at standard temperature and pressure at sea level is composed of oxygen. This is less at higher altitudes. One can lose consciousness and even die in an oxygen deficient environment with changes from oxygen content to lower than 19.5%. This can unfortunate effect can occur within minutes. Dr. Myron The air is not really thin at high altitudes. The problem is that air pressure is lower. As altitude increases, air pressure decreases. In order for your lungs to fill with air, the air pressure in your lungs has to be less than the pressure of the air outside your lungs. Air moves from areas of higher pressure to lower pressure. As your diaphragm (the muscle that separates your chest cavity from your abdominal cavity) moves downward, the size of your chest cavity increases. This decreases the pressure in your chest and air flows in. When the diaphragm is up, it puts pressure on the chest cavity and the pressure in the lungs is greater than outside the lungs. Air flows out. This is an example of Boyle's Law. The movement of the diaphragm is controlled by the brainstem. Anyway-the reason that it is harder for some people to breathe at higher altitudes is that the air pressure differences aren't as great between the inside of the lungs and outside.

360

Experimental Study of Wettability Alteration to Preferential Gas-Wetting in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Critical- Condensate Saturation and Relative Permeabilities in Gas- Condensate Systems,'' paper SPE 56014 from preferential liquid-wetting to preferen- tial gas-wetting, then gas-well deliverability in gas-condensate and liquid relative permeabilities for gas-condensate systems in a simple network. The results imply

Firoozabadi, Abbas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Avoided Critical Behavior in Dynamically Forced Wetting Jacco H. Snoeijer,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

speed. In this Letter we study the dynamical wetting transition at which a liquid film gets deposited the Landau-Levich film. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.174504 PACS numbers: 47.10.Ăżg, 68.08.Bc Wetting speed beyond which the interface gives way to liquid deposition. Drops sliding down a window develop

362

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ZOOPLANKTON DISPLACEMENT VOLUME, WET WEIGHT, DRY WEIGHT, AND CARBONI  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the regression line for log transformed values for carbon vs. dry weight and wet weight vs. displacement volumeRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ZOOPLANKTON DISPLACEMENT VOLUME, WET WEIGHT, DRY WEIGHT, AND CARBONI PETER H are identical. We have employed this type of analysis in determinations on samples from diverse sea areas

363

Droughts and Persistent Wet Spells over the United States and Mexico  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Droughts and persistent wet spells over the United States and northwest Mexico have preferred regions of occurrence and persistence. Wet or dry conditions that persist more than 1 yr tend to occur over the interior United States west of 90°–95°W ...

Kingtse C. Mo; Jae E. Schemm

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

ANALYSIS OF HIGH PRESSURE TESTS ON WET GAS FLOW METERING WITH A VENTURI METER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ANALYSIS OF HIGH PRESSURE TESTS ON WET GAS FLOW METERING WITH A VENTURI METER P. Gajan , Q, 64018 Pau cedex, France pierre.gajan@onera.fr Abstract This work deals with the flow metering of wet gas on the CEESI facilities are presented. They are performed at 75 bars with 0.6 beta ratio Venturi meter

365

Evaluation of a Combined Ultraviolet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) /  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Evaluation of a Combined Ultraviolet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) / Evaluation of a Combined Ultraviolet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) / Chemisorbent Air Cleaner for Indoor Air Applications Title Evaluation of a Combined Ultraviolet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) / Chemisorbent Air Cleaner for Indoor Air Applications Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-62202 Year of Publication 2007 Authors Hodgson, Alfred T., Hugo Destaillats, Toshifumi Hotchi, and William J. Fisk Report Number LBNL-62202 Abstract We previously reported that gas-phase byproducts of incomplete oxidation were generated when a prototype ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaner was operated in the laboratory with indoor-relevant mixtures of VOCs at realistic concentrations. Under these conditions, there was net production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, two important indoor air toxicants. Here, we further explore the issue of byproduct generation. Using the same UVPCO air cleaner, we conducted experiments to identify common VOCs that lead to the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde and to quantify their production rates. We sought to reduce the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde to acceptable levels by employing different chemisorbent scrubbers downstream of the UVPCO device. Additionally, we made preliminary measurements to estimate the capacity and expected lifetime of the chemisorbent media. For most experiments, the system was operated at 680 - 780 m3/h (400 - 460 cfm).

366

Economics of large-scale thorium oxide production: assessment of domestic resources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The supply curve illustrates that sufficient amounts of thorium exist supply a domestic thorium-reactor economy. Most likely costs of production range from $3 to $60/lb ThO/sub 2/. Near-term thorium oxide resources include the stockpiles in Ohio, Maryland, and Tennessee and the thorite deposits at Hall Mountain, Idaho. Costs are under $10/lb thorium oxide. Longer term economic deposits include Wet Mountain, Colorado; Lemhi Pass, Idaho; and Palmer, Michigan. Most likely costs are under $20/lb thorium oxide. Long-term deposits include Bald Mountain, Wyoming; Bear Lodge, Wyoming; and Conway, New Hampshire. Costs approximately equal or exceed $50/lb thorium oxide.

Young, J.K.; Bloomster, C.H.; Enderlin, W.I.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Drost, M.K.; Weakley, S.A.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Combined fuel and air staged power generation system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for generation of electric power employing fuel and air staging in which a first stage gas turbine and a second stage partial oxidation gas turbine power operated in parallel. A first portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the first stage gas turbine which generates a first portion of electric power and a hot oxidant. A second portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the second stage partial oxidation gas turbine which generates a second portion of electric power and a hot syngas. The hot oxidant and the hot syngas are provided to a bottoming cycle employing a fuel-fired boiler by which a third portion of electric power is generated.

Rabovitser, Iosif K; Pratapas, John M; Boulanov, Dmitri

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

368

Low-friction coatings for air bearings in fuel cell air compressors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an effort to reduce fuel consumption and emissions, hybrid vehicles incorporating fuel cell systems are being developed by automotive manufacturers, their suppliers, federal agencies (specifically, the US Department of Energy) and national laboratories. The fuel cell system will require an air management subsystem that includes a compressor/expander. Certain components in the compressor will require innovative lubrication technology in order to reduce parasitic energy losses and improve their reliability and durability. One such component is the air bearing for air turbocompressors designed and fabricated by Meruit, Inc. Argonne National Laboratory recently developed a carbon-based coating with low friction and wear attributes; this near-frictionless-carbon (NFC) coating is a potential candidate for use in turbocompressor air bearings. The authors present here an evaluation of the Argonne coating for air compressor thrust bearings. With two parallel 440C stainless steel discs in unidirectional sliding contact, the NFC reduced the frictional force four times and the wear rate by more than two orders of magnitude. Wear mechanism on the uncoated surface involved oxidation and production of iron oxide debris. Wear occurred on the coated surfaces primarily by a polishing mechanism.

Ajayi, O. O.; Fenske, G. R.; Erdemir, A.; Woodford, J.; Sitts, J.; Elshot, K.; Griffey, K.

2000-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

369

Graphene Oxides Dispersing and Hosting Graphene Sheets for Unique Nanocomposite Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Graphene Oxides Dispersing and Hosting Graphene Sheets for Unique Nanocomposite Materials ... Graphene oxides (GOs), beyond their widely reported use as precursors for single-layer graphene sheets, are in fact excellent materials themselves (polymers in two-dimension, polyelectrolyte-like, aqueous solubility and biocompatibility, etc.). ... In this reported work we used aqueous GOs to effectively disperse few-layer graphene sheets (GNs) in suspension for facile wet-processing into nanocomposites of GNs embedded in GOs (as the polymeric matrix). ...

