Sample records for western states ar

  1. 2014 State of Western's Assets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report we document the State of Western’s Assets in terms of physical equipment, financial resources, strategic direction, and human capital, both at the organizational and regional levels. We identify the condition of our assets today and share what work we will be doing in these areas in the coming years.

  2. Western Interstate Nuclear Compact State Nuclear Policy (Multiple States)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Legislation authorizes states' entrance into the Western Interstate Nuclear Compact, which aims to undertake the cooperation of participating states in deriving the optimum benefit from nuclear and...

  3. New Geothermal Prospects in the Western United States Show Promise...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    New Geothermal Prospects in the Western United States Show Promise New Geothermal Prospects in the Western United States Show Promise February 27, 2013 - 2:21pm Addthis New...

  4. RTG resource book for western states and provinces: Final proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Western Interstate Energy Board held a workshop and liaison activities among western states, provinces, and utilities on the formation of Regional Transmission Groups (RTGs). Purpose of the activities was to examine the policy implications for western states and provinces in the formation of RTGs in the West, the implications for western ratepayers and utilities of the RTG formation and potential impacts of RTGs on the western electricity system. The workshop contributed to fulfilling the transmission access and competition objectives of Title VII of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.

  5. Rural migration in the western states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Poster, B.R.; Olinger, C.; Aragon, P.C.; Buslee, P.L.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rapid rural growth rate since 1970 in 14 western states (Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, Idaho, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming) was stimulated by recreation, resource development, manufacturing, commuting, institutional employment, and retirement. The eight Rocky Mountain States had significantly greater rural growth than the six Great Plains States. Other factors correlated with in-migration are population growth during the 1960's, presence of an interstate highway, adjacency to a metropolitan area, high per capita income, high population density, and absence of rural farm population. The presence of a central city with a population of over 20,000 or of a military base does not appear to be significantly related to net in-migration. An overview of regional growth patterns and of the factors related to rural in-migration is included, followed by an examination of these factors for each of the counties that experienced high in-migration in the 14 states.

  6. Electricity markets in the western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, E.M.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article introduces the use of rigorous econometric tools to understand the geographic scope of the market for generation services. These tools are applied to data from the current wholesale electricity market in the western United States. The behavior of the current wholesale electricity market and the methods used to assess the expanse of the geographic market in the current wholesale electricity market can go a long way toward informing the discussion of pricing behavior and performance in a restructured electricity industry. First, the current wholesale electricity market is already effectively unregulated and suffers from the same technical complexities that face a retail electricity market. Consequently, understanding the supply and demand conditions that cause the extent of the geographic market for generation services to narrow in the current wholesale electricity market can shed light on which times the geographic expanse of the market may narrow in a restructures electricity market. Second, the techniques developed in this paper to assess the extent of the current wholesale electricity market can be applied readily to a restructured electricity market. Finally, because market conditions in the electricity industry are likely to change significantly in the next few years, as the structure of the electricity sector changes dramatically, this analysis of the geographic expanse of the market can provide a useful benchmark against which to compare post-restructuring wholesale price relationships.

  7. Analysis on Falls Death Crude Rate in Western Region of United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Lung Fai

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Falls Death Crude Rate in Western Region of United States AFalls Death Crude Rate in Western Region of United States by

  8. Western States Geothermal Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown ofNationwideWTED JumpHills, NewWestbrook, Minnesota:WesternSolargenics

  9. Western States Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion Cubic Feet)YearWellhead Price (Dollars perProvedWestern

  10. COPYRIGHT: State of Western Australia Copyright in this document is reserved to the Crown in right of the State of Western Australia.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COPYRIGHT: © State of Western Australia Copyright in this document is reserved to the Crown in right of the State of Western Australia. This is NOT an official version. It is reproduced with permission of the State of Western Australia, but it does not purport to be the official or authorised

  11. Oregon State University Sun Grant Western Regional Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    biomass into various products. This approach will diversify the value of forest biomass. Progress to DateOregon State University Sun Grant Western Regional Center A Forest Residue-Based Pyrolysis to produce much-needed biofuels, supply valuable bioproducts, utilize waste streams and create jobs in rural

  12. Oregon State University Sun Grant Western Regional Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    Oregon State University Sun Grant Western Regional Center Hybrid Poplar as a Regional Ethanol is to couple hybrid poplar production with end-use ethanol production. Dr. Swanson, working in collaboration with industrial partners, will analyze feedstock taken from selected hybrid poplar clones to develop ethanol yield

  13. 2014 International and Western States In-Place Recycling Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014 International and Western States In-Place Recycling Conference August 5­7, 2014 Denver and the road to revitalizing in-place recycling technologies. · Join this prestigious forum especially designed/research agencies to discuss the status of in-place recycling. · Experience what we know today for each form of in

  14. Energy Efficiency as a Preferred Resource: Evidence from Utility Resource Plans in the Western United States and Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopper, Nichole

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Western United States and Canada Authors: Nicole Hopper 1 ,Western United States and Canada, as envisioned in the mostIn the Western U.S. and Canada, organized wholesale markets

  15. Western States Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion Cubic Feet)YearWellhead Price (Dollars perProvedWestern States

  16. Traces on ion yields and electron spectra of Ar inner-shell hollow states with Free-Electron Lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallis, A O G; Emmanouilidou, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the formation by Free-Electron-Laser radiation of Ar hollow states with two or three inner-shell holes. We find that even charged Ar ion states can be more populated than odd charged Ar ion states. This depends on the pulse intensity and the number of energetically accessible inner- shell holes. Fully accounting for fine structure, we demonstrate that one electron spectra bare the imprints of Ar hollow states with two inner-shell holes. Moreover, we show how the Auger spectra of these hollow states can be extracted from two-electron coincidence spectra.

  17. Power systems simulations of the western United States region.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Poch, L.; Thimmapuram, P.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents a part of a broad assessment of energy-water-related issues in the western United States. The full analysis involved three Department of Energy national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. Argonne's objective in the overall project was to develop a regional power sector expansion forecast and a detailed unit-level operational (dispatch) analysis. With these two major analysis components, Argonne estimated current and future freshwater withdrawals and consumption related to the operation of U.S. thermal-electric power plants in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) region for the period 2005-2025. Water is withdrawn and used primarily for cooling but also for environmental control, such as sulfur scrubbers. The current scope of the analysis included three scenarios: (1) Baseline scenario as a benchmark for assessing the adequacy and cost-effectiveness of water conservation options and strategies, (2) High nuclear scenario, and (3) High renewables scenario. Baseline projections are consistent with forecasts made by the WECC and the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in its Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) (EIA 2006a). Water conservation scenarios are currently limited to two development alternatives that focus heavily on constructing new generating facilities with zero water consumption. These technologies include wind farms and nuclear power plants with dry cooling. Additional water conservation scenarios and estimates of water use associated with fuel or resource extraction and processing will be developed in follow-on analyses.

  18. Evaluating Ozone Air Pollution Effects on Pines in the Western United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Evaluating Ozone Air Pollution Effects on Pines in the Western United States United States. Evaluating ozone air pollution effects on pines in the western United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW­GTR­155. Historical and technical background is provided about ozone air pollution effects on ponderosa (Pinus

  19. EIS-0386: Designation of Energy Corridors on Federal Land in Western States

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE's decision to designatate corridors on Federal land in the eleven Western States for oil, gas and hydrogen pipelines and electricity transmission and distribution facilities.

  20. Comparative Water Law and Management: The Yellow River Basin In Western China and the State of Kansas In the Western United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griggs, Burke W.; Peck, John C.; Yupeng, Xue

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    @BCL@A8059DC2.DOC (DO NOT DELETE) 8/17/2009 7:50 AM 428 COMPARATIVE WATER LAW AND MANAGEMENT: THE YELLOW RIVER BASIN IN WESTERN CHINA AND THE STATE OF KANSAS IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES Burke W. Griggs Counsel, Division of Water Resources... Kansas Department of Agriculture John C. Peck Professor of Law, University of Kansas School of Law Special Counsel, Foulston Siefkin, LLP Xue Yunpeng Deputy Division Chief / Senior Engineer Department of Water Resources Management and Regulation Yellow...

  1. Methodology The electricity generation and distribution network in the Western United States is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Methodology The electricity generation and distribution network in the Western United States is comprised of power plants, electric utilities, electrical transformers, transmission and distribution infrastructure, etc. We conceptualize the system as a transportation network with resources (electricity

  2. Oregon State University Sun Grant Western Regional Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    in Poplar Steven Strauss, Oregon State University (2009-2011) OVERVIEW The production of bioplastics from

  3. Oregon State University Sun Grant Western Regional Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    for Use in Pacific Ethanol's Boardman, Oregon Cellulosic Ethanol Plant Russ Karow, Oregon State University OVERVIEW Pacific Ethanol, in Boardman, Oregon, is the recipient of a federal grant to establish a 1/10 th scale cellulosic ethanol pilot plant adjacent to their existing corn-based ethanol facility. This new

  4. Oregon State University Sun Grant Western Regional Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    and Cellulases in the Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks to Ethanol Christine Kelly, Oregon State to ethanol. The team will examine fungal heme peroxidases to discover new "accessory" enzymes that function of conversion of softwoods to ethanol. Progress to Date · Bioreactor runs and analyses: Dr. Kelly and her

  5. Mountain hydrology of the western United States Roger C. Bales,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    Mountain hydrology of the western United States Roger C. Bales,1 Noah P. Molotch,2,3 Thomas H, population growth, and land use change drive the need for new hydrologic knowledge and understanding. In the mountainous West and other similar areas worldwide, three pressing hydrologic needs stand out: first

  6. Assessment of municipal solid waste for energy production in the western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, B.J.; Texeira, R.H.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents both a significant problem and an abundant resource for the production of energy. The residential, institutional, and industrial sectors of this country generate about 250 million tons of MSW each year. In this report, the authors have compiled data on the status of MSW in the 13-state western region, including economic and environmental issues. The report is designed to assist the members of the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program Ad Hoc Resource Committee in determining the potential for using MSW to produce energy in the region. 51 refs., 7 figs., 18 tabs.

  7. Estimating effects of energy planning on environmental impacts in the Western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, M.C.; Cothran, J.N.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of their long-term planning process, utilities and government agencies are choosing power generation and conservation strategies that will effect environmental interactions for decades to come. In the US, power marketing administrations within the US Department of Energy have a strong influence over the strategies to be implemented in large multi-state regions. Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) prepared environmental impact statements (EIS) for two power marketing agencies, the Western Area Power Administration (Western) and Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville). The Western EIS assessed the effects of integrated resource planing (IRP) on the public utilities Western serves, while the Bonneville EIS assessed the effects of acquiring new energy resources in the pacific Northwest. The results were found using models that simulated utility systems. In both cases, environmental impacts were reduced when the conservation strategy in question was considered. This paper describes the results of the environmental analyses for the two agencies and compares the results with those of another simplified approach that relies on attributing emissions of new resources based on an extrapolation of existing capacity.

  8. Mapping water availability, projected use and cost in the western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vincent C. Tidwell; Barbara D. Moreland; Katie M. Zemlick; Barry L. Roberts; Howard D. Passell; Daniel Jensen; Christopher Forsgren; Gerald Sehlke; Margaret A. Cook; Carey W. King

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New demands for water can be satisfied through a variety of source options. In some basins surface and/or groundwater may be available through permitting with the state water management agency (termed unappropriated water), alternatively water might be purchased and transferred out of its current use to another (termed appropriated water), or non-traditional water sources can be captured and treated (e.g., wastewater). The relative availability and cost of each source are key factors in the development decision. Unfortunately, these measures are location dependent with no consistent or comparable set of data available for evaluating competing water sources. With the help of western water managers, water availability was mapped for over 1200 watersheds throughout the western US. Five water sources were individually examined, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water, municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped was projected change in consumptive water use from 2010 to 2030. Associated costs to acquire, convey and treat the water, as necessary, for each of the five sources were estimated. These metrics were developed to support regional water planning and policy analysis with initial application to electric transmission planning in the western US.

  9. Mid-Century Ensemble Regional Climate Change Scenarios for the Western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, Lai R.; Qian, Yun; Bian, Xindi; Washington, Warren M.; Han, Jongil; Roads, John O.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To study the impacts of climate change on water resources in the western U.S., global climate simulations were produced using the National Center for Atmospheric Research/Department of Energy (NCAR/DOE) Parallel Climate Model (PCM). The Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) was used to downscale the PCM control (1995-2015) and three future (2040-2060) climate simulations to yield ensemble regional climate simulations at 40 km spatial resolution for the western U.S. This paper focuses on analyses of regional simulations in the Columbia River and Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basins. Results based on the regional simulations show that by mid-century, the average regional warming of 1-2.5oC strongly affects snowpack in the western U.S. Along coastal mountains, reduction in annual snowpack is about 70%. Besides changes in mean temperature, precipitation, and snowpack, cold season extreme daily precipitation is found to increase by 5 to 15 mm/day (15-20%) along the Cascades and the Sierra. The warming results in increased rainfall over snowfall and reduced snow accumulation (or earlier snowmelt) during the cold season. In the Columbia River Basin, these changes are accompanied by more frequent rain-on-snow events. Overall, they induce higher likelihood of wintertime flooding and reduced runoff and soil moisture in the summer. Such changes could have serious impacts on water resources and agriculture in the western U.S. Changes in surface water and energy budgets in the Columbia River and Sacramento-San Joaquin basins are driven mainly by changes in surface temperature, which are statistically significant at the 0.95 confidence level. Changes in precipitation, however, are spatially incoherent and not statistically significant except for the drying trend during summer.

  10. Evaluation of potential geothermal reservoirs in central and western New York state. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computer processes geophysical well logs from central and western New York State were analyzed to evaluate the potential of subsurface formations as a source for low-temperature geothermal water. The analysis indicated that porous sandstone sections at the top of the Ordovician Theresa Formation and at the base of the Cambrian Potsdam Formation have the required depth, porosity, and permeability to act as a source for geothermal fluids over a relatively large area in the central part of the state. The fluid potential plus an advantageous geothermal gradient and the results of the test well drilled in the city of Auburn in Cayuga County suggest that low temperature geothermal energy may be a viable alternative to other more conventional forms of energy that are not indigenous to New York State.

  11. Climate adaptation wedges: a case study of premium wine in the western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah [Stanford University; White, Michael A [Utah State University (USU); Jones, Gregory V [Southern Oregon University, Ashland, OR; Ashfaq, Moetasim [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design and implementation of effective climate change adaptation activities requires quantitative assessment of the impacts that are likely to occur without adaptation, as well as the fraction of impact that can be avoided through each activity. Here we present a quantitative framework inspired by the greenhouse gas stabilization wedges of Pacala and Socolow. In our proposed framework, the damage avoided by each adaptation activity creates an 'adaptation wedge' relative to the loss that would occur without that adaptation activity. We use premium winegrape suitability in the western United States as an illustrative case study, focusing on the near-term period that covers the years 2000 39. We find that the projected warming over this period results in the loss of suitable winegrape area throughout much of California, including most counties in the high-value North Coast and Central Coast regions. However, in quantifying adaptation wedges for individual high-value counties, we find that a large adaptation wedge can be captured by increasing the severe heat tolerance, including elimination of the 50% loss projected by the end of the 2030 9 period in the North Coast region, and reduction of the projected loss in the Central Coast region from 30% to less than 15%. Increased severe heat tolerance can capture an even larger adaptation wedge in the Pacific Northwest, including conversion of a projected loss of more than 30% in the Columbia Valley region of Washington to a projected gain of more than 150%. We also find that warming projected over the near-term decades has the potential to alter the quality of winegrapes produced in the western US, and we discuss potential actions that could create adaptation wedges given these potential changes in quality. While the present effort represents an initial exploration of one aspect of one industry, the climate adaptation wedge framework could be used to quantitatively evaluate the opportunities and limits of climate adaptation within and across a broad range of natural and human systems.

  12. Structure and Origins of Trends in Hydrological Measures over the western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, T; Hidalgo, H G; Dettinger, M D; Cayan, D R; Pierce, D W; Bonfils, C; Barnett, T P; Bala, G; Mirin, A

    2008-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines, at 1/8 degree spatial resolution, the geographic structure of observed trends in key hydrologically relevant variables across the western United States (U.S.) over the period 1950-1999, and investigates whether these trends are statistically significantly different from trends associated with natural climate variations. A number of variables were analyzed, including late winter and spring temperature, winter-total snowy days as a fraction of winter-total wet days, 1st April Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) as a fraction of October through March precipitation total (P{sub ONDJFM}), and seasonal (January-February-March; JFM) accumulated runoff as a fraction of water year accumulated runoff. The observed changes were compared to natural internal climate variability simulated by an 850-year control run of the CCSM3-FV climate model, statistically downscaled to a 1/8 degree grid using the method of Constructed Analogues. Both observed and downscaled temperature and precipitation data were then used to drive the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model to obtain the hydrological variables analyzed in this study. Large trends (magnitudes found less than 5% of the time in the long control run) are common in the observations, and occupy substantial part of the area (37-42%) over the mountainous western U.S. These trends are strongly related to the large scale warming that appears over 89% of the domain. The strongest changes in the hydrologic variables, unlikely to be associated with natural variability alone, have occurred at medium elevations (750 m to 2500 m for JFM runoff fractions and 500 m-3000 m for SWE/PONDJFM) where warming has pushed temperatures from slightly below to slightly above freezing. Further analysis using the data on selected catchments across the simulation domain indicated that hydroclimatic variables must have changed significantly (at 95% confidence level) over at least 45% of the total catchment area to achieve a detectable trend in measures accumulated to the catchment scale.

  13. Longest-Serving Active Paper Mill in the Western United States...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    MMBtu and 379,000 annually after receiving a DOE energy assessment and implementing steam system improvement recommendations. Longest-Serving Active Paper Mill in the Western...

  14. Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in Utility Resource Planning:Current Practices in the Western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

    2008-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Concerns about global climate change have substantially increased the likelihood that future policy will seek to minimize carbon dioxide emissions. Assuch, even today, electric utilities are making resource planning and investment decisions that consider the possible implications of these future carbon regulations. In this article, we examine the manner in which utilities assess the financial risks associated with future carbon regulations within their long-term resource plans. We base our analysis on a review of the most recent resource plans filed by fifteen electric utilities in the Western United States. Virtually all of these utilities made some effort to quantitatively evaluate the potential cost of future carbon regulations when analyzing alternate supply- and demand-side resource options for meeting customer load. Even without Federal climate regulation in the U.S., the prospect of that regulation is already having an impact on utility decision-making and resource choices. That said, the methods and assumptions used by utilities to analyze carbon regulatory risk, and the impact of that analysis on their choice of a particular resource strategy, vary considerably, revealing a number of opportunities for analytic improvement. Though our review focuses on a subset of U.S. electric utilities, this work holds implications for all electric utilities and energy policymakers who are seeking to minimize the compliance costs associated with future carbon regulations

  15. Comparison of Capacity Value Methods for Photovoltaics in the Western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report compares different capacity value estimation techniques applied to solar photovoltaics (PV). It compares more robust data and computationally intense reliability-based capacity valuation techniques to simpler approximation techniques at 14 different locations in the western United States. The capacity values at these locations are computed while holding the underlying power system characteristics fixed. This allows the effect of differences in solar availability patterns on the capacity value of PV to be directly ascertained, without differences in the power system confounding the results. Finally, it examines the effects of different PV configurations, including varying the orientation of a fixed-axis system and installing single- and double-axis tracking systems, on the capacity value. The capacity value estimations are done over an eight-year running from 1998 to 2005, and both long-term average capacity values and interannual capacity value differences (due to interannual differences in solar resource availability) are estimated. Overall, under the assumptions used in the analysis, we find that some approximation techniques can yield similar results to reliability-based methods such as effective load carrying capability.

  16. Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in Utility Resource Planning: Current Practices in the Western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

    2008-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Concerns about global climate change have substantially increased the likelihood that future policy will seek to minimize carbon dioxide emissions. As such, even today, electric utilities are making resource planning and investment decisions that consider the possible implications of these future carbon regulations. In this article, we examine the manner in which utilities assess the financial risks associated with future carbon regulations within their long-term resource plans. We base our analysis on a review of the most recent resource plans filed by fifteen electric utilities in the Western United States. Virtually all of these utilities made some effort to quantitatively evaluate the potential cost of future carbon regulations when analyzing alternate supply- and demand-side resource options for meeting customer load. Even without Federal climate regulation in the U.S., the prospect of that regulation is already having an impact on utility decision-making and resource choices. That said, the methods and assumptions used by utilities to analyze carbon regulatory risk, and the impact of that analysis on their choice of a particular resource strategy, vary considerably, revealing a number of opportunities for analytic improvement. Though our review focuses on a subset of U.S. electric utilities, this work holds implications for all electric utilities and energy policymakers who are seeking to minimize the compliance costs associated with future carbon regulations.

  17. Integrating High Penetrations of Solar in the Western United States: Results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Lew, D.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This poster presents a summary of the results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2.

  18. Long-Term Regional Climate Simulations Driven by Two Global Reanalyses and a GCM for the Western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, Lai R.; Bian, Xindi; Qian, Yun

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To take advantage of recent development in the NCAR/Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5), an effort has been organized to develop and evaluate an MM5-based community regional climate model. Several modifications such as the implementation of the PNNL subgrid parameterization of orographic precipitation, representation of cloud-radiation interaction, and additional output capabilities have been made to the recently released MM5 Version 3.4. To evaluate the model, several long-term simulations have been performed over the western U.S. These simulations were driven by the NCEP/NCAR and ECMWF reanalyses respectively for 20 and 13 years beginning at 1980. The western U.S. is marked by diverse topographic features and varied climate conditions such as the maritime climate in the coastal area and the semi-arid climate in the southwest. We will present results based on two domain configurations: a nested domain with a fine domain covering the western U.S. at 40 km resolution, and a single domain at 60 km resolution with the subgrid orographic precipitation scheme applied in the western U.S. Analyses are being performed to evaluate the simulations of the averaged climate and interannual variability and examine the model sensitivity to different boundary conditions. Our analyses focus on the relationships between large-scale circulation and regional climate features, surface energy and water budgets, orographic precipitation, and hydrologic conditions within selected river basins. Regional simulations are also being performed using large-scale conditions simulated by the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM). The regional model was used to downscale the ensemble PCM climate change scenarios for periods of 10-20 years in the current and future climate. Results will be analyzed to study the impacts of greenhouse warming on regional water resources in the western U.S.

  19. ARS 49-202 Designation of State Agency | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1AMEE Jump to: navigation, search40 - PublicDesignation of State

  20. Multiple transition zone seismic discontinuities and low velocity layers below western United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tauzin, B.

    With P-to-S converted waves recorded at seismic stations of the U.S. Transportable Array, we image the fine structure of upper mantle and transition zone (TZ) beneath the western U.S. We map the topographies of seismic ...

  1. Utility Integrated Resource Planning: An Emerging Driver of NewRenewable Generation in the Western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In the United States, markets for renewable generation--especially wind power--have grown substantially in recent years. This growth is typically attributed to technology improvements and resulting cost reductions, the availability of federal tax incentives, and aggressive state policy efforts. But another less widely recognized driver of new renewable generation is poised to play a major role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Common in the late-1980s to mid-1990s, but relegated to lesser importance as many states took steps to restructure their electricity markets in the late-1990s, IRP has re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions such as the western United States, where retail competition has failed to take root. As practiced in the United States, IRP is a formal process by which utilities analyze the costs, benefits, and risks of all resources available to them--both supply- and demand-side--with the ultimate goal of identifying a portfolio of resources that meets their future needs at lowest cost and/or risk. Though the content of any specific utility IRP is unique, all are built on a common basic framework: (1) development of peak demand and load forecasts; (2) assessment of how these forecasts compare to existing and committed generation resources; (3) identification and characterization of various resource portfolios as candidates to fill a projected resource deficiency; (4) analysis of these different ''candidate'' resource portfolios under base-case and alternative future scenarios; and finally, (5) selection of a preferred portfolio, and creation of a near-term action plan to begin to move towards that portfolio. Renewable resources were once rarely considered seriously in utility IRP. In the western United States, however, the most recent resource plans call for a significant amount of new wind power capacity. These planned additions appear to be motivated by the improved economics of wind power, an emerging understanding that wind integration costs are manageable, and a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities. Equally important, utility IRPs are increasingly recognizing the inherent risks in fossil-based generation portfolios--especially natural gas price risk and the financial risk of future carbon regulation--and the benefits of renewable energy in mitigating those risks. This article, which is based on a longer report from Berkeley Lab,i examines how twelve investor-owned utilities (IOUs) in the western United States--Avista, Idaho Power, NorthWestern Energy (NWE), Portland General Electric (PGE), Puget Sound Energy (PSE), PacifiCorp, Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo), Nevada Power, Sierra Pacific, Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E)--treat renewable energy in their most recent resource plans (as of July 2005). In aggregate, these twelve utilities supply approximately half of all electricity demand in the western United States. In reviewing these plans, our purpose is twofold: (1) to highlight the growing importance of utility IRP as a current and future driver of renewable generation in the United States, and (2) to suggest possible improvements to the methods used to evaluate renewable generation as a resource option. As such, we begin by summarizing the amount and types of new renewable generation planned as a result of these twelve IRPs. We then offer observations about the IRP process, and how it might be improved to more objectively evaluate renewable resources.

  2. Time-dependent quantum wave packet study of the Ar+H{sub 2}{sup +}{yields}ArH{sup +}+H reaction on a new ab initio potential energy surface for the ground electronic state (1{sup 2}A Prime )

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Mei; Liu Xinguo; Tan Ruishan; Li Hongzheng [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Xu Wenwu [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A new global potential energy surface for the ground electronic state (1{sup 2}A Prime ) of the Ar+H{sub 2}{sup +}{yields}ArH{sup +}+H reaction has been constructed by multi-reference configuration interaction method with Davidson correction and a basis set of aug-cc-pVQZ. Using 6080 ab initio single-point energies of all the regions for the dynamics, a many-body expansion function form has been used to fit these points. The quantum reactive scattering dynamics calculations taking into account the Coriolis coupling (CC) were carried out on the new potential energy surface over a range of collision energies (0.03-1.0 eV). The reaction probabilities and integral cross sections for the title reaction were calculated. The significance of including the CC quantum scattering calculation has been revealed by the comparison between the CC and the centrifugal sudden approximation calculation. The calculated cross section is in agreement with the experimental result at collision energy 1.0 eV.

  3. Mapping the Ionization State of Laser-Irradiated Ar Gas Jets With Multi-Wavelength Monochromatic X-Ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kugland, N L; Doppner, T; Kemp, A; Schaeffer, D; Glenzer, S H; Niemann, C

    2010-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-dimensional monochromatic images of fast-electron stimulated Ar K{alpha} and He-{alpha} x-ray self-emission have recorded a time-integrated map of the extent of Ar{sup {approx}6+} and Ar{sup 16+} ions, respectively, within a high density (10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} atomic density) Ar plasma. This plasma was produced by irradiating a 2 mm wide clustering Ar gas jet with an ultra-high intensity (10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}, 200 fs) Ti:Sapphire laser operating at 800 nm. Spherically bent quartz crystals in the 200 (for K{alpha}) and 201 (for He-{alpha}) planes were used as near-normal incidence reflective x-ray optics. We see that a large (830 {micro}m long) region of plasma emits K{alpha} primarily along the laser axis, while the He-{alpha} emission is confined to smaller hot spot (230 {micro}m long) region that likely corresponds to the focal volume of the f/8 laser beam. X-ray spectra from a Bragg spectrometer operating in the von Hamos geometry, which images in one dimension, indicate that the centroids of the K{alpha} and He-{alpha} emission regions are separated by approximately 330 {micro}m along the laser axis.

  4. Sub-Hourly Impacts of High Solar Penetrations in the Western United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hummon, M.; Hodge, B. M.; Heaney, M.; King, J.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents results of analysis on the sub-hourly impacts of high solar penetrations from the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2. Extreme event analysis showed that most large ramps were due to sunrise and sunset events, which have a significant predictability component. Variability in general was much higher in the high-solar versus high-wind scenario. Reserve methodologies that had already been developed for wind were therefore modified to take into account the predictability component of solar variability.

  5. Analysis of drought impacts on electricity production in the Western and Texas interconnections of the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harto, C. B.; Yan, Y. E.; Demissie, Y. K.; Elcock, D.; Tidwell, V. C.; Hallett, K.; Macknick, J.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Tesfa, T. K. (Environmental Science Division); (Sandia National Laboratory); (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2012-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity generation relies heavily on water resources and their availability. To examine the interdependence of energy and water in the electricity context, the impacts of a severe drought to assess the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the western and Texas interconnections has been examined. The historical drought patterns in the western United States were analyzed, and the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the region was evaluated. The results of this effort will be used to develop scenarios for medium- and long-term transmission modeling and planning efforts by the Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The study was performed in response to a request developed by the Western Governors Association in conjunction with the transmission modeling teams at the participating interconnections. It is part of a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored, national laboratory-led research effort to develop tools related to the interdependency of energy and water as part of a larger interconnection-wide transmission planning project funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. This study accomplished three main objectives. It provided a thorough literature review of recent studies of drought and the potential implications for electricity generation. It analyzed historical drought patterns in the western United States and used the results to develop three design drought scenarios. Finally, it quantified the risk to electricity generation for each of eight basins for each of the three drought scenarios and considered the implications for transmission planning. Literature on drought impacts on electricity generation describes a number of examples where hydroelectric generation capacity has been limited because of drought but only a few examples of impact on thermoelectric generation. In all documented cases, shortfalls of generation were met by purchasing power from the market, albeit at higher prices. However, sufficient excess generation and transmission must be available for this strategy to work. Although power purchase was the most commonly discussed drought mitigation strategy, a total of 12 response strategies were identified in the literature, falling into four main categories: electricity supply, electricity demand response, alternative water supplies, and water demand response. Three hydrological drought scenarios were developed based on a literature review and historical data analysis. The literature review helped to identify key drought parameters and data on drought frequency and severity. Historical hydrological drought data were analyzed for the western United States to identify potential drought correlations and estimate drought parameters. The first scenario was a West-wide drought occurring in 1977; it represented a severe drought in five of the eight basins in the study area. A second drought scenario was artificially defined by selecting the conditions from the 10th-percentile drought year for each individual basin; this drought was defined in this way to allow more consistent analysis of risk to electricity generation in each basin. The final scenario was based upon the current low-flow hydro modeling scenario defined by WECC, which uses conditions from the year 2001. These scenarios were then used to quantify the risk to electricity generation in each basin. The risk calculations represent a first-order estimate of the maximum amount of electricity generation that might be lost from both hydroelectric and thermoelectric sources under a worst-case scenario. Even with the conservative methodology used, the majority of basins showed a limited amount of risk under most scenarios. The level of risk in these basins is likely to be amenable to mitigation by known strategies, combined with existing reserve generation and transmission capacity. However, the risks to the Pacific Northwest and Texas Basins require further study. The Pacific Northwest is vulnerable because of its heavy reliance on hydroelectri

  6. Rhythmic bedding patterns for locating structural features, Niobrara Formation, United States western interior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laferriere, A.P.; Hattin, D.E.

