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  1. Sahara Prime City Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sahara Prime City Ltd. Place: Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India Zip: 226024 Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Lucknow-based real estate firm setting up wind and solar power projects...

  2. Western Interconnection Synchrophasor Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Demonstration Project Western Interconnection Synchrophasor Project Resources & Links Demand Response Energy Efficiency Emerging Technologies Synchrophasor measurements are a...

  3. Western Area Power Administration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ,v*Zy- i , . r ,v * -i S # Af [, (e- . - o -A tl }r- 0 v-" l^~4~S J l ^-)^ I^U^ck iM clti ^ <p< ^^i~oeii ^' Western Area Power Administration Follow-up to Nov. 25, 2008 Transition Meeting Undeveloped Transmission Right-of-Way Western has very little undeveloped transmission right-of-way. There is a 7-mile right- of-way between Folsom, CA and Roseville, CA where Western acquired a 250' wide right-of-way but is only using half of it. Another line could be built parallel to Western's

  4. CEMI Western Regional Summit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Please Join Assistant Secretary of Energy Dr. David Danielson for the Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative's Western Regional Summit. Register now for this free event.

  5. Secretary Moniz to Discuss Western Energy Landscape at Western...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    -586-4940 Secretary Moniz to Discuss Western Energy Landscape at Western Governors' Association Annual Meeting WASHINGTON - On Saturday, December 6, U.S. Secretary of Energy Ernest...

  6. Tropical Western Pacific

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM-00-005 RPT(TWP)-010.006 LA-UR-004434 Tropical Western Pacific Site Science Mission Plan July - December 2000 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract W-7405-ENG-36 Tropical Western Pacific Project Office Atmospheric and Climate Sciences Group (EES-8) Earth and Environmental Sciences Division Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, NM 87545 This report and previous versions are available electronically at the following web sites:

  7. Tropical Western Pacific

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govSitesTropical Western Pacific TWP Related Links Facilities and Instruments Manus Island Nauru Island Darwin, AUS ES&H Guidance Statement Operations Science Field Campaigns Year of Tropical Convection Visiting the Site TWP Fact Sheet Images Information for Guest Scientists Contacts Tropical Western Pacific-Inactive Manus, Papua New Guinea: 2° 3' 39.64" S, 147° 25' 31.43" E Nauru Island: 0° 31' 15.6" S, 166° 54' 57.60" E Darwin, Australia: 12° 25' 28.56" S,

  8. Western Gulf Coast Analysis | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SheetsWestern Gulf Coast Analysis content top Western Gulf Coast Analysis One focus area for NISAC is the importance of local and regional infrastructures-understanding their interactions and importance to our overall national economic health. In 2004 and 2005, NISAC evaluated the western Gulf Coast region. NISAC developed a National Petroleum System Simulator to evaluate the potential short-term effects of disruptions in the western Gulf Coast petroleum infrastructure operations on the rest of

  9. Western Kentucky thrives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2005-10-01

    Independents and big boys struggle to keep up with increasing demand and a lack of experienced workers in the Illinois Basin. This is the second of a two part series reviewing the coal mining industry in the Illinois Basin which also includes Indiana and Western Kentucky. It includes a classification/correction to Part 1 of the article published in the September 2005 issue (see Coal Abstracts Entry data/number Dec 2005 00204). 4 photos.

  10. Western Power Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Western Power Corporation Place: Perth, Western Australia, Australia Zip: 6000 Product: Western Australian electricity provider. Coordinates: -31.95302, 115.857239 Show Map...

  11. Case Study - Western Electricity Coordinating Council

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Smart Grid Strategy for Assuring Reliability of the Western Grid The Western Electricity ... and promoting bulk electric system reliability in the Western Interconnection. ...

  12. Western Power Customer Services Manager

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located in the Western Power Services organization (PSW) of Northwest Requirements Marketing, Power Services, and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Northwest (NW) Requirements...

  13. Western Turbine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Turbine Jump to: navigation, search Name: Western Turbine Place: Aurora, Colorado Zip: 80011 Sector: Wind energy Product: Wind Turbine Installation and Maintainance. Coordinates:...

  14. Western Solargenics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solargenics Place: Coquitlam, British Columbia, Canada Zip: V3J 2L7 Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Subsidiary firm of Western Wind, to develop solar projects in...

  15. Tropical Western Pacific CART Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tropical Western Pacific CART Site This month we will visit an ARM CART site with a pleasant climate: the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) CART site, along the equator in the western Pacific Ocean. The TWP locale lies between 10 degrees North latitude and 10 degrees South latitude and extends from Indonesia east- ward beyond the international date line (Figure 1). This area was selected because it is in and around the Pacific warm pool, the area of warm sea- surface temperatures that determine El

  16. Western Area Power Administration Borrowing Authority, Recovery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Western Area Power Administration Borrowing Authority, Recovery Act Western Area Power Administration Borrowing Authority, Recovery Act PDF icon Microsoft Word - PSRP May 15 2009 ...

  17. Case Western University | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    University Jump to: navigation, search Name Case Western University Facility Case Western University Sector Wind energy Facility Type Small Scale Wind Facility Status In Service...

  18. Western Area Power Administration | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Western Area Power Administration Jump to: navigation, search Name: Western Area Power Administration Place: Colorado Phone Number: 720-962-7000 Website: ww2.wapa.govsites...

  19. Western Electricity Coordinating Council Smart Grid Project ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    your syntax: * Display map References ARRA Smart Grid Investment Grants1 Western Electricity Award2 Western Electricity Coordinating Council, located in Salt Lake City, Utah,...

  20. Western Cooling Efficiency Center | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cooling Efficiency Center Jump to: navigation, search Name: Western Cooling Efficiency Center Place: Davis, CA Website: http: References: Western Cooling Efficiency Center 1...

  1. Western Area Power Administration's Control and Administration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Management Alert Western Area Power Administration's Control and Administration of ... THE ADMINISTRATOR, WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION FROM: Gregory H. Friedman Inspector ...

  2. Overview of Western's Interconnected Bulk Electric System

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Western's Interconnected Bulk Electric System Western Area Power Admin. Objectives * Describe Western Area Power Administration Region and Facilities Overview * Explain Fundamentals of Electricity, Power Transformers and Transmission Lines * Discuss Overview of the Bulk Electric System (BES) * Objectives Review Western's Service Area Western marketing areas and offices 3 Wholesale Power Services * Markets 10,479 MW from 56 Federal hydropower projects owned by Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) , Army

  3. Western NY Energy LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Western NY Energy LLC Place: Mount Morris, New York Zip: 14510 Product: Bioethanol producer. References: Western NY Energy LLC1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  4. Western Iowa Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Western Iowa Energy Place: Iowa Product: Biodiesel producer which raised USD 22m from Iowa residents to construct a further plant at Wall Lake. References: Western Iowa Energy1...

  5. NorthWestern Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Number: (800) 245-6977 Website: www.northernelectric.coop Twitter: @NorthWesternSD Facebook: https:www.facebook.comNorthWesternEnergy Outage Hotline: (800) 245-6977...

  6. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Western Area Power Administration |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Administration Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Western Area Power Administration Categorical Exclusion Determinations issued by Western Area Power Administration. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD No downloads found for this office.

  7. Western Renewable Energy Generation Information System | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Renewable Energy Generation Information System Jump to: navigation, search Name: Western Renewable Energy Generation Information System Place: Sacramento, California Zip:...

  8. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GE Energy

    2010-05-01

    This report provides a full description of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) and its findings.

  9. Case Study - Western Electricity Coordinating Council

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Smart Grid Strategy for Assuring Reliability of the Western Grid The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) is the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting bulk electric system reliability in the Western Interconnection. WECC and its members manage the operation and planning of the vast interconnected transmission system connecting generators and loads across almost 1.8 million square miles of territory. The Western Interconnection Synchrophasor Program (WISP), led by

  10. Western Hemisphere Oil Products Balance

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Western Hemisphere Oil Products Balance Ramón Espinasa, Ph.D. / Lead Specialist July 2014 The Energy Innovation Center Energy Division 3 The views expressed by the author do not reflect the views of the Inter- American Development Bank, its Management, its Board of Executive Directors or its member Governments. DISCLAIMER www.iadb.org Copyright © 2014 Interamerican Development Bank. All rights reserved; This document may be freely reproduced for non-commercial purposes. 4 United States Oil

  11. EA-098 Western Systems Power Pool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EA-098 Western Systems Power Pool Order authorizing Western Systems Power Pool to export electric energy to Canada PDF icon EA- 98 Western Systems Power Pool More Documents & ...

  12. EA-98-F, Western Systems Power Pool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    F, Western Systems Power Pool EA-98-F, Western Systems Power Pool Order authorizing Western Systems Power Pool to export electric energy to Canada PDF icon EA-98-F, Western Systems ...

  13. EA-98-K Western Systems Power Pool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    K Western Systems Power Pool EA-98-K Western Systems Power Pool Order authorizing Western Systems Power Pool to export electric energy to Canada. PDF icon EA-98-K Western Systems ...

  14. EA-98-G WESTERN SYSTEMS POWER POOL | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    G WESTERN SYSTEMS POWER POOL EA-98-G WESTERN SYSTEMS POWER POOL Order authorizing Western System Power Pool to export electric energy to Canada PDF icon EA-98-G WESTERN SYSTEMS ...

  15. EA-98-C Western Systems Power Pool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    C Western Systems Power Pool EA-98-C Western Systems Power Pool Order authorizing Western Systems Power Pool to export electricity to Canada PDF icon EA-98-C Western Systems Power ...

  16. EA-98-L Western Systems Power Pool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    L Western Systems Power Pool EA-98-L Western Systems Power Pool Order authorizing Western Systems Power Pool to export electric energy to Canada PDF icon EA-98-L Western Systems ...

  17. EA-098-D Western Systems Power Pool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D Western Systems Power Pool EA-098-D Western Systems Power Pool Order authorizing Western Systems Power Pool to export electric energy to Canada PDF icon EA- 98-D Western Systems ...

  18. EA-98-H Western Systems Power Pool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    H Western Systems Power Pool EA-98-H Western Systems Power Pool Order Authorizing Western Systems Power Pool to export electric energy to Canada PDF icon EA-98-H Western Systems ...

  19. EA-98-J Western Systems Power Pool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    J Western Systems Power Pool EA-98-J Western Systems Power Pool Order authorizing Western Systems Power Pool to export electric energy to Canada PDF icon EA-98-J Western Systems Power Pool More Documents & Publications EA-098 Western Systems Power Pool EA-98-I Western Systems Power Pool EA-98-K

  20. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline System - Western Region

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Western Region About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Natural Gas Pipelines in the Western Region Overview | Transportation South | Transportation North | Regional Pipeline Companies & Links Overview Ten interstate and nine intrastate natural gas pipeline companies provide transportation services to and within the Western Region (Arizona, California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington), the fewest number serving

  1. Clean Cities: Western Washington Clean Cities coalition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studies where her studies focused on policies to stimulate the growth of renewable energy. 1904 Third Ave, Ste 105 Seattle, WA 98101 Western Washington Success Stories Watch...

  2. Problems of intraplate extensional tectonics, Western United...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    tectonics, Western United States, with special emphasis on the Great Basin Author G.A. Davis Conference Basin and Range Symposium and Great Basin Field Conference; Denver,...

  3. Western Ethanol Company LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol Company LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Western Ethanol Company LLC Place: Placentia, California Zip: 92871 Product: California-based fuel ethanol distribution and...

  4. Western Plains Energy LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Western Plains Energy LLC Place: Oakley, Kansas Zip: 67748 Product: Bioethanol producer using corn as feedstock Coordinates: 40.714855, -111.298899 Show Map...

  5. Western Iowa Power Coop | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abbreviation: WIPCO Place: Iowa Phone Number: 515.276.5350 Website: www.wipco.com Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesWestern-Iowa-Power-Co-Op160024430687171 Outage...

  6. ARM - Lesson Plans: Tropical Western Pacific

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox ...

  7. Western Massachusetts Electric- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Western Massachusetts Electric (WMECO) helps commercial and industrial customers offset the additional costs of purchasing and installing energy efficient equipment. WMECO offers rebates for...

  8. Western Resource Adequacy: Challenges - Approaches - Metrics | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy Resource Adequacy: Challenges - Approaches - Metrics Western Resource Adequacy: Challenges - Approaches - Metrics West-Wide Resource Assessment Team. Committee on Regional Electric Power Cooperation. March 25, 2004 San Francisco, California PDF icon Western Resource Adequacy: Challenges - Approaches - Metrics More Documents & Publications Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) (Revised) Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies

  9. Preparation for upgrading western subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimes, R.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Sheesley, D.C.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this project was to establish the physical and chemical characteristics of western coal and determine the best preparation technologies for upgrading this resource. Western coal was characterized as an abundant, easily mineable, clean, low-sulfur coal with low heating value, high moisture, susceptibility to spontaneous ignition, and considerable transit distances from major markets. Project support was provided by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The research was conducted by the Western Research Institute, (WRI) in Laramie, Wyoming. The project scope of work required the completion of four tasks: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches and verbal contacts with consumers and producers of western coal, (3) selection of the best technologies to upgrade western coal, and (4) identification of research needed to develop the best technologies for upgrading western coals. The results of this research suggest that thermal drying is the best technology for upgrading western coals. There is a significant need for further research in areas involving physical and chemical stabilization of the dried coal product. Excessive particle-size degradation and resulting dustiness, moisture reabsorption, and high susceptibility to spontaneous combustion are key areas requiring further research. Improved testing methods for the determination of equilibrium moisture and susceptibility to spontaneous ignition under various ambient conditions are recommended.

  10. Kazakhstan's potential provides Western opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darnell, R. )

    1993-01-01

    While crude oil production continues to drop in the Russian Federation at a rate of 15% to 20% per year, Kazakhstan's output rose from 440,000 bopd in 1991 to 446,000 bopd, as of November 1992. Much of this increase was exported to the Russian Federation to supplement the latter's declining production. while Kazakhstan received needed Russian goods in exchange for this oil, it isn't getting the hard currency that will be required to upgrade its petroleum industry. This is a serious problem for Kazakh officials, since they are counting on revenues from petroleum exports to invigorate their overall plan for economic growth in this newly independent country. In order to convert Kazakhstan's hydrocarbon potential into economic reality, two critical issues must be addressed immediately. First, Kazakhstan must develop a tax and minerals law that gives multinational petroleum companies an incentive to invest in opening a dedicated crude oil export route through Russia, and at least one alternate export route to the Caspian Sea or Persian Gulf. At present, even the most successful petroleum venture inside Kazakhstan would have to weave its way through the Russian bureaucracy to utilize that existing and inadequate export pipeline system. This quandary, of course, has recently become the undoing of several Western petroleum operations that have managed to actually produce exportable oil inside the Russian Federation itself, but they can't get it out. In addition, three other variables should be considered by any party that is evaluating Kazakhstan as a future area (see map for current fields) of interest for petroleum operations. These are political stability, field operating conditions, and the country's natural gas crisis. Each of these factors, though not as critical as the legal regime and export access, can radically affect how an operator might approach negotiating the terms of its particular project.

  11. History of western oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    The history of oil shale in the United States since the early 1900's is detailed. Research on western oil shale probably began with the work of Robert Catlin in 1915. During the next 15 years there was considerable interest in the oil shales, and oil shale claims were located, and a few recovery plants were erected in Colorado, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, and Montana. Little shale soil was produced, however, and the major oil companies showed little interest in producing shale oil. The early boom in shale oil saw less than 15 plants produce a total of less than 15,000 barrels of shale oil, all but about 500 barrels of which was produced by the Catlin Operation in Nevada and by the US Bureau of Mines Rulison, Colorado operation. Between 1930 and 1944 plentiful petroleum supplies at reasonable prices prevent any significant interest in shale oil, but oil shortages during World War II caused a resurgence of interest in oil shale. Between 1940 and 1969, the first large-scale mining and retorting operations in soil shale, and the first attempts at true in situ recovery of shale oil began. Only 75,000 barrels of shale oil were produced, but major advancements were made in developing mine designs and technology, and in retort design and technology. The oil embargo of 1973 together with a new offering of oil shale leases by the Government in 1974 resulted in the most concentrated efforts for shale oil production to date. These efforts and the future prospects for shale oil as an energy source in the US are discussed.

  12. File:Federal Hydropower - Western Area Power Administration.pdf...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydropower - Western Area Power Administration.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:Federal Hydropower - Western Area Power Administration.pdf...

  13. Renewable Energy Network of Entrepreneurs in Western New York...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    York Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Renewable Energy Network of Entrepreneurs in Western New York Name: Renewable Energy Network of Entrepreneurs in Western New York Address:...

  14. EA-98-I Western Systems Power Pool | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Power Pool Order authorizing Western Systems Power Pool to export electric energy to Canada. PDF icon EA-98-I Western Systems Power Pool More Documents & Publications Application...

  15. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Western Area PowerAdministratio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Western Area Power Administration-Upper Great Plains Region Categorical Exclusion Determinations issued by Western Area Power Administration-U...

  16. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Western Area PowerAdministratio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Western Area Power Administration-Sierra Nevada Region Categorical Exclusion Determinations issued by Western Area Power Administration-Sierra ...

  17. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Western Area PowerAdministratio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Western Area Power Administration-Desert Southwest Region Categorical Exclusion Determinations issued by Western Area Power Administration-Des...

  18. Transmission Siting in Western United States: Overview and Recommendat...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Western United States: Overview and Recommendations Prepared as Information to the Western Interstate Energy Board Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  19. Notices DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Impact Statement and to Conduct a Scoping Meeting; Notice of Floodplain and Wetlands Involvement. SUMMARY: Western Area Power Administration (Western), an agency of the...

  20. Western Renewable Energy Generation Information System ACCOUNT...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Western Renewable Energy Generation Information System ACCOUNT HOLDER REGISTRATION AGREEMENT (Also referred to as the "TERMS OF USE") June 22,2007 Revised May 1,2008 JUL 3 1 REC'D...

  1. Western States Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Western States Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 - No Data Reported; -- Not...

  2. Western Electricity Coordinating Council | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Council Jump to: navigation, search Name: Western Electricity Coordinating Council Place: Salt Lake City, UT References: SGIC1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  3. Western Area Power Administration Transmission Infrastructure Program

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Western Area Power Administration Borrowing Authority, Recovery Act Western Area Power Administration Borrowing Authority, Recovery Act PDF icon Microsoft Word - PSRP May 15 2009 _WAPA Borrowing Authority_ Final.docx More Documents & Publications WAPA Recovery Act Implementation Appropriation Microsoft Word - PSRP Updates 6-25-10_v2 Bonneville Power Administration Program Specific Recovery Plan

    TIP Program Overview Craig Knoell, Program Manager November 2009 TIP

  4. 2012 Annual Report [WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    Fiscal Year 2012 brought some tumultuous and uncertain times to Western. The utility industry and technology continued to evolve, and the demand for constant flow of power and transmission system reliability continued to increase. Western kept pace by continuing to deliver reliable, cost-based hydropower while reviewing and updating business practices that took into account how the energy industry is evolving. During this time of exponential change, Western tackled many challenges, including: Reviewing the Transmission Infrastructure Program processes and procedures; Responding to Secretary of Energy Steven Chu’s memorandum to create a modern, efficient and reliable transmission grid; Weathering record-breaking natural disasters in our service territory; Completing our role in TIP’s flagship project—the Montana Alberta Tie Ltd. transmission line; Incorporating new, far-reaching regulations and industry trends.

  5. QER- Comment of Western Environmental Law Center

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To whom it may concern, I provided the following comments at the public meeting in Santa Fe, NM on 8/11/14: My name is Thomas Singer, and I am a Senior Policy Advisor at the Western Environmental Law Center.

  6. Honeymoons Lead to Upgrades in Western Vermont

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For homeowners who are hesitant to make energy efficiency upgrades, offering them a honeymoon might just be the motivation they need. NeighborWorks of Western Vermont (NWWVT) created a "honeymoon period" for its loan payments and has seen success by allowing homeowners to experience six months of comfort and energy savings before they begin making loan payments.

  7. How Western Does Business: An Explanation of Western's Products and Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-10-01

    The mission of the Western Area Power Administration is to market and deliver reliable, renewable, cost-based hydroelectric power and related services. This guide provides an overview of Western’s history and how Western carries out that mission and provides electrical, transmission and ancillary services. It also discusses how we develop plans for marketing our most valuable resources—long-term firm capacity and energy.

  8. Utilities Dist-Western IN REMC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Utilities Dist-Western IN REMC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Utilities Dist-Western IN REMC Place: Indiana References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1a1...

  9. VEE-0040- In the Matter of Western Star Propane, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On February 18, 1997, Western Star Propane, Inc. (Western) filed an Application for Exception with the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) of the Department of Energy (DOE). In its application,...

  10. EA-98-A Western Systems Power Pool | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    energy to Canada PDF icon EA-98-A Western Systems Power Pool More Documents & Publications EA-364 Noble Americas Gas & Power Corporation EA-098 Western Systems Power Pool EA-98-I...

  11. Western Renewable Energy Zones-Phase 1 Report | Department of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Renewable Energy Zones-Phase 1 Report Western Renewable Energy Zones-Phase 1 Report In June 2006, the Western Governors'Association published "Clean Energy, a Strong Economy and a ...

  12. Western New York Energy LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Western New York Energy LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Western New York Energy LLC Place: Medina, New York Zip: 14103 Product: Developed a 50m gallon ethanol plant in...

  13. Western States Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Western States Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Western States Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  14. New Geothermal Prospects in the Western United States Show Promise...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Prospects in the Western United States Show Promise New Geothermal Prospects in the Western United States Show Promise February 27, 2013 - 2:21pm Addthis New geothermal ...

  15. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2: Executive...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... This study fnds that up to 33% wind and solar energy penetration in the United States' portion of the Western grid (which is equivalent to 24%-26% throughout the western grid) ...

  16. EA-098-E Western Systems Power Pool | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Power Pool Order authorizing Western Systems Power Pool to export electric energy to Canada PDF icon EA- 98-E Western Systems Power Pool More Documents & Publications EA-98-G...

  17. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Western Area PowerAdministratio...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Colorado River Storage Project Management Center Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Western Area Power Administration-Colorado River Storage Project Management Center ...

  18. Topic B Awardee: Western Governors' Association | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Western Governors' Association Topic B Awardee: Western Governors' Association For the Topic A input requirements of the award, the states and provinces in the Western Interconnection have formed a new committee -- the State and Provincial Steering Committee -- to provide input in regional transmission planning and analysis in the interconnection. The Committee will consist of representatives from each state and province in the Western Interconnection. Pending formal announcement, the Committee

  19. 2012 Annual Planning Summary for Western Area Power Administration |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Western Area Power Administration 2012 Annual Planning Summary for Western Area Power Administration The ongoing and projected Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements for 2012 and 2013 within Western Area Power Administration. PDF icon APS-2012-WAPA.pdf File APS-2012-WAPA.xlsx More Documents & Publications 2013 Annual Planning Summary for the Western Area Power Administration 2011 ANNUAL PLANNING SUMMARY FOR ADVANCED RESEARCH AND PROJECTS AGENCY

  20. 2013 Annual Planning Summary for the Western Area Power Administration |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Western Area Power Administration 2013 Annual Planning Summary for the Western Area Power Administration The ongoing and projected Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements for 2013 and 2014 within the Western Area Power Administration. PDF icon PMA_WAPA_NEPA-APS-2013.pdf More Documents & Publications 2012 Annual Planning Summary for Bonneville Power Administration 2011 ANNUAL PLANNING SUMMARY FOR ADVANCED RESEARCH AND PROJECTS AGENCY WESTERN AREA

  1. Western Riverside Council of Governments - Large Commercial PACE...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    State California Program Type PACE Financing Summary Western Riverside Council of Governments (WRCOG) is offering business owners in WRCOG participating...

  2. Mapping Water Availability in the Western US

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Availability in the Western US - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  3. Sandian Contributes to Western Electricity Coordinating Council

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaic Power Plant Model Validation Guideline Sandian Contributes to Western Electricity Coordinating Council Photovoltaic Power Plant Model Validation Guideline - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy

  4. A communication infrastructure for South Western Electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newbury, J.

    1996-07-01

    In response to deregulation, many UK Regional Electricity Companies (RECs) are currently considering redesigning their communication infrastructure to meet this and other business requirements. This paper presents a proposed communication infrastructure for South Western Electricity plc. The Company services a wide variety of customers in the South West of England. The supporting technology, REC and customer benefits, together with valued added services (VAS) will be addressed.

  5. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    dust (2) western (2) aerosol impacts (1) asia (1) atmospheric (1) atmospheric ... Dust and Biological Aerosols from the Sahara and Asia Influence Precipitation in the ...

  6. RTG resource book for western states and provinces: Final proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The Western Interstate Energy Board held a workshop and liaison activities among western states, provinces, and utilities on the formation of Regional Transmission Groups (RTGs). Purpose of the activities was to examine the policy implications for western states and provinces in the formation of RTGs in the West, the implications for western ratepayers and utilities of the RTG formation and potential impacts of RTGs on the western electricity system. The workshop contributed to fulfilling the transmission access and competition objectives of Title VII of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.

  7. Low enthalpy convective system in Western Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannon, M.S.; Tabet, C.A.; Eckstein, Y.

    1980-01-01

    A distinct positive anomaly in the temperatures of the shallow (Pleistocene) aquifers along the Cincinnati-Findlay Arch in Western Ohio coincides with a low geothermal gradient. A conceptual model of convective currents associated with a tensional fault and/or fracture system along the crest of the Arch is suggested as an explanation of the anomaly. Hydrochemical information indicates that various quantities of warmer ground water, with the composition characteristics of deep bedrock aquifers, is present as an admixture in the shallow aquifers. This confirms the conceptual model of convection in fractures.

  8. Innovative secondary support technologies for western mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barczak, T.M.; Molinda, G.M.