Leilei Tian; Parambath Anilkumar; Li Cao; Chang Yi Kong; Mohammed J. Meziani; Haijun Qian; L. Monica Veca; Tim J. Thorne; Kenneth N. Tackett; II; Travis Edwards; Ya-Ping Sun

2011-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

370

High Performance Cathodes for Li-Air Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project was to develop and fabricate a multifunctional cathode with high activities in acidic electrolytes for the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions for Li-air batteries. It should enable the development of Li-air batteries that operate on hybrid electrolytes, with acidic catholytes in particular. The use of hybrid electrolytes eliminates the problems of lithium reaction with water and of lithium oxide deposition in the cathode with sole organic electrolytes. The use of acid electrolytes can eliminate carbonate formation inside the cathode, making air breathing Li-air batteries viable. The tasks of the project were focused on developing hierarchical cathode structures and bifunctional catalysts. Development and testing of a prototype hybrid Li-air battery were also conducted. We succeeded in developing a hierarchical cathode structure and an effective bifunctional catalyst. We accomplished integrating the cathode with existing anode technologies and made a pouch prototype Li-air battery using sulfuric acid as catholyte. The battery cathodes contain a nanoscale multilayer structure made with carbon nanotubes and nanofibers. The structure was demonstrated to improve battery performance substantially. The bifunctional catalyst developed contains a conductive oxide support with ultra-low loading of platinum and iridium oxides. The work performed in this project has been documented in seven peer reviewed journal publications, five conference presentations, and filing of two U.S. patents. Technical details have been documented in the quarterly reports to DOE during the course of the project.

Xing, Yangchuan

2013-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

371

Oxidation of boron silicide and materials based on it  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Boron silicide and compounds based on its containing titanium, chromium, nickel, and yttrium and scandium oxides are studied for their oxidation in air from room temperature to 1300{degrees}C. It is shown that chromium boride markedly improves the heat resistance of B{sub 4}Si over a wide temperature range (700-1300{degrees}C) probably as a result chromium-oxide dissolution in borosilicate glass and alteration of its structure. A favorable effect of yttrium and scandium oxides as well of nickel silicide appears at above 1000{degrees}C as a result of forming complex oxide compounds in the scale.

Golovko, E.I.; Makarenko, G.N.; Voitovich, R.F.; Fedorus, V.B. [Institute of Materials Science, Kiev (Russian Federation)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Environmental Quality: Air (Louisiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Environmental Quality regulates air quality in Louisiana. The Department has an established a fee system for funding the monitoring, investigation and other activities required...

373

Air-Quality Regulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

n...Federal, state and/or local regulations constructed for the purpose of protecting air quality, e.g., low volatile organic compounds...

Jan W. Gooch

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Air-quality regulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

n....Federal, state and/or local regulations constructed for the purpose of protecting air quality, e.g., low volatile organic compounds...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Savannah River Site - Tank 48 Transmittal Letter of SRS Tank...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

carried forward by WSRC as leading candidates for Tank 48 applications, Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming and Wet-Air Oxidation (WAO), are technically sound, are likely to prove...

376

Corrosion and Protection of Metallic Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy security and increased concern over environmental protection have spurred a dramatic world-wide growth in research and development of fuel cells, which electrochemically convert incoming fuel into electricity with no or low pollution. Fuel cell technology has become increasingly attractive to a number of sectors, including utility, automotive, and defense industries. Among the various types of fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operate at high temperature (typically 650-1,000 C) and have advantages in terms of high conversion efficiency and the flexibility of using hydrocarbon fuels, in addition to hydrogen. The high temperature operation, however, can lead to increased mass transport and interactions between the surrounding environment and components that are required to be stable during a lifetime of thousands of hours and up to hundreds of thermal cycles. For stacks with relatively low operating temperatures (<800 C), the interconnects that are used to electrically connect a number of cells in series are typically made from cost-effective metals or alloys. The metallic interconnects must demonstrate excellent stability in a very challenging environment during SOFC operation, as they are simultaneously exposed to both an oxidizing (air) environment on the cathode side and a reducing environment (hydrogen or a reformed hydrocarbon fuel) on the anode side. Other challenges include the fact that water vapor is likely to be present in both of these environments, and the fuel is likely to contain impurities, such as sulfides. Since the fuel is usually a reformed hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas, coal gas, biogas, gasoline, etc., the interconnect is exposed to a wet carbonaceous environment at the anode side. Finally, the interconnect must be stable towards any adjacent components, such as electrodes, seals and electrical contact materials, with which it is in physical contact.

Yang, Z Gary; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2007-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

377

International MODIS and AIRS processing package: AIRS products and applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

International MODIS and AIRS processing package: AIRS products and applications Elisabeth Weisz presented and discussed in this paper demonstrate that the IMAPP AIRS retrieval product is rigorously parameters from the operational AIRS L2 product and data from other instruments. Keywords: AIRS, IMAPP

Li, Jun

378

Clean air act and National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Clean air act and National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Ozone: Sources/Environmental Effects Particulates (PM): Sources/Environmental Effects #12;National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) The Clean Air Act requires EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for pollutants considered

Weber, Rodney

379

Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for the Corn Wet Milling Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Alkali and Conventional Corn Wet-Milling: 100-g Procedures.Membrane Application in Corn Wet Milling Proceedings of theP. H. (1992). Technology of Corn Wet Milling and Associated

Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Ruth, Michael

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Oxidation of Propane by Doped Nickel Oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... present study, however, indicate that in the absence of excess oxygen, direct oxidation of propane by the oxide lattice can occur.

D. W. McKEE

1964-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Compressed Air System Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Several years ago I went to a gas station and noticed that my car's tires were low on air. I saw the gas station had an air compressor, but it cost a quarter to use the compressor. I paid my quarter and used the compressor. I realized...

Aegerter, R.

382

Recirculating electric air filter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

Bergman, W.

1985-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

383

Portable oven air circulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

Jorgensen, Jorgen A. (Bloomington, MN); Nygren, Donald W. (Minneapolis, MN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Meeting the Air Leakage  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Meeting the Air Leakage Meeting the Air Leakage Requirements of the 2012 IECC The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recognizes the enormous potential that exists for improving the energy efficiency, safety and comfort of homes. The newest edition of the International Energy Conservation Code ® (IECC) (2012) sets the bar higher for energy efficiency, and new air sealing requirements are one of the key new provisions. This guide is a resource for understanding the new air leakage requirements in the 2012 IECC and suggestions on how these new measures can be met. It also provides information from Building America's Air Sealing Guide, Best Practices and case studies on homes that are currently meeting the provisions. The 2012 IECC and a few International Residential Code (IRC) requirements are referenced throughout the guide.

385

An Evaluation of Improper Refrigerant Charge on the Performance of a Split System Air Conditioner with a Thermal Expansion Valve  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

State Tests(wet coil). . . .26 2. Steady State & Cyclic (dry coil) TESTS 26 CAPACITY 32 1. Steady State Tests(wet coil)... .32 1.1 Subcooling and Superheat Temperatures 34 1.2 Refrigerant Flow Rate. . . .37 1.3 Sensible Heat Ratio 39 2. Steady State... Typical Refrigerant Temperature Probe . . . .14 2.6 The Fully Charged Subcooling Temperature as a Function of Outdoor Temperature 18 3.1 Refrigerant-Side/Air-Side Capacity Comparison 24 3.2 Total Capacity of the Fully Charged Unit. . . .27 3.3 Energy...

Farzad, M.; O'Neal, D. L.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Development of a New Chemiluminescence Detector for Sub-ppm Level Nitrous Oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......atmosphere (15) and sea water (7), sometimes...sub-ppm level atmospheric N2O without any...through a standard gas generator (Model SGGU-72...Lodger, Jr. Atmospheric ni- trious oxide...Measurement of atmospheric nitrous oxide using...oxide in air and water using a 5A molecular......

Shun Araki; Shigetaka Suzuki; Masaaki Yamada; Hiroshi Suzuki; Toshiyuki Hobo

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Aging of Iron (Hydr)oxides by Heat Treatment and Effects on Heavy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

)oxides are used to remove heavy metals from wastewater and in the treatment of air pollution control residuesAging of Iron (Hydr)oxides by Heat Treatment and Effects on Heavy Metal Binding M E T T E A . S Ă? R generated in waste incineration. In this study, iron oxides containing heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Hg, Cr

Frenkel, Anatoly

388

Surface Characterization of a Paper Web at the Wet End  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present an algorithm for the detection and representation of structures and non-uniformities on the surface of a paper web at the wet end (slurry). This image processing/analysis algorithm is developed as part of a complete on-line web characterization system. Images of the slurry, carried by a fast moving table, are obtained using a stroboscopic light and a CCD camera. The images have very poor contrast and contain noise from a variety of sources. Those sources include the acquisition system itself, the lighting, the vibrations of the moving table being imaged, and the scattering water from the same table's movement. After many steps of enhancement, conventional edge detection methods were still inconclusive and were discarded. The facet model algorithm, is applied to the images and is found successful in detecting the various topographic characteristics of the surface of the slurry. Pertinent topographic elements are retained and a filtered image is computed based on the general appearance and characteristics of the structures in question. Morphological operators are applied to detect and segment regions of interest. Those regions are then filtered according to their size, elongation, and orientation.Their bounding rectangles are computed and superimposed on the original image. Real time implementation of this algorithm for on-line use is also addressed in this paper. The algorithm is tested on over 500 images of slurry and is found to detect nonuniformities on all 500 images. Locating and characterizing all different size structures is also achieved on all 500 images of the web.