    1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Milankovitch-type bedding cycles are well developed in the Upper Cretaceous Fort Hays Limestone Member, Niobrara Formation. These time-equivalent cycles can be correlated across much of Colorado, Kansas, and northeastern New Mexico by combining subsurface and outcrop data. Documentation of thickness variations within the regionally persistent Fort Hays bedding sequences furnishes a basis for fine-scale analysis of Late Cretaceous crustal movements within the eastern ramp region of the Western Interior foreland basin. Regional thickness changes in groups of shale-limestone couplets were correlated and mapped in outcrop and in the subsurface to locate structural elements that influenced Fort Hays deposition. In the Denver-Julesburg basin of Colorado and western Kansas, up to 6.1 m (20 ft) of thinning of the section occurs dominantly along northeastwardly trending belts formed during Late Cretaceous reactivation of the Transcontinental arch. Mapping of these small-scale thickness changes in the Fort Hays demonstrates that Cretaceous reactivation of the Transcontinental arch was not restricted to the northern part of the Denver-Julesburg basin. Additional structures may occur as far south as the Colorado-New Mexico border. A northwestwardly thinning trend is also apparent and may have resulted from increased compaction and diagenesis, reduction of sediment input during transgression, or from uplift in the vicinity of the Colorado Front Range. 8 figures.

  7. Benefit of Regional Energy Balancing Service on Wind Integration in the Western Interconnection of the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interest in various wide-area balancing schemes to help integrate wind have generated significant interest. As we have shown in past work, large balancing areas not only help with wind integration, but can also increase the efficiency of operations in systems without wind. Recent work on the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) has found that combining balancing over the WestConnect footprint will increase the efficiency of commitment and dispatch at wind penetrations ranging from 10-20% of annual electricity demand, and will be essential for high penetrations and small balancing areas. In addition the Northwest Wind Integration Action Plan recommended balancing area cooperation as a method to help integrate the large potential wind development. In this paper we investigate the potential impact of a proposed Energy Imbalance Service on the ability of the non-market portions of Western Electricity Coordinating Councils (WECC) United States footprint to integrate wind energy. We will utilize data adapted from the WWSIS for the Western Interconnection. The analysis uses time-synchronized wind and load data to evaluate the potential for ramp requirement reduction that could be achieved with combined operation. Chronological analysis and ramp duration analysis quantify the benefit in terms of not only the ramp sizes, but the frequency of the potentially avoided ramps that must be managed by the non-wind generation fleet. Multiple approaches that can be used to achieve these benefits will also be suggested in the paper. We also suggest other approaches that can help achieve much of the benefit of full consolidation without requiring the physical consolidation of balancing areas.

  8. report 2013 Front cover image: Greenough River Solar Farm, Western Australia.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Donna

    R heAtinG 59 WinD PoWeR 65 appendiCes 65 APPenDiX 1: toP 10 SolAR PoStCoDeS by StAte 68 APPenDiX 2 #12. From jobs and investment in regional areas to solar panels, solar hot water and high efficiencyClean energy australia report 2013 #12;Front cover image: Greenough River Solar Farm, Western

  9. A review of "Ars Epistolica: Communication in Sixteenth Century Western Europe: Epistolaries, Letter-writing Manuals and Model Letter Books 1501-1600" edited by Axel Erdmann, Alberto Govi and Fabrizio Govi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickson, Donald R.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Model Letter Books 1501-1600. by With an Introduction by Judith Rice Henderson. Lucerne: Gilhofer & Ranschburg; Libreria Alberto Govi, 2014. xxv + 771 pp. with illustrations. 150 €. Review donald r. dickson, texas a&m university. Ars Epistolica... of the Renaissance, who often seem to undervalue the significance of the familiar letter in respublica literaria. Certainly book collectors will also find Ars Epistolica an invaluable resource. The volume is introduced by Prof. Judith Rice Henderson who offers...

  10. Milk production and distribution in nine western states in the 1950s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, G.M.; Whicker, F.W.

    1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides information on milk distribution and dairy cattle feeding practices in Nevada, Utah and portions of seven other adjacent states during the 1950s. The information was gathered to support the US Department of Energy's ''Offsite Radiation Exposure Review Project (ORERP).'' This project is charged with providing radiation dose estimates for residents of Nevada, Utah, and surrounding states from nuclear weapons testing conducted at the Nevada Test Site from 1951 through 1962. The information on milk production and distribution is essential for assessment of the internal organ doses received by people as a result of ingesting radioactive fallout-contaminated foods. The information is used as input data for Colorado State University's PATHWAY computer code which estimates the ingestion of twenty radionuclides by people relative to a given level of fallout deposition.

  11. Economics and Policies for Carbon Capture and Sequestration in the Western United States: A Marginal Cost Analysis of Potential Power Plant Deployment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    capital costs. Capacity factors and the impact of carbon prices vary considerably by plant location: A Marginal Cost Analysis of Potential Power Plant Deployment by Gary Shu B.S., Electrical Engineering;Economics and Policies for Carbon Capture and Sequestration in the Western United States: A Marginal Cost

  12. Energy Efficiency as a Preferred Resource: Evidence from Utility Resource Plans in the Western United States and Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopper, Nichole

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    WGA CDEAC) (2006). Energy Efficiency Task Force Report.on Phase 1 Issues: Energy Efficiency Shareholder Mechanism,Schlegel, J. (2006). Energy Efficiency in Western Utility

  13. Energy Efficiency as a Preferred Resource: Evidence from Utility Resource Plans in the Western United States and Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopper, Nichole

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CDEAC) (2006). Energy Efficiency Task Force Report. January.on Phase 1 Issues: Energy Efficiency Shareholder Mechanism,Schlegel, J. (2006). Energy Efficiency in Western Utility

  14. Sulfur dioxide emissions from primary nonferrous smelters in the Western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangeng, C.; Mead, R.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The greatest source of sulfur dioxide emissions in the West has been the pyrometallurgical processing of copper, lead, and zinc ores. Until the early 1970s, the emissions from most nonferrous metal smelters were released without control into the environment. However, recent Federal and State legislation has mandated the need for large reductions of emissions, a task that will require the introduction of highly efficient sulfur dioxide control technology. The particular processes at each smelter, the smelter location, the capital and operating costs including the cost of energy, the resolution of currently litigated issues, and the metal market prices will be major influences on the choice of technology and on the schedule for implementation of smelter control plans. These parameters are examined, and the problems and issues associated with them are described. The future impact of smelter sulfur dioxide emissions is discussed within the framework of the relevant economic, technologial, and legal issues.

  15. Transition state spectroscopy of the I + HI reaction in clusters: Photoelectron spectroscopy of (n = 115)IHI-- Ar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumark, Daniel M.

    Transition state spectroscopy of the I + HI reaction in clusters: Photoelectron spectroscopy of (n Article on the web 4th June 2001 We have investigated eects of solvation on the transition state and hindered rotational motions of the transition state complex IHI. The shifts in electron binding energy

  16. Direct comparative study on the energy level alignments in unoccupied/occupied states of organic semiconductor/electrode interface by constructing in-situ photoemission spectroscopy and Ar gas cluster ion beam sputtering integrated analysis system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Dong-Jin, E-mail: Dongjin.yun@samsung.com; Chung, JaeGwan; Kim, Yongsu; Park, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Seong-Heon; Heo, Sung [Analytical Science Laboratory of Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, PO Box 14-1, Yongin 446-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the installation of electron gun and photon detector, an in-situ photoemission and damage-free sputtering integrated analysis system is completely constructed. Therefore, this system enables to accurately characterize the energy level alignments including unoccupied/occupied molecular orbital (LUMO/HOMO) levels at interface region of organic semiconductor/electrode according to depth position. Based on Ultraviolet Photoemission Spectroscopy (UPS), Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopy (IPES), and reflective electron energy loss spectroscopy, the occupied/unoccupied state of in-situ deposited Tris[4-(carbazol-9-yl)phenyl]amine (TCTA) organic semiconductors on Au (E{sub LUMO}: 2.51?eV and E{sub HOMO}: 1.35?eV) and Ti (E{sub LUMO}: 2.19?eV and E{sub HOMO}: 1.69?eV) electrodes are investigated, and the variation of energy level alignments according to work function of electrode (Au: 4.81?eV and Ti: 4.19?eV) is clearly verified. Subsequently, under the same analysis condition, the unoccupied/occupied states at bulk region of TCTA/Au structures are characterized using different Ar gas cluster ion beam (Ar GCIB) and Ar ion sputtering processes, respectively. While the Ar ion sputtering process critically distorts both occupied and unoccupied states in UPS/IPES spectra, the Ar GCIB sputtering process does not give rise to damage on them. Therefore, we clearly confirm that the in-situ photoemission spectroscopy in combination with Ar GCIB sputtering allows of investigating accurate energy level alignments at bulk/interface region as well as surface region of organic semiconductor/electrode structure.

  17. arXiv:quant-ph/0303103v21Jul2003 Survival probability and local density of states for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Doron

    of the survival probability, and for the parametric dependence of the local density of states. This theory leads possibility is to use perturbation theory, in particular "Fermi #12;Survival probability and LDOS for 1DarXiv:quant-ph/0303103v21Jul2003 Survival probability and local density of states for one

  18. The Common Occurrence of Highly Supercooled Drizzle and Rain near the Coastal Regions of the Western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Chemke, Rei; DeMott, Paul J.; Sullivan, Ryan C.; Rasmussen, R M.; McDonough, Frank; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Jonsson, Haf; Suski, Kaitlyn; Cazorla, Alberto; Prather, Kimberly

    2013-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of highly supercooled rain was documented by aircraft observations in clouds at a wide range of conditions near the coastal region of the western United States. Several case studies are described in detail using combined cloud and aerosol measurements to document both the highly super-cooled condition and the relatively pristine aerosol conditions under which it forms. The case studies include: (1) Marine convective clouds over the coastal waters of northern California, as measured by cloud physics probes flown on a Gulfstream-1 aircraft during the CALWATER campaign in February and early March 2011. The clouds had extensive drizzle in their tops, which extended downward to the 0°C isotherm as supercooled rain. Ice multiplication was observed only in mature parts of the clouds where cloud water was already depleted. (2) Orographically triggered convective clouds in marine air mass over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada to the east of Sacramento, as measured in CALWATER. Supercooled rain was observed down to -21°C. No indications for ice multiplication were evident. (3) Orographic layer clouds over Yosemite National Park, also measured in CALWATER. The clouds had extensive drizzle at -21°C, which intensified with little freezing lower in the cloud, and (4) Supercooled drizzle drops in layer clouds near Juneau, Alaska, as measured by the Wyoming King Air as part of a FAA project to study aircraft icing in this region. Low concentrations of CCN was a common observation in all these clouds, allowing for the formation of clouds with small concentration of large drops that coalesced into supercooled drizzle and raindrops. Another common observation was the absence of ice nuclei and/or ice crystals in measurable concentrations was associated with the persistent supercooled drizzle and rain. Average ice crystal concentrations were 0.007 l-1 at the top of convective clouds at -12°C and 0.03 l-1 in the case of layer clouds at -21°C. In combination these two conditions provide ideal conditions for the formation of highly supercooled drizzle and rain. These results help explain the anomalously high incidences of aircraft icing at cold temperatures in U.S. west coast clouds (Bernstein et al., 2004) and highlight the need to include aerosol effects when simulating aircraft icing with cloud models. These case studies can also serve as benchmarks for explicit cloud microphysics models attempting to simulate the formation of precipitation in these types of pristine conditions.

  19. arXiv:0904.2664v2[physics.pop-ph]19Apr2009 States of Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dhar, Deepak

    classification of different animal species) or some mixture of these (e.g. books in a library). Materials can in this case is that states of matter is a classification scheme, like filing cabinets. There are a lot of materials, and we choose the grouping scheme that is most convenient. Other possi- ble classification

  20. Geothermal energy in the western United States and Hawaii: Resources and projected electricity generation supplies. [Contains glossary and address list of geothermal project developers and owners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geothermal energy comes from the internal heat of the Earth, and has been continuously exploited for the production of electricity in the United States since 1960. Currently, geothermal power is one of the ready-to-use baseload electricity generating technologies that is competing in the western United States with fossil fuel, nuclear and hydroelectric generation technologies to provide utilities and their customers with a reliable and economic source of electric power. Furthermore, the development of domestic geothermal resources, as an alternative to fossil fuel combustion technologies, has a number of associated environmental benefits. This report serves two functions. First, it provides a description of geothermal technology and a progress report on the commercial status of geothermal electric power generation. Second, it addresses the question of how much electricity might be competitively produced from the geothermal resource base. 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Simulations of Present and Future Climates in the Western United States with Four Nested Regional Climate Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, Phil; Arritt, R.; Coquard, J.; Gutowski, William; Han, J.; Iorio, J.; Kim, Jongil; Leung, Lai R.; Roads, J.; Zeledon, E.

    2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze simulations of present and future climates in the western U.S. performed with four regional climate models (RCMs) nested within two global ocean-atmosphere climate models. Our primary goal is to assess the range of regional climate responses to increased greenhouse gases in available RCM simulations. The four RCMs used different geographical domains, different increased greenhouse gas scenarios for future-climate simulations, and (in some cases) different lateral boundary conditions. For simulations of the present climate, we compare RCM results to observations and to results of the GCM that provided lateral boundary conditions to the RCM. For future-climate (increased greenhouse gas) simulations, we compare RCM results to each other and to results of the driving GCMs. When results are spatially averaged over the western U.S., we find that the results of each RCM closely follow those of the driving GCM in the same region, in both present and future climates. This is true even though the study area is in some cases a small fraction of the RCM domain. Precipitation responses predicted by the RCMs are in many regions not statistically significant compared to interannual variability. Where the predicted precipitation responses are statistically significant, they are positive. The models agree that near-surface temperatures will increase, but do not agree on the spatial pattern of this increase. The four RCMs produce very different estimates of water content of snow in the present climate, and of the change in this water content in response to increased greenhouse gases.

  2. Energy gain spectroscopic study of Ar{sup q+}-Ar collisions at 40 qeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vancura, J.; Kostroun, V.O.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy gain spectra of Ar{sup q+}(8 {le} q {le} 16) on Ar at 40 qeV collision energy and 0.4 qeV energy resolution are presented. Capture into definite states of the projectile is observed which seems to exhibit a definite even-odd projectile charge state dependence.

  3. THE ROLE OF ELEVATION ON TEMPERATURE TRENDS IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES: A COMPARISON OF TWO STATISTICAL METHODS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    .4.2 K-Means Cluster Analysis 28 5. Results 30 STATES: A COMPARISON OF TWO STATISTICAL METHODS By Ruben J Behnke

  4. Effects of soot-induced snow albedo change on snowpack and hydrological cycle in western United States based on Weather Research and Forecasting chemistry and regional climate simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Gustafson, William I.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ghan, Steven J.

    2009-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative forcing induced by soot on snow is a major anthropogenic forcing affecting the global climate. However, it is uncertain how the soot-induced snow albedo perturbation affects regional snowpack and the hydrological cycle. In this study we simulated the deposition of soot aerosol on snow and investigated the resulting impact on snowpack and the surface water budget in the western United States. A yearlong simulation was performed using the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) to determine an annual budget of soot deposition, followed by two regional climate simulations using WRF in meteorology-only mode, with and without the soot-induced snow albedo perturbations. The chemistry simulation shows large spatial variability in soot deposition that reflects the localized emissions and the influence of the complex terrain. The soot-induced snow albedo perturbations increase the net solar radiation flux at the surface during late winter to early spring, increase the surface air temperature, reduce snow water equivalent amount, and lead to reduced snow accumulation and less spring snowmelt. These effects are stronger over the central Rockies and southern Alberta, where soot deposition and snowpack overlap the most. The indirect forcing of soot accelerates snowmelt and alters stream flows, including a trend toward earlier melt dates in the western United States. The soot-induced albedo reduction initiates a positive feedback process whereby dirty snow absorbs more solar radiation, heating the surface and warming the air. This warming causes reduced snow depth and fraction, which further reduces the regional surface albedo for the snow covered regions. Our simulations indicate that the change of maximum snow albedo induced by soot on snow contributes to 60% of the net albedo reduction over the central Rockies. Snowpack reduction accounts for the additional 40%.

  5. Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power: A Comparative Analysis of Impacts within the Western Governors' Association States; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.; Milligan, M.; Goldberg, M.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper uses NREL's newest Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI II) model to assess economic impacts from alternative power technologies, with a focus on wind energy, for a variety of states.

  6. A gravity study of the Great Basin-Sonoran Desert transition zone, Basin and Range province, western United States 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brooks, Debra Ann

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . S. Geological Survey Open File Report 82-500, 18 p. Hildenbrand, T. G. , Simpson, R. W. , Godson, R. H. , and Kane, M. F. , 1982, Digital colored residual and regional Bouguer gravity maps of the conterminous United States -- Comments... on significant features: U. S. Geological Survey Open File Report 82-284, 31 p. Hill, D. P. , and Pakiser, L. C. , 1967, Seismic-refraction study of crustal structure between the Nevada Test Site and Boise, Idaho: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v, 78...

  7. Western Meter Policy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as Western) VAC Voltage Alternating Current VAR, Mvar Volt-Ampere-Reactive (Instantaneous Reactive Power), Mega-Var VDC Voltage Direct Current Western Area Power Administration...

  8. Coolerado 5 Ton RTU Performance: Western Cooling Challenge Results (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Slayzak, S.

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Western Cooling Efficiency Center (WCEC) developed a set of criteria for test conditions, minimum energy, and water use performance for prototype cooling equipment and identified these conditions as indicative of western state climates.

  9. Discrete ultrahigh-pressure domains in the Western Gneiss Region, Norway: implications for formation and exhumation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Bradley R.

    Discrete ultrahigh-pressure domains in the Western Gneiss Region, Norway: implications of Norway, Leiv Erikssons vei 39, 7491 Trondheim, Norway 4 Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences Ar ages within the Western Gneiss Region of Norway define three discrete ultrahigh-pressure (UHP

  10. Relative proton and gamma widths of astrophysically important states in 30S studied in the beta-decay of 31Ar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. T. Koldste; B. Blank; M. J. G. Borge; J. A. Briz; M. Carmona-Gallardo; L. M. Fraile; H. O. U. Fynbo; J. Giovinazzo; J. G. Johansen; A. Jokinen; B. Jonson; T. Kurturkian-Nieto; J. H. Kusk; T. Nilsson; A. Perea; V. Pesudo; E. Picado; K. Riisager; A. Saastamoinen; O. Tengblad; J. -C. Thomas; J. Van de Walle

    2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Resonances just above the proton threshold in 30S affect the 29P(p,gamma)30S reaction under astrophysical conditions. The (p,gamma)-reaction rate is currently determined indirectly and depends on the properties of the relevant resonances. We present here a method for finding the ratio between the proton and gamma partial widths of resonances in 30S. The widths are determined from the beta-2p and beta-p-gamma decay of 31Ar, which is produced at the ISOLDE facility at the European research organization CERN. Experimental limits on the ratio between the proton and gamma partial widths for astrophysical relevant levels in 30S have been found for the first time. A level at 4688(5) keV is identified in the gamma spectrum, and an upper limit on the proton to gamma width of 0.26 (95 % C.L.) is found. In the two-proton spectrum two levels at 5227(3) keV and 5847(4) keV are identified. These levels are previously seen to gamma decay and upper limits on the gamma to proton width of 0.5 and 9, respectively, (95 % C.L.) are found, where the latter differs from previous calculations.

  11. [The Journal of Geology, 1999, volume 107, p. 353374] 1999 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved. 0022-1376/99/10703-0007$01.00 Early Carboniferous Unroofing in Western Norway: A Tale of Alkali

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andersen, Torgeir Bjørge

    rights reserved. 0022-1376/99/10703-0007$01.00 353 Early Carboniferous Unroofing in Western Norway Geological Survey of Norway, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway (e-mail: Elizabeth.Eide@ngu.no) A B S T R A C T 40 Ar/39 Ar thermochronologic data from an extensional detachment zone in western Norway document

  12. Western Pacific Regional Summary Western Pacific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) of the Pacific-wide (western-central and eastern Pacific Ocean) total of Pacific bigeye tuna landings reported Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) is active in the western and central Pacific Ocean and the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) is active in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Species under the purview

  13. FINAL Western Area Power Administration Desert Southwest Region...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    source materials in Western's DSW region archives and records and at the Arizona State University Library in Phoenix, Arizona. Information concerning the general history of...

  14. Competitive interstate taxation of western coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolstad, C.D.; Wolak, F.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyzes the potential market power of western states in setting coal severance taxes. An attempt to determine the emphasis placed by the western states on the development of their coal resources is also made. Three market structures are analyzed. One involves a western regional cartel, setting taxes collectively. The other cases are noncooperative tax equilibria with Montana and Wyoming competing against each other. We study the effects on these equilibria of changes in each region's relative emphasis on development of coal resources vs tax revenue. The welfare impacts of these tax setting policies are also addressed. The analysis is based on an activity analysis of US coal markets. The results show that the taxes associated with the noncooperative competitive tax equilibria are close to present tax levels. Additionally, we conclude that western states currently are quite efficient extractors of economic rent from coal produced within their boundaries, in terms of welfare loss per dollar of tax revenue collected. 2 figures.

  15. ARS Agricultural Research Service (USDA) BIA Bureau of Indian Affairs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ACRONYMS ARS Agricultural Research Service (USDA) BIA Bureau of Indian Affairs BLM Bureau of Land Wetlands Inventory ODA Oregon Department of Agriculture ODEQ Oregon Department of Environmental Quality ODF Department of Agriculture USDI United States Department of the Interior USFS United States Forest Service

  16. Sub-Barrier Fusion Cross-Sections of Neutron-Rich Light Nuclei Indiana University, GANIL, Western Michigan Univ., Michigan State Univ.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Souza, Romualdo T.

    Michigan Univ., Michigan State Univ. Theory support: Vanderbilt Univ.(Oberacker & Umar); Indiana Univ. (C

  17. Western Area Power Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    29-30, 2011 2 Agenda * Overview of Western Area Power Administration * Post-1989 Loveland Area Projects (LAP) Marketing Plan * Energy Planning and Management Program * Development...

  18. CEMI Western Regional Summit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Please Join Assistant Secretary of Energy Dr. David Danielson for the Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative's Western Regional Summit. Register now for this free event.

  19. Western Pacific Regional Summary Western Pacific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pacific Ocean) total of Pacific bigeye tuna landings reported in 2007. Currently, there are no catch share in the western and central Pacific Ocean and the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) is active in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Species under the purview of the WCPFC and IATTC migrate across international

  20. Western Pacific Regional Summary Western Pacific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -central and eastern Pacific Ocean) total of Pacific bigeye tuna landings reported in 2007. Currently (WCPFC) is active in the western and central Pacific Ocean and the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) is active in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Species under the purview of the WCPFC and IATTC

  1. The Coronae of AR Lac

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huenemoerder, David P.

    We observed the coronally active eclipsing binary AR Lac with the High Energy Transmission Grating on Chandra for a total of 97 ks, spaced over five orbits, at quadratures and conjunctions. Contemporaneous and simultaneous ...

  2. Role of Penning ionization in the enhancement of streamer channel conductivity and Ar(1s{sub 5}) production in a He-Ar plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sands, Brian L. [UES, Inc., 4401 Dayton-Xenia Rd., Dayton, Ohio 45432 (United States); Huang, Shih K.; Speltz, Jared W.; Niekamp, Matthew A. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Wright State University, 3640 Colonel Glenn Hwy., Dayton, Ohio 45435 (United States); Ganguly, Biswa N. [Air Force Research Laboratory, 1950 5th St. Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States)

    2013-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma jet devices that use a helium gas flow mixed with a small percentage of argon have been shown to operate with a larger discharge current and enhanced production of the Ar(1s{sub 5}) metastable state, particularly in the discharge afterglow. In this experiment, time-resolved quantitative measurements of He(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}) and Ar(1s{sub 5}) metastable species were combined with current and spectrally resolved emission measurements to elucidate the role of Penning ionization in a helium plasma jet with a variable argon admixture. The plasma jet was enclosed in a glass chamber through which a flowing nitrogen background was maintained at 600 Torr. At 3%-5% Ar admixture, we observed a {approx}50% increase in the peak circuit current and streamer velocity relative to a pure helium plasma jet for the same applied voltage. The streamer initiation delay also decreased by {approx}20%. Penning ionization of ground-state argon was found to be the dominant quenching pathway for He(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}) up to 2% Ar and was directly correlated with a sharp increase in both the circuit current and afterglow production of Ar(1s{sub 5}) for Ar admixtures up to 1%, but not necessarily with the streamer velocity, which increased more gradually with Ar concentration. Ar(1s{sub 5}) was produced in the afterglow through recombination of Ar{sup +} and dissociative recombination of Ar{sub 2}{sup +} as the local mean electron energy decreased in the plasma channel behind the streamer head. The discharge current and argon metastable enhancement are contingent on the rapid production of He(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}) near the streamer head, >5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} in 30 ns under the conditions of this experiment.

  3. Deployment of Broadband Infrastructure in the Region of Western Greece

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouras, Christos

    Deployment of Broadband Infrastructure in the Region of Western Greece Antonios Alexiou1, Patras, Greece 3 University of Ioannina, Greece 4 University of Aegean, Greece {alexiua, bouras, igglesis that is taking place in the Region of Western Greece in order to develop state-of-the- art broadband

  4. Final Report on Transmission Pricing in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas C. Larson; Lawrence Nordell

    2003-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Under this project, the Committee on Regional Electric Power Cooperation (CREPC) of the Western Interstate Energy Board developed a ''western pricing and congestion management proposal'' in order to foster efficient wholesale power markets and efficient use and expansion of the transmission grid. Drafts of this paper provided useful information to states/provinces in the Western Interconnection as Western Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) transmission pricing proposals have continued to evolve. Throughout the project there has been a gradual, but incomplete agreement on pricing systems to be used by RTOs in the West.

  5. Food Security in the Western US

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Food Security in the Western US and Pacific Territories 23 Rural Connections Nov. 2009 By PeteR BaRcinas ADAP is tackling the food security implications of climate change, rising sea levels, and fuel costs Pacific (aDaP) Regional Food security and Sufficiency Project brings together community, local, state

  6. 2010 Western Pacific Geophysics Search Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    2010 Western Pacific Geophysics Meeting Search Results Cite abstracts as Author(s) (2010), Title: Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, United States AU: Ragunathan, S EM: srivatta@gi.alaska.edu AF: Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, United

  7. Survey of lands held for uranium exploration, development, and production in fourteen western states in the six-month period ending December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The statistics set forth for the period covered in this report are based on data gathered from records available to the public. The county records of mining claim locations, reports of state and federal land offices, and commercial reporting services furnish the data for this report.

  8. Very-high-order harmonic generation from Ar atoms and Ar+ ions in superintense pulsed laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Shih-I

    Very-high-order harmonic generation from Ar atoms and Ar+ ions in superintense pulsed laser fields-high-order harmonic generation HHG from Ar atoms and Ar+ ions by means of the self-interaction-free time-order harmonic generation HHG is one of the most rapidly developing topics in the field of laser-atom molecule

  9. Helium Isotopes in Geothermal and Volcanic Gases of the Western...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Helium Isotopes in Geothermal and Volcanic Gases of the Western United States, II. Long...

  10. Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United States, I, Regional Variability And Magmatic Origin Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd...

  11. Survey of lands held for uranium exploration, development, and production in fourteen western states in the six-month period ending June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The statistics set forth for the period covered in this report are based on data gathered from records available to the public. The county records of mining claim locations, reports of state and federal land offices, and commercial reporting services furnish the data for this report. Accordingly, if any fee land has been acquired in a private transaction not entered into a public record or report, that land transaction will not be accounted for in this report. Manpower is not available to survey, acquire, and evaluate data from each available source in each reporting period. Therefore, in any given report, the figures quoted for one or more land categories in a given state may be identical to the figures shown in earlier reports even though some changes probably have occurred. Such changes will be shown on subsequent reports. The figures used for acreage controlled at the beginning of the calendar year are those published for that date in Statistical Data of the Uranium Industry GJ0-100 published and distributed by the Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy.

  12. The University of Western Australia Submission to the Senate Education and Employment Legislation Committee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobar, Michael

    The University of Western Australia Submission to the Senate Education and Employment Legislation Bill (2014). The University of Western Australia (UWA) was founded more than 100 years ago as the state efforts. The University of Western Australia shares the Go8's view that the current policy and funding

  13. MURDOCH UNIVERSITY PERTH, WESTERN AUSTRALIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MURDOCH UNIVERSITY PERTH, WESTERN AUSTRALIA INAUGRATION CEREMONY 17TH SEPTEMBER, 1974 #12;ORDER Murdoch University, the second university to be established in Western Australia, and the eighteenth in Australia, was constituted 25 July 1973 by an Act of the Parliament of Western Australia. The initial

  14. Accounts Receivable Western Michigan University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Doncker, Elise

    Accounts Receivable Western Michigan University 1903 W. Michigan Avenue Kalamazoo, MI 49008 have read the Western Michigan University Third Party Billing Policy and agree to the terms. I am authorizing Western Michigan University to bill for the specified tuition and related fees for the term

  15. Accounts Receivable Western Michigan University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Doncker, Elise

    Accounts Receivable Western Michigan University 1903 W. Michigan Avenue Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5210 269 387-4251 Fax 269 387-4227 THIRD PARTY BILLING POLICY Western Michigan University (WMU# (269) 387-4227 Western Michigan University 1903 W. Michigan Avenue E-mail: wmu

  16. WESTERN MICHIGAN UNIVERSITY STUDENT CODE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Doncker, Elise

    WESTERN MICHIGAN UNIVERSITY STUDENT CODE Approved by The Western Michigan University Board Michigan University Kalamazoo, MI 49008 Effective August 2008 #12;A UNIVERSITY COMMUNITY IS... ...a for the Advancement of Teaching; Ernest L. Boyer (frwd.); Princeton, New Jersey; 1990 #12;WESTERN MICHIGAN UNIVERSITY

  17. Electron-Transfer from H-2 and Ar to Stored Multiply Charged Argon Ions Produced by Synchrotron Radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kravis, S. D.; Church, David A.; Johnson, B. M.; Meron, M.; Jones, K. W.; Levin, J. C.; Sellin, I. A.; Azuma, Y.; Berrahmansour, N.; Berry, H. G.; Druetta, M.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -shell photoionization of Ar atoms, using broadband synchrotron x-ray radiation. K-electron removal resulted in vacancy cascading, yielding a distribution of argon-ion charge states peaked near Ar4+. The stored ion gas had an initial temperature near 480 K. The basic...

