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1

Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This assessment determines the technology maturity level of the candidate Tank 48H treatment technologies that are being considered for implementation at DOE's SRS - specifically Wet Air Oxidation.

2

SiC Fiber Strengths after Oxidation in Wet and Dry Air, Steam, and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Data for SiC fiber strengths after oxidation in wet and dry air, steam, and low pO2 are reviewed. Oxidation and scale crystallization kinetics are  ...

3

Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Westinghouse Savannah River Company LLC Westinghouse Savannah River Company LLC Savannah River Site Aiken, SC 29808 LWO-SPT-2007-00247 Rev. 1 Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) For Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) November, 2007 Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) LWO-SPT-2007-00247 Rev. 1 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared by Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) for the United States Department of Energy under Contract No. DEA-AC09-96SR18500 and is an account of work performed under that contract. Neither the United States Department of Energy, nor WSRC, nor any of their employees makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or

4

SPONTANEOUS CATALYTIC WET AIR OXIDATION DURING PRE-TREATMENT OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE SLUDGE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR) operates the Defense Waste Processing Facility for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Savannah River Site. This facility immobilizes high-level radioactive waste through vitrification following chemical pretreatment. Catalytic destruction of formate and oxalate ions to carbon dioxide has been observed during qualification testing of non-radioactive analog systems. Carbon dioxide production greatly exceeded hydrogen production, indicating the occurrence of a process other than the catalytic decomposition of formic acid. Statistical modeling was used to relate the new reaction chemistry to partial catalytic wet air oxidation of both formate and oxalate ions driven by the low concentrations of palladium, rhodium, and/or ruthenium in the waste. Variations in process conditions led to increases or decreases in the total oxidative destruction, as well as partially shifting the preferred species undergoing destruction from oxalate ion to formate ion.

Koopman, D.; Herman, C.; Pareizs, J.; Bannochie, C.; Best, D.; Bibler, N.; Fellinger, T.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Treatment of biomass gasification wastewater using a combined wet air oxidation/activated sludge process  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A lab-scale treatability study for using thermal and biological oxidation to treat a biomass gasification wastewater (BGW) having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 46,000 mg/l is described. Wet air oxidation (WA0) at 300/sup 0/C and 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) was used to initially treat the BGW and resulted in a COD reduction of 74%. This was followed by conventional activated sludge treatment using operating conditions typical of municipal sewage treatment plants. This resulted in an additional 95% COD removal. Overall COD reduction for the combined process was 99%. A detailed chemical analysis of the raw BGW and thermal and biological effluents was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These results showed a 97% decrease in total extractable organics with WA0 and a 99.6% decrease for combined WA0 and activated sludge treatment. Components of the treated waters tended to be fewer in number and more highly oxidized. An experiment was conducted to determine the amount of COD reduction caused by volatilization during biological treatment. Unfortunately, this did not yield conclusive results. Treatment of BGW using WA0 followed by activated sludge appears to be very effective and investigations at a larger scale are recommended.

English, C.J.; Petty, S.E.; Sklarew, D.S.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Treatment of biomass-gasification wastewaters by wet-air oxidation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Production of synthetic natural gas from gasification of biomass results in the generation of a high-strength wastewater that is difficult to treat by conventional means. This study investigated the use of wet air oxidation (WAO) as a treatment method for these wastewaters. A literature review was conducted to identify the suitability of WAO for the treatment of high-strength industrial wastewaters and to determine typical operating conditions for such treatment. Data presented in the literature showed that WAO should be suitable for treatment. Data presented in the literature showed that WAO should be suitable for treatment of biomass gasification wastewaters (BGW), and a laboratory treatability study was designed. BGW, having an initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 30,800 mg/1 and initial color of 183,000 APHA units, was treated in a laboratory autoclave for 20, 40, 60, 120, and 180 min at temperatures and pressures of 150/sup 0/C, 5.1 MPa (750 psi); 200/sup 0/C, 6.9 MPa (1000 psi); 250/sup 0/C, 10.3 MPa (1500 psi); and 300/sup 0/C, 13.8 MPa (2000 psi). Maximum COD removals of 0% for the 150/sup 0/C, 5.2 MPa (750 psi) runs; 40% for the 200/sup 0/C, 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) runs, 55% for the 250/sup 0/C, 10.3 MPa (1500 psi) runs; and 85% for the 300/sup 0/C, 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) runs were measured. Maximum color removals for these respective runs were 56%, 82%, 97%, and 99%. Initial removal rates of COD and color were observed to increase with reaction temperature. The experimental results suggest that oxidation of BGW organics by WAO occurs in a stepwise fashion with large organic molecules first being hydrolyzed and then partially oxidized to low molecular weight intermediates. Complete oxidation of these intermediates is more difficult and most easily accomplished at high reaction temperatures. The best application of WAO to treatment of BGW appears to be as a pretreatment to biological treatment and it is recommended that this application be investigated.

English, C.J.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Air Toxics Control by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides an update on three tasks associated with the EPRI project, Air Toxics Control by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Systems. The first task is an investigation of the factors that influence and control the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) at which a limestone forced oxidation FGD system operates. Both a literature review and a numerical analysis of full-scale wet FGD data were conducted. Results from this task are presented and discussed in Section 2 of the ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

8

Ionizing wet scrubber for air pollution control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air pollution control equipment manufacturers are continually developing sophisticated systems designed to dramatically reduce plant emissions. One such system, the ionizing wet scrubber (IWS), has demonstrated outstanding air pollution control characteristics while meeting the challenge of energy efficiency. The IWS system removes fine solid and liquid particulate down to 0.05 micron at high collection efficiencies and low energy comsumption. It also simultaneously removes noxious, corrosive and odor-bearing gases from flue gas streams as well as coarse particulate matter above 1 micron in diameter. Due to its simplified design and low pressure drop, operating energy costs of the IWS are only a fraction of those for alternative air pollution control equipment. Pressure drop through a single-stage IWS is only 0.5 to 1.5 in. Water (125 to 374 pa) column and is controlled primarily by pressure drop through the wet scrubber section. Total system energy usage is approximately 2.0-2.5 bhp/1,000 actual ft/sup 3//min (0.7-0.9 kw/m/sup 3//min) for a single-stage IWS and 4.0-5.0 bhp/1,000 actual ft/sup 3//min for a two-stage installation. These energy requirements represent a significant savings as opposed to other air pollution control systems such as Venturi scrubbers.

Sheppard, S.V.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a result of the WAO reaction. (4) Off-gas composition was measured in the resulting gas phase from the reaction. Benzene and hydrogen were formed during the reaction, but they were reasonably low in the off-gas at 0.096 and 0.0063 vol% respectively. Considering the consistency in replicating similar test results with simulated waste and Tank 48H waste under similar test conditions, the results confirm the validity of the simulant for other WAO test conditions.

Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

10

Wet-Bulb Temperature from Relative Humidity and Air Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An equation is presented for wet-bulb temperature as a function of air temperature and relative humidity at standard sea level pressure. It was found as an empirical fit using gene-expression programming. This equation is valid for relative ...

Roland Stull

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Development of Mercury Oxidation Catalyst for Enhanced Mercury Capture by Wet FGD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document describes recent progress on a mercury control technology development program co-funded by EPRI, the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL), and several EPRI-member companies. The mercury control process under development uses catalysts installed downstream of the air heater and particulate control device to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) ...

2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

12

Development studies for a novel wet oxidation process  

SciTech Connect

A catalytic wet oxidation process (DETOX), which uses an acidic iron solution to oxidize organic compounds to carbon dioxide, water, and other simple products, was investigated as a potential method for the treatment of multicomponent hazardous and mixed wastes. The organic compounds picric acid, poly(vinyl chloride), tetrachlorothiophene, pentachloropyridine, Aroclor 1260 (a polychlorinated biphenyl), and hexachlorobenzene were oxidized in 125 ml reaction vessels. The metals arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cerium (as a surrogate for plutonium), chromium, lead, mercury, neodymium (as a surrogate for uranium), nickel, and vanadium were tested in the DETOX solution. Barium, beryllium, cerium, chromium, mercury, neodymium, nickel, and vanadium were all found to be very soluble (>100 g/l) in the DETOX chloride-based solution. Arsenic, barium, cadmium, and lead solubilities were lower. Lead could be selectively precipitated from the DETOX solution. Chromium(VI) was reduced to relatively non-toxic chromium(III) by the solution. Six soils were contaminated with arsenic, barium, beryllium, chromium, lead, and neodymium oxides at approximately 0.1% by weight, and benzene, trichloroethene, mineral oil, and Aroclor 1260 at approximately 5% by weight total, and 5.g amounts treated with the DETOX solution in unstirred 125. ml reaction bombs. It is felt that soil treatment in a properly designed system is entirely possible despite incomplete oxidation of the less volatile organic materials in these unstirred tests.

Dhooge, P.M.; Hakim, L.B.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Dry purification of aspirational air in coke-sorting systems with wet slaking of coke  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coke transportation after wet slaking is accompanied by the release of dust in the production building and in the surrounding atmosphere. Wet methods are traditionally used to purify very humid air. Giprokoks has developed designs for highly efficient dry dust-removal methods in such conditions.

T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

14

Wet oxidation of oil-bearing sulfide wastes  

SciTech Connect

Oil-bearing metal sulfide sludges produced in treatment of an industrial wastewater, which includes plating wastes, have yielded to treatment by electrooxidation and hydrogen peroxide processes. The oxidation can be controlled to be mild enough to avoid decomposition of the organic phase while oxidizing the sulfides to sulfates. The pH is controlled to near neutral conditions where iron, aluminum and chromium(III) precipitate as hydrous oxides. Other metals, such as lead and barium, may be present as sulfate precipitates with limited solubility, while metals such as nickel and cadmium would be present as complexed ions in a sulfate solution. The oxidations were found to proceed smoothly, without vigorous reaction; heat liberation was minimal. 2 refs., 12 figs.

Miller, R.L.; Hotz, N.J.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect

This final report presents and discusses results from a mercury control process development project entitled ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems''. The objective of this project was to demonstrate at pilot scale a mercury control technology that uses solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. Oxidized mercury is removed in downstream wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and leaves with the FGD byproducts. The goal of the project was to achieve 90% oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas and 90% overall mercury capture with the downstream wet FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. Great River Energy (GRE) and City Public Service (now CPS Energy) of San Antonio were also project co-funders and provided host sites. URS Group, Inc. was the prime contractor. Longer-term pilot-scale tests were conducted at two sites to provide catalyst life data. GRE provided the first site, at their Coal Creek Station (CCS), which fires North Dakota lignite, and CPS Energy provided the second site, at their Spruce Plant, which fires Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Mercury oxidation catalyst testing began at CCS in October 2002 and continued through the end of June 2004, representing nearly 21 months of catalyst operation. An important finding was that, even though the mercury oxidation catalyst pilot unit was installed downstream of a high-efficiency ESP, fly ash buildup began to plug flue gas flow through the horizontal catalyst cells. Sonic horns were installed in each catalyst compartment and appeared to limit fly ash buildup. A palladium-based catalyst showed initial elemental mercury oxidation percentages of 95% across the catalyst, declining to 67% after 21 months in service. A carbon-based catalyst began with almost 98% elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst, but declined to 79% oxidation after nearly 13 months in service. The other two catalysts, an SCR-type catalyst (titanium/vanadium) and an experimental fly-ash-based catalyst, were significantly less active. The palladium-based and SCR-type catalysts were effectively regenerated at the end of the long-term test by flowing heated air through the catalyst overnight. The carbon-based catalyst was not observed to regenerate, and no regeneration tests were conducted on the fourth, fly-ash-based catalyst. Preliminary process economics were developed for the palladium and carbon-based catalysts for a scrubbed, North Dakota lignite application. As described above, the pilot-scale results showed the catalysts could not sustain 90% or greater oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas for a period of two years. Consequently, the economics were based on performance criteria in a later DOE NETL solicitation, which required candidate mercury control technologies to achieve at least a 55% increase in mercury capture for plants that fire lignite. These economics show that if the catalysts must be replaced every two years, the catalytic oxidation process can be 30 to 40% less costly than conventional (not chemically treated) activated carbon injection if the plant currently sells their fly ash and would lose those sales with carbon injection. If the plant does not sell their fly ash, activated carbon injection was estimated to be slightly less costly. There was little difference in the estimated cost for palladium versus the carbon-based catalysts. If the palladium-based catalyst can be regenerated to double its life to four years, catalytic oxidation process economics are greatly improved. With regeneration, the catalytic oxidation process shows over a 50% reduction in mercury control cost compared to conventional activated carbon injection for a case where the plant sells its fly ash. At Spruce Plant, mercury oxidation catalyst testing began in September 2003 and continued through the end of April 2005, interrupted only by a

Richard Rhudy

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

16

Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2008 2008 contacts thomas J. Feeley III Technology Manager Environmental & Water Resources National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 412-386-6134 thomas.feeley@netl.doe.gov charles E. Miller Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 412-386-5745 charles.miller@netl.doe.gov Gary Blythe Principal Investigator URS Corp. 9400 Amberglen Blvd. P.O. Box 201088 Austin, Texas 78720 512-419-5321 gary_blythe@urscorp.com Environmental and Water Resources Full-Scale TeSTing oF a Mercury oxidaTion caTalyST upSTreaM oF a WeT Fgd SySTeM Background To provide alternatives for power plant owners to comply with the Clean Air Mercury Rule promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NETL is

17

Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final technical report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, 'Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,' which was conducted over the time-period January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2010. The objective of this project has been to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid catalysts and/or fixed-structure mercury sorbents to promote the removal of total mercury and oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL), EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Energy (now called Luminant), Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP) and Duke Energy. URS Group was the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses fixed-structure sorbents and/or catalysts to promote the removal of total mercury and/or oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury not adsorbed is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project has tested candidate materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. Pilot-scale catalytic oxidation tests have been completed for periods of approximately 14 to19 months at three sites, with an additional round of pilot-scale fixed-structure sorbent tests being conducted at one of those sites. Additionally, pilot-scale wet FGD tests have been conducted downstream of mercury oxidation catalysts at a total of four sites. The sites include the two of three sites from this project and two sites where catalytic oxidation pilot testing was conducted as part of a previous DOE-NETL project. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests were also conducted at a fifth site, but with no catalyst or fixed-structure mercury sorbent upstream. This final report presents and discusses detailed results from all of these efforts, and makes a number of conclusions about what was learned through these efforts.

Gary Blythe; Conor Braman; Katherine Dombrowski; Tom Machalek

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

18

Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final technical report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, 'Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,' which was conducted over the time-period January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2010. The objective of this project has been to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid catalysts and/or fixed-structure mercury sorbents to promote the removal of total mercury and oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL), EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Energy (now called Luminant), Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP) and Duke Energy. URS Group was the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses fixed-structure sorbents and/or catalysts to promote the removal of total mercury and/or oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury not adsorbed is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project has tested candidate materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. Pilot-scale catalytic oxidation tests have been completed for periods of approximately 14 to19 months at three sites, with an additional round of pilot-scale fixed-structure sorbent tests being conducted at one of those sites. Additionally, pilot-scale wet FGD tests have been conducted downstream of mercury oxidation catalysts at a total of four sites. The sites include the two of three sites from this project and two sites where catalytic oxidation pilot testing was conducted as part of a previous DOE-NETL project. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests were also conducted at a fifth site, but with no catalyst or fixed-structure mercury sorbent upstream. This final report presents and discusses detailed results from all of these efforts, and makes a number of conclusions about what was learned through these efforts.

Gary Blythe; Conor Braman; Katherine Dombrowski; Tom Machalek

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

19

Kinetics of the wetting of tin on air-passivated copper in the absence of a fluxing agent  

SciTech Connect

A specially designed ultrahigh vacuum in situ surface analysis and wetting system has been constructed to study the spreading of liquid metal solders on carefully prepared and well-characterized solid substrates. Initial studies have been completed for the spreading of pure tin solder on copper substrates in the absence of any fluxing agent. Surface chemical analysis by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed the air-exposed surface to consisted of about 3 nm of Cu{sub 2}O, while the as-received surface consisted of about 8 nm of Cu{sub 2}O. The sputter-cleaned surface contained less than one monolayer (0.3 nm) of Cu{sub 2}O. Sample surfaces were prepared and spreading experiments performed without intermediate exposure of the surfaces to contaminating atmospheres. Solder spreading was performed under 50 torr of highly purified helium gas to allow for adequate thermal coupling between the solder and the substrate. Spreading experiments utilizing a linear temperature ramp show that pure tin solder spreads readily on oxidized copper surfaces at elevated temperatures. The initiation temperature for rapid tin spreading on the as-received copper surface was 325{degrees}C, similar to the temperature where isothermal spreading changes activation energy or rate. Decreasing the thickness of the oxide on the surface lowered the observed temperature for the initiation of spreading and increased the rate of spreading. On the sputter-cleaned copper surface, rapid solder spreading was observed immediately upon melting of the solder.

Peebles, D.E.; Peebles, H.C.; Ohlhausen, J.A.; Yost, F.G.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems'', during the time-period January 1 through March 31, 2006. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, and the use of a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system downstream to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Generation Company LP, the Southern Company, and Duke Energy. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified catalyst materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for approximately 14 months or longer at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests are being conducted periodically at each site to confirm the ability to scrub the catalytically oxidized mercury at high efficiency. This is the ninth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts primarily consisted of operating the catalyst pilot units at the TXU Generation Company LP's Monticello Steam Electric Station and at Georgia Power's Plant Yates. Two catalyst activity measurement trips were made to Plant Yates during the quarter. This Technical Progress Report presents catalyst activity results from the oxidation catalyst pilot unit at Plant Yates and discusses the status of the pilot unit at Monticello.

Gary M. Blythe

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems'', during the time-period January 1 through March 31, 2006. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, and the use of a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system downstream to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Generation Company LP, the Southern Company, and Duke Energy. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified catalyst materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for approximately 14 months or longer at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests are being conducted periodically at each site to confirm the ability to scrub the catalytically oxidized mercury at high efficiency. This is the ninth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts primarily consisted of operating the catalyst pilot units at the TXU Generation Company LP's Monticello Steam Electric Station and at Georgia Power's Plant Yates. Two catalyst activity measurement trips were made to Plant Yates during the quarter. This Technical Progress Report presents catalyst activity results from the oxidation catalyst pilot unit at Plant Yates and discusses the status of the pilot unit at Monticello.

Gary M. Blythe

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

22

Air-Oxidation of a [(Co  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Bulk Metallic Glasses VIII. Presentation Title, Air-Oxidation of a [(Co 50Cr15C15Mo14B6)97.5Er2.5]93Fe7 Bulk Metallic Glass at 600 - 725 oC.

23

Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems, Second-Year Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the second year of technical progress on the project entitled "Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems." The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being co-funded by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. ...

2004-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

24

PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems, during the time period July 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates in a stable form with the byproducts from the FGD system. The coprecipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project will test previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, so as to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the fourth full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, most of the project efforts were related to completing, installing and starting up the pilot unit, completing laboratory runs to size catalysts, and procuring catalysts for the pilot unit. This technical progress report provides an update on these efforts.

Gary M. Blythe

2002-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

25

PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,'' during the time-period April 1, 2003 through June 30, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project cofunders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for approximately 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the seventh full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts included continued operation of the first pilot unit, conducting catalyst activity measurements, installing sonic horns for on-line catalyst cleaning, and installing the fourth catalyst, all for the GRE Coal Creek site. CPS began installation of the second mercury oxidation catalyst pilot unit at their Spruce Plant during the quarter. Laboratory efforts were conducted to support catalyst selection for that second pilot unit. This technical progress report provides an update on these efforts.

Gary M. Blythe

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems, during the time period April 1, 2002 through June 30, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates in a stable form with the byproducts from the FGD system. The co-precipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project will test previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, so as to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the third full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, most of the project efforts were related to constructing the pilot unit and conducting laboratory runs to help size catalysts for the pilot unit. This technical progress report provides an update on these two efforts.

Gary M. Blythe

2002-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

27

PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems, during the time period October 1, 2002 through December 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates with the byproducts from the FGD system. The co-precipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project testing previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future fullscale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the fifth full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts included starting up the pilot unit with three catalysts at the first site, conducting catalyst activity measurements, completing comprehensive flue gas sampling and analyses, and procuring additional catalysts for the pilot unit. This technical progress report provides an update on these efforts.

Gary M. Blythe

2003-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

28

PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,'' during the time period January 1, 2003 through March 31, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project cofunders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the sixth full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts included continued operation of the pilot unit with three catalysts, conducting catalyst activity measurements, and procuring the fourth catalyst, all for the GRE Coal Creek pilot unit site. Laboratory efforts were also conducted to support catalyst selection for the second pilot unit site, at CPS' Spruce Plant. This technical progress report provides an update on these efforts.

Gary M. Blythe

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System  

SciTech Connect

This document presents and discusses results from Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42778, 'Full-scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System,' which was conducted over the time-period July 24, 2006 through June 30, 2010. The objective of the project was to demonstrate at full scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in pulverized-coal-fired flue gas. Oxidized mercury is removed downstream in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and collected with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA), who also provided the host site, Great River Energy, Johnson Matthey, Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), NRG Energy, Ontario Power and Westar. URS Group was the prime contractor and also provided cofunding. The scope of this project included installing and testing a gold-based catalyst upstream of one full-scale wet FGD absorber module (about 200-MW scale) at LCRA's Fayette Power Project (FPP) Unit 3, which fires Powder River Basin coal. Installation of the catalyst involved modifying the ductwork upstream of one of three wet FGD absorbers on Unit 3, Absorber C. The FGD system uses limestone reagent, operates with forced sulfite oxidation, and normally runs with two FGD modules in service and one spare. The full-scale catalyst test was planned for 24 months to provide catalyst life data. Over the test period, data were collected on catalyst pressure drop, elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst module, and mercury capture by the downstream wet FGD absorber. The demonstration period began on May 6, 2008 with plans for the catalyst to remain in service until May 5, 2010. However, because of continual increases in pressure drop across the catalyst and concerns that further increases would adversely affect Unit 3 operations, LCRA decided to end the demonstration early, during a planned unit outage. On October 2, 2009, Unit 3 was taken out of service for a fall outage and the catalyst upstream of Absorber C was removed. This ended the demonstration after approximately 17 months of the planned 24 months of operation. This report discusses reasons for the pressure drop increase and potential measures to mitigate such problems in any future application of this technology. Mercury oxidation and capture measurements were made on Unit 3 four times during the 17-month demonstration. Measurements were performed across the catalyst and Absorber C and 'baseline' measurements were performed across Absorber A or B, which did not have a catalyst upstream. Results are presented in the report from all four sets of measurements during the demonstration period. These results include elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst, mercury capture across Absorber C downstream of the catalyst, baseline mercury capture across Absorber A or B, and mercury re-emissions across both absorbers in service. Also presented in the report are estimates of the average mercury control performance of the oxidation catalyst technology over the 17-month demonstration period and the resulting mercury control costs.

Gary Blythe; Jennifer Paradis

2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

30

LARGE-SCALE MECURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY TESTING FOR LIGNITE-FIRED UTILITIES-OXIDATION SYSTEMS FOR WET FGD  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is conducting a consortium-based effort directed toward resolving the mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. Specifically, the EERC team--the EERC, EPRI, URS, ADA-ES, Babcock & Wilcox, the North Dakota Industrial Commission, SaskPower, and the Mercury Task Force, which includes Basin Electric Power Cooperative, Otter Tail Power Company, Great River Energy, Texas Utilities (TXU), Montana-Dakota Utilities Co., Minnkota Power Cooperative, BNI Coal Ltd., Dakota Westmoreland Corporation, and the North American Coal Company--has undertaken a project to significantly and cost-effectively oxidize elemental mercury in lignite combustion gases, followed by capture in a wet scrubber. This approach will be applicable to virtually every lignite utility in the United States and Canada and potentially impact subbituminous utilities. The oxidation process is proven at the pilot-scale and in short-term full-scale tests. Additional optimization is continuing on oxidation technologies, and this project focuses on longer-term full-scale testing. The lignite industry has been proactive in advancing the understanding of and identifying control options for Hg in lignite combustion flue gases. Approximately 1 year ago, the EERC and EPRI began a series of Hg-related discussions with the Mercury Task Force as well as utilities firing Texas and Saskatchewan lignites. This project is one of three being undertaken by the consortium to perform large-scale Hg control technology testing to address the specific needs and challenges to be met in controlling Hg from lignite-fired power plants. This project involves Hg oxidation upstream of a system equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The team involved in conducting the technical aspects of the project includes the EERC, Babcock & Wilcox, URS, and ADA-ES. The host sites include Minnkota Power Cooperative Milton R. Young Unit 2 and TXU Monticello Unit 3. The work involves establishing Hg oxidation levels upstream of air pollution control devices (APCDs) and removal rates across existing ESP and FGD units, determining costs associated with those removal rates, investigating the possibility of the APCD acting as a multipollutant control device, quantifying the balance of plant impacts of the control technologies, and facilitating technology commercialization.

Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Jeffrey S. Thompson

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems, during the time period January 1, 2002 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE) and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates in a stable form with the byproducts from the FGD system. The co-precipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project will test previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, so as to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the second full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, most of the project efforts were related to pilot unit design and conducting laboratory runs to help select candidate catalysts. This technical progress report provides an update on these two efforts. A Test Plan for the upcoming pilot-scale evaluations was also prepared and submitted to NETL for review and comment. Since this document was already submitted under separate cover, this information is not repeated here.

Gary M. Blythe

2002-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

32

PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,'' during the time-period July 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project cofunders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for approximately 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the eighth full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts included continued operation of the first pilot unit at the GRE Coal Creek site with all four catalysts in service and sonic horns installed for on-line catalyst cleaning. During the quarter, a catalyst activity measurement trip and mercury SCEM relative accuracy tests were completed, and catalyst pressure drop was closely monitored with the sonic horns in operation. CPS completed the installation of the second mercury oxidation catalyst pilot unit at their Spruce Plant during the quarter, and the four catalysts to be tested in that unit were ordered. The pilot unit was started up with two of the four catalysts in service late in August, and initial catalyst activity results were measured in late September. The other two catalysts will not become available for testing until sometime in October. This technical progress report details these efforts at both sites.

Gary M. Blythe

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates in a stable form with the byproducts from the FGD system. The co-precipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project will test previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, so as to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the first full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, most of the project efforts were related to project initiation and planning. There is no significant technical progress to report for the current period.