Abidi, B.R.; Goddard, J.S.; Sari-Sarraf, H.

1999-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

389

Air Handling Unit Supply Air Temperature Optimization During Economizer Cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air Handling Unit Supply Air Temperature Optimization during Economizer Cycles Gang Wang, Zhan Wang, Ke Xu and Mingsheng Liu University of Nebraska – Lincoln Omaha, Nebraska, USA ABSTRACT Most air handling units (AHUs) in commercial...

Xu, K.; Liu, M.; Wang, G.; Wang, Z.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

STEP 8. The wet well stores filtered water before it is pumped into the air-stripping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, to produce an annual report on the quality of its drinking water. In addition to reminding consumers into the Upper Glacial aquifer (see page 3), the Lab's "finished" drinking water is produced with pride by the staff of BNL's Water Treatment Facility (WTF) of the Energy & Utilities Division. Producing BNL

Ohta, Shigemi

391

SAFETY STUDIES TO MEASURE EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS OF SPENT PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATION CHEMICALS USING WET AND DRY DECONTAMINATION METHODS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) at the Hanford site in Eastern Washington is currently being decommissioned by Fluor Hanford. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes in PFP include cerium (IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial solutions that include acids and sequestering agents. Aggressive chemicals are commonly used to remove transuranic contaminants from process equipment to allow disposal of the equipment as low level waste. Fluor's decontamination procedure involves application of chemical solutions as a spray on the contaminated surfaces, followed by a wipe-down with rags. Alternatively, a process of applying oxidizing Ce IV ions contained in a gel matrix and vacuuming a dry gel material is being evaluated. These processes effectively transfer the transuranic materials to rags or a gel matrix which is then packaged as TRU waste and disposed. Fluor is investigating plutonium decontamination chemicals as a result of concerns regarding the safety of chemical procedures following a fire at Rocky Flats in 2003. The fire at Rocky Flats occurred in a glovebox that had been treated with cerium nitrate, which is one of the decontamination chemicals that Fluor Hanford has proposed to use. Although the investigation of the fire was not conclusive as to cause, the reviewers noted that rags were found in the glovebox, suggesting that the combination of rags and chemicals may have contributed to the fire. Because of this underlying uncertainty, Fluor began an investigation into the potential for fire when using the chemicals and materials using wet disposition and dry disposition of the waste generated in the decontamination process and the storage conditions to which the waste drum would be exposed. The focus of this work has been to develop a disposal strategy that will provide a chemically stable waste form at expected Hanford waste storage temperatures. Hanford waste storage conditions are such that there is added heat to the containers from ambient conditions during storage especially during the summer months. Treatability tests under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) were used to assess the use of certain chemicals and wipes (wet method) and chemical-gel matrices (dry method) during the decontamination process. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes at PFP include cerium (IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial decontamination agents such as RadPro? , Glygel? and ASPIGEL 100?. As part of the treatability study, Fluor and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) personnel have evaluated the potential for self-heating and exothermic reactions in the residual decontamination materials. From these wet and dry method treatability studies, certain limiting conditions have been defined that will aid in assuring safe operations and waste packaging during the decommissioning and waste disposition process.

Hopkins, Andrea M.; Jackson, George W.; Minette, Michael J.; Ewalt, John R.; Cooper, Thurman D.; Scott, Paul A.; Jones, Susan A.; Scheele, Randall D.; Charboneau, Stacy L.

2005-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

392

Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Abatement of Air Pollution: Prohibition of Air Pollution (Connecticut)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

All air pollution not otherwise covered by these regulations is prohibited. Stationary sources which cause air pollution must be operated in accordance with all applicable emissions standards and...

394

Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 2 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 955 1980's 921 806 780 747 661 570 517 512 428 430 1990's 407 352 308 288 299 245 252 235 204 202 2000's 115 65 70 81 76 109 118 137 72 72 2010's 134 924 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

395

New York Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 211 1980's 208 264 229 295 389 369 457 410 351 368 1990's 354 331 329 264 242 197 232 224 218 221 2000's 322 318 315 365 324 349 363 375 389 196 2010's 281 253 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 New York Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

396

New Mexico - West Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

West Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) West Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico - West Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 151 1980's 156 150 146 180 194 181 214 213 259 178 1990's 184 156 127 107 97 119 108 106 98 92 2000's 115 99 103 89 90 98 82 87 86 82 2010's 105 143 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

397

Louisiana State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 449 251 260 207 231 1990's 207 207 154 157 168 148 157 130 98 120 2000's 129 145 84 79 61 63 56 65 686 513 2010's 107 51 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 LA, State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves,

398

Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 367 1980's 414 335 325 360 341 391 410 471 475 442 1990's 455 469 309 289 286 277 301 310 209 321 2000's 348 303 359 299 290 308 317 368 321 601 2010's 631 909 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31

399

Kansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 167 1980's 185 139 112 132 110 115 132 115 103 101 1990's 114 115 94 93 75 67 82 51 60 52 2000's 40 105 66 85 80 83 82 83 85 83 2010's 79 127 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31

400

North Dakota Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 201 1980's 239 253 248 257 267 331 293 276 266 313 1990's 334 243 266 274 275 263 255 257 261 250 2000's 264 270 315 316 320 343 357 417 484 1,070 2010's 1,717 2,511 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Ohio Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Ohio Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,047 1980's 1,417 800 984 1,635 1,178 938 898 594 480 589 1990's 371 376 381 343 315 355 399 391 342 402 2000's 469 340 346 304 208 184 174 101 99 97 2010's 90 74 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31

402

Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 4 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,416 1980's 1,292 1,005 890 765 702 684 596 451 393 371 1990's 301 243 228 215 191 209 246 368 394 182 2000's 176 140 150 136 165 148 110 117 127 96 2010's 91 61 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

403

California State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 226 1980's 160 244 232 221 206 1990's 188 55 59 63 59 56 47 54 39 58 2000's 86 80 85 76 85 89 85 79 54 53 2010's 63 79 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31

404

Dynamics and kinetic roughening of interfaces in two-dimensional forced wetting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We consider the dynamics and kinetic roughening of wetting fronts in the case of...×..., which separates two regimes of dissipative behavior and governs the kinetic roughening of the interfaces by giving an upper...

T. Laurila; C. Tong; I. Huopaniemi…

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Calculating the higher heat of coal combustion in the wet ash-free state  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Analysis of the coal concentrates used in the Ukrainian coke industry yields a mathematical formula for predicting the higher heat of coal combustion in the wet ash-free state on the basis of the coal’s charac...

D. V. Miroshnichenko; Ya. S. Balaeva

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Assessing Evapotranspiration Estimates from the Global Soil Wetness Project Phase 2 (GSWP-2) Simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We assess the simulations of global-scale evapotranspiration from the Global Soil Wetness Project Phase 2 (GSWP-2) within a global water-budget framework. The scatter in the GSWP-2 global evapotranspiration estimates from ...

Gao, Xiang

407

Improved Solubility and Emulsification of Wet-Milled Corn Germ Protein Recovered by Ultrafiltration–Diafiltration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study evaluated Ultrafiltration–Diafiltration (UFDF) as a means to improve the extractability of wet-milled corn germ protein and determined its effects on ... functional properties of the recovered protein ...

Mila P. Hojilla-Evangelista

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

,"U.S. Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation",10,"Annual",2013,"6301979" ,"Release...

409

Modeling of wet gas compression in twin-screw multiphase pump  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Twin-screw multiphase pumps experience a severe decrease in efficiency, even the breakdown of pumping function, when operating under wet gas conditions. Additionally, field operations have revealed significant vibration and thermal issues which can...

Xu, Jian

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

410

E-Print Network 3.0 - ashing wet Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sciences and Ecology 4 By-Products Utilization Summary: A3, containing 20% clean coal ash and 5% wet collected Class F ash had compressive strengths... 0 Center for...