  18. Electron-Transfer from H-2 and Ar to Stored Multiply Charged Argon Ions Produced by Synchrotron Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kravis, S. D.; Church, David A.; Johnson, B. M.; Meron, M.; Jones, K. W.; Levin, J. C.; Sellin, I. A.; Azuma, Y.; Berrahmansour, N.; Berry, H. G.; Druetta, M.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -shell photoionization of Ar atoms, using broadband synchrotron x-ray radiation. K-electron removal resulted in vacancy cascading, yielding a distribution of argon-ion charge states peaked near Ar4+. The stored ion gas had an initial temperature near 480 K. The basic...

  19. Western Wind Strategy: Addressing Critical Issues for Wind Deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas Larson; Thomas Carr

    2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the Western Wind Strategy project was to help remove critical barriers to wind development in the Western Interconnection. The four stated objectives of this project were to: (1) identify the barriers, particularly barriers to the operational integration of renewables and barriers identified by load-serving entities (LSEs) that will be buying wind generation, (2) communicate the barriers to state officials, (3) create a collaborative process to address those barriers with the Western states, utilities and the renewable industry, and (4) provide a role model for other regions. The project has been on the forefront of identifying and informing state policy makers and utility regulators of critical issues related to wind energy and the integration of variable generation. The project has been a critical component in the efforts of states to push forward important reforms and innovations that will enable states to meet their renewable energy goals and lower the cost to consumers of integrating variable generation.

  20. The impact of bark beetle infestations on monoterpene emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation in western North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berg, A. R.

    Over the last decade, extensive beetle outbreaks in western North America have destroyed over 100 000 km2 of forest throughout British Columbia and the western United States. Beetle infestations impact monoterpene emissions ...

  1. Ar Allman Ide-och matematik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaijser, Sten

    Napoleon Komplexa Planet: Gauss 1825 Wienkongressen Sydamerika och Grekland fria Trigonometriska serier Victoria I Upprorens °ar 1848 Abraham Lincoln Napoleon III Abstrakt algebra: Boole, Cayley

  2. ARS Energy Water and Sustainability Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the ARS Energy Water and Sustainability Program given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Rapid City, South Dakota.

  3. Western Regional Partnership Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradley Nickell DirectorThe&Management Alert Western Area

  4. ar da regiao: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above the transition from evaporitic to continental sediments, it implies that the Fortuna evaporites Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: 40 Ar39 Ar; Volcanism;...

  5. ar usando plantas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above the transition from evaporitic to continental sediments, it implies that the Fortuna evaporites Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: 40 Ar39 Ar; Volcanism;...

  6. ar em amostras: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above the transition from evaporitic to continental sediments, it implies that the Fortuna evaporites Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: 40 Ar39 Ar; Volcanism;...

  7. ar exalado para: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above the transition from evaporitic to continental sediments, it implies that the Fortuna evaporites Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: 40 Ar39 Ar; Volcanism;...

  8. aquecimento por ar: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above the transition from evaporitic to continental sediments, it implies that the Fortuna evaporites Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: 40 Ar39 Ar; Volcanism;...

  9. ar condicionado da: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above the transition from evaporitic to continental sediments, it implies that the Fortuna evaporites Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: 40 Ar39 Ar; Volcanism;...

  10. abdominalfistel syv ar: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above the transition from evaporitic to continental sediments, it implies that the Fortuna evaporites Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: 40 Ar39 Ar; Volcanism;...

  11. ar na entrada: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above the transition from evaporitic to continental sediments, it implies that the Fortuna evaporites Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: 40 Ar39 Ar; Volcanism;...

  12. ar isotopic chain: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above the transition from evaporitic to continental sediments, it implies that the Fortuna evaporites Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: 40 Ar39 Ar; Volcanism;...

  13. ar expirado na: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above the transition from evaporitic to continental sediments, it implies that the Fortuna evaporites Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: 40 Ar39 Ar; Volcanism;...

  14. ar dzirdes traucjumiem: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above the transition from evaporitic to continental sediments, it implies that the Fortuna evaporites Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: 40 Ar39 Ar; Volcanism;...

  15. ar por chumbo: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above the transition from evaporitic to continental sediments, it implies that the Fortuna evaporites Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: 40 Ar39 Ar; Volcanism;...

  16. ar acu vjum: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above the transition from evaporitic to continental sediments, it implies that the Fortuna evaporites Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: 40 Ar39 Ar; Volcanism;...

  17. ar audiodisku pamatskolas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above the transition from evaporitic to continental sediments, it implies that the Fortuna evaporites Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: 40 Ar39 Ar; Volcanism;...

  18. ar selnu bagtintu: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above the transition from evaporitic to continental sediments, it implies that the Fortuna evaporites Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: 40 Ar39 Ar; Volcanism;...

  19. ar augstu kariesa: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above the transition from evaporitic to continental sediments, it implies that the Fortuna evaporites Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: 40 Ar39 Ar; Volcanism;...

  20. ar avaliacao da: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above the transition from evaporitic to continental sediments, it implies that the Fortuna evaporites Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: 40 Ar39 Ar; Volcanism;...

  1. ar em tomografia: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above the transition from evaporitic to continental sediments, it implies that the Fortuna evaporites Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: 40 Ar39 Ar; Volcanism;...

  2. ar como indicadores: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above the transition from evaporitic to continental sediments, it implies that the Fortuna evaporites Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: 40 Ar39 Ar; Volcanism;...

  3. ar efter kolecystektomi: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above the transition from evaporitic to continental sediments, it implies that the Fortuna evaporites Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: 40 Ar39 Ar; Volcanism;...

  4. apsilde ar dmgzm: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above the transition from evaporitic to continental sediments, it implies that the Fortuna evaporites Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: 40 Ar39 Ar; Volcanism;...

  5. ar para radiodiagnostico: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above the transition from evaporitic to continental sediments, it implies that the Fortuna evaporites Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: 40 Ar39 Ar; Volcanism;...

  6. ar comprimido estudo: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above the transition from evaporitic to continental sediments, it implies that the Fortuna evaporites Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: 40 Ar39 Ar; Volcanism;...

  7. ar gazu hromotografijas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above the transition from evaporitic to continental sediments, it implies that the Fortuna evaporites Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: 40 Ar39 Ar; Volcanism;...

  8. ar dadm elektronu: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above the transition from evaporitic to continental sediments, it implies that the Fortuna evaporites Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: 40 Ar39 Ar; Volcanism;...

  9. adaptive response ar: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AR Representation AR Results Conclusion References Automated Reasoning in Modal Logics: A Framework with Applications Branden Fitelson Department of Philosophy Institute for...

  10. Energy and water in the Western and Texas interconnects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy's Office of Electricity has initiated a $60M program to assist the electric industry in interconnection-level analysis and planning. The objective of this effort is to facilitate the development or strengthening of capabilities in each of the three interconnections serving the lower 48 states of the United States, to prepare analyses of transmission requirements under a broad range of alternative futures and develop long-term interconnection-wide transmission expansion plans. The interconnections are the Western Interconnection, the Eastern Interconnection, and the Texas Interconnection. One element of this program address the support and development of an integrated energy-water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning (the Eastern Interconnection is not participating in this element). Specific objectives include: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between members of this proposal team and the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), Western Governors Association (WGA), the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) and their associated stakeholder teams. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water stress implications of the transmission planning scenarios put forward by WECC, WGA, and ERCOT. The goals of this project are: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between Western Electricity Coordinating Council, Electric Reliability Council of Texas, Western Governors Association, and Western States Water Council. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water transmission planning scenarios.

  11. Western Area Power Administration combined power system financial statements September 30, 1994 and 1993 and management overview and performance measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marwick, P.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The attached report presents the results of the independent certified public accountant`s audit of the Department of Energy`s Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) combined financial statements as of September 30, 1994. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on Western`s 1994 statements. Their reports on Western`s internal control structure and on compliance with laws and regulations are also provided. Western was established in December 1977, and has the responsibility for the Federal electric power marketing and transmission functions in 15 central and western states. Western markets power, as required by existing law, at the lowest possible rates consistent with sound business principles to recover the costs of operation and capital invested in power facilities.

  12. ABOUT THE EDITORS Jenny Gregory AM FRHS is Winthrop Professor of History at The University of Western Australia. She

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobar, Michael

    of Western Australia. She has published widely on aspects of urban history, town planning and heritage. She edited the Historical Encyclopedia of Western Australia, 2009, and her recent monograph is City of Light Chetkovich works at the State Library of Western Australia selecting archival material for inclusion

  13. Western Veg Management EA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SO 2 sulfur dioxide SOP standard operating procedure SR State Route SWPPP Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan TAC toxic air contaminant TEU Terrestrial Ecosystem Units TMR...

  14. Western Area Power Administration annual site environmental report for calendar year 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document outlines the accomplishments and status of the environmental program of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) for calendar year 2005. In 2005, Western submitted 190 reports to state and local emergency response personnel and had 60 California Hazardous Materials Business Plans in place as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. These reports identify the hazardous substances contained at these sites. At sites where potential oil spills could harm surrounding ecosystems and waterways, Western prepares Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) plans. These plans identify measures to prevent spills from harming the environment, such as identifying the need for secondary containment at facilities. Western currently has SPCC plans for 154 facilities in 13 states. In 2005, Western updated 19 SPCC plans and prepared one new plan. Western operated under 107 environmental permits in 2005. Western evaluates the impact of its planned actions on the environment by preparing National Environmental Policy Act documentation. In 2005, Western completed or was working on 60 categorical exclusions, 18 environmental assessments and eight environmental impact statements, issued six Findings of No Significant Impact, and prepared four Mitigation Action Plans. Western held several public workshops/meetings and consulted with 70 American Indian Tribes for various projects. In 2005, Western was working on or had completed 11 Section 7 consultations under the Endangered Species Act. In 2005, Western recycled more than 3,600 metric tons of electrical equipment, mineral oil dielectric fluid, asphalt, fluorescent and metal halide light bulbs, wood poles and crossarms, and other items as well as office waste. Western made $437,816 worth of purchases containing recovered content materials. Western met the requirement of Executive Order 13148, Greening the Government through Leadership in Environmental Management to have its Environmental Management System in place by December 31, 2005.

  15. Hanford Site's Data Packages in the Administrative Record (AR) and Public Information Repository (PIR)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    In 1989, the Department of Energy joined with the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in signing the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order more commonly known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). The TPA outlines legally enforceable milestones for Hanford cleanup over the next several decades. The AR is the body of documents and information that is considered or relied upon to arrive at a final decision for remedial action or hazardous waste management. An AR is established for each operable unit (OU); treatment, storage, or disposal unit (TSD); or Expedited Response Action (ERA) group and will contain all documents having information considered in arriving at a Record of Decision or permit. Documents become part of the AR after they have been designated as an AR by the TPA or after EPA, DOE, or other official parties have identified a document or set of documents for inclusion. Furthermore, AR documents are to be kept in a Public Information Repository (PIR).Thousands of data packages that support the AR documents are available to the public in the Hanford PIR.

  16. Colorado Highlands Wind Project, Western's RM Environment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Colorado Highlands Wind Project Western Area Power Administration, Rocky Mountain Region (Western) has received a request from Colorado Highlands Wind to modify its Interconnection...

  17. Western Regional Emergency Medicine Student Symposium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Daniel A; Fernandez, Jorge

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Western Regional Emergency Medicine Student Symposium DanielFernandez, MD Keck School of Medicine of the University ofDepartment of Emergency Medicine, Los Angles, CA The Western

  18. Courses: Organization Development (OD) Page 361Sonoma State University 2014-2015 Catalog od 544B QuALitAtiVe reSeArCH in orgAnizAtion (1-3)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravikumar, B.

    Courses: Organization Development (OD) Page 361Sonoma State University 2014-2015 Catalog od 544B Qu of organization development. Open to students in the Organization Development Program only. od 554 org to students in the Organization Development Program. od 556 SoCio-teCHniC SySteMS redeSign (2-4) A seminar

  19. RECIPROCAL BORROWING Western Australian University Libraries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , The University of Western Australia and University of Notre Dame Australia. Western Australian University to 30 items on loan at any one time from The University of Western Australia, and up to 12 items fromRECIPROCAL BORROWING Western Australian University Libraries This guide explains the reciprocal

  20. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Piwko, R.; Jordan, G.; Miller, N.; Clark, K.; Freeman, L.; Milligan, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) is one of the largest regional wind and solar integration studies to date. It was initiated in 2007 to examine the operational impact of up to 35% energy penetration of wind, photovoltaics (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) on the power system operated by the WestConnect group of utilities in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming (see study area map). WestConnect also includes utilities in California, but these were not included because California had already completed a renewable energy integration study for the state. This study was set up to answer questions that utilities, public utilities commissions, developers, and regional planning organizations had about renewable energy use in the west: (1) Does geographic diversity of renewable energy resource help mitigate variability; (2) How do local resources compare to out-of-state resources; (3) Can balancing area cooperation help mitigate variability; (4) What is the role and value of energy storage; (5) Should reserve requirements be modified; (6) What is the benefit of forecasting; and (7) How can hydropower help with integration of renewables? The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and run by NREL with WestConnect as a partner organization. The study follows DOE's 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report, which did not find any technical barriers to reaching 20% wind energy in the continental United States by 2030. This study and its partner study, the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study, performed a more in-depth operating impact analysis to see if 20% wind energy was feasible from an operational level. In DOE/NREL's analysis, the 20% wind energy target required 25% wind energy in the western interconnection; therefore, this study considered 20% and 30% wind energy to bracket the DOE analysis. Additionally, since solar is rapidly growing in the west, 5% solar was also considered in this study. The goal of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study is to understand the costs and operating impacts due to the variability and uncertainty of wind, PV, and CSP on the grid. This is mainly an operations study, (rather than a transmission study), although different scenarios model different transmission build-outs to deliver power. Using a detailed power system production simulation model, the study identifies operational impacts and challenges of wind energy penetration up to 30% of annual electricity consumption.

  1. arXiv:astro-ph/0305066v16May2003 High Energy Photons, Neutrinos and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Bing

    arXiv:astro-ph/0305066v16May2003 High Energy Photons, Neutrinos and Gravitational Waves from Gamma-Ray. of Physics Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA 16802, USA 1 Introduction A new era in Gamma-ray Burst (GRB) research opened in 1991 with the launch of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO), whose

  2. Spectroscopy, polarization and nonadiabatic dynamics of electronically excited Ba(Ar)n clusters: Theory and experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krylov, Anna I.

    Spectroscopy, polarization and nonadiabatic dynamics of electronically excited Ba(Ar)n clusters, France Received 13 September 1995; accepted 17 November 1995 Molecular Dynamics simulations using, a comprehensive picture of the excited state dynamics is given. It is found that upon excitation, energy

  3. Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Miller, N.; Clark, K.; Jordan, G.; Gao, Z.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an overview of the variable characteristics of solar power, as well as the accompanying grid dynamic performance and operational economics for a system with significant solar generation. The paper will show results of economic operational simulations of a very high solar generation future for the western half of the United States.

  4. Western Empire: the deep water wreck of a mid-nineteenth century wooden sailing ship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Joshua Aaron

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    create a more complete understanding of the commercial environment at the time of Western Empire's construction. 13 Growth of the Timber Trade Before England began significant imports from Canadian timber markets, the Baltic states were the main...

  5. Electron shakeoff following the $\\Beta$+ decay of trapped 35Ar+ ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Couratin, C; Fabre, B; Pons, B; Fléchard, X; Liénard, E; Ban, G; Breitenfeldt, M; Delahaye, P; Durand, D; Méry, A; Naviliat-Cuncic, O; Porobic, T; Quéméner, G; Rodriguez, D; Severijns, N; Thomas, J C; Van Gorp, S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron shakeoff of $^{35}$Cl atoms resulting from the $\\beta$$^+$ decay of $^{35}$Ar$^+$ ions has been investigated using a Paul trap coupled to a recoil-ion spectrometer. The charge-state distribution of the recoiling daughter nuclei is compared to theoretical calculations accounting for shakeoff and Auger processes. The calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimental results and enable to identify the ionization reaction routes leading to the formation of all charge states.

  6. Beta decay of 32Ar for fundamental tests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of 32 Ar and 33 Ar data 1999 result: 0.9980(52) stat (39) syst Adelberger et al., PRL 83 (1999) 1299 But, since then... * Precision measurement of 32 S(p,p) 32 S 3374.7-...

  7. Western Europe's future gas supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kardaun, G.

    1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Decline in indigenous natural gas production by 2000 will be compensated by imported natural gas and LNG and gas from unconventional sources. Coal gas will furnish about 10 percent of the demand, more natural gas imports will come from North Africa and the USSR and additional LNG will come from West Africa, the Middle East and the Western Hemisphere.

  8. WESTERN WATER ASSESSMENT WHITE PAPER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neff, Jason

    the socio-economic effects of drought. Strategic Goals Following the findings and recommendations from two (outside of agriculture) · Few "disaster" declarations · Not even a unified roster of drought eventsWESTERN WATER ASSESSMENT WHITE PAPER Tracking Socioeconomic Impacts of Drought with Rapid Analytics

  9. Wilson Wong The University of Western Australia, Australia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammerton, James

    Wilson Wong The University of Western Australia, Australia Wei Liu The University of Western Australia, Australia Mohammed Bennamoun The University of Western Australia, Australia Ontology Learning

  10. ar avalanche detector: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (74:20:6), ArCF4CH4 (67:30:3), ArCF4CO2 (65:30:5) mixtures for the HERA-B Muon Detector HEP - Experiment (arXiv) Summary: The Muon Detector of the HERA-B experiment at DESY...

  11. Old Sol's new use Fourteen solar ar-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inside &ONLINE Old Sol's new use Fourteen solar ar- rays grace the rooftops of two HRES buildings therebelgroupInterahamwefoundheron the road in a remote region in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo- ductingfocusgroupinterviewswithmem- bers of the community. Looking horrorin theface HHI researchers don't flinch in examination

  12. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UNITED STATES OF AMERICA FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION United States Department of Energy Docket No. EF13-5-000 Western Area Power Administration Washoe Project, Stampede...

  13. Performance Contracting and Energy Efficiency in the State Government Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    strategy to reduce energy use in Western states by 20% by 2020 and to meet http://epa.gov/cleanrgy/energy-programs/state-and-local/

  14. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GE Energy

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a full description of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) and its findings.

  15. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Hydropower Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acker, T.; Pete, C.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) study of 20% Wind Energy by 2030 was conducted to consider the benefits, challenges, and costs associated with sourcing 20% of U.S. energy consumption from wind power by 2030. This study found that with proactive measures, no insurmountable barriers were identified to meet the 20% goal. Following this study, DOE and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted two more studies: the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) covering the eastern portion of the U.S., and the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) covering the western portion of the United States. The WWSIS was conducted by NREL and research partner General Electric (GE) in order to provide insight into the costs, technical or physical barriers, and operational impacts caused by the variability and uncertainty of wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power when employed to serve up to 35% of the load energy in the WestConnect region (Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming). WestConnect is composed of several utility companies working collaboratively to assess stakeholder and market needs to and develop cost-effective improvements to the western wholesale electricity market. Participants include the Arizona Public Service, El Paso Electric Company, NV Energy, Public Service of New Mexico, Salt River Project, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Cooperative, Tucson Electric Power, Xcel Energy and the Western Area Power Administration.

  16. Western Michigan University Office of Admissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Doncker, Elise

    Western Michigan University Office of Admissions 1903 W Michigan Ave Kalamazoo MI 49008-5211 (269 for future reference) Eligibility REquiREmEnts Western Michigan University considers current high school: Western Michigan University AccountsReceivable 1903WMichiganAve KalamazooMI49008-5210 non-u.s. citiz

  17. Norm G. Hall Western Australian Marine Research laboratories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norm G. Hall Western Australian Marine Research laboratories Perth, Western Australia 6020, Western Australia. 61 50. Australia Ian C. Potter* School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Murdoch University. Murdoch, Western Australia. 6 J50, Australia Comparisons between generalized growth

  18. Oregon State University Hatfield Marine Science Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renewable Energy Center..........6 Oregon Sea Grant of Biomedical Sciences.....................................23 B. Federal and State Agencies Environmental Protection Agency...................................24 PacificCoastalEcologyBranch, Western Ecology Division

  19. Oregon State University Hatfield Marine Science Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ....................................................... 3 Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center..........4 Oregon Sea Grant.....................................21 B. Federal and State Agencies Environmental Protection Agency PacificCoastalEcologyBranch, Western

  20. Integrated Energy-Water Planning in the Western and Texas Interconnections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vincent Tidwell; John Gasper; Robert Goldstein; Jordan Macknick; Gerald Sehlke; Michael Webber; Mark Wigmosta

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While long-term regional electricity transmission planning has traditionally focused on cost, infrastructure utilization, and reliability, issues concerning the availability of water represent an emerging issue. Thermoelectric expansion must be considered in the context of competing demands from other water use sectors balanced with fresh and non-fresh water supplies subject to climate variability. An integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) is being developed that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water availability and cost for long-range transmission planning. The project brings together electric transmission planners (Western Electricity Coordinating Council and Electric Reliability Council of Texas) with western water planners (Western Governors’ Association and the Western States Water Council). This paper lays out the basic framework for this integrated Energy-Water DSS.

  1. Sudden Lifetime Drop Phenomena and their Effective Cures in PF-ring and PF-AR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanimoto, Yasunori; Honda, Tohru; Uchiyama, Takashi; Nogami, Takashi [Accelerator Laboratory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In PF-ring and PF-AR, sudden drops in the electron beam lifetime, which are attributed to dust trapping, were frequently observed after extensive renewals of the storage rings. The reduced-lifetime state sometimes lasts for a few hours, and the mitigation of this problem was strongly demanded for stable user operations. Since a major source of dust particles was thought to be a distributed ion pump (DIP), we attempted switching the DIPs off during user operations in both the rings. As a result, occurrence of the lifetime drops was almost completely suppressed during single-bunch mode in PF-ring, while the occurrence frequency was reduced by only 38% in PF-AR. We found that the lifetime drops were sometimes accompanied by a transient increase in the vacuum pressure at some discharge-prone devices. Based on the hypothesis that the harmful dust could be generated by an electric discharge in vacuum, we attempted the conditioning of these devices in PF-AR by storing 25% higher current than usual. By combination of the DIP-OFF operation and the high-current conditioning, the occurrence frequency of the lifetime drops in PF-AR was reduced by no less than 67%.

  2. Western Solargenics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown ofNationwideWTED JumpHills, NewWestbrook, Minnesota:WesternSolargenics Jump to:

  3. Western Turbine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown ofNationwideWTED JumpHills, NewWestbrook, Minnesota:WesternSolargenicsTurbine

  4. Western Area Power Administration Transmission Infrastructure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Expected to Borrow Next WHAT IS WESTERN? * Power Marketing Administration under DOE * Wholesale electricity supplier, 57 hydropower plants, 10,479 MW capacity * 682 long-termfirm...

  5. Western Massachusetts Electric- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Western Massachusetts Electric (WMECO) helps commercial and industrial customers offset the additional costs of purchasing and installing energy efficient equipment. WMECO offers rebates for...

  6. Problems of intraplate extensional tectonics, Western United...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on the Great Basin Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: Problems of intraplate extensional tectonics, Western United...

  7. ar diffusion coefficient: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diffusion is examined. Kazuhiko Seki; Saurabh Mogre; Shigeyuki Komura 2014-02-05 4 Fractal diffusion coefficient from dynamical zeta functions Nonlinear Sciences (arXiv)...

  8. ar kr xe: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Detectors, Gas Electron Multipliers, Geiger-mode APDs. . .. 12 85 Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay of 134Xe HEP - Phenomenology (arXiv) Summary: In view of recent great...

  9. How Western Does Business: An Explanation of Western's Products and Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mission of the Western Area Power Administration is to market and deliver reliable, renewable, cost-based hydroelectric power and related services. This guide provides an overview of Western’s history and how Western carries out that mission and provides electrical, transmission and ancillary services. It also discusses how we develop plans for marketing our most valuable resources—long-term firm capacity and energy.

  10. ArKion Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcatAntrim County,Delhi (NCT), IndiaOpenAquate SolarArKion Systems

  11. Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Research Participation Program -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProducts (VAP) VAP7-0973Managed by ORAU Agricultural Research Service (ARS)

  12. Historic climate change impacts on soil frost in the Mid-Western

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cherkauer, Keith

    1 Historic climate change impacts on soil frost in the Mid-Western United States Tushar Sinha #12;4 Why do we care about soil frost ? · Effects energy and water balance fluxes · Snowmelt events by as much as two weeks · In North Central United States (from 1948 ­ 1988) (Lettenmaier et al., 1994

  13. Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials (ACMSM 18) Perth, Western Australia 01-03 December 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Western Australia 01-03 December 2004 Comparative study of the failure mechanisms in steel and concrete Rizkalla2 1 Monash University, VIC 3800, Australia 2 North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North

  14. State Oil and Gas Board State Oil and Gas Board Address Place...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Suite Arizona http www azogcc az gov Arkansas Oil and Gas Commission Arkansas Oil and Gas Commission Natural Resources Dr Ste Arkansas http www aogc state ar us JDesignerPro...

  15. Multiple ionization of Ar by F{sup -} impact: Projectile-electron-loss and direct-ionization collision channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sant'Anna, M. M.; Zappa, F.; Santos, A. C. F.; Coelho, L. F. S.; Wolff, W.; Barros, A. L. F. de; Castro Faria, N. V. de [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cx. Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil)

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have measured single- and multiple-target ionization cross sections for the F{sup -}+Ar collision system. Measurements of the final target and projectile charge states were performed in coincidence, separating the collision channels for single-, double-, and triple-projectile-electron loss and for direct ionization. The studied velocity region extends from v=0.46 to v=1.45 atomic units. Results are compared with existing H{sup -}+Ar data as well as with Ar multiple ionization by protons, electrons, and antiprotons. For the direct-ionization channel, ratios for multiple-to-single target ionization are similar to those found for H{sup +}+Ar collisions. For this channel multiple ionization is well described by independent single-ionization events by a frozen projectile. For the projectile-electron-loss collision channels, on the other hand, the correlation between projectile electrons and target electrons plays an important role. Our data show that the average final charge state of the target, , increases steeply with the final charge state of the projectile, while an independent-particle model (neglecting two-center electron-electron correlation) only accounts for small variations of .

  16. Case Western Reserve University Chart of Accounts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Case Western Reserve University Chart of Accounts July 7, 2004 1 SPEEDTYPE / PROJECT PREFIXES Funds PLT Plant CIP Construction in Progress #12;Case Western Reserve University Chart of Accounts July Annual Fund Gift RES Research TRN Training SPC Special Programs/Projects OSA Other Sponsored Activities

  17. Case Western Reserve University Chart of Accounts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Case Western Reserve University Chart of Accounts July 7, 2004 1 ACCOUNTS 10000 - 199999 Asset of the following: ANN LON CIP OPR CSR OSA END PLT FHB RES INC SPC INS TRN All other SpeedTypes will populate the Account field for you. #12;Case Western Reserve University Chart of Accounts July 7, 2004 2 Asset Accounts

  18. 2011 Annual Report [WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Western’s achievements for 2011 are reported and include: Experienced a banner water year – meaning more hydropower delivered; Changed energy scheduling— to better support intermittent renewable resources; Maintained reliability— ensuring maximum use of the grid by reducing the frequency and duration of planned and unplanned outages; Connected communities— providing customers energy products and related services at cost-based rates; Managed transmission projects.

  19. Western Michigan University Office of Admissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Doncker, Elise

    Western Michigan University Office of Admissions 1903 W Michigan Ave Kalamazoo MI 49008-5211 (269 Readmission Office of Admissions 1903 W Michigan Ave Kalamazoo MI 49008-5211 Returning Students (Good Standing __________________________________________________________________________ Date __________________________________ Please return to: Western Michigan University · Office

  20. Representations and Properties of Generalized $A_r$ Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammed Daoud

    2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A generalization of $A_r$ statistics is proposed and developed. The generalized $A_r$ quantum statistics is completely specified by a set of Jacobson generators satisfying a set of triple algebraic relations. Fock-Hilbert representations and Bargmann-Fock realizations are derived.

  1. Revised isotopic (40 Ar) age for the lamproite volcano of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Revised isotopic (40 Ar/39 Ar) age for the lamproite volcano of Cabezos Negros, Fortuna Basin (lamproites) of the Fortuna Basin in southeast Spain. This age is significantly older than earlier reported K. Because the volcanic rocks are intercalated in the stratigraphic sequence of the Fortuna Basin directly

  2. ASTER Thermal Anomalies in western Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: ASTER Thermal Anomalies Western Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the areas identified as areas of anomalous surface temperature from ASTER satellite imagery. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. Areas that had temperature greater than 2?, and areas with temperature equal to 1? to 2?, were considered ASTER modeled very warm and warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies), respectively Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4547052.446651 m Left: 158917.090117 m Right: 4101162.228281 m Bottom: 4101162.228281 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  3. Effect of surface derived hydrocarbon impurities on Ar plasma properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox-Lyon, Nick; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S., E-mail: Oehrlein@umd.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and the Institute for Research and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Godyak, Valery [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2122 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report on Langmuir probe measurements that show that hydrocarbon surfaces in contact with Ar plasma cause changes of electron energy distribution functions due to the flux of hydrogen and carbon atoms released by the surfaces. The authors compare the impact on plasma properties of hydrocarbon species gasified from an etching hydrocarbon surface with injection of gaseous hydrocarbons into Ar plasma. They find that both kinds of hydrocarbon injections decrease electron density and slightly increase electron temperatures of low pressure Ar plasma. For low percentages of impurities (?1% impurity in Ar plasma explored here), surface-derived hydrocarbon species and gas phase injected hydrocarbon molecules cause similar changes of plasma properties for the same number of hydrocarbon molecules injected into Ar with a decrease in electron density of ?4%.

  4. Report to the Western Water Policy Review Advisory Commission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selker, John

    Report to the Western Water Policy Review Advisory Commission Western Hydropower Changing Values;Western Hydropower: Changing Values/New Visions Bruce C. Driver Attorney and Consultant With Assistance

  5. Western Employee Presents Wind Award to Minnkota | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Western Employee Presents Wind Award to Minnkota Western Employee Presents Wind Award to Minnkota April 7, 2011 - 2:47pm Addthis Randy Manion Director of Renewable Energy, Western...