Gary M. Blythe

2002-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

34

Comparison of Short-Term Oxidation Behavior of Model and Commercial Chromia-Forming Ferritic Stainless Steels in Air with Water Vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-purity Fe-20Cr and commercial type 430 ferritic stainless steel were exposed at 700 and 800 C in dry air and air with 10% water vapor (wet air) and characterized by SEM, XRD, STEM, SIMS, and EPMA. The Fe-20Cr alloy formed a fast growing Fe-rich oxide scale at 700 C in wet air after 24 h exposure, but formed a thin chromia scale at 700 C in dry air and at 800 C in both dry air and wet air. In contrast, thin spinel + chromia base scales with a discontinuous silica subscale were formed on 430 stainless steel under all conditions studied. Extensive void formation was observed at the alloy-oxide interface for the Fe-20Cr in both dry and wet conditions, but not for the 430 stainless steel. The Fe-20Cr alloy was found to exhibit a greater relative extent of subsurface Cr depletion than the 430 stainless steel, despite the former's higher Cr content. Depletion of Cr in the Fe-20Cr after 24 h exposure was also greater at 700 C than 800 C. The relative differences in oxidation behavior are discussed in terms of the coarse alloy grain size of the high-purity Fe-20Cr material, and the effects of Mn, Si, and C on the oxide scale formed on the 430 stainless steel.

Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Fayek, Mostafa [University of Manitoba, Canada; Walker, Larry R [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta Ann [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Oxide modified air electrode surface for high temperature electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell is made having a porous cermet electrode (16) and a porous lanthanum manganite electrode (14), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) between them, where the lanthanum manganite surface next to the electrolyte contains a thin discontinuous layer of high surface area cerium oxide and/or praseodymium oxide, preferably as discrete particles (30) in contact with the air electrode and electrolyte.

Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, Allegheny County, PA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to demonstrate at full scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg0) in flue gas from coal combustion. The project was conducted from July 24, 2006 through June 30, 2010. It was conducted with cofunding from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42778, "Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System." Private secto...

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

37

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island) Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Rhode Island Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Environmental Management These regulations apply to stationary sources with the potential to emit 50 tons of nitrogen oxides (NOx) per year from all pollutant-emitting equipment or activities. The regulations describe possibilities for exemptions (i.e., for sources which have the potential to emit 50 tons but do not actually reach that level) and Reasonably Available Control

38

A Study of Catalytic Oxidation and Oxide Adsorption for the Removal of Tritium from Air  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus and procedure were developed for studying the containment of tritium using catalytic conversion to the oxide followed by oxide adsorption. Data were obtained on the catalytic oxidation of elemental tritium and tritiated volatile hydrocarbons from pump oils between 23 and 538 degrees C. Oxidation efficiencies as high as 99.99997% (decontamination factor = 3.3 million) were obtained for total tritium levels of 1 ppm and a tritiated hydrocarbon level of approximately 0.2 ppb. In addition, a mathematical study was made to derive equations for the conceptual design of an "Emergency Containment System" for containment of tritium following an accidental release to room air.

Bixel, John C.; Kershner, Carl J.

1972-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

39

Stability and surface energies of wetted grain boundaries in aluminum oxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The stability of a calcium-aluminum-silicate liquid film between two near-basal plane surfaces of sapphire at 1650 C was studied. Samples were prepared having an average basal misorientation across the interface of 6--7 [degree] about . The interfaces varied in orientation from 0[degree] to [approximately]38 to the [0001] direction. Three types of interfaces were observed: faceted, solid-liquid interfaces; low-angle grain boundaries consisting of aligned arrays of dislocations; and boundaries consisting of aligned arrays of dislocations; and boundaries consisting of alternating regions of dislocations and faceted solid-liquid interfaces. The type of interface observed depended on the orientation of the interface and could be predicted by using a construction based on Wulff shapes. Because the type of interface depends on crystal alignment and interface angle, these results suggest an absolute methods of determining the surface free energy of wetted boundaries.

Kim, D.Y. (Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of)); Wiederhorn, S.M.; Hockey, B.J.; Handwerker, C.A.; Blendell, J.E. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States))

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems, First-Year Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Researchers are conducting field tests to evaluate the ability of a variety of materials to oxidize vapor-phase elemental mercury. Testing will be conducted at two sites for 14 months at each site. This report summarizes the first year of work on the project, including installation, and four months of testing of the pilot at the first site.

2003-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Large-Scale Mercury Control Technology Testing for Lignite-Fired Utilities - Oxidation Systems for Wet FGD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mercury (Hg) control technologies were evaluated at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young (MRY) Station Unit 2, a 450-MW lignite-fired cyclone unit near Center, North Dakota, and TXU Energy's Monticello Steam Electric Station (MoSES) Unit 3, a 793-MW lignite--Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal-fired unit near Mt. Pleasant, Texas. A cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber are used at MRY and MoSES for controlling particulate and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions, respectively. Several approaches for significantly and cost-effectively oxidizing elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in lignite combustion flue gases, followed by capture in an ESP and/or FGD scrubber were evaluated. The project team involved in performing the technical aspects of the project included Babcock & Wilcox, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and URS Corporation. Calcium bromide (CaBr{sub 2}), calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}), and a proprietary sorbent enhancement additive (SEA), hereafter referred to as SEA2, were added to the lignite feeds to enhance Hg capture in the ESP and/or wet FGD. In addition, powdered activated carbon (PAC) was injected upstream of the ESP at MRY Unit 2. The work involved establishing Hg concentrations and removal rates across existing ESP and FGD units, determining costs associated with a given Hg removal efficiency, quantifying the balance-of-plant impacts of the control technologies, and facilitating technology commercialization. The primary project goal was to achieve ESP-FGD Hg removal efficiencies of {ge}55% at MRY and MoSES for about a month.

Steven A. Benson; Michael J. Holmes; Donald P. McCollor; Jill M. Mackenzie; Charlene R. Crocker; Lingbu Kong; Kevin C. Galbreath

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

42

The Relative Importance of Scavenging, Oxidation, and Ice-Phase Processes in the Production and Wet Deposition of Sulfate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relative importance of various processes to sulfate production and wet deposition is examined by using a cloud-resolving model coupled with a sulfate chemistry submodel. Results using different versions of the model are then compared and ...

Vlado Spiridonov; Mladjen Curic

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Air feed tube support system for a solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell generator (12), containing tubular fuel cells (36) with interior air electrodes (18), where a supporting member (82) containing a plurality of holes (26) supports oxidant feed tubes (51), which pass from an oxidant plenum (52") into the center of the fuel cells, through the holes (26) in the supporting member (82), where a compliant gasket (86) around the top of the oxidant feed tubes and on top (28) of the supporting member (82) helps support the oxidant feed tubes and center them within the fuel cells, and loosen the tolerance for centering the air feed tubes.

Doshi, Vinod B. (Monroeville, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Hager, Charles A. (Zelienople, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Zipping Wetting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water droplets can completely wet micro-structured superhydrophobic surfaces. The {\\it dynamics} of this rapid process is analyzed by ultra-high-speed imaging. Depending on the scales of the micro-structure, the wetting fronts propagate smoothly and circularly or -- more interestingly -- in a {\\it stepwise} manner, leading to a growing {\\it square-shaped} wetted area: entering a new row perpendicular to the direction of front propagation takes milliseconds, whereas once this has happened, the row itself fills in microseconds ({\\it ``zipping''}). Numerical simulations confirm this view and are in quantitative agreement with the experiments.

Sbragaglia, Mauro; Pirat, Christophe; Borkent, Bram M; Lammertink, Rob G H; Wessling, Matthias; Lohse, Detlef

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

A Ruggedized Ultrasensitive Field Air Sampler for Differentially Determining Tritium Oxide and Gas in Ambient Air Atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

The instrument described is an operational, practical, ruggedized, ultrasensitive, tritium field air sampler assembled for the simultaneous, differential sampling of the environmental air for tritium oxide and elemental tritium. The system uses hardware assembled and packaged in such manner as to facilitate use in the field as well as in the laboratory. The sampling system occupies relatively small space and is simple to operate. The detection sensitivity approaches tritium background levels and is achieved by high volume sampling, efficient removal of tritium oxide and elemental tritium ("tritium gas"), and counting the recovered fractions by liquid scintillation spectrometry.

Brown, R.; Meyer, H. E.; Robinson, B.; Sheehan, W. E.

1971-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

46

Trends in wetting behavior for Ag–CuO braze alloys on Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O(3??) at elevated temperatures in air  

SciTech Connect

Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O(3-?? (BSCF) is a potential oxygen separation membrane material for advanced coal based power plants. For this application, BSCF must be joined to a metal. In the current study, Ag-CuO, a reactive air brazing (RAB) alloy was evaluated for brazing BSCF. In-situ contact angle tests were performed on BSCF using Ag-CuO binary mixtures at 950 and 1000°C and the interfacial microstructures were evaluated. Wetting contact angles (?<90°) were obtained at short times at 950°C and the contact angles remained constant at 1000°C for 1, 2 and 8 mol% CuO contents. Microstructural analysis revealed the dissolution of copper oxide into the BSCF matrix to form copper-cobalt-oxygen rich dissolution products along the BSCF grain boundary. The formation of a thick interfacial reaction product layer and ridging at the sessile drop triple point indicate that the reaction kinetics are very rapid and that it will require careful process control to obtain the desired thin but continuous interfacial product layer.

Joshi, Vineet V.; Meier, Alan; Darsell, Jens T.; Weil, K. Scott; Bowden, Mark E.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Stressed and Unstressed Oxidation of SiC Fibers in Steam, Air, and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Oxidation kinetics of Hi-Nicalon-S SiC fibers have been measured in air, steam, and low pO2 environments at temperatures as low as 700°C ...

48

Air Oxidation Kinetics for Zr-based Alloys [Corrosion and Mechanics of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Oxidation Kinetics for Air Oxidation Kinetics for Zr-based Alloys Capabilities Materials Testing Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC) of Reactor Materials Corrosion Performance/Metal Dusting Overview Light Water Reactors Fatigue Testing of Carbon Steels and Low-Alloy Steels Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Ni-Base Alloys Irradiation-Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking of Austenitic Stainless Steels Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program Air Oxidation Kinetics for Zr-based Alloys Fossil Energy Fusion Energy Metal Dusting Publications List Irradiated Materials Steam Generator Tube Integrity Other Facilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Corrosion and Mechanics of Materials Light Water Reactors Bookmark and Share

49

Experimental Validation of Stratified Flow Phenomena, Graphite Oxidation, and Mitigation Strategies of Air Ingress Accidents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy is performing research and development (R&D) that focuses on key phenomena that are important during challenging scenarios that may occur in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program / GEN-IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Phenomena identification and ranking studies (PIRT) to date have identified the air ingress event, following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization, as very important (Schultz et al., 2006). Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification and validation (V&V) are very high priority for the NGNP program. Following a loss of coolant and system depressurization, air will enter the core through the break. Air ingress leads to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and fuel. The oxidation will accelerate heat-up of the bottom reflector and the reactor core and will cause the release of fission products eventually. The potential collapse of the bottom reflector because of burn-off and the release of CO lead to serious safety problems. For estimation of the proper safety margin we need experimental data and tools, including accurate multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic and reactor physics models, a burn-off model, and a fracture model. We also need to develop effective strategies to mitigate the effects of oxidation. The results from this research will provide crucial inputs to the INL NGNP/VHTR Methods R&D project. This project is focused on (a) analytical and experimental study of air ingress caused by density-driven, stratified, countercurrent flow, (b) advanced graphite oxidation experiments, (c) experimental study of burn-off in the bottom reflector, (d) structural tests of the burnt-off bottom reflector, (e) implementation of advanced models developed during the previous tasks into the GAMMA code, (f) full air ingress and oxidation mitigation analyses, (g) development of core neutronic models, (h) coupling of the core neutronic and thermal hydraulic models, and (i) verification and validation of the coupled models.

Chang Ho Oh; Eung Soo Kim; Hee Cheon No; Nam Zin Cho

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Synthesis Gas Production from Partial Oxidation of Methane with Air in AC Electric Gas Discharge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

depending on the ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide. Most synthesis gas is produced by the steam reform reaction. Industrially, steam reforming is performed over a Ni/ Al2O3 catalyst.9 The typical problemSynthesis Gas Production from Partial Oxidation of Methane with Air in AC Electric Gas Discharge K

Mallinson, Richard

51

On the Ratio of Sulfur Dioxide to Nitrogen Oxides as an Indicator of Air Pollution Sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ratio of sulfur dioxide to nitrogen oxides (RSN = SO2/NOx) is one indicator of air pollution sources. The role of this ratio in source attribution is illustrated here for the Ashdod area, located in the southern coastal plain of Israel. The ...

Ronit Nirel; Uri Dayan

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Assessment of methanol electro-oxidation for direct methanol-air fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Office of Energy Storage and Distribution of the US Department of Energy (DOE) supports the development of a methanol-air fuel cell for transportation application. The approach used at Los Alamos National Laboratory converts the methanol fuel to a hydrogen-rich gas in a reformer, then operates the fuel cell on hydrogen and air. The reformer tends to be bulky (raising vehicle packaging problems), has a long startup period, and is not well suited for the transient operation required in a vehicle. Methanol, however, can be oxidized electrochemically in the fuel cell. If this process can be conducted efficiently, a direct methanol-air fuel cell can be used, which does not require a reformer. The objective of this study is to assess the potential of developing a suitable catalyst for the direct electrochemical oxidation of methanol. The primary conclusion of this study is that no acceptable catalysts exist can efficiently oxidize methanol electrochemically and have the desired cost and lifetime for vehicle applications. However, recent progress in understanding the mechanism of methanol oxidation indicates that a predictive base can be developed to search for methanol oxidation catalysts and can be used to methodically develop improved catalysts. Such an approach is strongly recommended. The study also recommends that until further progress in developing high-performance catalysts is achieved, research in cell design and testing is not warranted. 43 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Fritts, S.D.; Sen, R.K.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Interim results from UO/sub 2/ fuel oxidation tests in air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental program is being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to extend the characterization of spent fuel oxidation in air. To characterize oxidation behavior of irradiated UO/sub 2/, fuel oxidation tests were performed on declad light-water reactor spent fuel and nonirradited UO/sub 2/ pellets in the temperature range of 135 to 250/sup 0/C. These tests were designed to determine the important independent variables that might affect spent fuel oxidation behavior. The data from this program, when combined with the test results from other programs, will be used to develop recommended spent fuel dry-storage temperature limits in air. This report describes interim test results. The initial PNL investigations of nonirradiated and spent fuels identified the important testing variables as temperature, fuel burnup, radiolysis of the air, fuel microstructure, and moisture in the air. Based on these initial results, a more extensive statistically designed test matrix was developed to study the effects of temperature, burnup, and moisture on the oxidation behavior of spent fuel. Oxidation tests were initiated using both boiling-water reactor and pressurized-water reactor fuels from several different reactors with burnups from 8 to 34 GWd/MTU. A 10/sup 5/ R/h gamma field was applied to the test ovens to simulate dry storage cask conditions. Nonirradiated fuel was included as a control. This report describes experimental results from the initial tests on both the spent and nonirradiated fuels and results to date on the tests in a 10/sup 5/ R/h gamma field. 33 refs., 51 figs., 6 tabs.

Campbell, T.K.; Gilbert, E.R.; Thornhill, C.K.; White, G.D.; Piepel, G.F.; Griffin, C.W.j

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Oxidation of delta-phase plutonium alloy: Corrosion kinetics in dry and humid air at 35 {degree}C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Kinetic data for oxidation of delta-phase plutonium alloy are evaluated to provide a technical basis for assessing the merit of an existing time limitation on air exposure of components during process operations. Data describing the effects of humidity and oxygen pressure on the oxidation rate of the Pu-1.0 wt% Ga alloy at elevated temperatures are obtained from literature sources and used to predict the oxidation behavior of the alloy in air at 35 C and 0 to 100% relative humidity. A mandated six-hour limit on air exposure is inconsistent with a predicted thirty-day period required for formation of a 1-{micro}m-thick oxide layer in moisture-saturated air at 35 C. Relationships are defined for predicting kinetic behavior of the alloy at other conditions, and recommendations for addressing oxidation-related concerns in production are presented.

Haschke, J.M.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators. 4 figs.

Kuo, L.J.H.; Singh, P.; Ruka, R.J.; Vasilow, T.R.; Bratton, R.J.

1997-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

56

Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators.

Kuo, Lewis J. H. (Monroeville, PA); Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Vasilow, Theodore R. (Penn Township, PA); Bratton, Raymond J. (Delmont, PA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Assessment and development of an industrial wet oxidation system for burning waste and low upgrade fuels. Final report, Phase 2B: Pilot demonstration of the MODAR supercritical water oxidation process  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation is Project Manager for the Development and Demonstration of an Industrial Wet Oxidation System for Burning Wastes and Low Grade Fuel. This program has been ongoing through a Cooperative Agreement sponsored by the Department of Energy, initiated in June 1988. This report presents a comprehensive discussion of the results of the demonstration project conducted under this cooperative agreement with the overall goal of advancing the state-of-the-art in the practice of Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO). In recognition of the Government`s support of this project, we have endeavored to include all material and results that are not proprietary in as much detail as possible while still protecting MODAR`s proprietary technology. A specific example is in the discussion of materials of construction where results are presented while, in some cases, the specific materials are not identified. The report presents the results chronologically. Background material on the earlier phases (Section 2) provide an understanding of the evolution of the program, and bring all reviewers to a common starting point. Section 3 provides a discussion of activities from October 1991 through July 1992, during which the pilot plant was designed; and various studies including computational fluid dynamic modeling of the reactor vessel, and a process HAZOP analyses were conducted. Significant events during fabrication are presented in Section 4. The experimental results of the test program (December 1992--August 1993) are discussed in Section 5.

Not Available

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

NETL: Control Technology - Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Enhanced Mercury Control URS Corporation will demonstrate the use of an additive in wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to prevent oxidized mercury that...

59

Joining Mixed Conducting Oxides Using an Air-Fired Electrically Conductive Braze  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Due to their mixed oxygen ion and electron conducting properties, ceramics such as lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrites (LSCF) are attractive materials for use in active electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and oxygen separation membranes. However, to take full advantage of the unique properties of these materials, reliable joining techniques need to be developed. If such a joining technique yields a ceramic-to-metal junction that is also electrically conductive, the hermetic seals in the device could provide the added function of either drawing current from the mixed conducting oxide, in the case of SOFC applications, or carrying it to the oxide to initate ionic conduction, in the case of oxygen separation and electrocatalysis applications. This would greatly reduce the need for complex interconnect design, thereby simplifying one of the major challenges faced in SOFC development. A process referred to as reactive air brazing (RAB) has been developed in which firing a Ag-CuO filler material in air creates a functional ceramic-to-metal junction, in which the silver-based matrix of the braze affords both metallic ductility and conductivity in the joint. Investigating a range of Ag-CuO alloy combinations determined that compositions containing between 1.4 and 16 mol% CuO appear to offer the best combination of wettability, joint strength, and electrical conductivity.

Hardy, John S.; Kim, Jin Yong Y.; Weil, K. Scott

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

CAST STONE OXIDATION FRONT EVALUATION: PRELIMINARY RESULTS FOR SAMPLES EXPOSED TO MOIST AIR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The rate of oxidation is important to the long-term performance of reducing salt waste forms because the solubility of some contaminants, e.g., technetium, is a function of oxidation state. TcO{sub 4}{sup ?} in the salt solution is reduced to Tc(IV) and has been shown to react with ingredients in the waste form to precipitate low solubility sulfide and/or oxide phases. Upon exposure to oxygen, the compounds containing Tc(IV) oxidize to the pertechnetate ion, Tc(VII)O{sub 4}{sup ?}, which is very soluble. Consequently the rate of technetium oxidation front advancement into a monolith and the technetium leaching profile as a function of depth from an exposed surface are important to waste form performance and ground water concentration predictions. An approach for measuring contaminant oxidation rate (effective contaminant specific oxidation rate) based on leaching of select contaminants of concern is described in this report. In addition, the relationship between reduction capacity and contaminant oxidation is addressed. Chromate (Cr(VI) was used as a non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate, Tc(VII), in Cast Stone samples prepared with 5 M Simulant. Cast Stone spiked with pertechnetate was also prepared and tested. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Cr were cut from Cast Stone exposed to Savannah River Site (SRS) outdoor ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Tc-99 were cut from Cast Stone exposed to laboratory ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Similar conditions are expected to be encountered in the Cast Stone curing container. The leachability of Cr and Tc-99 and the reduction capacities, measured by the Angus-Glasser method, were determined for each subsample as a function of depth from the exposed surface. The results obtained to date were focused on continued method development and are preliminary and apply to the sample composition and curing / exposure conditions described in this report. • The Cr oxidation front (depth to which soluble Cr was detected) for the Cast Stone sample exposed for 68 days to ambient outdoor temperatures and humid air (total age of sample was 131 days) was determined to be about 35 mm below the top sample surface exposed. The Tc oxidation front, depth at which Tc was insoluble, was not determined. Interpretation of the results indicates that the oxidation front is at least 38 mm below the exposed surface. The sample used for this measurement was exposed to ambient laboratory conditions and humid air for 50 days. The total age of the sample was 98 days. • Technetium appears to be more easily oxidized than Cr in the Cast Stone matrix. The oxidized forms of Tc and Cr are soluble and therefore leachable. Longer exposure times are required for both the Cr and Tc spiked samples to better interpret the rate of oxidation. Tc spiked subsamples need to be taken further from the exposed surface to better define and interpret the leachable Tc profile. • Finally Tc(VII) reduction to Tc(IV) appears to occur relatively fast. Results demonstrated that about 95 percent of the Tc(VII) was reduced to Tc(IV) during the setting and very early stage setting for a Cast Stone sample cured 10 days. Additional testing at longer curing times is required to determine whether additional time is required to reduce 100 % of the Tc(VII) in Cast Stone or whether the Tc loading exceeded the ability of the waste form to reduce 100 % of the Tc(VII). Additional testing is required for samples cured for longer times. Depth discrete subsampling in a nitrogen glove box is also required to determine whether the 5 percent Tc extracted from the subsamples was the result of the sampling process which took place in air. Reduction capacity measurements (per the Angus-Glasser method) performed on depth discrete samples could not be correlated with the amount of chromium or technetium leached from the depth discrete subsamples or with the oxidation front inferred from soluble chromium and technetium (i.e., effective Cr and Tc oxidation fronts). Residual reduct

Langton, C.

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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61

Lanthanum manganite-based air electrode for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air electrode material for a solid oxide fuel cell is disclosed. The electrode material is based on lanthanum manganite having a perovskite-like crystal structure ABO.sub.3. The A-site of the air electrode material preferably comprises La, Ca, Ce and at least one lanthanide selected from Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Y and Nd. The B-site of the electrode material comprises Mn with substantially no dopants. The ratio of A:B is preferably slightly above 1. A preferred air electrode composition is of the formula La.sub.w Ca.sub.x Ln.sub.y Ce.sub.z MnO.sub.3, wherein Ln comprises at least one lanthanide selected from Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Y and Nd, w is from about 0.55 to about 0.56, x is from about 0.255 to about 0.265, y is from about 0.175 to about 0.185, and z is from about 0.005 to about 0.02. The air electrode material possesses advantageous chemical and electrical properties as well as favorable thermal expansion and thermal cycle shrinkage characteristics.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Kuo, Lewis (Monroeville, PA); Li, Baozhen (Essex Junction, VT)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cells: Factors affecting air-sintering of chromite interconnections  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this research is to develop alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnections and electrodes with improved electrical, thermal and electrochemical properties. Another objective is to develop synthesis and fabrication processes for these materials whereby they can be consolidated in air into SOFCs. The approach is to (1) develop modifications of the current, state-of-the-art materials used in SOFCs, (2) minimize the number of cations used in the SOFC materials to reduce potential deleterious interactions, (3) improve thermal, electrical, and electrochemical properties, (4) develop methods to synthesize both state-of-the-art and alternative materials for the simultaneous fabrication and consolidation in air of the interconnections and electrodes with the solid electrolyte, and (5) understand electrochemical reactions at materials interfaces and the effects of component compositions and processing on those reactions.

Chick, L.A.; Bates, J.L.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Wet/dry cooling tower and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A wet/dry cooling tower wherein a liquid to-be-cooled is flowed along channels of a corrugated open surface or the like, which surface is swept by cooling air. The amount of the surface covered by the liquid is kept small compared to the dry part thereof so that said dry part acts as a fin for the wet part for heat dissipation.

Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Rohsenow, Warren R. (Waban, MA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Wet Stacks Design Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The expense of fluegas reheat has led to increased application of less expensive wet stacks downstream of wet FGD (flue gas desulfurization) systems. Good data is necessary to properly design the wet stack system or serious problems can occur. This design guide summarizes all the latest information and provides guidance on developing detailed design specifications.

1997-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

65

Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance  

SciTech Connect

The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Oxidation, volatilization, and redistribution of molybdenum from TZM alloy in air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The excellent high temperature strength and thermal conductivity of molybdenum-base alloys provide attractive features for components in advanced magnetic and inertial fusion devices. Refractory metal alloys react readily with oxygen and other gases. Oxidized molybdenum in turn is susceptible to losses from volatile molybdenum trioxide species, MoO{sub 3}(m), in air and the hydroxide, MoO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}, formed from water vapor. Transport of radioactivity by the volatilization, migration, and re-deposition of these volatile species during a potential accident involving a loss of vacuum or inert environment represents a safety issue. In this report the authors present experimental results on the oxidation, volatilization and re-deposition of molybdenum from TZM in flowing air between 400 and 800 C. These results are compared with calculations obtained from a vaporization mass transfer model using chemical thermodynamic data for vapor pressures of MoO{sub 3}(g) over pure solid MoO{sub 3} and an expression for the vapor pressures of MoO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2} from the literature. Calculations correlate well with experimental data.

Smolik, G.R.; Petti, D.A.; McCarthy, K.A.; Schuetz, S.T.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Oxidation, Volatilization, and Redistribution of Molybdenum from TZM Alloy in Air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The excellent high temperature strength and thermal conductivity of molybdenum-base alloys provide attractive features for components in advanced magnetic and inertial fusion devices. Refractory metal alloys react readily with oxygen and other gases. Oxidized molybdenum in turn is susceptible to losses from volatile molybdenum trioxide species, (MoO3)m, in air and the hydroxide, MoO2(OH)2, formed from water vapor. Transport of radioactivity by the volatilization, migration, and re-deposition of these volatile species during a potential accident involving a loss of vacuum or inert environment represents a safety issue. In this report we present experimental results on the oxidation, volatilization and re-deposition of molybdenum from TZM in flowing air between 400 and 800°C. These results are compared with calculations obtained from a vaporization mass transfer model using chemical thermodynamic data for vapor pressures of MoO3(g) over pure solid MoO3 and an expression for the vapor pressures of MoO2(OH)2 from the literature. Calculations correlate well with experimental data.