411

Theory of Time-Dependent Freezing. Part I: Description of Scheme for Wet Growth of Hail  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

At subzero temperatures, cloud particles can contain both ice and liquid water fractions. Wet growth of precipitation particles occurs when supercooled cloud liquid is accreted faster than it can freeze on impact.

Vaughan T. J. Phillips; Alexander Khain; Nir Benmoshe; Eyal Ilotoviz

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Wetting and phase-change phenomena on micro/nanostructures for enhanced heat transfer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Micro/nanostructures have been extensively studied to amplify the intrinsic wettability of materials to create superhydrophilic or superhydrophobic surfaces. Such extreme wetting properties can influence the heat transfer ...

Xiao, Rong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

The corrosion products of weathering steel and pure iron in simulated wet-dry cycles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to establish the composition of the rust formed on pure iron and weathering steel after exposure to several wet-dry cycles...2-polluted atmosphere. ?-FeOOH p...

J. Dávalos; J. F. Marco; M. Gracia; J. R. Gancedo

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

The influence of surface energy on the wetting behaviour of the spore adhesive  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA 3The influence of surface energy on the wetting behaviour of the spore adhesive of the marine alga

Chaudhury, Manoj K.

415

Texas - RRC District 1 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 1 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 209 1980's 172 180 216 175 170 260 241 205 204 251 1990's 333 401 361 191 151 248 446 68 51 67 2000's 69 43 47 48 45 57 61 72 60 67 2010's 267 900 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

416

West Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 76 1980's 122 63 83 86 73 73 65 150 141 98 1990's 86 159 198 190 133 74 71 59 43 88 2000's 98 48 21 23 20 19 16 16 23 24 2010's 29 52 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31

417

Texas - RRC District 7B Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) B Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 7B Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 608 1980's 530 655 733 872 645 574 589 546 576 364 1990's 413 379 380 393 332 263 378 299 306 275 2000's 242 203 237 314 288 859 1,589 2,350 2,682 2,322 2010's 2,504 3,754 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

418

Evaporation and contraction of a droplet that wets a surface monitored by photoacoustic detection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The evaporation and contraction of a droplet wetting a flat metallic surface is monitored using photoacoustic detection. The results are interpreted in terms of an effective backing model together with the lubrication theory for droplet dynamics.

L. C. M. Miranda and N. Cella

1993-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

419

Simulation of Oil Displacement from Oil-Wet Cores by Interfacial Tension Reduction and Wettability Alteration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Waterflooding in oil-wet naturally fractured reservoirs is not successful because the ability of matrix blocks to imbibe the injected water and displace the oil into the fracture system is poor. Chemical enhanced oil recovery methods...

Kalaei, Mohammad Hosein

2010-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

420

Impact resistance of fiber reinforced wet-mix shotcrete part 1: Beam tests  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, impact resistance of wet-mix shotcrete reinforced with ten different types of ... reinforcement is highly effective in improving the fracture energy absorption and toughness under impact loading. H...

N. Banthia; P. Gupta; C. Yan

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Air Pollution and Health Effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The quality of the air we breathe is still a major concern to human health. Notwithstanding the air pollution mitigation efforts that have been pursued since ... be attributed to the effects of urban outdoor air

Ana Isabel Miranda; Joana Valente…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Air Quality (Nova Scotia, Canada)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Nova Scotia Environment is responsible for monitoring the air quality in the province, as well as administering fines and permits relating to air quality. The Air Quality Regulations state...

423

Global air quality and climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CRITICAL REVIEW Global air quality and climatewz Arlene M.determine regional air quality and can alter climate.to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O 3 precursor

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Air heating system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

Primeau, John J. (19800 Seminole Rd., Euclid, OH 44117)

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

WETTABILITY AND IMBIBITION: MICROSCOPIC DISTRIBUTION OF WETTING AND ITS CONSEQUENCES AT THE CORE AND FIELD SCALES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The questions of reservoir wettability have been approached in this project from three directions. First, we have studied the properties of crude oils that contribute to wetting alteration in a reservoir. A database of more than 150 different crude oil samples has been established to facilitate examination of the relationships between crude oil chemical and physical properties and their influence on reservoir wetting. In the course of this work an improved SARA analysis technique was developed and major advances were made in understanding asphaltene stability including development of a thermodynamic Asphaltene Solubility Model (ASM) and empirical methods for predicting the onset of instability. The CO-Wet database is a resource that will be used to guide wettability research in the future. The second approach is to study crude oil/brine/rock interactions on smooth surfaces. Contact angle measurements were made under controlled conditions on mica surfaces that had been exposed to many of the oils in the CO-Wet database. With this wealth of data, statistical tests can now be used to examine the relationships between crude oil properties and the tendencies of those oils to alter wetting. Traditionally, contact angles have been used as the primary wetting assessment tool on smooth surfaces. A new technique has been developed using an atomic forces microscope that adds a new dimension to the ability to characterize oil-treated surfaces. Ultimately we aim to understand wetting in porous media, the focus of the third approach taken in this project. Using oils from the CO-Wet database, experimental advances have been made in scaling the rate of imbibition, a sensitive measure of core wetting. Application of the scaling group to mixed-wet systems has been demonstrated for a range of core conditions. Investigations of imbibition in gas/liquid systems provided the motivation for theoretical advances as well. As a result of this project we have many new tools for studying wetting at microscopic and macroscopic scales and a library of well-characterized fluids for use in studies of crude oil/brine/rock interactions.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow; Chris Palmer; Purnendu K. Dasgupta

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

awma.org october 2009 em 13Copyright 2009 Air & Waste Management Association em feature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

awma.org october 2009 em 13Copyright 2009 Air & Waste Management Association em · feature by Doreen.orgCopyright 2009 Air & Waste Management Association The satellite observations provide constraints on detailed. In this article, we highlight the use of satellite data to constrain biomass burning emissions, to assess oxides

427

Plasma Quenching by Air during Single-Bubble Sonoluminescence David J. Flannigan and Kenneth S. Suslick*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mixtures of air and noble gas. Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen (N2), and atomic oxygen emission lines, and H2O and formation of soluble and reactive species. For an air bubble in water, this is thought,3 The vast majority of SBSL studies have been conducted in partially degassed water, and some

Suslick, Kenneth S.

428

Explosions of Syngas/CO2 Mixtures in Oxygen-Enriched Air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most of the scientific works on syngas combustion deal with dry air as oxidizer, whereas very few studies have been carried out on syngas combustion in oxygen-enriched air (i.e., oxy-combustion). In this work, the explosion behavior (peak pressure and ...

Ernesto Salzano; Anna Basco; Francesco Cammarota; Valeria Di Sarli; Almerinda Di Benedetto

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Maintaining System Air Quality | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Maintaining System Air Quality Maintaining System Air Quality This tip sheet discusses how to maintain air quality in compressed air systems through proper use of equipment....

430

Compressed Air Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Maintenance Strategies for Compressed Air Systems Remove Condensate with Minimal Air Loss Stabilizing System Pressure Compressed Air Training Compressed Air Systems Tools...

431

Compressed Air Storage Strategies | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Storage Strategies Compressed Air Storage Strategies This tip sheet briefly discusses compressed air storage strategies. COMPRESSED AIR TIP SHEET 9 Compressed Air Storage...

432

Air Quality Rules (North Carolina)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This is a comprehensive air quality rule for North Carolina that includes ambient air quality standards, emission control standards, monitoring and reporting requirements, and permitting procedures...

433

Ambient Air Quality Standards (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations set statewide ambient air quality standards for various contaminants. The state code follows the regulations set forth in the National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality...

434

Padding with Compressed Air  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We commonly find plants using padding to transport liquids or light solids short distances from tankers into storage tanks. Padding can wreck havoc in compressed air systems with limited storage, undersized cleanup equipment (dryers and filters...

Beals, C.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Traffic air quality index  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality index (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI.

Zbigniew Bagie?ski

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Ventilation Air Preconditioning Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ventilation Air Preconditioning Systems Mukesh Khattar Michael J. Brandemuehl Manager, Space Conditioning and Refrigeration Associate Professor Customer Systems Group Joint Center for Energy Management Electric Power Research Institute Campus... costs, the small, modular nature of the system allows great flexibility for fitting into retrofit geometries and saves space in new construction. Moreover, a single chiller can serve multiple air-handling units-in stark contrast to packaged...