  6. Remotely Sensed Thermal Anomalies in western Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Landsat Thermal Anomalies Western Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the areas identified as areas of anomalous surface temperature from Landsat satellite imagery in Western Colorado. Data was obtained for two different dates. The digital numbers of each Landsat scene were converted to radiance and the temperature was calculated in degrees Kelvin and then converted to degrees Celsius for each land cover type using the emissivity of that cover type. And this process was repeated for each of the land cover types (open water, barren, deciduous forest and evergreen forest, mixed forest, shrub/scrub, grassland/herbaceous, pasture hay, and cultivated crops). The temperature of each pixel within each scene was calculated using the thermal band. In order to calculate the temperature an average emissivity value was used for each land cover type within each scene. The NLCD 2001 land cover classification raster data of the zones that cover Colorado were downloaded from USGS site and used to identify the land cover types within each scene. Areas that had temperature residual greater than 2?, and areas with temperature equal to 1? to 2?, were considered Landsat modeled very warm and warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies), respectively Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4546381.234113 m Left: 140556.857021 m Right: 573390.000000 m Bottom: 4094583.641581 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  7. Ar/Ar ages from transitionally magnetized lavas on La Palma, Canary Islands, and the geomagnetic instability timescale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Bradley S.

    Ar/Ar ages from transitionally magnetized lavas on La Palma, Canary Islands, and the geomagnetic the north and south walls of Barranco de los Tilos on the island of La Palma, Canary Islands, reveals from transitionally magnetized lavas on La Palma, Canary Islands, and the geomagnetic instability

  8. Preparation for upgrading western subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimes, R.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Sheesley, D.C.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to establish the physical and chemical characteristics of western coal and determine the best preparation technologies for upgrading this resource. Western coal was characterized as an abundant, easily mineable, clean, low-sulfur coal with low heating value, high moisture, susceptibility to spontaneous ignition, and considerable transit distances from major markets. Project support was provided by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The research was conducted by the Western Research Institute, (WRI) in Laramie, Wyoming. The project scope of work required the completion of four tasks: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches and verbal contacts with consumers and producers of western coal, (3) selection of the best technologies to upgrade western coal, and (4) identification of research needed to develop the best technologies for upgrading western coals. The results of this research suggest that thermal drying is the best technology for upgrading western coals. There is a significant need for further research in areas involving physical and chemical stabilization of the dried coal product. Excessive particle-size degradation and resulting dustiness, moisture reabsorption, and high susceptibility to spontaneous combustion are key areas requiring further research. Improved testing methods for the determination of equilibrium moisture and susceptibility to spontaneous ignition under various ambient conditions are recommended.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: projected gap between western U...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    projected gap between western U.S. water supply and demand Sandia, the Atlantic Council, and NM Water Resource Research Institute Sponsor Roundtable on Western Water Scarcity On...

  10. THURSDAY: Deputy Secretary of Energy to Visit Western Area Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    THURSDAY: Deputy Secretary of Energy to Visit Western Area Power Administration Transmission Substation THURSDAY: Deputy Secretary of Energy to Visit Western Area Power...

  11. Energy Efficiency in Western Utility Resource Plans Implications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Western Utility Resource Plans Implications for Regional Assessments and Initiatives Energy Efficiency in Western Utility Resource Plans Implications for Regional Assessments...

  12. Barbaric sovereignty : states of emergency and their colonial legacies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verinakis, Theofanis Costas Dino

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power: From Rations To Citizenship in Central Australia.of state power in the United States and Australia. The whiteState of Western Australia. He has the power “to remove any

  13. Combined U-Th/He and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of post-shield lavas from the Mauna Kea and Kohala volcanoes, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aciego, S.M.; Jourdan, F.; DePaolo, D.J.; Kennedy, B.M.; Renne, P.R.; Sims, K.W.W.

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Late Quaternary, post-shield lavas from the Mauna Kea and Kohala volcanoes on the Big Island of Hawaii have been dated using the {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar and U-Th/He methods. The objective of the study is to compare the recently demonstrated U-Th/He age method, which uses basaltic olivine phenocrysts, with {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages measured on groundmass from the same samples. As a corollary, the age data also increase the precision of the chronology of volcanism on the Big Island. For the U-Th/He ages, U, Th and He concentrations and isotopes were measured to account for U-series disequilibrium and initial He. Single analyses U-Th/He ages for Hamakua lavas from Mauna Kea are 87 {+-} 40 ka to 119 {+-} 23 ka (2{sigma} uncertainties), which are in general equal to or younger than {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages. Basalt from the Polulu sequence on Kohala gives a U-Th/He age of 354 {+-} 54 ka and a {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar age of 450 {+-} 40 ka. All of the U-Th/He ages, and all but one spurious {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages conform to the previously proposed stratigraphy and published {sup 14}C and K-Ar ages. The ages also compare favorably to U-Th whole rock-olivine ages calculated from {sup 238}U - {sup 230}Th disequilibria. The U-Th/He and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar results agree best where there is a relatively large amount of radiogenic {sup 40}Ar (>10%), and where the {sup 40}Ar/{sup 36}Ar intercept calculated from the Ar isochron diagram is close to the atmospheric value. In two cases, it is not clear why U-Th/He and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages do not agree within uncertainty. U-Th/He and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar results diverge the most on a low-K transitional tholeiitic basalt with abundant olivine. For the most alkalic basalts with negligible olivine phenocrysts, U-Th/He ages were unattainable while {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar results provide good precision even on ages as low as 19 {+-} 4 ka. Hence, the strengths and weaknesses of the U-Th/He and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar methods are complimentary for basalts with ages of order 100-500 ka.

  14. Ionization satellites of the ArHe dimer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miteva, Tsveta; Klaiman, Shachar; Gokhberg, Kirill [Theoretische Chemie, Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Gromov, Evgeniy V., E-mail: Evgeniy.Gromov@pci.uni-heidelberg.de [Theoretische Chemie, Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Laboratory of Quantum Chemistry, Computer Center, Irkutsk State University, K. Marks 1, 664003 Irkutsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionization satellites are key ingredients in the control of post ionization processes such as molecular dissociation and interatomic Coulombic decay. Here, using the high-level ab initio method of multi-reference configuration interaction up to triple excitations, we study the potential energy curves (PECs) of the ionization satellites of the ArHe dimer. With this model system, we demonstrate that the simple model used in alkaline earth metal and rare gas complexes to describe the satellites as a Rydberg electron moving on top of a dicationic core does not fully hold for the rare gas clusters. The more complex valence structure in the rare gas atom leads to the mixing of different electronic configurations of the dimer. This prevents one from assigning a single dicationic parent state to some of the ionization satellites. We further analyze the structure of the different PECs, demonstrating how the density of the Rydberg electron is reflected in the structure of the PEC wherever the simple model is applicable.

  15. Sierra Nevada Region - Western Area Power Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Sierra Nevada Region is one of five offices in the Western Area Power Administration. SN markets power in northern and central California, and portions of Nevada, to wholesale...

  16. Single-crystal sup 40 Ar/ sup 39 Ar dating of the Olorgesailie Formation, southern Kenya rift

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deino, A. (Geochronology Center of the Inst. of Human Origins, Berkeley, CA (United States)); Potts, R. (Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC (United States))

    1990-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Single-crystal laser fusion {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar analyses and several conventional bulk fusion {sup 40}K- {sup 40}Ar dates have been used to determine the age of volcaniclastic strata within the Olorgesailie Formation and of associated volcanic and sedimentary units of the southern Kenya rift. In the principal exposures along the southern edge of the Legemunge Plain, the formation spans the interval from approximately 500 to 1,000 ka. Deposition continued to the east along the Ol Keju Nyiro river where a tuff near the top of the formation has been dated at 215 ka. In these exposures, the formation is unconformably overlain by sediments dated at 49 ka. A possible source for the Olorgesailie tephra, the Ol Doinyo Nyokie volcanic complex, contains as ash flow dated at {approximately} 1 Ma, extending the known age range of this complex to encompass that of virtually the entire Olorgesailie Formation in the Legemunge Plain. These geologic examples illustrate the importance of the single-crystal {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar dating technique whereby contaminant, altered, or otherwise aberrant grains can be identified and eliminated from the determination of eruptive ages for reworked or altered pyroclastic deposits. The authors have presented a computer-modeling procedure based on an inverse-isochron analysis that promotes a more objective approach to trimming {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar isotope data sets of this type.

  17. MUSCLE ACTIVITY DETECTION FROM MYOELECTRIC SIGNALS BASED ON THE AR-GARCH MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouaynaya, Nidhal

    MUSCLE ACTIVITY DETECTION FROM MYOELECTRIC SIGNALS BASED ON THE AR-GARCH MODEL Ghulam Rasool Heteroscedastic (AR-GARCH) process, which captures the heteroscedasticity of the signal. The Akaike information cri- terion test confirms that the AR-GARCH model better fits the EMG signal than the stationary AR

  18. NREL Variability Analysis for the Western Interconnect (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation investigates the effects of several Energy Imbalance Markets implementations in the Western Interconnect.

  19. The Siwaliks of western Nepal I. Geometry and kinematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Husson, Laurent

    The Siwaliks of western Nepal I. Geometry and kinematics J.L. Mugniera, *, P. Leturmya , G. Masclea-western Nepal, and beneath 14.6 Ma sediments in mid-western Nepal, i.e., above the base of the Siwalik Group. Unconformities have been observed in the upper Siwalik member of western Nepal both on satellite images

  20. Patterns of Choice: The Prix Ars Electronica Jury Sessions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Offenhuber, Dietmar

    This article investigates the social structures reflected in the annual jury sessions of the Prix Ars Electronica, a major media art competition—the composition, the temporal evolution and ultimately the decisions of these ...

  1. Oregon State University Sun Grant Western Regional Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    to smog, acid rain, and other atmospheric pollutants. The multi-institutional team seeks to determine emissions of green house gases and those contributing to acid rain. Progress to Date Four institutions developed a protocol to investigate fatty acid differences attributable to temperature, as affected

  2. Oregon State University Sun Grant Western Regional Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    for ethanol production. Progress to Date The research team has determined the sugar content of three varieties of sorghum, and has successfully fermented sorghum juice to ethanol in the laboratory. Juice preservation sorghum juice that was harvested in October 2009 was fermented to ethanol at the laboratory scale using

  3. Oregon State University Sun Grant Western Regional Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    and Economic Analysis of Cellulosic Ethanol from Grass Straw in the Pacific Northwest Ganti Murthy, Oregon to cellulosic ethanol. This study will provide information on using Pacific Northwest biomass in a sustainable and pretreatment processes on ethanol yields in Pacific Northwest U.S.). Contact: Ganti Murthy, Biological

  4. Oregon State University Sun Grant Western Regional Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    is a newly emerging crop that has considerable potential as a biofuels feedstock in the inland Pacific resistant mutant. The team was not able to select plants with a higher level of resistance in the second generation (F2) progeny of the different crosses. They are in the progress of making F2 populations between

  5. Oregon State University Sun Grant Western Regional Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    : A Renewable Energy Crop for Carbon Sequestration John Cushman, University of Nevada, Reno OVERVIEW The long-term goal of this research project is to optimize the use of halophytic microalgae as a biofuels crop. Halophytic algae are an ideal renewable energy resource because they can be grown on marginal lands

  6. Oregon State University Sun Grant Western Regional Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    agronomic practices to incorporate camelina into PNW crop production systems and assist the fledgling the optimum planting date and to assess planting methods for camelina across the PNW; 2) to identify best Dates and Methods Two planting methods ­ direct drilling and broadcast with packing ­ and six planting

  7. United States Department of the Interior WESTERN FISHERIES RESEARCH CENTER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    goals of many in the natural resource community to restore habitats and the biological systems within of ecosystem-based management, multi-species approaches, and for greater emphasis on the environmental effects effects on habitat quality. Many of our contaminant discussions are estuarine-based and are presented

  8. Problems of intraplate extensional tectonics, Western United States, with

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkins County, Nebraska:Precourt Institute for EnergyWister| OpenEISol Energiaspecial

  9. Mapping Geothermal Potential In The Western United States | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRose Bend < MHKconvertersourcesource History View New5Information

  10. New Geothermal Prospects in the Western United States Show Promise |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative JC3 RSS September 9, 2013 V-237:MultimediaConsumers' Utility Bills |New

  11. New Geothermal Prospects in the Western United States Show Promise |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaeferAprilOverview | Department of1-93EnergyEnergy |So beARPA-ETo

  12. Transmission Siting in Western United States: Overview and Recommendations

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga, Indiana (Utility Company) JumpTradeWindPrepared as Information to

  13. Transmission Siting in the Western United States | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga, Indiana (Utility Company) JumpTradeWindPrepared as Information tothe

  14. Comment to a paper [arXiv:1103.4937] of M. Villata on antigravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcoen J. T. F. Cabbolet

    2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In a recent paper of M. Villata [arXiv:1103.4937], it is claimed that "antigravity appears as a prediction of general relativity when CPT is applied." However, the present paper argues that Villata puts the cart before the horse qua methodology, and that the resulting theory cannot be reconciled with the ontological presuppositions of general relativity. The conclusion is that Villata's suggestion for the physics that might underlie a gravitational repulsion of matter and antimatter is not acceptable in its current state of development.

  15. Thorium isotopes in the western Mediterranean Sea: an insight into the marine particle dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coppola, Laurent

    Thorium isotopes in the western Mediterranean Sea: an insight into the marine particle dynamics M rights reserved. Keywords: thorium; isotopes; sea water; particles; sedimentation; Mediterranean Sea 1 physical, chemical and biological processes and sometimes non-steady-state condi- tions [1^4]. Thorium

  16. Cyberinfrastructure Development for the Western Consortium of Idaho, Nevada, and New Mexico Project Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walden, Von P.

    Cyberinfrastructure Development for the Western Consortium of Idaho, Nevada, and New Mexico Project, and New Mexico independently submitted NSF EPSCoR Track 1 Research Infrastructure Improvement (RII monitoring tools across the state. New Mexico: New Mexico activities will enhance connectivity to academic

  17. Impacts of Shale Gas Wastewater Disposal on Water Quality in Western Pennsylvania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    States, oil and gas wastewater is managed through recycling of the wastewater for shale gas operationsImpacts of Shale Gas Wastewater Disposal on Water Quality in Western Pennsylvania Nathaniel R Supporting Information ABSTRACT: The safe disposal of liquid wastes associated with oil and gas production

  18. Big Science, Small Scale Western University has made significant investments in nanotechnology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denham, Graham

    Big Science, Small Scale Western University has made significant investments in nanotechnology in materials and biomaterials. Nanotechnology is poised to revolutionize and advance many vital sectors in nanotechnology and photonics · Houses state-of-the-art instruments, with tools for SEM capabilities and focused

  19. Ion acceleration in Ar-Xe and Ar-He plasmas. I. Electron energy distribution functions and ion composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biloiu, Ioana A.; Scime, Earl E. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morganton, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron energy distribution functions (eedf), ion production, and ion composition are studied in Ar-Xe and Ar-He expanding helicon plasmas. It was found that under the conditions of constant total flow rate, Xe, in addition to Ar, changes the eedf from Maxwellian-like to Druyvesteyn-like with a shortening of the high energy tail at {approx}15 eV. The electron temperature exponentially decreases from {approx}7 eV in pure Ar plasma to {approx}4 eV in pure Xe plasma. Xenon ions dominate the ion population for Xe filling fractions greater than 10%. The plasma density increases by {approx}15% with increasing Xe fraction. For an Ar-He plasma, increasing the helium fraction increases the electron temperature from {approx}7 eV in pure Ar plasma to {approx}14 eV for a He filling fraction of 80%. The plasma density drops by more than three orders of magnitude from 1.14x10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} to 6.5x10{sup 7} cm{sup -3}. However, the inferred ion densities indicate that even at a helium fraction of 80%, argon ions significantly outnumber helium ions.

  20. 2012 Annual Report [WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fiscal Year 2012 brought some tumultuous and uncertain times to Western. The utility industry and technology continued to evolve, and the demand for constant flow of power and transmission system reliability continued to increase. Western kept pace by continuing to deliver reliable, cost-based hydropower while reviewing and updating business practices that took into account how the energy industry is evolving. During this time of exponential change, Western tackled many challenges, including: Reviewing the Transmission Infrastructure Program processes and procedures; Responding to Secretary of Energy Steven Chu’s memorandum to create a modern, efficient and reliable transmission grid; Weathering record-breaking natural disasters in our service territory; Completing our role in TIP’s flagship project—the Montana Alberta Tie Ltd. transmission line; Incorporating new, far-reaching regulations and industry trends.

  1. arXiv:cond-mat/0305430v119May2003 Shearing or Compressing a Soft Glass in 2D: Time-concentration superposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cicuta, Pietro

    arXiv:cond-mat/0305430v119May2003 Shearing or Compressing a Soft Glass in 2D: Time dimensional monolayers should be regarded as being close to a soft glass state. PACS numbers: 68.18.-g, 83.60.bc The rheology of systems with very large surface to vol- ume ratios, such as foams or emulsions

  2. Western Power Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlin BaxinUmweltVillageGraphWellton-MohawkWestern Iowa Power CoopWestern

  3. Oregon State University Hatfield Marine Science Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ....................................................... 4 Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center..........5 Oregon Sea Grant of Biomedical Sciences.....................................22 B. Federal and State Agencies Environmental Protection Agency...................................23 PacificCoastalEcologyBranch, Western Ecology Division

  4. THE UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN ONTARIO HUMAN RESOURCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Ian

    Compatibility 6 6.0 Organic Solvents 7 7.0 Unknown Chemicals 7 8.0 Controlled Substances and Goods 7 9.0 Shock Chemical Glass Containers 15 13.0 Asbestos 16 14.0 Electronics, Fluorescent Light Bulbs 16 15.0 Sharps the requirements covered in this handbook. The waste disposal program at Western is convenient, flexible, and easy

  5. Western University Nuclear Radiation Safety Inspection Checklist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinnamon, Gordon J.

    May 2012 Western University Nuclear Radiation Safety Inspection Checklist Permit Holder to nuclear substances or radiation devices is restricted to authorized radiation users listed on the permit radiation labs whenever unsealed nuclear substances are used in these designated locations. 1.7(d

  6. First Western Forum on Energy & Water Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Arturo A.

    First Western Forum on Energy & Water Sustainability March 22, 2007 WATER PLAN: 2000-2050 CITY;Tucson Active Management Area Tucson Active Management Area City of Tucson Tucson Active Management Area-2000 Tucson Active Management Area #12;City of Tucson 1940 #12;City of Tucson 1945 #12;City of Tucson 1950 #12

  7. Regional Summary Western Pacific Management Context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -central and eastern Pacific Ocean) total of Pacific bigeye tuna landings reported in 2009. Currently (WCPFC) is active in the western and central Pacific Ocean and the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) is active in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Species under the purview of the WCPFC and IATTC

  8. Regional Summary Western Pacific Management Context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .5 million pounds) of the Pacific-wide (western-central and eastern Pacific Ocean) total of Pacific bigeye Ocean and the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) is active in the eastern Pacific Ocean coordinated management between countries with fishing interests in the Pacific Ocean. The annual bigeye tuna

  9. WWU Sustainability Academy Western Washington University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    WWU Sustainability Academy Western Washington University Dear colleagues, We cordially extend to you this invitation to join the WWU Sustainability Academy! Following several years of discussion, a group of faculty has started the (tentatively named) "WWU Sustainability Academy." Our goal is to build

  10. ANNUAL REPORT WESTERN COOLING EFFICIENCY CENTER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Sinks for Unitary Air Conditioners 10 Graywater Reuse for Evaporative Cooling 14 In-Home Energy Display COOLING EFFICIENCY CENTER WESTERN COOLING EFFICIENCY CENTER EXPLORING MANY OPTIONS FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY and leadership in the field of energy efficiency. This document, the second Annual Report on Cooling in the West

  11. Fracking in western Maryland Johan Schijf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boynton, Walter R.

    Fracking in western Maryland Johan Schijf Chesapeake Biological Laboratory University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science #12;This seminar will consist of three parts: I. What is fracking and gas #12;What is the difference between conventional gas drilling and fracking? In many places natural

  12. QER- Comment of Western Environmental Law Center

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To whom it may concern, I provided the following comments at the public meeting in Santa Fe, NM on 8/11/14: My name is Thomas Singer, and I am a Senior Policy Advisor at the Western Environmental Law Center.

  13. First Western Forum on Energy & Water Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Arturo A.

    ­ boils down to economics. Water drives technology and price of energy." "Looking to move to dry or hybridFirst Western Forum on Energy & Water Sustainability University of California, Santa Barbara John R,000 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year gal/MWh Trend in U.S. Thermoelectric Power Water Withdrawal

  14. Northern and Western Minnesota and NW Wisconsin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Super Haul Corridors g)! Western Truck Route h)! Lancaster Border Crossing i)! Designated Truck Network factors. 6. Super Haul Truck Corridors Conduct an analysis of best the best routes for moving heavy Commission d)! Intermodal Improvements at Dilworth e)! Truck Size and Weight Harmonization f)! Designated

  15. The Outlier State: Alaska’s FY 2012 Budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McBeath, Jerry; Corbin, Tanya Buhler

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    State: Alaska’s FY 2012 Budget themselves Alaskans United toJ. (2011) “What Recession? Alaska’s 2011 Budget,” in AnnualWestern States Budget Review, and California Journal of

  16. Famennian microbial reef facies, Napier and Oscar Ranges, Canning Basin, western Australia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, N P; Sumner, Dawn Y.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geol. Rundsch. , Western Australia: Geologic Maps of theof the Canning basin, Western Australia. West. Aust. Geol.the Canning Basin, Western Australia. In: Stromatolites (Ed.

  17. Late devonian carbon isotope stratigraphy and sea level fluctuations, Canning Basin, Western Australia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, N P; Sumner, Dawn Y.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reef, Canning Basin, Western Australia. Palaeontology 43,the Canning Basin, Western Australia. In: Loucks, R.G. ,Canning Basin, Western Australia. Ph.D Thesis, University of

  18. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B.-M.; King, J.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) investigates the impacts of high penetrations of wind and solar power into the Western Interconnection of the United States. WWSIS2 builds on the Phase 1 study but with far greater refinement in the level of data inputs and production simulation. It considers the differences between wind and solar power on systems operations. It considers mitigation options to accommodate wind and solar when full costs of wear-and-tear and full impacts of emissions rates are taken into account. It determines wear-and-tear costs and emissions impacts. New data sets were created for WWSIS2, and WWSIS1 data sets were refined to improve realism of plant output and forecasts. Four scenarios were defined for WWSIS2 that examine the differences between wind and solar and penetration level. Transmission was built out to bring resources to load. Statistical analysis was conducted to investigate wind and solar impacts at timescales ranging from seasonal down to 5 minutes.

  19. Production, Cost, and Soil Compaction Estimates for Two Western Juniper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dodson, Beth

    , Crook County Soil and Water Conservation District, Prineville, OR 97754. ABSTRACT: Harvesting trialsProduction, Cost, and Soil Compaction Estimates for Two Western Juniper Extraction Systems, production rates, and soil compaction impacts of two systems for harvesting western juniper (Juniperus

  20. UniversityApartments/Platt'sLaneEstates Western Apartments Handbook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinnamon, Gordon J.

    UniversityApartments/Platt'sLaneEstates Western Apartments Handbook Page 1 WELCOME Western & Platt's Lane Estates). The University Apartments are focused on providing accommodations to upper year single students, while Platt's Lane Estates provides accommodations for students with families

  1. Materials & Biomaterials Western University has demonstrated international leadership in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denham, Graham

    Materials & Biomaterials Western University has demonstrated international leadership in materials to materials science; the synthesis, characterization and application of materials, particularly lightweight materials; and emerging work in chemical biology and proteins. Western's researchers are designing

  2. VEE-0040- In the Matter of Western Star Propane, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On February 18, 1997, Western Star Propane, Inc. (Western) filed an Application for Exception with the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) of the Department of Energy (DOE). In its application,...

  3. arc western pacific: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cane is then modified to investigate the evolution of the western Pacific Wang, Chunzai 54 10A.7 CLUSTER ANALYSIS OF WESTERN NORTH PACIFIC TROPICAL CYCLONE TRACKS Suzana J....

  4. Middle Paleozoic convergent orogenic belts in western Inner Mongolia (China)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Middle Paleozoic convergent orogenic belts in western Inner Mongolia (China): framework, kinematics recognized in western Inner Mongolia (China), including, from south to north: North China Craton (NCC), Southern Orogenic Belt (SOB), Hunshandake Block (HB), Northern Orogenic Belt (NOB), South Mongolia

  5. Multiphoton Double Ionization of Ar and Ne Close to Threshold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Yunquan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ye Difa; Liu Jie [Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, 100084 Beijing (China); Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, 100088 Beijing (China); Rudenko, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Max-Planck Advanced Study Group at CFEL, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Tschuch, S.; Duerr, M.; Moshammer, R.; Ullrich, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Siegel, M.; Morgner, U. [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Welfengarten 1, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Gong Qihuang [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In kinematically complete studies we explore double ionization (DI) of Ne and Ar in the threshold regime (I>3x10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}) for 800 nm, 45 fs pulses. The basic differences are found in the two-electron momentum distributions - 'correlation' (CO) for Ne and 'anticorrelation' (ACO) for Ar - that can be partially explained theoretically within a 3D classical model including tunneling. Transverse electron momentum spectra provide insight into 'Coulomb focusing' and point to correlated nonclassical dynamics. Finally, DI threshold intensities, CO as well as ACO regimes are predicted for both targets.

  6. TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS SERVICE CENTRE (Incorporated in Western Australia)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS SERVICE CENTRE (Incorporated in Western Australia) 100 Royal Street East Perth, Western Australia 6004 Telephone (08) 9318 8000 Facsimile (08) 9225 7050 http://www.tisc.edu.au/ Curtin University · Edith Cowan University · Murdoch University · The University of Western Australia

  7. TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS SERVICE CENTRE (Incorporated in Western Australia)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS SERVICE CENTRE (Incorporated in Western Australia) Level 1, 100 Royal Street East Perth, Western Australia 6004 Telephone (08) 9318 8000 Facsimile (08) 9225 7050 http://www.tisc.edu.au/ Curtin University · Edith Cowan University · Murdoch University · The University of Western Australia

  8. Western Michigan University -Extended University Programs How to Get Started

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Doncker, Elise

    Western Michigan University - Extended University Programs How to Get Started Interested in takingThe first toWestern Michigan University, Office of Admissions,1903W. Michigan Ave,Kalamazoo,MI 49008Western Michigan University,Office of Admissions,1903W.Michigan Ave, Kalamazoo,MI 49008-5211;the other

  9. Smartphone-Mediated Tourist Experiences: Understanding the Influence of Augmented Reality (AR) Applications in Tourism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anuar, Faiz Izwan

    2013-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The synergy of smartphone, mobile applications (apps) and Augmented Reality (AR) technology has the potential to mediate tourism experiences to great extents. The advent of AR apps on smartphones provides a dynamic solution for tourists by helping...

  10. Thermal History of the Felsite Unit, Geysers Geothermal Field, From Thermal Modeling of 40Ar/39Ar Incremental Heating Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. M. Harrison (U of California); G. B. Dalrymple (Oregon State U); J. B. Hulen (U of Utah); M. A. Lanphere; M. Grove; O. M. Lovera

    1999-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An Ar-40/Ar-39 and U-Pb study was performed of the Geysers plutonic complex of the Geysers Geothermal Field in California. Sixty-nine ion microprobe spot analyses of zircons from four granite samples from the plutonic complex that underlies the Geysers geothermal field yielded Pb-207/Pb-206 vs. U-238/Pb-206 concordia ages ranging from 1.13 {+-} 0.04 Ma to 1.25 {+-} 0.04 Ma. The U-Pb ages coincide closely with Ar-40/Ar-39 age spectrum plateau and ''terminal'' ages from coexisting K-feldspars and with the eruption ages of overlying volcanic rocks. The data indicate that the granite crystallized at 1.18 Ma and had cooled below 350 C by {approximately}0.9-1.0 Ma. Interpretation of the feldspar Ar-40/Ar-39 age data using multi-diffusion domain theory indicates that post-emplacement rapid cooling was succeeded either by slower cooling from 350-300 C between 1.0 and 0.4 Ma or transitory reheating to 300-350 C at about 0.4-0.6 Ma. Heat flow calculations constrained with K-feldspar thermal histories and the pre sent elevated regional heal flow anomaly demonstrate that appreciable heat input from sources external to the known Geysers plutonic complex is required to maintain the geothermal system. This requirement is satisfied by either a large, underlying, convecting magma chamber (now solidified) emplaced at 1.2 Ma or episodic intrusion of smaller bodies from 1.2-0.6 Ma.

  11. Western Partnership for Environmental Technology Education Faculty Internship Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zehnder, N. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    As an important element within Western Partnership for Environmental Technology Education (PETE), summer internship opportunities are made available to environmental technology instructors, primarily at the community-college level, at participating federal laboratories, test facilities, state regulatory agencies and in private industry. The Program is intended to provide instructors with the opportunity to gain practical experience and understanding within the broad area of environmental technology to enhance the development and presentation of environmental technology curricula. Internship content is intended to be flexible to provide experiences which will relate to and meet the specific needs of the intern and his/her college. The Faulty Internship Program provides business and government with the opportunity to strengthen the educational process and to expand potential candidate pools for employment.

  12. Western Shallow Oil Zone, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California:

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, K.B.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The general Reservoir Study of the Western Shallow Oil Zone was prepared by Evans, Carey and Crozier as Task Assignment 009 with the United States Department of Energy. This study, Appendix II addresses the first Wilhelm Sands and its sub unites and pools. Basic pressure, production and assorted technical data were provided by the US Department of Energy staff at Elk Hills. These data were accepted as furnished with no attempt being made by Evans, Carey and Crozier for independent verification. This study has identified the petrophysical properties and the past productive performance of the reservoir. Primary reserves have been determined and general means of enhancing future recovery have been suggested. It is hoped that this volume can now additionally serve as a take off point for exploitation engineers to develop specific programs toward the end.

  13. Rate Schedule CV-T3 (Supersedes Schedules CV- T2) UNITED STATES...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T3 (Supersedes Schedules CV- T2) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL VALLEY PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATE FOR POINT-TO-POINT TRANSMISSION...

  14. New Rate Schedule CV-UUP1 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UUP1 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL VALLEY PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATE FOR UNRESERVED USE PENALTIES Effective: October 1, 2011, through...

  15. New Rate Schedule CV-GID1 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GID1 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL VALLEY PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATE FOR GENERATOR IMBALANCE SERVICE Effective: October 1, 2011,...