Smolik, Galen Richard; Petti, David Andrew; Mccarthy, Kathryn Ann; Schuetz, Stanley Thomas

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

The Effect of Oxygen to Methane Ratio on the Methane-wet Air Autothermal Reforming and Carbon Deposition in the Micro-chamber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Considering the problems of catalyst carbon deposition and reforming endothermic reaction in micro-reforming chamber, coupled methane catalyst partial oxidation and steam methane reforming can make the micro-reforming system auto-supply heat and inhibit ... Keywords: micro-chamber, autothermal reforming, carbon deposition, oxygen to methane ratio

Ran Jingyu; Tu Weifeng

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air Resource Board, Sacramento, CA, April 2006. CARB (Air Resources Board, Sacramento, CA. CARB (2009a).Air Resources Board, Sacramento, CA. http://www.arb.ca.gov/

Millstein, Dev

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Air-Oxidation of a (Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5)98Er2 Bulk Metallic Glass at ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Bulk Metallic Glasses VII. Presentation Title, Air-Oxidation of a ...

71

FINAL REPORT on Experimental Validation of Stratified Flow Phenomena, Graphite Oxidation, and Mitigation Strategies of Air Ingress Accidents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy is performing research and development that focuses on key phenomena that are important during challenging scenarios that may occur in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)/Generation IV very high temperature reactor (VHTR). Phenomena Identification and Ranking studies to date have identified the air ingress event, following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization, as very important. Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification & validation are of very high priority for the NGNP Project. Following a loss of coolant and system depressurization incident, air ingress will occur through the break, leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and fuel. This study indicates that depending on the location and the size of the pipe break, the air ingress phenomena are different. In an effort to estimate the proper safety margin, experimental data and tools, including accurate multidimensional thermal-hydraulic and reactor physics models, a burn-off model, and a fracture model are required. It will also require effective strategies to mitigate the effects of oxidation, eventually. This 3-year project (FY 2008–FY 2010) is focused on various issues related to the VHTR air-ingress accident, including (a) analytical and experimental study of air ingress caused by density-driven, stratified, countercurrent flow, (b) advanced graphite oxidation experiments, (c) experimental study of burn-off in the core bottom structures, (d) structural tests of the oxidized core bottom structures, (e) implementation of advanced models developed during the previous tasks into the GAMMA code, (f) full air ingress and oxidation mitigation analyses, (g) development of core neutronic models, (h) coupling of the core neutronic and thermal hydraulic models, and (i) verification and validation of the coupled models.

Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim; Hee C. NO; Nam Z. Cho

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Determination of Trace Element Concentrations at an Eastern Bituminous Coal Plant Employing an SCR and Wet FGD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous sampling has shown that air pollution control devices can have a significant impact on mercury and other trace elements. For example, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) can substantially increase the percentage of oxidized mercury that can then be removed by a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) also readily captures most of the trace elements of interest. The emission of these trace elements is then directly related to the overall particulate collect...

2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

73

GENERATION, TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF TUNGSTEN-OXIDE AEROSOLS AT 1000 C IN FLOWING AIR-STEAM MIXTURES.  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted to measure the rates of oxidation and vaporization of pure tungsten rods in flowing air, steam and air-steam mixtures in laminar flow. Also measured were the downstream transport of tungsten-oxide condensation aerosols and their region of deposition, including plateout in the superheated flow tube, rainout in the condenser and ambient discharge which was collected on an array of sub-micron aerosol filters. The nominal conditions of the tests, with the exception of the first two tests, were tungsten temperatures of 1000 C, gas mixture temperatures of 200 C and wall temperatures of 150 C to 200 C. It was observed that the tungsten oxidation rates were greatest in all air and least in all steam, generally decreasing non-linearly with increasing steam mole fraction. The tungsten oxidation rates in all air were more than five times greater than the tungsten oxidation rates in all steam. The tungsten vaporization rate was zero in all air and increased with increasing steam mole fraction. The vaporization rate became maximum at a steam mole fraction of 0.85 and decreased thereafter as the steam mole fraction was increased to unity. The tungsten-oxide was transported downstream as condensation aerosols, initially flowing upwards from the tungsten rod through an 18-inch long, one-inch diameter quartz tube, around a 3.5-inch radius, 90{sup o} bend and laterally through a 24-inch horizontal run. The entire length of the quartz glass flow path was heated by electrical resistance clamshell heaters whose temperatures were individually controlled and measured. The tungsten-oxide plateout in the quartz tube was collected, nearly all of which was deposited at the end of the heated zone near the entrance to the condenser which was cold. The tungsten-oxide which rained out in the condenser as the steam condensed was collected with the condensate and weighed after being dried. The aerosol smoke which escaped the condenser was collected on the sub-micron filter assemblies. There was no aerosol generation for the case of all air, so the plateout, condensate and smoke were all zero. For the case of all steam, there was very little plateout in the superheated regions (several percent) and the rest of the aerosol was collected in the condensate from the condenser. There was no smoke discharge into the filters. For the experiments with intermediate air-steam fractions, there was some aerosol plateout, considerable aerosol in the condensate and aerosol smoke discharged from the condenser with the escaping air.

GREENE,G.A.; FINFROCK,C.C.

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Source apportionment of wet sulfate deposition in eastern North America  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An analytical model of long distance transport of air pollutants (Fay and Rosenzweig, 1980) has been adapted for the estimation of long term (e.g. annual) wet sulfate deposition in eastern N. America. The model parameters ...

Fay, James A.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

FY-09 Report: Experimental Validation of Stratified Flow Phenomena, Graphite Oxidation, and Mitigation Strategies of Air Ingress Accidents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, is performing research and development that focuses on key phenomena important during potential scenarios that may occur in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)/Gen-IV very high temperature reactor (VHTR). Phenomena Identification and Ranking Studies to date have identified that an air ingress event following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization is a very important incident. Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification and validation data are a very high priority for the NGNP Project. Following a loss of coolant and system depressurization incident, air will enter the core through the break, leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and fuel. If this accident occurs, the oxidation will accelerate heat-up of the bottom reflector and the reactor core and will eventually cause the release of fission products. The potential collapse of the core bottom structures causing the release of CO and fission products is one of the concerns. Therefore, experimental validation with the analytical model and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model developed in this study is very important. Estimating the proper safety margin will require experimental data and tools, including accurate multidimensional thermal-hydraulic and reactor physics models, a burn-off model, and a fracture model. It will also require effective strategies to mitigate the effects of oxidation. The results from this research will provide crucial inputs to the INL NGNP/VHTR Methods Research and Development project. The second year of this three-year project (FY-08 to FY-10) was focused on (a) the analytical, CFD, and experimental study of air ingress caused by density-driven, stratified, countercurrent flow; (b) advanced graphite oxidation experiments and modeling; (c) experimental study of burn-off in the core bottom structures, (d) implementation of advanced graphite oxidation models into the GAMMA code, and (f) air ingress and oxidation mitigation analyses of the whole air-ingress scenario.

Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Enhanced Mercury Removal by Wet FGD Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides results from testing conducted in 2005 as part of three EPRI co-funded projects that are aimed at enhancing the capture of mercury in flue gas from coal-fired power boilers when scrubbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The first project is co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, "Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD," as well as by two...

2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

77

Fate of Mercury in Wet FGD Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a bench-scale, laboratory investigation of the fate of flue gas mercury species in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers that are used for sulfur dioxide (SO2) control in coal-fired power plants. Data collected in the EPA mercury Information Collection Request (ICR), and in research projects sponsored by EPRI show that most wet scrubbers used for SO2 control achieve high removals of oxidized mercury and little or no elemental mercury removal. However, some scru...

2004-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

78

Review of research results for the photocatalytic oxidation of hazardous wastes in air  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments of gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) at NREL have focused on measurements that can help commercialize this technology for treating gaseous air streams. This effort proceeds earlier NREL work and studies conducted elsewhere which demonstrated the general applicability of PCO. The more recent work has concentrated on: (1) the kinetics of the PCO process; (2) the formation and destruction of intermediates; and (3) possible enhancements to improve the destruction rates. The results from these studies will be used to help design large scale PCO equipment and they will be used to evaluate the economics of the PCO process. For trichloroethylene and ethanol, extensive studies of the rates of destruction have yielded kinetic parameters for the destruction of intermediates as well as the substrate. The kinetics of intermediates is essential for sizing a large scale reactor, as complete conversion to carbon dioxide is often desired. The kinetic data from these laboratory studies has been used for analyzing IT`s pilot PCO reactor and has been used to suggest modifications to this unit. For compounds that are more difficult to destroy (such as the components of BTEX), rate enhancement experiments have been conducted. These compounds represent a very large market for this technology and improvement of the rate of the process should make it competitive. Towards this goal, the enhancement of the destruction of BTEX components have been studied. Experiments have demonstrated that there is a significant increase in the rates of destruction of BTEX with the addition of ozone. Preliminary economic assessments have shown that PCO with ozone may be cost competitive. Future laboratory experiments of PCO will focus on refinements of what has been learned. Rate measurements will also be expanded to include other compounds representing significant markets for the PCO technology.

Nimlos, M.R.; Wolfrum, E.J.; Gratson, D.A.; Watt, A.S.; Jacoby, W.A.; Turchi, C.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

A Modeling Study of Atmospheric Transport and Photochemistry in the Mixed Layer during Anticyclonic Episodes in Europe. Part II. Calculations of Photo-Oxidant Levels along Air Trajectories  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A computer model for photochemical oxidant formation in the atmospheric boundary layer has been used to calculate trends in ozone formation in air masses traveling across Europe. Ozone calculations were made for some actual summertime ...

K. Selby

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Membrane-based wet electrostatic precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Emissions of fine particulate matter, PM2.5, in both primary and secondary form, are difficult to capture in typical dry electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). Wet (or waterbased) ESPs are well suited for collection of acid aerosols and fine particulates because of greater corona power and virtually no re-entrainment. However, field disruptions because of spraying (misting) of water, formation of dry spots (channeling), and collector surface corrosion limit the applicability of current wet ESPs in the control of secondary PM2.5. Researchers at Ohio University have patented novel membrane collection surfaces to address these problems. Water-based cleaning in membrane collectors made of corrosion-resistant fibers is facilitated by capillary action between the fibers, maintaining an even distribution of water. This paper presents collection efficiency results of lab-scale and pilot-scale testing at First Energy's Bruce Mansfield Plant for the membrane-based wet ESP. The data indicate that a membrane wet ESP was more effective at collecting fine particulates, acid aerosols, and oxidized mercury than the metal-plate wet ESP, even with {approximately}15% less collecting area. 15 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

David J. Bayless; Liming Shi; Gregory Kremer; Ben J. Stuart; James Reynolds; John Caine [Ohio University, Athens, OH (US). Ohio Coal Research Center

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Mechanism of the Initial Oxidation of Hydrogen andHalogen Terminated Ge(111) Surfaces in Air  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The initial stage of the oxidation of Ge(111) surfaces etched by HF, HCl and HBr solutions is systematically studied using synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy (SR-PES). We perform controlled experiments to differentiate the effects of different oxidation factors. SR-PES results show that both moisture and oxygen contribute to the oxidation of the surfaces; however, they play different roles in the oxidation process. Moisture effectively replaces the hydrogen and halogen termination layers with hydroxyl (OH), but hardly oxidizes the surfaces further. On the other hand, dry oxygen does not replace the termination layers, but breaks the Ge-Ge back bonds and oxidizes the substrates with the aid of moisture. In addition, room light enhances the oxidation rate significantly.

Sun, Shiyu; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Sun, Yun; Liu, Zhi; Lee, Dong-Ick; Pianetta, Piero; /SLAC, SSRL

2006-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

82

Calculation of oxygen diffusion in plutonium oxide films during the high-temperature oxidation of plutonium-1 weight percent gallium in 500 torr of air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oxygen self-diffusion in PuO/sub 1.995/ was calculated from rate constants obtained for the parabolic oxidation of the Pu-1 wt % Ga alloy in 500-torr dry air between 250 and 480/degree/C. The activation energy for oxygen vacancy diffusion in the n-type PuO/sub 2-x/ is 22.6 kcal/mole. Results from this investigation are compared with other reported results, and possible explanation for the difference in results is discussed. 21 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Stakebake, J.L.

1988-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

83

Spray type wet scrubber  

SciTech Connect

A spray type wet scrubber includes a plurality of spray nozzles installed in parallel banks across the path of gas stream within the scrubber body, and partition walls held upright in grating fashion to divide the path of gas stream into a plurality of passages, each of which accommodates one of the spray nozzles.

Atsukawa, M.; Tatani, A.

1978-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

84

MAGNESIUM OXIDE AN ENGINEERED BARRIER 2009 EPA WIPP RECERTIFICATION FACT SHEET United States Environmental Protection Agency | Office of Air and Radiation (6608J) | June 2009  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MAGNESIUM OXIDE ­ AN ENGINEERED BARRIER 2009 EPA WIPP RECERTIFICATION FACT SHEET United States Environmental Protection Agency | Office of Air and Radiation (6608J) | June 2009 http://www.epa.gov/radiation/wipp/index.html MAGNESIUM OXIDE ­ AN ENGINEERED BARRIER Why is MgO Used At WIPP? The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE

85

Optical wet steam monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically.

Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Optical wet steam monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically. 4 figures.

Maxey, L.C.; Simpson, M.L.

1995-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

87

Parametric Evaluation of an Innovative Ultra-Violet PhotocatalyticOxidation (UVPCO) Air Cleaning Technology for Indoor Applications  

SciTech Connect

An innovative Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaning technology employing a semitransparent catalyst coated on a semitransparent polymer substrate was evaluated to determine its effectiveness for treating mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) representative of indoor environments at low, indoor-relevant concentration levels. The experimental UVPCO contained four 30 by 30-cm honeycomb monoliths irradiated with nine UVA lamps arranged in three banks. A parametric evaluation of the effects of monolith thickness, air flow rate through the device, UV power, and reactant concentrations in inlet air was conducted for the purpose of suggesting design improvements. The UVPCO was challenged with three mixtures of VOCs. A synthetic office mixture contained 27 VOCs commonly measured in office buildings. A building product mixture was created by combining sources including painted wallboard, composite wood products, carpet systems, and vinyl flooring. The third mixture contained formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Steady state concentrations were produced in a classroom laboratory or a 20-m{sup 3} chamber. Air was drawn through the UVPCO, and single-pass conversion efficiencies were measured from replicate samples collected upstream and downstream of the reactor. Thirteen experiments were conducted in total. In this UVPCO employing a semitransparent monolith design, an increase in monolith thickness is expected to result in general increases in both reaction efficiencies and absolute reaction rates for VOCs oxidized by photocatalysis. The thickness of individual monolith panels was varied between 1.2 and 5 cm (5 to 20 cm total thickness) in experiments with the office mixture. VOC reaction efficiencies and rates increased with monolith thickness. However, the analysis of the relationship was confounded by high reaction efficiencies in all configurations for a number of compounds. These reaction efficiencies approached or exceeded 90% for alcohols, glycol ethers, and other individual compounds including d-limonene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane. This result implies a reaction efficiency of about 30% per irradiated monolith face, which is in agreement with the maximum efficiency for the system predicted with a simulation model. In these and other experiments, the performance of the system for highly reactive VOCs appeared to be limited by mass transport of reactants to the catalyst surface rather than by photocatalytic activity. Increasing the air flow rate through the UVPCO device decreases the residence time of the air in the monoliths and improves mass transfer to the catalyst surface. The effect of gas velocity was examined in four pairs of experiments in which the air flow rate was varied from approximately 175 m{sup 3}/h to either 300 or 600 m{sup 3}/h. Increased gas velocity caused a decrease in reaction efficiency for nearly all reactive VOCs. For all of the more reactive VOCs, the decrease in performance was less, and often substantially less, than predicted based solely on residence time, again likely due to mass transfer limitations at the low flow rate. The results demonstrate that the UVPCO is capable of achieving high conversion efficiencies for reactive VOCs at air flow rates above the base experimental rate of 175 m{sup 3}/h. The effect of UV power was examined in a series of experiments with the building product mixture in which the number of lamps was varied between nine and three. For the most reactive VOCs in the mixture, the effects of UV power were surprisingly small. Thus, even with only one lamp in each section, there appears to be sufficient photocatalytic activity to decompose most of the mass of reactive VOCs that reach the catalyst surface. For some less reactive VOCs, the trend of decreasing efficiency with decreasing UV intensity was in general agreement with simulation model predictions.

Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

88

Design Principles for Oxygen-Reduction Activity on Perovskite Oxide Catalysts for Fuel Cells and Metal-air Batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The prohibitive cost and scarcity of the noble-metal catalysts needed for catalysing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal-air batteries limit the commercialization of these clean-energy technologies. Identifying a catalyst design principle that links material properties to the catalytic activity can accelerate the search for highly active and abundant transition-metal-oxide catalysts to replace platinum. Here, we demonstrate that the ORR activity for oxide catalysts primarily correlates to {sigma}*-orbital (e{sub g}) occupation and the extent of B-site transition-metal-oxygen covalency, which serves as a secondary activity descriptor. Our findings reflect the critical influences of the {sigma}* orbital and metal-oxygen covalency on the competition between O{sub 2}{sup 2-}/OH{sup -} displacement and OH{sup -} regeneration on surface transition-metal ions as the rate-limiting steps of the ORR, and thus highlight the importance of electronic structure in controlling oxide catalytic activity.

J Suntivich; H Gasteiger; N Yabuuchi; H Nakanishi; J Goodenough; Y Shao-Horn

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

89

Optimized air staged injection for the oxidation of low calorific value gases  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes a simplified numerical model used for predicting an optimized air staged plug-flow combustor for low calorific value gas mixtures. The parameter used for optimization, Z, is the summed flow rates of fuel components leaving the combustor. An optimized combustor is one of a given length and input mass flux that minimizes Z. Since a mathematical proof describing the importance of global interactions remains lacking, the model employs both a ``local optimization`` procedure and a ``global optimization`` procedure. By exercising and comparing both procedures, the model shows that ``local optimization`` is sufficient to provide an optimized solution. Sensitivity of Z to deviations in air injection profile and inlet temperature is also examined.

Gemmen, R.S.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

90

Wet-limestone scrubbing fundamentals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The article examines important concepts of wet-limestone scrubbing. It also addresses the topic of by-product disposal. 3 refs., 1 fig.

Buecker, B.

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

91

Wet cooling towers: rule-of-thumb design and simulation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A survey of wet cooling tower literature was performed to develop a simplified method of cooling tower design and simulation for use in power plant cycle optimization. The theory of heat exchange in wet cooling towers is briefly summarized. The Merkel equation (the fundamental equation of heat transfer in wet cooling towers) is presented and discussed. The cooling tower fill constant (Ka) is defined and values derived. A rule-of-thumb method for the optimized design of cooling towers is presented. The rule-of-thumb design method provides information useful in power plant cycle optimization, including tower dimensions, water consumption rate, exit air temperature, power requirements and construction cost. In addition, a method for simulation of cooling tower performance at various operating conditions is presented. This information is also useful in power plant cycle evaluation. Using the information presented, it will be possible to incorporate wet cooling tower design and simulation into a procedure to evaluate and optimize power plant cycles.

Leeper, S.A.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Experimental study of the thermal-hydraulic performance of a brazed aluminum heat exchanger under wet-surface conditions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Using an open-loop wind tunnel and a full-cone water spray nuzzle, the air-side performance of a liquid-to-air heat exchanger is studied experimentally for wet-surface conditions.… (more)

Zhang, Feini

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Method for the wet quenching of coke  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for the wet quenching of coke is disclosed wherein hot coke is sprayed from above with quenching water, the steam generated by the heat of the coke is condensed by a spray of condensation water from the top of the quenching tower, and the hot condensate-water mixture is collected at the bottom of the quenching tower and recirculated to the top of the tower where it is sprayed between quenching operations to be cooled by a counterflowing stream of air. The cooled condensate water mixture is suitable for reuse as the condensation spray water.

Blase, M.; Flockenhaus, C.; Wagener, D.

1982-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

94

Final report on the oxidation of energetic materials in supercritical water. Final Air Force report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to determine the suitability of oxidation in supercritical fluids (SCO), particularly water (SCWO), for disposal of propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics (PEPs). The SCO studies of PEPs addressed the following issues: The efficiency of destruction of the substrate. The products of destruction contained in the effluents. Whether the process can be conducted safely on a large scale. Whether energy recovery from the process is economically practicable. The information essential for process development and equipment design was also investigated, including issues such as practical throughput of explosives through a SCWO reactor, reactor materials and corrosion, and models for process design and optimization.

Buelow, S.J.; Allen, D.; Anderson, G.K. [and others

1995-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

95

Fixed Bed Counter Current Gasification of Mesquite and Juniper Biomass Using Air-steam as Oxidizer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal gasification of biomass is being considered as one of the most promising technologies for converting biomass into gaseous fuel. Here we present results of gasification, using an adiabatic bed gasifier with air, steam as gasification medium, of mesquite and juniper. From Thermo-gravimetric analyses the pre-exponential factor (B) and activation energy of fuels for pyrolysis were obtained using single reaction models (SRM) and parallel reaction model (PRM). The single reaction model including convention Arrhenius (SRM-CA) and maximum volatile release rate model (SRM-MVR). The parallel reaction model fits the experimental data very well, followed by MVR. The CA model the least accurate model. The activation energies obtained from PRM are around 161,000 kJ/kmol and 158,000 kJ/kmol for juniper and mesquite fuels, respectively. And, the activation energies obtained from MVR are around100,000 kJ/kmol and 85,000 kJ/kmol for juniper and mesquite fuels, respectively. The effects of equivalence ratio (ER), particle size, and moisture content on the temperature profile, gas composition, tar yield, and higher heating value (HHV) were investigated. For air gasification, when moisture increased from 6% to 12% and ER decreased from 4.2 to 2.7, the mole composition of the dry product gas for mesquite varied as follow: 18-30% CO, 2-5% H2, 1-1.5% CH4, 0.4-0.6% C2H6, 52-64% N2, and 10-12% CO2. The tar yield shows peak value (150 g/Nm^3) with change in moisture content between 6-24%. The tar collected from the gasification process included light tar and heavy tar. The main composition of the light tar was moisture. The chemical properties of heavy tar were determined. For air-steam gasification, H2 rich mixture gas was produced. The HHV of the mesquite gas increased first when S: F ratio increased from 0.15 to 0.3 and when the S: F ratio increased to 0.45, HHV of the gas decreased. Mesquite was blended with the Wyoming Powder River Basin (PRB) coal with ratio of 90:10 and 80:20 in order to increase the Tpeak and HHV. It was found that the Tpeak increased with the increase of PRB coal weight percentage (0% to 20%).

Chen, Wei 1981-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Direct Calculation of Thermodynamic Wet-Bulb Temperature as a Function of Pressure and Elevation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple analytical method was developed for directly calculating the thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature from air temperature and the vapor pressure (or relative humidity) at elevations up to 4500 m above MSL was developed. This methodology was ...

Sayed-Hossein Sadeghi; Troy R. Peters; Douglas R. Cobos; Henry W. Loescher; Colin S. Campbell

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Direct Calculation of Thermodynamic Wet Bulb Temperature as a Function of Pressure and Elevation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple analytical method was developed for directly calculating the thermodynamic wet bulb temperature from air temperature and the vapor pressure (or relative humidity) at any desired elevation. This methodology was based on the fact that the ...

Sayed-Hossein Sadeghi; Troy R. Peters; Douglas R. Cobos; Henry W. Loescher; Colin S. Campbell

98

Effects of Surface Wetness on the Evolution and Vertical Transport of Submicron Particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulations have been carried out with a numerical model describing air chemistry, aerosol microphysics, and turbulent mixing, in order to study the behavior of fine sulfate particles in the atmospheric surface layer over wet surfaces. ...

I. Y. Lee; M. L. Wesely

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Revised Wet Stack Design Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the past 14 years, the design of wet stacks around the world has been guided by the original EPRI Wet Stacks Design Guide (1996). Since that time, the number of wet stack installations has grown considerably, and a wealth of practical real-world operating and maintenance experience has been obtained. The laws of physics have not changed, and most of the information presented in 1996 is just as valid today as it was when originally published. What has changed is the power-generation ...

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

100

Survey of Wet Electrostatic Precipitators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wet electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) have found application since they were first installed for sulfuric acid collection on a smelter and patented by Dr. Frederick Cottrell in 1907–1908. Power generation applications typically use dry ESPs for collection of coal fly ash in nonsaturated flue gas streams. This report summarizes the physical installations, specifications, operating environments, and operational experience of wet ESPs currently operating in the United States on power generation ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

A Second Examination of Fragments of Unirradiated and Irradiated CANDU Fuel, and Irradiated LWR Fuel, Oxidized in Air at 130 Degrees Centigrade and 170 Degrees Centigrade for Approximately One Thousand Days  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thisreport documents the examination of unclad fragments of unirradiated CANDU fuel, and irradiated LWR fuel, after approximately 2.8 years of oxidation in air at 130 degrees Centigrade and 170 degrees Centigrade. During oxidation, the various fuel specimens were isolated in separate vials, which were designed to permit free access of air, while preventing cross-contamination. Two specimens of each fuel type were recovered for examination from each experiment. The irradiated fuel specimens were weighed a...

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE WET WIPES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant{trademark} Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

Youmans-Mcdonald, L.

2011-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

103

Benefits and technological challenges in the implementation of TiO2-based ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaners  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heating, ventilating, and cooling classrooms in California consume substantial electrical energy. Indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms affects student health and performance. In addition to airborne pollutants that are emitted directly by indoor sources and those generated outdoors, secondary pollutants can be formed indoors by chemical reaction of ozone with other chemicals and materials. Filters are used in nearly all classroom heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems to maintain energy-efficient HVAC performance and improve indoor air quality; however, recent evidence indicates that ozone reactions with filters may, in fact, be a source of secondary pollutants. This project quantitatively evaluated ozone deposition in HVAC filters and byproduct formation, and provided a preliminary assessment of the extent to which filter systems are degrading indoor air quality. The preliminary information obtained will contribute to the design of subsequent research efforts and the identification of energy efficient solutions that improve indoor air quality in classrooms and the health and performance of students.

Hodgson, Al; Destaillats, Hugo; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Fisk, William J.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

2009 Update on Mercury Capture by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update presents results of four research and development projects focused on understanding and enhancing mercury emissions control associated with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology. The first project was directed at characterizing partitioning of elemental and oxidized mercury species in solid, liquid, and gas phases within process streams involved in an operating commercial system. The second project explored dewatering options with an objective of producing low-mercury-conten...

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

105

Effects of Thermal Cycling and Thermal Aging on the Hermeticity and Strength of Silver-Copper Oxide Air-Brazed Seals  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermal cycle and exposure tests were conducted on ceramic-to-metal joints prepared by a new sealing technique. Known as reactive air brazing, this joining method is currently being considered for use in sealing various high-temperature solid-state electrochemical devices, including planar solid oxide fuel cells (pSOFC). In order to simulate a typical pSOFC application, test specimens were prepared by joining ceramic anode/electrolyte bilayers to washers, of the same composition as the common frame materials employed in pSOFC stacks, using a filler metal composed of 4mol% CuO in silver. The brazed samples were exposure tested at 750°C for 200, 400, and 800hrs in both simulated fuel and air environments and thermally cycled at rapid rate (75°C/min) between room temperature and 750°C for as many as fifty cycles. Subsequent joint strength testing and microstructural analysis indicated that the samples exposure tested in air displayed little degradation with respect to strength, hermeticity, or microstructure out to 800hrs of exposure. Those tested in fuel showed no change in rupture strength or loss in hermeticity after 800hrs of high-temperature exposure, but did undergo microstructural change due to the dissolution of hydrogen into the silver-based braze material. Air brazed specimens subjected to rapid thermal cycling exhibited no loss in joint strength or hermeticity, but displayed initial signs of seal delamination along the braze/electrolyte interface after 50 cycles.