    1996-12-01

    With the development of the shield support, the primary requirement for successful ground control in longwall mining is to provide stable gate road and bleeder entries. Wood cribbing has been the dominant form of secondary support. However, the cost and limited availability of timber, along with the poor performance of softwood crib supports, has forced western U.S. mines to explore the utilization of other support systems. The recent success of cable bolts has engendered much interest from western operators. Several innovative freestanding support systems have been developed recently including: (1) {open_quotes}The Can{close_quotes} support by Burrell Mining Products International, Inc., (2) Hercules and Link-N-Lock wood cribs and Propsetter by Strata Products (USA) Inc., (3) Variable Yielding Crib and Power Crib supports by Mountainland Support Systems, (4) the Confined Core Crib developed by Southern Utah Fuels Corporation; and (5) the MEGA prop by MBK Hydraulik. This paper assesses design considerations and compares the performance and application of these alternative secondary support systems.

  9. Secretary Moniz to Discuss Western Energy Landscape at Western Governors' Association Annual Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On Saturday, December 6, U.S. Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz will deliver keynote remarks at the Western Governors’ Association Winter Meeting in Las Vegas, Nevada. Secretary Moniz will discuss the energy landscape in the West and the region's role in leading the nation into a low-carbon future.

  10. NREL: Transmission Grid Integration - Western Wind and Solar Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Study Western Wind and Solar Integration Study The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study, one of the largest regional solar and wind integration studies to date, explores the question: Can we integrate large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West? Released December 2014-Phase 3 Research Report Says Western Grid Can Weather Disturbances Under High Renewable Penetrations With good system planning, sound engineering practices, and commercially available

  11. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Executive Summary | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Executive Summary Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Executive Summary This study investigates the operational impact of up to 35% energy penetration of wind, photovoltaics (PVs), and concentrating solar power (CSP) on the power system operated by the WestConnect group of utilities in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming. PDF icon western_wind_solar_integration More Documents & Publications Eastern Wind Integration and

  12. 2014 Annual Planning Summary for the Western Area Power Administration |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Western Area Power Administration 2014 Annual Planning Summary for the Western Area Power Administration The ongoing and projected Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements for 2014 and 2015 within the Western Area Power Administration. PDF icon WAPA-NEPA-APS-2014.pdf More Documents & Publications 2014 Annual Planning Summary for the Bonneville Power Administration 2014 Annual Planning Summary for the Southeastern Power Administration 2014 Annual

  13. PROJECT PROFILE: Case Western Reserve University (PREDICTS 2) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Case Western Reserve University (PREDICTS 2) PROJECT PROFILE: Case Western Reserve University (PREDICTS 2) CWRU Logo.jpg Funding Opportunity: PREDICTS 2 SunShot Subprogram: PV Location: Cleveland, OH Amount Awarded: $1,350,000 Awardee Cost Share: $348,425 Principal Investigator: Roger French Under their PREDICTS 2 award, researchers at Case Western Reserve University will analyze data sets from over 5 million solar photovoltaic (PV) panels around the world to learn how various

  14. Topic A Awardee: Western Electricity Coordinating Council | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Western Electricity Coordinating Council Topic A Awardee: Western Electricity Coordinating Council Regional Transmission Expansion Planning (RTEP) The America Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) directs the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide assistance for the development of interconnection-based transmission plans for the Eastern and Western Interconnections, and for ERCOT. WECC received notification from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on December 18, 2009 that it has been

  15. Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western and Eastern

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Interconnections, 2009-2012 (January 2014) | Department of Energy Constraints and Congestion in the Western and Eastern Interconnections, 2009-2012 (January 2014) Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western and Eastern Interconnections, 2009-2012 (January 2014) The "Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western and Eastern Interconnections, 2009-2012" document, available below, is a compilation of publicly-available data on transmission constraints and

  16. Department of Energy Announces Start of Western Area Power Administration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recovery Act Project | Department of Energy Start of Western Area Power Administration Recovery Act Project Department of Energy Announces Start of Western Area Power Administration Recovery Act Project September 16, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - With the goal of bringing new jobs and green power to the West, Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced today a large-scale transmission project to be financed using funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The Western Area

  17. Western New York Nuclear Service Center: History | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    History Western New York Nuclear Service Center: History Presentation made by Paul J. Bembia for the NTSF annual meeting held from May 14-16, 2013 in Buffalo, NY PDF icon Western New York Nuclear Service Center: History More Documents & Publications Western New York Nuclear Service Center: Geology Overview CX-011236: Categorical Exclusion Determination EIS-0226: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement

  18. Energy Secretary Highlights Hydrogen Fuel Initiative In Western New York |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Hydrogen Fuel Initiative In Western New York Energy Secretary Highlights Hydrogen Fuel Initiative In Western New York February 23, 2006 - 12:23pm Addthis HONEOYE FALLS, NY - Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Samuel W. Bodman highlighted President Bush's $1.2 billion, five-year commitment to the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative while visiting General Motors Fuel Cell Activities in western New York today. As part of President Bush's Advanced Energy Initiative, the Fiscal Year

  19. Savannah River Site - GSA Western | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    GSA Western Savannah River Site - GSA Western January 1, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis US Department of Energy Groundwater Database Groundwater Master Report InstallationName, State: Savannah River Site, SC Responsible DOE Office: Savannah River Site Plume Name: GSA Western Remediation Contractor: Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC PBS Number: 30 Report Last Updated: 2013 Contaminants Halogenated VOCs/SVOCs Present?: Yes VOC Name Concentration (ppb) Regulatory Driver Cleanup Requirement TCE 34 Yes 5

  20. NorthWestern Energy (Gas)- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NorthWestern Energy offers a variety of rebates for residential customers to make energy efficiency improvements in their existing homes. Incentives are available for heating equipment, insulation,...

  1. FORESTRY COLORADO WESTERN POWER ADMIN POC Cheryl Drake Telephone

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FORESTRY COLORADO WESTERN POWER ADMIN POC Cheryl Drake Telephone (720) 962-7154 Email drake@wapa.gov Timber tract operations 113110 Cutting and transporting timber 113310 GEORGIA ...

  2. Case Western Reserve University's Institute for Advanced Materials...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reserve University's Institute for Advanced Materials Jump to: navigation, search Name: The Institute for Advanced Materials at Case Western Reserve University Address: 2061...

  3. Western New York Sustainable Energy Association | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sustainable Energy Association Jump to: navigation, search Name: Western New York Sustainable Energy Association Address: 27 St. Catherine's Court Place: Buffalo, New York Zip:...

  4. Western Region Renewable Energy Markets: Implications for the...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Western Region Renewable Energy Markets: Implications for the Bureau of Land Management Scott Haase, Lynn Billman, and Rachel Gelman Produced under direction of the Bureau of Land ...

  5. NorthWestern Energy (Gas)- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NorthWestern Energy offers multiple rebate programs for commercial and industrial customers to make energy efficient improvements to their businesses. Incentives are available for heating,...

  6. Promotion of Rural Renewable Energy in Western China | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy in Western China Place: Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100026 Sector: Bioenergy Product: A programme launched by China Association of Rural Energy Industry (CAREI)...

  7. OE Releases "Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    "Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western and Eastern Interconnections, 2009-2012" document, which is now available for downloading, is a compilation of...

  8. Honeymoons Lead to Upgrades in Western Vermont | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    For homeowners who are hesitant to make energy efficiency upgrades, offering them a honeymoon might just be the motivation they need. NeighborWorks of Western Vermont (NWWVT) ...

  9. 2011 Annual Planning Summary for Western Area Power Administration (WAPA)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ongoing and projected Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements for 2011 and 2012 within the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA).

  10. Energy Efficiency in Western Utility Resource Plans Implications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project scope: Comparative analysis of recent resource plans filed by 14 utilities in the Western U.S. and Canada. Analyze treatment of conventional & emerging resource ...

  11. Western Pacific; Gas line plans continue to increase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quarles, W.R.; Thiede, K.; Parent, L.

    1990-11-01

    The authors report on pipeline activity in the Western Pacific. They discuss projects underway in Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and Singapore.

  12. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Background Membership "ESCWA comprises 14 Arab countries in Western Asia: Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, United Arab...

  13. Energy and Water in the Western and Texas Interconnects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the Western and Texas Interconnects - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future ...

  14. Energy Department's Fossil Energy Chief to Tour Western Michigan...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fossil Energy Chief to Tour Western Michigan University's Clean Coal Research Facilities, ... Capture and Sequestration (CCS) technology help industry make fossil energy use ...

  15. STATEMENT OF MR. MARK A. GABRIEL ADMINISTRATOR WESTERN AREA POWER...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Western markets and delivers reliable cost-based hydro power and related services from 56 Federal hydroelectric power plants owned and operated by the Bureau of Reclamation, the ...

  16. Transmission Siting in the Western United States | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: Transmission Siting in the Western United StatesPermittingRegulatory...

  17. Notices DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Notice of Availability for Upper Great Plains Wind Energy Final...

  18. BLM - Western BLM Bird Species of Conservation Concern List ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BLM - Western BLM Bird Species of Conservation Concern List Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Checklist: BLM -...

  19. Western Water and Power Production WWPP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water and Power Production WWPP Jump to: navigation, search Name: Western Water and Power Production (WWPP) Place: Albuquerque, New Mexico Zip: 88340 Sector: Biomass Product:...

  20. Renewable Energy Network of Entrepreneurs in Western New York...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    York RENEW NY Jump to: navigation, search Name: Renewable Energy Network of Entrepreneurs in Western New York (RENEW NY) Place: Rochester, New York Zip: 14623 Sector: Renewable...

  1. AUDIT REPORT Followup on Western Area Power Administration's...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... We also found that Western lacked specific policies and procedures for maintaining security equipment, controlling access keys, implementing risk assessment recommendations, and ...

  2. Western Energy Corridor -- Energy Resource Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie Roberts; Michael Hagood

    2011-06-01

    The world is facing significant growth in energy demand over the next several decades. Strategic in meeting this demand are the world-class energy resources concentrated along the Rocky Mountains and northern plains in Canada and the U.S., informally referred to as the Western Energy Corridor (WEC). The fossil energy resources in this region are rivaled only in a very few places in the world, and the proven uranium reserves are among the world's largest. Also concentrated in this region are renewable resources contributing to wind power, hydro power, bioenergy, geothermal energy, and solar energy. Substantial existing and planned energy infrastructure, including refineries, pipelines, electrical transmission lines, and rail lines provide access to these resources.

  3. 10 Year Transmission Plan for the Western Electricity Interconnection Released

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) announced the release of its first 10-Year Regional Transmission Plan (Plan) for the Western Interconnection. The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability awarded WECC a $14.5 million grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to expand on its transmission planning activities.

  4. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3: Technical Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-11-01

    Technical fact sheet outlining the key findings of Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3). NREL and GE find that with good system planning, sound engineering practices, and commercially available technologies, the Western grid can maintain reliability and stability during the crucial first minute after grid disturbances with high penetrations of wind and solar power.

  5. Western Grid Can Handle High Renewables in Challenging Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-11-01

    Fact sheet outlining the key findings of Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3). NREL and GE find that with good system planning, sound engineering practices, and commercially available technologies, the Western grid can maintain reliability and stability during the crucial first minute after grid disturbances with high penetrations of wind and solar power.

  6. Remotely Sensed Thermal Anomalies in western Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Landsat Thermal Anomalies Western Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the areas identified as areas of anomalous surface temperature from Landsat satellite imagery in Western Colorado. Data was obtained for two different dates. The digital numbers of each Landsat scene were converted to radiance and the temperature was calculated in degrees Kelvin and then converted to degrees Celsius for each land cover type using the emissivity of that cover type. And this process was repeated for each of the land cover types (open water, barren, deciduous forest and evergreen forest, mixed forest, shrub/scrub, grassland/herbaceous, pasture hay, and cultivated crops). The temperature of each pixel within each scene was calculated using the thermal band. In order to calculate the temperature an average emissivity value was used for each land cover type within each scene. The NLCD 2001 land cover classification raster data of the zones that cover Colorado were downloaded from USGS site and used to identify the land cover types within each scene. Areas that had temperature residual greater than 2?, and areas with temperature equal to 1? to 2?, were considered Landsat modeled very warm and warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies), respectively Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4546381.234113 m Left: 140556.857021 m Right: 573390.000000 m Bottom: 4094583.641581 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  7. ASTER Thermal Anomalies in western Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: ASTER Thermal Anomalies Western Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the areas identified as areas of anomalous surface temperature from ASTER satellite imagery. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ, and areas with temperature equal to 1σ to 2σ, were considered ASTER modeled very warm and warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies), respectively Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4547052.446651 m Left: 158917.090117 m Right: 4101162.228281 m Bottom: 4101162.228281 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  8. Western Area Power Administration. Combined power system financial statements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-02-26

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Western Area Power Administration`s combined power system statements of assets, Federal investment and liabilities, and the related combined statements of revenues, expenses and accumulated net revenues, and cash flows. The auditors` report on Westerns internal control structure disclosed three new reportable conditions concerning the lack of: (1) a reconciliation of stores inventory from subsidiary ledgers to summary financial information, (2) communication of interest during construction and related adjustments to interest on Federal investment, and (3) a system to prevent and detect power billing errors. None of the conditions were considered to be material weaknesses. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans. The auditors` report on Western`s compliance with laws and regulations also disclosed two new instances of noncompliance. Western failed to calculate nonreimbursable expenses in accordance with the Grand Canyon Protection Act and had an unexplained difference in gross Federal investment balances used to calculate interest on Federal investment. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans for the instances.

  9. Vertical deformation at western part of Sumatra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Febriyani, Caroline Prijatna, Kosasih Meilano, Irwan

    2015-04-24

    This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.

  10. WECC releases its first-ever transmission plan for the Western Interconnection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) announced the release of its first 10-Year Regional Transmission Plan (Plan) for the Western Interconnection.

  11. PP-304 Generadora del Desierto SAde C.V. Western Area Power Administra...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Generadora del Desierto SAde C.V. Western Area Power Administration PP-304 Generadora del Desierto SAde C.V. Western Area Power Administration Presidential permit authorizing ...

  12. Secretary Bodman Promotes Energy Bill to Western Governors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman in a speech before the Western Governors Association today expressed the need for Congress to pass comprehensive energy legislation and...

  13. ,"AGA Western Consuming Region Underground Natural Gas Storage...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...282016 11:29:25 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Underground Storage" ... Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (MMcf)","AGA Western Consuming Region ...

  14. New Geothermal Prospects in the Western United States Show Promise

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New geothermal prospects in the western United States show promise, according to the new 2013 Annual U.S. Geothermal Power Production and Development Report, published by the Geothermal Energy Association this week.

  15. Western BioEnergy Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BioEnergy Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Western BioEnergy Ltd Place: Cardiff, United Kingdom Zip: CF24 0EB Product: Developing a 13.8MW wood burning project in Margam,...

  16. DOW CHEMICAL U.S.A. + WESTERN DIVISION

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    DOW CHEMICAL U.S.A. + WESTERN DIVISION 2855 MITCHELL DRIVE WALNUT CREEK. CtyLlFORNlA 94598 ... cc: R.D. Axe D. L. Graham C. A. Levine AN OPEAATlNO UNIT OF ME DOW CHEMICAL COMPANY

  17. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Phase 2 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Lefton, S.; Kumar, N.; Venkataraman, S.; Jordan, G.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation summarizes the scope and results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2, which examined operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation in the West.

  18. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-09-01

    This is one-page, two-sided fact sheet presents high-level summary results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2, which examined operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation in the West.

  19. Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    isotope ratios in gases of thirty hot springs and geothermal wells and of five natural gas wells in the western United States show no relationship to regional conductive heat...

  20. Western Red-tailed Skink Distribution in Southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, D. B. and Gergor, P. D.

    2011-11-01

    This slide show reports a study to: determine Western Red-tailed Skink (WRTS) distribution on Nevada National Security Site (NNSS); identify habitat where WRTS occur; learn more about WRTS natural history; and document distribution of other species.

  1. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Greg Brinkman will present the results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), Phase 2. This study, which follows the first phase of WWSIS, focuses on potential emissions and wear...

  2. Join Us for the Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative's Western Regional

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Summit | Department of Energy Join Us for the Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative's Western Regional Summit Join Us for the Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative's Western Regional Summit March 25, 2014 - 1:45pm Addthis Additive manufacturing is just one of several technologies that are being advanced by the Energy Department’s Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative, which aims to strengthen U.S. competitiveness in the production of clean energy products | Photo by Oak Ridge National

  3. NREL: Transmission Grid Integration - Western Wind and Solar Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Study Phase 1 Research 1 Research The first phase of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study investigated the benefits and challenges of integrating up to 35% wind and solar energy in the WestConnect subregion and, more broadly, the Western Interconnection, in 2017. The study showed it is operationally possible to accommodate 30% wind and 5% solar energy if utilities substantially increase their coordination of operations over wider geographic areas and schedule their generation and

  4. On the Configuration of the US Western Interconnection Voltage Stability

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Boundary (Conference) | SciTech Connect On the Configuration of the US Western Interconnection Voltage Stability Boundary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: On the Configuration of the US Western Interconnection Voltage Stability Boundary Abstract-Stability limits are considered in power system planning and operations to estimate the available stability margins and, if possible, to maximize the utilization of transmission facilities. These important tasks are influenced by

  5. Energy and water in the Western and Texas interconnects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2010-08-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Electricity has initiated a $60M program to assist the electric industry in interconnection-level analysis and planning. The objective of this effort is to facilitate the development or strengthening of capabilities in each of the three interconnections serving the lower 48 states of the United States, to prepare analyses of transmission requirements under a broad range of alternative futures and develop long-term interconnection-wide transmission expansion plans. The interconnections are the Western Interconnection, the Eastern Interconnection, and the Texas Interconnection. One element of this program address the support and development of an integrated energy-water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning (the Eastern Interconnection is not participating in this element). Specific objectives include: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between members of this proposal team and the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), Western Governors Association (WGA), the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) and their associated stakeholder teams. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water stress implications of the transmission planning scenarios put forward by WECC, WGA, and ERCOT. The goals of this project are: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between Western Electricity Coordinating Council, Electric Reliability Council of Texas, Western Governors Association, and Western States Water Council. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water transmission planning scenarios.

  6. Management and Development of the Western Resources Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry Brown

    2009-03-09

    The purpose of this project was to manage the Western Resources Project, which included a comprehensive, basin-wide set of experiments investigating the impacts of coal bed methane (CBM; a.k.a. coal bed natural gas, CBNG) production on surface and groundwater in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming. This project included a number of participants including Apache Corporation, Conoco Phillips, Marathon, the Ucross Foundation, Stanford University, the University of Wyoming, Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, and Western Research Institute.

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Tropical Western

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pacific (TWP) Site. () | Data Explorer Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) Site. Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) Site. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of

  8. Aerosol Radiative Effects in the Tropical Western Pacific

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effects in the Tropical Western Pacific A. M. Vogelmann Center for Atmospheric Sciences Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California San Diego, California Introduction Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program observations are used to quantify the aerosol radiative effects in the climatically important Tropical Western Pacific (TWP). This quantification addresses two primary ARM objectives by (1) ascertaining the existing variability of the radiative forcing and its

  9. Exploration for basal Silurian reservoirs in western Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, S.T.; Howard, R.H.

    1995-07-31

    The discovery of two oil fields, Kellerville and Siloam, in shallow (600--675 ft deep) basal Silurian carbonates in 1958 and 1959 respectively, was the first new production in western Illinois since the discovery of the Devonian Hoing sandstone at Colmar-Plymouth field in 1914. A second, and more major, drilling boom in western Illinois resulted from official recognition in 1982 of a significant oil discovery in basal Silurian rocks at Buckhorn East oil field, later Buckhorn Consolidated. Within a relatively short time, numerous rigs were moving into western Illinois in the hopes of repeating the successes experienced at Buckhorn East. Unfortunately, there was no adequate geologic model that explained the oil accumulations in western Illinois. Basal Silurian reservoirs in western Illinois developed due to dolomitization of carbonate that filled shallow valleys incised in the underlying Maquoketa shale. Exploration for these reservoirs should utilize all of the clues that are presented here. It will be critical to continue gathering data from the area via quality wireline logs, cores, samples, and geophysical studies. It is unlikely that the Buckhorn-Siloam-Kellerville complex is unique in western Illinois.

  10. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Western Area Power Administration-Colorado River Storage Project Management Center

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Categorical Exclusion Determinations issued by Western Area Power Administration-Colorado River Storage Project Management Center.

  11. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Western Area Power Administration-Rocky Mountain Region

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Categorical Exclusion Determinations issued by Western Area Power Administration-Rocky Mountain Region.

  12. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Western Area Power Administration-Sierra Nevada Region

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Categorical Exclusion Determinations issued by Western Area Power Administration-Sierra Nevada Region.

  13. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Western Area Power Administration-Upper Great Plains Region

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Categorical Exclusion Determinations issued by Western Area Power Administration-Upper Great Plains Region.

  14. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Western Area Power Administration-Desert Southwest Region

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Categorical Exclusion Determinations issued by Western Area Power Administration-Desert Southwest Region.

  15. Western Renewable Energy Zones, Phase 1: QRA Identification Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pletka, R.; Finn, J.

    2009-10-01

    This report describes the Western Renewable Energy Zones (WREZ) Initiative Phase 1 Qualified Resource Area identification process, including the identification and economic analysis of Qualified Resource Areas (QRAs) and 'non-REZ' resources. These data and analyses will assist the Western US in its renewable energy transmission planning goals. The economic analysis in this report produced the input data for the WREZ Generation and Transmission model, which is a screening-level model to determine the optimal routing for and cost of delivering renewable energy from QRAs to load centers throughout the Western Interconnection. In June 2009, the Western Governors' Association accepted the Western Governors' Association WREZ Phase 1 Report in which the QRAs were mapped and the entire WREZ Phase 1 process was explained in general. That same month the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory released the WREZ Generation and Transmission Model (GTM), which was also developed by Black & Veatch. This report details the assumptions and methodologies that were used to produce the maps and resource analyses in the WGA report as well as the economic data used by the WREZ GTM. This report also provides the results of the non-REZ resource analysis for the first time in the WREZ initiative.

  16. Integrating High Penetrations of Solar in the Western United States: Results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Lew, D.

    2013-10-01

    This poster presents a summary of the results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2.

  17. Western Wind Strategy: Addressing Critical Issues for Wind Deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas Larson; Thomas Carr

    2012-03-30

    The goal of the Western Wind Strategy project was to help remove critical barriers to wind development in the Western Interconnection. The four stated objectives of this project were to: (1) identify the barriers, particularly barriers to the operational integration of renewables and barriers identified by load-serving entities (LSEs) that will be buying wind generation, (2) communicate the barriers to state officials, (3) create a collaborative process to address those barriers with the Western states, utilities and the renewable industry, and (4) provide a role model for other regions. The project has been on the forefront of identifying and informing state policy makers and utility regulators of critical issues related to wind energy and the integration of variable generation. The project has been a critical component in the efforts of states to push forward important reforms and innovations that will enable states to meet their renewable energy goals and lower the cost to consumers of integrating variable generation.

  18. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Initiated in 2007 to examine the operational impact of up to 35% penetration of wind, photovoltaic (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) energy on the electric power system, the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) is one of the largest regional wind and solar integration studies to date. The goal is to understand the effects of variability and uncertainty of wind, PV, and CSP on the grid. In the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 1, solar penetration was limited to 5%. Utility-scale PV was not included because of limited capability to model sub-hourly, utility-scale PV output . New techniques allow the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 to include high penetrations of solar - not only CSP and rooftop PV but also utility-scale PV plants.

  19. STEM Mentors Reach Nearly 300 Western Kentucky Sixth Graders | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy STEM Mentors Reach Nearly 300 Western Kentucky Sixth Graders STEM Mentors Reach Nearly 300 Western Kentucky Sixth Graders November 25, 2015 - 12:00pm Addthis David Curry (far right) teaches Ayden Mowery, Jake Miller, and Bella Presson (left to right) at Ballard County Middle School to read a pH strip to test water. David Curry (far right) teaches Ayden Mowery, Jake Miller, and Bella Presson (left to right) at Ballard County Middle School to read a pH strip to test water. Ken Davis

  20. Western Gas Sands Project: stratigrapy of the Piceance Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, S.

    1980-08-01

    The Western Gas Sands Project Core Program was initiated by US DOE to investigate various low permeability, gas bearing sandstones. Research to gain a better geological understanding of these sandstones and improve evaluation and stimulation techniques is being conducted. Tight gas sands are located in several mid-continent and western basins. This report deals with the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado. This discussion is an attempt to provide a general overview of the Piceance Basin stratigraphy and to be a useful reference of stratigraphic units and accompanying descriptions.

  1. Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Miller, N.; Clark, K.; Jordan, G.; Gao, Z.

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the variable characteristics of solar power, as well as the accompanying grid dynamic performance and operational economics for a system with significant solar generation. The paper will show results of economic operational simulations of a very high solar generation future for the western half of the United States.

  2. Maquoketa paleotopography key to reservoirs in western Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, S.T.; Ledbetter, J.C.

    1996-08-12

    Shallow Silurian reservoirs in western Illinois have been a primary target for exploration since the late 1950s. It was not until the discovery and development of Buckhorn Consolidated field in the early 1980s, however, that significant drilling efforts for Silurian reservoirs were focused on western Illinois. At Buckhorn, 1.7 million bbl of oil have been produced from a basal Silurian dolomite at about 650 ft. Drawn by inexpensive drilling and available acreage, hundreds of operators flocked to western Illinois to try their luck. By the late 1980s, however, exploration efforts in western Illinois were curtailed due to the failure to locate additional significant reservoirs. Much of this failure was due to the lack of a suitable geologic model that could be used to explain the reason for reservoir development and thereby guide exploration efforts. An article by Whitaker and Howard in 1995 presented a geologic model explaining Silurian reservoir development and stratigraphic entrapment of oil at Buckhorn Consolidated field were formed as Silurian dolomite in-filled a shallow paleovalley cut into the underlying Ordovician Maquoketa shale. Some companies have recently initiated new exploration efforts in the area using this model. This paper discusses the efforts and results of several of these new areas.

  3. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Hydropower Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acker, T.; Pete, C.