  16. The arXiv: 14 years of open access scientific communication Simeon Warner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warner, Simeon

    /09/14 20:22:09 Abstract The arXiv was started in 1991 as a way for high-energy physicists to share publishing. Lessons learned from this development include the importance of community and critical mass how journal publishers have reacted to the arXiv, and ask what the arXiv reveals about the established

  17. Le magn)sme ar)ficiel pour les gaz d'atomes froids Jean Dalibard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalibard, Jean

    Le magné)sme ar)ficiel pour les gaz d'atomes froids Jean Dalibard Année 2013-14 Chaire Atomes et rayonnement Magné8sme ar8ficiel pour un atome isolé poten8el vecteur et la simula8on du magné8sme orbital A(r) V

  18. arXiv:physics/001003915Oct2000 Maximally Informative Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Edward I.

    arXiv:physics/001003915Oct2000 Maximally Informative Statistics Maximally Informative Statistics: egeorge@mail.utexas.edu Revision history: April 1996. Presented Bayesian Statistics 6, Valencia, 1998 of sufficiency, relevance, and representation. Maximally informative statistics are shown to minimize a Kullback

  19. arXiv:physics/0010039 Maximally Informative Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf, David R.

    arXiv:physics/0010039 v1 15 Oct 2000 Maximally Informative Statistics Maximally Informative Statistics David R. Wolf PO 8308, Austin, TX 78713-8308, USA, E-mail: drwolf@realtime.net Dr. Wolf: egeorge@mail.utexas.edu Revision history: April 1996. Presented Bayesian Statistics 6, Valencia, 1998

  20. Advanced Robotics 23 (2009) 13271358 www.brill.nl/ar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tachi, Susumu

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced Robotics 23 (2009) 1327­1358 www.brill.nl/ar Full paper iSoRA: Humanoid Robot Arm on the development and control of the humanoid robot arm iSoRA, intended for operation in a dynamic unstructured that the proposed approach not only provides safe interaction of the robot arm with a person, but also improves

  1. Auger transition rates for Ar-like ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Sang-Young [Physics Department, POSTECH, San 31 Hyojadong, Nam Ku, Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kagawa, Takashi [Department of Physics, Nara Women's University, Nara 630-8506 (Japan); Moribayashi, Kengo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1, Umemidai, Kizu-cho, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Kim, Dong Eon [Physics Department, POSTECH, San 31 Hyojadong, Nam Ku, Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kimd@postech.ac.kr

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Auger transition rates for Ar-like ions have been calculated by the relativistic configuration interaction code and flexible atomic code. The calculations have been carried out for the atomic numbers from 18 to 54, that is, for argon to xenon. The calculated data for argon is shown to be in a good agreement with experimental data and other calculated data.

  2. DESY 07176 arXiv:0710.2602v1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ########### DESY 07­176 arXiv:0710.2602v1 [hep­ex] 13 Oct 2007 Prospects to Measure the Higgs Boson - Germany The process e + e ! ZH allows to measure the Higgs boson in the recoil mass spectrum against the Z boson without any assumptions on the Higgs boson decay. We performed a full simulation

  3. Western Gas Sands Project status report, 1 February-29 February 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This edition of the WGSP Status Report summarizes the progress during February 1980, of the government-sponsored projects directed toward increasing gas production from low-permeability gas sands of the western United States. The National Laboratories and Energy Technology Centers continued research and experiments toward enhanced gas recovery. The field test and demonstration program continued with various projects, including test data collection by the DOE Well Test Facility at CIG's Miller No. 1 site.

  4. Comparisons of pyrite variability from selected western Kentucky and western Pennsylvania coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frankie, K.A.; Hower, J.C.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pyrite (and marcasite) variation in the lower Kittanning coal of western Pennsylvania has been petrographically characterized using three parameters of size (categories rather than absolute size), morphology (framboidal, euhedral, dendritic, massive, and cleat), and microlithotype (organic) association. The purpose of this study is to evaluate what influence paleo-environments have on the nature of variation of pyrite in coal. Comparison of coals has been done using the percentages of pyrite in the microlithotypes vitrite and clarite. In the lower Kittanning coal, framboidal pyrite is generally less abundant and dendritic pyrite was not observed at all. Euhedral pyrite exhibited no clear variation between the two environments. Massive pyrite was more abundant in the set of samples from the mine with the highest average pyritic sulfur but otherwise exhibited no variation. In contrast, a larger percentage of pyrite in the western Kentucky coals examined is framboidal and dendritic. Mines examined in the Moorman syncline of western Kentucky do have a framboidal pyrite percentage comparable to the lower Kittanning samples, but the percentage of dendritic pyrite (particularly in the Western Kentucky No. 9 coal) is significantly higher for the western Kentucky coals. Bulk petrography of the coals is similar with all having greater than 80% total vitrinite. The association of the pyritic sulfur does, however, change significantly between the various coals studied and particularly between the coals of western Kentucky and among the marine lower Kittanning samples and the fresh water lower Kittanning samples. Among the pyrite in the fresh water coals, massive (perhaps epigenetic) pyrite dominates the associations.

  5. Theoretical study of the interaction of Fe, Fe/sup +/, and FeCO with Ar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braga, M.; Almeida, A.L.; Taft, C.A.; Hammond, B.L.; Lester W.A. Jr.

    1988-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ab initio Hartree--Fock calculations were performed on FeAr and FeAr/sup +/ in order to determine the interaction of both neutral and singly-ionized Fe atoms trapped in Ar, and on ArFeCO and FeCOAr in order to ascertain the effect of an Ar matrix on the FeCO molecule. Quadrupole splittings and isomer shifts are computed using ab initio orbital populations and charge densities scaled by a relativistic factor. Good agreement between calculated and experimental hyperfine parameters is found in each case. The interaction energy for Fe/sup +/--Ar has been computed by ab initio Hartree--Fock and effective-core potential (ECP) methods. Both approaches yield a minimum between Fe/sup +/ and Ar at approximately 7.6 bohr.

  6. atom-molecule dark state: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vogt; Marcel Mudrich; Daniel Comparat; Pierre Pillet 2005-09-23 14 Holographic Dark Energy Model: State Finder Parameters Physics (arXiv) Summary: In this work, we have studied...

  7. Potential small-scale development of western oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, V.; Renk, R.; Nordin, J.; Chatwin, T.; Harnsberger, M.; Fahy, L.J.; Cha, C.Y.; Smith, E.; Robertson, R.

    1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several studies have been undertaken in an effort to determine ways to enhance development of western oil shale under current market conditions for energy resources. This study includes a review of the commercial potential of western oil shale products and byproducts, a review of retorting processes, an economic evaluation of a small-scale commercial operation, and a description of the environmental requirements of such an operation. Shale oil used as a blend in conventional asphalt appears to have the most potential for entering today's market. Based on present prices for conventional petroleum, other products from oil shale do not appear competitive at this time or will require considerable marketing to establish a position in the marketplace. Other uses for oil shale and spent shale, such as for sulfur sorbtion, power generation, cement, aggregate, and soil stabilization, are limited economically by transportation costs. The three-state area area consisting of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming seems reasonable for the entry of shale oil-blended asphalt into the commercial market. From a review of retorting technologies and the product characteristics from various retorting processes it was determined that the direct heating Paraho and inclined fluidized-bed processes produce a high proportion of heavy material with a high nitrogen content. The two processes are complementary in that they are each best suited to processing different size ranges of materials. An economic evaluation of a 2000-b/d shale oil facility shows that the operation is potentially viable, if the price obtained for the shale oil residue is in the top range of prices projected for this product. Environmental requirements for building and operating an oil shale processing facility are concerned with permitting, control of emissions and discharges, and monitoring. 62 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Nome Instituio Pas E-mail Natalia Gabriela Fracassi Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria Argentina natfracassi@yahoo.com.ar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agropecuaria Argentina natfracassi@yahoo.com.ar Andre Alexander Held Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial

  9. Western Resource Adequacy: Challenges - Approaches - Metrics | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradley Nickell DirectorThe&Management Alert Western AreaIn

  10. Western Ethanol Company LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown ofNationwideWTED JumpHills, NewWestbrook, Minnesota:Western Ethanol Company LLC

  11. Western Geothermal Partners | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown ofNationwideWTED JumpHills, NewWestbrook, Minnesota:Western Ethanol Company

  12. Western NY Energy LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown ofNationwideWTED JumpHills, NewWestbrook, Minnesota:Western Ethanol

  13. Western Resource Advocates | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown ofNationwideWTED JumpHills, NewWestbrook, Minnesota:Western

  14. Western Governors' Association | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri GlobalJump to: navigation,Goff,HoltWestchester County, NewWestern

  15. NorthWestern Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |JilinLuOpenNorth America Drilling FluidsNorth Western Elec Coop,

  16. NorthWestern Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |JilinLuOpenNorth America Drilling FluidsNorth Western Elec

  17. Western Illinois Elec Coop | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlin BaxinUmweltVillageGraphWellton-Mohawk IrrWestWestNewWesternElec Coop

  18. Western Indiana Energy REMC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlin BaxinUmweltVillageGraphWellton-Mohawk IrrWestWestNewWesternElec

  19. Western Iowa Power Coop | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlin BaxinUmweltVillageGraphWellton-MohawkWestern Iowa Power Coop Jump to:

  20. Western Massachusetts Elec Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlin BaxinUmweltVillageGraphWellton-MohawkWestern Iowa Power Coop Jump

  1. Biofuels War: The New Scramble for Africa by Western Big Money Profiteers : EcoWorldly Explore GO Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biofuels War: The New Scramble for Africa by Western Big Money Profiteers : EcoWorldly About Like this post? Subscribe to our RSS feed and stay up to date. Biofuels War: The New Scramble in Africa, Ethiopia, Europe, Ghana, Global, Tanzania, United States of America Biofuels war has broken out

  2. Absolute CF{sub 2} density and gas temperature measurements by absorption spectroscopy in dual-frequency capacitively coupled CF{sub 4}/Ar plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wen-Yao; Xu, Yong, E-mail: yongxu@dlut.edu.cn; Peng, Fei; Gong, Fa-Ping; Li, Xiao-Song; Zhu, Ai-Min [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Laboratory of Plasma Physical Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Yong-Xin; Wang, You-Nian [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Broadband ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy has been used to determine the CF{sub 2} radical density in dual-frequency capacitively coupled CF{sub 4}/Ar plasmas, using the CF{sub 2} A{sup ~1}B{sub 1}?X{sup ~1}A{sub 1} system of absorption spectrum. The rotational temperature of ground state CF{sub 2} and excited state CF was also estimated by using A{sup ~1}B{sub 1}?X{sup ~1}A{sub 1} system and B{sup 2}??X{sup 2}? system, respectively. The translational gas temperature was deduced from the Doppler width of the Ar{sup *}({sup 3}P{sub 2}) and Ar{sup *}({sup 3}P{sub 0}) metastable atoms absorption line by using the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The rotational temperatures of the excited state CF are about 100?K higher than those of ground state CF{sub 2}, and about 200?K higher than the translational gas temperatures. The dependences of the radical CF{sub 2} density, electron density, electron temperature, rotational temperature, and gas temperature on the high frequency power and pressure have been analyzed. Furthermore, the production and loss mechanisms of CF{sub 2} radical and the gas heating mechanisms have also been discussed.

  3. Triple photoionization of Ne and Ar near threshold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bluett, J.B.; Wehlitz, R. [Synchrotron Radiation Center, UW-Madison, Stoughton, Wisconsin 53589 (United States); Lukic, D. [Institute of Physics, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The triple-photoionization cross section of neon and argon near threshold has been investigated by ion time-of-flight spectrometry. We applied the Wannier power law to our data and confirmed the theoretical Wannier exponent in the cases of Ne and Ar. Our data also agree with previous findings regarding the Wannier exponent and its range of validity for Ne. However, the Wannier power law exhibits a much smaller range of validity of 2 eV for Ar compared to 5 eV for Ne. Also, in contrast to a previous experiment, we do not find a 'second' power law but a gradual decrease of the exponent above the range of validity of the Wannier power law.

  4. at Western University Located in London, Ontario, Western University is situated directly in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denham, Graham

    , while shedding light on new construction materials that make homes safer and more cost-effective · Wind in materials and biomaterials, biomedical imaging and neuroscience, as well as wind engineering. ResearchScienceWestern: Canada's premiere surface and materials analysis facility has more than 25 years of providing high

  5. EMPLOYMENT APPLICATION Montana State University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    EMPLOYMENT APPLICATION Montana State University Western Triangle Ag Research Center 9546 Old Shelby employed by any other department on campus? Yes No If so, which department? Availability (Check those which) 1 2 3 4 College Major: EMPLOYMENT HISTORY (begin with most recent) Employer: Employer: Supervisor

  6. WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION COMMENTS/CHANGES TO DRAFT RMR...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION COMMENTSCHANGES TO DRAFT RMR PA FOR ROUTINE MAINTENANCE DATED 101613 (REQUESTED ON DEC 18, 2014; EXTENDED THROUGH MARCH 10, 2014) AgencyTribe...

  7. NorthWestern Energy- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NorthWestern Energy offers a variety of rebates for residential customers to make energy efficiency improvements in their existing homes. Customers who purchase or implement energy efficient...

  8. Western Riverside Council of Governments- Large Commercial PACE (California)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Western Riverside Council of Governments (WRCOG) is offering business owners in WRCOG participating jurisdictions an opportunity to finance energy and water efficiency projects for their commercial...

  9. Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection Debra Lew National Renewable Energy Laboratory Nicholas Miller, Kara Clark, Gary Jordan, and Zhi Gao GE Energy...

  10. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Western Area PowerAdministratio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Center October 26, 2009 CX-005544: Categorical Exclusion Determination Power Rate Formula for the Provo River Project of the Western Area Power Administration CX(s) Applied:...

  11. NorthWestern Energy (Gas)- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NorthWestern Energy offers a variety of rebates for residential customers to make energy efficiency improvements in their existing homes. Customers who purchase an Energy Star programmable...

  12. Biofuel Production in the Western U.S.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biofuel Production in the Western U.S. March 25, 2015 Analysis & Sustainability Mark Wigmosta PNNL This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise...

  13. athabasca basin western: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Von P. 9 Modeling thermal convection in supradetachment basins: example from western Norway Geosciences Websites Summary: . DABROWSKI AND T. B. ANDERSEN Physics of Geological...

  14. Western Massachusetts Electric- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Western Massachusetts Electric (WMECO) and Masssave, a collaboration of Massachusetts municipalities and cooperatives, provides technical assistance and financial incentives to customers who...

  15. Western-UGP Transmission and Ancillary Services Rates Customer...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    responsibility for irrigation and municipal consumption as well as dam and powerplant construction, operation and maintenance. P a g e | 3 Western annually sells and delivers...

  16. Energy Department's Fossil Energy Chief to Tour Western Michigan...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department's Fossil Energy Chief to Tour Western Michigan University's Clean Coal Research Facilities, Host Business Roundtable Energy Department's Fossil Energy Chief to Tour...

  17. CAL/AAEM Supports Western Regional Emergency Medicine Symposium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frumin, Erica; King, Lacey; Shieh, Mason

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water using wilderness medicine methods. In Medical LegalWestern Regional Emergency Medicine Symposium Erica Frumin,California, Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, CA On October

  18. NorthWestern Energy- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NorthWestern Energy offers multiple rebate programs for commercial and industrial customers to make energy efficient improvements to their businesses. The E+ Commercial Natural Gas Savings Program...

  19. Variable Crustal Thickness In The Western Great Basin- A Compilation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Crustal Thickness In The Western Great Basin- A Compilation Of Old And New Refraction Data Abstract Utilizing commercial mine blasts and local earthquakes, as well as a dense...

  20. The production of /sup 38/Ar and /sup 39/Ar by 14-MeV neutrons on /sup 39/K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foland, K.A.; Borg, R.J.; Mustafa, M.G.

    1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have determined the cross sections for the production of /sup 38/Ar and /sup 39/Ar from the (n,n'rho) and (n,rho) reactions by neutrons of -- 14 MeV incident on /sup 39/K. Three potassium-bearing specimens were irradiated with fluences of --10/sup 17/ neutrons, and the argon isotopes were measured by mass spectrometry. Previously reported measurements are in substantial disagreement with our results. Values from the three new measurements are consistent with each other and our computational modeling. Nevertheless, there remains an unexplained increase in the cross sections for both reactions as the neutron energy increases from --14.5 to 14.8 MeV.

  1. Fluorocarbon assisted atomic layer etching of SiO{sub 2} using cyclic Ar/C{sub 4}F{sub 8} plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzler, Dominik; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S., E-mail: oehrlein@umd.edu [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Bruce, Robert L.; Engelmann, Sebastian; Joseph, Eric A. [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors demonstrate atomic layer etching of SiO{sub 2} using a steady-state Ar plasma, periodic injection of a defined number of C{sub 4}F{sub 8} molecules, and synchronized plasma-based Ar{sup +} ion bombardment. C{sub 4}F{sub 8} injection enables control of the deposited fluorocarbon (FC) layer thickness in the one to several Ångstrom range and chemical modification of the SiO{sub 2} surface. For low energy Ar{sup +} ion bombardment conditions, the physical sputter rate of SiO{sub 2} vanishes, whereas SiO{sub 2} can be etched when FC reactants are present at the surface. The authors have measured for the first time the temporal variation of the chemically enhanced etch rate of SiO{sub 2} for Ar{sup +} ion energies below 30?eV as a function of fluorocarbon surface coverage. This approach enables controlled removal of Ångstrom-thick SiO{sub 2} layers. Our results demonstrate that development of atomic layer etching processes even for complex materials is feasible.

  2. sup 40 Ar/ sup 39 Ar age calibration of the litho- and paleomagnetic stratigraphies of the Ngorora Formation, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deino, A.; Drake, R. (Institute of Human Origins, Berkeley, CA (USA)); Tauxe, L. (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (USA)); Monaghan, M. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Precise eruptive ages have been determined by the laser-fusion, single-crystal {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar method for juvenile volcanic feldspars from reworked and contaminated volcaniclastic rocks of the middle Miocene Ngorora Formation, Kenya Rift Valley. These ages range from 13.06 Ma at the base to 10.51 Ma toward the top of the type section near Kabarsero. Correlation of the local paleomagnetic stratigraphies with the geomagnetic reversal time scale yields magnetochronologic age estimates that are younger than the isotopic ages by an average of 0.18 Ma. Much of the discrepancy can be eliminated if an inferred change in sea-floor spreading rate occurred at 13 Ma or earlier, rather than at 10.42 Ma as previously suggested. Sedimentation rates at Kabarsero calculated from the {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar results decrease from initial values of {approximately}25 cm/1,000 yr to {approximately}5 cm/1,000 yr toward the top of the section. The initial rapid sedimentation rates characterize the first 0.1 to 0.3 m.y. following emplacement of the underlying, voluminous, basin-filling Tiim Phonolites, indicating that the Baringo Basin at this time may not have existed as a rift valley created by extensional tectonics, but instead may have been a subsidence feature formed in response to removal of large volumes of magma from the lithosphere. A premolar tentatively identified as Proconsul sp. indet. found in the Ngorora Formation near the village of Bartabwa has been dated at {approximately}12.42 Ma, representing perhaps the last known occurrence of this genus in the fossil record.

  3. Observation of 1 MLCT Excited States in Quadruply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turro, Claudia

    * Contribution from the Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State UniVersity, 100 West 18th AVenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1185 Received July 28, 2005; E-mail: chisholm@chemistry.ohio-state.edu; turro@chemistry.ohio (2-py); M ) W, Ar ) ph, 2-nap] complexes were investigated. The lowest energy absorption

  4. sup 40 Ar/ sup 39 Ar ages of six Apollo 15 impact melt rocks by laser step heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalrymple, G.B. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Ryder, G. (Lunar and Planetary Inst., Houston, TX (USA))

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have obtained 15 high resolution (21-51 step) {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar age spectra on six Apollo 15 impact melt rocks of different compositions using a continuous laser system on submilligram subsamples and on single crystal plagioclase clasts. Four of the six samples gave reproducible age spectra with well-defined intermediate temperature plateaus over 48% or more of the {sup 39}AR released; the plateaus are interpreted as crystallization ages. Samples 15304,7,69, 15294,6,21, and 15314,26,156 gave virtually identical plateau ages whose weighted mean is 3,870 {plus minus} 6 Ma. These three melt rocks differ in composition and likely formed in three separate impact events. Sample 15356,9 gave replicate plateau ages that average 3,836 {plus minus} 12 Ma and date a fourth and younger impact event. The age spectra for samples 15308,9 and 15414,3,36 increase with increasing increment temperature and may have been formed in or affected by impacts at about 2,700 Ma and 3,870 Ma, respectively. So far there continues to be no convincing evidence in the lunar record for impact melts older than about 3.9 Ga.

  5. Theoretical studies of electronically excited states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besley, Nicholas A. [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Time-dependent density functional theory is the most widely used quantum chemical method for studying molecules in electronically excited states. However, excited states can also be computed within Kohn-Sham density functional theory by exploiting methods that converge the self-consistent field equations to give excited state solutions. The usefulness of single reference self-consistent field based approaches for studying excited states is demonstrated by considering the calculation of several types of spectroscopy including the infrared spectroscopy of molecules in an electronically excited state, the rovibrational spectrum of the NO-Ar complex, core electron binding energies and the emission spectroscopy of BODIPY in water.

  6. Western Region Renewable Energy Markets: Implications for the Bureau of Land Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haase, S.; Billman, L.; Gelman, R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) with an overview of renewable energy (RE) generation markets, transmission planning efforts, and the ongoing role of the BLM RE projects in the electricity markets of the 11 states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming) that comprise the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Region. This analysis focuses on the status of, and projections for, likely development of non-hydroelectric renewable electricity from solar (including photovoltaic [PV] and concentrating solar power [CSP]), wind, biomass and geothermal resources in these states. Absent new policy drivers and without the extension of the DOE loan guarantee program and Treasury's 1603 program, state RPS requirements are likely to remain a primary driver for new RE deployment in the western United States. Assuming no additional policy incentives are implemented, projected RE demand for the WECC states by 2020 is 134,000 GWh. Installed capacity to meet that demand will need to be within the range of 28,000-46,000 MW.

  7. Testing of Western Kentucky No. 9 coal in an atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pettit, R.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report deals with the characterization of a western Kentucky No. 9 coal as an atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) feedstock. It is the first of a series of four reports, each dealing with a different Kentucky coal. All of the coal tests were conducted using an Oregon dolomite from the central Kentucky region. The tests were conducted in a 2 ft. 8 in. x 2 ft. 5 in. atmospheric fluidized bed combustor. The Western Kentucky No. 9 coal tested had a heating value of 12200 Btu/lb. The Oregon dolomite used contained 61% CaCO3 and 31% MgCO3. Detailed feedstock analyses are presented in Appendix E. Seven steady-state test runs were conducted over a two-week period. The runs were at one of 100%, 85%, or 70% loads. The air flowrate, bed temperature, and stack sulfur dioxide emissions rate were kept approximately constant during these tests to facilitate comparison.

  8. Western Energy Corridor -- Energy Resource Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie Roberts; Michael Hagood

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The world is facing significant growth in energy demand over the next several decades. Strategic in meeting this demand are the world-class energy resources concentrated along the Rocky Mountains and northern plains in Canada and the U.S., informally referred to as the Western Energy Corridor (WEC). The fossil energy resources in this region are rivaled only in a very few places in the world, and the proven uranium reserves are among the world's largest. Also concentrated in this region are renewable resources contributing to wind power, hydro power, bioenergy, geothermal energy, and solar energy. Substantial existing and planned energy infrastructure, including refineries, pipelines, electrical transmission lines, and rail lines provide access to these resources.

  9. Winthrop Professor Lyle Noakes University of Western Australia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noakes, Lyle

    Winthrop Professor Lyle Noakes University of Western Australia School of Mathematics and Statistics­1970. Sheffield University, UK 1974­1975. University of Western Australia, 1975­2013. Visiting Appointments Perth, WA 6008, Australia. Phone: (+61 8) 6488 3358 Fax: (+61 8) 6488 1028 Email: Lyle

  10. New Recent Reports April 10, 2007 CSIS Western Hemisphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    New Recent Reports April 10, 2007 CSIS Western Hemisphere National oil companies working paper OIES the importance of private investment, market determination, and appropriate regulatory oversight for Western to improved regional trade. Gains from trade in turn create increased incentives for private investment

  11. NorthWestern Energy Community Works Scholarship for Electrical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, Bill

    20131030 NorthWestern Energy Community Works Scholarship for Electrical Engineering A special Electrical Engineering, NorthWestern Energy has established a scholarship program administered by the Montana and interests, and how they relate to electrical engineering, energy production, control, and/or transmission

  12. NorthWestern Energy Community Works Scholarship for Electrical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    20121204 NorthWestern Energy Community Works Scholarship for Electrical Engineering A special new Electrical Engineering, NorthWestern Energy has established a scholarship program administered by the Montana, and how they relate to electrical engineering, energy production, control, and/or transmission. Within

  13. area western norway: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    western norway First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Introduction The Western Gneiss Complex...

  14. Modeling thermal convection in supradetachment basins: example from western Norway

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andersen, Torgeir Bjørge

    Modeling thermal convection in supradetachment basins: example from western Norway A. SOUCHE*, M. DABROWSKI AND T. B. ANDERSEN Physics of Geological Processes (PGP), University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway basins of western Norway are examples of supradetachment basins that formed in the hanging wall

  15. 10 Year Transmission Plan for the Western Electricity Interconnection Released

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) announced the release of its first 10-Year Regional Transmission Plan (Plan) for the Western Interconnection. The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability awarded WECC a $14.5 million grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to expand on its transmission planning activities.

  16. Origin State Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    5. Estimated rail transportation rates for coal, state to state, STB data Origin State Destination State 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2001-2009 2008-2009 Alabama...

  17. Origin State Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6. Estimated rail transportation rates for coal, state to state, STB data Origin State Destination State 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2001-2009 2008-2009 Alabama...

  18. \\b{eta}-delayed three-proton decay of 31Ar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lis, A A; Dominik, W; Janas, Z; Pfützner, M; Pomorski, M; Acosta, L; Baraeva, S; Casarejos, E; Duénas-Díaz, J; Dunin, V; Espino, J M; Estrade, A; Farinon, F; Fomichev, A; Geissel, H; Gorshkov, A; Kami?ski, G; Kiselev, O; Knöbel, R; Krupko, S; Kuich, M; Litvinov, Yu A; Marquinez-Durán, G; Martel, I; Mukha, I; Nociforo, C; Ordúz, A K; Pietri, S; Prochazka, A; Sánchez-Benítez, A M; Simon, H; Sitar, B; Slepnev, R; Stanoiu, M; Strmen, P; Szarka, I; Takechi, M; Tanaka, Y; Weick, H; Winfield, J S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The beta decay of 31Ar, produced by fragmentation of a 36Ar beam at 880 MeV/nucleon, was investigated. Identified ions of 31Ar were stopped in a gaseous time projection chamber with optical readout allowing to record decay events with emission of protons. In addition to \\b{eta}-delayed emission of one and two protons we have clearly observed the beta-delayed three-proton branch. The branching ratio for this channel in 31Ar is found to be 0.07(2)%.

  19. \\b{eta}-delayed three-proton decay of 31Ar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Lis; C. Mazzocchi; W. Dominik; Z. Janas; M. Pfützner; M. Pomorski; L. Acosta; S. Baraeva; E. Casarejos; J. Duénas-Díaz; V. Dunin; J. M. Espino; A. Estrade; F. Farinon; A. Fomichev; H. Geissel; A. Gorshkov; G. Kami?ski; O. Kiselev; R. Knöbel; S. Krupko; M. Kuich; Yu. A. Litvinov; G. Marquinez-Durán; I. Martel; I. Mukha; C. Nociforo; A. K. Ordúz; S. Pietri; A. Prochazka; A. M. Sánchez-Benítez; H. Simon; B. Sitar; R. Slepnev; M. Stanoiu; P. Strmen; I. Szarka; M. Takechi; Y. Tanaka; H. Weick; J. S. Winfield

    2015-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The beta decay of 31Ar, produced by fragmentation of a 36Ar beam at 880 MeV/nucleon, was investigated. Identified ions of 31Ar were stopped in a gaseous time projection chamber with optical readout allowing to record decay events with emission of protons. In addition to \\b{eta}-delayed emission of one and two protons we have clearly observed the beta-delayed three-proton branch. The branching ratio for this channel in 31Ar is found to be 0.07(2)%.

  20. Oxygen-driven relaxation processes in pre-irradiated Ar cryocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savchenko, E. V; Belov, A. G; Gumenchuk, G. B; Ponomaryov, A. N; Bondybey, V. E

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Excitations of Solid Oxygen ?in Russian?, B. I. Verkin andNUMBER 11 NOVEMBER 2006 Oxygen-driven relaxation processes? Relaxation processes in oxygen-containing Ar cryocrystals

  1. Version 1 | November 2012Western Web Style Guide | The Department of Communications and Public Affairs | Western University | web@uwo.ca WEB STYLE GUIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinnamon, Gordon J.

    Version 1 | November 2012Western Web Style Guide | The Department of Communications and Public Affairs | Western University | web@uwo.ca WEB STYLE GUIDE Standards and Resources for Creating Western's Web Experience #12;2Western Web Style Guide | The Department of Communications and Public Affairs

  2. US Geological Survey publications on western tight gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupa, M.P.; Spencer, C.W.

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This bibliography includes reports published from 1977 through August 1988. In 1977 the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the US Department of Energy's, (DOE), Western Gas Sands Research program, initiated a geological program to identify and characterize natural gas resources in low-permeability (tight) reservoirs in the Rocky Mountain region. These reservoirs are present at depths of less than 2,000 ft (610 m) to greater than 20,000 ft (6,100 m). Only published reports readily available to the public are included in this report. Where appropriate, USGS researchers have incorporated administrative report information into later published studies. These studies cover a broad range of research from basic research on gas origin and migration to applied studies of production potential of reservoirs in individual wells. The early research included construction of regional well-log cross sections. These sections provide a basic stratigraphic framework for individual areas and basins. Most of these sections include drill-stem test and other well-test data so that the gas-bearing reservoirs can be seen in vertical and areal dimensions. For the convenience of the reader, the publications listed in this report have been indexed by general categories of (1) authors, (2) states, (3) geologic basins, (4) cross sections, (5) maps (6) studies of gas origin and migration, (7) reservoir or mineralogic studies, and (8) other reports of a regional or specific topical nature.