Weil, K. Scott; Coyle, Christopher A.; Darsell, Jens T.; Xia, Gordon; Hardy, John S.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Evaluation of Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) forIndoor Air Applications: Conversion of Volatile Organic Compounds at LowPart-per-Billion Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

Efficient removal of indoor generated airborne particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in office buildings and other large buildings may allow for a reduction in outdoor air supply rates with concomitant energy savings while still maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in these buildings. Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaners have the potential to achieve the necessary reductions in indoor VOC concentrations at relatively low cost. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted with a scaled, prototype UVPCO device designed for use in a duct system. The experimental UVPCO contained two 30 by 30-cm honeycomb monoliths coated with titanium dioxide and 3% by weight tungsten oxide. The monoliths were irradiated with 12 UVC lamps arranged in four banks. The UVPCO was challenged with four mixtures of VOCs typical of mixtures encountered in indoor air. A synthetic office mixture contained 27 VOCs commonly measured in office buildings. A cleaning product mixture contained three cleaning products with high market shares. A building product mixture was created by combining sources including painted wallboard, composite wood products, carpet systems, and vinyl flooring. A fourth mixture contained formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Steady-state concentrations were produced in a classroom laboratory or a 20-m{sup 3} environmental chamber. Air was drawn through the UVPCO, and single pass conversion efficiencies were measured from replicate air samples collected upstream and downstream of the reactor section. Concentrations of the mixtures were manipulated, with concentrations of individual VOCs mostly maintained below 10 ppb. Device flow rates were varied between 165 and 580 m{sup 3}/h. Production of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, formic acid, and acetic acid as reaction products was investigated. Conversion efficiency data were generated for 48 individual VOCs or groups of closely related compounds. Alcohols and glycol ethers were the most reactive chemical classes with conversion efficiencies often near or above 70% at the low flow rate and near 40% at the high flow rate. Ketones and terpene hydrocarbons were somewhat less reactive. The relative VOC conversion rates are generally favorable for treatment of indoor air since many contemporary products used in buildings employ oxygenated solvents. A commercial UVPCO device likely would be installed in the supply air stream of a building and operated to treat both outdoor and recirculated air. Assuming a recirculation rate comparable to three times the normal outdoor air supply rate, simple mass-balance modeling suggests that a device with similar characteristics to the study unit has sufficient conversion efficiencies for most VOCs to compensate for a 50% reduction in outdoor air supply without substantially impacting indoor VOC concentrations. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, formic acid, and acetic acid were produced in these experiments as reaction byproducts. No other significant byproducts were observed. A coupled steady-state mass balance model is presented and applied to VOC data from a study of a single office building. For the operating assumptions described above, the model estimated a three-fold increase in indoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations. The outcome of this limited assessment suggests that evaluation of the potential effects of the operation of a UVPCO device on indoor concentrations of these contaminants is warranted. Other suggested studies include determining VOC conversion efficiencies in actual buildings and evaluating changes in VOC conversion efficiency as monoliths age with long-term operation.

Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

107

Critically safe volume vacuum pickup for use in wet or dry cleanup of radioactive enclosures  

SciTech Connect

A physical compact vacuum pickup device of critically safe volume and geometric shape is provided for use in radioactive enclosures, such as a small glove box, to facilitate manual cleanup of either wet or dry radioactive material. The device is constructed and arranged so as to remain safe when filled to capacity with plutonium-239 oxide. Two fine mesh filter bags are supported on the exterior of a rigid fine mesh stainless steel cup. This assembly is sealed within, and spaced from, the interior walls of a stainless steel canister. An air inlet communicates with the interior of the canister. A modified conventional vacuum head is physically connected to, and associated with, the interior of the mesh cup. The volume of the canister, as defined by the space between the mesh cup and the interior walls of the canister, forms a critically safe volume and geometric shape for dry radioactive particles that are gathered within the canister. A critically safe liquid volume is maintained by operation of a suction terminating float valve, and/or by operation of redundant vacuum check/liquid drain valves and placement of the air inlet.

Zeren, Joseph D. (390 Forest Ave., Boulder, CO 80304)

1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

108

Critically safe volume vacuum pickup for use in wet or dry cleanup of radioactive enclosures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A physical compact vacuum pickup device of critically safe volume and geometric shape is provided for use in radioactive enclosures, such as a small glove box, to facilitate manual cleanup of either wet or dry radioactive material. The device is constructed and arranged so as to remain safe when filled to capacity with plutonium-239 oxide. Two fine mesh filter bags are supported on the exterior of a rigid fine mesh stainless steel cup. This assembly is sealed within, and spaced from, the interior walls of a stainless steel canister. An air inlet communicates with the interior of the canister. A modified conventional vacuum head is physically connected to, and associated with, the interior of the mesh cup. The volume of the canister, as defined by the space between the mesh cup and the interior walls of the canister, forms a critically safe volume and geometric shape for dry radioactive particles that are gathered within the canister. A critically safe liquid volume is maintained by operation of a suction terminating float valve, and/or by operation of redundant vacuum check/liquid drain valves and placement of the air inlet. 5 figures.

Zeren, J.D.

1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

109

FULL-SCALE TESTING OF ENHANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR WET FGD SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems are currently installed on about 25% of the coal-fired utility generating capacity in the U.S., representing about 15% of the number of coal-fired units. Depending on the effect of operating parameters such as mercury content of the coal, form of mercury (elemental or oxidized) in the flue gas, scrubber spray tower configuration, liquid-to-gas ratio, and slurry chemistry, FGD systems can provide cost-effective, near-term mercury emissions control options with a proven history of commercial operation. For boilers already equipped with FGD systems, the incremental cost of any vapor phase mercury removal achieved is minimal. To be widely accepted and implemented, technical approaches that improve mercury removal performance for wet FGD systems should also have low incremental costs and have little or no impact on operation and SO{sub 2} removal performance. The ultimate goal of the Full-scale Testing of Enhanced Mercury Control for Wet FGD Systems Program was to commercialize methods for the control of mercury in coal-fired electric utility systems equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD). The program was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development, and Babcock & Wilcox. Host sites and associated support were provided by Michigan South Central Power Agency (MSCPA) and Cinergy. Field-testing was completed at two commercial coal-fired utilities with wet FGD systems: (1) MSCPA's 55 MW{sub e} Endicott Station and (2) Cinergy's 1300 MW{sub e} Zimmer Station. Testing was conducted at these two locations because of the large differences in size and wet scrubber chemistry. Endicott employs a limestone, forced oxidation (LSFO) wet FGD system, whereas Zimmer uses Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime (magnesium enhanced lime) and ex situ oxidation. Both locations burn Ohio bituminous coal.

D.K. McDonald; G.T. Amrhein; G.A. Kudlac; D. Madden Yurchison

2003-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

110

Evaluation of the Impact of Limestone on Gypsum Crystal Habit in Wet FGD Scrubbers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document summarizes the results of a laboratory program focused on determining what key limestone components are responsible for impacting wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproduct gypsum properties. Tests were conducted using several commercial limestone samples for which documented full-scale limestone forced oxidation wet FGD operating experience exists. These include limestone samples known to produce FGD gypsum with both ‘good’ and ‘poor’ crystallization ...

2012-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

111

Variations of the weight concentrations of dust, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and ozone in the surface air in tbilisi  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The data of the Georgian air pollution monitoring network were analyzed in order to establish any trends in the variations of the near-ground concentrations of various substances. It was shown that despite a considerable fall-down in the Georgian economy in the recent years

A. Amiranashvili; V. Amiranashvili; T. Gzirishvili; G. Gunia; L. Intskirveli; J. Kharchilava

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Influence of air conditioning management on heat island in Paris air street temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

spatial cartography of air- cooled chillers and cooling towers in the city of Paris and surroundings have); secondly the actual situation including individual air dry coolers, wet cooling towers and an urban cooling the air cooling demand. Results of a meso-scale meteorological model (MESO-NH), coupled to an urban energy

113

,"California Federal Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Federal Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

114

Wet Corn Milling Plant EPI | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wet Corn Milling Plant EPI Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction...

115

The e?ect of TiO2 on the wetting behavior of silver ...  

aging to the seals employed in planar solid oxide fuel cells and oxygen concentrators [1–3]. Referred to as air brazing, the technique forms a ...

116

Wet Corn Milling Energy Guide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

307 307 ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Corn Wet Milling Industry An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers Christina Galitsky, Ernst Worrell and Michael Ruth Environmental Energy Technologies Division Sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency July 2003 Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor The Regents of the University of California, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product,

117

Effects of ambient humidity on the energy use of air conditioning equipment.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This paper addresses the real-time use of ambient wet bulb temperature measurements in the optimization of building air conditioning system control as a means to… (more)

White, Justin George

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Fixed Bed Countercurrent Low Temperature Gasification of Dairy Biomass and Coal-Dairy Biomass Blends Using Air-Steam as Oxidizer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Concentrated animal feeding operations such as cattle feedlots and dairies produce a large amount of manure, cattle biomass (CB), which may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. However, the concentrated production of low quality CB at these feeding operations serves as a good feedstock for in situ gasification for syngas (CO and H2) production and subsequent use in power generation. A small scale (10 kW) countercurrent fixed bed gasifier was rebuilt to perform gasification studies under quasisteady state conditions using dairy biomass (DB) as feedstock and various air-steam mixtures as oxidizing sources. A DB-ash (from DB) blend and a DB-Wyoming coal blend were also studied for comparison purposes. In addition, chlorinated char was also produced via pure pyrolysis of DB using N2 and N2-steam gas mixtures. The chlorinated char is useful for enhanced capture of Hg in ESP of coal fired boilers. Two main parameters were investigated in the gasification studies with air-steam mixtures. One was the equivalence ratio ER (the ratio of stochiometric air to actual air) and the second was the steam to fuel ratio (S:F). Prior to the experimental studies, atom conservation with i) limited product species and ii) equilibrium modeling studies with a large number of product species were performed on the gasification of DB to determine suitable range of operating conditions (ER and S:F ratio). Results on bed temperature profile, gas composition (CO, CO2, H2, CH4, C2H6, and N2), gross heating value (HHV), and energy conversion efficiency (ECE) are presented. Both modeling and experimental results show that gasification under increased ER and S:F ratios tend to produce rich mixtures in H2 and CO2 but poor in CO. Increased ER produces gases with higher HHV but decreases the ECE due to higher tar and char production. Gasification of DB under the operating conditions 1.59less than0.8 yielded gas mixtures with compositions as given below: CO (4.77 - 11.73 %), H2 (13.48 - 25.45%), CO2 (11-25.2%), CH4 (0.43-1.73 %), and C2H6 (0.2- 0.69%). In general, the bed temperature profiles had peaks that ranged between 519 and 1032 degrees C for DB gasification.

Gordillo Ariza, Gerardo

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Induced-Draft Cooling Towers and Parallel Wet/Dry Cooling for Combined-Cycle Plants: Design Best Practices and Procurement Specifica tions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains information and examples of best practices for the design and specification of wet and parallel (hybrid) cooling towers for combined-cycle applications. Two reference (template) specifications are includedone for totally wet cooling systems and one for parallel cooling systems with a wet cooling tower and air-cooled condensers (ACC) in parallel. These template specifications are intended to be the starting point from which the utility or developer can "customize" as needed to fit its...

2011-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

120

Crystal Size and Orientation in Ice Grown by Droplet Accretion in Wet and Spongy Regimes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The size and orientation of crystal grains in wet and spongy ice formed by accretion of supercooled droplets has been determined in a wide range of air temperatures (?8 to ?25°C). Particular care has been taken in reducing the spurious ice ...

F. Prodi; L. Levi; A. Franzini; C. Scarani

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Mercury removal in utility wet scrubber using a chelating agent  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for capturing and reducing the mercury content of an industrial flue gas such as that produced in the combustion of a fossil fuel or solid waste adds a chelating agent, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or other similar compounds like HEDTA, DTPA and/or NTA, to the flue gas being scrubbed in a wet scrubber used in the industrial process. The chelating agent prevents the reduction of oxidized mercury to elemental mercury, thereby increasing the mercury removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. Exemplary tests on inlet and outlet mercury concentration in an industrial flue gas were performed without and with EDTA addition. Without EDTA, mercury removal totaled 42%. With EDTA, mercury removal increased to 71%. The invention may be readily adapted to known wet scrubber systems and it specifically provides for the removal of unwanted mercury both by supplying S.sup.2- ions to convert Hg.sup.2+ ions into mercuric sulfide (HgS) and by supplying a chelating agent to sequester other ions, including but not limited to Fe.sup.2+ ions, which could otherwise induce the unwanted reduction of Hg.sup.2+ to the form, Hg.sup.0.

Amrhein, Gerald T. (Louisville, OH)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Fabrication of Solid Electrolyte Dendrites for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fabrication of Solid Electrolyte Dendrites for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Miniaturizations · Fabrication of TiN Nanoparticle Dispersed Si3N4 Ceramics by Wet Jet ...

123

Reactive Air Brazing of Nicrofer-6025HT to BSCF for Oxygen ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Oxygen separation membranes can be used to provide oxygen for ... with an oxide component that promotes wetting of ceramic materials.

124

Enhanced Control of Mercury by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems - Site 3 Topical Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Researchers conducted field tests to evaluate the ability of a variety of materials to oxidize vapor-phase elemental mercury at a coal-fired power plant equipped with a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. Results, while confounded by measurement difficulties, showed that under bituminous coal flue gas conditions, two catalysts, Pd #1 and Carbon #6, continued to oxidize at least 85 percent of the inlet elemental mercury after three months.

2002-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

125

Utah Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

126

Utah Natural Gas Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves in Nonproducing...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Billion Cubic...

127

Table 3. Wet natural gas production and resources (trillion cubic ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

2013 EIA/ARI unproved wet shale gas technically recoverable resources (TRR) 2012 USGS conventional unproved wet natural gas TRR, including reserve

128

Texas State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

129

Texas State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

130

Texas - RRC District 10 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 10 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

131

Texas - RRC District 5 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 5 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

132

Texas - RRC District 8 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 8 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

133

Texas - RRC District 8A Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 8A Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

134

Texas - RRC District 9 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 9 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

135

Texas - RRC District 6 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 6 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

136

Colorado Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

137

New Mexico - East Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico - East Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade...

138

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Texas Natural Gas, Wet After...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Texas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves...

139

Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

140

Texas - RRC District 1 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 1 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Texas - RRC District 6 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 6 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade...

142

Breakdown in the Wetting Transparency of Graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop a theory to model the van der Waals interactions between liquid and graphene, including quantifying the wetting behavior of a graphene-coated surface. Molecular dynamics simulations and contact angle measurements ...

Shih, Chih-Jen

143

Wetting of a Chemically Heterogeneous Surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Theories for inhomogeneous fluids have focused in recent years on wetting, capillary conden- sation, and solvation forces for model systems where the surface(s) is(are) smooth homogeneous parallel plates, cylinders, or spherical drops. Unfortunately natural systems are more likely to be hetaogeneous both in surt%ce shape and surface chemistry. In this paper we discuss the conse- quences of chemical heterogeneity on wetting. Specifically, a 2-dimensional implementation of a nonlocal density functional theory is solved for a striped surface model. Both the strength and range of the heterogeneity are varied. Contact angles are calculated, and phase transitions (both the wetting transition and a local layering transition) are located. The wetting properties of the surface ase shown to be strongly dependent on the nature of the surface heterogeneity. In addition highly ordered nanoscopic phases are found, and the operational limits for formation of ordered or crystalline phases of nanoscopic extent are discussed.

Frink, L.J.D.; Salinger, A.G.

1998-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

144

Reducing the atmospheric impact of wet slaking  

SciTech Connect

Means of reducing the atmospheric emissions due to the wet slaking of coke are considered. One option, investigated here, is to remove residual active silt and organic compounds from the biologically purified wastewater sent for slaking, by coagulation and flocculation.

B.D. Zubitskii; G.V. Ushakov; B.G. Tryasunov; A.G.Ushakov [Kuznetsk Basin State Technical University, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

145

Structure, optical, and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films prepared by sputtering at room temperature and annealed in air or nitrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films have been grown onto soda-lime glass substrates by sputtering at room temperature with various oxygen to argon partial pressure ratios. After deposition, the samples have been annealed at temperatures ranging from 100 to 500 degree sign C in nitrogen or in air. The structure, optical, and electrical characteristics of the ITO coatings have been analyzed as a function of the deposition and the annealing parameters by x-ray diffraction, spectrophotometry, and Hall effect measurements. It has been found that the as-grown amorphous layers crystallize in the cubic structure by heating above 200 degree sign C. Simultaneously, the visible optical transmittance increases and the electrical resistance decreases, in proportions that depend mainly on the sputtering conditions. The lowest resistivity values have been obtained by annealing at 400 degree sign C in nitrogen, where the highest carrier concentrations are achieved, related to oxygen vacancy creation. Some relationships between the analyzed properties have been established, showing the dependence of the cubic lattice distortion and the infrared optical characteristics on the carrier concentration.

Guillen, C.; Herrero, J. [Departamento de Energia, CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Enhanced Control of Mercury by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems - Site 2 Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI are co-funding this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project is investigating catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems, and to future FGD installation...

2000-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

147

California - Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

California - Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

148

Wet oxidation of stainless steels: New insights into hydrogen ingress  

SciTech Connect

detrimental effect. However, the complexities of tracking hydrogen in these materials have prevented the direct profiling of hydrogen ingress needed to understand these phenomena. Here we report hydrogen profiles in industrially-relevant alumina- and chromia-forming steels correlated with the local oxidemetal nano/microstructure by use of SIMS D2O tracer studies and experimental protocols to optimize D retention. The D profiles unexpectedly varied markedly among the alloys examined, which indicates mechanistic complexity but also the potential to mitigate detrimental water vapor effects by manipulation of alloy chemistry.

Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Fayek, Mostafa [University of Manitoba, Canada; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

OXIDE NANOPARTICLES AND NANOSTRUCTURED COATINGS BY WET CHEMICAL PROCESSING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ultrafiltration membranes derived from carboxylate­alumoxane nanoparticles, C. D. Jones, M. Fidalgo, M. R. Wiesner

Verweij, Henk

150

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island) Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island) Eligibility Commercial...

151

Wet powder seal for gas containment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

Stang, L.G.

1979-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

152

Wet powder seal for gas containment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

Stang, Louis G. (Sayville, NY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Fuel Cell - Solid Oxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrolyzer Research and Development Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Solid oxide diagram In an SOFC, oxygen from air is reduced to ions at the cathode, which diffuse through the...

154

Heat Transfer Performance of a Dry and Wet / Dry Advanced Cooling Tower Condenser  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes an EPRI-funded experimental evaluation of advanced air-cooled ammonia condensers for a phase. Change dry/wet cooling system for power plants. Two condenser surfaces with different air-side augmentation were tested in an ammonia phase change pilot plant (0.6 MWth) located at UCC/Linde. The first unit consisted of integral shaved-fin-extruded aluminum tubing designed for dry operation. Heat transfer and air-side pressure loss characteristics were measured under varying air face velocities (1 to 5 m/s) and initial temperature differences, ITD (11 to 33K). Measured overall heat transfer coefficients, U, ranged between 40 and 49 J /m2 S.K (based on air-side surface). The second configuration constituted an aluminum plate-fin/tube assembly, which was tested in both dry and wet (water deluge) modes at 1 to 4 m/s air face velocities and ITD's of 5 to 33K. Deluge rates varied from 1 to 6 m3/s per meter of core width. In the dry mode, U ranged from 42 to 63 J/m2 .S.K. Water deluge enhanced the heat rejection up to 4.5 times over dry operation.

Fricke, H. D.; Webster, D. J.; McIlroy, K.; Bartz, J. A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Chaoticity of the Wet Granular Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we derive an analytic expression for the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy of dilute wet granular matter, valid for any spatial dimension. The grains are modelled as hard spheres and the influence of the wetting liquid is described according to the Capillary Model, in which dissipation is due to the hysteretic cohesion force of capillary bridges. The Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy is expanded in a series with respect to density. We find a rapid increase of the leading term when liquid is added. This demonstrates the sensitivity of the granular dynamics to humidity, and shows that the liquid significantly increases the chaoticity of the granular gas.

A. Fingerle; S. Herminghaus; V. Yu. Zaburdaev

2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

156

Controlled CO preferential oxidation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method is described for controlling the supply of air to a PROX (PReferential OXidation for CO cleanup) reactor for the preferential oxidation in the presence of hydrogen wherein the concentration of the hydrogen entering and exiting the PROX reactor is monitored, the difference there between correlated to the amount of air needed to minimize such difference, and based thereon the air supply to the PROX reactor adjusted to provide such amount and minimize such difference. 2 figs.

Meltser, M.A.; Hoch, M.M.

1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

157

Detailed modeling and laser-induced fluorescence imaging of nitric oxide in a NH(i)-seeded non-premixed methane/air flame  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an axisymmetric laminar diffusion flame. Proc. Comb. Inst. ,laminar diffusion flames. Combust. Sci. Tech. , [25] N .premixed ethylene/air flames. Combust. Flame, 127:2004-2022,

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Reactive Air Aluminizing - Energy Innovation Portal  

Reactive Air Aluminizing is a process for applying a protective coating on steel components in solid oxide fuel ... Building Energy Efficiency; ...

159

Reactive Air Aluminizing - Energy Innovation Portal  

Reactive Air Aluminizing is a process for applying a protective coating on steel components in solid oxide fuel cells and other high temperature electrochemical devices.

160

A round robin evaluation of the corrosiveness of wet residential insulation by electrochemical measurements  

SciTech Connect

The results of a round cabin evaluation of the use of an electrochemical method of calculating the corrosion rate of low carbon steel in environments related to cellulosic building insulations are reported. Environments included the leachate from a wet cellulosic insulation and solutions based on pure and commercial grades of borax, ammonium sulfate and aluminum sulfate. The pH values of these environments were in the range of 2.5 to 9.5. Electrochemical measurements were made using a direct reading corrosion rate instrument. The calculated corrosion rates were compared with those determined directly by weight loss measurements. Electrochemical measurements were made over a period of 48 hours and weight loss exposures were for two weeks. Poor agreement was observed for the corrosion rates determined electrochemically and the values were consistently larger than those based on weight loss. Reasons proposed for these results included the complex nature of the corrosion product deposits and the control these deposits have on oxygen diffusion to the metal interface. Both factors influence the validity of the calculation of the corrosion rate by the direct reading instrument. It was concluded that development of a viable electrochemical method of general applicability to the evaluation of the corrosiveness of wet residential building thermal insulations were doubtful. Because of the controlling influence of dissolved oxygen on the corrosion rate in the insulation leachate, an alternate evaluation method is proposed in which a thin steel specimen is partially immersed in wet insulation for three weeks. The corrosiveness of the wet insulation is evaluated in terms of the severity of attack near the metal-air-wet insulation interface. With thin metal specimens, complete penetration along the interface is proposed as a pass/fail criterion. An environment of sterile cotton wet with distilled water is proposed as a comparative standard. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Stansbury, E.E. (Stansbury (E.E.), Knoxville, TN (United States))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Multimedia Mercury Fate at Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped With SCR and Wet FGD Controls  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Given the current regulatory climate in the United States, a number of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems will be installed at new and existing coal-fired power plants to remove nitrogen oxide (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and mercury. The multimedia fate of trace metal species, especially mercury, in SCR/wet FGD systems is not well understood. Understanding and quantifying the amount of mercury removed from the flue gas and distributed to the solid and aqueous ...

2008-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

162

Indian Centre for Wind Energy Technology C WET | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Centre for Wind Energy Technology C WET Jump to: navigation, search Name Indian Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET) Place Chennai, India Zip 601 302 Sector Wind energy...

163

Texas - RRC District 5 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Texas - RRC District 5 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet)

164

Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet)

165

Categorical Exclusion 4497: Lithium Wet Chemistry Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8/2012 07:36 8/2012 07:36 8655749041 ENVIRONMENTAL COMPL U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion Detennination Form Proposed Action Tills: Lithium W@t Chemistry Project (4597) Program or Fi~ld Oftke: Y-12 Site Office L&cationfs) (CiWLCount:r/State): Oak Ridge, Anderson County; Tennessee Proposed Action Description: PAGE 03/04 r: :;: :: !: s .a : brnl, i ~ y. : $ ~-rtl~il : t·:~::;J The proposed action is to develop a small lithium wet chemistry operation for the following purposes: (1) to capture wet chemistry operations, (2) to provide processing path for Lithium materials such as machine dust, (3) to provide lithium based materials, and (4) to produce the littlium hydroxide needed to support production. CategQrj~l Exclusion(s) Applied

166

Design and application of innovative site remediation technologies: Thermal destruction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The book covers wet air oxidation, Texaco gasification process, flameless thermal oxidation, and plasma furnaces. 17 figs., 20 tabs.

Holm, F.W.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

167

Wetting heterogeneity in mixed-wet porous media controls flow dissipation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wettability is crucial for multiphase flow in porous media. However, the effect of spatial distribution of wetting domains has previously only been dealt with by averaging contact angles over several pores. By preparing tailored bead packings with the same average surface wettability, but differing in the typical spatial extension of the same-type wetting domains, we show that models based solely on averages do not capture the dynamics of two phase flow in such systems. Using X-ray tomography we measure the typical length scale xi of the wetting domains in our samples. In capillary pressure saturation (CPS) experiments we find that xi controls the width of the hysteresis loop for xi <= d, d being the bead diameter. X-Ray tomography of the samples during both water and oil invasion shows that the front morphology is smoothened at small values of xi. Both observations are consistent with an increase of dissipation for small correlation length.

Murison, Julie; Baret, Jean-Christophe; Herminghaus, Stephan; Schröter, Matthias; Brinkmann, Martin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Wetting heterogeneity in mixed-wet porous media controls flow dissipation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wettability is crucial for multiphase flow in porous media. However, the effect of spatial distribution of wetting domains has previously only been dealt with by averaging contact angles over several pores. By preparing tailored bead packings with the same average surface wettability, but differing in the typical spatial extension of the same-type wetting domains, we show that models based solely on averages do not capture the dynamics of two phase flow in such systems. Using X-ray tomography we measure the typical length scale xi of the wetting domains in our samples. In capillary pressure saturation (CPS) experiments we find that xi controls the width of the hysteresis loop for xi <= d, d being the bead diameter. X-Ray tomography of the samples during both water and oil invasion shows that the front morphology is smoothened at small values of xi. Both observations are consistent with an increase of dissipation for small correlation length.