    2012-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) study of 20% Wind Energy by 2030 was conducted to consider the benefits, challenges, and costs associated with sourcing 20% of U.S. energy consumption from wind power by 2030. This study found that with proactive measures, no insurmountable barriers were identified to meet the 20% goal. Following this study, DOE and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted two more studies: the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) covering the eastern portion of the U.S., and the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) covering the western portion of the United States. The WWSIS was conducted by NREL and research partner General Electric (GE) in order to provide insight into the costs, technical or physical barriers, and operational impacts caused by the variability and uncertainty of wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power when employed to serve up to 35% of the load energy in the WestConnect region (Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming). WestConnect is composed of several utility companies working collaboratively to assess stakeholder and market needs to and develop cost-effective improvements to the western wholesale electricity market. Participants include the Arizona Public Service, El Paso Electric Company, NV Energy, Public Service of New Mexico, Salt River Project, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Cooperative, Tucson Electric Power, Xcel Energy and the Western Area Power Administration.

  4. Western Canadian coking coals -- Thermal rheology and coking quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leeder, W.R.; Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F.

    1997-12-31

    Methods of predicting coke strength developed from the thermal rheological properties of Carboniferous coals frequently indicate that Cretaceous coals would not make high quality coke -- yet both types of coals produce coke suitable for the iron blast furnace. This paper will discuss the reasons why Western Canadian coals exhibit lower rheological values and how to predict the strength of coke produced from them.

  5. Longest-Serving Active Paper Mill in the Western United States...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Longest-Serving Active Paper Mill in the Western United States Uncovers New Ways to Save Energy Longest-Serving Active Paper Mill in the Western United States Uncovers New Ways to ...

  6. The ARM program in the Tropical Western Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, W.E.; Barnes, F.J.; Ackerman, T.P.; Mather, J.H.

    1998-12-01

    The Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 as part of the US Global Change Research Program to improve the treatment of atmospheric radiative and cloud processes in computer models used to predict climate change. The overall goal of the ARM program is to develop and test parameterizations of important atmospheric processes, particularly cloud and radiative processes, for use in atmospheric models. This goal is being achieved through a combination of field measurements and modeling studies. Three primary locales were chosen for extensive field measurement facilities. These are the Southern Great Plains of the United States, the Tropical Western Pacific, and the North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean. This paper describes the ARM program in the Tropical Western Pacific locale.

  7. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Executive Summary, (WWSIS) May 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Piwko; K. Clark; L. Freeman; G. Jordan; N. Miller

    2010-05-01

    This report provides a summary of background, approach, and findings of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS).

  8. PP-304 Generadora del Desierto SAde C.V. Western Area Power Administration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy 4 Generadora del Desierto SAde C.V. Western Area Power Administration PP-304 Generadora del Desierto SAde C.V. Western Area Power Administration Presidential permit authorizing Generadora del Desierto SAde C.V. Western Area Power Administration to construct, operate, and maintain electric transmission facilities at the U.S-Mexico border. PDF icon PP-304 Generadora del Desierto SAde C.V. Western Area Power Administration More Documents & Publications Application for

  9. Notice of Violation, Western Allied Mechanical, Inc.- WEA-2009-03

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Issued to Western Allied Mechnical, Inc. related to a PVC Pipe Explosion at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

  10. CHP Market Potential in the Western States, September 2005 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Market Potential in the Western States, September 2005 CHP Market Potential in the Western States, September 2005 This 2005 report summarizes the combined heat and power (CHP) market potential for eight Western States - Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington. This is the final summary report of a series of reports designed to assist the U.S. Department of Energy in defining the CHP opportunity in the Western United States. PDF icon

  11. Tropical Western Pacific T. Ackerman Pennsylvania Sate University

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Western Pacific T. Ackerman Pennsylvania Sate University University Park, PA 16802 F. J. Barnes Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, NM 87545 W. Clements Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, NM 87545 D. Renne National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO 80401-3393 E. R. Westwater National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Wave Propagation Laboratory Boulder, CO 80303 T. Barnett Scripps Institute of Oceanography LaJolla, CA 92093 Introduction substantial variability associated

  12. Patterns of Convection in the Tropical Western Pacific

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Patterns of Convection in the Tropical Western Pacific J. H. Mather Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction Convection is ubiquitous throughout the maritime continent region. However, the frequency of convec- tion is not uniform. While much of this region does not experience seasons to the same degree as one finds in mid-latitudes, the annual cycle of the sun's passage does have a large impact on convection throughout the maritime continent and the tropical

  13. Western tight gas sands advanced logging workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, J B; Carroll, Jr, H B

    1982-04-01

    An advanced logging research program is one major aspect of the Western Tight Sands Program. Purpose of this workshop is to help BETC define critical logging needs for tight gas sands and to allow free interchange of ideas on all aspects of the current logging research program. Sixteen papers and abstracts are included together with discussions. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 12 papers. (DLC)

  14. UTILITIES COLORADO WESTERN POWER ADMIN POC Cheryl Drake Telephone

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    UTILITIES COLORADO WESTERN POWER ADMIN POC Cheryl Drake Telephone (720) 962-7154 Email drake@wapa.gov Electric Bulk Power Transmission and Control 221121 Electric Power Distribution 221122 GEORGIA SOUTHEASTERN POWER ADMIN POC Ann Craft Telephone (706) 213-3823 Email annc@sepa.doe.gov Electric Bulk Power Transmission and Control 221121 Electric Power Distribution 221122 OKLAHOMA SOUTHWESTERN POWER ADMIN POC Gary Bridges Telephone (918) 595-6671 Email gary.bridges@swpa.gov Electric Bulk Power

  15. Energy and Water in the Western and Texas Interconnects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the Western and Texas Interconnects - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  16. R and D in France and in Western Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bastin, A.J.F. )

    1991-06-01

    This paper deals with worldwide electric utility R and D, but focuses on France first, and not on Western Europe as a whole. Apart from the fact that the R and D of European utilities hardly show a homogeneous set, there are four basic reasons. To begin with, France represents roughly 20 percent of Western Europe by itself. Germany, now extended to the late DDR, is the only country to have a larger share. Second, Electricite de France (EDF) is the largest electric utility worldwide, with annual sales of about 410 TWh. Third, EDF has consistently shown one of the lowest electricity prices: as an average .44 FF par kWh (about $.08 per kWh) which comes up on comparing the 410 TWh sales with a 165 GFF turnover. Beyond these three points, which are more or less permanent, it appears that both EDF and its R and D division have been stable over the last three years. So the French power system is the largest subsystem in Western Europe where a single well-defined R and D policy can be described and assessed; this is what the authors are going to do now.

  17. Great Western Malting Company geothermal project, Pocatello, Idaho. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, N.T.; McGeen, M.A.; Corlett, D.F.; Urmston, R.

    1981-12-23

    The Great Western Malting Company recently constructed a barley malting facility in Pocatello, Idaho, designed to produce 6.0 million bushels per year of brewing malt. This facility uses natural gas to supply the energy for germination and kilning processes. The escalating cost of natural gas has prompted the company to look at alternate and more economical sources of energy. Trans Energy Systems has investigated the viabiity of using geothermal energy at the new barley processing plant. Preliminary investigations show that a geothermal resource probably exists, and payback on the installation of a system to utilize the resource will occur in under 2 years. The Great Western Malting plant site has geological characteristics which are similar to areas where productive geothermal wells have been established. Geological investigations indicate that resource water temperatures will be in the 150 to 200/sup 0/F range. Geothermal energy of this quality will supply 30 to 98% of the heating requirements currently supplied by natural gas for this malting plant. Trans Energy Systems has analyzed several systems of utilizing the geothermal resource at the Great Western barley malting facility. These systems included: direct use of geothermal water; geothermal energy heating process water through an intermediary heat exchanger; coal or gas boosted geothermal systems; and heat pump boosted geothermal system. The analysis examined the steps that are required to process the grain.

  18. Western Area Power Administration annual site environmental report for calendar year 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-12-31

    This document outlines the accomplishments and status of the environmental program of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) for calendar year 2005. In 2005, Western submitted 190 reports to state and local emergency response personnel and had 60 California Hazardous Materials Business Plans in place as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. These reports identify the hazardous substances contained at these sites. At sites where potential oil spills could harm surrounding ecosystems and waterways, Western prepares Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) plans. These plans identify measures to prevent spills from harming the environment, such as identifying the need for secondary containment at facilities. Western currently has SPCC plans for 154 facilities in 13 states. In 2005, Western updated 19 SPCC plans and prepared one new plan. Western operated under 107 environmental permits in 2005. Western evaluates the impact of its planned actions on the environment by preparing National Environmental Policy Act documentation. In 2005, Western completed or was working on 60 categorical exclusions, 18 environmental assessments and eight environmental impact statements, issued six Findings of No Significant Impact, and prepared four Mitigation Action Plans. Western held several public workshops/meetings and consulted with 70 American Indian Tribes for various projects. In 2005, Western was working on or had completed 11 Section 7 consultations under the Endangered Species Act. In 2005, Western recycled more than 3,600 metric tons of electrical equipment, mineral oil dielectric fluid, asphalt, fluorescent and metal halide light bulbs, wood poles and crossarms, and other items as well as office waste. Western made $437,816 worth of purchases containing recovered content materials. Western met the requirement of Executive Order 13148, Greening the Government through Leadership in Environmental Management to have its Environmental Management System in place by December 31, 2005.

  19. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2: Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 Preprint D. Lew, G. Brinkman, E. Ibanez, and B.-M. Hodge National Renewable Energy Laboratory J. King RePPAE To be presented at the 11th Annual International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as Well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants Conference Lisbon, Portugal November 13-15, 2012 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5500-56217 September 2012 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an

  20. Valve, compressor contracts awarded for Western Hemisphere projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-19

    Major valve and compressor contracts have been let for projects in the Western Hemisphere. Petrobras has awarded Nuovo Pignone, Florence, a $10.5 million contract to supply 400 valves for the 1,975-mile natural-gas pipeline being constructed from Bolivia into Brazil. Additionally, Brazilian company Maritima Petroleo and TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, have awarded Nuovo Pignone separate contracts to supply turbocompressor packages. The Brazilian contract is for offshore Campos Basin; the Canadian, for a major expansion of TCPL`s system delivering natural gas out of Alberta. The paper discusses the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline, compressor orders, and the companies.

  1. NREL: Transmission Grid Integration - Western Wind and Solar Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Study Phase 2 Research 2 Research Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) was initiated to determine the wear-and-tear costs and emissions impacts of cycling and to simulate grid operations to investigate the detailed impacts of wind and solar power on the fossil-fueled fleet in the West. Key Findings The negative impact of cycling on overall plant emissions is relatively small. The increase in plant emissions from cycling to accommodate variable renewables are more

  2. Western Interconnection Energy Imbalance Market Status and Prospects (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

    2011-10-01

    This presentation describes how a new wholesale electricity market for energy imbalance ancillary services could be implemented and operated. Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Method for calculating additional reserve requirements due to wind and solar production; (2) EIM results in substantial reduction in reserves requirements and ramping demand; (3) Reduced participation reduces benefits for all but reduces the benefits to non-participants the most; (4) Full participation leads to maximum benefit across the Western Interconnection, up to 42% of total reserve requirement; and (5) Regional EIM implementations have smaller but substantial benefits.

  3. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B.-M.; King, J.

    2012-09-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) investigates the impacts of high penetrations of wind and solar power into the Western Interconnection of the United States. WWSIS2 builds on the Phase 1 study but with far greater refinement in the level of data inputs and production simulation. It considers the differences between wind and solar power on systems operations. It considers mitigation options to accommodate wind and solar when full costs of wear-and-tear and full impacts of emissions rates are taken into account. It determines wear-and-tear costs and emissions impacts. New data sets were created for WWSIS2, and WWSIS1 data sets were refined to improve realism of plant output and forecasts. Four scenarios were defined for WWSIS2 that examine the differences between wind and solar and penetration level. Transmission was built out to bring resources to load. Statistical analysis was conducted to investigate wind and solar impacts at timescales ranging from seasonal down to 5 minutes.

  4. Power systems simulations of the western United States region.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Poch, L.; Thimmapuram, P.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2010-03-15

    This report documents a part of a broad assessment of energy-water-related issues in the western United States. The full analysis involved three Department of Energy national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. Argonne's objective in the overall project was to develop a regional power sector expansion forecast and a detailed unit-level operational (dispatch) analysis. With these two major analysis components, Argonne estimated current and future freshwater withdrawals and consumption related to the operation of U.S. thermal-electric power plants in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) region for the period 2005-2025. Water is withdrawn and used primarily for cooling but also for environmental control, such as sulfur scrubbers. The current scope of the analysis included three scenarios: (1) Baseline scenario as a benchmark for assessing the adequacy and cost-effectiveness of water conservation options and strategies, (2) High nuclear scenario, and (3) High renewables scenario. Baseline projections are consistent with forecasts made by the WECC and the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in its Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) (EIA 2006a). Water conservation scenarios are currently limited to two development alternatives that focus heavily on constructing new generating facilities with zero water consumption. These technologies include wind farms and nuclear power plants with dry cooling. Additional water conservation scenarios and estimates of water use associated with fuel or resource extraction and processing will be developed in follow-on analyses.

  5. Proposed framework for the Western Area Power Administration Environmental Risk Management Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glantz, C.S.; DiMassa, F.V.; Pelto, P.J.; Brothers, A.J.; Roybal, A.L.

    1994-12-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) views environmental protection and compliance as a top priority as it manages the construction, operation, and maintenance of its vast network of transmission lines, substations, and other facilities. A recent Department of Energy audit of Western`s environmental management activities recommends that Western adopt a formal environmental risk program. To accomplish this goal, Western, in conjunction with Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is in the process of developing a centrally coordinated environmental risk program. This report presents the results of this design effort, and indicates the direction in which Western`s environmental risk program is heading. Western`s environmental risk program will consist of three main components: risk communication, risk assessment, and risk management/decision making. Risk communication is defined as an exchange of information on the potential for threats to human health, public safety, or the environment. This information exchange provides a mechanism for public involvement, and also for the participation in the risk assessment and management process by diverse groups or offices within Western. The objective of risk assessment is to evaluate and rank the relative magnitude of risks associated with specific environmental issues that are facing Western. The evaluation and ranking is based on the best available scientific information and judgment and serves as input to the risk management process. Risk management takes risk information and combines it with relevant non-risk factors (e.g., legal mandates, public opinion, costs) to generate risk management options. A risk management tool, such as decision analysis, can be used to help make risk management choices.

  6. Inspection of Power Purchase Contracts at the Western Area Power Administration, IG-0372

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    IG-1 INFORMATION: Report on the "Inspection of Power Purchase Contracts at the Western Area Power Administration" TO:The Secretary BACKGROUND: The subject final report is provided for your information. The Office of Inspector General received an allegation regarding possible irregularities in certain power purchase contracts awarded by the Western Area Power Administration. Based on our survey of Western's power purchase procedures, we expanded our allegation based inquiry to include

  7. OE Releases "Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western and

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Eastern Interconnections, 2009-2012" | Department of Energy Releases "Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western and Eastern Interconnections, 2009-2012" OE Releases "Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western and Eastern Interconnections, 2009-2012" February 4, 2014 - 5:14pm Addthis The "Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western and Eastern Interconnections, 2009-2012" document, which is now available for downloading,

  8. DOE Names Mark A. Gabriel as New Western Area Power Administration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Administrator | Department of Energy Mark A. Gabriel as New Western Area Power Administration Administrator DOE Names Mark A. Gabriel as New Western Area Power Administration Administrator April 3, 2013 - 2:53pm Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON, D.C. - The Energy Department has chosen Mark A. Gabriel to be the new Administrator of the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) in Lakewood, Colorado, one of four Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) the Department oversees.

  9. ARM Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) Operations Management and Support: Securing ARM Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) Operations Management and Support: Securing ARM Data K. L. Nitschke South Pacific Regional Environment Programme Apia, Samoa L. Jones Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, New Mexico C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction The Tropical Western Pacific Office (TWPO) (a) has been tasked with providing operational management and support for three (b) climate station instrument facilities in the Tropical Western pacific

  10. Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas Western Hemisphere Clean Energy Initiative

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Ministers of Mexico, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Peru, Panama and the United States announced the creation of a new Western Hemisphere Clean Energy Initiative.

  11. Combining Balancing Areas' Variability: Impacts on Wind Integration in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Beuning, S.

    2010-07-01

    This paper investigates the potential impact of balancing area cooperation on a large-scale in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC).

  12. EIS-0386: Designation of Energy Corridors on Federal Land in Western States

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This EIS analyzes DOE's decision to designatate corridors on Federal land in the eleven Western States for oil, gas and hydrogen pipelines and electricity transmission and distribution facilities.

  13. Western Riverside Council of Governments- Home Energy Renovation Opportunity (HERO) Financing Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Western Riverside Council of Governments (WRCOG) is offering homeowners in WRCOG participating jurisdictions an opportunity to finance energy and water efficiency projects in their homes. The Home...

  14. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana, technology summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This document has been prepared by the DOE Environmental Management (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities funded through the Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) in Butte, Montana. Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance DOE`s cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US industry`s competitiveness in global environmental markets. WETO`s environmental technology research and testing activities focus on the recovery of useable resources from waste. Environmental technology development and commercialization activities will focus on mine cleanup, waste treatment, resource recovery, and water resource management. Since the site has no record of radioactive material use and no history of environmental contamination/remediation activities, DOE-EM can concentrate on performing developmental and demonstration activities without the demands of regulatory requirements and schedules. Thus, WETO will serve as a national resource for the development of new and innovative environmental technologies.

  15. The Genome of the Western Clawed Frog Xenopus tropicalis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hellsten, Uffe; Harland, Richard M.; Gilchrist, Michael J.; Hendrix, David; Jurka, Jerzy; Kapitonov, Vladimir; Ovcharenko, Ivan; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Shu, Shengqiang; Taher, Leila; Blitz, Ira L.; Blumberg, Bruce; Dichmann, Darwin S.; Dubchak, Inna; Amaya, Enrique; Detter, John C.; Fletcher, Russell; Gerhard, Daniela S.; Goodstein, David; Graves, Tina; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Grimwood, Jane; Kawashima, Takeshi; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan M.; Mead, Paul E.; Mitros, Therese; Ogino, Hajime; Ohta, Yuko; Poliakov, Alexander V.; Pollet, Nicolas; Robert, Jacques; Salamov, Asaf; Sater, Amy K.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Terry, Astrid; Vize, Peter D.; Warren, Wesley C.; Wells, Dan; Wills, Andrea; Wilson, Richard K.; Zimmerman, Lyle B.; Zorn, Aaron M.; Grainger, Robert; Grammer, Timothy; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Richardson, Paul M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2009-10-01

    The western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis is an important model for vertebrate development that combines experimental advantages of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis with more tractable genetics. Here we present a draft genome sequence assembly of X. tropicalis. This genome encodes over 20,000 protein-coding genes, including orthologs of at least 1,700 human disease genes. Over a million expressed sequence tags validated the annotation. More than one-third of the genome consists of transposable elements, with unusually prevalent DNA transposons. Like other tetrapods, the genome contains gene deserts enriched for conserved non-coding elements. The genome exhibits remarkable shared synteny with human and chicken over major parts of large chromosomes, broken by lineage-specific chromosome fusions and fissions, mainly in the mammalian lineage.

  16. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B. M.; Hummon, M.; Florita, A.; Heaney, M.

    2013-09-01

    The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West.

  17. Using Synchrophasors for Frequency Response Analysis in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosterev, Dmitry; Davies, Donald; Etingov, Pavel V.; Silverstein, Alison; Eto, Joseph H.

    2014-10-19

    Frequency response has received a lot of attention in recent years at the national level, which culminated in the development and approval of NERC BAL-003-1 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting Reliability Standard. WECC JSIS, NASPI, BPA, CERTS and PNNL collaborate on the common goals to deliver to the industry applications for frequency response analysis at interconnection, Balancing Authority and individual power plant levels. This paper describes a Frequency Response Analysis Tool that has been used for establishing a frequency response baseline for the Western Interconnection. This paper describes how synchrophasor data is used in for determination of generator characteristics frequency responsive, under load control or baseloaded. This paper also discusses and provides an example of how the frequency response distribution can impact power pick-up on major transmission paths.

  18. AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 2,449 542 13,722 29,089 48,055 33,801 35,146 27,858 45,903 22,113 5,766 6,401 1995 2,960 9,426 8,840 10,680 42,987 47,386 37,349 22,868 31,053 25,873 15,711 3,003 1996 2,819 8,696 9,595 20,495 41,216 36,086 25,987 20,787 24,773 17,795 13,530 9,122

  19. AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 1,226,103 1,232,392 1,232,392 1,232,392 1,232,392 1,232,392 1,232,392 1,232,392 1,232,392 1,232,392 1,232,392 1,232,392 1995 1,232,392 1,233,637 1,233,637 1,233,637 1,233,637 1,243,137 1,237,446 1,237,446 1,237,446 1,237,446 1,237,446 1,237,446 1996 1,237,446 1,237,446 1,237,446 1,237,446

  20. AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 280,414 208,968 200,997 216,283 261,894 293,909 326,049 349,274 387,670 405,477 381,931 342,394 1995 288,908 270,955 251,410 246,654 284,291 328,371 362,156 372,718 398,444 418,605 419,849 366,944 1996 280,620 236,878 221,371 232,189 268,812 299,619 312,736 313,747 330,116

  1. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Kumar, N.; Lefton, S.; Jordan, G.; Venkataraman, S.; King, J.

    2013-06-01

    This presentation accompanies Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study, a follow-on to Phase 1, which examined the operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation on the electric power system in the West and was one of the largest variable generation studies to date. High penetrations of variable generation can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 calculated these costs and emissions, and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of variable generation on the fossil-fueled fleet. The presentation highlights the scope of the study and results.

  2. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, Debra; Brinkman, Greg; Ibanez, E.; Florita, A.; Heaney, M.; Hodge, B. -M.; Hummon, M.; Stark, G.; King, J.; Lefton, S. A.; Kumar, N.; Agan, D.; Jordan, G.; Venkataraman, S.

    2013-09-01

    The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West(GE Energy 2010).

  3. Western Area Power Administration combined power system financial statements September 30, 1994 and 1993 and management overview and performance measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marwick, P.

    1994-12-31

    The attached report presents the results of the independent certified public accountant`s audit of the Department of Energy`s Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) combined financial statements as of September 30, 1994. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on Western`s 1994 statements. Their reports on Western`s internal control structure and on compliance with laws and regulations are also provided. Western was established in December 1977, and has the responsibility for the Federal electric power marketing and transmission functions in 15 central and western states. Western markets power, as required by existing law, at the lowest possible rates consistent with sound business principles to recover the costs of operation and capital invested in power facilities.

  4. Economic Development Impacts from Wind Power in the Western Governors' Association States (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.; Goldberg, M.; Milligan, M.

    2007-06-01

    The Western Governors' Association created the Clean and Diversified Energy Advisory Committee (CDEAC) "to utilize the region's diverse resources to produce affordable, sustainable, and environmentally reponsible energy." This conference poster, prepared for WINDPOWER 2007 in Los Angeles, outlines the economic impact to the Western United States from new wind energy projects.

  5. Aspects of Western Refining, Inc.'s Proposed Acquisition of Giant Industries, Inc.

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    Presentation of company-level, non-proprietary data and relevant aggregate data for U.S. refinery capacity and gasoline marketing of Western Refining and Giant Industries to inform discussions of Western Refining Inc.'s proposed acquisition of Giant Industries Inc. for a total of $1.5 billion, which was announced August 28, 2006.

  6. Integrated Energy-Water Planning in the Western and Texas Interconnections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vincent Tidwell; John Gasper; Robert Goldstein; Jordan Macknick; Gerald Sehlke; Michael Webber; Mark Wigmosta

    2013-07-01

    While long-term regional electricity transmission planning has traditionally focused on cost, infrastructure utilization, and reliability, issues concerning the availability of water represent an emerging issue. Thermoelectric expansion must be considered in the context of competing demands from other water use sectors balanced with fresh and non-fresh water supplies subject to climate variability. An integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) is being developed that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water availability and cost for long-range transmission planning. The project brings together electric transmission planners (Western Electricity Coordinating Council and Electric Reliability Council of Texas) with western water planners (Western Governors’ Association and the Western States Water Council). This paper lays out the basic framework for this integrated Energy-Water DSS.

  7. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) is a multi-purpose engineering test facility located in Butte, Montana, and is managed by MSE, Inc. WETO seeks to contribute to environmental research by emphasizing projects to develop heavy metals removal and recovery processes, thermal vitrification systems, and waste minimization/pollution prevention technologies. WETO`s environmental technology research and testing activities focus on the recovery of usable resources from waste. In one of WETO`s areas of focus, groundwater contamination, water from the Berkeley Pit, located near the WETO site, is being used in demonstrations directed toward the recovery of potable water and metal from the heavy metal-bearing water. The Berkeley Pit is part of an inactive copper mine near Butte that was once part of the nation`s largest open-pit mining operation. The Pit contains approximately 25 billion gallons of Berkeley Pit groundwater and surface water containing many dissolved minerals. As part of DOE/OST`s Resource Recovery Project (RRP), technologies are being demonstrated to not only clean the contaminated water but to recover metal values such as copper, zinc, and iron with an estimated gross value of more than $100 million. When recovered, the Berkeley Pit waters could benefit the entire Butte valley with new water resources for fisheries, irrigation, municipal, and industrial use. At WETO, the emphasis is on environmental technology development and commercialization activities, which will focus on mine cleanup, waste treatment, resource recovery, and water resource management.

  8. US Geological Survey publications on western tight gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupa, M.P.; Spencer, C.W.

    1989-02-01

    This bibliography includes reports published from 1977 through August 1988. In 1977 the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the US Department of Energy's, (DOE), Western Gas Sands Research program, initiated a geological program to identify and characterize natural gas resources in low-permeability (tight) reservoirs in the Rocky Mountain region. These reservoirs are present at depths of less than 2,000 ft (610 m) to greater than 20,000 ft (6,100 m). Only published reports readily available to the public are included in this report. Where appropriate, USGS researchers have incorporated administrative report information into later published studies. These studies cover a broad range of research from basic research on gas origin and migration to applied studies of production potential of reservoirs in individual wells. The early research included construction of regional well-log cross sections. These sections provide a basic stratigraphic framework for individual areas and basins. Most of these sections include drill-stem test and other well-test data so that the gas-bearing reservoirs can be seen in vertical and areal dimensions. For the convenience of the reader, the publications listed in this report have been indexed by general categories of (1) authors, (2) states, (3) geologic basins, (4) cross sections, (5) maps (6) studies of gas origin and migration, (7) reservoir or mineralogic studies, and (8) other reports of a regional or specific topical nature.