  3. Dusty Plasma in He-Ar Glow Discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiorov, S. A. [A. M. Prokhorov Institute for General Physics under Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ramazanov, T. S.; Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Dosbolayev, M. K.; Jumabekov, A. N. [IETP, al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 96a, Tole bi St., Almaty, 050012 (Kazakhstan)

    2008-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper reports on the first experiments with plasma-dust formations in dc gas discharge plasma for He-Ar mixture. It is shown that under the conventional conditions of the experiments with dusty structures in plasma, the choice of light and heavy gases for the mixture suppresses electron heating in electric field and results in a supersonic jet with high Mach numbers. Distribution functions for drifting ions in the gas mixture are calculated for various mixture concentrations, electric field strengths and gas pressures.

  4. Category:Little Rock, AR | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:Power LPInformationCashtonGo Back to PV EconomicsdisplaysAR"

  5. Invoke Privacy of Directory Information Directory Information at Western Michigan University includes the following: student's name,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Doncker, Elise

    Invoke Privacy of Directory Information Directory Information at Western Michigan University designated below will be held as confidential by Western Michigan University until I notify the Office Western Michigan University responsible for list/information already printed, published, or available

  6. Western Area Power Administration combined power system financial statements, 30 September 1995 and 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The attached report presents the results of the independent certified public accountant`s audit of the Department of Energy`s Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) combined financial statements as of September 30, 1995. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on Western`s 1995 statements. Their reports on Western`s internal control structure and on compliance with laws and regulations are also provided.

  7. GEOSPATIOTEMPORAL DATA MINING IN AN EARLY WARNING SYSTEM FOR FOREST THREATS IN THE UNITED STATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Richard

    GEOSPATIOTEMPORAL DATA MINING IN AN EARLY WARNING SYSTEM FOR FOREST THREATS IN THE UNITED STATES F) for the conterminous United States as part of an early warning system to identify threats to forest ecosystems. Cluster States (CONUS) as part of a two tier system: An early warning system that monitors continental-scale ar

  8. Exploration of Resource and Transmission Expansion Decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone Initiative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Colorado: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/SR-Decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone Initiative.Finn, J. 2009. Western Renewable Energy Zones, Phase 1: QRA

  9. Are the TRACE-P measurements representative of the western Pacific during March 2001?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TRACE-P measurements representative of the western PacificTHE TRACE- P MEASUREMENTS REPRESENTATIVE? Pierce, R. B. , etTRACE-P measurements representative of the western Pacific

  10. WECC releases its first-ever transmission plan for the Western Interconnection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) announced the release of its first 10-Year Regional Transmission Plan (Plan) for the Western Interconnection.

  11. FACTORS DETERMINING RESIDENTIAL WATER DEMAND IN NORTH WESTERN ETHIOPIA, THE CASE OF MERAWI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    FACTORS DETERMINING RESIDENTIAL WATER DEMAND IN NORTH WESTERN ETHIOPIA, THE CASE OF MERAWI among different households of the town of Merawi, North Western Ethiopia. Understanding variables

  12. PP-304 Generadora del Desierto SAde C.V. Western Area Power Administra...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Administration PP-304 Generadora del Desierto SAde C.V. Western Area Power Administration Presidential permit authorizing Generadora del Desierto SAde C.V. Western Area Power...

  13. arXiv:0904.0927v1[math.AG]6Apr2009 CALCULATING THE PARABOLIC CHERN CHARACTER OF A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simpson, Carlos

    characters chP ar 1 (E), chP ar 2 (E) and chP ar 3 (E). The basic idea is to use the formula given in [IS2

  14. Very-high-order harmonic generation from Ar atoms and Ar+ ions in superintense pulsed laser fields: An ab initio self-interaction-free time-dependent density-functional approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrera, Juan J.; Chu, Shih-I; Tong, Xiao-Min

    2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an ab initio nonpertubative investigation of the mechanisms responsible for the production of very-high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from Ar atoms and Ar+ ions by means of the self-interaction-free time-dependent density...

  15. COMMIX-1AR/P: A three-dimensional transient single-phase computer program for thermal hydraulic analysis of single and multicomponent systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garner, P.L.; Blomquist, R.N.; Gelbard, E.M.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The COMMIX-1AR/P computer program is designed for analyzing the steady-state and transient aspects of single-phase fluid flow and heat transfer in three spatial dimensions. This version is an extension of the modeling in COMMIX-1A to include multiple fluids in physically separate regions of the computational domain, modeling descriptions for pumps, radiation heat transfer between surfaces of the solids which are embedded in or surround the fluid, a k-[var epsilon] model for fluid turbulence, and improved numerical techniques. The porous-medium formulation in COMMIX allows the program to be applied to a wide range of problems involving both simple and complex geometrical arrangements. The input preparation and execution procedures are presented for the COMMIX-1AR/P program and several postprocessor programs which produce graphical displays of the calculated results.

  16. EA-98-K Western Systems Power Pool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of98-F, Western Systems Power Pool EA-98-F, Western98-K Western

  17. EA-98-L Western Systems Power Pool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of98-F, Western Systems Power Pool EA-98-F, Western98-K Western98-L

  18. Asymptotic Inference for AR Models with Heavy-tailed G-GARCH Noises

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ling, Shiqing

    Asymptotic Inference for AR Models with Heavy-tailed G-GARCH Noises Rongmao Zhang Department-tailed G-GARCH(1,1) noises. When the tail index of G-GARCH is within (0, 2), it is shown that the LSE and finance. Keywords: AR model, G-GARCH, heavy-tailed and stable processes 1 #12;1 Introduction Since

  19. The Caribbean Low-Level Jet and Its Relationship with Precipitation in IPCC AR4 Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Elinor R.

    The Caribbean Low-Level Jet and Its Relationship with Precipitation in IPCC AR4 Models ELINOR R Report (AR4) shows that all models have the ability to simulate the location and height of the Caribbean Caribbean and, hence, an overly strong CLLJ. The ability of the models to simulate the correlation between

  20. Le magn)sme ar)ficiel pour les gaz d'atomes froids Jean Dalibard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalibard, Jean

    Le magné)sme ar)ficiel pour les gaz d'atomes froids Jean Dalibard Année 2013-14 Chaire Atomes et rayonnement Magné8sme ar8ficiel pour un atome isolé (I) #12;Simula8on du magné8sme avec des atomes neutres Le but : réaliser pour

  1. Active species downstream of an ArO surface-wave microwave discharge for biomedicine,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerra, Vasco

    Active species downstream of an Ar­O 2 surface-wave microwave discharge for biomedicine, surface.1088/0963-0252/20/3/035006 Active species downstream of an Ar­O2 surface-wave microwave discharge for biomedicine, surface treatment in a 0.5 cm diameter tube at pressures between 1 and 12 mbar. The early afterglow that occurs downstream

  2. Integrating 40 Ar, U-Pb, and astronomical clocks in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Stephen R.

    956 Integrating 40 Ar/39 Ar, U-Pb, and astronomical clocks in the Cretaceous Niobrara Formation, British Geological Survey, Keyworth NG12 5GG, UK 6 U.S. Geological Survey, MS 980, Denver, Colorado 80225 radioiso- topic data with the floating astrochronology for the Niobrara Formation. The ages are determined

  3. Multiproperty empirical interatomic potentials for ArXe and KrXe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pack, R.T; Valentini, J.J.; Becker, C.H.; Buss, R.J.; Lee, Y.T.

    1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crossed molecular beam measurements of elastic differential cross sections (DCS) for the scattering of Ar and Kr by Xe are reported. Empirical multiparameter M3SV interatomic potentials for the ArXe and KrXe interactions are determined by simultaneously fitting the DCS, the viscosities, and virial coefficients; the results are the most accurate potentials yet reported for these systems.

  4. PROJECT REPORT WESTERN COOLING CHALLENGE LABORATORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    on advanc- ing commercial development and market introduction of rooftop packaged air conditioners optimized independent environmental test chamber in the United States, located at their HVAC & Electrical test facility

  5. Soil microbial response to controlled-release urea under zero tillage and conventional tillage in western Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lupwayi, Newton; Soon, Yoong; Clayton, George; Bittman, Shabtai; Malhi, Sukhdev; Grant, Cynthia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at six sites in western Canada. Materials and Methods Theconditions in western Canada, fertilizer application had no

  6. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 4. Western Solar Utilization Network Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Western Solar Utilization Network Region. (WHK)

  7. Western gas sands project. Status report, 1 June-30 June 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress of the government-sponsored projects during June 1980, that are directed towards increasing gas production from the low permeability gas sands of the western United States, is summarized. Northwest Exploration declined use of their site for the multi-well experiment; additional sites are being contemplated. Experiments began at Bartlesville Energy Technology Center designed to examine fracture closure and crushing strength of bauxite. At Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, work is progressing on the code to calculate fluid motion in an expanding propagation crack.

  8. Value of Improved Wind Power Forecasting in the Western Interconnection (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B.

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wind power forecasting is a necessary and important technology for incorporating wind power into the unit commitment and dispatch process. It is expected to become increasingly important with higher renewable energy penetration rates and progress toward the smart grid. There is consensus that wind power forecasting can help utility operations with increasing wind power penetration; however, there is far from a consensus about the economic value of improved forecasts. This work explores the value of improved wind power forecasting in the Western Interconnection of the United States.

  9. Western Gas Sands Project: production histories of the Piceance and Uinta basins of Colorado and Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, S.; Kohout, J. (comp.)

    1980-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Current United States geological tight sand designations in the Piceance and Uinta Basins' Western Gas Sands Project include the Mesaverde Group, Fort Union and Wasatch Formations. Others, such as the Dakota, Cedar Mountain, Morrison and Mancos may eventually be included. Future production from these formations will probably be closely associated with existing trends. Cumulative gas production through December 1979, of the Mesaverde Group, Fort Union and Wasatch Formations in the Piceance and Uinta Basins is less than 275 billion cubic feet. This contrasts dramatically with potential gas in place estimates of 360 trillion cubic feet. If the geology can be fully understood and engineering problems surmounted, significant potential reserves can be exploited.

  10. Western gas sands project. Status report, 1 July-31 July, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The progress of the government-sponsored projects, directed towards increasing gas production from the low permeability gas sands of the western United States, is summarized. A subcontract was approved between Gas Research Institute and M.D. Wood, Inc. to obtain information on hydraulic fracture length. A meeting was held with Superior Oil Company during July to discuss possible sites for the multi-well experiment. Bartlesville Energy Technology Center continued work toward the assessment of fracture fluid effects on post fracture test times. A full report of the Seismic Formation Mapping Program will be issued by Sandia after review and editing have been completed.

  11. Western Gas Sands Project. Status report, 1 January-31 January 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes January, 1980, progress of the government-sponsored projects directed toward increasing gas production from the low-permeability gas sands of the western United States. The USGS continued activities in the four primary areas of interest in the WGSP; coring and logging of Rainbow Resources No. 1-3 Federal well, Sweetwater County, Wyoming, was completed during January. The DOE Well Test Facility was moved to Wattenberg field to monitor well tests at the Colorado Interstate Gas Company cyclic injection site. Sixteen minifracs were conducted at the Nevada Test Site in conjunction with Sandia Mineback program.

  12. VISUALIZING THE SPREAD OF WEST NILE VIRUS Jurgen Symanzik , Utah State University,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Symanzik, Jürgen

    was rst recognized in the United States in 1999 as the cause of severe and fatal human illness, there were only a few states in the Western United States where the virus had not been observed. However, indications are that the virus will be observed in every state of the contiguous United States by the end

  13. Dual Feedback Controlled High Performance Ar Seeded ELMy H-mode Discharges in JET including Trace Tritium Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dual Feedback Controlled High Performance Ar Seeded ELMy H-mode Discharges in JET including Trace Tritium Experiments

  14. Simulation of MGI Efficiency for Plasma Energy Conversion into Ar Radiation in JET and Implications for ITER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simulation of MGI Efficiency for Plasma Energy Conversion into Ar Radiation in JET and Implications for ITER

  15. Lovell-Yellowtail transmission line rebuild project, Western...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on Flickr. Western is rebuilding the Lovell-to-Yellowtail No. 1 and No. 2 115-kV transmission lines. The 94-circuit-miles of lines are located between Lovell, Wyo., and Yellowtail...

  16. Report to the Western Water Policy Review Advisory Commission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selker, John

    and Directions in Federal Water Policy A Summary of the Conference Proceedings Todd Olinger Boulder, Colorado #12 Todd Olinger Boulder, Colorado Report to the Western Water Policy Review Advisory Commission October

  17. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Western Area PowerAdministratio...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    B4.7, B4.11 Date: 09152011 Location(s): Sutter County, California Office(s): Western Area Power Administration-Sierra Nevada Region, National Energy Technology Laboratory...

  18. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Western Area PowerAdministratio...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Vegetation ControlRemoval CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 03292010 Location(s): Sioux City, Iowa Office(s): Western Area Power Administration-Upper Great Plains Region March...

  19. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Phase 2 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Lefton, S.; Kumar, N.; Venkataraman, S.; Jordan, G.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation summarizes the scope and results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2, which examined operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation in the West.

  20. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is one-page, two-sided fact sheet presents high-level summary results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2, which examined operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation in the West.

  1. Eddy-mean flow interactions in western boundary current jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waterman, Stephanie N

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis examines the nature of eddy-mean flow interactions in western boundary current jets and recirculation gyre dynamics from both theoretical and observational perspectives. It includes theoretical studies of ...

  2. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Greg Brinkman will present the results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), Phase 2. This study, which follows the first phase of WWSIS, focuses on potential emissions and wear...

  3. A Study of Low Paid Work and Low Paid Workers in Western Australia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Study of Low Paid Work and Low Paid Workers in Western Australia Therese Jefferson Alison Preston University of Technology Perth Western Australia http://www.cbs.curtin.edu/wiser #12;A Study of Low Paid Work and Low Paid Workers in Western Australia ii A Study of Low Paid Work and Low Paid Workers in Western

  4. UC Davis Western Cooling Challenge Program Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Davis, is a multiple winner competition that encourages HVAC manufactures to develop climate of such technologies in the market place. Their interest in the Challenge is motivated by state and corporate goals is to push beyond prototype demonstration of high efficiency cooling equipment by advancing the market

  5. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western Utility Resource Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Markets for renewable energy have historically been motivated primarily by policy efforts, but a less widely recognized driver is poised to also play a major role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Resource planning has re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, the most recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions--primarily coming from wind power--are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. This report examines how twelve western utilities treat renewable energy in their recent resource plans. In aggregate, these utilities supply approximately half of all electricity demand in the western United States. Our purpose is twofold: (1) to highlight the growing importance of utility IRP as a current and future driver of renewable energy, and (2) to identify methodological/modeling issues, and suggest possible improvements to methods used to evaluate renewable energy as a resource option. Here we summarize the key findings of the report, beginning with a discussion of the planned renewable energy additions called for by the twelve utilities, an overview of how these plans incorporated renewables into candidate portfolios, and a review of the specific technology cost and performance assumptions they made, primarily for wind power. We then turn to the utilities' analysis of natural gas price and environmental compliance risks, and examine how the utilities traded off portfolio cost and risk in selecting a preferred portfolio.

  6. GAS AND DUST ABSORPTION IN THE DoAr 24E SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Andrew J. [Department of Physical Science, Wilbur Wright College, 4300 North Narragansett Avenue, Chicago, IL 60634 (United States); Richter, Matthew J. [Department of Physics, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Seifahrt, Andreas [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Carr, John S. [Remote Sensing Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7210, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Najita, Joan R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Moerchen, Margaret M. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Santiago (Chile); Doppmann, Greg W. [W.M. Keck Observatory, 65-1120 Mamalahoa Hwy, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States)

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present findings for DoAr 24E, a binary system that includes a classical infrared companion. We observed the DoAr 24E system with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), with high-resolution, near-infrared spectroscopy of CO vibrational transitions, and with mid-infrared imaging. The source of high extinction toward infrared companions has been an item of continuing interest. Here we investigate the disk structure of DoAr 24E using the column densities, temperature, and velocity profiles of two CO absorption features seen toward DoAr 24Eb. We model the spectral energy distributions found using T-ReCS imaging and investigate the likely sources of extinction toward DoAr 24Eb. We find the lack of silicate absorption and small CO column density toward DoAr 24Eb suggest that the mid-infrared continuum is not as extinguished as the near-infrared, possibly due to the mid-infrared originating from an extended region. This, along with the velocity profile of the CO absorption, suggests that the source of high extinction is likely due to a disk or disk wind associated with DoAr 24Eb.

  7. Deformation and $?$ clustering in excited states of $^{42}$Ca

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yasutaka Taniguchi

    2014-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The coexistence of various low-lying deformed states in $^{42}$Ca and $\\alpha$--$^{38}$Ar correlations in those deformed states have been investigated using deformed-basis antisymmetrized molecular dynamics. Wave functions of the low-lying states are obtained via parity and angular momentum projections and the generator coordinate method (GCM). Basis wave functions of the GCM calculation are obtained via energy variations with constraints on the quadrupole deformation parameter $\\beta$ and the distance between $\\alpha$ and $^{38}$Ar clusters. The rotational band built on the $J^\\pi = 0_2^+$ (1.84 MeV) state as well as the $J^\\pi = 0_3^+$ (3.30 MeV) state are both reproduced. The coexistence of two additional $K^\\pi = 0^+$ rotational bands is predicted; one band is shown to be built on the $J^\\pi = 0_3^+$ state. Members of the ground-state band and the rotational band built on the $J^\\pi = 0_3^+$ state contain $\\alpha$--$^{38}$Ar cluster structure components.

  8. High resolution spectrum of the v= 1 II state of ArHCN A. L. Cooksy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faeder, Jim

    orientation 8. The minimum energy of the linear configuration (8 = 0") has a larger center of mass separation of a 3 cm - ' klystron, phase locked to a har- monic of a frequency synthesizer." The frequency is mod- ulated by applying a 200 Hz square wave to the phase-lock loop reference oscillator. Resonances P(2)-P(6

  9. A.R.S. § 37-102: State Land Department - Powers and Duties | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 WindtheEnergySulfonate as a Liquid-PhaseA.J.

  10. Men open with No.8 ranked Trinity Western PRINCE GEORGE, BC -The men's soccer team will open at home with CIS No.8 ranked team, the Trinity Western

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Men open with No.8 ranked Trinity Western PRINCE GEORGE, BC - The men's soccer team will open at home with CIS No.8 ranked team, the Trinity Western Spartans. Kickoff is set for 2:15 p.m. Sept. 22 into their first CIS home opener taking on the No.8 CIS ranked team, the Trinity Western Spartans. The stakes

  11. The PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 triad in human breast cancer: Functional link between elevated Sac3 phosphatase and enhanced proliferation of triple negative cell lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikonomov, Ognian C., E-mail: oikonomo@med.wayne.edu; Filios, Catherine, E-mail: cfilios@med.wayne.edu; Sbrissa, Diego, E-mail: dsbrissa@med.wayne.edu; Chen, Xuequn, E-mail: xchen@med.wayne.edu; Shisheva, Assia, E-mail: ashishev@med.wayne.edu

    2013-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: •We assess PAS complex proteins and phosphoinositide levels in breast cancer cells. •Sac3 and ArPIKfyve are markedly elevated in triple-negative breast cancer cells. •Sac3 silencing inhibits proliferation in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. •Phosphoinositide profiles are altered in breast cancer cells. •This is the first evidence linking high Sac3 with breast cancer cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The phosphoinositide 5-kinase PIKfyve and 5-phosphatase Sac3 are scaffolded by ArPIKfyve in the PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 (PAS) regulatory complex to trigger a unique loop of PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} synthesis and turnover. Whereas the metabolizing enzymes of the other 3-phosphoinositides have already been implicated in breast cancer, the role of the PAS proteins and the PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} conversion is unknown. To begin elucidating their roles, in this study we monitored the endogenous levels of the PAS complex proteins in cell lines derived from hormone-receptor positive (MCF7 and T47D) or triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) (BT20, BT549 and MDA-MB-231) as well as in MCF10A cells derived from non-tumorigenic mastectomy. We report profound upregulation of Sac3 and ArPIKfyve in the triple negative vs. hormone-sensitive breast cancer or non-tumorigenic cells, with BT cell lines showing the highest levels. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Sac3, but not that of PIKfyve, significantly inhibited proliferation of BT20 and BT549 cells. In these cells, knockdown of ArPIKfyve had only a minor effect, consistent with a primary role for Sac3 in TNBC cell proliferation. Intriguingly, steady-state levels of PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} in BT20 and T47D cells were similar despite the 6-fold difference in Sac3 levels between these cell lines. However, steady-state levels of PtdIns3P and PtdIns5P, both regulated by the PAS complex, were significantly reduced in BT20 vs. T47D or MCF10A cell lines, consistent with elevated Sac3 affecting directly or indirectly the homeostasis of these lipids in TNBC. Together, our results uncover an unexpected role for Sac3 phosphatase in TNBC cell proliferation. Database analyses, discussed herein, reinforce the involvement of Sac3 in breast cancer pathogenesis.

  12. Western Renewable Energy Zones, Phase 1: QRA Identification Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pletka, R.; Finn, J.

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the Western Renewable Energy Zones (WREZ) Initiative Phase 1 Qualified Resource Area identification process, including the identification and economic analysis of Qualified Resource Areas (QRAs) and 'non-REZ' resources. These data and analyses will assist the Western US in its renewable energy transmission planning goals. The economic analysis in this report produced the input data for the WREZ Generation and Transmission model, which is a screening-level model to determine the optimal routing for and cost of delivering renewable energy from QRAs to load centers throughout the Western Interconnection. In June 2009, the Western Governors' Association accepted the Western Governors' Association WREZ Phase 1 Report in which the QRAs were mapped and the entire WREZ Phase 1 process was explained in general. That same month the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory released the WREZ Generation and Transmission Model (GTM), which was also developed by Black & Veatch. This report details the assumptions and methodologies that were used to produce the maps and resource analyses in the WGA report as well as the economic data used by the WREZ GTM. This report also provides the results of the non-REZ resource analysis for the first time in the WREZ initiative.

  13. Dust and Biological Aerosols from the Sahara and Asia Influence Precipitation in the Western US

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Creamean, Jessie; Suski, Kaitlyn; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Cazorla, Alberto; DeMott, Paul J.; Sullivan, Ryan C.; White, Allen B.; Ralph, F. M.; Minnis, Patrick; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Prather, Kimberly

    2013-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Winter storms in California’s Sierra Nevada increase seasonal snowpack and provide critical water resources for the state. Thus, the mechanisms influencing precipitation in this region have been the subject of research for decades. Previous studies suggest Asian dust enhances cloud ice and precipitation (1), while few studies consider biological aerosols as an important global source of ice nuclei (IN). Here, we show that dust and biological aerosols transported from as far as the Sahara were present in glaciated high-altitude clouds coincident with elevated IN concentrations and ice-induced precipitation. This study presents the first direct cloud and precipitation measurements showing that Saharan and Asian dust and biological aerosols likely serve as IN and play an important role in orographic precipitation processes over the western United States.

  14. Investigation of the $^{37}Ar(n,p)$ $^{37}Cl$ and $^{37}Ar(n,\\alpha)$ $^{34}S$ reactions as a function of the neutron energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagemans, C; Wagemans, J; Bieber, R; Loiselet, M; Gaelens, M; Denecke, B; Geltenbort, P; Kolen, F; Wagemans, Cyriel; Goeminne, Gert; Wagemans, Jan; Bieber, Ronald; Loiselet, Marc; Gaelens, Michel; Denecke, Bruno; Geltenbort, Peter; Kolen, Filip

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy dependent 37Ar(n,p)37Cl and 37Ar(n,alpha)34S reaction cross sections were determined for the first time in an experimental effort involving three large facilities: the cyclotron of the UCL (Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium) where implanted 37Ar samples were produced; the high flux reactor of the ILL (Grenoble, France) where thermal (n,p), (n,alpha_0) and (n,alpha_1) cross sections of (37+/-4)b, (1070+/-80)b and (290+/-50)mb respectively could be determined, and the GELINA neutron time-of-flight facility of the IRMM (Geel, Belgium) where strong resonances were observed in the keV region.

  15. Investigation of the 37Ar(n,p)37Cl and 37Ar(n,alpha)34S reactions as a function of the neutron energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cyriel Wagemans; Gert Goeminne; Jan Wagemans; Ronald Bieber; Marc Loiselet; Michel Gaelens; Bruno Denecke; Peter Geltenbort; Filip Kolen

    1999-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy dependent 37Ar(n,p)37Cl and 37Ar(n,alpha)34S reaction cross sections were determined for the first time in an experimental effort involving three large facilities: the cyclotron of the UCL (Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium) where implanted 37Ar samples were produced; the high flux reactor of the ILL (Grenoble, France) where thermal (n,p), (n,alpha_0) and (n,alpha_1) cross sections of (37+/-4)b, (1070+/-80)b and (290+/-50)mb respectively could be determined, and the GELINA neutron time-of-flight facility of the IRMM (Geel, Belgium) where strong resonances were observed in the keV region.

  16. K-Ar Dates Of Hydrothermal Clays From Core Hole Vc-2B, Valles...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ar Dates Of Hydrothermal Clays From Core Hole Vc-2B, Valles Caldera, New Mexico And Their Relation To Alteration In A Large Hydrothermal System Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  17. An Application of Augmented Reality (AR) in the Teaching of an Arc Welding Robot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chong, J. W. S.

    Augmented Reality (AR) is an emerging technology that utilizes computer vision methods to overlay virtual objects onto the real world scene so as to make them appear to co-exist with the real objects. Its main objective ...

  18. Apprentice Researchers The Apprentice Researchers (AR) program was awarded supplemental funding by NSF's EHR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    Apprentice Researchers The Apprentice Researchers (AR) program was awarded supplemental funding apprentices acquire scientific knowledge and lab skills while experiencing what real research in hopes to their peers, family, and mentors. Totals -Summers 1991 to 2008 Total #Apprentices % Apprentices All

  19. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Initiated in 2007 to examine the operational impact of up to 35% penetration of wind, photovoltaic (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) energy on the electric power system, the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) is one of the largest regional wind and solar integration studies to date. The goal is to understand the effects of variability and uncertainty of wind, PV, and CSP on the grid. In the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 1, solar penetration was limited to 5%. Utility-scale PV was not included because of limited capability to model sub-hourly, utility-scale PV output . New techniques allow the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 to include high penetrations of solar - not only CSP and rooftop PV but also utility-scale PV plants.

  20. Western Gulf of Mexico lease sale draws weak response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that puny participation in the federal lease sale for the western Gulf of Mexico reflected a lack of open acreage on attractive prospects and the crisis sweeping the U.S. offshore oil and gas industry. Thirty-eight companies participating in the Minerals Management Service's Outer Continental Shelf Sale 141 offered 81 bids for 61 tracts in the western gulf planning area. That was the fewest bids offered in a western gulf sale since operators offered 52 bids for 41 tracts at Sale 105 in August 1986. The only Gulf of Mexico minerals sale to attract less bonus money was the MMS sulfur and salt sale in the central gulf in February 1988 in which $20.8 million was exposed.

  1. The science case for 37Ar as a monitor for underground nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, Derek A.; Orrell, John L.; Bowyer, Ted W.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Hayes, James C.

    2010-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A new calculation of the production of 37Ar from nuclear explosion neutron interactions on 40Ca in a suite of common sub-surface materials (rock, etc) is presented. Even in mineral structures that are relatively low in Ca, the resulting 37Ar signature is large enough for detection in cases of venting or gaseous diffusion driven by barometric pumping. Field and laboratory detection strategies and projected sensitivities are presented.

  2. Le magn)sme ar)ficiel pour les gaz d'atomes froids Jean Dalibard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalibard, Jean

    Le magné)sme ar)ficiel pour les gaz d'atomes froids Jean Dalibard Année 2013-14 Chaire Atomes et rayonnement Magné8sme ar8ficiel et interac8ons : condensats en rota8on #12;Magné8sme dans une assemblée de par8cule en interac8on

  3. XPS on corrosion products of ZnCr coated steel: on the reliability of Ar+ ion depth profiling for multi component material analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinberger, Roland; Arndt, Martin; Stifter, David

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy combined with Ar+ ion etching is a powerful concept to identify different chemical states of compounds in depth profiles, important for obtaining information underneath surfaces or at layer interfaces. The possibility of occurring sputter damage is known but insufficiently investigated for corrosion products of Zn-based steel coatings like ZnCr. Hence, in this work reference materials are studied according to stability against ion sputtering. Indeed some investigated compounds reveal a very unstable chemical nature. On the basis of these findings the reliability of depth profiles of real samples can be rated to avoid misinterpretations of observed chemical species.

  4. Western Gas Sands Project: stratigrapy of the Piceance Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, S. (comp.)

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Western Gas Sands Project Core Program was initiated by US DOE to investigate various low permeability, gas bearing sandstones. Research to gain a better geological understanding of these sandstones and improve evaluation and stimulation techniques is being conducted. Tight gas sands are located in several mid-continent and western basins. This report deals with the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado. This discussion is an attempt to provide a general overview of the Piceance Basin stratigraphy and to be a useful reference of stratigraphic units and accompanying descriptions.

  5. EA-98-F, Western Systems Power Pool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of98-F, Western Systems Power Pool EA-98-F, Western Systems Power

  6. EA-98-H Western Systems Power Pool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of98-F, Western Systems Power Pool EA-98-F, Western Systems98-H

  7. EA-98-I Western Systems Power Pool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of98-F, Western Systems Power Pool EA-98-F, Western Systems98-H98-I

  8. EA-98-J Western Systems Power Pool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of98-F, Western Systems Power Pool EA-98-F, Western

  9. Physical Impacts of Climate Change on the Western US Electricity System: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughlin, Katie; Goldman, Charles

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an exploratory study of the possible physical impacts of climate change on the electric power system, and how these impacts could be incorporated into resource planning in the Western United States. While many aspects of climate change and energy have been discussed in the literature, there has not yet been a systematic review of the relationship between specific physical effects and the quantitative analyses that are commonly used in planning studies. The core of the problem is to understand how the electric system is vulnerable to physical weather risk, and how to make use of information from climate models to characterize the way these risks may evolve over time, including a treatment of uncertainty. In this paper, to provide the necessary technical background in climate science, we present an overview of the basic physics of climate and explain some of the methodologies used in climate modeling studies, particularly the importance of emissions scenarios. We also provide a brief survey of recent climate-related studies relevant to electric system planning in the Western US. To define the institutional context, we discuss the core elements of the resource and reliability planning processes used currently by utilities and by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council. To illustrate more precisely how climate-related risk could be incorporated into modeling exercises, we discuss three idealized examples. Overall, we argue that existing methods of analysis can and should be extended to encompass the uncertainties related to future climate. While the focus here is on risk related to physical impacts, the same principles apply to a consideration of how future climate change policy decisions might impact the design and functioning of the electric grid. We conclude with some suggestions and recommendations on how to begin developing this approach within the existing electric system planning framework for the West.