Julie Murison; Benoît Semin; Jean-Christophe Baret; Stephan Herminghaus; Matthias Schröter; Martin Brinkmann

2013-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

169

Observation-Based Assessment of the Impact of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions Reductions on Ozone Air Quality over the Eastern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ozone is produced by chemical interactions involving nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds in the presence of sunlight. At high concentrations, ground-level ozone has been shown to be harmful to human health and to the environment. ...

Edith Gégo; P. Steven Porter; Alice Gilliland; S. Trivikrama Rao

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL USING MEMBRANE-BASED UP-FLOW WET ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATION  

SciTech Connect

This is the first quarterly report of the ''Multi-Pollutant Control Using Membrane--Based Upflow Wet Electrostatic Precipitation'' project funded by the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41592 to Croll-Reynolds Clean Air Technologies (CRCAT). In this 18 month project, CRCAT and its team members will conduct detailed emission tests of metallic and new membrane collection material within a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) at First Energy's Penn Power's Bruce Mansfield (BMP) plant in Shippingport, Pa. Test results performed on the existing metallic WESP during November of 2002 showed consistent results with previous test results. Average collection efficiency of 89% on SO{sub 3} mist was achieved. Additionally, removal efficiencies of 62% were achieved at very high velocity, greater than 15 ft./sec.

James Reynolds

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Description and cost analysis of a deluge dry/wet cooling system.  

SciTech Connect

The use of combined dry/wet cooling systems for large base-load power plants offers the potential for significant water savings as compared to evaporatively cooled power plants and significant cost savings in comparison to dry cooled power plants. The results of a detailed engineering and cost study of one type of dry/wet cooling system are described. In the ''deluge'' dry/wet cooling method, a finned-tube heat exchanger is designed to operate in the dry mode up to a given ambient temperature. To avoid the degradation of performance for higher ambient temperatures, water (the delugeate) is distributed over a portion of the heat exchanger surface to enhance the cooling process by evaporation. The deluge system used in this study is termed the HOETERV system. The HOETERV deluge system uses a horizontal-tube, vertical-plate-finned heat exchanger. The delugeate is distributed at the top of the heat exchanger and is allowed to fall by gravity in a thin film on the face of the plate fin. Ammonia is used as the indirect heat transfer medium between the turbine exhaust steam and the ambient air. Steam is condensed by boiling ammonia in a condenser/reboiler. The ammonia is condensed in the heat exchanger by inducing airflow over the plate fins. Various design parameters of the cooling system have been studied to evaluate their impact on the optimum cooling system design and the power-plant/utility-system interface. Annual water availability was the most significant design parameter. Others included site meteorology, heat exchanger configuration and air flow, number and size of towers, fan system design, and turbine operation. It was concluded from this study that the HOETERV deluge system of dry/wet cooling, using ammonia as an intermediate heat transfer medium, offers the potential for significant cost savings compared with all-dry cooling, while achieving substantially reduced water consumption as compared to an evaporatively cooled power plant. (LCL)

Wiles, L.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Braun, D.J.; Braun, D.J.; Faletti, D.W.; Willingham, C.E.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Resilient Sealing Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development of ''invert'' glass compositions designed for hermetic seals in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Upon sealing at temperatures compatible with other SOFC materials (generally {le}900 C), these glasses transform to glass-ceramics with desirable thermo-mechanical properties, including coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) over 11 x 10{sup -6}/C. The long-term (>four months) stability of CTE under SOFC operational conditions (e.g., 800 C in wet forming gas or in air) has been evaluated, as have weight losses under similar conditions. The dependence of sealant properties on glass composition are described in this report, as are experiments to develop glass-matrix composites by adding second phases, including Ni and YSZ. This information provides design-guidance to produce desirable sealing materials.

Signo T. Reis; Richard K. Brow

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

173

Air Quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What We Monitor & Why » What We Monitor & Why » Air Quality Air Quality To preserve our existing wilderness-area air quality, LANL implements a conscientious program of air monitoring. April 12, 2012 Real-time data monitoring for particulate matter An air monitoring field team member tests one of LANL's tapered element oscillating microbalance samplers, which collects real-time particulate matter data. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email LANL monitors air quality 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Why we monitor air LANL monitors many different pathways in order to assess their impact on workers, the public, animals, and plants. We monitor the air around the Laboratory to ensure our operations are not affecting the air of nearby

174

Urban and Regional Air Quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

equipment equipment Urban and Regional Air Quality Research in this area is concerned with regional air quality issues such as: Controlling nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds, to manage tropospheric ozone pollution. Hazardous air pollutants: using science to base standards on rigorously studied risks. Air quality and climate: how does climate influence air quality at a regional or local level? Current modeling practices often do not capture variations in pollutants such as ozone-they represent a limited sample of the diverse meteorology and human behavior that affect air pollution. Improved modeling of regional air quality will help understand variability, reveal patterns of behavior, and pollutant transport issues. Controlled experiments in lab and field can help validate improved models.

175

Ga Air Compressor, Ga Air Compressor Products, Ga Air ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Ga Air Compressor, You Can Buy Various High Quality Ga Air Compressor Products from Global Ga Air Compressor Suppliers and Ga Air Compressor ...

176

Water Treatment For Wet Electrostatic Precipitators: Conceptual Design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pilot testing has shown that replacement of the last field of a small dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP) with a single wet field can significantly reduce outlet particulate emissions from coal-fired power plants. This report summarizes a pilot wet ESP performance test, cost projections from an economic study, and results from a study of the water use and chemistry issues that need to be resolved to make the wet ESP technology an attractive option for electric utilities.

1997-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

177

Self-oscillations on a partially wetted catalyst pellet in ? ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

and the vapor–gas phases on wetted and dry catalyst pellets, respectively. ... perature and flooding states of the catalyst pellet was first observed, which were ...

178

Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

179

Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

180

Utah Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation New Reservoir Discoveries...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

182

Utah Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

183

Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

184

,"Utah Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Utah Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

185

Utah Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Estimated...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Estimated Production from Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Estimated Production from Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade...

186

Utah Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

187

Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic...

188

Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

189

,"Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation",10,"Annua...

190

,"Utah Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Utah Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

191

Utah Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

192

Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

193

Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Estimated Production from Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Estimated Production from Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)...

194

Utah Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, New...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet)...

195

,"Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion...

196

,"Utah Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Utah Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation",10,"Annual",2011...

197

Utah Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

198

Utah Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

199

,"Louisiana State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

200

,"Louisiana State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

,"U.S. Federal Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Federal Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

202

,"California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves...

203

,"California Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion...

204

,"California State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion...

205

,"California State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

206

,"California - Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California - Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves...

207

,"California Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

208

,"California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves...

209

,"California Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion...

210

,"California Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

211

,"Ohio Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Ohio Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

212

,"Ohio Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Ohio Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion...

213

,"Ohio Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Ohio Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

214

Wet Gasification of Ethanol Residue: A Preliminary Assessment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A preliminary technoeconomic assessment has been made of several options for the application of catalytic hydrothermal gasification (wet gasification) to ethanol processing residues.

Brown, Michael D.; Elliott, Douglas C.

2008-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

215

,"North Dakota Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of...

216

,"Michigan Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Michigan Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

217

,"Michigan Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Michigan Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

218

,"Michigan Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Michigan Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

219

,"Ohio Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Ohio Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease...

220

,"Ohio Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Ohio Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation",10,"Annual",20...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

,"Estimated Production of Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Estimated Production of Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Lates...

222

Wetting Properties of Molten Silicon with Graphite Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The wetting behavior of molten-silicon/refractory-materials system is important in ... Electrorefining of Metallurgical Grade Silicon in Molten Salts.

223

,"Colorado Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

224

,"Colorado Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

225

,"Colorado Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

226

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Natural Gas, Wet...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Percent) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves from Greater than 200...

227

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Natural Gas, Wet...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Percent) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Production from Greater than 200 Meters...

228

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves from Greater than 200 Meters Deep...

229

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Production from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Billion...

230

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Less than 200 Meters Deep (Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Production from Less than 200 Meters Deep (Billion Cubic...

231

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Less than 200 Meters Deep (Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves from Less than 200 Meters Deep (Billion...

232

,"Texas - RRC District 5 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 5 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion...

233

,"Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

234

,"Texas - RRC District 9 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 9 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion...

235

,"Texas - RRC District 5 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 5 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

236

,"Texas - RRC District 8 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 8 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

237

,"Texas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

238

,"Texas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

239

,"Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion...

240

,"Texas - RRC District 6 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 6 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

,"Texas State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

242

,"Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves...

243

,"Texas - RRC District 10 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 10 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion...

244

,"Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves...

245

,"Texas State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

246

,"Texas - RRC District 8A Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 8A Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

247

,"Texas - RRC District 1 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 1 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion...

248

,"Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

249

,"Texas - RRC District 5 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 5 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

250

,"Texas - RRC District 10 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 10 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

251

,"Texas - RRC District 7B Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 7B Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

252

,"Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves...

253

,"Texas State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

254

,"Texas - RRC District 9 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 9 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

255

,"Texas - RRC District 6 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 6 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion...

256

,"Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

257

,"Texas - RRC District 1 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 1 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

258

,"Texas - RRC District 7C Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 7C Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

259

,"Texas - RRC District 8 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 8 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

260

,"Texas - RRC District 8 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 8 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

,"Texas - RRC District 6 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 6 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

262

,"Texas - RRC District 9 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 9 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

263

,"Texas - RRC District 1 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 1 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

264

,"Texas - RRC District 10 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 10 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

265

Energy Efficient Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants (o-HAPs) from Industrial Waste Streams by Direct Electron Oxidation  

SciTech Connect

This research program investigated and quantified the capability of direct electron beam destruction of volatile organic compounds and organic hazardous air pollutants in model industrial waste streams and calculated the energy savings that would be realized by the widespread adoption of the technology over traditional pollution control methods. Specifically, this research determined the quantity of electron beam dose required to remove 19 of the most important non-halogenated air pollutants from waste streams and constructed a technical and economic model for the implementation of the technology in key industries including petroleum refining, organic & solvent chemical production, food & beverage production, and forest & paper products manufacturing. Energy savings of 75 - 90% and green house gas reductions of 66 - 95% were calculated for the target market segments.

Testoni, A. L.

2011-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

266

Controlled CO preferential oxidation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Method for controlling the supply of air to a PROX reactor for the preferential oxidation in the presence of hydrogen wherein the concentration of the hydrogen entering and exiting the PROX reactor is monitored, the difference therebetween correlated to the amount of air needed to minimize such difference, and based thereon the air supply to the PROX reactor adjusted to provide such amount and minimize such difference.

Meltser, Mark A. (Pittsford, NY); Hoch, Martin M. (Webster, NY)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Partial oxidation power plant with reheating and method thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method are disclosed for generating power having an air compression/partial oxidation system, a turbine, and a primary combustion system. The air compression/partial oxidation system receives a first air stream and a fuel stream and produces a first partially oxidized fuel stream and a first compressed air stream therefrom. The turbine expands the first partially oxidized fuel stream while being cooled by the first compressed air stream to produce a heated air stream. The heated air stream is injected into the expanding first partially oxidized fuel stream, thereby reheating it in the turbine. A second partially oxidized fuel stream is emitted from the turbine. The primary combustion system receives said second partially oxidized fuel stream and a second air stream, combusts said second partially oxidized fuel stream, and produces rotating shaft power and an emission stream therefrom. 2 figs.

Newby, R.A.; Yang, W.C.; Bannister, R.L.

1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

268

Partial oxidation power plant with reheating and method thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for generating power having an air compression/partial oxidation system, a turbine, and a primary combustion system. The air compression/partial oxidation system receives a first air stream and a fuel stream and produces a first partially oxidized fuel stream and a first compressed air stream therefrom. The turbine expands the first partially oxidized fuel stream while being cooled by the first compressed air stream to produce a heated air stream. The heated air stream is injected into the expanding first partially oxidized fuel stream, thereby reheating it in the turbine. A second partially oxidized fuel stream is emitted from the turbine. The primary combustion system receives said second partially oxidized fuel stream and a second air stream, combusts said second partially oxidized fuel stream, and produces rotating shaft power and an emission stream therefrom.

Newby, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Yang, Wen-Ching (Export, PA); Bannister, Ronald L. (Winter Springs, FL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Mercury Emissions Control in Wet FGD Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W) and McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) have had a continuing program over the past decade for characterizing and optimizing mercury control in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. These efforts have led to the characterization of mercury emissions control at two utility installations and full-scale demonstration (55 MW and 1300 MW) of the effect of a mercury control performance enhancement additive for wet FGD systems. This paper presents the results of the mercury emissions control testing conducted at these two sites. The performance is related to EPA Information Collection Request (ICR) data from an FGD system supplier’s perspective, highlighting the need to consider the effects of system design and operation when evaluating mercury emissions control performance.

Paul S. Nolan; Babcock Wilcox; Kevin E. Redinger; Babcock Wilcox; Gerald T. Amrhein; Gregory A. Kudlac

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes decorated with cobalt oxide nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) synthesized by spray pyrolysis were decorated with cobalt oxide nanoparticles using a simple synthesis route. This wet chemistry method yielded nanoparticles randomly anchored to the surface of the nanotubes by decomposition ...

D. G. Larrude; P. Ayala; M. E. H. Maia da Costa; F. L. Freire

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

Garwin, Edward L. (Los Altos, CA); Nyaiesh, Ali R. (Palo Alto, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

1986-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

273

Method for wetting a boron alloy to graphite  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for wetting a graphite substrate and spreading a a boron alloy over the substrate. The wetted substrate may be in the form of a needle for an effective ion emission source. The method may also be used to wet a graphite substrate for subsequent joining with another graphite substrate or other metal, or to form a protective coating over a graphite substrate. A noneutectic alloy of boron is formed with a metal selected from the group consisting of nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), and platinum (Pt) with excess boron, i.e., and atomic percentage of boron effective to precipitate boron at a wetting temperature of less than the liquid-phase boundary temperature of the alloy. The alloy is applied to the substrate and the graphite substrate is then heated to the wetting temperature and maintained at the wetting temperature for a time effective for the alloy to wet and spread over the substrate. The excess boron is evenly dispersed in the alloy and is readily available to promote the wetting and spreading action of the alloy. 1 fig.

Storms, E.K.

1987-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

274

Electrode electrolyte interlayers containing cerium oxide for electrochemical fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell is made having a porous fuel electrode (16) and a porous air electrode (13), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) therebetween, where the air electrode surface opposing the electrolyte has a separate, attached, dense, continuous layer (14) of a material containing cerium oxide, and where electrolyte (16) contacts the continuous oxide layer (14), without contacting the air electrode (13).

Borglum, Brian P. (Edgewood, PA); Bessette, Norman F. (N. Huntingdon, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

California Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,881 1980's 1,792 1,424 1,230 1,120 1,006 1990's 911 901 799 817 808 736 610 570 453 355 2000's 754 842 796 759 767 799 780 686 621 612 2010's 503 510 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 California Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After

276

Texas State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,112 1,073 739 634 564 610 1990's 461 477 350 337 230 313 293 290 350 419 2000's 400 468 436 456 321 265 305 261 220 164 2010's 131 118 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 TX, State Offshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31 Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec.

277

Louisiana State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,820 1,100 1,218 1,002 1,042 1990's 812 875 691 789 820 714 626 613 473 541 2000's 592 627 428 448 333 370 386 327 248 215 2010's 279 468 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 LA, State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet

278

California State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 8 1980's 6 12 22 22 29 1990's 6 5 4 2 4 3 2 2 5 19 2000's 5 5 6 7 2 1 5 4 3 4 2010's 3 3 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 CA, State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet

279

Alabama Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 13 1980's 23 25 1990's 25 23 30 46 56 44 38 30 28 27 2000's 29 26 31 32 32 29 18 20 19 29 2010's 38 48 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Alabama Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After

280

California State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 234 1980's 166 256 254 243 235 1990's 194 60 63 65 63 59 49 56 44 77 2000's 91 85 91 83 87 90 90 83 57 57 2010's 66 82 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 CA, State Offshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31 Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Miscellaneous States Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 142 1980's 146 181 47 50 63 52 95 53 56 48 1990's 50 62 82 87 56 37 40 13 22 13 2000's 23 64 80 120 98 118 120 226 263 271 2010's 353 270 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Miscellaneous Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After

282

Ohio Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Ohio Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 432 1980's 282 165 158 396 364 395 522 477 749 686 1990's 844 805 780 763 780 699 715 594 548 777 2000's 717 631 772 823 767 714 801 926 886 799 2010's 742 684 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Ohio Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

283

Florida Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Florida Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 26 4 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Florida Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

284

Mercury Oxidation Performance of Advanced SCR Catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ability of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts to oxidize mercury is an important aspect of many utilities’ mercury control strategies. Improved SCR mercury oxidation will facilitate its capture in downstream wet–flue gas desulfurization systems and will generally result in lower emission rates. Recently, catalyst manufacturers have attempted to maximize mercury oxidation through advanced catalyst formulations.This study documents the performance of an advanced ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

285

Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-Wet FGD  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury control for Plants firing Mercury control for Plants firing texas lignite and equiPPed with esP-wet fgd Background The 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule will require significant reductions in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. One promising mercury control technology involves the use of sorbents such as powdered activated carbon. Full-scale sorbent injection tests conducted for various combinations of fuel and plant air pollution control devices have provided a good understanding of variables that affect sorbent performance. However, many uncertainties exist regarding long-term performance, and data gaps remain for specific plant configurations. Sorbent injection has not been demonstrated at full-scale for plants firing Texas lignite coal, which are responsible for about 10 percent of annual U.S. power plant

286

Greenhouse gas fluxes following tillage and wetting in a wheat-fallow cropping system  

SciTech Connect

Little is known about the relative contributions of episodic tillage and precipitation events to annual greenhouse gas emissions from soil. Consequently, the authors measured carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and methane (CH{sub 4}) fluxes from soil in a wheat-fallow cropping system in western Nebraska using vented surface chambers, before and immediately after tillage and wetting with 5.1 cm of water, during the fallow period in 1995/1996. Replicated fallow management treatments included no-tillage, subtillage, and plow representing a wide range in degree of soil disturbance. Soil bulk density, water-filled pore space, electrical conductivity (EC{sub 1:1}), nitrate (NO{sub 3}), and pH within the top 30.5 cm soil, and soil temperature at 0 to 7.6 cm were measured to assess their correlation with variations in gas flux and tillage and wetting. Atmospheric concentrations above the soil (at {approximately} 40 cm) increased by 15% for CO{sub 2} and 9 to 31% for N{sub 2}O and 6 to 16% for CH{sub 4} within 1 min after tillage and returned to background concentrations within 2 h. Except immediately after tillage, net CH{sub 4} flux was negative, from the atmosphere into soil, and is referred to as CH{sub 4} uptake. Overall, increases (1.5--4-fold) in CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O losses from soil, and CH{sub 4} uptake by soil were short lived and returned to background levels within 8 to 24 h after tillage. Losses of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O increased to 1.7 and 5 times background emissions, respectively, for 24 h following wetting, while CH{sub 4} uptake declined by about 60% for 3 to 14 d after wetting. Water-filled pore space in the surface soil fell below 60% within 24 h after saturation and exhibited an inverse relationship (R{sup 2} = 0.66) with CH{sub 4} uptake. A significant decline in soil NO{sub 3} and EC{sub 1:1} in the top 7.6 cm occurred following wetting. Under the experimental conditions, and the expected frequency of tillage and wetting events, failure to include these short-lived episodic gas pulses in annual flux estimations may underestimate annual CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O loss up to 13 and 24%, respectively, and overestimate CH{sub 4} uptake by up to 18% in this cropping system.

Kessavalou, A.; Drijber, R.A. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Agronomy; Doran, J.W. [Dept. of Agriculture, Lincoln, NE (United States)]|[Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Mosier, A.R. [Dept. of Agriculture, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL USING MEMBRANE--BASED UP-FLOW WET ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATION  

SciTech Connect

This is the Final Report of the ''Multi-Pollutant Control Using Membrane-Based Up-flow Wet Electrostatic Precipitation'' project funded by the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41592 to Croll-Reynolds Clean Air Technologies (CRCAT). In this 18 month project, CRCAT and its team members conducted detailed emission tests of metallic and new membrane collection material within a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) at First Energy's Penn Power's Bruce Mansfield (BMP) plant in Shippingport, Pa. The Membrane WESP was designed to be as similar as the metallic WESP in terms of collection area, air-flow, and electrical characteristics. Both units are two-field units. The membrane unit was installed during the 2nd and 3rd quarters of 2003. Testing of the metallic unit was performed to create a baseline since the Mansfield plant had installed selective catalytic reduction equipment for NOx control and a sodium bisulfate injection system for SO3 control during the spring of 2003. Tests results on the metallic WESP were consistent with previous testing for PM2.5, SO3 mist and mercury. Testing on the membrane WESP demonstrated no adverse impact and equivalent removal efficiencies as that of the metallic WESP. Testing on both units was performed at 8,000 acfm and 15,000 acfm. Summary results are shown.

James Reynolds

2004-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

288

Alpha Radiolysis of Sorbed Water on Uranium Oxides and Uranium Oxyfluorides  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The radiolysis of sorbed water and other impurities contained in actinide oxides has been the focus of a number of studies related to the establishment of criteria for the safe storage and transport of these materials. Gamma radiolysis studies have previously been performed on uranium oxides and oxyfluorides (UO{sub 3}, U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, and UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) to evaluate the long-term storage characteristics of {sup 233}U. This report describes a similar study for alpha radiolysis. Uranium oxides and oxyfluorides (with {sup 238}U as the surrogate for {sup 233}U) were subjected to relatively high alpha radiation doses (235 to 634 MGy) by doping with {sup 244}Cm. The typical irradiation time for these samples was about 1.5 years, which would be equivalent to more than 50 years irradiation by a {sup 233}U sample. Both dry and wet (up to 10 wt % water) samples were examined in an effort to identify the gas pressure and composition changes that occurred as a result of radiolysis. This study shows that several competing reactions occur during radiolysis, with the net effect that only very low pressures of hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide are generated from the water, nitrate, and carbon impurities, respectively, associated with the oxides. In the absence of nitrate impurities, no pressures greater than 1000 torr are generated. Usually, however, the oxygen in the air atmosphere over the oxides is consumed with the corresponding oxidation of the uranium oxide. In the presence of up to 10 wt % water, the oxides first show a small pressure rise followed by a net decrease due to the oxygen consumption and the attainment of a steady-state pressure where the rate of generation of gaseous components is balanced by their recombination and/or consumption in the oxide phase. These results clearly demonstrate that alpha radiolysis of either wet or dry {sup 233}U oxides will not produce deleterious pressures or gaseous components that could compromise the long-term storage of these materials.

Icenhour, A.S.

2003-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

289

Current Research on Building Energy Systems and Air Cleaning...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Development Contact Us Department Contacts Media Contacts Current Research on Building Energy Systems and Air Cleaning by Visible-Photocatalytic Oxidation (Visible-PCO)...

290

Silane Modification of Glass and Silica Surfaces to Obtain Equally Oil-Wet Surfaces in Glass-Covered Silicon Micromodel Applications  

SciTech Connect

The wettability of silicon and glass surfaces can be modified by silanization. However, similar treatments of glass and silica surfaces using the same silane do not necessarily yield the same wettability as determined by the oil-water contact angle. In this technical note, surface cleaning pretreatments were investigated to determine conditions that would yield oil-wet surfaces on glass with similar wettability to silica surfaces treated with the same silane, and both air-water and oil-water contact angles were determined. Air-water contact angles were less sensitive to differences between silanized silica and glass surfaces, often yielding similar values while the oil-water contact angles were quite different. Borosilicate glass surfaces cleaned with standard cleaning solution 1 (SC1) yield intermediate-wet surfaces when silanized with hexamethyldisilazane, while the same cleaning and silanization yields oil-wet surfaces on silica. However, cleaning glass in boiling concentrated nitric acid creates a surface that can be silanized to obtain oil-wet surfaces using HDMS. Moreover, this method is effective on glass with prior thermal treatment at an elevated temperature of 400oC. In this way, silica and glass can be silanized to obtain equally oil-wet surfaces using HMDS. It is demonstrated that pretreatment and silanization is feasible in silicon-silica/glass micromodels previously assembled by anodic bonding, and that the change in wettability has a significant observable effect on immiscisble fluid displacements in the pore network.

Grate, Jay W.; Warner, Marvin G.; Pittman, Jonathan W.; Dehoff, Karl J.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Zhang, Changyong; Oostrom, Martinus

2013-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

291

WET METHOD OF PREPARING PLUTONIUM TRIBROMIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

S> The preparation of anhydrous plutonium tribromide from an aqueous acid solution of plutonium tetrabromide is described, consisting of adding a water-soluble volatile bromide to the tetrabromide to provide additional bromide ions sufficient to furnish an oxidation-reduction potential substantially more positive than --0.966 volt, evaporating the resultant plutonium tribromides to dryness in the presence of HBr, and dehydrating at an elevated temperature also in the presence of HBr.

Davidson, N.R.; Hyde, E.K.

1958-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

292

Texas - RRC District 7B Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 7B Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

293

Texas - RRC District 8A Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 8A Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

294

Texas - RRC District 7C Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 7C Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

295

Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)...

296

Biomass Control in Waste Air Biotrickling Filters by Protozoan Predation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass Control in Waste Air Biotrickling Filters by Protozoan Predation Huub H. J. Cox, Marc A as a means of biomass control. Wet biomass for- mation in 23.6-L reactors over a 77-day period was reduced in the biotrickling filter enriched with protozoa. The lower rate of biomass accumulation after the addi- tion

297

California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 307 1980's 265 265 325 344 256 254 261 243 220 233 1990's 228 220 196 135 145 109 120 129 116 233 2000's 244 185 197 173 188 269 208 211 150 168 2010's 178 172 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

298

Montana Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 837 1980's 1,308 1,336 870 921 825 884 823 801 834 889 1990's 920 848 875 684 727 792 806 769 789 851 2000's 892 907 914 1,068 1,002 998 1,069 1,067 1,014 993 2010's 959 792 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Montana Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

299

Montana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 51 1980's 122 89 81 108 77 91 98 97 101 68 1990's 86 66 61 53 55 53 51 42 52 67 2000's 70 85 94 112 130 161 195 219 197 312 2010's 302 270 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31

300

Louisiana - North Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana - North Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 765 1980's 916 1,040 832 775 690 632 567 488 249 237 1990's 241 192 160 120 134 133 255 287 183 260 2000's 186 168 159 139 107 98 90 73 78 53 2010's 73 98 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

New York Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 211 1980's 208 262 226 295 387 367 457 410 351 364 1990's 354 331 329 264 240 195 229 223 217 212 2000's 320 311 315 365 324 346 361 365 360 196 2010's 271 245 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31

302

California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 176 1980's 207 163 104 115 163 188 149 155 158 141 1990's 110 120 103 108 108 115 112 146 154 174 2000's 204 195 218 196 184 186 161 154 81 91 2010's 92 102 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 CA, Los Angeles Basin Onshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of

303

Montana Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 786 1980's 1,186 1,247 789 813 748 793 725 704 733 821 1990's 834 782 814 631 672 739 755 727 737 784 2000's 822 822 820 956 872 837 874 848 817 681 2010's 657 522 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31

304

Utah Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Reserves Sales ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

305

Utah Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

306

Utah Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Reserves Acquisitions...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

307

Utah Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, New...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

308

Utah Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Reserves Adjustments...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

309

Utah Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Reserves Revision...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

310

Utah Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Reserves Revision...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

311

Utah Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Reserves Extensions...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

312

Utah Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Reserves New Field...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

313

Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

314

Utah Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Reserves Estimated...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

315

California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1 1980's 0 1 1 1 1 3 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 2000's 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 CA, Los Angeles Basin Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved

316

California - Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 395 1980's 330 325 384 405 284 277 275 255 232 238 1990's 232 231 215 201 205 163 168 176 118 233 2000's 244 185 197 174 196 277 214 212 151 169 2010's 180 173 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 CA, Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec.