  9. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across Western Interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R; Ma, Ookie

    2013-11-01

    Demand response (DR) has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study. The developed framework utilizes a number of different informational resources, algorithms, and real-world measurements to perform a bottom-up approach in the development of a new database with representation of the potential demand response resource in the industrial sector across the U.S. This tool houses statistical values of energy and demand response (DR) potential by industrial plant and geospatially locates the information for aggregation for different territories without proprietary information. This report will discuss this framework and the analyzed quantities of demand response for Western Interconnect (WI) in support of evaluation of the cost production modeling with power grid modeling efforts of demand response.

  10. Conference Support, 23rd Western Photosynthesis Conference 2014, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wachter, Rebekka

    2015-01-12

    The Western Photosynthesis Conference is a regional conference that is held on an annual basis to bring together researchers primarily from the Western United States to share their newest research advances on photosynthetic processes. The 23rd conference was focused on both fundamental and more applied research on the biological conversion of solar energy to various energy storage forms. Several particular areas of solar energy conversion were emphasized in this conference (see below). Some of these topics, such as carbon limitations on photosynthesis, biomimicry and phenotyping, have traditionally not been incorporated extensively in the Western Photosynthesis Conference. We found that these topics have substantially broadened of the scope of this meeting.

  11. NorthWestern Energy (Electric)- E+ Home Lighting Fixtures Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NorthWestern Energy offers a variety of rebates for residential customers to make energy efficiency improvements in their existing homes. Electric supply customers who purchase or implement energy...

  12. Projects at the Western Environmental Technology Office. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    This report contains brief outlines of the multiple projects under the responsibility of the Western Environmental Technology Office in Butte Montana. These projects include biomass remediation, remediation of contaminated soils, mine waste technology, and several other types of remediation.

  13. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This is one-page, two-sided fact sheet presents high-level summary results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2, which examined operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation in the West.

  14. Fact #644: October 11, 2010 Share of Diesel Vehicle Sales Decline in Western Europe

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The share of new diesel vehicles sold in Western Europe rose steadily from 1999 to 2007. However, from 2007 to 2009, the share of diesel vehicle sales has begun to decline. Germany and Italy have...

  15. Heat Flow From Four New Research Drill Holes In The Western Cascades...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    From Four New Research Drill Holes In The Western Cascades, Oregon, Usa Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Heat Flow From Four New...

  16. Preliminary Notice of Violation,Western Allied Mechanical, Inc.- WEA-2009-03

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Issued to Western Allied Mechanical, Inc. related to a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe explosion that occurred in Sector 30 of the linear accelerator facility at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC).

  17. New Report Says Western Grid Can Weather Disturbances with High Wind, Solar Penetrations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A new report finds that with high penetrations of wind and solar on the grid, together with good system planning, sound engineering practices, and commercially available technologies, the Western Interconnection can withstand the crucial first minute after large grid disturbances.

  18. THURSDAY: Deputy Secretary of Energy to Visit Western Area Power Administration Transmission Substation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Deputy Secretary of Energy Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall will visit the Western Area Power Administration for a ceremony at the Electrical District No. 5 Substation to view progress on the Electrical District 5-to-Palo Verde transmission project.

  19. Winter storms and the Spring Transition over the western U.S.: Quantifying

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    discrepancies between coarse and high-resolution simulations and observations (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Winter storms and the Spring Transition over the western U.S.: Quantifying discrepancies between coarse and high-resolution simulations and observations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Winter storms and the Spring Transition over the western U.S.: Quantifying discrepancies between coarse and high-resolution simulations and observations × You are

  20. AUDIT REPORT Western Federal Power System's Fiscal Year 2014 Financial Statement Audit

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Financial Statement Audit OAS-FS-15-12 August 2015 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General Office of Audits and Inspections Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 August 6, 2015 MEMORANDUM FOR THE ADMINISTRATOR, WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION FROM: Daniel M. Weeber Assistant Inspector General for Audits and Administration Office of Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Audit Report: "Western Federal Power System's Fiscal Year 2014 Financial Statement Audit" The

  1. Anadarko's Proposed Acquisition of Kerr-McGee and Western Gas Resources

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    Presentation of company-level, non-proprietary data and relevant aggregate data for worldwide oil and natural gas reserves and production of Anadarko, Kerr-McGee, and Western Gas Resources to inform discussions of Anadarko Petroleum Corp.'s proposed acquisition of both Kerr-McGee Corp. and Western Gas Resources Inc. for a total of $23.3 billion, which was announced June 23, 2006.

  2. Winter storms and the Spring Transition over the western U.S.: Quantifying

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    discrepancies between coarse and high-resolution simulations and observations (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Winter storms and the Spring Transition over the western U.S.: Quantifying discrepancies between coarse and high-resolution simulations and observations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Winter storms and the Spring Transition over the western U.S.: Quantifying discrepancies between coarse and high-resolution simulations and observations This project

  3. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on electric utility systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veselka, T.D.; Portante, E.C.; Koritarov, V.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum estimates the effects of alternative contractual commitments that may be initiated by the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. It also studies hydropower operational restrictions at the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects in combination with these alternatives. Power marketing and hydropower operational effects are estimated in support of Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Electricity production and capacity expansion for utility systems that will be directly affected by alternatives specified in the EIS are simulated. Cost estimates are presented by utility type and for various activities such as capacity expansion, generation, long-term firm purchases and sales, fixed operation and maintenance expenses, and spot market activities. Operational changes at hydropower facilities are also investigated.

  4. How do Wind and Solar Power Affect Grid Operations: The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Milligan, M.; Jordan, G.; Freeman, L.; Miller, N.; Clark, K.; Piwko, R.

    2009-09-01

    This paper reviews the scope of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study, the development of wind and solar datasets, and the results to date on three scenarios.

  5. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on retail electricity rates and utility financial viability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodmer, E.; Fisher, R.E.; Hemphill, R.C.

    1995-03-01

    Changes in power contract terms for customers of Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office affect electricity rates for consumers of electric power in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. The impacts of electricity rate changes on consumers are studied by measuring impacts on the rates charged by individual utility systems, determining the average rates in regional areas, and conducting a detailed rate analysis of representative utility systems. The primary focus is an evaluation of the way retail electricity rates for Western`s preference customers vary with alternative pricing and power quantity commitment terms under Western`s long-term contracts to sell power (marketing programs). Retail rate impacts are emphasized because changes in the price of electricity are the most direct economic effect on businesses and residences arising from different Western contractual and operational policies. Retail rates are the mechanism by which changes in cost associated with Western`s contract terms are imposed on ultimate consumers, and rate changes determine the dollar level of payments for electric power incurred by the affected consumers. 41 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Management Letter on the Western Federal Power System's Fiscal Year 2013 Financial Statement Audit

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Letter on the Western Federal Power System's Fiscal Year 2013 Financial Statement Audit OAS-FS-15-04 December 2014 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General Office of Audits and Inspections KPMG LLP Suite 800 1225 17th Street Denver, CO 80202-5598 KPMG LLP is a Delaware limited liability partnership, the U.S. member firm of KPMG International Cooperative ("KPMG International"), a Swiss entity. September 5, 2014 The Administrator of Western Area Power Administration and the

  7. Assessment of municipal solid waste for energy production in the western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, B.J.; Texeira, R.H.

    1990-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents both a significant problem and an abundant resource for the production of energy. The residential, institutional, and industrial sectors of this country generate about 250 million tons of MSW each year. In this report, the authors have compiled data on the status of MSW in the 13-state western region, including economic and environmental issues. The report is designed to assist the members of the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program Ad Hoc Resource Committee in determining the potential for using MSW to produce energy in the region. 51 refs., 7 figs., 18 tabs.

  8. Longest-Serving Active Paper Mill in the Western United States Uncovers New

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ways to Save Energy | Department of Energy Longest-Serving Active Paper Mill in the Western United States Uncovers New Ways to Save Energy Longest-Serving Active Paper Mill in the Western United States Uncovers New Ways to Save Energy This case study describes how West Linn Paper Company's coated paper mill in West Linn, Oregon, saved nearly 58,200 MMBtu and $379,000 annually after receiving a DOE energy assessment and implementing steam system improvement recommendations. PDF icon

  9. Analysis of Cycling Costs in Western Wind and Solar Integration Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, G.; Venkataraman, S.

    2012-06-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) examined the impact of up to 30% penetration of variable renewable generation on the Western Electricity Coordinating Council system. Although start-up costs and higher operating costs because of part-load operation of thermal generators were included in the analysis, further investigation of additional costs associated with thermal unit cycling was deemed worthwhile. These additional cycling costs can be attributed to increases in capital as well as operations and maintenance costs because of wear and tear associated with increased unit cycling. This analysis examines the additional cycling costs of the thermal fleet by leveraging the results of WWSIS Phase 1 study.

  10. ,"Western Consuming Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Western Consuming Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Western Consuming Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","12/2014" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release

  11. ,"AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","12/2014" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release

  12. Project Reports for Te-Moak Tribe of Western Shoshone: Battle Mountain Colony- 2012 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Feasibility Study for the Battle Mountain Renewable Energy Park project ("Feasibility Study") will assess the feasibility, benefits, and impacts of a 5-megawatt (MW) solar photovoltaic (PV) generating system (the "Solar Project" or "Energy Park") on the Te-Moak Tribe of Western Shoshone Indians of Nevada Battle Mountain Colony in Battle Mountain, Nevada.

  13. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Final report, July 1989--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    Research and development of surface extraction and upgrading processes of western tar sands are described. Research areas included modified hot water, fluidized bed, and rotary kiln pyrolysis of tar sands for extraction of bitumen. Bitumen upgrading included solvent extraction of bitumen, and catalytic hydrotreating of bitumen. Characterization of Utah tar sand deposits is also included.

  14. Te-Moak Tribe of Western Shoshone: Battle Mountain Colony- 2012 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Feasibility Study for the Battle Mountain Renewable Energy Park project ("Feasibility Study") will assess the feasibility, benefits, and impacts of a 5-megawatt (MW) solar photovoltaic (PV) generating system (the "Solar Project" or "Energy Park") on the Te-Moak Tribe of Western Shoshone Indians of Nevada Battle Mountain Colony in Battle Mountain, Nevada.

  15. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3 -- Frequency Response and Transient Stability (Report and Executive Summary)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N. W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D'Aquila, R.

    2014-12-01

    The primary objectives of Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3) were to examine the large-scale transient stability and frequency response of the Western Interconnection with high wind and solar penetration, and to identify means to mitigate any adverse performance impacts via transmission reinforcements, storage, advanced control capabilities, or other alternatives.

  16. Rail transport of western coal: the history of rail deregulation and its influence on western coal resource development; prospects for legislative change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.N.; Rose, R.R.

    1985-04-01

    The one major cloud on the horizon for the future of western coal outside the region is the high cost of transportation. With rail transportation costs running as much as 75% of the delivered price to some of the Gulf States, the ability to keep rail costs in check becomes critical to the future of western coal. Four years of experience with deregulation of the railroads and the performance of the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) under the new regulatory environment have led many shippers and buyers of rail transported commodities to the belief that national legislation is needed to give better protection to shippers in monopoly service areas. A tentative legislative effort began in the last Congress. Proposals for rail rate relief for captive shippers are taking more formidable shape in the 99th Congress with the organization of a well-financed and staffed coalition of coal and utility companies. They are seeking amendments to the Staggers Act which more explicitly define the protections and procedures available to captive shippers in advancing complaints through the ICC. Industrial shippers have formed a coalition of their own for fair rail service practices. Finally, another group has emerged in recent months seeking a bolder strategy for rail rate relief. This group asserts that unfair rail practices violate the antitrust laws. At the same time, the railroads are building their defenses and developing alliances with interests in the shipping community that would resist a return to greater rail regulation. While the outcome of this controversy is uncertain, the issue of rail rate equity and reregulation promises to become one of the more active and hotly debated issues in the 99th Congress. However it comes out, the results will have a lasting impact on many western states, their present economy and future development.

  17. Western surface mine permitting and reclamation. Volume 2. Contractor documents. Part B. Hydrologic evaluation and reclamation technologies for western surface coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    The report presents an analysis of the hydrologic evaluation and reclamation technologies of western surface coal mining as they have evolved and advanced since passage of the Federal Surface Mine Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA). The primary emphasis of the report is threefold, addressing: Hydrologic data used in the preparation and review of mining and reclamation plans. Analytical techniques used to predict and evaluate the hydrologic impacts of mining. Evaluation criteria used to determine the success of hydrologic restoration. The report also discusses special reclamation practices used to preserve and restore the essential hydrologic functions of alluvial valley floors.

  18. Western Regional Center of the National Institute for Climatic Change Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hungate, Bruce A.

    2013-05-02

    The major goal of this project was fostering, integrating, synthesizing, and disseminating experimental, observational, and modeling research on predicted climate change in the western region of the U.S. and the impacts of that change on the structure, productivity, and climatic interactions of the region's natural and managed ecological systems. This was accomplished through administering a competitive grants program developed in collaboration with the other four regional centers of the NICCR. The activities supported included efforts to synthesize research on climate change in the western U.S. through meta-analysis studies, model comparisons, and data synthesis workshops. Results from this work were disseminated to the scientific and public media. This project also supported the development of the NICCR web site, hosted at NAU, which was used as the means to accept pre-proposal and proposal submissions for each funding cycle, and served as a clearing house for public outreach for results from NICCR-funded research

  19. Tropical Western Pacific site science mission plan. Semiannual project report, January--June 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackerman, T.; Mather, J.; Clements, W.; Barnes, F.

    1998-11-01

    The Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program was created in 1989 as part of the US Global Change Research Program to improve the treatment of atmospheric radiative and cloud processes in computer models used to predict climate change. The overall goal of the ARM program is to develop and test parameterizations of important atmospheric processes, particularly cloud and radiative processes, for use in atmospheric models. This goal is being achieved through a combination of field measurements and modeling studies. Three primary locales were chosen for extensive field measurement facilities. These are the Southern Great Plains (SGP) of the United States, the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), and the North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO). This Site Science Mission Plan [RPT(TWP)-010.000] describes the ARM program in the Tropical Western Pacific locale.

  20. Western Gas Sands Project status report, 1 February-29 February 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This edition of the WGSP Status Report summarizes the progress during February 1980, of the government-sponsored projects directed toward increasing gas production from low-permeability gas sands of the western United States. The National Laboratories and Energy Technology Centers continued research and experiments toward enhanced gas recovery. The field test and demonstration program continued with various projects, including test data collection by the DOE Well Test Facility at CIG's Miller No. 1 site.

  1. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-09-01

    This fact sheet is a basic overview of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study, Phase 2. The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions.

  2. NREL Study Suggests Cost Gap for Western Renewables Could Narrow by 2025 -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Releases | NREL NREL Study Suggests Cost Gap for Western Renewables Could Narrow by 2025 August 23, 2013 A new Energy Department study conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) indicates that by 2025 wind and solar power electricity generation could become cost-competitive without federal subsidies, if new renewable energy development occurs in the most productive locations. The report, "Beyond Renewable Portfolio Standards: An Assessment of Regional Supply and

  3. EIS-0182: Western Area Power Administration Energy Planning and Management Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) prepared this environmental impact statement to analyze the environmental impacts of its proposal to establish an Energy Planning and Management Program to replace its Guidelines and Acceptance Criteria for the Conservation and Renewable Energy Program and to evaluate ways to make future resource commitments to existing customers. If adopted, the proposed management program would require WAPA's long-term firm customers to implement long-term energy planning to help enhance efficient electric energy use.

  4. Geothermal systems of the Mono Basin-Long Valley region, eastern California and western Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higgins, C.T.; Flynn, T.; Chapman, R.H.; Trexler, D.T.; Chase, G.R.; Bacon, C.F.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The region that includes Mono Basin, Long Valley, the Bridgeport-Bodie Hills area, and Aurora, in eastern California and western Nevada was studied to determine the possible causes and interactions of the geothermal anomalies in the Mono Basin-Long Valley region as a whole. A special goal of the study was to locate possible shallow bodies of magma and to determine their influence on the hydrothermal systems in the region. (ACR)

  5. Microbase Cloud Products and Associated Heating Rates in the Tropical Western Pacific

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microbase Cloud Products and Associated Heating Rates in the Tropical Western Pacific J. H. Mather and S. A. McFarlane Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction The microbase value added product (Miller et al. 2003) provides a standardized framework for calculating and storing continuous retrievals of cloud microphysical properties including liquid water content (LWC), ice water content (IWC), and cloud droplet size. Microbase is part of the larger broadband heating

  6. Examination of Potential Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Clark, K.; King, J.; Kirby, B.; Guo, T.; Liu, G.

    2013-03-01

    In the Western Interconnection, there is significant interest in improving approaches to wide-area coordinated operations of the bulk electric power system, in part because of the increasing penetration of variable generation. One proposed solution is an energy imbalance market. This study focused on that approach alone, with the goal of identifying the potential benefits of an energy imbalance market in the year 2020.

  7. Aerosol Radiative Effects and Single-Scattering Properties in the Tropical Western Pacific

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effects and Single-Scattering Properties in the Tropical Western Pacific A. M. Vogelmann and P. J. Flatau Center for Atmospheric Sciences Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California San Diego, California M. A. Miller, M. J. Bartholomew, and R. M. Reynolds Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York P. J. Flatau University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Naval Research Laboratory Monterey, California K. M. Markowicz Institute of Geophysics University of Warsaw Warsaw,

  8. Western Dilemma

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    L'association du personnel présente Anthony Sampson, écrivain connu dans le monde entier par ses nombreux ouvrages et publications (International Harold Tribune, Observer, News Week). Il nous parle du commerce des armes et du Moyen Orient.

  9. Distribution of the Chuckwalla, Western Burrowing Owl, and Six Bat Species on the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cathy A. Willis

    1997-05-01

    Field Surveys were conducted in 1996 to determine the current distribution of several animal species of concern on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). They included the chuckwall (Sauromalus obesus), western burrowing owl (Speotyto cunicularia), and six species of bats. Nineteen chuckwallas and 118 scat locations were found during the chuckwalla field study. Eighteen western burrowing owls were found at 12 sighting locations during the 1996 field study. Of the eleven bat species of concern which might occur on the NTS, five, and possibly six, were captured during this survey. The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, takes certain management actions to protect and conserve the chuckwalla, western burrowing owl, and bats on the NTS. These actions are described and include: (1) conducting surveys at sites of proposed land-disturbing activities (2) altering projects whenever possible to avoid or minimize impacts to these species (3) maintaining a geospatial database of known habitat for species of concern (4) sharing sighting and trap location data gathered on the NTS with other local land and resource managers, and (5) conducting periodic field surveys to monitor these species distribution and relative abundance on the NTS.

  10. Mapping water availability, projected use and cost in the western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vincent C. Tidwell; Barbara D. Moreland; Katie M. Zemlick; Barry L. Roberts; Howard D. Passell; Daniel Jensen; Christopher Forsgren; Gerald Sehlke; Margaret A. Cook; Carey W. King

    2014-06-01

    New demands for water can be satisfied through a variety of source options. In some basins surface and/or groundwater may be available through permitting with the state water management agency (termed unappropriated water), alternatively water might be purchased and transferred out of its current use to another (termed appropriated water), or non-traditional water sources can be captured and treated (e.g., wastewater). The relative availability and cost of each source are key factors in the development decision. Unfortunately, these measures are location dependent with no consistent or comparable set of data available for evaluating competing water sources. With the help of western water managers, water availability was mapped for over 1200 watersheds throughout the western US. Five water sources were individually examined, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water, municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped was projected change in consumptive water use from 2010 to 2030. Associated costs to acquire, convey and treat the water, as necessary, for each of the five sources were estimated. These metrics were developed to support regional water planning and policy analysis with initial application to electric transmission planning in the western US.

  11. How Do High Levels of Wind and Solar Impact the Grid? The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Piwko, D.; Miller, N.; Jordan, G.; Clark, K.; Freeman, L.

    2010-12-01

    This paper is a brief introduction to the scope of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), inputs and scenario development, and the key findings of the study.

  12. EA-1906: Operations, Consolidation, and Upgrades at the Office of Secure Transportation Western Command Site, Albuquerque, NM

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates environmental impacts associated with the siting and construction of several proposed buildings, including a new vehicle maintenance facility and mobile equipment maintenance building (and their support structures) at the Western Command Site, Albuquerque, NM.

  13. Fact #716: February 27, 2012 Diesels are more than Half of New Cars Sold in Western Europe

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2011, nearly 52% of all new cars sold in Western Europe were diesel. In Belgium, Norway, France and Spain more than 70% of the new car market in 2011 were diesels. The market penetration of...

  14. Analysis of Well ER-EC-6 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-6 during the Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-6 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  15. Analysis of Well ER-EC-2a Testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-2a during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-2a Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  16. Analysis of well ER-18-2 testing, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley FY 2000 testing program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-18-2 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-18-2 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  17. Regional economic impacts of changes in electricity rates resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, T.; Griffes, P.; Edwards, B.K.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum describes an analysis of regional economic impacts resulting from changes in retail electricity rates due to six power marketing programs proposed by Western Area Power Administration (Western). Regional economic impacts of changes in rates are estimated in terms of five key regional economic variables: population, gross regional product, disposable income, employment, and household income. The REMI (Regional Impact Models, Inc.) and IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) models simulate economic impacts in nine subregions in the area in which Western power is sold for the years 1993, 2000, and 2008. Estimates show that impacts on aggregate economic activity in any of the subregions or years would be minimal for three reasons. First, the utilities that buy power from Western sell only a relatively small proportion of the total electricity sold in any of the subregions. Second, reliance of Western customers on Western power is fairly low in each subregion. Finally, electricity is not a significant input cost for any industry or for households in any subregion.

  18. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western Utility Resource Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-08-10

    Markets for renewable energy have historically been motivated primarily by policy efforts, but a less widely recognized driver is poised to also play a major role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Resource planning has re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, the most recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions--primarily coming from wind power--are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. This report examines how twelve western utilities treat renewable energy in their recent resource plans. In aggregate, these utilities supply approximately half of all electricity demand in the western United States. Our purpose is twofold: (1) to highlight the growing importance of utility IRP as a current and future driver of renewable energy, and (2) to identify methodological/modeling issues, and suggest possible improvements to methods used to evaluate renewable energy as a resource option. Here we summarize the key findings of the report, beginning with a discussion of the planned renewable energy additions called for by the twelve utilities, an overview of how these plans incorporated renewables into candidate portfolios, and a review of the specific technology cost and performance assumptions they made, primarily for wind power. We then turn to the utilities' analysis of natural gas price and environmental compliance risks, and examine how the utilities traded off portfolio cost and risk in selecting a preferred portfolio.

  19. Physical Impacts of Climate Change on the Western US Electricity System: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughlin, Katie; Goldman, Charles

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study of the possible physical impacts of climate change on the electric power system, and how these impacts could be incorporated into resource planning in the Western United States. While many aspects of climate change and energy have been discussed in the literature, there has not yet been a systematic review of the relationship between specific physical effects and the quantitative analyses that are commonly used in planning studies. The core of the problem is to understand how the electric system is vulnerable to physical weather risk, and how to make use of information from climate models to characterize the way these risks may evolve over time, including a treatment of uncertainty. In this paper, to provide the necessary technical background in climate science, we present an overview of the basic physics of climate and explain some of the methodologies used in climate modeling studies, particularly the importance of emissions scenarios. We also provide a brief survey of recent climate-related studies relevant to electric system planning in the Western US. To define the institutional context, we discuss the core elements of the resource and reliability planning processes used currently by utilities and by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council. To illustrate more precisely how climate-related risk could be incorporated into modeling exercises, we discuss three idealized examples. Overall, we argue that existing methods of analysis can and should be extended to encompass the uncertainties related to future climate. While the focus here is on risk related to physical impacts, the same principles apply to a consideration of how future climate change policy decisions might impact the design and functioning of the electric grid. We conclude with some suggestions and recommendations on how to begin developing this approach within the existing electric system planning framework for the West.

  20. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3A: Low Levels of Synchronous Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Nicholas W.; Leonardi, Bruno; D'Aquila, Robert; Clark, Kara

    2015-11-17

    The stability of the North American electric power grids under conditions of high penetrations of wind and solar is a significant concern and possible impediment to reaching renewable energy goals. The 33% wind and solar annual energy penetration considered in this study results in substantial changes to the characteristics of the bulk power system. This includes different power flow patterns, different commitment and dispatch of existing synchronous generation, and different dynamic behavior from wind and solar generation. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, is one of the largest regional solar and wind integration studies to date. In multiple phases, it has explored different aspects of the question: Can we integrate large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West? The work reported here focused on the impact of low levels of synchronous generation on the transient stability performance in one part of the region in which wind generation has displaced synchronous thermal generation under highly stressed, weak system conditions. It is essentially an extension of WWSIS-3. Transient stability, the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism among all elements following disturbances, is a major constraint on operations in many grids, including the western U.S. and Texas systems. These constraints primarily concern the performance of the large-scale bulk power system. But grid-wide stability concerns with high penetrations of wind and solar are still not thoroughly understood. This work focuses on 'traditional' fundamental frequency stability issues, such as maintaining synchronism, frequency, and voltage. The objectives of this study are to better understand the implications of low levels of synchronous generation and a weak grid on overall system performance by: 1) Investigating the Western Interconnection under conditions of both high renewable generation (e.g., wind and solar) and low synchronous generation (e.g., significant coal power plant decommitment or retirement); and 2) Analyzing both the large-scale stability of the Western Interconnection and regional stability issues driven by more geographically dispersed renewable generation interacting with a transmission grid that evolved with large, central station plants at key nodes. As noted above, the work reported here is an extension of the research performed in WWSIS-3.

  1. Trenton strata in western Illinois Basin, Brown and Schuyler Counties, Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pochel, R.M.

    1984-12-01

    Trenton strata in the western Illinois basin are very good prospects for oil exploration. Much drilling has been done in the area but, as yet, no producing wells have been completed. Oil stains and some tars have been found in some samples from most wells. The Trenton in the area of Brown and Schuyler Counties is a fine-grained limestone that underlies the Maquoketa Shale at an average depth of 800 ft (244 m). Because of its position near the edge of the Illinois basin, the stratigraphy varies considerably and inconsistencies are present in most samples viewed.