Khattar, M.; Brandemuehl, M. J.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Air Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Air Cooling: Air cooling is commonly defined as rejecting heat from an object by flowing air over the surface of the object, through means of convection. Air cooling requires that the air must be cooler than the object or surface from which it is expected to remove heat. This is due to the second law of thermodynamics, which states that heat will only move spontaneously from a hot reservoir (the heat sink) to a cold reservoir (the air). Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Air Cooling Air Cooling Diagram of Air Cooled Condenser designed by GEA Heat Exchangers Ltd. (http://www.gea-btt.com.cn/opencms/opencms/bttc/en/Products/Air_Cooled_Condenser.html) Air cooling is limited on ambient temperatures and typically require a

438

Transition metal-promoted oxygen ion conductors as oxidation catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel metal oxide composite catalyst for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons was prepared by combining oxygen ion conducting materials with active transition metals. The oxygen ion conductors used were typical fluorite-type oxides, such as ceria, zirconia, and others. Active base metal catalysts, such as copper, were used as additives to promote the catalytic properties of oxygen ion conductors. The intimate contact of the two kinds of materials gave rise to a highly active oxidation catalyst. On Cu-Ce-O composite catalysts, 95% of carbon monoxide was oxidized by air at {approximately} 100 C. Complete methane oxidation on the same catalyst took place at {approximately} 550 C. When the stoichiometric amount of sulfur dioxide was sued to oxidize carbon monoxide, 96% of sulfur dioxide was reduced to elemental sulfur at temperatures above 460 C with 99% of sulfur dioxide conversion. This type of composite catalyst also showed excellent resistance to water poisoning.

Liu, W.; Sarofim, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

439

Solar-driven electrochemically assisted semiconductor-catalyzed iodide ion oxidation. Enhanced efficiency by oxide mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oxidation of iodide ion from an air-saturated solution under natural sunlight (900±50 W m?2) on the surfaces of TiO2, ZnO, Fe2O3, MoO3 and CeO2 enhances by 6 to 12-fold on application of a cathodic bias of ?0.2 t...

Chockalingam Karunakaran; Premkumar Anilkumar

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

AIR SEALING Seal air leaks and save energy!  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AIR SEALING Seal air leaks and save energy! W H A T I S A I R L E A K A G E ? Ventilation is fresh at stopping air leakage. It is critical to seal all holes and seams between these sheet goods with durable air that enters a house in a controlled manner to exhaust excess moisture and reduce odors

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

inAir: Sharing Indoor Air Quality Measurements and Visualizations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

evidence has indicated that indoor air pollution within homes and other buildings can be worse than the outdoor air pollution in even the largest and most industrialized cities. For example, the California Air Resources Board estimates that indoor air pollutant levels are 25-62% greater than outside levels [4

Mankoff, Jennifer

442

Air Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

permit regulations are designed to track, record, and control air pollutants belonging to severalAir Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference Department: Chemical on chemical classifications. This reference outlines major categories of air pollutants found at SLAC

Wechsler, Risa H.

443

Long-term evaluation of solid oxide fuel cell candidate materials in a 3-cell generic short stack fixture, Part II: sealing glass stability, microstructure and interfacial reactions.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A generic solid oxide fuel cell stack test fixture was developed to evaluate candidate materials and processing methods under realistic conditions. Part I of the work addressed the stack fixture, seal system and cell performance of a 3-cell short stack tested at 800oC for 6000h. Commercial NiO-YSZ anode-supported thin YSZ electrolyte cells with LSM cathodes were used for assessment and were tested in constant current mode with dilute (~50% H2) fuel versus air. Part II of the work examined the sealing glass stability, microstructure development, interfacial reactions, and volatility issues. Part III of the work investigated the stability of Ce-(Mn,Co) spinel coating, AISI441 metallic interconnect, alumina coating, and cell degradation. After 6000h of testing, the refractory sealing glass YSO77 (Ba-Sr-Y-B-Si) showed desirable chemical compatibility with YSZ electrolyte in that no discernable interfacial reaction was identified, consistent with thermodynamic calculations. In addition, no glass penetration into the thin electrolyte was observed. At the aluminized AISI441 interface, the protective alumina coating appeared to be corroded by the sealing glass. Air side interactions appeared to be more severe than fuel side interactions. Metal species such as Cr, Mn, and Fe were detected in the glass, but were limited to the vicinity of the interface. No alkaline earth chromates were found at the air side. Volatility was also studied in a similar glass and weight loss in a wet reducing environment was determined. Using the steady-state volatility data, the life time (40,000h) weight loss of refractory sealing glass YSO77 was estimated to be less than 0.1 wt%.

Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Choi, Jung-Pyung

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

444

Influence of a Cerium surface treatment on the oxidation behavior of type 347 stainless steel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A surface treatment was applied to the surface of Type 347 stainless steel to enhance oxidation resistance. The treatment consisted of dip coating coupons in a CeO2 and halide activator slurry, followed by a thermal treatment at 900C in an inert atmosphere for 12 hours. Cyclical oxidation tests were conducted at 800C in either dry air or air+3%H2O. In dry air, the treatment reduced the oxidation rate (reduced the magnitude of weight gain) of the alloy by a factor of three. Protective chromium based oxide and spinel ((Mn,Cr)3O4 and (Cr,Fe)2O3) phases formed on the surface of the untreated and treated alloy. More significantly, the treatment suppressed the oxide scale spallation that occurred upon cyclical exposure of this alloy to moist air. In moist air, less protective chromite (FeCr2O4), magnetite (Fe+2Fe2+3O4), and hematite (Fe2O3) formed as oxide products on the surface of the base alloy. The treated alloy did not spall during exposure to moist air, and interestingly, the treated alloy possessed similar oxidation rates (magnitude of weight gain) in both moist and dry air. The same protective chromium based oxide and spinel ((Mn,Cr)3O4 and (Cr,Fe)2O3) phases formed on the surface of the treated alloy exposed to both moist and dry air. In the aggressive moist environment, the Ce surface treatment suppressed the formation of less protective iron-oxides, and concomitant oxide scale spallation during thermal cycling.

Alman, D.E.; Jablonski, P.D.

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED INTO A DWELLING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED.peuportier@mines-paristech.fr, Tel.: +33 1 40 51 91 51 ABSTRACT An inverter-driven air-to-air heat pump model has been developped capacity air-to-air heat pump coupled with temperate air sources (crawlspace, attic, sunspace, heat

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

446

Engineering process and cost model for a conventional corn wet milling facility  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Conventional wet milling of corn is a process designed for the recovery and purification of starch and several coproducts (germ, gluten, fiber and steep liquor). The total starch produced by the wet milling industry in the USA in 2004 equaled 21.5 billion kg, including modified starches and starches used for sweeteners and ethanol production. Process engineering and cost models for a corn wet milling process (for steeping and milling facilities) have been developed for a “generic” processing plant with a capacity of 2.54 million kg of corn per day (100,000 bu/day). The process includes grain cleaning, steeping, germ separation and recovery, fiber separation and recovery, gluten separation and recovery and starch separation. Information for the development of the models was obtained from a variety of technical sources including commercial wet milling companies, industry experts and equipment suppliers. The models were developed using process and cost simulation software (SuperPro Designer®) and include processing information such as composition and flow rates of the various process streams, descriptions of the various unit operations and detailed breakdowns of the operating and capital cost of the facility. Based on the information from the model, we can estimate the cost of production per kilogram of starch using the input prices for corn and other wet milling coproducts. We have also used the model to conduct a variety of sensitivity studies utilizing modifications such as feedstock costs, corn compositional variations, and the sale of wet corn gluten feed. The model is also being used as a base-case for the development of models to test alternative processing technologies and to help in the scale-up and commercialization of new wet milling technologies. This model is available upon request from the authors for educational, non-commercial and research uses.

Edna C. Ramirez; David B. Johnston; Andrew J. McAloon; Winnie Yee; Vijay Singh

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

EMISSIONS TO AIR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EMISSIONS TO AIR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE Swansea University Estates Services Singleton Park Swansea to Air Department: Estates and Facilities Site: All Author: Ambreen Jahangir Approved by: Mark Durdin PURPOSE: To minimise emissions and discharges to air from boilers, fume cupboards, air conditioning

Harman, Neal.A.