317

California Federal Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California Federal Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 73 1980's 107 227 217 258 267 1990's 240 179 149 147 110 94 115 58 52 48 2000's 76 50 56 55 47 49 55 53 3 9 2010's 3 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Federal Offshore California Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved

318

California Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 249 1980's 307 1,110 1,249 1,312 1,252 1990's 1,229 995 987 976 1,077 1,195 1,151 498 437 488 2000's 500 490 459 456 412 776 756 752 702 731 2010's 722 711 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

319

Michigan Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 733 1980's 883 758 719 824 774 689 577 569 491 432 1990's 408 437 352 328 357 326 347 281 228 227 2000's 214 159 214 269 193 153 192 179 148 77 2010's 72 77 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31

320

Louisiana State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3,269 1,351 1,478 1,209 1,273 1990's 1,019 1,082 845 946 988 862 783 743 571 661 2000's 721 772 512 527 394 433 442 392 934 728 2010's 386 519 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 LA, State Offshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Miscellaneous States Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 156 1980's 180 193 74 81 77 77 136 66 84 87 1990's 72 76 93 96 67 69 68 44 39 67 2000's 42 83 100 134 110 132 139 241 272 349 2010's 363 393 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Miscellaneous Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

322

North Dakota Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 485 1980's 594 654 696 673 643 650 610 578 593 625 1990's 650 533 567 585 568 518 512 531 501 475 2000's 487 495 524 497 465 508 539 572 603 1,213 2010's 1,869 2,652 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 North Dakota Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

323

North Dakota Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 284 1980's 355 401 448 416 376 319 317 302 327 312 1990's 316 290 301 311 293 255 257 274 240 225 2000's 223 225 209 181 145 165 182 155 119 143 2010's 152 141 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31

324

Miscellaneous States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 14 1980's 34 12 27 31 14 25 41 13 28 39 1990's 22 14 11 9 11 32 28 31 17 54 2000's 19 19 20 14 12 14 19 15 9 78 2010's 10 104 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31

325

Wyoming Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,038 1980's 1,374 1,228 1,060 959 867 710 691 691 616 581 1990's 573 572 624 502 611 879 824 850 794 713 2000's 652 488 561 450 362 384 347 365 223 362 2010's 334 318 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

326

Arkansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 166 1980's 194 184 174 194 189 157 150 145 157 145 1990's 67 136 133 93 85 104 89 56 38 41 2000's 39 30 38 37 40 46 44 37 12 20 2010's 29 46 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31

327

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

(Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

328

Results of WetNet PIP-2 Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The second WetNet Precipitation Intercomparison Project (PIP-2) evaluates the performance of 20 satellite precipitation retrieval algorithms, implemented for application with Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) passive microwave (PMW) ...

E. A. Smith; J. E. Lamm; R. Adler; J. Alishouse; K. Aonashi; E. Barrett; P. Bauer; W. Berg; A. Chang; R. Ferraro; J. Ferriday; S. Goodman; N. Grody; C. Kidd; D. Kniveton; C. Kummerow; G. Liu; F. Marzano; A. Mugnai; W. Olson; G. Petty; A. Shibata; R. Spencer; F. Wentz; T. Wilheit; E. Zipser

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Spatial Coherence and Predictability of Indonesian Wet Season Rainfall  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rainfall from 63 stations across Indonesia is examined for the period 1950–98 to determine the spatial coherence of wet season anomalies. An example of almost unrelated anomalies at two neighboring stations is presented. Principal component ...

Malcolm Haylock; John McBride

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Impact of Initial Soil Wetness on Seasonal Atmospheric Prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the importance of initial soil wetness in seasonal predictions with dynamical models. Two experiments are performed, each consisting of two ensembles of global climate model integrations initialized from early June ...

M. J. Fennessy; J. Shukla

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

(Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

332

Detailed modeling and laser-induced fluorescence imaging of nitric oxide in a NH(i)-seeded non-premixed methane/air flame  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we study the formation of NO in laminar, nitrogen diluted methane diffusion flames that are seeded with ammonia in the fuel stream. We have performed numerical simulations with detailed chemistry as well as laser-induced fluorescence imaging measurements for a range of ammonia injection rates. For comparison with the experimental data, synthetic LIF images are calculated based on the numerical data accounting for temperature and fluorescence quenching effects. We demonstrate good agreement between measurements and computations. The LIF corrections inferred from the simulation are then used to calculate absolute NO mole fractions from the measured signal.The NO formation in both doped and undoped flames occurs in the flame sheet. In the undoped flame, four different mechanisms including thermal and prompt NO appear to contribute to NO formation. As the NH3 seeding level increases, fuel-NO becomes the dominant mechanism and N2 shifts from being a net reactant to being a net product. Nitric oxide in the undoped flame as well as in the core region of the doped flames are underpredicted by the model; we attribute this mainly to inaccuracies in the NO recycling chemistry on the fuel-rich side of the flame sheet.

Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Grcar, Joseph F.; Bessler, Wolfgang G.; Schulz, Christof; Glarborg, Peter; Jensen, Anker D.

2001-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

333

Demonstration of a Last Field Wet ESP Conversion -- Installation Summary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the conversion of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) on Unit 3 at Mirant's (formerly Potomac Electric Power Company's) Dickerson Generating Station to hybrid, dry-wet operation. This Tailored Collaboration project was undertaken to determine, at full scale, if the conversion of a single field of a conventional dry ESP to wet operation could significantly reduce particulate emissions and provide reliable operation with an acceptable level of maintenance. Specifically, the performan...

2001-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

334

Reduction of Water Use in Wet FGD Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42726 was established in January 2006, and is current through Amendment 2, April 2006. The current reporting period, April 1, 2008 through June 30, 2008, is the eighth progress-reporting period for the project. However, this report will be the final report (instead of a quarterly report) because this project is being terminated. Efforts to bring this project to a close over the past several months focused on internal project discussions, and subsequent communications with NETL, regarding the inherent difficulty with completing this project as originally scoped, and the option of performing an engineering study to accomplish some of the chief project objectives. However, NETL decided that the engineering study did indeed constitute a significant scope deviation from the original concepts, and that pursuit of this option was not recommended. These discussions are summarized in the Results and Discussion, and the Conclusion sections. The objective of this project by a team lead by URS Group was to demonstrate the use of regenerative heat exchange to reduce flue gas temperature and minimize evaporative water consumption in wet flue gas desulphurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intended to demonstrate that regenerative heat exchange to cool flue gas upstream of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and reheat flue gas downstream of the FGD system would result in the following benefits to air pollution control (APC) systems on coal-fired power plants: (1) Improve ESP performance due to reduced gas volume and improved ash resistivity characteristics, (2) Control SO3 emissions through condensation on the fly ash, and (3) Avoid the need to install wet stacks or to provide flue gas reheat. Finally, operation at cooler flue gas temperatures offered the potential benefit of increasing mercury (Hg) removal across the ESP and FGD systems. This project planned to conduct pilot-scale tests of regenerative heat exchange to determine the reduction in FGD water consumption that can be achieved and assess the resulting impact on APC systems. An analysis of the improvement in the performance of the APC systems and the resulting reduction in capital and operating costs were going to be conducted. The tests were intended to determine the impact of operation of cooling flue gas temperatures on FGD water consumption, ESP particulate removal, SO{sub 3} removal, and Hg removal, and to assess the potential negative impact of excessive corrosion rates in the regenerative heat exchanger. Testing was going to be conducted on Columbian coal (with properties similar to low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal) and SO{sub 3} will be spiked onto the flue gas to simulate operation with higher SO{sub 3} concentrations resulting from firing a higher sulfur coal, or operating with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit. The project was also going to include associate planning, laboratory analytical support, reporting, and management activities. The URS project team finalized a conceptual alternative approach to demonstrate, via an engineering study, the use of regenerative heat exchange to reduce flue gas temperature and minimize evaporative water consumption. This idea was presented in summary format to NETL for consideration. NETL determined that this alternative approach deviated from the original project objectives, and that it would be in the best interest of all parties involved to cancel the project.

David Rencher

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

335

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

336

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

337

High Temperature Oxidation Issues in Fossil Boilers  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the conclusion of a multi-year project that examined the oxidation resistance of Al-rich coatings and a new project examining the effect of higher CO{sub 2} contents on corrosion mechanisms in oxy-fired coal-fueled boilers. The coating work primarily examined diffusion coatings for the steam side of typical ferritic (9-12%Cr) and austenitic (e.g., Type 304L) tube materials in accelerated testing at 650-800 C in wet air. The final phase of this work has attempted to obtain additional coating failures to determine a critical Al content (at coating failure) as a function of exposure temperature. However, no failures have been observed for austenitic substrates including >25 kh at 700 C and >6 kh at 800 C. Preliminary results are presented from the oxy-firing project, where the initial focus is on ferritic alloys. Initial coal-ash experiments were conducted at 600 C to evaluate some of the test parameters and three different levels of CO{sub 2} were investigated. An in-situ creep rig is being constructed to evaluate the effect of environment on creep properties. Initial ex-situ creep experiments are presented as a baseline.

Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Bestor, Michael A [ORNL; Dryepondt, Sebastien N [ORNL; Zhang, Ying [Tennessee Technological University

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Electro Catalytic Oxidation (ECO) Operation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The power industry in the United States is faced with meeting many new regulations to reduce a number of air pollutants including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fine particulate matter, and mercury. With over 1,000 power plants in the US, this is a daunting task. In some cases, traditional pollution control technologies such as wet scrubbers and SCRs are not feasible. Powerspan's Electro-Catalytic Oxidation, or ECO{reg_sign} process combines four pollution control devices into a single integrated system that can be installed after a power plant's particulate control device. Besides achieving major reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg), ECO produces a highly marketable fertilizer, which can help offset the operating costs of the process system. Powerspan has been operating a 50-MW ECO commercial demonstration unit (CDU) at FirstEnergy Corp.'s R.E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio, since February 2004. In addition to the CDU, a test loop has been constructed beside the CDU to demonstrate higher NOx removal rates and test various scrubber packing types and wet ESP configurations. Furthermore, Powerspan has developed the ECO{reg_sign}{sub 2} technology, a regenerative process that uses a proprietary solvent to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas. The CO{sub 2} capture takes place after the capture of NOx, SO{sub 2}, mercury, and fine particulate matter. Once the CO{sub 2} is captured, the proprietary solution is regenerated to release CO{sub 2} in a form that is ready for geological storage or beneficial use. Pilot scale testing of ECO{sub 2} began in early 2009 at FirstEnergy's Burger Plant. The ECO{sub 2} pilot unit is designed to process a 1-MW flue gas stream and produce 20 tons of CO{sub 2} per day, achieving a 90% CO{sub 2} capture rate. The ECO{sub 2} pilot program provided the opportunity to confirm process design and cost estimates, and prepare for large scale capture and sequestration projects. The objectives of this project were to prove at a commercial scale that ECO is capable of extended operations over a range of conditions, that it meets the reliability requirements of a typical utility, and that the fertilizer co-product can be consistently generated, providing ECO with an economic advantage over conventional technologies currently available. Further objectives of the project were to show that the ECO system provides flue gas that meets the inlet standards necessary for ECO{sub 2} to operate, and that the outlet CO{sub 2} and other constituents produced by the ECO{sub 2} pilot can meet Kinder-Morgan pipeline standards for purposes of sequestration. All project objectives are consistent with DOE's Pollution Control Innovations for Power Plants program goals.

Morgan Jones

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

339

Air permitting of IGCC plants  

SciTech Connect

The IGCC process is, currently, the preferred choice over conventional thermal power production in regard to cleanup of fuel and significantly reduced contaminant emissions. The air permitting requirements include the review of: feed preparation and PM emissions; feed gasification and contaminant emissions; elemental sulfur recovery and SO{sub 2} emissions; options for carbon-dioxide recovery; syngas characteristics for combustion; CT design and combustion mechanisms; air contaminant emissions of CT; controlled CT emissions of nitrogen-oxides and carbon-monoxide gases using the SCR and oxidation catalysts, respectively; and, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). However, the IGCC processes are being rigorously reviewed for the system integration and reliability, and significant reduction of air contaminant emissions (including the greenhouse gases). This paper included a review of IGCC air contaminant emission rates, and various applicable regulatory requirements, such as NSR (New Source Review), NSPS (New Source Performance Standards), and MACT (Maximum Achievable Control Technology). The IGCC facility's NOX, CO, SO{sub 2}, PM, VOCs, and HAPs emission rates would be significantly low. Thus, effective, construction and installation, and operation air permits would be necessary for IGCC facilities.

Chitikela, S.R.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

The Use of Electrochemical Techniques to Characterize Wet Steam Environments  

SciTech Connect

The composition of a steam phase in equilibrium with a water phase at high temperature is remarkably affected by the varying capabilities of the water phase constituents to partition into the steam. Ionic impurities (sodium, chloride, sulfate, etc.) tend to remain in the water phase, while weakly ionic or gaseous species (oxygen) partition into the steam. Analysis of the water phase can provide misleading results concerning the steam phase composition or environment. This paper describes efforts that were made to use novel electrochemical probes and sampling techniques to directly characterize a wet steam phase environment in equilibrium with high temperature water. Probes were designed to make electrochemical measurements in the thin film of water existing on exposed surfaces in steam over a water phase. Some of these probes were referenced against a conventional high temperature electrode located in the water phase. Others used two different materials (typically tungsten and platinum) to make measurements without a true reference electrode. The novel probes were also deployed in a steam space removed from the water phase. It was necessary to construct a reservoir and an external, air-cooled condenser to automatically keep the reservoir full of condensed steam. Conventional reference and working electrodes were placed in the water phase of the reservoir and the novel probes protruded into the vapor space above it. Finally, water phase probes (both reference and working electrodes) were added to the hot condensed steam in the external condenser. Since the condensing action collapsed the volatiles back into the water phase, these electrodes proved to be extremely sensitive at detecting oxygen, which is one of the species of highest concern in high temperature power systems. Although the novel steam phase probes provided encouraging initial results, the tendency for tungsten to completely corrode away in the steam phase limited their usefulness. However, the conventional water phase electrodes, installed both in the reservoir and in the external condensing coil, provided useful data showing the adverse impact of oxygen and carbon dioxide on the REDOX potential and high temperature pH, respectively.

Bruce W. Bussert; John A. Crowley; Kenneth J. Kimball; Brian J. Lashway

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air Pollution, Air Quality Classifications and Standards, and Air Quality Area Classifications (New York) Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air Pollution, Air Quality Classifications and Standards, and Air Quality Area Classifications (New York) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Fuel Distributor Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State New York Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider NY Department of Environmental Conservation These regulations establish emissions limits and permitting and operational

342

DRY FLUE GAS CLEANING PROCESSES FOR ACHIEVING AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was mercury adsorption onto calcium sulfate (CaSO4), a byproduct of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wet., Powers K.W., and Pitoniak E.R. (2004) Method for Purifying Flue Gases from Combustion Sources. PatentCoupling of Advanced Oxidation and Adsorption Processes onto Silica-Titania Composites for Low

Columbia University

343

Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

Ken Mortensen

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

344

Kentucky Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2 1980's 11 14 12 19 17 13 17 19 19 22 1990's 8 10 8 6 47 27 24 26 20 29 2000's 27 25 25 25 19 30 36 34 34 32 2010's 111 98 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Kentucky Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After

345

Florida Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Florida Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 108 1980's 122 99 86 64 90 81 69 62 69 57 1990's 53 45 55 59 117 110 119 112 106 100 2000's 93 96 102 92 88 87 50 110 1 7 2010's 30 2 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Florida Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After

346

Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The present invention is especially advantageous for making metal oxides other than silica that are prone to forming opaque, cracked aerogels.

Droege, Michael W. (Livermore, CA); Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Hair, Lucy M. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The present invention is especially advantageous for making metal oxides other than silica that are prone to forming opaque, cracked aerogels. 6 figs.

Droege, M.W.; Coronado, P.R.; Hair, L.M.

1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

348

MHK Technologies/WET NZ | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

NZ NZ < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage WET NZ.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Wave Energy Technology New Zealand WET NZ Technology Resource Click here Wave Technology Type Click here Point Absorber - Floating Technology Readiness Level Click here TRL 5 6 System Integration and Technology Laboratory Demonstration Technology Description The WET NZ device is planned to have a modular generation capability of up to 500 kW with onboard controls that will be able to accurately forecast incoming waves and adjust the response to changing wave patterns The device will be largely sub surface so that as much of the device as possible interacts directly with the wave energy Technology Dimensions

349

High strength air-dried aerogels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for the preparation of high strength air-dried organic aerogels. The method involves the sol-gel polymerization of organic gel precursors, such as resorcinol with formaldehyde (RF) in aqueous solvents with R/C ratios greater than about 1000 and R/F ratios less than about 1:2.1. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be air dried at ambient temperatures and pressures. The method significantly reduces the time and/or energy required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods using either supercritical solvent extraction. The air dried gel exhibits typically less than 5% shrinkage.

Coronado, Paul R.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

350

Air Toxics Control by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems: 2013 Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With proposed changes in current emissions regulations and recent EPA initiatives, most power producers have concluded that tighter limits on mercury, NOx, SO2, and primary particulates are inevitable. Likewise, more stringent controls for power plant emissions emphasize the need for more cost-effective pollutant reduction approaches. This report provides an update on results from an ongoing EPRI project directed at enhancing “co-benefit” capture of mercury and ...

2013-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

351

Electro-osmotic transport in wet processing of textiles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electro-osmotic (or electrokinetic) transport is used to efficiently force a solution (or water) through the interior of the fibers or yarns of textile materials for wet processing of textiles. The textile material is passed between electrodes that apply an electric field across the fabric. Used alone or in parallel with conventional hydraulic washing (forced convection), electro-osmotic transport greatly reduces the amount of water used in wet processing. The amount of water required to achieve a fixed level of rinsing of tint can be reduced, for example, to 1-5 lbs water per pound of fabric from an industry benchmark of 20 lbs water/lb fabric.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Electro-osmotic transport in wet processing of textiles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electro-osmotic (or electrokinetic) transport is used to efficiently force a solution (or water) through the interior of the fibers or yarns of textile materials for wet processing of textiles. The textile material is passed between electrodes that apply an electric field across the fabric. Used alone or in parallel with conventional hydraulic washing (forced convection), electro-osmotic transport greatly reduces the amount of water used in wet processing. The amount of water required to achieve a fixed level of rinsing of tint can be reduced, for example, to 1--5 lbs water per pound of fabric from an industry benchmark of 20 lbs water/lb fabric. 5 figs.

Cooper, J.F.

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

353

An integrated multi-model approach for air quality assessment: Development and evaluation of the OSCAR Air Quality Assessment System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports on the development and evaluation of a new modelling system for studying air quality on local scales. A multi-model approach has been adopted to develop the OSCAR Air Quality Modelling System to conduct assessments at different levels ... Keywords: Air quality, Model evaluation, Modelling system, Nitrogen oxides, OSCAR, Particulate matter

Ranjeet S. Sokhi; Hongjun Mao; Srinivas T. G. Srimath; Shiyuan Fan; Nutthida Kitwiroon; Lakhumal Luhana; Jaakko Kukkonen; Mervi Haakana; Ari Karppinen; K. Dick van den Hout; Paul Boulter; Ian S. McCrae; Steinar Larssen; Karl I. Gjerstad; Roberto San José; John Bartzis; Panagiotis Neofytou; Peter van den Breemer; Steve Neville; Anu Kousa; Blanca M. Cortes; Ingrid Myrtveit

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Air transport of plutonium metal : content expansion initiative for the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging.  

SciTech Connect

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

Mann, Paul T. (National Nuclear Security Administration); Caviness, Michael L. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Air transport of plutonium metal: content expansion initiative for the plutonium air transportable (PAT01) packaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

Caviness, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mann, Paul T [NNSA/ALBUQUERQUE; Yoshimura, Richard H [SNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Oxidative Degradation of Monoethanolamine  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxidative Degradation of Monoethanolamine Oxidative Degradation of Monoethanolamine Susan Chi Gary T. Rochelle* (gtr@che.utexas.edu, 512-471-7230) The University of Texas at Austin Department of Chemical Engineering Austin, Texas 78712 Prepared for presentation at the First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, Washington, DC, May 14-17, 2001 Abstract Oxidative degradation of monoethanolamine (MEA) was studied under typical absorber condition of 55°C. The rate of evolution of NH 3 , which was indicative of the overall rate of degradation, was measured continuously in a batch system sparged with air. Dissolved iron from 0.0001 mM to 1 mM yields oxidation rates from 0.37 to 2 mM/hr in MEA solutions loaded with 0.4 mole CO 2 / mole MEA. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and N,N-bis(2- hydroxyethyl)glycine effectively decrease the rate of oxidation in the presence of iron by 40 to

357

JV Task-123 Determination of Trace Element Concentrations at an Eastern Bituminous Coal Plant Employing an SCR and Wet FGD  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) and with funding from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducting tests to prove that a high level of mercury control (>90%) can be achieved at a power plant burning a high-sulfur eastern bituminous coal. With funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), DOE, and Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates Program, the EERC completed an additional sampling project to provide data as to the behavior of a number of trace elements across the various pollution control devices, with a special emphasis on the wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. Results showed that the concentrations of almost all the elements of interest leaving the stack were very low, and a high percentage of the trace elements were captured in the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) (for most, >80%). Although, with a few exceptions, the overall mass balances were generally quite good, the mass balances across the wet FGD were more variable. This is most likely a result of some of the concentrations being very low and also the uncertainties in determining flows within a wet FGD.

Dennis Laudal

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Texas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 46,803 46,620 44,319 42,192 41,404 41,554 1990's 41,411 39,288 38,141 37,847 39,020 39,736 41,592 41,108 40,793 43,350 2000's 45,419 46,462 47,491 48,717 53,275 60,178 65,805 76,357 81,843 85,034 2010's 94,287 104,454 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Texas Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

359

Mississippi Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Mississippi Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,511 1980's 1,776 2,042 1,803 1,603 1,496 1,364 1,304 1,223 1,146 1,108 1990's 1,129 1,061 873 800 653 667 634 583 662 681 2000's 620 663 746 748 692 758 816 958 1,035 922 2010's 858 868 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Mississippi Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

360

Texas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 35,971 35,867 34,584 32,852 32,309 32,349 1990's 32,412 30,729 29,474 29,967 31,071 31,949 33,432 33,322 33,429 35,470 2000's 38,585 40,376 41,104 42,280 46,728 53,175 58,736 68,827 74,284 76,272 2010's 84,157 90,947 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

California Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,961 1980's 3,345 2,660 2,663 2,546 2,507 1990's 2,400 2,213 2,093 1,982 1,698 1,619 1,583 1,820 1,879 2,150 2000's 2,198 1,922 1,900 1,810 2,006 2,585 2,155 2,193 1,917 2,314 2010's 2,282 2,532 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

362

Pennsylvania Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,516 1980's 951 1,265 1,430 1,882 1,576 1,618 1,562 1,650 2,074 1,644 1990's 1,722 1,631 1,533 1,722 1,806 1,488 1,702 1,861 1,848 1,780 2000's 1,740 1,782 2,225 2,497 2,371 2,793 3,064 3,377 3,594 7,018 2010's 14,068 26,719 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec.

363

Kentucky Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 504 1980's 536 561 592 600 647 806 883 940 957 1,015 1990's 1,047 1,187 1,126 1,036 1,025 1,102 1,046 1,429 1,295 1,530 2000's 1,837 1,950 1,999 1,971 1,982 2,240 2,369 2,588 2,846 2,919 2010's 2,785 2,128 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Kentucky Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

364

Kentucky Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 502 1980's 525 547 580 581 630 793 866 921 938 993 1990's 1,039 1,177 1,118 1,030 978 1,075 1,022 1,403 1,275 1,501 2000's 1,810 1,925 1,974 1,946 1,963 2,210 2,333 2,554 2,812 2,887 2010's 2,674 2,030 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

365

Louisiana Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 16,316 10,943 10,724 10,826 11,171 1990's 10,597 9,969 9,060 8,615 9,165 8,890 9,038 9,020 8,569 8,667 2000's 8,704 9,245 8,520 8,952 9,235 10,091 10,149 9,651 10,581 19,898 2010's 28,838 29,906 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

366

GPS Meteorology: Mapping Zenith Wet Delays onto Precipitable Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Emerging networks of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers can be used in the remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor. The time-varying zenith wet delay observed at each GPS receiver in a network can be transformed into an estimate of the ...

Michael Bevis; Steven Businger; Steven Chiswell; Thomas A. Herring; Richard A. Anthes; Christian Rocken; Randolph H. Ware

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

California Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 322 1980's 414 1,337 1,466 1,570 1,519 1990's 1,469 1,174 1,136 1,123 1,187 1,289 1,266 556 489 536 2000's 576 540 515 511 459 825 811 805 705 740 2010's 725 711 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Federal Offshore, Pacific (California) Natural Gas Reserves Summary

368

Texas - RRC District 1 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 1 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 732 1980's 683 870 708 960 714 754 716 639 1,002 1,037 1990's 744 660 606 540 586 498 523 950 1,101 1,165 2000's 1,037 1,024 1,047 1,047 1,184 1,148 1,048 1,029 987 1,456 2010's 2,332 5,227 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

369

Alabama Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 680 1980's 659 658 1990's 4,159 5,437 5,840 5,166 4,842 4,886 5,062 4,983 4,615 4,338 2000's 4,241 3,931 3,891 4,313 4,127 3,977 3,945 4,016 3,360 2,919 2010's 2,686 2,522 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31

370

Alaska Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Alaska Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 5,058 1980's 4,828 4,373 4,188 3,883 4,120 3,131 2,462 2,983 2,910 2,821 1990's 2,466 2,924 3,002 3,492 3,326 3,310 3,216 2,957 2,768 2,646 2000's 2,564 2,309 2,157 2,081 2,004 1,875 1,447 1,270 1,139 1,090 2010's 1,021 976 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

371

California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 4,037 1980's 4,434 4,230 4,058 3,964 3,808 3,716 3,404 3,229 3,033 2,899 1990's 2,775 2,703 2,511 2,425 2,130 2,018 1,864 2,012 2,016 2,021 2000's 2,413 2,298 2,190 2,116 2,306 2,831 2,470 2,430 2,249 2,609 2010's 2,447 2,685 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec.