  2. Environmental implications associated with integrated resource planning by public utilities in the western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, M.C.; Haber, G.S.; Cothran, J.N.; Hand, M.M.

    1994-08-01

    The Western Area Power Administration is about to impose integrated resource planning requirements on its 612 public-power customers as part of its Energy Planning and Management Program (EPAM) and consistent with the Energy Policy Act of 1992. EPAM will affect public utilities over a 15-state region stretching from Minnesota to California, Montana to Texas. In this study, an assessment is made of the environmental impacts of the IRP requirements. Environmental impacts are calculated based on modeled changes in electric power generation and capacity additions.

  3. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3A: Low Levels of Synchronous Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3A: Low Levels of Synchronous Generation Nicholas W. Miller, Bruno Leonardi, and Robert D'Aquila GE Energy Management Kara Clark National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5D00-64822 November 2015 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy

  4. Sub-Hourly Impacts of High Solar Penetrations in the Western United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hummon, M.; Hodge, B. M.; Heaney, M.; King, J.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents results of analysis on the sub-hourly impacts of high solar penetrations from the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2. Extreme event analysis showed that most large ramps were due to sunrise and sunset events, which have a significant predictability component. Variability in general was much higher in the high-solar versus high-wind scenario. Reserve methodologies that had already been developed for wind were therefore modified to take into account the predictability component of solar variability.

  5. Value of Improved Wind Power Forecasting in the Western Interconnection (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B.

    2013-12-01

    Wind power forecasting is a necessary and important technology for incorporating wind power into the unit commitment and dispatch process. It is expected to become increasingly important with higher renewable energy penetration rates and progress toward the smart grid. There is consensus that wind power forecasting can help utility operations with increasing wind power penetration; however, there is far from a consensus about the economic value of improved forecasts. This work explores the value of improved wind power forecasting in the Western Interconnection of the United States.

  6. Western Gas Sands Project: production histories of the Piceance and Uinta basins of Colorado and Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, S.; Kohout, J.

    1980-11-20

    Current United States geological tight sand designations in the Piceance and Uinta Basins' Western Gas Sands Project include the Mesaverde Group, Fort Union and Wasatch Formations. Others, such as the Dakota, Cedar Mountain, Morrison and Mancos may eventually be included. Future production from these formations will probably be closely associated with existing trends. Cumulative gas production through December 1979, of the Mesaverde Group, Fort Union and Wasatch Formations in the Piceance and Uinta Basins is less than 275 billion cubic feet. This contrasts dramatically with potential gas in place estimates of 360 trillion cubic feet. If the geology can be fully understood and engineering problems surmounted, significant potential reserves can be exploited.

  7. Western gas sands project. Status report, 1 July-31 July, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The progress of the government-sponsored projects, directed towards increasing gas production from the low permeability gas sands of the western United States, is summarized. A subcontract was approved between Gas Research Institute and M.D. Wood, Inc. to obtain information on hydraulic fracture length. A meeting was held with Superior Oil Company during July to discuss possible sites for the multi-well experiment. Bartlesville Energy Technology Center continued work toward the assessment of fracture fluid effects on post fracture test times. A full report of the Seismic Formation Mapping Program will be issued by Sandia after review and editing have been completed.

  8. Western gas sands project. Status report, 1 June-30 June 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Progress of the government-sponsored projects during June 1980, that are directed towards increasing gas production from the low permeability gas sands of the western United States, is summarized. Northwest Exploration declined use of their site for the multi-well experiment; additional sites are being contemplated. Experiments began at Bartlesville Energy Technology Center designed to examine fracture closure and crushing strength of bauxite. At Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, work is progressing on the code to calculate fluid motion in an expanding propagation crack.

  9. Use of Low-Temperature Geothermal Energy for Desalination in the Western United States

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Use of Low-Temperature Geothermal Energy for Desalination in the Western United States Craig S. Turchi and Sertaç Akar National Renewable Energy Laboratory Tzahi Cath, Johan Vanneste, and Mengistu Geza Colorado School of Mines Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-65277 November 2015 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National

  10. Exploration model for shallow Silurian (Kankakee) carbonate reservoirs in western Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crockett, J.E.; Seyler, B.J.; Whitaker, S.

    1987-09-01

    Reservoirs in shallow (600-650 ft deep) basal Silurian Kankakee carbonates at Buckhorn consolidated, Siloam, and Kellerville oil fields in western Illinois have produced nearly 2 million bbl of oil, but were developed essentially by random drilling. A new exploration model that combines lithologic studies and isopach mapping has been developed at the Illinois State Geological Survey. Isopach mapping of Silurian and Devonian rocks between an organic facies in the Mississippian-Devonian New Albany Shale and the top of the Ordovician Maquoketa Shale reveals thickened sequences that coincide with most of the oil fields. These thickened intervals apparently reflect subtle paleovalleys eroded into the Maquoketa shale during the Ordovician-Silurian hiatus. During the initial Silurian marine transgression, these paleovalleys at the base of the Kankakee were filled with carbonates to form the thickened sequences. Differential erosion at the top of the Kankakee does not satisfactorily explain the locally thickened sequences in the Kankakee. Lithologic studies suggest that subsurface fluid flows concentrated along these paleovalleys contributed to subsequent diagenesis of valleyfill carbonates. Diagenetic alteration of these carbonates resulted in development of basal Kankakee reservoirs within the paleovalleys. This concept of Kankakee reservoirs occurring within paleovalleys at the Ordovician-Silurian unconformity is a new exploration model that can aid in the search for similar traps in western Illinois.

  11. Source rock screening studies of Ordovician Maquoketa shale in western Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Autrey, A.; Crockett, J.E.; Dickerson, D.R.; Oltz, D.F.; Seyler, B.J.; Warren, R.

    1987-09-01

    Rock-Eval (pyrolysis) studies of Ordovician Maquoketa Shale samples (cuttings and cores) from the shallow subsurface (500-800 ft deep) in western Illinois indicate that facies within the Maquoketa have potential as hydrocarbon source rocks. Dark, presumably organic-rich zones within the Maquoketa Shale were selected and analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC), Rock-Eval (pyrolysis), and bulk and clay mineralogy using x-ray diffraction. Preliminary results from six samples from Schuyler, McDonough, and Fulton Counties show TOC values ranging from 4.70% to as high as 12.90%. Rock-Eval parameters, measured by heating organic matter in an inert atmosphere, indicate source rock maturity and petroleum-generative potential. Screening studies, using the Rock-Eval process, describe very good source rock potential in facies of the Maquoketa Shale. Further studies at the Illinois State Geological Survey will expand on these preliminary results. This study complements a proposed exploration model in western Illinois and further suggests the possibility of source rocks on the flanks of the Illinois basin. Long-distance migration from more deeply buried effective source rocks in southern Illinois has been the traditional mechanism proposed for petroleum in basin-flank reservoirs. Localized source rocks can be an alternative to long-distance migration, and can expand the possibilities of basin-flank reservoirs, encouraging further exploration in these areas.

  12. ARM Research in the Equatorial Western Pacific: A Decade and Counting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Charles N.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Minnis, Patrick; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Mather, James H.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mace, Gerald G.; Jensen, Michael; Jakob, Christian

    2013-05-22

    The tropical western Pacific (TWP) is an important climatic region. Strong solar heating, warm sea surface temperatures and the annual progression of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) across this region generate abundant convective systems, which through their effects on the heat and water budgets have a profound impact on global climate and precipitation. To accurately represent tropical cloud systems in models, measurements of tropical clouds, the environment in which they reside, and their impact on the radiation and water budgets are needed. Because of the remote location, ground-based datasets of cloud, atmosphere, and radiation properties from the TWP region have traditionally come primarily from short-term field experiments. While providing extremely useful information on physical processes, these datasets are limited in statistical and climatological information because of their short duration. To provide long-term measurements of the surface radiation budget in the tropics, and the atmospheric properties that affect it, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program established a measurement site on Manus Island, Papua New Guinea in 1996 and on the island republic of Nauru in late 1998. These sites provide unique datasets available from more than 10 years of operation in the equatorial western Pacific on Manus and Nauru. We present examples of the scientific use of these datasets including characterization of cloud properties, analysis of cloud radiative forcing, model studies of tropical clouds and processes, and validation of satellite algorithms. We also note new instrumentation recently installed at the Manus site that will expand opportunities for tropical atmospheric science.

  13. Are Greenhouse Gases Changing ENSO Precursors in the Western North Pacific?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, S-Y; Heureux, Michelle L.; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2013-09-01

    Using multiple observational and modeling datasets, we document a strengthening relationship between boreal winter sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the western North Pacific (WNP) and the development of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) one year later. The increased WNP-ENSO association emerged in the mid 20th century and has grown through the present, reaching correlation coefficients as high as ~0.70 in recent decades. Fully coupled climate experiments with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) replicate the WNP-ENSO association and indicate that greenhouse gases (GHG) are largely responsible for the observed increase. We speculate that shifts in the location and amplitudes of positive SST trends in the subtropical-tropical western Pacific impacts the low-level circulation so that WNP variability is increasingly influencing the development of ENSO one year later. A strengthened GHG-driven relationship between the WNP and ENSO provides an example of how anthropogenic climate change can potentially improve the skill of intraseasonal-to-interannual climate prediction.

  14. Western Region Renewable Energy Markets: Implications for the Bureau of Land Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haase, S.; Billman, L.; Gelman, R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) with an overview of renewable energy (RE) generation markets, transmission planning efforts, and the ongoing role of the BLM RE projects in the electricity markets of the 11 states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming) that comprise the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Region. This analysis focuses on the status of, and projections for, likely development of non-hydroelectric renewable electricity from solar (including photovoltaic [PV] and concentrating solar power [CSP]), wind, biomass and geothermal resources in these states. Absent new policy drivers and without the extension of the DOE loan guarantee program and Treasury's 1603 program, state RPS requirements are likely to remain a primary driver for new RE deployment in the western United States. Assuming no additional policy incentives are implemented, projected RE demand for the WECC states by 2020 is 134,000 GWh. Installed capacity to meet that demand will need to be within the range of 28,000-46,000 MW.

  15. Electricity pricing as a demand-side management strategy: Western lessons for developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, L.J.

    1990-12-01

    Electric utilities in the Western world have increasingly realized that load commitments can be met not only by constructing new generating plants but also by influencing electricity demand. This demand-side management (DSM) process requires that electric utilities promote measures on the customer's side of the meter to directly or indirectly influence electricity consumption to meet desired load objectives. An important demand-side option to achieve these load objectives is innovative electricity pricing, both by itself and as a financial incentive for other demand-site measures. This study explores electricity pricing as a DSM strategy, addressing four questions in the process: What is the Western experience with DSM in general and electricity pricing in particular Do innovative pricing strategies alter the amount and pattern of electricity consumption Do the benefits of these pricing strategies outweigh the costs of implementation What are future directions in electricity pricing Although DSM can be used to promote increases in electricity consumption for electric utilities with excess capacity as well as to slow demand growth for capacity-short utilities, emphasis here is placed on the latter. The discussion should be especially useful for electric utilities in developing countries that are exploring alternatives to capacity expansion to meet current and future electric power demand.

  16. Operation of Concentrating Solar Power Plants in the Western Wind and Solar Integration Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.; Hummon, M.

    2014-05-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) explores various aspects of the challenges and impacts of integrating large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West. The phase 2 study (WWSIS-2) is one of the first to include dispatchable concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) in multiple scenarios of renewable penetration and mix. As a result, it provides unique insights into CSP plant operation, grid benefits, and how CSP operation and configuration may need to change under scenarios of increased renewable penetration. Examination of the WWSIS-2 results indicates that in all scenarios, CSP plants with TES provides firm system capacity, reducing the net demand and the need for conventional thermal capacity. The plants also reduced demand during periods of short-duration, high ramping requirements that often require use of lower efficiency peaking units. Changes in CSP operation are driven largely by the presence of other solar generation, particularly PV. Use of storage by the CSP plants increases in the higher solar scenarios, with operation of the plant often shifted to later in the day. CSP operation also becomes more variable, including more frequent starts. Finally, CSP output is often very low during the day in scenarios with significant PV, which helps decrease overall renewable curtailment (over-generation). However, the configuration studied is likely not optimal for High Solar Scenario implying further analysis of CSP plant configuration is needed to understand its role in enabling high renewable scenarios in the Western United States.

  17. Regional paleotopographic trends and production, Chesterian and Morrowan strata, Western Interior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolson, J.; Adams, C.; Van Zant, K. )

    1991-06-01

    Late Chesterian (Mississippian) and Morrowan (Pennsylvanian) unconformity-bounded packages in the Western Interior have traditionally been viewed as sequences separated by a regional basal Pennsylvanian unconformity. Analysis of alluvial valley trends and paleontological data suggests that these sequences are related and formed in response to multiple relative sea level fluctuations initiated in the Chesterian which continued throughout the Pennsylvanian. The Darwin, Tyler, Morrowan, and Humbug formations of the Western Interior appear to have formed in retrogradational parasequence sets of alluvial valley fills and marine transgressive systems tracts repeatedly developed around the flanks of the transcontinental arch. Relative sea level rises following each major incisement created a complex intertonguing of marine strata responsible for fluvial aggradation of each valley system. These sequences progressively backstep and grow younger toward the transcontinental arch, where Atokan and Desmoinesan strata cap the oldest preserved surfaces. At least four major paleodrainage basins have been identified, and valley-fill production has been established in three of these. The previously unrecognized age equivalency of these formations provides a new regional sequence stratigraphic interpretation which has hydrocarbon exploration implications in frontier areas of Utah and Colorado. Seismic resolution and an understanding of hydrocarbon migration paths hold the key to developing new exploration trends.

  18. Rhythmic bedding patterns for locating structural features, Niobrara Formation, United States western interior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laferriere, A.P.; Hattin, D.E.

    1989-05-01

    Milankovitch-type bedding cycles are well developed in the Upper Cretaceous Fort Hays Limestone Member, Niobrara Formation. These time-equivalent cycles can be correlated across much of Colorado, Kansas, and northeastern New Mexico by combining subsurface and outcrop data. Documentation of thickness variations within the regionally persistent Fort Hays bedding sequences furnishes a basis for fine-scale analysis of Late Cretaceous crustal movements within the eastern ramp region of the Western Interior foreland basin. Regional thickness changes in groups of shale-limestone couplets were correlated and mapped in outcrop and in the subsurface to locate structural elements that influenced Fort Hays deposition. In the Denver-Julesburg basin of Colorado and western Kansas, up to 6.1 m (20 ft) of thinning of the section occurs dominantly along northeastwardly trending belts formed during Late Cretaceous reactivation of the Transcontinental arch. Mapping of these small-scale thickness changes in the Fort Hays demonstrates that Cretaceous reactivation of the Transcontinental arch was not restricted to the northern part of the Denver-Julesburg basin. Additional structures may occur as far south as the Colorado-New Mexico border. A northwestwardly thinning trend is also apparent and may have resulted from increased compaction and diagenesis, reduction of sediment input during transgression, or from uplift in the vicinity of the Colorado Front Range. 8 figures.

  19. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy inWestern Utility Resource Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2005-09-01

    Markets for renewable electricity have grown significantly in recent years, motivated in part by federal tax incentives and in part by state renewables portfolio standards and renewable energy funds. State renewables portfolio standards, for example, motivated approximately 45% of the 4,300 MW of wind power installed in the U.S. from 2001 through 2004, while renewable energy funds supported an additional 15% of these installations. Despite the importance of these state policies, a less widely recognized driver for renewable energy market growth is poised to also play an important role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Formal resource planning processes have re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions - primarily coming from wind power - are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. The treatment of renewable energy in utility resource plans is not uniform, however. Assumptions about the direct and indirect costs of renewable resources, as well as resource availability, differ, as do approaches to incorporating such resources into the candidate portfolios that are analyzed in utility IRPs. The treatment of natural gas price risk, as well as the risk of future environmental regulations, also varies substantially. How utilities balance expected portfolio cost versus risk in selecting a preferred portfolio also differs. Each of these variables may have a substantial effect on the degree to which renewable energy contributes to the preferred portfolio of each utility IRP. This article, which is based on a longer report from Berkeley Lab, examines how twelve western utilities - Avista, Idaho Power, NorthWestern Energy (NorthWestern or NWE), Portland General Electric (PGE), Puget Sound Energy (PSE), PacifiCorp, Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo), Nevada Power, Sierra Pacific, Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) - treat renewable energy in their recent resource plans. In aggregate, these utilities supply approximately half of all electricity demand in the western United States. In reviewing these plans, our purpose is twofold: (1) to highlight the growing importance of utility IRP as a current and future driver of renewable energy, and (2) to suggest possible improvements to methods used to evaluate renewable energy as a resource option. This article begins with a discussion of the planned renewable energy additions called for by the twelve utilities in our sample, followed by an overview of how these plans incorporated renewables into candidate portfolios, and a review of the specific technology cost and performance assumptions they made, primarily for wind power. We then turn to the utilities analysis of natural gas price and environmental compliance risks, and examine how the utilities traded off portfolio cost and risk in selecting a preferred portfolio.

  20. Relationships between Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing program and hydropower operations at Salt Lake City area integrated projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veselka, T.D.; Folga, S.; Poch, L.A.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum provides background information on the Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the physical characteristics of the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) hydropower plants, which include the Colorado River Storage Project, the Rio Grande Project, and the Collbran Project. In addition, the history, electrical capacity, storage capacity, and flow restrictions at each dam are presented. An overview of Western`s current programs and services, including a review of statutory authorities, agency discretion, and obligations, is also provided. The variability of SLCA/IP hourly generation under various alternative marketing strategies and purchasing programs is discussed. The effects of Western`s services, such as area load control, outage assistance, and transmission, on SLCA/IP power plant operations are analyzed.

  1. Microsoft PowerPoint - 16_Sahara.dust.min.20070326.ppt [Compatibility...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ice particle due to insufficient M ll i ti l ti t p water vapor supply and short life time. More small ice particles continue to grow up slowly, producing more PR...

  2. Operating Reserve Implication of Alternative Implementations of an Energy Imbalance Service on Wind Integration in the Western Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

    2011-07-01

    During the past few years, there has been significant interest in alternative ways to manage power systems over a larger effective electrical footprint. Large regional transmission organizations in the Eastern Interconnection have effectively consolidated balancing areas, achieving significant economies of scale that result in a reduction in required reserves. Conversely, in the Western Interconnection there are many balancing areas, which will result in challenges if there is significant wind and solar energy development in the region. A recent proposal to the Western Electricity Coordinating Council suggests a regional energy imbalance service (EIS). To evaluate this EIS, a number of analyses are in process or are planned. This paper describes one part of an analysis of the EIS's implication on operating reserves under several alternative scenarios of the market footprint and participation. We improve on the operating reserves method utilized in the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study and apply this modified approach to data from the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study.

  3. A Reassessment of the Integrated Impact of Tropical Cyclones on Surface Chlorophyll in the Western Subtropical North Atlantic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foltz, Gregory R.; Balaguru, Karthik; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-02-28

    The impact of tropical cyclones on surface chlorophyll concentration is assessed in the western subtropical North Atlantic Ocean during 19982011. Previous studies in this area focused on individual cyclones and gave mixed results regarding the importance of tropical cyclone-induced mixing for changes in surface chlorophyll. Using a more integrated and comprehensive approach that includes quantification of cyclone-induced changes in mixed layer depth, here it is shown that accumulated cyclone energy explains 22% of the interannual variability in seasonally-averaged (JuneNovember) chlorophyll concentration in the western subtropical North Atlantic, after removing the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The variance explained by tropical cyclones is thus about 70% of that explained by the NAO, which has well-known impacts in this region. It is therefore likely that tropical cyclones contribute significantly to interannual variations of primary productivity in the western subtropical North Atlantic during the hurricane season.

  4. Effect of Large Scale Transmission Limitations on Renewable Energy Load Matching for Western U.S.: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diakov, V.; Short, W.; Gilchrist, B.

    2012-06-01

    Based on the available geographically dispersed data for the Western U.S. (excluding Alaska), we analyze to what extent the geographic diversity of these resources can offset their variability. Without energy storage and assuming unlimited energy flows between regions, wind and PV can meet up to 80% of loads in Western U.S. while less than 10% of the generated power is curtailed. Limiting hourly energy flows by the aggregated transmission line carrying capacities decreases the fraction of the load that can be met with wind and PV generation to approximately 70%.

  5. Western Gas Sands Project. Status report, 1 May-31 May, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the government-sponsored project directed towards increasing gas production from the low permeability gas sands of the western United States. The planning activities for the multi-well experiment continued in May. Bartlesville Energy Technology Center continued formation evaluation and reservoir simulation studies. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory continued calculations of fracturing near interfaces. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory focused work on the permanent magnet system for NMR logging. Results of the 3-D Seismic Reflection Survey were presented by Sandia Laboratories. Production and injection experiments continued for the Colorado Interstate Gas Company Miller No. 1 and Sprague No. 1 wells. The DOE Well Test Facility was transported to Las Vegas for repairs and modifications. In situ testing continued at the Nevada Test Site for the Sandia Mineback program.

  6. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on air quality and noise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chun, K.C.; Chang, Y.S.; Rabchuk, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    The Western Area Power Administration, which is responsible for marketing electricity produced at the hydroelectric power-generating facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation on the Upper Colorado River, has proposed changes in the levels of its commitment (sales) of long-term firm capacity and energy to its customers. This report describes (1) the existing conditions of air resources (climate and meteorology, ambient air quality, and acoustic environment) of the region potentially affected by the proposed action and (2) the methodology used and the results of analyses conducted to assess the potential impacts on air resources of the proposed action and the commitment-level alternatives. Analyses were performed for the potential impacts of both commitment-level alternatives and supply options, which include combinations of electric power purchases and different operational scenarios of the hydroelectric power-generating facilities.

  7. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 4. Western Solar Utilization Network Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Western Solar Utilization Network Region. (WHK)

  8. Analysis of Potential Energy Corridors Proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuiper, James A.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hlava, Kevin J.; Moore, H Robert; Orr, Andrew B.; Zvolanek, Emily A.

    2014-02-24

    This report, Analysis of Potential Energy Corridors Proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). The intent of WECC’s work was to identify planning-level energy corridors that the Department of Energy (DOE) and its affiliates could study in greater detail. Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the WECC Proposed Energy Corridors in five topic areas for use in reviewing and revising existing corridors, as well as designating additional energy corridors in the 11 western states. In compliance with Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), the Secretaries of Energy, Agriculture, and the Interior (Secretaries) published a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement in 2008 to address the proposed designation of energy transport corridors on federal lands in the 11 western states. Subsequently, Records of Decision designating the corridors were issued in 2009 by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the U.S. Forest Service (USFS). The 2012 settlement of a lawsuit, brought by The Wilderness Society and others against the United States, which identified environmental concerns for many of the corridors requires, among other things, periodic reviews of the corridors to assess the need for revisions, deletions, or additions. A 2013 Presidential Memorandum requires the Secretaries to undertake a continuing effort to identify and designate energy corridors. The WECC Proposed Energy Corridors and their analyses in this report provide key information for reviewing and revising existing corridors, as well as designating additional energy corridors in the 11 western states. Load centers and generation hubs identified in the WECC analysis, particularly as they reflect renewable energy development, would be useful in reviewing and potentially updating the designated Section 368 corridor network. Argonne used Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to analyze the proposed energy corridors in the WECC report in five topic areas: Federal land jurisdiction, Existing Section 368 corridors, Existing transmission lines, Previously studied corridor locations, and Protected areas. Analysis methods are explained and tables and maps are provided to describe the results of the analyses in all five topic areas. WECC used a rational approach to connecting the hubs it identified, although there may be opportunities for adapting some of the proposed WECC routes to previously designated Section 368 corridors, for example: The WECC proposed energy corridors are in fact centerlines of proposed routes connecting hubs of various descriptions related to electric energy transmission. Although the centerlines were sited to avoid sensitive areas, infrastructure proposed within actual pathways or corridors defined by the centerlines would sometimes affect lands where such development would not normally be allowed, such as National Parks and Monuments, National Wildlife Refuges, and Wilderness Areas. Many WECC proposed energy corridors are sited along centerlines of existing roads, including Interstate Highways, where in some cases additional width to accommodate energy transmission infrastructure may not be available. Examples include the WECC Proposed Corridor along Interstate 70 through Glenwood Canyon in Colorado, and along U.S. Highway 89 across Glen Canyon Dam in Arizona. Several WECC proposed energy corridors are parallel to designated Section 368 corridors that have already cleared the preliminary steps to right-of-way approval. In many of these cases, the WECC hub connection objectives can be met more efficiently by routing on the designated Section 368 corridors.

  9. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Executive Summary)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, Debra; Brinkman, Greg

    2013-09-01

    The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West(GE Energy 2010).

  10. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana. Technology summary (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    This document has been prepared by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Office of Science and Technology (OST) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT&E) activities funded through the Western environmental Technology Office (WETO) in Butte, Montana. Technologies and processes described in this document have the potential to enhance DOE`s cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US industry`s competitiveness in global environmental markets. The information presented in this document has been assembled from recently produced OST documents that highlight technology development activities within each of the OST program elements and Focus Areas. This document presents one in a series for each of DOE`s Operations Office and Energy Technology Centers.

  11. Western Gas Sands Project. Status report, 1 March-31 March 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The March, 1980 progress of the government-sponsored projects directed towards increasing gas production from the low permeability gas sands of the western United States is summarized in this report. A site for the multi-well experiment was approved by the industry review committee; drilling is expected by mid-summer. Bartlesville Energy Technology Center continued work on fracture conductivity, rock/fluid interaction, and log evaluation and interpretation techniques. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory continued experimental and theoretical work on hydraulic fracturing mechanics and analysis of well test data. Analysis of data obtained from a test of the borehole seismic unit by Sandia Laboratories continued. The DOE Well Test Facility continued bottom-hole pressure buildup measurements at the Colorado Interstate Gas Company Miller No. 1 well.