448

Air Quality | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleAirQuality&oldid612070" Category: NEPA Resources...

449

Permitting and solid waste management issues for the Bailly Station wet limestone Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pure Air (a general partnership between Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc.). is constructing a wet limestone co-current advanced flue gas desulfurization (AFGD) system that has technological and commercial advantages over conventional FGD systems in the United States. The AFGD system is being installed at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company's Bailly Generating Station near Gary, Indiana. The AFGD system is scheduled to be operational by the Summer, 1992. The AFGD system will remove at least 90 percent of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas from Boilers 7 and 8 at the Station while burning 3.2 percent sulfur coal. Also as part of testing the AFGD system, 95 percent removal of SO{sub 2} will be demonstrated on coals containing up to 4.5 percent sulfur. At the same time that SO{sub 2} is removed from the flue gas, a gypsum by-product will be produced which will be used for wallboard manufacturing. Since the AFGD system is a pollution control device, one would expect its installation to be received favorably by the public and regulatory agencies. Although the project was well received by regulatory agencies, on public group (Save the Dunes Council) was initially concerned since the project is located adjacent to the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The purpose of this paper is to describe the project team's experiences in obtaining permits/approvals from regulatory agencies and in dealing with the public. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Bolinsky, F.T. (Pure Air, Allentown, PA (United States)); Ross, J. (Northern Indiana Public Service Co., Hammond, IN (United States)); Dennis, D.S. (United Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Denver, CO (United States). Stearns-Roger Div.); Huston, J.S. (Environmental Alternatives, Inc., Warren NJ (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Air Pollution and Oxidative Stress in Allergic Airway Diseases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With 30–40 % of the world’s population suffering from allergic diseases and with the increasing trends of this noncommunicable disease, especially in children in both the developed and developing, allergic diseas...

Ruby Pawankar M.D.; Ph.D.; F.R.C.P.; F.A.A.A.A.I.…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Air Permits, Licenses, Certifications (Maine) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Air Permits, Licenses, Certifications (Maine) Air Permits, Licenses, Certifications (Maine) Air Permits, Licenses, Certifications (Maine) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Maine Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environmental Protection This program regulates and limits air emissions from a variety of sources within Maine through a statewide permitting program. Separate regulations exist for limiting emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide

452

Capture and Use of Coal Mine Ventilation-Air Methane  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Capture and use of Coal Mine Capture and use of Coal Mine Ventilation - air Methane Background Methane emissions from coal mines represent about 10 percent of the U.S. anthropogenic methane released to the atmosphere. Methane-the second most important non-water greenhouse gas-is 21 times as powerful as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in its global warming potential. Ventilation-air methane (VAM)-the exhaust air from underground coal mines-is the largest source of coal mine methane, accounting for about half of the methane emitted from coal mines in the United States. Unfortunately, because of the low methane concentration (0.3-1.5 percent) in ventilation air, its beneficial use is difficult. However, oxidizing the methane to CO 2 and water reduces its global warming potential by 87 percent. A thermal

453

Inhibition of Oxidation in Nuclear Graphite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphite is a fundamental material of high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactors, providing both structure and neutron moderation. Its high thermal conductivity, chemical inertness, thermal heat capacity, and high thermal structural stability under normal and off normal conditions contribute to the inherent safety of these reactor designs. One of the primary safety issues for a high temperature graphite reactor core is the possibility of rapid oxidation of the carbon structure during an off normal design basis event where an oxidizing atmosphere (air ingress) can be introduced to the hot core. Although the current Generation IV high temperature reactor designs attempt to mitigate any damage caused by a postualed air ingress event, the use of graphite components that inhibit oxidation is a logical step to increase the safety of these reactors. Recent experimental studies of graphite containing between 5.5 and 7 wt% boron carbide (B4C) indicate that oxidation is dramatically reduced even at prolonged exposures at temperatures up to 900°C. The proposed addition of B4C to graphite components in the nuclear core would necessarily be enriched in B-11 isotope in order to minimize B-10 neutron absorption and graphite swelling. The enriched boron can be added to the graphite during billet fabrication. Experimental oxidation rate results and potential applications for borated graphite in nuclear reactor components will be discussed.

Phil Winston; James W. Sterbentz; William E. Windes

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Compressed air energy storage system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Asphalt Oxidation Kinetics and Pavement Oxidation Modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Most paved roads in the United States are surfaced with asphalt. These asphalt pavements suffer from fatigue cracking and thermal cracking, aggravated by the oxidation and hardening of asphalt. This negative impact of asphalt oxidation on pavement...

Jin, Xin

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

456

Air Charter Services  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

42.2 (April 2012) 42.2 (April 2012) 1 Documentation and Approval of Federally Funded International Travel (Fly America Act-Open Skies Agreement) Overview This section provides guidance to DOE Contracting Officers, Contracting Officer Representatives, and Program Officials on documentation and approval of federally funded international travel by Federal contractors and subcontractors in accordance with FAR 52.247-63 PREFERENCE FOR U.S.-FLAG AIR CARRIERS (JUNE 2003), 49 U.S.C. §40118 (Fly America Act) and the Open Skies Agreements as amended. Background Contracts that include FAR clause 52.247-63, PREFERENCE FOR U.S.-FLAG AIR CARRIERS (JUNE 2003) as prescribed in FAR 47.405 require that, if available, the Contractor (and subcontractors), in performing work under the contract, shall use U.S.-flag air carriers for

457

air_water.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

12/2011 12/2011 Air Monitoring Groundwater Monitoring Surface Water Monitoring A continuously operating air monitoring network was in place from 1986 through 2000 for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) to measure levels of gamma radiation, radioactive dust particles, radon gas, and asbestos. With remediation of contaminated materials essentially complete and measurements indistinguishable from background, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ceased perimeter and offsite air monitoring as of December 31, 2000. Groundwater has been routinely monitored at the site since 1986. Separate groundwater monitoring programs were established for the Chemical Plant and Quarry sites because of geographic separation and differences in the hydrogeologic features that influence

458

Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery in Fractional-Wet Systems: A Pore-Scale Investigation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a technology that could potentially increase the tertiary recovery of oil from mature oil formations. However, the efficacy of this technology in fractional-wet systems is unknown, and the mechanisms involved in oil mobilization therefore need further investigation. Our MEOR strategy consists of the injection of ex situ produced metabolic byproducts produced by Bacillus mojavensis JF-2 (which lower interfacial tension (IFT) via biosurfactant production) into fractional-wet cores containing residual oil. Two different MEOR flooding solutions were tested; one solution contained both microbes and metabolic byproducts while the other contained only the metabolic byproducts. The columns were imaged with X-ray computed microtomography (CMT) after water flooding, and after MEOR, which allowed for the evaluation of the pore-scale processes taking place during MEOR. Results indicate that the larger residual oil blobs and residual oil held under relatively low capillary pressures were the main fractions recovered during MEOR. Residual oil saturation, interfacial curvatures, and oil blob sizes were measured from the CMT images and used to develop a conceptual model for MEOR in fractional-wet systems. Overall, results indicate that MEOR was effective at recovering oil from fractional-wet systems with reported additional oil recovered (AOR) values between 44 and 80%; the highest AOR values were observed in the most oil-wet system.

Armstrong, Ryan T.; Wildenschild, Dorthe (Oregon State U.)