  10. Effects of Climate Variability and Change on Mountain Water Resources in the Western U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, Lai R.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The western U.S. derives its water resources predominantly from cold season precipitation and storage in snowpack along the narrow Cascades and Sierra ranges, and the Rocky Mountains. Hydroclimate is modulated by the diverse orographic features across the region. Precipitation, runoff, and water demand generally peaks during winter, spring, and summer respectively. Such phase differences between water supply and demand create a necessity for water management, which is reflected by major development in irrigation, hydropower production, and flood control during the past 50 years. Because water resources have been essential to the economic development and environmental well being of the western states, it is worrisome that recent studies suggest that global warming may exert significant impacts on snowpack and streamflow, which may seriously affect water resources in the western U.S. in the 21st century (e.g., Leung and Wigmosta 1999; Leung and Ghan 1999; Mile et al. 2000; Leung et al. 2002a; Miller et al. 2002). To understand how climate change may affect mountain water resources, we have taken the approach of ?end-to-end? assessment where simulations of current and future climate produced by global climate models (GCMs) are downscaled using regional climate models (RCMs), which then provide atmospheric conditions for assessing water impacts using hydrologic models (e.g., Leung and Wigmosta 1999; Miller et al. 2000; Wood et al. 2002) and water management models (e.g., Hamlet and Lettenmaier 1999; Payne et al. 2002). This suite of models guides us through a comprehensive and global view of the effects of greenhouse warming on the atmosphere-ocean-land system to regional climate change, hydrologic response in river basins and watersheds, and reservoir management. The latter converts hydrologic response to impacts on water management objectives and enables the evaluation of adaptation strategies through modifications to existing reservoir operating rules.

  11. ar ion induced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reveals ATP-induced reduction in conformational of conformational states. Using ion mobility mass spectrometry we compared the conformational dynamics of the intact at different...

  12. ar gas filled: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    position and dimensions of flaws that produce AE. Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD), ultrasonic examination is also commonly used for flaw sizing. 1.5 The values stated...

  13. Inertial Fusion in NNSA N AT I O N AL N U C L E AR S E C U R I T Y AD M I N I S T R AT I O N OFFICE OF DEFENSE PROGRAMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Inertial Fusion in NNSA N AT I O N AL N U C L E AR S E C U R I T Y AD M I N I S T R AT I O N, 2012 #12;2 ICF Program is critically important element of NNSA's Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP to the Editor from Tom D'Agostino (NNSA Administrator) & Parney Albright (LLNL Director) stated NIF's primary

  14. Western Canada Art Circuit Collection / June Binkert (collector)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handy, Todd C.

    Western Canada Art Circuit Collection / June Binkert (collector) Compiled by Erwin Wodarczak (1997 Description o Title / Dates of Creation / Physical Description o Collector's Biographical Sketch o Custodial collection / June Binkert (collector). -- 1950, 1957-1970. 62.5 cm of textual records. Collector

  15. FINAL REPORT ON PRICE MANIPULATION IN WESTERN MARKETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    FINAL REPORT ON PRICE MANIPULATION IN WESTERN MARKETS FACT-FINDING INVESTIGATION OF POTENTIAL............................................................................................................ ES-1 I. Manipulations in the California Natural Gas Spot Markets Forced Upward Pressure on Wholesale Market Natural Gas Prices at California Borders Were Extraordinarily High ............ I-2 Supply

  16. The UNIVERSITY of WESTERN ONTARIO POLICIES and PROCEDURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinnamon, Gordon J.

    chemical users in their respective areas have attended a "Hazardous Waste Management SeminarThe UNIVERSITY of WESTERN ONTARIO POLICIES and PROCEDURES 1.31 HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL WASTE POLICY Classification: General Effective Date: 09MAY02 Supersedes: (NEW) PURPOSE 1.00 The purpose of the Hazardous

  17. TheUNIVERSITY of WESTERN ONTARIO POLICIESand PROCEDURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinnamon, Gordon J.

    TheUNIVERSITY of WESTERN ONTARIO POLICIESand PROCEDURES 7.9 GUIDELINES FOR COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH have derived in good measure from the efforts of individual scholars within the established scholarly a clear set of guidelines. The purpose of this document is to set out the policy and procedure

  18. Western Canadian coking coals -- Thermal rheology and coking quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leeder, W.R. [Teck Corp. (Canada); Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F. [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of predicting coke strength developed from the thermal rheological properties of Carboniferous coals frequently indicate that Cretaceous coals would not make high quality coke -- yet both types of coals produce coke suitable for the iron blast furnace. This paper will discuss the reasons why Western Canadian coals exhibit lower rheological values and how to predict the strength of coke produced from them.

  19. Remote Sensing of Western-Caribbean Coral Communities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Remote Sensing of Western-Caribbean Coral Communities Introduction: Despite the fact that coral. Remote sensing has been suggested as a potential tool for monitoring the spatial extent, health the Spectral Reflectance of Corals In-Situ. GIScience and Remote Sensing. Maeder, J., Narumalani, S., Rundquist

  20. DNA Computing: A Research University of Western Ontario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kari, Lila

    31 DNA Computing: A Research Snapshot Lila Kari University of Western Ontario Kalpana Mahalingam ........................................... 31-6 31.5 DNA Memory ................................................... 31-8 Nested Primer Molecular Memory · Organic DNA Memory · Design of DNA Sequences 31.6 Computation in Living Cells

  1. The UNIVERSITY of WESTERN ONTARIO POLICIES and PROCEDURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lennard, William N.

    of Western Ontario is committed to the efficient and effective management of its records and the preservation with the following mandate: (a) to provide comprehensive records management services to the Board of Governors Archives are: (a) to assist with and promote the efficient and effective management of all records created

  2. Report to the Western Water Policy Review Advisory Commission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selker, John

    Watershed Management Plan USGS U.S. Geological Survey Watershed Committee Rio Puerco Watershed Committee WRCReport to the Western Water Policy Review Advisory Commission Resource Management at the Watershed Management Douglas S. Kenney Natural Resources Law Center University of Colorado School of Law Boulder

  3. Design & Engineering Services AIRMAX HYBRID ROOFTOP UNIT PERFORMANCE: WESTERN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Design & Engineering Services AIRMAX HYBRID ROOFTOP UNIT PERFORMANCE: WESTERN COOLING CHALLENGE. and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted the physical laboratory tests at their facility for their contribution of the Air20 Quattro HCRS2500 hybrid rooftop unit used for evaluation, and is grateful to the US

  4. The UNIVERSITY of WESTERN ONTARIO Subcommittee on Teaching Awards (SUTA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lennard, William N.

    The UNIVERSITY of WESTERN ONTARIO SENATE Subcommittee on Teaching Awards (SUTA) Terms of Reference: To consider annually nominations for awards for teaching excellence submitted according to procedures, to select recipients for the awards. To recommend to SCAPA changes in the policies, procedures and criteria

  5. Testing of Western Kentucky No. 11 coal in an atmospheric fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the second of a series of four coal reports, and describes the results of testing of a Western Kentucky No. 11 coal (1/4 in. x 0, 3.8% sulfur, 33% ash, 83/50 Btu/lb.) in a 2 ft. 8 in. x 2 ft. 5 in., 0.75-MW AFBC. All four coal tests were conducted using Oregon dolomite from central Kentucky (1/8 in. x 0, 62% CaCO/sub 3/, 31% MgCO/sub 3/) as the sulfur sorbent. Results obtained from eight steady-state test runs at three different loads at a constant superficial velocity of 5 ft./s are presented. Operating problems encountered are described, and include problems with large variations in coal ash and Btu contents, cyclone downleg blockage, moisture in feed material, and fouling of heat-transfer surfaces caused by high carryover rates. On the basis of numbers, it was concluded that an economic re-evaluation of low-superficial-velocity fluidized beds is warranted, and that it is feasible to burn Western Kentucky No. 11 coal efficiently in an AFBC provided that the boiler control system is designed to handle large variations in coal ash and Btu contents.

  6. Operation of Concentrating Solar Power Plants in the Western Wind and Solar Integration Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.; Hummon, M.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) explores various aspects of the challenges and impacts of integrating large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West. The phase 2 study (WWSIS-2) is one of the first to include dispatchable concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) in multiple scenarios of renewable penetration and mix. As a result, it provides unique insights into CSP plant operation, grid benefits, and how CSP operation and configuration may need to change under scenarios of increased renewable penetration. Examination of the WWSIS-2 results indicates that in all scenarios, CSP plants with TES provides firm system capacity, reducing the net demand and the need for conventional thermal capacity. The plants also reduced demand during periods of short-duration, high ramping requirements that often require use of lower efficiency peaking units. Changes in CSP operation are driven largely by the presence of other solar generation, particularly PV. Use of storage by the CSP plants increases in the higher solar scenarios, with operation of the plant often shifted to later in the day. CSP operation also becomes more variable, including more frequent starts. Finally, CSP output is often very low during the day in scenarios with significant PV, which helps decrease overall renewable curtailment (over-generation). However, the configuration studied is likely not optimal for High Solar Scenario implying further analysis of CSP plant configuration is needed to understand its role in enabling high renewable scenarios in the Western United States.

  7. Climate Change Impacts on Residential and Commercial Loads in the Western U.S. Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Taylor, Zachary T.; Jiang, Wei; Xie, YuLong; Leung, Lai R.; Correia, James; Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Paget, Maria L.

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a multi-disciplinary modeling approach to quickly quantify climate change impacts on energy consumption, peak load, and load composition of residential and commercial buildings. This research focuses on addressing the impact of temperature changes on the building cooling load in 10 major cities across the Western United States and Canada. Our results have shown that by the mid-century, building yearly energy consumption and peak load will increase in the Southwest. Moreover, the peak load months will spread out to not only the summer months but also spring and autumn months. The Pacific Northwest will experience more hot days in the summer months. The penetration of the air conditioning (a/c) system in this area is likely to increase significantly over the years. As a result, some locations in the Pacific Northwest may be shifted from winter peaking to summer peaking. Overall, the Western U.S. grid may see more simultaneous peaks across the North and South in summer months. Increased cooling load will result in a significant increase in the motor load, which consumes more reactive power and requires stronger voltage support from the grid. This study suggests an increasing need for the industry to implement new technology to increase the efficiency of temperature-sensitive loads and apply proper protection and control to prevent possible adverse impacts of a/c motor loads.

  8. Western Pond Turtle Head-starting and Reintroduction; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Leuven, Susan; Allen, Harriet; Slavin, Kate (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Wildlife Management Program, Olympia, WA)

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers the results of the western pond turtle head-starting and reintroduction project for the period of October 2003-September 2004. Wild hatchling western pond turtles from the Columbia River Gorge were reared at the Woodland Park and Oregon Zoos in 2003 and 2004 as part of the recovery effort for this Washington State endangered species. The objective of the program is to reduce losses to introduced predators like bullfrogs and largemouth bass by raising the hatchlings to a size where they are too large to be eaten by most of these predators. Sixty-nine turtles were over-wintered at the Woodland Park Zoo and 69 at the Oregon Zoo. Of these, 136 head-started juvenile turtles were released at three sites in the Columbia Gorge in 2004. Two were held back to attain more growth in captivity. Thirty-four were released at the Klickitat ponds, 19 at the Klickitat lake, 21 at the Skamania site, and 62 at Pierce National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). This brought the total number of head-start turtles released since 1991 to 246 for the Klickitat ponds, 114 for the Klickitat lake, 167 for the Skamania pond complex, and 250 at Pierce NWR. In 2004, 32 females from the two Columbia Gorge populations were equipped with transmitters and monitored for nesting activity. Twenty-one of the females nested and produced 85 hatchlings. The hatchlings were collected in September and October and transported to the Woodland Park and Oregon zoos for rearing in the head-start program. Data collection for a four-year telemetry study of survival and habitat use by juvenile western pond turtles at Pierce NWR concluded in 2004. Radio transmitters on study animals were replaced as needed until all replacements were in service; afterward, the turtles were monitored until their transmitters failed. The corps of study turtles ranged from 39 in August 2003 to 2 turtles at the end of August 2004. These turtles showed the same seasonal pattern of movements between summer water and upland winter habitats observed in previous years. During the 2004 field season trapping effort, 345 western pond turtles were captured in the Columbia Gorge, including 297 previously head-started turtles. These recaptures, together with confirmed nesting by head-start females and visual resightings, indicate the program is succeeding in boosting juvenile recruitment to increase the populations. Records were also collected on 224 individual painted turtles captured in 2004 during trapping efforts at Pierce NWR, to gather baseline information on this native population. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded approximately 60% of program activities in the Columbia River Gorge from October 2003 through September 2004.

  9. Western Coal/Great Lakes Alternative export-coal conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This conference dealt with using the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway as an alternative to the East and Gulf Coasts for the exporting of coal to Europe and the potential for a piece of the European market for the subbituminous coals of Montana and Wyoming. The topics discussed included: government policies on coal exports; the coal reserves of Montana; cost of rail transport from Western mines to Lake Superior; the planning, design, and operation of the Superior Midwest Energy Terminal at Superior, Wisconsin; direct transfer of coal from self-unloading lakers to large ocean vessels; concept of total transportation from mines to users; disadvantage of a nine month season on the Great Lakes; costs of maritime transport of coal through the Great Lakes to Europe; facilities at the ice-free, deep water port at Sept Iles; the use of Western coals from an environmental and economic viewpoint; the properties of Western coal and factors affecting its use; the feasibility of a slurry pipeline from the Powder River Basin to Lake Superior; a systems analysis of the complete hydraulic transport of coal from the mine to users in Europe; the performance of the COJA mill-burner for the combustion of superfine coal; demand for steam coal in Western Europe; and the effect the New Source Performance Standards will have on the production and use of Western coal. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 19 papers for the Energy Data Base (EDB); 17 will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and 11 in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (CKK)

  10. A key extensional metamorphic complex reviewed and restored: The Menderes Massif of western Turkey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    A key extensional metamorphic complex reviewed and restored: The Menderes Massif of western Turkey of the Menderes Massif in western Turkey, and subsequently a map-view restoration of its Neogene unroofing history

  11. Sandia Energy - Energy and Water in the Western and Texas Interconnect...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy and Water in the Western and Texas Interconnects Home Climate & Earth Systems WaterEnergy Nexus Decision Models for Integrating EnergyWater Energy and Water in the Western...

  12. New age constraints on the Middle Stone Age occupations of Kharga Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asmerom, Yemane

    New age constraints on the Middle Stone Age occupations of Kharga Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt rocks, or tufas, exposed along the flanks of the Libyan Plateau near Kharga Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

  13. Nepal: Western Views of the Maoist Insurgency and the Royal Takeover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burleigh, Peter

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Governance Presentation No. 2 Nepal: Western Views of theworkingpapers/index.html NEPAL: Western Views of the Maoistof the Maoist revolt in Nepal in 1996, there have been a

  14. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western Utility Resource Plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for renewable energy, and its risk of permanent expiration,Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in WesternCost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western

  15. Phase-resolved HST/STIS spectroscopy of the exposed white dwarf in the high-field polar AR UMa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. T. Gaensicke; G. D. Schmidt; S. Jordan; P. Szkody

    2001-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase-resolved HST/STIS ultraviolet spectroscopy of the high-field polar AR UMa confirms that the WD photospheric Ly alpha Zeeman features are formed in a magnetic field of ~200 MG. In addition to the Ly alpha pi and sigma+ components, we detect the forbidden hydrogen 1s0->2s0 transition, which becomes ``enabled'' in the presence of both strong magnetic and electric fields. Our attempt in fitting the overall optical+UV low state spectrum with single temperature magnetic WD models remains rather unsatisfactory, indicating either a shortcoming in the present models or a new physical process acting in AR UMa. As a result, our estimate of the WD temperature remains somewhat uncertain, Twd=20000+-5000K. We detect a broad emission bump centered at ~1445A and present throughout the entire binary orbit, and a second bump near ~1650A, which appears only near the inferior conjunction of the secondary star. These are suggestive of low harmonic cyclotron emission produced by low-level (M-dot~1e-13 Msun/yr) accretion onto both magnetic poles. However, there is no evidence in the power spectrum of light variations for accretion in gas blobs. The observed Ly alpha emission line shows a strong phase dependence with maximum flux and redshift near orbital phase phi~0.3, strongly indicating an origin on the trailing hemisphere of the secondary star. An additional Ly alpha absorption feature with similar phasing as the Ly alpha emission, but a \\~700km/s blueshift could tentatively be ascribed to absorption of WD emission in a moderately fast wind. We derive a column density of neutral hydrogen of NH=(1.1+-1.0)1e18 cm**-2, the lowest of any known polar.

  16. Proceedings of the 2011 AAEE Conference, Fremantle, Western Australia, Copyright Authors' names, 2011 Faculty Use of Research Based Instructional Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Charles

    Proceedings of the 2011 AAEE Conference, Fremantle, Western Australia, Copyright © Authors' names Conference, Fremantle, Western Australia, Copyright © Authors' names, 2011 Table 1: Research Based Henderson Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, USA charles.henderson@wmich.edu Abstract: Over the last 20

  17. Satellite-derived estimates of forest leaf area index in southwest Western Australia are not tightly coupled to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montana, University of

    Satellite-derived estimates of forest leaf area index in southwest Western Australia Engineering, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia, Department of Forest Ecosystems and Environment, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia, §Numerical Terradynamics

  18. Tolerance of combined salinity and O2 deficiency in Hordeum marinum accessions from the grain-belt of Western Australia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malik1,2,3, AI; English1,2, JP; Shepherd1,4, KA; Islam2,5, AKMR; Colmer1,2, TD

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from the grain-belt of Western Australia for tolerance toin the accessions from Western Australia, as well as K +from the grain-belt of Western Australia. Single heads were

  19. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Executive Summary, (WWSIS) May 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Piwko; K. Clark; L. Freeman; G. Jordan; N. Miller

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a summary of background, approach, and findings of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS).

  20. Review: Who’s asking? Native Science, Western Science and Science Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrara, Enzo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Review: Who’s asking? Native Science,Western Scienceand Science Education By Douglas L. Medin and Megan Bang

  1. Western Kentucky University Research Foundation Biodiesel Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wei-Ping [Principal Investigator] [Principal Investigator; Cao, Yan [Co-Principal Investigator] [Co-Principal Investigator

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Petroleum-based liquid hydrocarbons is exclusively major energy source in the transportation sector. Thus, it is the major CO{sub 2} source which is the associated with greenhouse effect. In the United States alone, petroleum consumption in the transportation sector approaches 13.8 million barrels per day (Mbbl/d). It is corresponding to a release of 0.53 gigatons of carbon per year (GtC/yr), which accounts for approximate 7.6 % of the current global release of CO{sub 2} from all of the fossil fuel usage (7 GtC/yr). For the long term, the conventional petroleum production is predicted to peak in as little as the next 10 years to as high as the next 50 years. Negative environmental consequences, the frequently roaring petroleum prices, increasing petroleum utilization and concerns about competitive supplies of petroleum have driven dramatic interest in producing alternative transportation fuels, such as electricity-based, hydrogen-based and bio-based transportation alternative fuels. Use of either of electricity-based or hydrogen-based alternative energy in the transportation sector is currently laden with technical and economical challenges. The current energy density of commercial batteries is 175 Wh/kg of battery. At a storage pressure of 680 atm, the lower heating value (LHV) of H{sub 2} is 1.32 kWh/liter. In contrast, the corresponding energy density for gasoline can reach as high as 8.88 kWh/liter. Furthermore, the convenience of using a liquid hydrocarbon fuel through the existing infrastructures is a big deterrent to replacement by both batteries and hydrogen. Biomass-derived ethanol and bio-diesel (biofuels) can be two promising and predominant U.S. alternative transportation fuels. Both their energy densities and physical properties are comparable to their relatives of petroleum-based gasoline and diesel, however, biofuels are significantly environmental-benign. Ethanol can be made from the sugar-based or starch-based biomass materials, which is easily fermented to create ethanol. In the United States almost all starch ethanol is mainly manufactured from corn grains. The technology for manufacturing corn ethanol can be considered mature as of the late 1980s. In 2005, 14.3 % of the U.S. corn harvest was processed to produce 1.48 x10{sup 10} liters of ethanol, energetically equivalent to 1.72 % of U.S. gasoline usage. Soybean oil is extracted from 1.5 % of the U.S. soybean harvest to produce 2.56 x 10{sup 8} liters of bio-diesel, which was 0.09 % of U.S. diesel usage. However, reaching maximum rates of bio-fuel supply from corn and soybeans is unlikely because these crops are presently major contributors to human food supplies through livestock feed and direct consumption. Moreover, there currently arguments on that the conversion of many types of many natural landscapes to grow corn for feedstock is likely to create substantial carbon emissions that will exacerbate globe warming. On the other hand, there is a large underutilized resource of cellulose biomass from trees, grasses, and nonedible parts of crops that could serve as a feedstock. One of the potentially significant new bio-fuels is so called "cellulosic ethanol", which is dependent on break-down by microbes or enzymes. Because of technological limitations (the wider variety of molecular structures in cellulose and hemicellulose requires a wider variety of microorganisms to break them down) and other cost hurdles (such as lower kinetics), cellulosic ethanol can currently remain in lab scales. Considering farm yields, commodity and fuel prices, farm energy and agrichemical inputs, production plant efficiencies, byproduct production, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and other environmental effects, a life-cycle evaluation of competitive indicated that corn ethanol yields 25 % more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas soybean bio-diesel yields 93 % more. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12 % by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41 % by bio-diesel. Bio-diesel also releases less ai

  2. Calibration of an ultra-low-background proportional counter for measuring {sup 37}Ar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seifert, A.; Aalseth, C. E.; Bonicalzi, R. M.; Bowyer, T. W.; Day, A. R.; Fuller, E. S.; Haas, D. A.; Hayes, J. C.; Hoppe, E. W.; Humble, P. H.; Keillor, M. E.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Mace, E. K.; McIntyre, J. I.; Merriman, J. H.; Miley, H. S.; Myers, A. W.; Orrell, J. L.; Overman, C. T.; Panisko, M. E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); and others

    2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultra-low-background proportional counter design has been developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using clean materials, primarily electro-chemically-purified copper. This detector, along with an ultra-low-background counting system (ULBCS), was developed to complement a new shallow underground laboratory (30 meters water-equivalent) at PNNL. The ULBCS design includes passive neutron and gamma shielding, along with an active cosmic-veto system. This system provides a capability for making ultra-sensitive measurements to support applications like age-dating soil hydrocarbons with {sup 14}C/{sup 3}H, age-dating of groundwater with {sup 39}Ar, and soil-gas assay for {sup 37}Ar to support On-Site Inspection (OSI). On-Site Inspection is a key component of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Measurements of radionuclides created by an underground nuclear explosion are valuable signatures of a Treaty violation. For OSI, the 35-day half-life of {sup 37}Ar, produced from neutron interactions with calcium in soil, provides both high specific activity and sufficient time for inspection before decay limits sensitivity. This work describes the calibration techniques and analysis methods developed to enable quantitative measurements of {sup 37}Ar samples over a broad range of proportional counter operating pressures. These efforts, along with parallel work in progress on gas chemistry separation, are expected to provide a significant new capability for {sup 37}Ar soil gas background studies.

  3. Abstract--The western butterfish (Pentapodus vitta) is numerous in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    trawling and recre- ational fishing in Shark Bay, Western Australia. We have thus determined crucial Australia 39 Northside Drive Hillarys (Boat Harbour), Western Australia 6025, Australia S. Alex Hesp Norman Sciences and Biotechnology Murdoch University South Street Murdoch, Western Australia 6150, Australia Email

  4. PROPERTIES OF RESIDUALS FOR SPATIAL POINT PROCESSES A. BADDELEY, # University of Western Australia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baddeley, Adrian

    PROPERTIES OF RESIDUALS FOR SPATIAL POINT PROCESSES A. BADDELEY, # University of Western Australia J. MØLLER, ## University of Aalborg A.G. PAKES, # University of Western Australia Abstract For any address: School of Mathematics & Statistics M019, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway

  5. Shallow intraplate earthquakes in Western Australia observed by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tregoning, Paul

    Shallow intraplate earthquakes in Western Australia observed by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture earthquakes in a stable continental region of southwest Western Australia. Both small-magnitude events occur with tectonic processes in this area of Western Australia often initiate in the upper 1 km of crust. Citation

  6. Climate-change induced tropicalisation of marine communities in Western Australia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pauly, Daniel

    Climate-change induced tropicalisation of marine communities in Western Australia William W. L, The University of British Columbia, BC, Canada, V6T 1Z4. B Ocean Institute, The University of Western Australia and School of Animal Biology, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009

  7. Multiple herbicide-resistant Lolium rigidum (annual ryegrass) now dominates across the Western

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobar, Michael

    of Plant Biology, Institute of Agriculture, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, Australia in this region. In 2010, a random survey was conducted across the grain belt of Western Australia to determine of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia. Tel: (+61) 8 6488 1512; Fax: (+61) 8 6488

  8. Seven new species of the Botryosphaeriaceae from baobab and other native trees in Western Australia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seven new species of the Botryosphaeriaceae from baobab and other native trees in Western Australia region of north- western Australia. Members of the Botryosphaeria- ceae were predominantly endophytes endemic to Australia and is restricted to the north- western part of the country (Crisp et al 2004

  9. Correlation of seismotectonic variables and GPS strain measurements in western Turkey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Thomas H.

    Correlation of seismotectonic variables and GPS strain measurements in western Turkey Ali Osman O Mediterranean and western Turkey area. This analysis was conducted in three tectonic subdivisions corresponding measurements in western Turkey, J. Geophys. Res., 109, B11306, doi:10.1029/2004JB003101. 1. Introduction [2

  10. Variation of the Thermohaline Structure in the Western Equatorial Pacific Upper Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luther, Douglas S.

    Variation of the Thermohaline Structure in the Western Equatorial Pacific Upper Ocean;Abstract Processes which control the upper ocean thermohaline structure in the western equa- torial Pacific forcing data have indicated that the thick isothermal layer in the western equatorial Pacific is found

  11. Ecology and Management of the Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Corn and Dry Beans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Ecology and Management of the Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Corn and Dry Beans Lansing MI 48824. J. Integ. Pest Mngmt. 1(1): 2010; DOI: 10.1603/IPM10003 ABSTRACT. The western bean mainly on corn and dry beans. The historical geographic range of the western bean cutworm covered

  12. Kinematics and Sedimentary Balance of the Sub-Himalayan Zone, Western Nepal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Husson, Laurent

    Kinematics and Sedimentary Balance of the Sub-Himalayan Zone, Western Nepal Laurent Husson1 behavior of the prism, extrapolation of the sediment transfer to the entire western Nepal Siwalik is valid balance of the Sub-Himalayan Zone, western Nepal, in K. R. McClay, ed., Thrust tectonics and hydrocarbon

  13. Western Gas Sands Project. Status report, 1 March-31 March 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The March, 1980 progress of the government-sponsored projects directed towards increasing gas production from the low permeability gas sands of the western United States is summarized in this report. A site for the multi-well experiment was approved by the industry review committee; drilling is expected by mid-summer. Bartlesville Energy Technology Center continued work on fracture conductivity, rock/fluid interaction, and log evaluation and interpretation techniques. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory continued experimental and theoretical work on hydraulic fracturing mechanics and analysis of well test data. Analysis of data obtained from a test of the borehole seismic unit by Sandia Laboratories continued. The DOE Well Test Facility continued bottom-hole pressure buildup measurements at the Colorado Interstate Gas Company Miller No. 1 well.

  14. Analysis of Potential Energy Corridors Proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuiper, James A.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hlava, Kevin J.; Moore, H Robert; Orr, Andrew B.; Zvolanek, Emily A.

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This report, Analysis of Potential Energy Corridors Proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). The intent of WECC’s work was to identify planning-level energy corridors that the Department of Energy (DOE) and its affiliates could study in greater detail. Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the WECC Proposed Energy Corridors in five topic areas for use in reviewing and revising existing corridors, as well as designating additional energy corridors in the 11 western states. In compliance with Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), the Secretaries of Energy, Agriculture, and the Interior (Secretaries) published a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement in 2008 to address the proposed designation of energy transport corridors on federal lands in the 11 western states. Subsequently, Records of Decision designating the corridors were issued in 2009 by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the U.S. Forest Service (USFS). The 2012 settlement of a lawsuit, brought by The Wilderness Society and others against the United States, which identified environmental concerns for many of the corridors requires, among other things, periodic reviews of the corridors to assess the need for revisions, deletions, or additions. A 2013 Presidential Memorandum requires the Secretaries to undertake a continuing effort to identify and designate energy corridors. The WECC Proposed Energy Corridors and their analyses in this report provide key information for reviewing and revising existing corridors, as well as designating additional energy corridors in the 11 western states. Load centers and generation hubs identified in the WECC analysis, particularly as they reflect renewable energy development, would be useful in reviewing and potentially updating the designated Section 368 corridor network. Argonne used Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to analyze the proposed energy corridors in the WECC report in five topic areas: ? Federal land jurisdiction, ? Existing Section 368 corridors, ? Existing transmission lines, ? Previously studied corridor locations, and ? Protected areas. Analysis methods are explained and tables and maps are provided to describe the results of the analyses in all five topic areas. WECC used a rational approach to connecting the hubs it identified, although there may be opportunities for adapting some of the proposed WECC routes to previously designated Section 368 corridors, for example: ? The WECC proposed energy corridors are in fact centerlines of proposed routes connecting hubs of various descriptions related to electric energy transmission. Although the centerlines were sited to avoid sensitive areas, infrastructure proposed within actual pathways or corridors defined by the centerlines would sometimes affect lands where such development would not normally be allowed, such as National Parks and Monuments, National Wildlife Refuges, and Wilderness Areas. ? Many WECC proposed energy corridors are sited along centerlines of existing roads, including Interstate Highways, where in some cases additional width to accommodate energy transmission infrastructure may not be available. Examples include the WECC Proposed Corridor along Interstate 70 through Glenwood Canyon in Colorado, and along U.S. Highway 89 across Glen Canyon Dam in Arizona. ? Several WECC proposed energy corridors are parallel to designated Section 368 corridors that have already cleared the preliminary steps to right-of-way approval. In many of these cases, the WECC hub connection objectives can be met more efficiently by routing on the designated Section 368 corridors.

  15. Western gas sands project. Status report, 1 April-30 April, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The progress of the government-sponsored projects directed towards increasing gas production from the low permeability gas sands of the western United States is summarized. Planning activities continued for the multi-well experiment. Bartlesville Energy Technology Center continued formation evaluation studies for the WGSP. Theoretical analyses continued at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for fracture growth across frictional interfaces and fluid flow in a fracture. Studies have begun at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on NMR signals coming from fluids in porous media. Analyses continued of information gathered from Sandia's fracture experiment in Grayson County, Texas. Tests using the DOE Well Test Facility were completed for the Colorado Interstate Gas Company cyclic dry gas injection experiment. At the NTS, Sandia is conducting minifractures.