372

Alabama Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 693 1980's 682 683 1990's 4,184 5,460 5,870 5,212 4,898 4,930 5,100 5,013 4,643 4,365 2000's 4,269 3,958 3,922 4,345 4,159 4,006 3,963 4,036 3,379 2,948 2010's 2,724 2,570 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Alabama Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

373

Louisiana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3,360 2,391 2,128 1,794 1,741 1990's 1,554 1,394 1,167 926 980 1,001 1,039 1,016 911 979 2000's 807 796 670 586 557 588 561 641 1,235 1,072 2010's 679 639 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31

374

Louisiana - South Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana - South Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 14,580 1980's 13,407 13,049 12,153 11,553 10,650 10,120 9,416 9,024 8,969 8,934 1990's 8,492 7,846 7,019 6,219 6,558 6,166 6,105 6,137 5,966 5,858 2000's 5,447 5,341 4,395 3,874 3,557 3,478 3,473 3,463 2,916 2,969 2010's 2,995 2,615 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec.

375

Texas - RRC District 9 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 9 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 633 1980's 502 796 965 845 786 753 761 717 686 617 1990's 703 674 613 636 715 730 749 785 665 1,180 2000's 1,645 2,428 3,070 3,514 4,445 4,608 6,660 7,846 9,390 11,100 2010's 12,587 9,963 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

376

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Texas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Texas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 6,411 6,191 6,956 6,739 6,745 6,504 1990's 6,884 6,305 6,353 6,138 5,739 5,674 5,240 4,799 4,452 4,507 2000's 5,030 5,404 4,967 4,235 3,258 2,807 2,360 2,173 1,937 1,822 2010's 1,456 1,015 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

377

West Virginia Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,593 1980's 2,437 1,881 2,169 2,238 2,173 2,104 2,207 2,210 2,299 2,244 1990's 2,243 2,513 2,293 2,408 2,569 2,514 2,722 2,887 2,925 2,952 2000's 2,929 2,777 3,477 3,376 3,489 4,553 4,638 4,865 5,243 6,066 2010's 7,134 10,480 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

378

Michigan Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,334 1980's 1,551 1,252 1,200 1,353 1,193 1,064 1,242 1,571 1,434 1,443 1990's 1,330 1,404 1,290 1,218 1,379 1,344 2,125 2,256 2,386 2,313 2000's 2,772 3,032 3,311 3,488 3,154 2,961 3,117 3,691 3,253 2,805 2010's 2,975 2,549 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec.

379

California Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 4,842 1980's 5,137 4,084 3,893 3,666 3,513 1990's 3,311 3,114 2,892 2,799 2,506 2,355 2,193 2,390 2,332 2,505 2000's 2,952 2,763 2,696 2,569 2,773 3,384 2,935 2,879 2,538 2,926 2010's 2,785 3,042 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 California Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

380

Louisiana Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 19,676 13,334 12,852 12,620 12,912 1990's 12,151 11,363 10,227 9,541 10,145 9,891 10,077 10,036 9,480 9,646 2000's 9,512 10,040 9,190 9,538 9,792 10,679 10,710 10,292 11,816 20,970 2010's 29,517 30,545 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Louisiana Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Michigan Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 601 1980's 668 494 481 529 419 375 665 1,002 943 1,011 1990's 922 967 938 890 1,022 1,018 1,778 1,975 2,158 2,086 2000's 2,558 2,873 3,097 3,219 2,961 2,808 2,925 3,512 3,105 2,728 2010's 2,903 2,472 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

382

Virginia Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 122 175 216 235 253 248 230 217 1990's 138 225 904 1,322 1,833 1,836 1,930 1,923 1,973 2,017 2000's 1,704 1,752 1,673 1,717 1,742 2,018 2,302 2,529 2,378 3,091 2010's 3,215 2,832 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31

383

Virginia Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 122 175 216 235 253 248 230 217 1990's 138 225 904 1,322 1,833 1,836 1,930 2,446 1,973 2,017 2000's 1,704 1,752 1,673 1,717 1,742 2,018 2,302 2,529 2,378 3,091 2010's 3,215 2,832 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Virginia Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

384

West Virginia Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,669 1980's 2,559 1,944 2,252 2,324 2,246 2,177 2,272 2,360 2,440 2,342 1990's 2,329 2,672 2,491 2,598 2,702 2,588 2,793 2,946 2,968 3,040 2000's 3,062 2,825 3,498 3,399 3,509 4,572 4,654 4,881 5,266 6,090 2010's 7,163 10,532 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec.

385

Arkansas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,725 1980's 1,796 1,821 1,974 2,081 2,240 2,032 2,011 2,018 2,000 1,782 1990's 1,739 1,672 1,752 1,555 1,610 1,566 1,472 1,479 1,332 1,546 2000's 1,584 1,619 1,654 1,666 1,837 1,967 2,271 3,306 5,628 10,872 2010's 14,181 16,374 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec.

386

Kansas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 10,824 1980's 10,065 10,443 10,128 10,183 9,981 9,844 11,093 11,089 10,530 10,509 1990's 10,004 9,946 10,302 9,872 9,705 9,093 8,145 7,328 6,862 6,248 2000's 5,682 5,460 5,329 5,143 5,003 4,598 4,197 4,248 3,795 3,500 2010's 3,937 3,747 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec.

387

Colorado Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,657 1980's 2,970 2,969 3,345 3,200 2,932 2,928 3,008 2,912 3,572 4,290 1990's 4,249 5,329 5,701 5,817 5,948 6,520 7,009 6,627 7,436 8,591 2000's 9,877 11,924 13,251 14,707 13,956 15,796 16,141 20,642 22,159 22,199 2010's 23,001 23,633 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

388

Colorado Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 181 1980's 200 259 206 173 208 167 190 219 177 236 1990's 510 682 762 1,162 1,088 1,072 1,055 533 772 781 2000's 960 1,025 1,097 1,186 1,293 1,326 1,541 1,838 2,010 1,882 2010's 2,371 2,518 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

389

Wyoming Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 7,834 1980's 9,413 9,659 10,155 10,728 11,014 11,229 10,393 10,572 10,903 11,276 1990's 10,433 10,433 11,305 11,387 11,351 12,712 13,084 14,321 14,371 14,809 2000's 17,211 19,399 21,531 22,716 23,640 24,722 24,463 30,896 32,399 36,748 2010's 36,526 36,930 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec.

390

Arkansas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,559 1980's 1,602 1,637 1,800 1,887 2,051 1,875 1,861 1,873 1,843 1,637 1990's 1,672 1,536 1,619 1,462 1,525 1,462 1,383 1,423 1,294 1,505 2000's 1,545 1,589 1,616 1,629 1,797 1,921 2,227 3,269 5,616 10,852 2010's 14,152 16,328 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

391

Preliminary Study of California Wintertime Model Wet Bias  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.0.1 is used in both short-range (days) and long-range (years) simulations to explore the California wintertime model wet bias. California is divided into four regions (the coast, central ...

Hung-Neng S. Chin; Peter M. Caldwell; David C. Bader

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

New project for Hot Wet Rock geothermal reservoir design concept  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the outlines of a new Hot Wet Rock (HWR) geothermal project. The goal of the project is to develop a design methodology for combined artificial and natural crack geothermal reservoir systems with the objective of enhancing the thermal output of existing geothermal power plants. The proposed concept of HWR and the research tasks of the project are described.

Takahashi, Hideaki; Hashida, Toshiyuki

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

A Relationship between the Bowen Ratio and Sea–Air Temperature Difference under Unstable Conditions at Sea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At the air–sea interface, estimates of evaporation or latent heat flux and the Monin–Obukhov stability parameter require the measurements of dewpoint (Tdew) or wet-bulb temperature, which are not routinely available as compared to those of air (T...

S. A. Hsu

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Hybrid Wet/Dry Cooling for Power Plants (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation includes an overview of cooling options, an analysis of evaporative enhancement of air-cooled geothermal power plants, field measurements at a geothermal plant, a preliminary analysis of trough plant, and improvements to air-cooled condensers.

Kutscher, C.; Buys, A.; Gladden, C.

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Multimedia Fate of Selenium and Boron at Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped with Particulate and Wet FGD Controls  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Given the current regulatory climate in the United States, a number of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systemsas well as selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systemswill be installed at new and existing coal-fired power plants to remove sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx). The multimedia fate of trace metals species in SCR/wet FGD systems is not well understood. Understanding and quantifying the amount of trace elements removed from the flue gas and distributed to the solid and aqueous streams is...

2008-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

396

Air Pollution (Illinois)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This article states regulations for monitoring air pollution, methods for permit applications, emission limitations for pollutants and air quality standards.

397

SNG or syn-gas from wet solid waste and low grade fuels  

SciTech Connect

The substitute natural gas (SNG) or a synthesis gas (syngas) is prepared by partly oxidizing wastes and low-grade fuels (peat, lignite, many forms of biomass) containing 0.5-30 times as much water as the dry solids with O or air at 240-300/sup 0/C and 70-100 atmospheres. Sulfur in high S coal is oxidized selectively to SO/sub 4//sup -2/, and the heat to bring the combustible to the necessary temperature is supplied by burning part of the combustible itself. The residual solids (now 70-95% of the original fuel) are mechanically separated from all but 0.5-2 lb water. These solids come from the dewatering unit at a high pressure and may be passed, without loss of pressure or temperature to be gasified in conventional processes and gasifiers by partial oxidation.

Othmer, D.F.

1981-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

398

The Impact of Wet Soil and Canopy Temperatures on Daytime Boundary–Layer Growth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of very wet soil and canopy temperatures on the surface sensible heat flux, and on related daytime boundary-layer properties is evaluated. For very wet soils, two winter situations are considered, related to significant changes in soil ...

M. Segal; J. R. Garratt; G. Kallos; R. A. Pielke

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Comparison of Soil Wetness Indices for Inducing Functional Similarity of Hydrologic Response across Sites in Illinois  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The comparative ability of four soil wetness indices to normalize soil moisture dependence of rootzone fluxes across a range of sites in Illinois is investigated. The soil wetness indices examined are various transformations of the water stored ...

Jennifer A. Saleem; Guido D. Salvucci

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Oxidation of Low Sulfur Single Crystal Nickel-Base Superalloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

oxidation in air at 1100°C approached a parabolic rate law, after a transient period, ... parabolic rate constants in good agreement with those for growth of a-

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) as Military APU Replacements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Division Propulsion Directorate Air Force Research Laboratory Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) as Military APU Replacements Cleared For Public For Public Release: 88ABW-2010-0196 2...

402

Oxidation Behavior of the Simulated Fuel with Dissolved ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. Oxidation Behavior of the Simulated Fuel with Dissolved Fission Products in Air at 573~873 K KH Kang C, S, KC ...

2006-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

403

Reactive Air Aluminization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ferritic stainless steels and other alloys are of great interest to SOFC developers for applications such as interconnects, cell frames, and balance of plant components. While these alloys offer significant advantages (e.g., low material and manufacturing cost, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature oxidation resistance), there are challenges which can hinder their utilization in SOFC systems; these challenges include Cr volatility and reactivity with glass seals. To overcome these challenges, protective coatings and surface treatments for the alloys are under development. In particular, aluminization of alloy surfaces offers the potential for mitigating both evaporation of Cr from the alloy surface and reaction of alloy constituents with glass seals. Commercial aluminization processes are available to SOFC developers, but they tend to be costly due to their use of exotic raw materials and/or processing conditions. As an alternative, PNNL has developed Reactive Air Aluminization (RAA), which offers a low-cost, simpler alternative to conventional aluminization methods.

Choi, Jung-Pyung; Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

404

Solder for oxide layer-building metals and alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low-temperature solder and method for soldering an oxide layer-building metal such as Al, Ti, Ta or stainless steel. The composition comprises Sn and Zn; Ge as a wetting agent; preferably small amounts of Cu and Sb; and a grit, such as SiC. The grit abrades any oxide layer formed on the surface of the metal as the Ge penetrates beneath and loosens the oxide layer to provide good metal-to-metal contact. The Ge comprises less than 10 wt.% of the solder composition so that it provides sufficient wetting action but does not result in a melting temperature above 300 C. The method comprises the steps rubbing the solder against the metal surface so that the grit in the solder abrades the surface while heating the surface until the solder begins to melt and the germanium penetrates the oxide layer, then brushing aside any oxide layer loosened by the solder.

Kronberg, J.W.

1991-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

405

Reduction of Water Use in Wet FGD Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reduction of WateR use in Wet fGd Reduction of WateR use in Wet fGd systems Background Coal-fired power plants require large volumes of water for efficient operation, primarily for cooling purposes. Public concern over water use is increasing, particularly in water stressed areas of the country. Analyses conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory predict significant increases in power plant freshwater consumption over the coming years, encouraging the development of technologies to reduce this water loss. Power plant freshwater consumption refers to the quantity of water withdrawn from a water body that is not returned to the source but is lost to evaporation, while water withdrawal refers to the total quantity of water removed from a water source.

406

Wetting and free surface flow modeling for potting and encapsulation.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of an effort to reduce costs and improve quality control in encapsulation and potting processes the Technology Initiative Project ''Defect Free Manufacturing and Assembly'' has completed a computational modeling study of flows representative of those seen in these processes. Flow solutions are obtained using a coupled, finite-element-based, numerical method based on the GOMA/ARIA suite of Sandia flow solvers. The evolution of the free surface is solved with an advanced level set algorithm. This approach incorporates novel methods for representing surface tension and wetting forces that affect the evolution of the free surface. In addition, two commercially available codes, ProCAST and MOLDFLOW, are also used on geometries representing encapsulation processes at the Kansas City Plant. Visual observations of the flow in several geometries are recorded in the laboratory and compared to the models. Wetting properties for the materials in these experiments are measured using a unique flowthrough goniometer.

Brooks, Carlton, F.; Brooks, Michael J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Graham, Alan Lyman (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Noble, David F. (David Frederick) (.; )); Notz, Patrick K.; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Mahoney, Leo James (Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, MO); Baer, Thomas A.; Berchtold, Kathryn (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Adolf, Douglas Brian; Wilkes, Edward Dean; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Givler, Richard C.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Cote, Raymond O.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Grillet, Anne Mary; Kraynik, Andrew Michael

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Modeling Wet Snow Accretion on Power Lines: Improvements to Previous Methods Using 50 Years of Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods to model wet snow accretion on structures are developed and improved, based on unique records of wet snow icing events as well as large datasets of observed and simulated weather. Hundreds of observed wet snow icing events are logged in ...

Bjørn Egil Kringlebotn Nygaard; Hálfdán Ágústsson; Katalin Somfalvi-Tóth

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Modeling Wet Snow Accretion on Power Lines: Improvements to Previous Methods Using 50 Years of Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods to model wet snow accretion on structures are developed and improved, based on unique records of wet snow icing events as well as large datasets of observed and simulated weather. Hundreds of observed wet snow icing events are logged in ...

Bjørn Egil Kringlebotn Nygaard; Hálfdán Ágústsson; Katalin Somfalvi-Tóth

409

Wet-steam erosion of steam turbine disks and shafts  

SciTech Connect

A study of wet-steam erosion of the disks and the rotor bosses or housings of turbines in thermal and nuclear power plants shows that the rate of wear does not depend on the diagrammed degree of moisture, but is determined by moisture condensing on the surfaces of the diaphragms and steam inlet components. Renovating the diaphragm seals as an assembly with condensate removal provides a manifold reduction in the erosion.

Averkina, N. V. [JSC 'NPO TsKTI' (Russian Federation); Zheleznyak, I. V. [Leningradskaya AES branch of JSC 'Kontsern Rosenergoatom' (Russian Federation); Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G., E-mail: orlikvg@mail.ru [JSC 'NPO TsKTI' (Russian Federation); Shishkin, V. I. [Leningradskaya AES branch of JSC 'Kontsern Rosenergoatom' (Russian Federation)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

410

Total Building Air Management: When Dehumidification Counts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Industry trends toward stringent indoor air quality codes, spearheaded by ASHRAE 62-89: Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, present four challenges to the building industry in hot and humid climates: 1. Infusion of large quantities of make-up air to code based on zone requirements 2. Maintenance of tight wet bulb and dry bulb temperature tolerances within zones based on use 3. Energy management and cost containment 4. Control of mold and mildew and the damage they cause Historically, total air management of sensible and latent heat, filtration and zone pressure was brought about through the implementation of non-integrated, composite systems. Composite systems typically are built up of multi-vendor equipment each of which perform specific, independent functions in the total control of the indoor air environment. Composite systems have a high up-front cost, are difficult to maintain and are costly to operate. Today, emerging technologies allow the implementation of fully integrated system for total building air management. These systems provide a single-vendor solution that is cost effective to purchase, maintain and operate. Operating saving of 23% and ROIs of 2.3 years have been shown. Equipment specification is no longer based primarily on total building load. Maximum benefits of these dynamic systems are realized when systems are designed with a total operating strategy in mind. This strategy takes into consideration every factor of building air management including: 1. Control of sensible heat 2. Balance management of heat rejection 3. Latent heat management 4. Control of process hot water 5. Indoor air quality management 6. Containment of energy consumption 7. Load shedding

Chilton, R. L.; White, C. L.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Oklahoma Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 12,299 1980's 11,656 13,066 14,714 14,992 14,858 14,929 15,588 15,686 15,556 14,948 1990's 15,147 14,112 13,249 12,549 12,981 13,067 12,929 13,296 13,321 12,252 2000's 13,430 13,256 14,576 15,176 16,301 17,337 17,735 19,225 21,155 23,115 2010's 26,873 27,683 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014

412

New Mexico - East Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

East Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) East Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico - East Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,634 1980's 2,266 2,377 2,331 2,214 2,117 2,001 1,750 1,901 2,030 2,131 1990's 2,290 2,073 1,948 1,860 1,791 1,648 1,612 1,694 1,694 1,880 2000's 2,526 2,571 2,632 2,205 2,477 2,569 2,605 2,633 2,737 2,658 2010's 2,612 2,475 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages:

413

New Mexico Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 12,568 1980's 12,267 12,913 11,562 10,868 10,458 9,948 11,094 11,176 17,030 15,219 1990's 17,094 18,204 18,802 18,354 16,947 17,069 16,232 15,280 14,816 15,172 2000's 16,922 17,112 16,971 16,681 18,109 17,683 17,332 16,556 15,592 14,662 2010's 14,316 13,586 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014

414

Texas - RRC District 6 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 6 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 6 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,710 1980's 3,622 3,653 3,749 4,279 4,087 4,274 4,324 4,151 4,506 5,201 1990's 5,345 4,856 4,987 5,170 5,131 5,425 5,690 5,616 5,691 5,562 2000's 5,901 6,016 6,161 6,572 7,564 8,999 9,205 11,468 12,207 12,806 2010's 14,958 15,524 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages:

415

Lower 48 States Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Lower 48 States Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 143,852 1980's 139,421 143,515 142,984 143,469 141,226 138,464 139,070 135,256 141,211 139,798 1990's 141,941 140,584 138,883 136,953 138,213 139,369 141,136 140,382 139,015 142,098 2000's 154,113 159,612 163,863 166,512 171,547 183,197 189,329 213,851 224,873 249,406 2010's 280,880 305,010 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013

416

Louisiana - South Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana - South Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 12,276 1980's 11,273 11,178 10,364 9,971 9,162 8,328 7,843 7,644 7,631 7,661 1990's 7,386 6,851 6,166 5,570 5,880 5,446 5,478 5,538 5,336 5,259 2000's 4,954 4,859 3,968 3,506 3,168 3,051 3,058 2,960 2,445 2,463 2010's 2,496 2,125 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages:

417

Texas - RRC District 5 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 5 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 5 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,127 1980's 1,117 1,265 1,322 1,477 1,911 2,100 2,169 2,106 1,989 1,789 1990's 1,835 1,841 1,692 1,790 1,926 1,876 2,088 1,681 1,906 2,301 2000's 3,089 4,206 4,588 5,398 6,525 9,560 12,591 17,224 20,420 22,602 2010's 24,686 28,147 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages:

418

Texas - RRC District 8 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 8 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 8,073 1980's 7,216 6,620 6,084 6,064 5,362 5,246 5,254 4,973 4,738 4,403 1990's 4,323 4,023 3,792 3,569 3,267 3,218 3,069 2,886 2,727 2,947 2000's 3,345 3,405 3,284 3,032 3,266 3,829 3,891 4,267 4,506 3,950 2010's 3,777 3,006 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages:

419

New Mexico - West Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

- West Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) - West Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico - West Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 9,934 1980's 10,001 10,536 9,231 8,654 8,341 7,947 9,344 9,275 15,000 13,088 1990's 14,804 16,131 16,854 16,494 15,156 15,421 14,620 13,586 13,122 13,292 2000's 14,396 14,541 14,339 14,476 15,632 15,114 14,727 13,923 12,855 12,004 2010's 11,704 11,111 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014

420

Wyoming Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 6,796 1980's 8,039 8,431 9,095 9,769 10,147 10,519 9,702 9,881 10,287 10,695 1990's 9,860 9,861 10,681 10,885 10,740 11,833 12,260 13,471 13,577 14,096 2000's 16,559 18,911 20,970 22,266 23,278 24,338 24,116 30,531 32,176 36,386 2010's 36,192 36,612 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages:

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

WETTING BEHAVIOR OF SELECTED CRUDE OIL/BRINE/ROCK SYSTEMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of aging and displacement temperatures, and brine and oil composition on wettability and the recovery of crude oil by spontaneous imbibition and waterflooding has been investigated. This study is based on displacement tests in Berea Sandstone using three distinctly different crude oils and three reservoir brines. Brine concentration was varied by changing the concentration of total dissolved solids of the synthetic brine in proportion to give brine of twice, one tenth, and one hundredth of the reservoir brine concentration. Aging and displacement temperatures were varied independently. For all crude oils, water-wetness and oil recovery increased with increase in displacement temperature. Tests on the effect of brine concentration showed that salinity of the connate and invading brines can have a major influence on wettability and oil recovery at reservoir temperature. Oil recovery increased over that for the reservoir brine with dilution of both the initial (connate) and invading brine or dilution of either. Removal of light components from the crude oil resulted in increased water-wetness. Addition of alkanes to the crude oil reduced the water-wetness, and increased oil recovery. Relationships between waterflood recovery and wettability are summarized.

G.Q. Tang; N.R. Morrow

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Catalytic gasification of wet biomass in supercritical water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wet biomass (water hyacinth, banana trees, cattails, green algae, kelp, etc.) grows rapidly and abundantly around the world. As a biomass crop, aquatic species are particularly attractive because their cultivation does not compete with land-based agricultural activities designed to produce food for consumption or export. However, wet biomass is not regarded as a promising feed for conventional thermochemical conversion processes because the cost associated with drying it is too high. This research seeks to address this problem by employing water as the gasification medium. Prior work has shown that low concentrations of glucose (a model compound for whole biomass) can be completely gasified in supercritical water at 600{degrees}C and 34.5 Wa after a 30 s reaction time. Higher concentrations of glucose (up to 22% by weight in water) resulted in incomplete conversion under these conditions. The gas contained hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ethane, propane, and traces of other hydrocarbons. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons are easily converted to hydrogen by commercial technology available in most refineries. This prior work utilized capillary tube reactors with no catalyst. A larger reactor system was fabricated and the heterogeneous catalytic gasification of glucose and wet biomass slurry of higher concentration was studied to attain higher conversions.

Antal, M.J. Jr.; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Xu, Xiaodong [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

423

Recovery of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid by solvent extraction  

SciTech Connect

The OPPA process offers three potential advantages over the DEPA-TOPO process. The OPPA extractant is much less expensive and has a higher extraction power for uranium than the DEPA-TOPO solvent. In addition it extracts U(IV), the prevailing oxidation state of uranium in wet-process phosphoric acid and this eliminates the liquor oxidation step required in the DEPA-TOPO process. However, the DEPA-TOPO solvent is known to be extremely stable and this process has been successfully demonstrated on a pilot-plant scale at phosphate plants. It is understood that several companies are planning to commercialize this process in the near future. On the other hand, the potentially more attractive OPPA process has not been proven in a pilot plant operation and some questions about the solubility and stability of the OPPA need to be answered. Because of the wide spread interest in this process, a program was started in cooperation with Mobil and Allied Chemical companies to study this extractant, to identify and isolate the material that solubilizes the mono- and diacids, and to determine the optimum concentration and ratios for uranium extraction. In addition, a long-term cyclic test is planned to better define solubility losses and stability of the extractant. Consideration will also be given to improving the recovery of uranium lost to the gypsum during calcination. 12 figures. (auth)

Hurst, F.J.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Title Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-5553E Year of Publication 2010 Authors Walker, Iain S., Mile Lubliner, Darryl J. Dickerhoff, and William W. Delp Journal 2010 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings The Climate for efficiency is now Date Published 08/2010 Abstract In recent years, great strides have been made in reducing air leakage in residential and to a lesser extent small commercial forced air duct systems. Several authorities have introduced low leakage limits for thermal distribution systems; for example, the State of California Energy Code for Buildings gives credit for systems that leak less than 6% of the total air flow at 25 Pa.

425

Metal-Air Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Tetraalykylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H.sub.e-z ›(n-C.sub.4 H.sub.9).sub.4 N!.sub.z (XM.sub.11 M'O.sub.39).sup.-e The M' (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

Ellis, Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Myers, Jr., Harry K. (Cochranville, PA); Shaikh, Shahid N. (Media, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Tetraalklylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H{sub e{minus}z}[(n-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N]{sub z}(XM{sub 11}M{prime}O{sub 39}){sup {minus}e}. The M{prime} (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

Ellis, P.E.; Lyons, J.E.; Myers, H.K. Jr.; Shaikh, S.N.

1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

428

Eastern States Harness Clean Energy to Promote Air Quality  

SciTech Connect

States on the East Coast are including renewable energy and energy efficiency projects into their air quality plans that they submit to the EPA to address nonattainment for nitrogen oxides and other pollutants.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Feasibility of air capture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Capturing CO2 from air, referred to as Air Capture, is being proposed as a viable climate change mitigation technology. The two major benefits of air capture, reported in literature, are that it allows us to reduce the ...

Ranjan, Manya

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Adapting CMAQ to investigate air pollution in North Sea coastal regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is setup on a 54x54km^2 grid for Europe and on a nested smaller domain with a 18x18km^2 grid for the North Sea region. This paper concentrates on the models ability to represent the transport ... Keywords: Aerosol, Chemistry transport modeling, Model validation, Polyaromatic hydrocarbons, Wet deposition

V. Matthias; A. Aulinger; M. Quante

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Primary zone air proportioner  

SciTech Connect

An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

Cleary, Edward N. G. (San Diego, CA)

1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

432

Air Pollution Control (Indiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This legislation establishes the Department of Environmental Management and the Air Pollution Control Board, which are tasked with the prevention, abatement, and control of air pollution by all...