2012-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

459

Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Why and How They are Controlled  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Air Quality EPA 456/F-99-006R Air Quality EPA 456/F-99-006R Environmental Protection Planning and Standards November 1999 Agency Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 Air EPA-456/F-99-006R November 1999 Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Why and How They Are Controlled Prepared by Clean Air Technology Center (MD-12) Information Transfer and Program Integration Division Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711 ii DISCLAIMER This report has been reviewed by the Information Transfer and Program Integration Division of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and approved for publication. Approval does not signify that the contents of this report reflect the views and policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Mention of trade

460

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

1988-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

462

Filling and wetting transitions on sinusoidal substrates: a mean-field study of the Landau-Ginzburg model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the interfacial phenomenology of a fluid in contact with a microstructured substrate within the mean-field approximation. The sculpted substrate is a one-dimensional array of infinitely long grooves of sinusoidal section of periodicity length L and amplitude A. The system is modelled using the Landau-Ginzburg functional, with fluid-substrate couplings which correspond to either first-order or critical wetting for a flat substrate. We investigate the effect of the roughness of the substrate in the interfacial phenomenology, paying special attention to filling and wetting phenomena, and compare the results with the predictions of the macroscopic and interfacial Hamiltonian theories. At bulk coexistence, for values of L much larger than the bulk correlation, we observe first-order filling transitions between dry and partially filled interfacial states, which extend off-coexistence, ending at a critical point; and wetting transitions between partially filled and completely wet interfacial states with the same order as for the flat substrate (if first-order, wetting extends off-coexistence in a prewetting line). On the other hand, if the groove height is of order of the correlation length, only wetting transitions between dry and complete wet states are observed. However, their characteristics depend on the order of the wetting transition for the flat substrate. So, if it is first-order, the wetting transition temperature for the rough substrate is reduced with respect to the wetting transition temperature for a flat substrate, and coincides with the Wenzel law prediction for very shallow substrates. On the contrary, if the flat substrate wetting transition is continuous, the roughness does not change the wetting temperature.

Alvaro Rodriguez-Rivas; Jose Antonio Galvan Moreno; Jose M. Romero-Enrique

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

463

Safety Aspects of Wet Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel, OAS-L-13-11  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Safety Aspects of Wet Storage of Safety Aspects of Wet Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel OAS-L-13-11 July 2013 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 July 10, 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR THE SENIOR ADVISOR FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT FROM: Daniel M. Weeber Assistant Inspector General for Audits and Administration Office of Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Audit Report on "Safety Aspects of Wet Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel" BACKGROUND The Department of Energy (Department) is responsible for managing and storing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) generated by weapons and research programs and recovered through nonproliferation programs. The SNF consists of irradiated reactor fuel and cut up assemblies containing uranium, thorium and/or plutonium. The Department stores 34 metric tons of heavy metal SNF primarily

464

Biodiesel from mixed culture algae via a wet lipid extraction procedure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Microalgae are a source of renewable oil for liquid fuels. However, costs for dewatering/drying, extraction, and processing have limited commercial scale production of biodiesel from algal biomass. A wet lipid extraction procedure was developed that was capable of extracting 79% of transesterifiable lipids from wet algal biomass (84% moisture) via acid and base hydrolysis (90 °C and ambient pressures), and 76% of those extracted lipids were isolated, by further processing, and converted to FAMEs. Furthermore, the procedure was capable of removing chlorophyll contamination of the algal lipid extract through precipitation. In addition, the procedure generated side streams that serve as feedstocks for microbial conversion to additional bioproducts. The capability of the procedure to extract lipids from wet algal biomass, to reduce/remove chlorophyll contamination, to potentially reduce organic solvent demand, and to generate feedstocks for high-value bioproducts presents opportunities to reduce costs of scaling up algal lipid extraction for biodiesel production.

Ashik Sathish; Ronald C. Sims

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Direct Use of Wet Ethanol in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine: Experimental and Numerical Results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the VW TDi running on a mixture of 60% ethanol-in-water.the VW TDi running on different fuel blends of wet ethanol

Mack, John Hunter; Flowers, Daniel L; Aceves, Salvador M; Dibble, Robert W

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Sticking with air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A decision to replace more than 300 aging damper actuators at Independence Plant in Newark, Arkensas forced Entergy to make a choice between pneumatic and electric actuator designs. The dampers route air flow through separate dedicated compartments to ensure proper firing of pulverised coal. The reasons that pneumatics was chosen are discussed in this article. 4 figs.

Coker, S.N. [Entergy (US). Independence Plant

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

The air plasma spraying  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The air plasma spraying is characterized by using of a compressed air as a plasma forming gas. Here is shown the application of benefits of the present technology compared with other spraying process. The creation of the present process was possible due to a reliable plasma torch and certain condition of heating and deposition of powder materials on a work. Plasma torch develops a power up to 50 kW and can work during 14 hours without replacement of a cathode and during 25 hours as for an anode what is acceptable for industrial application. When spraying of coatings a minimum waste of alloying elements is attained with slight increase of oxygen in coating which is comparable with argon plasma spraying in the open. In certain cases the air plasma spraying allows to obtain more perfect coatings and at high performance. The present method finds large application at restoration and strengthening of machine parts, at forming of components etc. The air plasma spraying provides high quality coatings at low cost of components.

Valery S. Klubnikin

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Canned Air in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Broadcast Transcript: Not that long ago, coal smoke made the air here in Beijing so caustic that your nasal passages were seared with each breath. Those were the good old days: Car ownership was limited to government officials and the rest...

Hacker, Randi

2013-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

469

CONTROL-ORIENTED MODELING OF A SOLID-OXIDE FUEL CELL STACK USING AN LPV MODEL STRUCTURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONTROL-ORIENTED MODELING OF A SOLID-OXIDE FUEL CELL STACK USING AN LPV MODEL STRUCTURE Borhan M dynamic model of a solid oxide fuel cell stack. Using a detailed physical model as a starting point, we (usually air) on the cathode side. Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) utilize a ceramic oxygen-ion conducting

Sanandaji, Borhan M.

470

Effects of vapor-liquid equilibrium on wetting efficiency in hydrodesulfurization trickle-bed reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the hydrogen was allowed to flow through the reactor tube. The liquid pump was started and the flow rate measured by monitoring the level in the feed tank. The gas flow rate was measured using a wet test meter installed downstream of the gas/liquid separator...EFFECTS OF VAPOR-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM ON WETTING EFFICIENCY IN HYDRODESULFURIZATION TRICKLE-BED REACTORS A Thesis by ANNA LISA MILLS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

Mills, Anna Lisa

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

471

Transient nature of salt movement with wetting front in an unsaturated soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TRANSIENT NATURE OF SALT MOVEMENT WITH WETTING FRONT IN AN UNSATURATED SOIL A Thesis bY VISHWAS VINAYAK SOMAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M UniversitY in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1992 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering TRANSIENT NATURE OF SALT MOVEMENT WITH WETTING FRONT IN AN UNSATURATED SOIL A Thesis VISHWAS VINAYAK SOMAN Approved as to style and content by: Marshall J. McFarland (Chair...

Soman, Vishwas Vinayak

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Industrial HVAC Air-to-Air Energy Recovery Retrofit Economics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Retrofitting air-to-air energy recovery equipment is relatively simply to design and easy to install. Additionally, HVAC energy recovery is almost risk free when compared to process retrofit. Life cycle cost analysis is the best way to illustrate...

Graham, E. L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Compressed Air 101: Getting Compressed Air to Work  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"Air compressors are a significant industrial energy user. Based on a survey (conducted by Oregon State University and the Bonneville Power Administration) of energy audit reports from 125 plants, air compressors account for roughly 10% of total...

Burke, J. J.; Bessey, E. G.

474

Vermont Air Pollution Control Regulations, Ambient Air Quality Standards (Vermont)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The ambient air quality standards are based on the national ambient air quality standards. The Vermont standards are classified as primary and secondary standards and judged adequate to protect...

475

Clean Air Interstate Rule (released in AEO2009)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) is a cap-and-trade program promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency in 2005, covering 28 eastern U.S. states and the District of Columbia. It was designed to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions in order to help states meet their National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and particulate matter (PM2.5) and to further emissions reductions already achieved through the Acid Rain Program and the NOx State Implementation Plan call program. The rule was set to commence in 2009 for seasonal and annual NOx emissions and in 2010 for SO2 emissions.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Method for forming indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

Feng, Tom (Morris Plains, NJ); Ghosh, Amal K. (New Providence, NJ)

1984-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

477

Oxidation of No to No2 in Flue Gas Plumes of Power Stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The oxidation of NO to NO2 in flue gas plumes takes place after release in the ... function of the turbulent mixing rate of flue gas plume and atmospheric air. The effects of ... are illustrated with the measurin...

A. J. Elshout; Dr. S. Beilke

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Microstructure of the Native Oxide Layer on Ni and Cr-doped Ni...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

exposed to air at room temperature similarly possesses a core-shell structure of metal core covered by an oxide layer of typically 1.6 nm in thickness. There exists a...

479

Experimental Studies of Hydroxyl Radical Initiated Tropospheric Oxidation of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

radical, followed by chain propagating radical reactions. Their oxidation is the major source for ground level ozone formation in both rural and urban area and understanding their chemistry is essential for regional air quality modeling. Until recently...