  12. Evaluation of potential geothermal reservoirs in central and western New York state. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    Computer processes geophysical well logs from central and western New York State were analyzed to evaluate the potential of subsurface formations as a source for low-temperature geothermal water. The analysis indicated that porous sandstone sections at the top of the Ordovician Theresa Formation and at the base of the Cambrian Potsdam Formation have the required depth, porosity, and permeability to act as a source for geothermal fluids over a relatively large area in the central part of the state. The fluid potential plus an advantageous geothermal gradient and the results of the test well drilled in the city of Auburn in Cayuga County suggest that low temperature geothermal energy may be a viable alternative to other more conventional forms of energy that are not indigenous to New York State.

  13. Evaluation of potential geothermal reservoirs in central and western New York State. Volume 3. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    Computer processed geophysical well logs from central and western New York State were analysed to evaluate the potential of subsurface formations as a source for low-temperature geothermal water. The analysis indicated that porous sandstone sections at the top of the Ordovician Theresa Formation and at the base of the Cambrian Potsdam Formation have the required depth, porosity, and permeability to act as a source for geothermal fluids over a relatively large area in the central part of the state. The fluid potential plus an advantageous geothermal gradient and the results of the test well drilled in the city of Auburn in Cayuga County suggest that low temperature geothermal energy may ba a viable alternative to other more conventional forms of energy that not indigenous to New York State.

  14. Tectonic history and analysis of structures in eastern Kansas and western Missouri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berendsen, P.; Wilson, F.W. . Kansas Geological Survey)

    1993-03-01

    Orogenic events in and around the midcontinent in Proterozoic time were responsible for the formation of the dominant master set of younger northeast- and older northwest-trending faults that dominate the structure of the area today. Reactivation of these faults throughout geologic time gave rise to tectonic zones consisting of sets of anastomosing faults or other complex patterns. These zones are likely important in helping to determine the configuration of major uplifts and basins that involve the crust. The Nemaha tectonic zone defines the western boundary of both the Forest City and Cherokee basins, while a structural block delineated by the Chesapeake and Bolivar-Mansfield regional faults coincides with the approximate position of the Bourbon Arch, which is reflected in the thickness of Mississippian carbonate rocks. Rocks of the Ozark uplift began to be uplifted by the end of Maquoketa time. The uplift has historically been described as a landform, rather than a geologic structure. Hence, the extent and the boundaries of the uplift are ill-defined. The northeast-trending line forming the contact between Mississippian and Pennsylvanian rocks is commonly regarded as the western boundary. This boundary coincides with a major tectonic zone, extending northeastward from Oklahoma through Kansas and Missouri into at least southern Iowa. In the Tri-State area of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri the zone is referred to as the Miami trough and features prominently in the localization of major ore deposits. This zone may then also be regarded as the eastern boundary of the Forest City and Cherokee basins.

  15. Near-term acceleration of hydroclimatic change in the western U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashfaq, Moetasim [ORNL] [ORNL; Ghosh, Subimal [ORNL] [ORNL; Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL] [ORNL; Bowling, Laura C. [Purdue University] [Purdue University; Mote, Phil [Oregon State University] [Oregon State University; Touma, Danielle E [ORNL] [ORNL; Rauscher, Sara [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Diffenbaugh, Noah [Stanford University] [Stanford University

    2013-01-01

    Given its large population, vigorous and water-intensive agricultural industry, and important ecological resources, the western United States presents a valuable case study for examining potential near-term changes in regional hydroclimate. Using a high-resolution, hierarchical, five-member ensemble modeling experiment that includes a global climate model (CCSM), a regional climate model (RegCM), and a hydrological model (VIC), we find that increases in greenhouse forcing over the next three decades result in an acceleration of decreases in spring snowpack and a transition to a substantially more liquid-dominated water resources regime. These hydroclimatic changes are associated with increases in cold-season days above freezing and decreases in the cold-season snow-to-precipitation ratio. The changes in the temperature and precipitation regime in turn result in shifts toward earlier snowmelt, baseflow, and runoff dates throughout the region, as well as reduced annual and warm-season snowmelt and runoff. The simulated hydrologic response is dominated by changes in temperature, with the ensemble members exhibiting varying trends in cold-season precipitation over the next three decades, but consistent negative trends in cold-season freeze days, cold-season snow-to-precipitation ratio, and April 1st snow water equivalent. Given the observed impacts of recent trends in snowpack and snowmelt runoff, the projected acceleration of hydroclimatic change in the western U.S. has important implications for the availability of water for agriculture, hydropower and human consumption, as well as for the risk of wildfire, forest die-off, and loss of riparian habitat.

  16. Changes in the firn structure of the western Greenland Ice Sheet caused by recent warming

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    de la Peña, S.; Howat, I. M.; Nienow, P. W.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; Price, S. F.; Mair, D.; Noël, B.; Sole, A. J.

    2015-06-11

    Atmospheric warming over the Greenland Ice Sheet during the last 2 decades has increased the amount of surface meltwater production, resulting in the migration of melt and percolation regimes to higher altitudes and an increase in the amount of ice content from refrozen meltwater found in the firn above the superimposed ice zone. Here we present field and airborne radar observations of buried ice layers within the near-surface (0–20 m) firn in western Greenland, obtained from campaigns between 1998 and 2014. We find a sharp increase in firn-ice content in the form of thick widespread layers in the percolation zone,more » which decreases the capacity of the firn to store meltwater. The estimated total annual ice content retained in the near-surface firn in areas with positive surface mass balance west of the ice divide in Greenland reached a maximum of 74 ± 25 Gt in 2012, compared to the 1958–1999 average of 13 ± 2 Gt, while the percolation zone area more than doubled between 2003 and 2012. Increased melt and column densification resulted in surface lowering averaging –0.80 ± 0.39 m yr⁻¹ between 1800 and 2800 m in the accumulation zone of western Greenland. Since 2007, modeled annual melt and refreezing rates in the percolation zone at elevations below 2100 m surpass the annual snowfall from the previous year, implying that mass gain in the region is retained after melt in the form of refrozen meltwater. If current melt trends over high elevation regions continue, subsequent changes in firn structure will have implications for the hydrology of the ice sheet and related abrupt seasonal densification could become increasingly significant for altimetry-derived ice sheet mass balance estimates.« less

  17. DOE to Invest up to $2.3 Million to Identify Renewable Energy Zones in Western States

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Assistant Secretary for Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Kevin Kolevar today announced the Department's plans to contribute up to $2.3 million over three years, subject to annual appropriations, to identify areas in the Western United States with vast renewable energy resources, and expedite the development and delivery of those resources to meet regional energy needs.

  18. Long-Term Regional Climate Simulations Driven by Two Global Reanalyses and a GCM for the Western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, Lai R.; Bian, Xindi; Qian, Yun

    2002-01-01

    To take advantage of recent development in the NCAR/Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5), an effort has been organized to develop and evaluate an MM5-based community regional climate model. Several modifications such as the implementation of the PNNL subgrid parameterization of orographic precipitation, representation of cloud-radiation interaction, and additional output capabilities have been made to the recently released MM5 Version 3.4. To evaluate the model, several long-term simulations have been performed over the western U.S. These simulations were driven by the NCEP/NCAR and ECMWF reanalyses respectively for 20 and 13 years beginning at 1980. The western U.S. is marked by diverse topographic features and varied climate conditions such as the maritime climate in the coastal area and the semi-arid climate in the southwest. We will present results based on two domain configurations: a nested domain with a fine domain covering the western U.S. at 40 km resolution, and a single domain at 60 km resolution with the subgrid orographic precipitation scheme applied in the western U.S. Analyses are being performed to evaluate the simulations of the averaged climate and interannual variability and examine the model sensitivity to different boundary conditions. Our analyses focus on the relationships between large-scale circulation and regional climate features, surface energy and water budgets, orographic precipitation, and hydrologic conditions within selected river basins. Regional simulations are also being performed using large-scale conditions simulated by the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM). The regional model was used to downscale the ensemble PCM climate change scenarios for periods of 10-20 years in the current and future climate. Results will be analyzed to study the impacts of greenhouse warming on regional water resources in the western U.S.

  19. Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in Utility Resource Planning: Current Practices in the Western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

    2008-07-11

    Concerns about global climate change have substantially increased the likelihood that future policy will seek to minimize carbon dioxide emissions. As such, even today, electric utilities are making resource planning and investment decisions that consider the possible implications of these future carbon regulations. In this article, we examine the manner in which utilities assess the financial risks associated with future carbon regulations within their long-term resource plans. We base our analysis on a review of the most recent resource plans filed by fifteen electric utilities in the Western United States. Virtually all of these utilities made some effort to quantitatively evaluate the potential cost of future carbon regulations when analyzing alternate supply- and demand-side resource options for meeting customer load. Even without Federal climate regulation in the U.S., the prospect of that regulation is already having an impact on utility decision-making and resource choices. That said, the methods and assumptions used by utilities to analyze carbon regulatory risk, and the impact of that analysis on their choice of a particular resource strategy, vary considerably, revealing a number of opportunities for analytic improvement. Though our review focuses on a subset of U.S. electric utilities, this work holds implications for all electric utilities and energy policymakers who are seeking to minimize the compliance costs associated with future carbon regulations.

  20. Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in Utility Resource Planning:Current Practices in the Western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

    2008-05-16

    Concerns about global climate change have substantially increased the likelihood that future policy will seek to minimize carbon dioxide emissions. Assuch, even today, electric utilities are making resource planning and investment decisions that consider the possible implications of these future carbon regulations. In this article, we examine the manner in which utilities assess the financial risks associated with future carbon regulations within their long-term resource plans. We base our analysis on a review of the most recent resource plans filed by fifteen electric utilities in the Western United States. Virtually all of these utilities made some effort to quantitatively evaluate the potential cost of future carbon regulations when analyzing alternate supply- and demand-side resource options for meeting customer load. Even without Federal climate regulation in the U.S., the prospect of that regulation is already having an impact on utility decision-making and resource choices. That said, the methods and assumptions used by utilities to analyze carbon regulatory risk, and the impact of that analysis on their choice of a particular resource strategy, vary considerably, revealing a number of opportunities for analytic improvement. Though our review focuses on a subset of U.S. electric utilities, this work holds implications for all electric utilities and energy policymakers who are seeking to minimize the compliance costs associated with future carbon regulations

  1. The ecological relevance of transport in waste disposal systems in Western Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salhofer, Stefan Schneider, Felicitas; Obersteiner, Gudrun

    2007-07-01

    With the development of modern waste management systems in Western Europe, a remarkable increase in the distances for waste transportation has been observed. The question thus arises whether recycling with longer transport distances is ecologically advantageous or whether disposal without recycling is to be preferred. This situation was analysed using selected product and waste streams. This included refrigerators, paper, polyethylene films and expanded polystyrene. For each of these streams, a life cycle analysis was conducted with an emphasis on waste transport. The system boundaries were set in terms of the generation of waste to recycling or landfilling. The comparison included several scenarios with recycling and different transport distances. Landfilling was used as the reference scenario. The results obtained demonstrated how transport distances influence the ecological benefit of recycling. In the case of expanded polystyrene, the ecological boundaries are reached in practical situations, while with other materials these boundaries are far from being attained. In these cases, more complex and elaborate collection schemes, such as kerbside collection, which is economically convenient and shows the highest collection rates, can also be recommended.

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures: Operational Analysis of the Western Interconnection at Very High Renewable Penetrations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The goal of this work was to perform a detailed, sub-hourly analysis of very high penetration scenarios for a single interconnection (the Western Interconnection). The scenarios analyzed for this study included a variety of generation infrastructure buildouts and power system operational assumptions, with three different portfolios of renewable generators. The High scenario had approximately 82% renewable generation after curtailment, which included 41% of its generation coming from variable generation (VG) sources like wind and solar photovoltaics (PV). The remaining renewable generation came from hydropower, geothermal, and concentrating solar power (CSP). The Higher Baseload scenario adds CSP and geothermal to the High scenario to make 88% renewable generation. This study also included a Higher VG scenario with added wind and solar PV generation to get to 86% renewable generation. Both Higher scenarios added the same amount of possible generation, but the Higher VG scenario showed more curtailment from the incremental generation, leading to lower penetration levels after curtailment. The primary conclusion of this study is that sub-hourly operation of the grid is possible with renewable generation levels between 80% and 90%. Dynamic studies will need to be done to understand any impacts on reliability during contingencies and transient events.

  3. Quantifying Diurnal Cloud Radiative Effects by Cloud Type in the Tropical Western Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burleyson, Casey D.; Long, Charles N.; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2015-06-01

    Cloud radiative effects are examined using long-term datasets collected at the three Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facilities in the tropical western Pacific. We quantify the surface radiation budget, cloud populations, and cloud radiative effects by partitioning the data by cloud type, time of day, and as a function of large scale modes of variability such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase and wet/dry seasons at Darwin. The novel facet of our analysis is that we break aggregate cloud radiative effects down by cloud type across the diurnal cycle. The Nauru cloud populations and subsequently the surface radiation budget are strongly impacted by ENSO variability whereas the cloud populations over Manus only shift slightly in response to changes in ENSO phase. The Darwin site exhibits large seasonal monsoon related variations. We show that while deeper convective clouds have a strong conditional influence on the radiation reaching the surface, their limited frequency reduces their aggregate radiative impact. The largest source of shortwave cloud radiative effects at all three sites comes from low clouds. We use the observations to demonstrate that potential model biases in the amplitude of the diurnal cycle and mean cloud frequency would lead to larger errors in the surface energy budget compared to biases in the timing of the diurnal cycle of cloud frequency. Our results provide solid benchmarks to evaluate model simulations of cloud radiative effects in the tropics.

  4. Comparison of Capacity Value Methods for Photovoltaics in the Western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2012-07-01

    This report compares different capacity value estimation techniques applied to solar photovoltaics (PV). It compares more robust data and computationally intense reliability-based capacity valuation techniques to simpler approximation techniques at 14 different locations in the western United States. The capacity values at these locations are computed while holding the underlying power system characteristics fixed. This allows the effect of differences in solar availability patterns on the capacity value of PV to be directly ascertained, without differences in the power system confounding the results. Finally, it examines the effects of different PV configurations, including varying the orientation of a fixed-axis system and installing single- and double-axis tracking systems, on the capacity value. The capacity value estimations are done over an eight-year running from 1998 to 2005, and both long-term average capacity values and interannual capacity value differences (due to interannual differences in solar resource availability) are estimated. Overall, under the assumptions used in the analysis, we find that some approximation techniques can yield similar results to reliability-based methods such as effective load carrying capability.

  5. An Evaluation of Activated Bismuth Isotopes in Environmental Samples From the Former Western Pacific Proving Grounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W.L.; Brunk, J.A.; Jokela, T.A.

    2000-03-21

    {sup 207}Bi (t{sub 1/2}=32.2 y) was generated by activation of weapons material during a few ''clean'' nuclear tests at the U.S. Western Pacific Proving Grounds of Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. The radionuclides first appeared in the Enewetak environment during 1958 and in the environment of Bikini during 1956. Crater sediments from Bikini with high levels of {sup 207}Bi were analyzed by gamma spectrometry in an attempt to determine the relative concentrations of {sup 208}Bi (t{sup 1/2} = 3.68 x 10{sup 5} y). The bismuth isotopes were probably generated during the ''clean'', 9.3 Mt Poplar test held on 7/12/58. The atom ratio of {sup 208}Bi to {sup 207}Bi (R value) ranges from {approx}12 to over 200 in sections of core sediments from the largest nuclear crater at Bikini atoll. The presence of bismuth in the device is suggested to account for R values in excess of 10.

  6. Long-Term Operation Of Ground-Based Atmospheric Sensing Systems In The Tropical Western Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivey, Mark; Jones, Larry J.; Porch, W. M.; Apple, Monty L.; Widener, Kevin B.

    2004-10-14

    Three semi-autonomous atmospheric sensing systems were installed in the tropical western Pacific region. The first of these Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Stations (ARCS) began operation in 1996. Each ARCS is configured as a system-of-systems since it comprises an ensemble of independent instrument systems. The ARCS collect, process, and transmit large volumes of cloud, solar and thermal radiation, and meteorological data to support climate studies and climate-modeling improvements as part of the U.S Department of Energys Atmospheric and Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Data from these tropical ARCS stations have been used for satellite ground-truth data comparisons and validations, including comparisons for MTI and AQUA satellite data. Our experiences with these systems in the tropics led to modifications in their design. An ongoing international logistics effort is required to keep gigabytes per day of quality-assured data flowing to the ARM programs archives. Design criteria, performance, communications methods, and the day-to-day logistics required to support long-term operations of ground-based remote atmospheric sensing systems are discussed. End-to-end data flow from the ARCS systems to the ARM Program archives is discussed.

  7. Seismic Hazard Assessment for Western Kentucky, Northeastern Kentucky and Southeastern Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, James C; Wang, Zhenming; Woolery, Edward W; Kiefer, John D

    2002-07-01

    Earthquakes pose a seismic hazards and risk to the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Furthermore, the seismic hazards and risk vary throughout the Commonwealth. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses the seismic hazard maps developed by the US Geological Survey for seismic safety regulation for nuclear facilities. Under current US Geological Survey's seismic hazard assessment it is economically unfeasible to build a new uranium plant near Paducah relative to the Portsmouth, Ohio site. This is not to say that the facility cannot be safely engineered to withstand the present seismic load, but enormously expensive to do so. More than 20 years observations and research at UK have shown that the US Geological Survey has overestimated seismic hazards in western Kentucky, particularly in the Jackson Purchase area that includes Paducah. Furthermore, our research indicates underestimated seismic hazards in northeastern Kentucky and southeastern Ohio. Such overestimation and underestimation could jeopardize possible site selection of PGDP for the new uranium plant. The existing database, research experience, and expertise in UK's Kentucky Geological Survey and Department of Geological Science put this institution in a unique position to conduct a comprehensive seismic hazard evaluation.

  8. Renewable Electricity Futures. Operational Analysis of the Western Interconnection at Very High Renewable Penetrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, Gregory

    2015-09-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures Study (RE Futures)--an analysis of the costs and grid impacts of integrating large amounts of renewable electricity generation into the U.S. power system--examined renewable energy resources, technical issues regarding the integration of these resources into the grid, and the costs associated with high renewable penetration scenarios. These scenarios included up to 90% of annual generation from renewable sources, although most of the analysis was focused on 80% penetration scenarios. Hourly production cost modeling was performed to understand the operational impacts of high penetrations. One of the conclusions of RE Futures was that further work was necessary to understand whether the operation of the system was possible at sub-hourly time scales and during transient events. This study aimed to address part of this by modeling the operation of the power system at sub-hourly time scales using newer methodologies and updated data sets for transmission and generation infrastructure. The goal of this work was to perform a detailed, sub-hourly analysis of very high penetration scenarios for a single interconnection (the Western Interconnection). It focused on operational impacts, and it helps verify that the operational results from the capacity expansion models are useful. The primary conclusion of this study is that sub-hourly operation of the grid is possible with renewable generation levels between 80% and 90%.

  9. Sub-Seafloor Carbon Dioxide Storage Potential on the Juan de Fuca Plate, Western North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Fairley; Robert Podgorney

    2012-11-01

    The Juan de Fuca plate, off the western coast of North America, has been suggested as a site for geological sequestration of waste carbon dioxide because of its many attractive characteristics (high permeability, large storage capacity, reactive rock types). Here we model CO2 injection into fractured basalts comprising the upper several hundred meters of the sub-seafloor basalt reservoir, overlain with low-permeability sediments and a large saline water column, to examine the feasibility of this reservoir for CO2 storage. Our simulations indicate that the sub-seafloor basalts of the Juan de Fuca plate may be an excellent CO2 storage candidate, as multiple trapping mechanisms (hydrodynamic, density inversions, and mineralization) act to keep the CO2 isolated from terrestrial environments. Questions remain about the lateral extent and connectivity of the high permeability basalts; however, the lack of wells or boreholes and thick sediment cover maximize storage potential while minimizing potential leakage pathways. Although promising, more study is needed to determine the economic viability of this option.

  10. Renewable Electricity Futures:  Operational Analysis of the Western Interconnection at Very High Renewable Penetrations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The goal of this work was to perform a detailed, sub-hourly analysis of very high penetration scenarios for a single interconnection (the Western Interconnection). The scenarios analyzed for this study included a variety of generation infrastructure buildouts and power system operational assumptions, with three different portfolios of renewable generators. The High scenario had approximately 82% renewable generation after curtailment, which included 41% of its generation coming from variable generation (VG) sources like wind and solar photovoltaics (PV). The remaining renewable generation came from hydropower, geothermal, and concentrating solar power (CSP). The Higher Baseload scenario adds CSP and geothermal to the High scenario to make 88% renewable generation. This study also included a Higher VG scenario with added wind and solar PV generation to get to 86% renewable generation. Both Higher scenarios added the same amount of possible generation, but the Higher VG scenario showed more curtailment from the incremental generation, leading to lower penetration levels after curtailment. The primary conclusion of this study is that sub-hourly operation of the grid is possible with renewable generation levels between 80% and 90%. Dynamic studies will need to be done to understand any impacts on reliability during contingencies and transient events.

  11. Seismicity on the western Greenland Ice Sheet: Surface fracture in the vicinity of active moulins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmichael, Joshua D.; Joughin, Ian; Behn, Mark D.; Das, Sarah; King, Matt A.; Stevens, Laura; Lizarralde, Dan

    2015-06-25

    We analyzed geophone and GPS measurements collected within the ablation zone of the western Greenland Ice Sheet during a ~35 day period of the 2011 melt season to study changes in ice deformation before, during, and after a supraglacial lake drainage event. During rapid lake drainage, ice flow speeds increased to ~400% of winter values, and icequake activity peaked. At times >7 days after drainage, this seismicity developed variability over both diurnal and longer periods (~10 days), while coincident ice speeds fell to ~150% of winter values and showed nightly peaks in spatial variability. Approximately 95% of all detected seismicity in the lake basin and its immediate vicinity was triggered by fracture propagation within near-surface ice (<330 m deep) that generated Rayleigh waves. Icequakes occurring before and during drainage frequently were collocated with the down flow (west) end of the primary hydrofracture through which the lake drained but shifted farther west and outside the lake basin after the drainage. We interpret these results to reveal vertical hydrofracture opening and local uplift during the drainage, followed by enhanced seismicity and ice flow on the downstream side of the lake basin. This region collocates with interferometric synthetic aperture radar-measured speedup in previous years and could reflect the migration path of the meltwater supplied to the bed by the lake. The diurnal seismic signal can be associated with nightly reductions in surface melt input that increase effective basal pressure and traction, thereby promoting elevated strain in the surficial ice.

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) Site.

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility to other sites as determined. The Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site is one of the four fixed sites. It consists of three climate research facilities; the Manus facility on Los Negros Island in Manus, Papua New Guinea (established in 1996); the Nauru facility on Nauru Island, Republic of Nauru (1998); and the Darwin facility in Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (2002). The operations are supported by government agencies in each host country. Covering the area roughly between 10 degrees N and 10 degrees S of the equator and from 130 degrees E to 167 degrees E, the TWP locale includes a region that plays a large role in the interannual variability observed in the global climate system. More than 250,000 TWP data sets from 1996 to the present reside in the ARM Archive. Begin at the TWP information page for links or access data directly from the ARM Archive at http://www.archive.arm.gov/. Users will need to register for a password, but all files are then free for viewing or downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  13. Fractured rock aquifer tests in the Western Siberian Basin, Ozyorsk, Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, R.L.; Looney, B.B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A.

    1997-10-01

    A series of multi-zone pumping tests was conducted in a contaminated fractured rock aquifer in the Western Siberian Basin, Ozyorsk, Russia. The tests were conducted adjacent to the Mishelyak River floodplain in fractured Paleozoic porphyrites, tufts, tuff breccia, and lava typical of the Ural mountain complex. Geophysical logs, borehole photography, core samples, and results from previous borehole contamination studies were used to identify the zones to be tested. A network of three uncased wells was tested using a system of inflatable packers, pressure transducers and data loggers. Seven zones were isolated and monitored in two of the uncased wells. A straddle packer assembly was used to isolate individual zones within the pumping well. Eight constant rate pumping tests were conducted. Results of the testing indicate that shallow groundwater migrates primarily in two intervals that are separated by an interval with low lateral conductivity. The water bearing intervals have moderate to high specific capacities (1.3 and 30 L/min/m). Several processes are responsible for fracturing present in the lower interval. The network of compound fractures produced a complex array of fracture intersections yielding a fractured media with hydraulic behavior similar to porous media. Models used for the analysis of pumping tests in porous media provide a good estimation of the hydraulic response of the lower interval to pumping. Future work will include more complex analysis of the data to determine hydraulic conductivity ellipses.

  14. Site insolation and wind power characteristics: technical report western region (south section)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-08-01

    This phase of the Site Insolation and Wind Power Characteristics Study was performed to provide statistical information on the expected future availability of solar and wind power at various sites in the Western Region (South Section) of the US Historic data (SOLMET), at 22 National Weather Service stations with hourly solar insolation and collateral meteorological information, were interrogated to provide an estimate of future trends. Solar data are global radiation incident on a horizontal surface, and wind data represent wind power normal to the air flow. Selected insolation and wind power conditions were investigated for their occurrence and persistence, for defined periods of time, on a monthly basis. Global horizontal insolation is related to inclined surfaces at each site. Ratios are provided, monthly, for multiplying global insolation to obtain insolation estimates on south-facing surfaces inclined at different angles with respect to the horizontal. Also, joint probability distribution tables are constructed showing the number of occurrences, out of a finite sample size, of daily average solar and wind power within selected intervals, by month. Information of this nature is intended as an aid to preliminary planning activities for the design and operation of solar and wind energy utilization and conversion systems.

  15. AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Percent) AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 -2.90 -12.60 -11.90 -5.90 -5.40 -8.80 -13.60 -15.80 -17.10 -20.40 -23.20 -23.00 1997 -23.00 -24.40 -22.50 -20.40 -15.30 -8.70 -1.90 5.20 6.60 9.00 8.60 -6.70 1998 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 10.90 25.60 1999 32.80 49.30 42.80

  16. Review of the Recent Frequency Performance of the Eastern, Western and ERCOT Interconnections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacommare, Kristina S H

    2010-12-20

    The reliable operation of an electric power system depends on careful management of the balance between generation and load to ensure that system frequency is maintained within narrow bounds around a scheduled value. Yet, maintaining frequency at the scheduled value is challenging because the load served is continuously changing, and occasionally, events such as the sudden loss of a large generation plant or large amount of load, cause frequency to deviate abruptly. This report reviews the recent history of frequency performance for all three U.S. interconnections: Eastern, Western, and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The review is based on data collected by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC). The review focuses on frequency response, which measures the performance of the interconnections immediately following sudden, large imbalances between load and generation. Trends in frequency response are presented and preliminary efforts are made to relate frequency response to other aspects of frequency performance and to examine aspects of the methods used to calculate frequency response.