433

Specs add confidence in use of wet welding. [Underwater welding  

SciTech Connect

Underwater wet welding can now be utilized with the same confidence as dry welding, provided certain guidelines are followed. A new electrode is discussed that has been delivering exceptionally high quality welds by a diving firm in Houston. With the issuance of the American Welding Society's specifications (ANS/LAWS D3.6-83) much of the confusion surrounding underwater welding should be eliminated. The new specifications establish the levels of quality for underwater welding and gives everyone in the business a common language.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

US PRACTICE FOR INTERIM WET STORAGE OF RRSNF  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Aluminum research reactor spent nuclear fuel is currently being stored or is anticipated to be returned to the United States and stored at Department of Energy storage facilities at the Savannah River Site and the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This paper summarizes the current practices to provide for continued safe interim wet storage in the U.S. Aluminum fuel stored in poor quality water is subject to aggressive corrosion attack and therefore water chemistry control systems are essential to maintain water quality. Fuel with minor breaches are safely stored directly in the basin. Fuel pieces and heavily damaged fuel is safely stored in isolation canisters.

Vinson, D.

2010-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

435

Update of Enhanced Mercury Capture by Wet FGD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document describes recent progress on three mercury control technology research and development projects. One project is co-funded by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL), the second is funded solely by EPRI, and the third is co-funded by EPRI, DOE-NETL, and several EPRI-member companies. All three projects are focused on understanding and/or enhancing mercury capture (co-removal) by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The first project, c...

2007-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

436

Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The containment vessel is enclosed within an aqueous atmosphere that is above the supercritical temperature and pressure of the solvent of the metal alkoxide solution.

Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Removal of metal oxide defects through improved semi-anisotropic wet etching process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Data recently collected from an industrial thin film manufacturer indicate that almost 8% of devices are rejected due to excess metal, or unwanted metal on the device surface. Experimentation and analysis suggest that ...

Dave, Neha H. (Neha Hemang)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Graphite oxidation modeling for application in MELCOR.  

SciTech Connect

The Arrhenius parameters for graphite oxidation in air are reviewed and compared. One-dimensional models of graphite oxidation coupled with mass transfer of oxidant are presented in dimensionless form for rectangular and spherical geometries. A single dimensionless group is shown to encapsulate the coupled phenomena, and is used to determine the effective reaction rate when mass transfer can impede the oxidation process. For integer reaction order kinetics, analytical expressions are presented for the effective reaction rate. For noninteger reaction orders, a numerical solution is developed and compared to data for oxidation of a graphite sphere in air. Very good agreement is obtained with the data without any adjustable parameters. An analytical model for surface burn-off is also presented, and results from the model are within an order of magnitude of the measurements of burn-off in air and in steam.

Gelbard, Fred

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Complex defects in the oxidation of uranium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We are reporting EPR results obtained with uranium powder samples fully oxidized in dry air, water vapor, and air/water vapor mixtures. The results reported previously are confirmed and additional paramagnetic centers, associated with chemisorbed species, have been identified. The temperature dependence of the g-value for these centers from room temperature to 10K is also reported.

MacCrone, R.K.; Sankaran, S.; Shatynski, S.R.; Colmenares, C.A.

1986-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

440

Scaling of the normal coefficient of restitution for wet impacts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A thorough understanding of the energy dissipation in the dynamics of wet granular matter is essential for a continuum description of natural phenomena such as debris flow, and the development of various industrial applications such as the granulation process. The coefficient of restitution (COR), defined as the ratio between the relative rebound and impact velocities of a binary impact, is frequently used to characterize the amount of energy dissipation associated. We measure the COR by tracing a freely falling sphere bouncing on a wet surface with the liquid film thickness monitored optically. For fixed ratio between the film thickness and the particle size, the dependence of the COR on the impact velocity and various properties of the liquid film can be characterized with the Stokes number, defined as the ratio between the inertia of the particle and the viscosity of the liquid. Moreover, the COR for infinitely large impact velocities derived from the scaling can be analyzed by a model considering the energy dissipation from the inertia of the liquid film.

Thomas Mueller; Frank Gollwitzer; Christof Kruelle; Ingo Rehberg; Kai Huang

2013-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Predictive modeling of reactive wetting and metal joining.  

SciTech Connect

The performance, reproducibility and reliability of metal joints are complex functions of the detailed history of physical processes involved in their creation. Prediction and control of these processes constitutes an intrinsically challenging multi-physics problem involving heating and melting a metal alloy and reactive wetting. Understanding this process requires coupling strong molecularscale chemistry at the interface with microscopic (diffusion) and macroscopic mass transport (flow) inside the liquid followed by subsequent cooling and solidification of the new metal mixture. The final joint displays compositional heterogeneity and its resulting microstructure largely determines the success or failure of the entire component. At present there exists no computational tool at Sandia that can predict the formation and success of a braze joint, as current capabilities lack the ability to capture surface/interface reactions and their effect on interface properties. This situation precludes us from implementing a proactive strategy to deal with joining problems. Here, we describe what is needed to arrive at a predictive modeling and simulation capability for multicomponent metals with complicated phase diagrams for melting and solidification, incorporating dissolutive and composition-dependent wetting.

van Swol, Frank B.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

1988 Wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1988 and spatial patterns for 1988. It is the third in a series of reports that investigate the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1988 annual, winter, and summer periods. Temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 35 sites over a 10-year (1979--1988) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites, with greater spatial coverage, over a 7-year (1982--1988) period. The 10-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data available that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. Sen`s median trend estimate and Kendall`s seasonal tau (KST) test are calculated for each ion species concentration and deposition at each site in both subsets.

Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.; Bittner, E.A.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

1986 wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1986 and spatial patterns for 1986. The report provides statistical distribution summaries of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. The data in the report are from the Acid Depositing System (ADS) for the statistical reporting of North American deposition data. Isopleth maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1986 annual, winter, and summer periods. The temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 30 sites over an 8-year (1979-1986) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites with greater spatial coverage over a 5-year (1982-1986) period. The 8-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data unavailable that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. 19 refs., 105 figs., 29 tabs.

Olsen, A.R.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

1988 Wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1988 and spatial patterns for 1988. It is the third in a series of reports that investigate the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1988 annual, winter, and summer periods. Temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 35 sites over a 10-year (1979--1988) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites, with greater spatial coverage, over a 7-year (1982--1988) period. The 10-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data available that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. Sen's median trend estimate and Kendall's seasonal tau (KST) test are calculated for each ion species concentration and deposition at each site in both subsets.

Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.; Bittner, E.A.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Moving zone Marangoni drying of wet objects using naturally evaporated solvent vapor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A surface tension gradient driven flow (a Marangoni flow) is used to remove the thin film of water remaining on the surface of an object following rinsing. The process passively introduces by natural evaporation and diffusion of minute amounts of alcohol (or other suitable material) vapor in the immediate vicinity of a continuously refreshed meniscus of deionized water or another aqueous-based, nonsurfactant rinsing agent. Used in conjunction with cleaning, developing or wet etching application, rinsing coupled with Marangoni drying provides a single-step process for (1) cleaning, developing or etching, (2) rinsing, and (3) drying objects such as flat substrates or coatings on flat substrates without necessarily using heat, forced air flow, contact wiping, centrifugation or large amounts of flammable solvents. This process is useful in one-step cleaning and drying of large flat optical substrates, one-step developing/rinsing and drying or etching/rinsing/drying of large flat patterned substrates and flat panel displays during lithographic processing, and room-temperature rinsing/drying of other large parts, sheets or continuous rolls of material. 5 figs.

Britten, J.A.

1997-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

446

Energy Basics: Solar Air Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Solar Air Heating Solar air heating systems use air as the working fluid for absorbing and transferring solar energy. Solar air collectors (devices to heat air...

447

Uranium control in phosphogypsum. [In wet-process phosphoric acid production  

SciTech Connect

In wet-process phosphoric acid plants, both previous and recent test results show that uranium dissolution from phosphate rock is significantly higher when the rock is acidulated under oxidizing conditions than under reducing conditions. Excess sulfate and excess fluoride further enhance the distribution of uranium to the cake. Apparently the U(IV) present in the crystal lattice of the apatite plus that formed by reduction of U(IV) by FE(II) during acidulation is trapped or carried into the crystal lattice of the calcium sulfate crystals as they form and grow. The amount of uranium that distributes to hemihydrate filter cake is up to seven times higher than the amount that distributes to the dihydrate cake. About 60% of the uranium in hemihydrate cakes can be readily leached after hydration of the cake, but the residual uranium (20 to 30%) is very difficult to remove economically. Much additional research is needed to develop methods for minimizing uranium losses to calcium filter cakes.

Hurst, F.J.; Arnold, W.D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

,"U.S. Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

449

,"U.S. Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

450

Performance analysis of heat transfer processes from wet and dry surfaces : cooling towers and heat exchangers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of this work is to study the thermal and hydraulic performance of evaporatively cooled heat exchangers, including closed wet cooling towers, and dry… (more)

Hasan, Ala Ali

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Numerical modelling of heat and mass transfer and optimisation of a natural draft wet cooling tower.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The main contribution of this work is to answer several important questions relating to natural draft wet cooling tower (NDWCT) modelling, design and optimisation. Specifically,… (more)

Williamson, Nicholas J

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Performance Analysis of Heat Transfer Processes from Wet and Dry Surfaces: Cooling Towers and Heat Exchangers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of this work is to study the thermal and hydraulic performance of evaporatively cooled heat exchangers, including closed wet cooling towers, and dry… (more)

Hasan, Ala Ali

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Performance evaluation of wet-cooling tower fills with computational fluid dynamics.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A wet-cooling tower fill performance evaluation model developed by Reuter is derived in Cartesian coordinates for a rectangular cooling tower and compared to… (more)

Gudmundsson, Yngvi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Effects of corn processing and dietary wet corn gluten feed on newly received and growing cattle.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Effects of corn processing with or without the inclusion of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) on growth and performance were analyzed in two experiments. Treatments… (more)

Siverson, Anna

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

,"U.S. Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation",10,"Annual",20...

456

,"U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease...

457

Dynamic wetting and heat transfer behaviour of aluminium droplets impinging and solidifying on copper substrates.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The present work describes an experimental set-up built to simulate dynamic wetting and heat transfer occurring in many rapid solidification processes. Tests were performed with… (more)

Leboeuf, Sébastien

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

,"Texas - RRC District 7B Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 7B Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

459

,"Texas - RRC District 8A Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 8A Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion...

460

,"Texas - RRC District 8A Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 8A Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

,"Texas - RRC District 7B Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 7B Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion...

462

,"Texas - RRC District 7C Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 7C Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion...

463

,"Texas - RRC District 7C Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 7C Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

464

Nox control for high nitric oxide concentration flows through combustion-driven reduction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method for removing nitrogen oxides from concentrated waste gas streams, in which nitrogen oxides are ignited with a carbonaceous material in the presence of substoichiometric quantities of a primary oxidant, such as air. Additionally, reductants may be ignited along with the nitrogen oxides, carbonaceous material and primary oxidant to achieve greater reduction of nitrogen oxides. A scrubber and regeneration system may also be included to generate a concentrated stream of nitrogen oxides from flue gases for reduction using this method.

Yeh, James T. (Bethel Park, PA); Ekmann, James M. (Bethel Park, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Drummond, Charles J. (Churchill, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

MHK Technologies/WET EnGen | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

EnGen EnGen < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage WET EnGen.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Wave Energy Technologies Inc Project(s) where this technology is utilized *MHK Projects/Sandy Cove Technology Resource Click here Wave Technology Type Click here Point Absorber Technology Readiness Level Click here TRL 5/6: System Integration and Technology Laboratory Demonstration Technology Description The EnGen point absorber, which features 'Smart Float' technology that allows the device to travel along a rigid spar at an incline of 45 degrees. The spar is moored at a single point of contact which allows the device to be fully compliant on all three axes (pitch, roll and yaw). Mooring Configuration Proprietary

466

Isokinetic air sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An isokinetic air sampler includes a filter, a holder for the filter, an air pump for drawing air through the filter at a fixed, predetermined rate, an inlet assembly for the sampler having an inlet opening therein of a size such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained at a particular wind speed, a closure for the inlet opening and means for simultaneously opening the closure and turning on the air pump when the wind speed is such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained. A system incorporating a plurality of such samplers provided with air pumps set to draw air through the filter at the same fixed, predetermined rate and having different inlet opening sizes for use at different wind speeds is included within the ambit of the present invention as is a method of sampling air to measure airborne concentrations of particulate pollutants as a function of wind speed.

Sehmel, George A. (Richland, WA)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Hanford Site air operating permit application  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which amended the Federal Clean Air Act of 1977, required that the US Environmental Protection Agency develop a national Air Operating Permit Program, which in turn would require each state to develop an Air Operating Permit Program to identify all sources of ``regulated`` pollutants. Regulated pollutants include ``criteria`` pollutants (oxides of nitrogen, sulfur oxides, total suspended particulates, carbon monoxide, particulate matter greater than 10 micron, lead) plus 189 other ``Hazardous`` Air Pollutants. The Hanford Site, owned by the US Government and operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, is located in southcentral Washington State and covers 560 square miles of semi-arid shrub and grasslands located just north of the confluence of the Snake and Yakima Rivers with the Columbia River. This land, with restricted public access, provides a buffer for the smaller areas historically used for the production of nuclear materials, waste storage, and waste disposal. About 6 percent of the land area has been disturbed and is actively used. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application consists of more than 1,100 sources and in excess of 300 emission points. Before January 1995, the maintenance and operations contractor and the environmental restoration contractor for the US Department of Energy completed an air emission inventory on the Hanford Site. The inventory has been entered into a database so that the sources and emission points can be tracked and updated information readily can be retrieved. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application contains information current as of April 19, 1995.

NONE

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Stokes' Cradle: Normal Three-Body Collisions between Wetted Particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, a combination of experiments and theory is used to investigate three-body, normal collisions between solid particles with a liquid coating (i.e., "wetted" particles). Experiments are carried out using a Stokes' cradle, an apparatus inspired by the Newton's cradle desktop toy except with wetted particles. Unlike previous work on two-body systems, which may either agglomerate or rebound upon collision, four outcomes are possible in three-body systems: fully agglomerated, Newton's cradle (striker and target particle it strikes agglomerate), reverse Newton's cradle (targets agglomerate while striker separates), and fully separated. Post-collisional velocities are measured over a range of parameters. For all experiments, as the impact velocity increases, the progression of outcomes observed is fully agglomerated, reverse Newton's cradle, and fully separated. Notably, as the viscosity of the oil increases, experiments reveal a decrease in the critical Stokes number (the Stokes number that demarcates a transition from agglomeration to separation) for both sets of adjacent particles. A scaling theory is developed based on lubrication forces and particle deformation and elasticity. Unlike previous work for two-particle systems, two pieces of physics are found to be critical in the prediction of a regime map that is consistent with experiments: (i) an additional resistance upon rebound of the target particles due to the pre-existing liquid bridge between them (which has no counterpart in two-particle collisions), and (ii) the addition of a rebound criterion due to glass transition of the liquid layer at high pressure between colliding particles.

C. M. Donahue; C. M. Hrenya; R. H. Davis; K. J. Nakagawa; A. P. Zelinskaya; G. G. Joseph

2009-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

469

Nitrogen Oxides Emission Control Options  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Oxides Emission Control Options for Coal-Fired Electric Utility Boilers Ravi K. Srivastava and Robert E. Hall U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division, Research Triangle Park, NC Sikander Khan and Kevin Culligan U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Clean Air Markets Division, Washington, DC Bruce W. Lani U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Environmental Projects Division, Pittsburgh, PA ABSTRACT Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increas- ingly important to implement state-of-the-art NO x con- trol technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NO x control

470

Plasma gasification of coal in different oxidants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oxidant selection is the highest priority for advanced coal gasification-process development. This paper presents comparative analysis of the Powder River Basin bituminous-coal gasification processes for entrained-flow plasma gasifier. Several oxidants, which might be employed for perspective commercial applications, have been chosen, including air, steam/carbon-dioxide blend, carbon dioxide, steam, steam/air, steam/oxygen, and oxygen. Synthesis gas composition, carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and power efficiency for these processes were determined. The influence of the selected oxidant composition on the gasification-process main characteristics have been investigated.

Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (USA)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

471

THE LIFETIME OF AEROSOL DROPLETS IN AMBIENT AIR: CONSIDERATION OF THE EFFECTS OF SURFACTANTS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of various urban sulfate aerosol production mechanisms.radius of an evaporating aerosol droplet in which oxidationEnvironment THE LIFETIME OF AEROSOL DROPLETS IN AMBIENT AIR:

Toossi, R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Updated projections of air quality impacts for electric cars  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Future air pollution emissions and resulting air quality are projected for the five primary air pollutants: total suspended particulates (TSP), sulfur oxides (SO/sub x/), nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x), total hydrocarbons (THC), and carbon monoxide (CO). Separate projections are made for three future years - 1980, 1990, and 2000 - and for three assumed levels of electric car use - zero, 10%, and 100%. Emissions and air quality are analyzed for each of the 24 Air Quality Control Regions (AQCRs) having the largest populations in 1975. Emission projections are made using an improved version of the Regional Emissions Projection System which uses the 1975 National Emissions Data System, 1977 state OBERS growth projections, recent state implementation plans and new source performance standards, and electric utility fuel forecasts from the Recharge Capacity Projection System.

Collins, M.M.

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Interfacial material for solid oxide fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

Baozhen, Li (Essex Junction, VT); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Multifunctional Oxides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

3) Electric, ferroelectric, magnetic and photonic properties of oxides 4) Theoretical modeling of epitaxial growth, interfaces and microstructures 5) Composition ...

475

Vermont Air Pollution Control Regulations, Ambient Air Quality...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ambient Air Quality Standards (Vermont) Vermont Air Pollution Control Regulations, Ambient Air Quality Standards (Vermont) Eligibility Utility Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility...

476

Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor, Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor, You Can Buy Various High Quality Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor Products from Global Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor Suppliers ...

477

China Ga Air Compressor, China Ga Air Compressor Products ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

China Ga Air Compressor, China Ga Air Compressor Suppliers and Manufacturers Directory - Source a Large Selection of Ga Air Compressor Products at ...

478

Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor, Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor, You Can Buy Various High Quality Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor Products from Global Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor Suppliers ...

479

Screw Type Ac Air Compressor Manufacturers, Screw Type Ac Air ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Screw Type Ac Air Compressor, Screw Type Ac Air Compressor Manufacturers & Suppliers Directory - Find here Screw Type Ac Air Compressor Traders, ...

480

The impact of wet flue gas desulfurization scrubbing on mercury emissions from coal-fired power stations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The article introduces a predictive capability for mercury (Hg) retention in any Ca-based wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber, given Hg speciation at the FGD inlet, the flue gas composition, and the sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) capture efficiency. A preliminary statistical analysis of data from 17 full-scale wet FGDs connects flue gas compositions, the extents of Hg oxidation at FGD inlets, and Hg retention efficiencies. These connections show that solution chemistry within the FGD determines Hg retention. A more thorough analysis based on thermochemical equilibrium yields highly accurate predictions for total Hg retention with no parameter adjustments. For the most reliable data, the predictions were within measurement uncertainties for both limestone and Mg/lime systems operating in both forced and natural oxidation mode. With the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) database, the quantitative performance was almost as good for the most modern FGDs, which probably conform to the very high SO{sub 2} absorption efficiencies assumed in the calculations. The large discrepancies for older FGDs are tentatively attributed to the unspecified SO{sub 2} capture efficiencies and operating temperatures and to the possible elimination of HCl in prescrubbers. The equilibrium calculations suggest that Hg retention is most sensitive to inlet HCl and O{sub 2} levels and the FGD temperature; weakly dependent on SO{sub 2} capture efficiency; and insensitive to HgCl{sub 2}, NO, CA:S ratio, slurry dilution level in limestone FGDs, and MgSO{sub 3} levels in Mg/lime systems. Consequently, systems with prescrubbers to eliminate HCl probably retain less Hg than fully integrated FGDs. The analysis also predicts re-emission of Hg{sub 0} but only for inlet O{sub 2} levels that are much lower than those in full-scale FGDs. 12 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Stephen Niksa; Naoki Fujiwara [Niksa Energy Associates, Belmont, CA (US)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wet air oxidation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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481

Air Conditioning and lungs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Conditioning and lungs Name: freeman Status: NA Age: NA Location: NA Country: NA Date: Around 1993 Question: What affect does air conditioning have upon the lungs of the...

482

Hybrid wet paper coding mechanism for steganography employing n-indicator and fuzzy edge detector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data hiding technique can facilitate security and the safe transmission of important information in the digital domain, which generally requires a high embedding payload and good stego image quality. Recently, a steganographic framework known as wet ... Keywords: Fuzzy edge detector, Indicator, Security, Steganography, Wet paper coding

Chin-Chen Chang; Jung-San Lee; T. Hoang Ngan Le

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Probabilistic Forecasts of the Onset of the North Australian Wet Season  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The amount and timing of early wet-season rainfall are important for the management of many agricultural industries in north Australia. With this in mind, a wet-season onset date is defined based on the accumulation of rainfall to a predefined ...

Fiona Lo; Matthew C. Wheeler; Holger Meinke; Alexis Donald

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Droughts and Persistent Wet Spells over the United States and Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Droughts and persistent wet spells over the United States and northwest Mexico have preferred regions of occurrence and persistence. Wet or dry conditions that persist more than 1 yr tend to occur over the interior United States west of 90°–95°W ...

Kingtse C. Mo; Jae E. Schemm

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Evaluation of ammonia as a working fluid for a wet/dry-cooled binary geothermal plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The concepts considered in this study involve various arrangments of the binary geothermal power cycle with advanced dry cooling schemes. Brief descriptions of the binary cycle and advanced cooling schemes are included. Also included are descriptions of the base case concept and the ammonia working fluid concept. Performance and cost estimates were developed for a wet-cooled isobutane cycle plant, wet/dry cooled isobutane cycle plant, wet-cooled ammonia cycle plant, and a wet/dry cooled ammonia cycle plant. The performance and cost estimates were calculated using the GEOCOST computer code developed at PNL. Inputs for GEOCOST were calculated based on the Heber sites. The characteristics of the wet/dry cooling system were determined using the BNWGEO computer code developed at PNL. Results of the cooling system analysis are presented, followed by results of the geothermal plant analysis. Conclusions and comments also are included.

Drost, M.K.; Huber, H.D.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Dual-environment effects on the oxidation of metallic interconnects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells are exposed to a dual environment: fuel on one side (i.e., H2 gas) and oxidizer on the other side (i.e., air). It has been observed that the oxidation behavior of thin stainless steel sheet in air is changed by the presence of H2 on the other side of the sheet. The resulting dual-environment scales are flaky and more friable than the single-environment scales. The H2 disrupts the scale on the air side. A model to explain some of the effects of a dual environment is presented where hydrogen diffusing through the stainless steel sheet reacts with oxygen diffusing through the scale to form water vapor, which has sufficient vapor pressure to mechanically disrupt the scale. Experiments on preoxidized 316L stainless steel tubing exposed to air-air, H2-air, and H2-Ar environments are reported in support of the model.

Holcomb, G.R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Economic evaluation of four types of dry/wet cooling applied to the 5-MWe Raft River geothermal power plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A cost study is described which compared the economics of four dry/wet cooling systems to use at the existing Raft River Geothermal Plant. The results apply only at this site and should not be generalized without due consideration of the complete geothermal cycle. These systems are: the Binary Cooling Tower, evaporative condenser, Combin-aire, and a metal fin-tube dry cooling tower with deluge augmentation. The systems were evaluated using cooled, treated geothermal fluid instead of ground or surface water in the cooling loops. All comparisons were performed on the basis of a common plant site - the Raft River 5 MWe geothermal plant in Idaho. The Binary Cooling Tower and the Combin-aire cooling system were designed assuming the use of the isobutane/water surface condenser currently installed at the Raft River Plant. The other two systems had the isobutane ducted to the evaporative condensers. Capital credit was not given to the system employing the direct condensing process. The cost of the systems were estimated from designs provided by the vendors. The levelized energy cost range for each cooling system is listed below. The levelized energy cost reflects the incremental cost of the cooling system for the life of the plant. The estimates are presented in 1981 dollars.

Bamberger, J.A.; Allemann, R.T.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Air Pollution- Local Air Quality (Ontario, Canada)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Air Pollution regulation administered by the Ministry of the Environment enforces compliance to the standards set in the Ontario law. The law is phased in, with portions taking effect in 2010,...

489

NETL: News Release - Record Run by Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Comes...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the equivalent of 65 kilowatts of thermal energy in the form of hot water to the local district heating system. Air emissions from the unit - nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides,...

490

Development of a catalytic system for gasification of wet biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A gasification system is under development at Pacific Northwest Laboratory that can be used with high-moisture biomass feedstocks. The system operates at 350 C and 205 atm using a liquid water phase as the processing medium. Since a pressurized system is used, the wet biomass can be fed as a slurry to the reactor without drying. Through the development of catalysts, a useful processing system has been produced. This paper includes assessment of processing test results of different catalysts. Reactor system results including batch, bench-scale continuous, and engineering-scale processing results are presented to demonstrate the applicability of this catalytic gasification system to biomass. The system has utility both for direct conversion of biomass to fuel gas or as a wastewater cleanup system for treatment of unconverted biomass from bioconversion processes. By the use of this system high conversion of biomass to fuel gas can be achieved. Medium-Btu is the primary product. Potential exists for recovery/recycle of some of the unreacted inorganic components from the biomass in the aqueous byproduct stream.

Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J.; Phelps, M.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Hart, T.R.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Thin Air Breathing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thin Air Breathing Thin Air Breathing Name: Amy Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Why is it hard to breathe in thin air? What health dangers do mountain climbers face at high altitudes? Replies: Among the obvious dangers of losing ones footing, the oxygen available in the air is considerable less at higher altitudes. If I recall correctly, 21% of the atmosphere at standard temperature and pressure at sea level is composed of oxygen. This is less at higher altitudes. One can lose consciousness and even die in an oxygen deficient environment with changes from oxygen content to lower than 19.5%. This can unfortunate effect can occur within minutes. Dr. Myron The air is not really thin at high altitudes. The problem is that air pressure is lower. As altitude increases, air pressure decreases. In order for your lungs to fill with air, the air pressure in your lungs has to be less than the pressure of the air outside your lungs. Air moves from areas of higher pressure to lower pressure. As your diaphragm (the muscle that separates your chest cavity from your abdominal cavity) moves downward, the size of your chest cavity increases. This decreases the pressure in your chest and air flows in. When the diaphragm is up, it puts pressure on the chest cavity and the pressure in the lungs is greater than outside the lungs. Air flows out. This is an example of Boyle's Law. The movement of the diaphragm is con