Ghosh, Buddhadeb

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

480

A method for carbon oxide concentration evaluation in high-temperature combustion processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method for evaluating carbon oxide concentration in high-temperature combustion processes is presented. The paper offers an optimizing control problem for fuel combustion process using a stabilizing regulatory controller, which affects the fuel/air ...

K. E. Arystanbaev, A. T. Apsemetov

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Regenerable MgO promoted metal oxide oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure provides an oxygen carrier comprised of a plurality of metal oxide particles in contact with a plurality of MgO promoter particles. The MgO promoter particles increase the reaction rate and oxygen utilization of the metal oxide when contacting with a gaseous hydrocarbon at a temperature greater than about 725.degree. C. The promoted oxide solid is generally comprised of less than about 25 wt. % MgO, and may be prepared by physical mixing, incipient wetness impregnation, or other methods known in the art. The oxygen carrier exhibits a crystalline structure of the metal oxide and a crystalline structure of MgO under XRD crystallography, and retains these crystalline structures over subsequent redox cycles. In an embodiment, the metal oxide is Fe.sub.2O.sub.3, and the gaseous hydrocarbon is comprised of methane.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Miller, Duane D.

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

482

Influence of OH/metal ratio on the stability of alfe-pilc catalyst for wet peroxide oxidation of phenol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AlFe-pillared clay catalyst with OH/metal = 4; 5 mmol metal/g clay and Al : Fe = 5:5 swells intensively in phenol-water solution and has no measurable catalytic activity in phenol removal from water solutions,...

Ern? E. Kiss; Tatjana J. Vuli?…

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

The effect of Mn on the oxidation behavior and electrical conductivity of Fe–17Cr alloys in solid oxide fuel cell cathode atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Four Fe–17Cr alloys with various Mn contents between 0.0 and 3.0 wt.% are prepared for investigation of the effect of Mn content on the oxidation behavior and electrical conductivity of the Fe–Cr alloys for the application of metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). During the initial oxidation stage (within 1 min) at 750 °C in air, Cr is preferentially oxidized to form a layer of Cr2O3 type oxide in all the alloys, regardless the Mn content, with similar oxidation rate and oxide morphology. The subsequent oxidation of the Mn containing alloys is accelerated caused by the fast outward diffusion of Mn ions across the Cr2O3 type oxide layer to form Mn-rich (Mn, Cr)3O4 and Mn2O3 oxides on the top. After 700 h oxidation a multi-layered oxide scale is observed in the Mn containing alloys, which corresponds to a multi-stage oxidation kinetics in the alloys containing 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% of Mn. The oxidation rate and ASR of the oxide scale increase with the Mn content in the alloy changes from 0.0 to 3.0 wt.%. For the application of metallic interconnects in SOFCs, Mn-free Fe–17Cr alloy with conducting Cr free spinel coatings is preferred.

Bin Hua; Yonghong Kong; Wenying Zhang; Jian Pu; Bo Chi; Li Jian

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Environmental Pollution Air Pollution Dispersion Practical Air Pollution Dispersion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental Pollution Air Pollution Dispersion 1 of 5 Practical ­ Air Pollution Dispersion in the lectures how such models can be used to explain observed concentrations of air pollutants in an area and to test `what-if' scenarios for pollution control and reduction. You will use the Gaussian Plume Model

Moncrieff, John B.

485

Insights into PEMFC Performance Degradation from HCl in Air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance degradation of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is studied in the presence of HCl in the air stream. The cathode employing carbon-supported platinum nanoparticles (Pt/C) was exposed to 4 ppm HCl in air while the cell voltage was held at 0.6 V. The HCl poisoning results in generation of chloride and chloroplatinate ions on the surface of Pt/C catalyst as determined by a combination of electrochemical tests and ex-situ chlorine K-edge X-Ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The chloride ions inhibit the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and likely affect the wetting properties of diffusion media/catalyst layer, while the chloroplatinate ions are responsible for enhanced platinum particle growth most likely due to platinum dissolution-redeposition. The chloride ions can cause corrosion of the Pt nanoparticles in the presence of aqueous HCl in air even if no potential is applied. Although the majority of chloride ions are desorbed from the Pt surface by hydrogen treatment of the cathode, they partially remain in the system and re-adsorb on platinum at cell voltages of 0.5-0.9 V. Chloride ions are removed from the system and fuel cell performance at 0.5-0.7 V is restored by multiple exposures to low potentials.

O Baturina; A Epshteyn; P Northrup; K Swider-Lyons

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

486

Approaches to methanol-tolerant air cathodes for methanol-air fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The achievement of truly methanol-tolerant oxygen cathodes will greatly assist the development of direct methanol-air fuel cells, because the cathode performance will not be affected by the presence of methanol or its oxidation products, which can diffuse across the cell from the anode. In addition, methanol will not be consumed at the cathode. Although platinum-based oxygen cathodes can continue to perform well in the presence of methanol under certain conditions, methanol can be consumed rapidly at such electrodes. Oxygen electrocatalysts were examined in the present work which are largely inactive for methanol oxidation and are also not affected significantly by the presence of methanol. These included heat-treated transition metal macrocycles and hydrated ruthenium dioxide. The most promising electrocatalyst examines thus far is heat-treated iron tetramethoxyphenylporphyrin supported on high area carbon.

Tryk, D.A.; Gupta, S.L.; Aldred, W.H.; Yeager, E.B. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

487

Air Conditioning | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Conditioning Conditioning Air Conditioning July 1, 2012 - 6:28pm Addthis Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard How does it work? An air conditioner uses energy -- usually electricity -- to transfer heat from the interior of your home to the relatively warm outside environment. Two-thirds of all homes in the United States have air conditioners. Air conditioners use about 5% of all the electricity produced in the United States, at an annual cost of more than $11 billion to homeowners. As a

488

Louisiana Air Control Law (Louisiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This law states regulations for air quality control and states the powers and duties of the secretary of environmental quality. It provides information about permits and licenses, air quality...

489

Air Pollution Indicator: PM10  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As one of natural elements, clean air is essential to human beings’ survival. ... , almost all economic and social activities emit air pollutants, especially such sectors as power and ... and international commun...

Hezhong Tian; Yimeng Liu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Air Liquide- Biogas & Fuel Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation about Air Liquide's biogas technologies and integration with fuel cells. Presented by Charlie Anderson, Air Liquide, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

491

Solar Heating and Air Conditioning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...given of the status of solar fired air conditioning...to an approach to cool storage in solar air conditioning systems...an assessment of cool storage for reducing peak electrical...rolling cylinder thermal energy storage device for compact...

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Compressed Air Audits using AIRMaster  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air compressors are a significant industrial energy user and therefore a prime target for industrial energy audits. The project goal was to develop a software tool, AIRMaster, and supporting methodology for performing compressed air system audits...

Wheeler, G. M.; McGill, R. D.; Bessey, E. G.; Vischer, K.

493

Fundamentals of Compressed Air Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Find out how a compressed air system works and the benefits of optimal compressed air system performance. This initial class demonstrates how to compute the current cost of your plant's compressed...

494

Roadway tunnel air quality models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Roadway tunnel air quality models ... Analysis of 13 tunnel studies quantifies the decline since 1961 in benzo[a]pyrene emitted into the air per km of travel by U.S. road vehicles. ...

Tai Y. Chang; Sara J. Rudy

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700 C and 1,100 C. 8 figs.

McPheeters, C.C.; Mrazek, F.C.

1988-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

496

Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700.degree. C. and 1100.degree. C.

McPheeters, Charles C. (Plainfield, IL); Mrazek, Franklin C. (Hickory Hills, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Compressed Air System Control Strategies  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet briefly discusses compressed air system control strategies as a means to improving and maintaining system performance.

498

Compressed Air Energy Storage System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/expanders are crucial for the economical viability of a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system such as the

Farzad A. Shirazi; Mohsen Saadat; Bo Yan; Perry Y. Li; Terry W. Simon

499

Analyzing Your Compressed Air System  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet outlines the process to analyze industrial compressed air systems and ensure proper system configuration.

500

Air Leaks in Unexpected Places  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Sealing air leaks will help to decrease heating and cooling costs and make your home more comfortable.