  17. Chemical and physical characterization of western low-rank-coal waste materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Carol May

    1981-03-01

    Evaluations of disposal requirements for solid wastes from power stations burning low-rank western coals is the primary objective of this program. Solid wastes to be characterized include: fly ashes, sludges from wet scrubbers, solids from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) processes and solids from dry scrubbing systems. Fly ashes and sludges to be studied will be obtained primarily from systems using alkaline fly ashes as significant sources of alkalinity for sulfur dioxide removal. Fluidized bed combustion wastes will include those produced by burning North Dakota lignite and Texas lignite. Dry scrubbing wastes will include those from spray drying systems and dry injection systems. Spray dryer wastes will be from a system using sodium carbonate as the scrubbing reagent. Dry injection wastes will come from systems using nahcolite and trona as sorbents. Spray dryer wastes, dry injection wastes, and FBC wastes will be supplied by the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center. Sludges and other samples will be collected at power stations using fly ash to supply alkalinity to wet scrubbers for sulfur dioxide removal. Sludges will be subjected to commercial fixation processes. Coal, fly ashes, treated and untreated sludges, scrubber liquor, FBC wastes, and dry scrubbing wastes will be subjected to a variety of chemical and physical tests. Results of these tests will be used to evaluate disposal requirements for wastes frm the systems studied.

  18. OPPORTUNITIES TO MARKET U.S. TECHNOLOGIES THROUGHOUT THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D

    1999-01-01

    This project involves an open-ended, continuous process of information gathering with respect to Latin American and Caribbean environmental issues. This entails the development of contacts with individuals and institutions conducting research and work on issues of sustainability and environmental technology in the Americas. As part of this phase, a database containing information on firms, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), governmental institutions, and other participants in Latin America's environmental sector was developed and is continually being updated. In addition, FIU-HCET's efforts were geared toward determining environmental technological needs in different parts of the region and identifying the most significant and lucrative markets. The project requires that FIU-HCET continually cement those contacts already established, continue updating the database to be made available to external users, and identify U.S. companies with the necessary expertise to participate in the Latin American and Caribbean markets. To aid in this endeavor, comprehensive, country-specific studies of the market for environmental goods and services are drafted and published by FIU-HCET. FIU-HCET, with sponsorship from OST, will make new, innovative, and more cost-effective technologies available for transfer throughout the Western Hemisphere. Environmental/energy technology development projects encompass the range of problems experienced by LACN. This includes mixed waste characterization and treatment, soils and groundwater remediation. In addition, future activities will include the issues of energy, climate change, and fossil fuels.

  19. ON THE INSTABILITY OF TROPICAL WESTERN PACIFIC WARM POOL DURING THE BOREAL WINTER AND SPRING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BARR-KUMARAKULASINGHE,S.A.

    1998-03-23

    A source of instability in the western Pacific warm pool is shown to be due to sea surface elevation variations caused by changes in the zonal sea-surface temperature (SST) gradient and the changes in the Pacific Ocean basin length in relation to the warm pool latitudinal location. The variation of the sea-surface elevation is measured by using the thermocline depth response calculated from a two-layer ocean. The warm pool is shown to be barely at equilibrium during the boreal late winter and early spring by comparing the measured thermocline at 110{degree}W, 0{degree}E with the calculated thermocline depth. Based on this analysis, a failure or reversal of the climatological zonal winds are apparently not a necessary precursor for the instability of the warm pool and initiation of a warm event. A warm event can be initiated by an increase in the size of the warm pool and/or an increase in zonal SST differences during the boreal/winter spring. This mechanism could be an alternate mechanism for El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) dynamics to that postulated by Bjeknes (1969).

  20. IEA Energy conservation in the iron and steel industry. [US and Western Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tunnah, B.G.

    1981-01-01

    The NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society research program, under the auspices of the IEA, had the objectives of collecting data on material requirements and energy-consumption patterns in selected energy-intensive industries in the US and Western Europe, of identifying technologies and operating practices with the potential for energy conservation in those industries, and of recommending research projects that could lead to improved energy efficiency. The steel industry was selected for analysis and ideas for an international cooperative program were developed. Representatives from various countries conducted meetings and the form of an implementing agreement for a research and development program was finalized in December, 1980. The program includes three technical areas: hot-surface inspection, heat recovery, and coal gasification. Hot-surface inspection methods to be demonstrated are: optical, induction, electromagnetic ultrasonic, electromagnetic ultrasonic surface testing methods, and eddy current method for hot surface inspection and an infrared system (possibly). Three heat-recovery projects are: ceramic heat wheel development; demonstration of granular bed/heat pipe system for heat recovery; and demonstration of tubular ceramic recuperators. Processes in coal gasification are: converter process, gas treatment, and iron treatment. Each project is described in detail. (MCW)

  1. Global Climate Change Response Program: Potential regional impacts of global warming on precipitation in the western United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leverson, V.

    1997-01-01

    This study was designed to build upon a previous Global Climate Change Response Program investigation in which an initial `first guess` climate change scenario was derived for the Western United States. Using the scenario`s hypothesized northward shift in the mean wintertime storm track, historical upper-air patterns in the atmosphere were searched to identify winter months (December, January, or February) that would serve as appropriate global warming analogues (GWA). Contour charts were generated of four geopotential height parameters. Specific pattern configurations of the four parameters were identified that reflected the altered storm track pattern, and guidelines for selecting suitable analogues based on the configurations were developed. Monthly mean precipitation values for the GWA months at three climatological divisions in Western Montana, northern Utah, and east central Arizona were compared with median values for the 1946-89 period to determine if any significant differences existed.

  2. Cloud Microphysical and Radiative Properties Derived from MODIS, VIRS, AVHRR, and GMS Data Over the Tropical Western Pacific

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microphysical and Radiative Properties Derived from MODIS, VIRS, AVHRR, and GMS Data Over the Tropical Western Pacific G. D. Nowicki, M. L. Nordeen, P. W. Heck, D. R. Doelling, and M. M. Khaiyer Analytical Services and Materials, Inc. Hampton, Virginia P. Minnis National Aeronautics and Space Administration Atmospheric Sciences Division Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia S. Sun-Mack Science Applications International Corporation Hampton, Virginia Introduction Utilization of the

  3. Assessment of environmental health and safety issues associated with the commercialization of unconventional gas recovery: Tight Western Sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riedel, E.F.; Cowan, C.E.; McLaughlin, T.J.

    1980-02-01

    Results of a study to identify and evaluate potential public health and safety problems and the potential environmental impacts from recovery of natural gas from Tight Western Sands are reported. A brief discussion of economic and technical constraints to development of this resource is also presented to place the environmental and safety issues in perspective. A description of the resource base, recovery techniques, and possible environmental effects associated with tight gas sands is presented.

  4. Effects of Measurement Materials and Oxygen Partial Pressure on the Viscosity of synthetic Eastern and Western United States Coal Slags

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jingxi; Tetsuya, Kenneth; Mu, Haoyuan; Bennett, James P.; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2012-07-01

    The viscosity of the molten ash (slag) resulting from the mineral constituents in carbon feedstock used in slagging gasifiers is critical for controlling the gasification process. The viscosity of two synthetic slags with compositions resembling the mineral impurities in average eastern and western coal feedstock was examined at temperatures from 13001500 C using a rotating bob viscometer. A few combinations of atmospheres and experimental materials were investigated with respect to one another to determine slag viscosity. A CO/CO{sub 2} atmosphere (CO/CO{sub 2} = 1.8, corresponding to a P{sub O{sub 2}} = 108 atm) is required to sustain ferrous ions in FeO-containing slags, an environment that is oxidizing to most metals. Iron oxide in the slag prevents usage of Fe parts. In unpurified Ar, the Fe metal surface oxidizes. Using purified argon prevents iron measurement components from oxidation; however, the metallic surfaces act as nucleation sites for the reduction of the Fe oxide in the slag into metallic Fe. Dissolution of ceramic materials into the slag, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2}, occurs in both atmospheres. Therefore, evaluating slag properties in the laboratory is challenging. The measured viscosities of two synthetic slags in this study diverged depending upon material selection. This difference is likely attributable to container/spindle-slag interactions. Viscosity measurements of the eastern coal slag using all ceramic parts agreed best with FactSage prediction above 1350 C, with an average activation energy of 271.2 kJ. For western coal slag, the dissolution of container/spindle materials was substantial during the measurement, with precipitation of crystalline phase noted. The experimental viscosity data of the western coal slag agreed best with Kalmanovitch prediction above 1350 C. The activation energy changed dramatically for both data sets of western coal slag, likely indicating the Newtonian-to-non-Newtonian transition.

  5. Western gas sands project. Status report, July-August-September 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-03-01

    The progress during July, August and September 1981 on increasing gas production from low permeability gas sands of the Western United States, is summarized in this edition of the WGSP Quarterly Status Report. During the quarter, CK GeoEnergy completed the field work in the Rifle Gap area near Rifle, Colorado, as well as the Draft Phase VI report covering the prognosis about reservoir geometry in the Multi-Well site area. The improved pressure coring system project, officially terminated Sept. 30. Accomplishments included increased capabilities for the pressure core barrel, improvements in the low invasion fluid plus various laboratory core intrusion studies and improved designs for PDC drill bits. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the P/sup 2/L/sup 2/ system described last quarter was evaluated further and the decision has been made to abandon further investigation. The Los Alamos National Laboratory Ceramics Materials Group is preparing to fabricate a ceramic sample with cylindrical pores of specified diameters. The NMR data on this type sample will contribute to a better understanding of the parameters affecting NMR relaxation rates in porous media. During the quarter, modifications were made in the operating and application software of the DOE Well Test Facility, which will support additions to the PDP-11/10 computer system. The Multi-Well Experiment well was spudded on Sept. 13 and by Sept. 30, total depth was 3358 ft. Coring operations are expected to begin at a depth of 4150 ft. At the Nevada Test Site, Sandia National Laboratories completed four additional coreholes for the Fluid Mechanics/ Proppant Transport Experiments.

  6. Seismicity on the western Greenland Ice Sheet: Surface fracture in the vicinity of active moulins

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carmichael, Joshua D.; Joughin, Ian; Behn, Mark D.; Das, Sarah; King, Matt A.; Stevens, Laura; Lizarralde, Dan

    2015-06-25

    We analyzed geophone and GPS measurements collected within the ablation zone of the western Greenland Ice Sheet during a ~35 day period of the 2011 melt season to study changes in ice deformation before, during, and after a supraglacial lake drainage event. During rapid lake drainage, ice flow speeds increased to ~400% of winter values, and icequake activity peaked. At times >7 days after drainage, this seismicity developed variability over both diurnal and longer periods (~10 days), while coincident ice speeds fell to ~150% of winter values and showed nightly peaks in spatial variability. Approximately 95% of all detected seismicitymore » in the lake basin and its immediate vicinity was triggered by fracture propagation within near-surface ice (<330 m deep) that generated Rayleigh waves. Icequakes occurring before and during drainage frequently were collocated with the down flow (west) end of the primary hydrofracture through which the lake drained but shifted farther west and outside the lake basin after the drainage. We interpret these results to reveal vertical hydrofracture opening and local uplift during the drainage, followed by enhanced seismicity and ice flow on the downstream side of the lake basin. This region collocates with interferometric synthetic aperture radar-measured speedup in previous years and could reflect the migration path of the meltwater supplied to the bed by the lake. The diurnal seismic signal can be associated with nightly reductions in surface melt input that increase effective basal pressure and traction, thereby promoting elevated strain in the surficial ice.« less

  7. Late Mesozoic crustal extension and rifting on the western edge of the Parana Basin, Paraguay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeGraff, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Geophysical and geological evidence indicates that the western edge of the Parana basin in Paraguay was a site of NE-SW directed crustal extension during late Mesozoic time. Major zones of normal faulting in south-eastern Paraguay trend northwesterly on average, and mafic dikes of probable late Mesozoic age have similar orientations. At least two NW-trending zones of tectonic subsidence, each over 200 km long, are now recognized in eastern Paraguay. Most alkalic rocks of south-eastern Paraguay are concentrated along this rift, and occur as simple to composite stocks and ring complexes composed of rocks ranging from foid-syenite to essexite. NW-trending, lamprophyric to phonolitic dikes are associated with some alkalic complexes. The southern zone, located about 125 km southwest, is a composite tectonic basin about 60 km wide and nearly devoid of alkalic rocks. The timing of crustal extension and rifting in eastern Paraguay is largely based on isotopic ages of associated alkalic rocks, which cluster between 150 and 100 Ma (latest Jurassic to mid-Cretaceous). Geologic evidence for the age of faulting and subsidence is consistent with this age range; tectonic depressions were being filled in late Cretaceous to early Cenozoic time. The age range of alkalic rocks in Paraguay contain that of the Serra Geral basalts and spans the time when South America Separated from Africa. This suggests that alkalic activity and crustal extension in eastern Paraguay are grossly related to the Serra Geral extrusive event, and were a manifestation of the breakup of South America and Africa far from the site of final separation.

  8. Offshore Extension of Deccan Traps in Kachchh, Central Western India: Implications for Geological Sequestration Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandey, D. K.; Pandey, A.; Rajan, S.

    2011-03-15

    The Deccan basalts in central western India are believed to occupy large onshore-offshore area. Using geophysical and geological observations, onshore sub-surface structural information has been widely reported. On the contrary, information about offshore structural variations has been inadequate due to scarcity of marine geophysical data and lack of onshore-offshore lithological correlations. Till date, merely a few geophysical studies are reported that gauge about the offshore extent of Deccan Traps and the Mesozoic sediments (pre-Deccan). To fill this gap in knowledge, in this article, we present new geophysical evidences to demonstrate offshore continuation of the Deccan volcanics and the Mesozoic sediments. The offshore multi-channel seismic and onshore-offshore lithological correlations presented here confirm that the Mesozoic sedimentary column in this region is overlain by 0.2-1.2-km-thick basaltic cover. Two separate phases of Mesozoic sedimentation, having very distinctive physical and lithological characteristics, are observed between overlying basaltic rocks and underlying Precambrian basement. Using onshore-offshore seismic and borehole data this study provides new insight into the extent of the Deccan basalts and the sub-basalt structures. This study brings out a much clearer picture than that was hitherto available about the offshore continuation of the Deccan Traps and the Mesozoic sediments of Kachchh. Further, its implications in identifying long-term storage of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} within sub-basalt targets are discussed. The carbon sequestration potential has been explored through the geological assessment in terms of the thickness of the strata as well as lithology.

  9. Carbon cycling in western equatorial atlantic sediments: Insights from carbon isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNichol, A.P.; McCorkle, D.C.; Martin, W.R.; Berry, J.N.

    1995-12-01

    Sediments from a site on the Ceara Rise in the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean (5{degrees} 17N, 44{degrees}8W) were collected in March 1994 to study the carbon cycle of ocean sediments. Sediments were collected in 3270 m of water, above the calcite saturation horizon ({triangle}CO{sub 3}{sup 2} {approx} 20). Relatively large volumes (20-30 ml) of pore water were extracted from 1-2 cm interval sections of the surface 10 cm of the sediments using both whole core squeezing and centrifugation techniques. The whole core squeezer permits the in-situ or shipboard extraction of large volumes of pore water without sectioning sediment cores. We analyzed the pore water dissolved inorganic carbon ({Sigma}CO{sub 2}) to yield high resolution profiles of concentration, {gamma}{sup 13}C, and {triangle}{sup 14}C at this site. The bottom water values we measured are about 10 {per_thousand} lower than that measured at a nearby site during the GEOSECS Program in 1974. Pore water {gamma}{sup 13}C decreases regularly from a value of 0.75 {per_thousand} in the bottom water to -0.8 {per_thousand} at 11 cm and {triangle}{sup 14}C decreases regularly from -109 {per_thousand} in the bottom water to -180 at 10 cm. The stable isotope results indicate the addition of carbon to the pore water from both the dissolution of CaCO{sub 3} and the oxidation of organic matter. Pore water radiocarbon results indicate that at least one of these carbon sources is quite old. We will use results from isotopic analyses of the sediment organic matter and CaCO{sub 3} to constrain the sediment carbon budget and discuss the implications for oceanic carbon modelling,

  10. Paleogeographic and structural setting of Miocene strata in central western Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, J.H. )

    1993-04-01

    Late Cenozoic sedimentary rocks as old as 19 Ma are widely distributed in central western Nevada. They are greatly more abundant than older Cenozoic strata and are commonly interpreted to have formed in fault-bounded basins that mark the onset of widespread extension in the Basin and Range Province. Miocene strata are largely coeval with a magmatic arc that extended south southeast near the boundary of the Basin and Range and Sierra Nevada Provinces. This arc produced voluminous andesitic flows and lahars that locally interfinger with the Miocene strata. Miocene depositional basins apparently varied greatly in size. The largest that can be defined clearly is the Esmeralda Basin that was at least 65 km long and 45 km wide. Other basins may have been larger but are difficult to reconstruct; still other basins may be small and isolated, particularly within the magmatic arc. Lacustrine deposits and minor interfingering deltaic and distal fluvial units predominate; near-source, coarse alluvial-fan and megabreccia landslide deposits are locally conspicuous. coarse near-source deposits, particularly landslide deposits, are interpreted to be adjacent to basin-bounding normal faults. The Esmeralda, Coal Valley, and Gabbs Valley-Stewart Valley-Tonopah Basins are interpreted to be related to large-scale Miocene extension. Other basins may be (1) pull-apart structures related to strike-slip faults, (2) downdropped blocks in areas of cross-cutting normal and/or strike-slip faults related to changes in the extension direction or (3) grabens or half-grabens related to uniform extension. Younger Cenozoic basins, including present-day basins, overprint and cut across the Miocene basins.

  11. Anastomosing grabens, low-angle faults, and Tertiary thrust( ) faults, western Markagunt Plateau, southwestern Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maldonado, F.; Sable, E.G. )

    1993-04-01

    A structurally complex terrane composed of grabens and horsts, low-angle faults, Tertiary thrust( ) faults, gravity-slide blocks, and debris deposits has been mapped along the western Markagunt Plateau, east of Parowan and Summit, southwestern Utah. This terrane, structurally situated within the transition between the Basin and Range and Colorado Plateau provinces, contains Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The structures are mostly Miocene to Oligocene but some are Pleistocene. The oldest structure is the Red Hills low-angle shear zone, interpreted as a shallow structure that decoupled an upper plate composed of a Miocene-Oligocene volcanic ash-flow tuff and volcaniclastic succession from a lower plate of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The period of deformation on the shear zone is bracketed from field relationships between 22.5 and 20 Ma. The graben-horst system trends northeast and formed after about 20 Ma (and probably much later) based on displacement of dated dikes and a laccolith. The central part of the system contains many grabens that merge toward its southerly end to become a single graben. Within these grabens, (1) older structures are preserved, (2) debris eroded from horst walls forms lobe-shaped deposits, (3) Pleistocene basaltic cinder cones have localized along graben-bounding faults, and (4) rock units are locally folded suggesting some component of lateral translation along graben-bounding faults. Megabreccia deposits and landslide debris are common. Megabreccia deposits are interpreted as gravity-slide blocks of Miocene-Oligocene( ) age resulting from formation of the Red Hills shear zone, although some may be related to volcanism, and still others to later deformation. The debris deposits are landslides of Pleistocene-Pliocene( ) age possibly caused by continued uplift of the Markagunt Plateau.

  12. Summary of three dimensional pump testing of a fractured rock aquifer in the western Siberian Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, R.L.; Looney, B.B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A.; Drozhko, E.G.; Glalolenko, Y.V.; Mokrov, Y.G.; Ivanov, I.A.; Glagolev, A.V.; Vasil`kova, N.A.

    1996-10-30

    A group of scientists from the Savannah River Technology Center and Russia successfully completed a 17 day field investigation of a fractured rock aquifer at the MAYAK PA nuclear production facility in Russia. The test site is located in the western Siberian Basin near the floodplain of the Mishelyak river. The fractured rock aquifer is composed of orphyrites, tuff, tuffbreccia and lava and is overlain by 0.5--12 meters of elluvial and alluvial sediments. A network of 3 uncased wells (176, 1/96, and 2/96) was used to conduct the tests. Wells 176 and 2/96 were used as observation wells and the centrally located well 1/96 was used as the pumping well. Six packers were installed and inflated in each of the observation wells at a depth of up to 85 meters. The use of 6 packers in each well resulted in isolating 7 zones for monitoring. The packers were inflated to different pressures to accommodate the increasing hydrostatic pressure. A straddle packer assembly was installed in the pumping well to allow testing of each of the individual zones isolated in the observation wells. A constant rate pumping test was run on each of the 7 zones. The results of the pumping tests are included in Appendix A. The test provided new information about the nature of the fractured rock aquifers in the vicinity of the Mishelyak river and will be key information in understanding the behavior of contaminants originating from process wastes discharged to Lake Karachi. Results from the tests will be analyzed to determine the hydraulic properties of different zones within the fractured rock aquifer and to determine the most cost effective clean-up approach for the site.

  13. Heat flow and subsurface temperature distributions in central and western New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, D.S.; Fromm, K.

    1984-01-01

    Initiation of a geothermal energy program in western and central New York requires knowledge of subsurface temperatures for targeting areas of potential resources. The temperature distribution in possible geothermal reservoirs, calculated from heat flow measurements and modeling techniques, shows that a large area of New York can be considered for exploitation of geothermal resources. Though the temperatures at currently accessible depths show the availability of only a low-temperature (less than 100/sup 0/C), direct-use resource, this can be considered as an alternative for the future energy needs of New York State. From analysis of bottom-hole-temperature data and direct heat flow measurements, estimates of temperatures in the Cambrian Sandstones provide the basis of the economic evaluation of the reservoir. This reservoir contains the extractable fluids needed for targeting a potential geothermal well site in the low-temperature geothermal target zone. In the northern section of the Appalachian basin, reservoir temperatures in the Cambrian are below 50/sup 0/C but may be over 80/sup 0/C in the deeper parts of the basin in southern New York State. Using a minimum of 50/sup 0/C as a useful reservoir temperature, temperatures in excess of this value are encountered in the Theresa Formation at depths in excess of 1300 meters. Considering a maximum depth for economical drilling to be 2500 meters with present technology, the 2500 meters to the Theresa (sea level datum) forms the lower limit of the geothermal resource. Temperatures in the range of 70/sup 0/C to 80/sup 0/C are predicted for the southern portion of New York State.

  14. Energy Department’s Fossil Energy Chief to Tour Western Michigan University’s Clean Coal Research Facilities, Host Business Roundtable

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON  – Tomorrow, Wednesday, June 27, 2012, Assistant Energy Secretary for Fossil Energy Charles McConnell will join Western Michigan University President John M. Dunn and Core Energy CEO Bob...

  15. Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drici, Warda

    2004-02-01

    This report documents the analysis of the available hydrologic data conducted in support of the development of a Corrective Action Unit (CAU) groundwater flow model for Central and Western Pahute Mesa: CAUs 101 and 102.

  16. Steps to Establish a Real-Time Transmission Monitoring System for Transmission Owners and Operators within the Eastern and Western Interconnections

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Steps to establish a real-time transmission monitoring system for transmission owners and operators within the Eastern and Western interconnections: a report to congress pursuant to section 1839 of...

  17. Contaminant Transport Parameters for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drici, Warda

    2003-08-01

    This report documents the analysis of the available transport parameter data conducted in support of the development of a Corrective Action Unit (CAU) groundwater flow model for Central and Western Pahute Mesa: CAUs 101 and 102.

  18. Type B Accident Investigation of the Serious Personal Injury while Doble Testing at the Western Area Power Administration Hayden Substation, May 19, 1999

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On May 19, 1999, at 10:31 a.m., four Western Area Power Administration (Western) employees were performing Doble testing on a circuit breaker at Hayden Substation in Routt County, Colorado. Three electricians were injured when the high-voltage lead (HVL) of the Doble test set encroached on the minimum approach distance to an energized part outside clearance boundaries, drawing arcing faults.

  19. Energy Efficiency in Western Utility Resource Plans: Impacts onRegional Resources Assessment and Support for WGA Policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopper, Nicole; Goldman, Charles; Schlegal, Jeff

    2006-08-01

    In the aftermath of the consumer price shocks and short-term power shortages of the 2000-01 electricity crisis, policymakers and regulators in Western states are placing increased emphasis on integrated resource planning (IRP), resource adequacy and assessment and a diversified portfolio of resources to meet the needs of electricity consumers. In some states, this has led to a resurgence in state and utility commitments to energy efficiency. Increasing interest in acquiring energy efficiency as a power-system resource is also driven by the desire to dampen high growth rates in electricity demand in some Western states, rapid increases in natural gas prices, concerns about the environmental impacts of electricity generation (e.g. water consumption by power plants, air quality), and the potential of energy efficiency to provide utility bill savings for households and businesses (WGA CDEAC 2006). Recognizing the cost-competitiveness and environmental benefits of energy efficiency, the Western Governor's Association (WGA) has set a high priority for energy efficiency, establishing a goal of reducing projected electricity demand by 20% across the West by 2020 in a policy resolution on Clean and Diversified Energy for the West (WGA 2004). Nationally, the need for improved tracking of demand-side resources in load forecasting is formalized in the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC)'s recently adopted reliability standards, which utilities and regional reliability organizations will need to comply with (NERC 2005a and 2005b). In this study, we examine the treatment of energy efficiency in recent resource plans issued by fourteen investor-owned utilities (IOUs) in the Western United States and Canada. The goals of this study are to: (1) summarize energy-efficiency resources as represented in a large sample of recent resource plans prepared by Western utilities and identify key issues; (2) evaluate the extent to which the information provided in current resource plans can be used to support region-wide resource assessment and tracking of state/utility progress in meeting the WGA's energy-efficiency goals (WGA 2004); and (3) offer recommendations on information and documentation of energy-efficiency resources that should be included in future resource plans to facilitate comparative review and regional coordination. The scope of this report covers projected electric end-use efficiency investments reported in all Western utility resource plans that were publicly available as of February 2006. While a few utilities included additional demand-side resources, such as demand response, in their plans, we do not report that information. However, many of the issues and recommendations in reference to energy efficiency in this report are relevant to other demand-side resources as well. This report is organized as follows. Section 2 outlines the data sources and approach used in this study and conceptualizes methods and metrics for tracking energy-efficiency resources over time. Section 3 presents results from the review of the utility resource plans. Important issues encountered in reviewing the resource plans are discussed in section 4. Finally, section 5 concludes with recommendations for improving the tracking and reporting of energy efficiency in forthcoming resource plans.