  16. Western Gas Sands Project. Status report, 1 May-31 May, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the progress of the government-sponsored project directed towards increasing gas production from the low permeability gas sands of the western United States. The planning activities for the multi-well experiment continued in May. Bartlesville Energy Technology Center continued formation evaluation and reservoir simulation studies. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory continued calculations of fracturing near interfaces. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory focused work on the permanent magnet system for NMR logging. Results of the 3-D Seismic Reflection Survey were presented by Sandia Laboratories. Production and injection experiments continued for the Colorado Interstate Gas Company Miller No. 1 and Sprague No. 1 wells. The DOE Well Test Facility was transported to Las Vegas for repairs and modifications. In situ testing continued at the Nevada Test Site for the Sandia Mineback program.

  17. Energy Efficiency in Western Utility Resource Plans: Impacts onRegional Resources Assessment and Support for WGA Policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopper, Nicole; Goldman, Charles; Schlegal, Jeff

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the aftermath of the consumer price shocks and short-term power shortages of the 2000-01 electricity crisis, policymakers and regulators in Western states are placing increased emphasis on integrated resource planning (IRP), resource adequacy and assessment and a diversified portfolio of resources to meet the needs of electricity consumers. In some states, this has led to a resurgence in state and utility commitments to energy efficiency. Increasing interest in acquiring energy efficiency as a power-system resource is also driven by the desire to dampen high growth rates in electricity demand in some Western states, rapid increases in natural gas prices, concerns about the environmental impacts of electricity generation (e.g. water consumption by power plants, air quality), and the potential of energy efficiency to provide utility bill savings for households and businesses (WGA CDEAC 2006). Recognizing the cost-competitiveness and environmental benefits of energy efficiency, the Western Governor's Association (WGA) has set a high priority for energy efficiency, establishing a goal of reducing projected electricity demand by 20% across the West by 2020 in a policy resolution on Clean and Diversified Energy for the West (WGA 2004). Nationally, the need for improved tracking of demand-side resources in load forecasting is formalized in the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC)'s recently adopted reliability standards, which utilities and regional reliability organizations will need to comply with (NERC 2005a and 2005b). In this study, we examine the treatment of energy efficiency in recent resource plans issued by fourteen investor-owned utilities (IOUs) in the Western United States and Canada. The goals of this study are to: (1) summarize energy-efficiency resources as represented in a large sample of recent resource plans prepared by Western utilities and identify key issues; (2) evaluate the extent to which the information provided in current resource plans can be used to support region-wide resource assessment and tracking of state/utility progress in meeting the WGA's energy-efficiency goals (WGA 2004); and (3) offer recommendations on information and documentation of energy-efficiency resources that should be included in future resource plans to facilitate comparative review and regional coordination. The scope of this report covers projected electric end-use efficiency investments reported in all Western utility resource plans that were publicly available as of February 2006. While a few utilities included additional demand-side resources, such as demand response, in their plans, we do not report that information. However, many of the issues and recommendations in reference to energy efficiency in this report are relevant to other demand-side resources as well. This report is organized as follows. Section 2 outlines the data sources and approach used in this study and conceptualizes methods and metrics for tracking energy-efficiency resources over time. Section 3 presents results from the review of the utility resource plans. Important issues encountered in reviewing the resource plans are discussed in section 4. Finally, section 5 concludes with recommendations for improving the tracking and reporting of energy efficiency in forthcoming resource plans.

  18. Linking Education R&D Institutes and IndustryLinking Education, R&D Institutes and Industry l ifi E b l AR)(examples are more specific to Egypt , but many apply to AR)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    and Industry l ifi E b l AR)(examples are more specific to Egypt , but many apply to AR) Mohamed A. Abdou goals. The overall assessment indicates that: Egypt's current S&T system has failed to substantially impactEgypt s current S&T system has failed to substantially impact socio-economic development which

  19. Cleanup of the Western Research Institute North Site. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merriam, N.W.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to clean up the Western Research Institute`s North Site in an environmentally sound and cost-effective manner. Work is broken down into the following phases: Phase 1, definition of waste streams; Phase 2, disposal of hazardous wastes; Phase 3, disposal of nonhazardous materials; Phase 4, soil sampling and disposal of buried wastes; Phase 5, decontamination and disposal of equipment; Phase 5a, groundwater monitoring; and Phase 6, preparation of material inventory database.

  20. Zonal wind oscillations over the western hemisphere during winter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hundermark, Bruce William

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) 7-day forecast errors of the 500 mb height field over the western hemisphere. B. Literature Review Variations in the zonal wind were first studied in the extended forecasting project.... The energetics of the zonal wind have also been studied. Winston and Krueger (1961) investigated a large scale cycle of available potential energy in the Northern Hemisphere during a 2-week period during late December 1958 and early January 1959. A buildup...

  1. Great Western Malting Company geothermal project, Pocatello, Idaho. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, N.T.; McGeen, M.A.; Corlett, D.F.; Urmston, R.

    1981-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Great Western Malting Company recently constructed a barley malting facility in Pocatello, Idaho, designed to produce 6.0 million bushels per year of brewing malt. This facility uses natural gas to supply the energy for germination and kilning processes. The escalating cost of natural gas has prompted the company to look at alternate and more economical sources of energy. Trans Energy Systems has investigated the viabiity of using geothermal energy at the new barley processing plant. Preliminary investigations show that a geothermal resource probably exists, and payback on the installation of a system to utilize the resource will occur in under 2 years. The Great Western Malting plant site has geological characteristics which are similar to areas where productive geothermal wells have been established. Geological investigations indicate that resource water temperatures will be in the 150 to 200/sup 0/F range. Geothermal energy of this quality will supply 30 to 98% of the heating requirements currently supplied by natural gas for this malting plant. Trans Energy Systems has analyzed several systems of utilizing the geothermal resource at the Great Western barley malting facility. These systems included: direct use of geothermal water; geothermal energy heating process water through an intermediary heat exchanger; coal or gas boosted geothermal systems; and heat pump boosted geothermal system. The analysis examined the steps that are required to process the grain.

  2. COMMIX-1AR/P: A three-dimensional transient single-phase computer program for thermal hydraulic analysis of single and multicomponent systems. Volume 2, User`s guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garner, P.L.; Blomquist, R.N.; Gelbard, E.M.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The COMMIX-1AR/P computer program is designed for analyzing the steady-state and transient aspects of single-phase fluid flow and heat transfer in three spatial dimensions. This version is an extension of the modeling in COMMIX-1A to include multiple fluids in physically separate regions of the computational domain, modeling descriptions for pumps, radiation heat transfer between surfaces of the solids which are embedded in or surround the fluid, a k-{var_epsilon} model for fluid turbulence, and improved numerical techniques. The porous-medium formulation in COMMIX allows the program to be applied to a wide range of problems involving both simple and complex geometrical arrangements. The input preparation and execution procedures are presented for the COMMIX-1AR/P program and several postprocessor programs which produce graphical displays of the calculated results.

  3. Ion mass spectrometry investigations of the discharge during reactive high power pulsed and direct current magnetron sputtering of carbon in Ar and Ar/N{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, S.; Greczynski, G.; Jensen, J.; Hultman, L. [Thin Film Physics Div., Department of Physics (IFM), Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 (Sweden); Czigany, Zs. [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33. H-1121 Budapest (Hungary)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion mass spectrometry was used to investigate discharges formed during high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) of a graphite target in Ar and Ar/N{sub 2} ambient. Ion energy distribution functions (IEDFs) were recorded in time-averaged and time-resolved mode for Ar{sup +}, C{sup +}, N{sub 2}{sup +}, N{sup +}, and C{sub x}N{sub y}{sup +} ions. An increase of N{sub 2} in the sputter gas (keeping the deposition pressure, pulse width, pulse frequency, and pulse energy constant) results for the HiPIMS discharge in a significant increase in C{sup +}, N{sup +}, and CN{sup +} ion energies. Ar{sup +}, N{sub 2}{sup +}, and C{sub 2}N{sup +} ion energies, in turn, did not considerably vary with the changes in working gas composition. The HiPIMS process showed higher ion energies and fluxes, particularly for C{sup +} ions, compared to DCMS. The time evolution of the plasma species was analyzed for HiPIMS and revealed the sequential arrival of working gas ions, ions ejected from the target, and later during the pulse-on time molecular ions, in particular CN{sup +} and C{sub 2}N{sup +}. The formation of fullerene-like structured CN{sub x} thin films for both modes of magnetron sputtering is explained by ion mass-spectrometry results and demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy as well as diffraction.

  4. Polymorphisms of the acid sensing histidine kinase gene arsS in Helicobacter pylori populations from anatomically distinct gastric sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forsyth, Mark

    Polymorphisms of the acid sensing histidine kinase gene arsS in Helicobacter pylori populations 2012 Available online 30 August 2012 Keywords: Helicobacter pylori arsS Polymorphism Homopolymeric as environmental or host conditions change. Unusual among Helicobacter pylori phase variable or contingency genes

  5. Epitaxial TiN,,001... Grown and Analyzed In situ by XPS and UPS. II. Analysis of Ar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gall, Daniel

    Epitaxial TiN,,001... Grown and Analyzed In situ by XPS and UPS. II. Analysis of Ar¿ Sputter Etched and UPS were used to study epitaxial TiN 001 layers grown in situ which were Ar sputter etched. The films Host Material: epitaxial TiN(001) thin film sputter etched Instrument: Physical Electronics, Inc. 5400

  6. Excitation functions for the reactions of Ar^+ with CH4, CD4, and CH2D2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyatt, J. R.; Strattan, L. W.; Chivalak, S.; Hierl, Peter M.

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integral reaction cross sections as a function of initial translational energy (0.4–30 eV c.m.) are reported for isotopic variants of the exoergic ion?molecule reaction Ar++CH4 ? ArH++CH3. The excitation functions, which maximize at about 5 e...

  7. Ar dating of Apollo 12 regolith: Implications for the age of Copernicus and the source of nonmare materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    40 Ar/39 Ar dating of Apollo 12 regolith: Implications for the age of Copernicus and the source; accepted in revised form 20 September 2006 Abstract Twenty-one 2­4 mm rock samples from the Apollo 12 and source of nonmare materials at the Apollo 12 site. Among the samples analyzed are: 2 felsites, 11 KREEP

  8. Regularity in chaotic reaction paths. I. Ar6 Tamiki Komatsuzakia)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, R. Stephen

    potential energy surfaces PESs .1­5 These investigations have pro- vided us with several new insights at all energies up to a moderately high energy, above which the transition state is chaotic; b that at energies just more than sufficient to allow passage across the saddle, all or almost all the degrees

  9. Reply to the revised Comment [PRL 102, 139601; arXiv:0810.4791] on ''Dynamic Scaling of Non-Euclidean Interfaces''

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos Escudero

    2009-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the Reply to the revised Comment [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 139601; arXiv:0810.4791] by Joachim Krug on our paper: C. Escudero, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 116101 (2008); arXiv:0804.1898.

  10. All Over the Map: The Diversity of Western Water Plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casado-Pérez, Vanessa; Cain, Bruce E.; Hui, Iris; Abbott, Coral; Doson, Kaley; Lebow, Shane

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    local jurisdictions, effective water planning and managementfragmentation. State water plans are the main focus of thisStates have power over water rights (i.e. , the quantitative

  11. Failure of maximum likelihood methods for chaotic dynamical systems School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Judd, Kevin

    of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia Received 23 June 2006; revised

  12. Patrick T. McGowen, P.E., Ph.D. Research Engineer, Western Transportation Institute / Civil Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGowen, Patrick

    jointly appointed between the Western Transportation Institute (WTI) and Civil Engineering Department

  13. 916 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO, SPEECH, AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 19, NO. 4, MAY 2011 AR-GARCH in Presence of Noise: Parameter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Israel

    916 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO, SPEECH, AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 19, NO. 4, MAY 2011 AR-GARCH (VAD) based on the autoregressive-generalized autore- gressive conditional heteroscedasticity (AR-GARCH) model. The speech signal is modeled as an AR-GARCH process in the time domain, and the likelihood ratio

  14. IEEE TRANS. AUDIO, SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING, VOL. XX, NO. Y, MONTH 2010 1 AR-GARCH in Presence of Noise: Parameter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Israel

    IEEE TRANS. AUDIO, SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING, VOL. XX, NO. Y, MONTH 2010 1 AR-GARCH (VAD) based on the autoregressive-generalized autore- gressive conditional heteroscedasticity (AR-GARCH) model. The speech signal is modeled as an AR-GARCH process in the time domain, and the likelihood ratio

  15. arXiv:hep-ph/0306282v127Jun2003 Neutrino Physics: an Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of - Department of Physics, Electroweak Interaction Research Group

    arXiv:hep-ph/0306282v127Jun2003 Neutrino Physics: an Update Wick C. Haxtona and Barry R. Holsteina recent didactic survey of neutrino physics, including new results from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory;1 Introduction Several years ago, we authored a paper in this journal entitled "Neutrino Physics," hereafter

  16. arXiv:astro-ph/0009259v219Sep2000 How the Sun Shines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Frederick M.

    arXiv:astro-ph/0009259v219Sep2000 How the Sun Shines John N. Bahcall What makes the sun shine? How does the sun produce the vast amount of energy necessary to support life on earth? These questions 1833 Treatise on Astronomy: The sun's rays are the ultimate source of almost every motion which takes

  17. arXiv:cond-mat/9707333v131Jul1997 Fingering Instability in Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moses, Elisha

    arXiv:cond-mat/9707333v131Jul1997 Fingering Instability in Combustion O. Zik(1) , Z. Olami(2) and E quantitatively verify a model based on diffusion limited transport. Harnessing combustion is a basic element conflagrations is often determined by fundamental issues regarding the stability of combustion fronts. Although

  18. arXiv:astro-ph/0509571v119Sep2005 Gamma-Ray Burst Early Afterglows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Bing

    arXiv:astro-ph/0509571v119Sep2005 Gamma-Ray Burst Early Afterglows Bing Zhang Department of Physics's Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer open a new era for the multi-wavelength study of the very early afterglow phase of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). GRB early afterglow information is essential to explore the unknown

  19. MinErAl prEpArAtion EnginEEring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartman, Chris

    MinErAl prEpArAtion EnginEEring College of Engineering and Mines Department of Mining ­ 36 credits The mineral preparation engineering program offers specialization in the processes used to concentrate target minerals and remove undesir- able material from mined ore. Interdisciplinary study

  20. Topographie de surfaces Si(111) aprs bombardement d'ions Ar+ et recuit thermique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1161 Topographie de surfaces Si(111) après bombardement d'ions Ar+ et recuit thermique J. Fauré, A du recuit nécessaire, ainsi que sur la topographie de la surface obtenue, a été mise en évidence. La de retrouver la topographie de la surface initiale : même disposition et même densité des marches

  1. 6035 Hg(Ar) Lamp in 6058 Fiber Optic Accessory. Pencil Style Calibration Lamps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodall, Jerry M.

    to that of the Hg(Ar) Lamp, which is the characteristic mercury line spectrum. Forced air-cooling (i.e. from of the handle for connection to the power supply. Table 1 Usable Wavelengths of Spectral Calibration Lamps (in.2 1079.8 1084.5 1114.3 Power Supplies; AC versus DC We offer different power supplies for different needs

  2. arXiv:physics/000908727Sep2000 MEASURING AND CONTROLLING ENERGY SPREAD IN CEBAF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    arXiv:physics/000908727Sep2000 MEASURING AND CONTROLLING ENERGY SPREAD IN CEBAF G. A. Krafft, J spread from a CEBAF-type machine to be relatively small; the measured energy spread from CEBAF at 4 Ge, the various subsystems contributing to the energy spread of a CEBAF-type accel- erator are reviewed, as well

  3. Culture of Atlantic Salmon, Sa/roo sa/ar, in Puget Sound

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Culture of Atlantic Salmon, Sa/roo sa/ar, in Puget Sound JAMES L. MIGHELL Introduction Depletion streams. A pilot study conducted in Puget Sound, Wash., showed that Atlan- tic salmon brood stock could a feasibility study and pilot test in the Pacific Northwest (Puget Sound, Wash.) to rear Atlantic salmon from

  4. arXiv:astro-ph/0301495v124Jan2003 GAIA Spectroscopy, Science and Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomboc, Andreja

    arXiv:astro-ph/0301495v124Jan2003 GAIA Spectroscopy, Science and Technology ASP Conference Series. and therefore the benefits of a large and highly accurate database on stellar rotation, obtained by GAIA and the effectivness of tidal energy dissipation. · Rotational velocity as an indicator of angular momentum of solar

  5. arXiv:hepex/0505096 Measurement of the Higgs Boson Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ################ arXiv:hep­ex/0505096 v1 30 May 2005 Measurement of the Higgs Boson Mass for the measurement of the Higgs boson mass. An integrated luminosity of 500 fb 1 is assumed. For Higgs boson masses of 120, 150 and 180 GeV the uncertainty on the Higgs boson mass measurement is estimated to be 40, 65

  6. http://arXiv.org/physics/0507088 Teaching About Nature's Nuclear Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Learned, John

    http://arXiv.org/physics/0507088 Teaching About Nature's Nuclear Reactors J. Marvin Herndon reactors existed in uranium deposits on Earth long before Enrico Fermi built the first man-made nuclear reactors. The subject of planetocentric nuclear fission reactors can be a jumping off point for stimulating

  7. arXiv:hepph/0406301 NUHEP-TH/04-05

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    arXiv:hep­ph/0406301 v1 27 Jun 2004 NUHEP-TH/04-05 Probing New Physics by Comparing Solar and Kam Road, Evanston, IL 60208, USA Carlos Pe~na-Garay School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA We explore whether KamLAND and solar data may end up

  8. arXiv draft On the mechanisms of precipitation of graphene on nickel thin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    arXiv draft On the mechanisms of precipitation of graphene on nickel thin films L. Baraton1 (a) , Z. In the case of nickel, where carbon has a significant solubility, such a growth process includes at least two, we dissolve calibrated amounts of carbon in nickel films, using carbon ion implantation

  9. The titanium tris-anilide cation [Ti(N[[superscript t]Bu]Ar)[subscript 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spinney, Heather A.

    This work explores the reduction of 4,4?-bipyridine using two equivalents of the titanium(III) complex Ti(N[[superscript t]Bu]Ar)[subscript 3] resulting in formation of a black, crystalline complex, (4,4?-bipy){Ti(N[[superscript ...

  10. The Navigation and Control technology inside the AR.Drone micro UAV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is that it is a stabilized aerial platform, remotely controlled through a user-friendly graphical interface runningThe Navigation and Control technology inside the AR.Drone micro UAV Pierre-Jean Bristeau François, FRANCE Abstract: This paper exposes the Navigation and Control technology embedded in a recently com

  11. arXiv:astro-ph/0703364v227Aug2007 Electromagnetic dark energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Francis

    arXiv:astro-ph/0703364v227Aug2007 Electromagnetic dark energy Christian Beck School of MathematicalGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (Dated: August 28, 2007) We introduce a new model for dark energy equations, or more generally with the existence of dark energy. The dark energy density consistent

  12. arXiv:astro-ph/0512327v27Mar2006 Laboratory tests on dark energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beck, Christian

    arXiv:astro-ph/0512327v27Mar2006 Laboratory tests on dark energy Christian Beck School of the currently observed dark energy in the universe is completely unclear, and many different theoretical models co-exist. Nevertheless, if dark energy is produced by vac- uum fluctuations then there is a chance

  13. arXiv:gr-qc/0012068v119Dec2000 International Journal of Modern Physics D,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Robert T.

    arXiv:gr-qc/0012068v119Dec2000 International Journal of Modern Physics D, c World Scientific of applications to black hole physics, culminating in the "membrane paradigm" for treating the black hole horizon2 and physics around black holes. Their approach to the integral version of Maxwell's equations is based

  14. arXiv:hepph/0610045v2 2006 ENERGY CONSERVATION and POMERON LOOPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lunds Universitet,

    arXiv:hep­ph/0610045v2 31 Oct 2006 ENERGY CONSERVATION and POMERON LOOPS in HIGH ENERGY EVOLUTION@thep.lu.se We present a formalism which modi#12;es the Mueller Dipole Model such that it incorporates energy at the XLVI Cracow School of Theoretical Physics, May 27 - June 5 2006, Zakopane, Poland. (1) #12; 2 Emil

  15. arXiv:hep-ex/0408121v124Aug2004 Letter of Intent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    of Silesia, Katowice, Poland A. Godley, S.R. Mishra, C. Rosenfeld, K. Wu University of South Carolina Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw, Poland W. Dominik Warsaw University, Warsaw, Poland P.J. Doe, J Identification and Energy Resolution of The Liquid Ar- gon Detector

  16. Vibrational predissociation spectroscopy and theory of Ar-tagged, protonated Imidazole (Im) Im13H+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auerbach, Scott M.

    measurements carried out directly in the condensed phase [10]. Recent advances [11] in gas-phase ion chemistry s t r a c t We report vibrational predissociation spectra and theoretical analysis of the Ar- cies at the heart of the proton-transport process. In fact, a 2009 theoretical analysis of proton

  17. Western Pond Turtle Head-starting and Reintroduction, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Leuven, Susan; Allen, Harriet; Slavens, Kate (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Wildlife Management Program, Olympia, WA)

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers the results of the western pond turtle head-starting and reintroduction project for the period of October 2005-September 2006. Wild hatchling western pond turtles from the Columbia River Gorge were reared at the Woodland Park and Oregon zoos in 2005 and 2006 as part of the recovery effort for this Washington State endangered species. The objective of the program is to reduce losses to introduced predators like bullfrogs and largemouth bass by raising the hatchlings to a size where they are too large to be eaten by most of these predators. Twenty-six turtles were placed at the Woodland Park Zoo and 62 at the Oregon Zoo in fall 2005. These turtles joined two that were held back from release in summer 2005 due to their small size. All 90 juvenile turtles were released at three sites in the Columbia Gorge in 2006. Twenty-eight juvenile turtles were released at the Klickitat ponds, 22 at the Klickitat lake, 21 at the Skamania site, and 19 at Pierce National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). This brought the total number of head-start turtles released since 1991 to 944; 285 for the Klickitat ponds, 158 for the Klickitat lake, 227 for the Skamania pond complex, and 274 at Pierce NWR. In 2006, 20 females from the Klickitat population were equipped with transmitters and monitored for nesting activity. Fifteen nests were located and protected; these produced 55 hatchlings. The hatchlings were collected in September and transported to the Oregon and Woodland Park zoos for rearing in the head-start program. One wild hatchling captured in spring 2006 was placed in the head-start program to attain more growth in captivity. During the 2006 field season trapping effort, 414 western pond turtles were captured in the Columbia Gorge, including 374 previously head-started turtles. These recaptures, together with confirmed nesting by head-start females and visual resightings, indicate the program is succeeding in boosting juvenile recruitment to increase the populations. Records were also collected on 179 individual painted turtles captured in 2006 during trapping efforts at Pierce NWR, to gather baseline information on this native population.

  18. Western Pond Turtle Head-starting and Reintroduction; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Leuven, Susan; Allen, Harriet; Slavin, Kate (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Wildlife Management Program, Olympia, WA)

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers the results of the western pond turtle head-starting and reintroduction project for the period of October 2004-September 2005. Wild hatchling western pond turtles from the Columbia River Gorge were reared at the Woodland Park and Oregon Zoos in 2004 and 2005 as part of the recovery effort for this Washington State endangered species. The objective of the program is to reduce losses to introduced predators like bullfrogs and largemouth bass by raising the hatchlings to a size where they are too large to be eaten by most of these predators. Thirty-five turtles were placed at the Woodland Park Zoo and 53 at the Oregon Zoo. Of these, 77 head-started juvenile turtles were released at three sites in the Columbia Gorge in 2005. Four were held back to attain more growth in captivity. Eleven were released at the Klickitat ponds, 22 at the Klickitat lake, 39 at the Skamania site, and 5 at Pierce National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). This brought the total number of head-start turtles released since 1991 to 257 for the Klickitat ponds, 136 for the Klickitat lake, 206 for the Skamania pond complex, and 255 at Pierce NWR. In 2005, 34 females from the two Columbia Gorge populations were equipped with transmitters and monitored for nesting activity. Twenty-four nests were located and protected; these produced 90 hatchlings. The hatchlings were collected in September and transported to the Oregon and Woodland Park zoos for rearing in the head-start program. During the 2005 field season trapping effort, 486 western pond turtles were captured in the Columbia Gorge, including 430 previously head-started turtles. These recaptures, together with confirmed nesting by head-start females and visual resightings, indicate the program is succeeding in boosting juvenile recruitment to increase the populations. Records were also collected on 216 individual painted turtles captured in 2005 during trapping efforts at Pierce NWR, to gather baseline information on this native population. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded approximately 75% of program activities in the Columbia River Gorge from October 2004 through September 2005.

  19. Vesicular Horizon Distribution, Properties, and Pedogenic Processes in Deserts of the Western United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turk, Judith Katherine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    McFadden, J. Poths, and C.T. Olinger. 1995. Cosmogenic 3 HeMcFadden, J. Poths, and C.T. Olinger. 1995. Cosmogenic 3 He

  20. Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in Utility Resource Planning: Current Practices in the Western United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sub-critical pulverized coal generation, representing thecontaining new pulverized coal generation without CCS. Ofthe operating cost of coal-fired generation without CCS, and

  1. Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in Utility Resource Planning: Current Practices in the Western United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sub-critical pulverized coal generation, representing thecontaining new pulverized coal generation without CCS. Ofthe operating cost of coal-fired generation without CCS, and

  2. Utility Integrated Resource Planning: An Emerging Driver of New Renewable Generation in the Western United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    towards that portfolio. Renewable resources were once rarelyobjectively evaluate renewable resources. Planned Renewableamount of planned renewable resource additions. In the case

  3. Biomass burning contribution to black carbon in the Western United States Mountain Ranges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the atmosphere from biomass burning, Climatic Change, 2,Chemistry and Physics Biomass burning contribution to black2011 Y. H. Mao et al. : Biomass burning contribution to

  4. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CRUSTAL DENSITY AND VOLCANIC ROCKS IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garinger, Linda Pickett

    2008-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    in wavelength and will not greatly impact gravity modeling. A new idea for preparing an isostatic correction is introduced in preliminary form. Models of crustal density contrasts were prepared for three study areas in California and Nevada through the use...

  5. Habitat-Related Benthic Macrofaunal Assemblages of Bays and Estuaries of the Western United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and sediment grain size, were identified: (A) Puget Sound fine sediment, (B) Puget Sound coarse sediment, (C and oligohaline. The Puget Sound, southern California, and San Francisco Bay assemblages were geographically to small spatial scale habitat heterogeneity and temporal change were both low in Puget Sound, but temporal

  6. The Economic Value of Irrigation Water in the Western United States: An Application to Ridge Regression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank, M. D.; Beattie, B. R.

    the form of a multiplicative function with nine domain variables, i.e., irrigation water applied, value of land and buildings, hired labor expenditures, fuel and lubricant expenditures, fertilizer and lime expenditures, feed expenditures, value of machinery...

  7. Vesicular Horizon Distribution, Properties, and Pedogenic Processes in Deserts of the Western United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turk, Judith Katherine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    crust types of the central Patagonia region, Argentina. Aridcrust types of the central Patagonia region, Argentina. Aridcrust types of the central Patagonia region, Argentina. Arid

  8. Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in Utility Resource Planning: Current Practices in the Western United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    planning. First, early retirement of a utility’s own coal-would justify the early retirement of their own coal-fired

  9. Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in Utility Resource Planning: Current Practices in the Western United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    planning. First, early retirement of a utility’s own coal-would justify the early retirement of their own coal-fired

  10. Vesicular Horizon Distribution, Properties, and Pedogenic Processes in Deserts of the Western United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turk, Judith Katherine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    They often contain calcium carbonate, but also occur in non-suspension (Burt, 2004). Calcium carbonate was measured bypercentage (ESP), calcium carbonate percent by weight, and

  11. Dynamic Interactions in the Western United States Electricity Spot Markets Christine A. Jerko

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by a highly interconnected transmission system and established trading regime (De Vany and Walls, 1999b this new world." Most studies of electricity pricing have investigated market structure and power, reasons), in examining spot markets in England and Wales and the Nordic countries, notes there is significant differences

  12. Crustal and Uppermost Mantle Structure beneath the Western United States from USArray Regional Phase Analysis /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehler, Janine Sylvia

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    et al. [2008]). Interpretation of seismic tomography maps isresolution, interpretation of imaged seismic anoma- lies

  13. Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in Utility Resource Planning: Current Practices in the Western United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    alternative CO 2 price projections in terms of the levelizedof utilities’ price projections, as well as differences inand high-range CO 2 price projections developed by Synapse

  14. Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in Utility Resource Planning: Current Practices in the Western United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    alternative CO 2 price projections in terms of the levelizedof utilities’ price projections, as well as differences inand high-range CO 2 price projections developed by Synapse

  15. Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in Utility Resource Planning: Current Practices in the Western United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    translated into electricity price projections based on fuelused to develop electricity price projections for carbondeveloping electricity market price projections and modeling

  16. Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in Utility Resource Planning: Current Practices in the Western United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    translated into electricity price projections based on fuelused to develop electricity price projections for carbondeveloping electricity market price projections and modeling

  17. Vesicular Horizon Distribution, Properties, and Pedogenic Processes in Deserts of the Western United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turk, Judith Katherine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of desert soils of Mongolia. Euras. Soil Sci. 42:1204-1217.of desert soils of Mongolia. Euras. Soil Sci. 42:1204-1217.of desert soils of Mongolia. Euras. Soil Sci. 42:1204-1217.

  18. The Economic Value of Irrigation Water in the Western United States: An Application to Ridge Regression 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank, M. D.; Beattie, B. R.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    inventory, value of livestock inventory and miscellaneous expenditures. Using 1969 Census of Agriculture data, each regional function was statistically fit using both ordinary least squares (OLS) and ridge regression. As expected, parameter estimates under...

  19. The Western States: Profound Diversity But Severe Segregation for Latino Students

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kucsera, John; Flaxman, Greg

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA Albuquerque, NM Stockton,Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA Albuquerque, NM Stockton,Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA Albuquerque, NM Stockton,

  20. Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in Utility Resource Planning: Current Practices in the Western United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Westernand Risk Management in the US Electricity Sector,” Energyhow energy planners might better address and manage the risk