  20. Operating Reserve Reductions from a Proposed Energy Imbalance Market with Wind and Solar Generation in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, J.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Beuning, S.

    2012-05-01

    This paper considers several alternative forms of an energy imbalance market (EIM) proposed in the nonmarket areas of the Western Interconnection. The proposed EIM includes two changes in operating practices that independently reduce variability and increase access to responsive resources: balancing authority cooperation and sub-hourly dispatch. As the penetration of variable generation increases on the power system, additional interest in coordination would likely occur. Several alternative approaches could be used, but consideration of any form of coordinated unit commitment is beyond the scope of this analysis. This report examines the benefits of several possible EIM implementations--both separately and in concert.

  1. FY-09 Summary Report to the Office of Petroleum Reserves on the Western Energy Corridor Initiative Activities and Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas R. Wood

    2010-01-01

    To meet its programmatic obligations under the Energy Policy Act of 2005, the Office of Naval Petroleum and Shale Oil Reserves (NPSOR) has initiated the Western Energy Corridor Initiative (WECI). The WECI will implement the Unconventional Strategic Fuels Task Force recommendations for accelerating and promoting the development of domestic unconventional fuels to help meet the nations’ energy needs. The mission of the WECI is to bolster America’s future fuel security by facilitating socially and environmentally responsible development of unconventional fuels resources in the Western Energy Corridor, using sound engineering principles and science-based methods to define and assess benefits, impacts, uncertainties, and mitigation options and to resolve impediments. The Task Force proposed a three-year program in its commercialization plan. The work described herein represents work performed by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in support of the DOE’s WECI. This effort represents an interim phase of work, designed to initiate only select portions of the initiative, limited by available funding resources within NPOSR. Specifically, the work presented here addresses what was accomplished in FY-09 with the remaining carryover (~$420K) from NPOSR FY-08 funds. It was the intent of the NPOSR program to seek additional funding for full implementation of the full scope of work; however, the original tasks were reduced in scope, terminated, or eliminated (as noted below). An effort is ongoing to obtain funding to continue the tasks initiated under this project. This study will focus on the integrated development of multiple energy resources in a carbon-neutral and environmentally acceptable manner. Emphasis will be placed on analyses of the interrelationships of various energy-resource development plans and the infrastructure, employment, training, fiscal, and economic demands placed on the region as a result of various development scenarios. The interactions at build-out during the design, permitting, and construction of individual and multiple energy developments are not fully considered at the local, state, regional, or national levels. The net impacts to the Western Energy Corridor cannot be understood and the design optimized under the current approach. A regional development plan is needed to model cumulative impacts, determine the carrying capacity of the basin, and provide valuable technically based information to both skeptics and advocates. The INL scope of work for FY-09 involved six tasks: 1. Evaluation of the ASPEN Code as a dynamic systems model for application and use under the WECI and communications with Alberta Oil Sands Research Institutions as an “analog” resource development in the Western Energy Corridor 2. Application of the Aspen Plus computer model to several oil shale processes to consider energy balances and inputs and outputs (e.g. water consumption, CO2 production, etc.) 3. Development of a regulatory roadmap for oil shale developments 4. Defining of the physiographic extent of the natural resource reserves that comprise the Western Energy Corridor 5. A review of the Unconventional Fuels Task Force Report to Congress for ideas, concepts and recommendations that crosscutting plans 6. Program development with stakeholders, including industry, academics, state and federal agencies, and non government organizations. This task also includes project management, strategic development and reporting.

  2. Final EIS for Decommissioning and/or Long-Term Stewardship at the WVDP and Western New York Nuclear Service Center

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE/EIS-0226 January 2010 Final Environmental Impact Statement for Decommissioning and/or Long-Term Stewardship at the West Valley Demonstration Project and Western New York Nuclear Service Center A Summary and Guide for Stakeholders The West Valley Site Availability of the Final EIS for Decommissioning and/or Long-Term Stewardship at the West Valley Demonstration Project and Western New York Nuclear Service Center For further information on this Final EIS, or to request a copy of the EIS or

  3. Comparison of high-pressure CO2 sorption isotherms on Eastern and Western US coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanov, V; Hur, T -B; Fazio, J; Howard, B

    2013-10-01

    Accurate estimation of carbon dioxide (CO2) sorption capacity of coal is important for planning the CO2 sequestration efforts. In this work, we investigated sorption and swelling behavior of several Eastern and Western US coal samples from the Central Appalachian Basin and from San Juan Basin. The CO2 sorption isotherms have been completed at 55°C for as received and dried samples. The role of mineral components in coal, the coal swelling, the effects of temperature and moisture, and the error propagation have been analyzed. Changes in void volume due to dewatering and other factors such as temporary caging of carbon dioxide molecules in coal matrix were identified among the main factors affecting accuracy of the carbon dioxide sorption isotherms. The (helium) void volume in the sample cells was measured before and after the sorption isotherm experiments and was used to build the volume-corrected data plots.

  4. Transient Stability and Frequency Response of the US Western Interconnection under conditions of High Wind and Solar Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Kara; Miller, Nicholas W.; Shao, Miaolei; Pajic, Slobodan; D'Aquila, Robert

    2015-04-15

    Adding large amounts of wind and solar generation to bulk power systems that are traditionally subject to operating constraints set by transient stability and frequency response limitations is the subject of considerable concern in the industry. The US Western Interconnection (WI) is expected to experience substantial additional growth in both wind and solar generation. These plants will, to some extent, displace large central station thermal generation, both coal and gas-fired, which have traditionally helped maintain stability. Our paper reports the results of a study that investigated the transient stability and frequency response of the WI with high penetrations of wind and solar generation. Moreover, the main goals of this work were to (1) create a realistic, baseline model of the WI, (2) test selected transient stability and frequency events, (3) investigate the impact of large amounts of wind and solar generation, and (4) examine means to improve performance.

  5. Oil and gas production in the Amu Dar`ya Basin of Western Uzbekistan and Eastern Turkmenistan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sagers, M.J.

    1995-05-01

    The resource base, development history, current output, and future outlook for oil and gas production in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are examined by a Western specialist with particular emphasis on the most important gas-oil province in the region, the Amu Dar`ya basin. Oil and gas have been produced in both newly independent countries for over a century, but production from the Amu Dar`ya province proper dates from the post-World War II period. Since that time, however, fields in the basin have provided the basis for a substantial natural gas industry (Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan consistently have trailed only Russia among the former Soviet republics in gas output during the last three decades). Despite high levels of current production, ample oil and gas potential (Turkmenistan, for example, ranks among the top five or six countries in the world in terms of gas reserves) contributes to the region`s prominence as an attractive area for Western investors. The paper reviews the history and status of several international tenders for the development of both gas and oil in the two republics. Sections on recent gas production trends and future outlook reveal considerable differences in consumption patterns and export potential in the region. Uzbekistan consumes most of the gas it produces, whereas Turkmenistan, with larger reserves and a smaller population, exported well over 85% of its output over recent years and appears poised to become a major exporter. A concluding section examines the conditions that will affect these countries` presence on world oil and gas markets over the longer term: reserves, domestic consumption, transportation bottlenecks, the likelihood of foreign investment, and future oil and gas demand. 33 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. Joint environmental assessment for western NPR-1 3-dimensional seismic project at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), has prepared an Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-1124) to identify and evaluate the potential environmental impacts of the proposed geophysical seismic survey on and adjacent to the Naval Petroleum Reserve No.1 (NPR-1), located approximately 35 miles west of Bakersfield, California. NPR-1 is jointly owned and operated by the federal government and Chevron U.S.A. Production Company. The federal government owns about 78 percent of NPR-1, while Chevron owns the remaining 22 percent. The government`s interest is under the jurisdiction of DOE, which has contracted with Bechtel Petroleum Operations, Inc. (BPOI) for the operation and management of the reserve. The 3-dimensional seismic survey would take place on NPR-1 lands and on public and private lands adjacent to NPR-1. This project would involve lands owned by BLM, California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), California Energy Commission (CEC), The Nature Conservancy, the Center for Natural Lands Management, oil companies (Chevron, Texaco, and Mobil), and several private individuals. The proposed action is designed to provide seismic data for the analysis of the subsurface geology extant in western NPR-1 with the goal of better defining the commercial limits of a currently producing reservoir (Northwest Stevens) and three prospective hydrocarbon bearing zones: the {open_quotes}A Fan{close_quotes} in Section 7R, the 19R Structure in Section 19R, and the 13Z Structure in Section 13Z. Interpreting the data is expected to provide NPR-1 owners with more accurate locations of structural highs, faults, and pinchouts to maximize the recovery of the available hydrocarbon resources in western NPR-1. Completion of this project is expected to increase NPR-1 recoverable reserves, and reduce the risks and costs associated with further exploration and development in the area.

  7. Regional analysis of rhythmic bedding in the Fort Hays limestone member, Niobrara Formation (Upper Cretaceous), US western interior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laferriere, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    Results of a regional stratigraphic investigation of the rhythmically bedded Fort Hays limestone member of Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico indicate at least two levels of cyclicity. Regional development of these cycles strongly supports the hypothesis that they are climatic in origin. Departures from simple cyclical patterns resulted from sedimentary effects of Late Cretaceous orogenic activity, erosional events associated with eustatic sea level changes, diagenetic modification, and possibly from interference between orbital parameters having different periodicities. The vulnerability of Milankovitch-type cyclicity to overprinting by tectono-sedimentologic effects makes units such as the Fort Hays useful as indicators of subtle tectonic activity. Regional thickness changes in groups of shale-limestone couplets were identified, correlated, and mapped in the subsurface using geophysical well log information in order to locate subtle structural elements that influenced Fort Hays sedimentation. In the Denver-Julesburg Basin of Colorado and western Kansas, thinning of the section between Fort Hays marker horizons occurs dominantly along northeastwardly trending belts that resulted apparently from Late Cretaceous reactivation of the Transcontinental Arch. Isotopic and petrographic analyses were conducted on pelagic (carbonate matrix) and benthic (inoceramid bivalve) constituents of selected shale/limestone couplets. These data suggest that there was little difference in temperature or salinity between times of terrigenous detrital input and times of nearly pure carbonate deposition. Isotopic information from matrix samples suggests a westward decrease in salinity of surface water in the Western Interior Sea. Isotopic data from largely unaltered inoceramid bivalves indicate bottom-water conditions of near-normal marine salinity.

  8. Analysis of drought impacts on electricity production in the Western and Texas interconnections of the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harto, C. B.; Yan, Y. E.; Demissie, Y. K.; Elcock, D.; Tidwell, V. C.; Hallett, K.; Macknick, J.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Tesfa, T. K.

    2012-02-09

    Electricity generation relies heavily on water resources and their availability. To examine the interdependence of energy and water in the electricity context, the impacts of a severe drought to assess the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the western and Texas interconnections has been examined. The historical drought patterns in the western United States were analyzed, and the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the region was evaluated. The results of this effort will be used to develop scenarios for medium- and long-term transmission modeling and planning efforts by the Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The study was performed in response to a request developed by the Western Governors Association in conjunction with the transmission modeling teams at the participating interconnections. It is part of a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored, national laboratory-led research effort to develop tools related to the interdependency of energy and water as part of a larger interconnection-wide transmission planning project funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. This study accomplished three main objectives. It provided a thorough literature review of recent studies of drought and the potential implications for electricity generation. It analyzed historical drought patterns in the western United States and used the results to develop three design drought scenarios. Finally, it quantified the risk to electricity generation for each of eight basins for each of the three drought scenarios and considered the implications for transmission planning. Literature on drought impacts on electricity generation describes a number of examples where hydroelectric generation capacity has been limited because of drought but only a few examples of impact on thermoelectric generation. In all documented cases, shortfalls of generation were met by purchasing power from the market, albeit at higher prices. However, sufficient excess generation and transmission must be available for this strategy to work. Although power purchase was the most commonly discussed drought mitigation strategy, a total of 12 response strategies were identified in the literature, falling into four main categories: electricity supply, electricity demand response, alternative water supplies, and water demand response. Three hydrological drought scenarios were developed based on a literature review and historical data analysis. The literature review helped to identify key drought parameters and data on drought frequency and severity. Historical hydrological drought data were analyzed for the western United States to identify potential drought correlations and estimate drought parameters. The first scenario was a West-wide drought occurring in 1977; it represented a severe drought in five of the eight basins in the study area. A second drought scenario was artificially defined by selecting the conditions from the 10th-percentile drought year for each individual basin; this drought was defined in this way to allow more consistent analysis of risk to electricity generation in each basin. The final scenario was based upon the current low-flow hydro modeling scenario defined by WECC, which uses conditions from the year 2001. These scenarios were then used to quantify the risk to electricity generation in each basin. The risk calculations represent a first-order estimate of the maximum amount of electricity generation that might be lost from both hydroelectric and thermoelectric sources under a worst-case scenario. Even with the conservative methodology used, the majority of basins showed a limited amount of risk under most scenarios. The level of risk in these basins is likely to be amenable to mitigation by known strategies, combined with existing reserve generation and transmission capacity. However, the risks to the Pacific Northwest and Texas Basins require further study. The Pacific Northwest is vulnerable because of its heavy reliance on hydroelectric generation. Texas, conversely, is vulnerable because of its heavy dependence on thermoelectric generation, which relies on surface water for cooling, along with the fact that this basin seems to experience more severe drought events on average. Further modeling analysis will be performed in conjunction with the modeling teams at the participating interconnections (WECC and ERCOT) to explore the transmission implications of the drought scenarios in more detail. Given the first-order nature of this analysis, more detailed study of the potential impacts of drought on electricity generation is recommended. Future analyses should attempt to model the potential impacts of drought at the power-plant level, including potential mitigation strategies; include the effects of drought duration; understand the impacts of climate change; and consider economic impacts.

  9. EIS-0442: Reauthorization of Permits, Maintenance, and Vegetation Management on Western Area Power Administration Transmission Lines on Forest Service Lands, Colorado, Nebraska, and Utah

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS is being prepared jointly by DOE’s Western Area Power Administration and the U.S. Forest Service. The EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of Western’s proposed changes to vegetation management along its transmission line rights-of-way on National Forest System lands in Colorado, Utah, and Nebraska.

  10. ,"Year",,"Summer",,,"Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid",,,"Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4a. Summer Historic Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004 " ,"(Megawatts and Percent)" ,"Year",,"Summer",,,"Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid",,,"Western Power Grid" ,,,"Contiguous U.S."

  11. Fact #751: October 29, 2012 Plug-in Car Sales Higher in the U.S. Compared to Western Europe and China

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2011, plug-in car sales in the U.S. were 0.28% of the U.S. car market, and grew to 0.44% of the U.S. car market in the first eight months of 2012. Western Europe has also increased their plug-in...

  12. An Exploration of Impacts of Wide-Scale Implementation of Net Zero-Energy Homes on the Western Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dirks, James A.

    2010-07-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a study on the impact of wide-scale implementation of net zero-energy homes (ZEHs) in the western grid. Although minimized via utilization of advanced building technologies, ZEHs still consume energy that must be balanced on an annual basis via self-generation of electricity, which is commonly assumed to be from rooftop photovoltaics (PV). This results in a ZEH having a significantly different electricity demand profile than a conventional home. Widespread implementation of ZEHs will cause absolute demand levels to fall compared to continued use of more conventional facilities; however, the shape of the demand profile will also change significantly. Demand profile changes will lead to changes in the hourly value of electric generation. With significant penetration of ZEHs, it can be expected that ZEHs will face time-of-day rates or real-time pricing that reflect the value of generation and use. This will impact the economics of ZEHs and the optimal design of PV systems for subsequent ZEHs.

  13. Integrating multi-criteria decision analysis for a GIS-based hazardous waste landfill sitting in Kurdistan Province, western Iran

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharifi, Mozafar Hadidi, Mosslem Vessali, Elahe Mosstafakhani, Parasto Taheri, Kamal Shahoie, Saber Khodamoradpour, Mehran

    2009-10-15

    The evaluation of a hazardous waste disposal site is a complicated process because it requires data from diverse social and environmental fields. These data often involve processing of a significant amount of spatial information which can be used by GIS as an important tool for land use suitability analysis. This paper presents a multi-criteria decision analysis alongside with a geospatial analysis for the selection of hazardous waste landfill sites in Kurdistan Province, western Iran. The study employs a two-stage analysis to provide a spatial decision support system for hazardous waste management in a typically under developed region. The purpose of GIS was to perform an initial screening process to eliminate unsuitable land followed by utilization of a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to identify the most suitable sites using the information provided by the regional experts with reference to new chosen criteria. Using 21 exclusionary criteria, as input layers, masked maps were prepared. Creating various intermediate or analysis map layers a final overlay map was obtained representing areas for hazardous waste landfill sites. In order to evaluate different landfill sites produced by the overlaying a landfill suitability index system was developed representing cumulative effects of relative importance (weights) and suitability values of 14 non-exclusionary criteria including several criteria resulting from field observation. Using this suitability index 15 different sites were visited and based on the numerical evaluation provided by MCDA most suitable sites were determined.

  14. The Impact of Wide-Scale Implementation of Net Zero-Energy Homes on the Western Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dirks, James A.

    2010-08-16

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a study on the impact of wide-scale implementation of net zero-energy homes (ZEHs) in the western grid. Although minimized via utilization of advanced building technologies, ZEHs still consume energy that must be balanced on an annual basis via self-generation of electricity which is commonly assumed to be from rooftop photovoltaics (PV). This results in a ZEH having a significantly different electricity demand profile than a conventional home. Wide-spread implementation of ZEHs will cause absolute demand levels to fall compared to continued use of more conventional facilities; however, the shape of the demand profile will also change significantly. Demand profile changes will lead to changes in the hourly value of electric generation. With significant penetration of ZEHs, it can be expected that ZEHs will face time of day rates or real time pricing that reflect the value of generation and use. This will impact the economics of ZEHs and the optimal design of PV systems for subsequent ZEHs.

  15. Flexibility Reserve Reductions from an Energy Imbalance Market with High Levels of Wind Energy in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, J.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; S. Beuning

    2011-10-01

    The anticipated increase in variable generation in the Western Interconnection (WI) over the next several years has raised concerns about how to maintain system balance, especially in smaller Balancing Areas (BAs). Given renewable portfolio standards in the West, it is possible that more than 50 gigawatts (GW) of wind capacity will be installed by 2020. Significant quantities of solar generation are likely to be added as well. The consequent increase in variability and uncertainty that must be managed by the conventional generation fleet and responsive load make it attractive to consider ways in which Balancing Area Authorities (BAAs) can pool their variability and response resources, thus taking advantage of geographic and temporal diversity to increase overall operational efficiency. Our analysis considers several alternative forms of an Energy Imbalance Market (EIM) that have been proposed in the non-market areas of the WI. The proposed EIM includes two changes in operating practices that independently reduce variability and increase access to responsive resources: BAA cooperation and sub-hourly dispatch. As proposed, the EIM does not consider any form of coordinated unit commitment; however, over time it is possible that BAAs would develop formal or informal coordination plans. This report examines the benefits of several possible EIM implementations, both separately and in concert.

  16. Geophysical investigations of the Western Ohio-Indiana region. Final report, October 1986--September 1992: Volume 10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruff, L.; LaForge, R.; Thorson, R.; Wagner, T.; Goudaen, F. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1994-01-01

    Earthquake activity in the Western Ohio-Indiana region has been monitored with a seismograph network consisting of nine stations located in west-central Ohio and four stations located in Indiana. Six local and regional earthquakes have been recorded from October 1990 to September 1992 with magnitudes ranging from 0.6 to 5.0. A total of 36 local and regional earthquakes have been recorded in the past 6-year period (October 1986 to September 1992). Overall a total of 78 local and regional earthquakes have been recorded since the network went into operation in 1977. There was a peak in seismicity in 1986, including the July 12, 1986 St. Marys` event (mb=4.5), followed by an anomalously low level of seismicity for about 2 years. The most unusual feature of the seismicity in the past.year is the occurrence of three earthquakes in Indiana. The locations of the felt earthquakes are scattered across central Indiana; an area that had been aseismic. Analysis of arrival time data accumulated over the past 14 years shows that the Anna region crustal structure is ``slower`` than the average mid-continent crustal structure. This implies that the proposed Keewenawan rift in the Anna region has a different structure than that of other Keewenawan rifts in the mid-continent.

  17. Evaluation of Production Cost Savings from Consolidation of Balancing Authorities in the US Western Interconnection under High Wind and Solar Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Tony B.; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

    2014-12-24

    This paper introduces a comprehensive analysis to quantify the potential savings in production cost due to consolidation of 32 US western interconnection Balancing Authorities (BAs). Three simulation scenarios are developed: current Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) BAs structure, full copper-sheet consolidation, and full consolidation with transmission congestion considered. The study uses WECC Transmission Expansion Planning Policy Committee (TEPPC) model that was developed for the year 2020. The model assumes 8% wind and 3% solar energy penetration as percentage of total WECC demand in 2020. Sensitivity analyses are carried out to assess the impact of transmission hurdle rates between WECC BAs on potential benefits. The study shows savings that ranges from $400 Million (2.4% of total one year production cost) to $600 Million (3.2%) per year in thermal units production cost due to consolidation can be achieved. The copper sheet consolidation scenario shows an extra savings of $240 Million (1.4%) per year.

  18. ,"Year",,"Summer",,,"Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid",,,"Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4b. Summer Historic Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2005 through 2009 " ,"(Megawatts and Percent)" ,"Year",,"Summer",,,"Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid",,,"Western Power Grid" ,,,"Contiguous U.S." ,,,,,,"FRCC",,,"MRO (U.S.)",,,"NPCC

  19. Energy Efficiency as a Preferred Resource: Evidence from Utility Resource Plans in the Western United States and Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopper, Nichole; Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Schlegel, Jeff

    2008-09-15

    This article examines the future role of energy efficiency as a resource in the Western United States and Canada, as envisioned in the most recent resource plans issued by 16 utilities, representing about 60percent of the region's load. Utility and third-party administered energy efficiency programs proposed by 15 utilities over a ten-year horizon would save almost 19,000 GWh annually, about 5.2percent of forecast load. There are clear regional trends in the aggressiveness of proposed energy savings. California's investor-owned utilities (IOUs) had the most aggressive savings targets, followed by IOUs in the Pacific Northwest, and the lowest savings were proposed by utilities in Inland West states and by two public utilities on the West coast. The adoption of multiple, aggressive policies targeting energy efficiency and climate change appear to produce sizeable energy efficiency commitments. Certain specific policies, such as mandated energy savings goals for California's IOUs and energy efficiency provisions in Nevada's Renewable Portfolio Standard had a direct impact on the level of energy savings included in the resource plans. Other policies, such as revenue decoupling and shareholder incentives, and voluntary or legislatively mandated greenhouse gas emission reduction policies, may have also impacted utilities' energy efficiency commitments, though the effects of these policies are not easily measured. Despite progress among the utilities in our sample, more aggressive energy efficiency strategies that include high-efficiency standards for additional appliances and equipment, tighter building codes for new construction and renovation, as well as more comprehensive ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs are likely to be necessary to achieve a region-wide goal of meeting 20percent of electricity demand with efficiency in 2020.

  20. Transmission Planning Process and Opportunities for Utility-Scale Solar Engagement within the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hein, J.; Hurlbut, D.; Milligan, M.; Coles, L.; Green, B.

    2011-11-01

    This report is a primer for solar developers who wish to engage directly in expediting the regulatory process and removing market barriers related to policy and planning. Market barriers unrelated to technology often limit the expansion of utility-scale solar power, even in areas with exceptional resource potential. Many of these non-technical barriers have to do with policy, regulation, and planning, and hardly ever do they resolve themselves in a timely fashion. In most cases, pre-emptive intervention by interested stakeholders is the easiest way to remove/address such barriers, but it requires knowing how to navigate the institutional waters of the relevant agencies and boards. This report is a primer for solar developers who wish to engage directly in expediting the regulatory process and removing market barriers related to policy and planning. It focuses on the Western Interconnection (WI), primarily because the quality of solar resources in the Southwest makes utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaics (PV) economically feasible, and because the relevant institutions have evolved in a way that has opened up opportunities for removing non-technical market barriers. Developers will find in this report a high-level field manual to identify the venues for mitigating and possibly eliminating systemic market obstacles and ensuring that the economic playing field is reasonably level. Project-specific issues such as siting for transmission and generation resources are beyond the scope of this report. Instead, the aim is to examine issues that pervasively affect all utility-scale PV and CSP in the region regardless of where the project may be. While the focus is on the WI, many of the institutions described here also have their counterparts in the Eastern and the Texas interconnections. Specifically, this report suggests a number of critical engagement points relating to generation and transmission planning.

  1. Surveillance for Western equine encephalitis St. Louis encephalitis and West Nile viruses using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meagher, Robert J.; Ball, Cameron Scott; Langevin, Stanley A.; Fang, Ying; Wheeler, Sarah S.; Coffey, Lark L.

    2016-01-25

    In this study, collection of mosquitoes and testing for vector-borne viruses is a key surveillance activity that directly influences the vector control efforts of public health agencies, including determining when and where to apply insecticides. Vector control districts in California routinely monitor for three human pathogenic viruses including West Nile virus (WNV), Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) offers highly sensitive and specific detection of these three viruses in a single multiplex reaction, but this technique requires costly, specialized equipment that is generally only available in centralized publicmore » health laboratories. We report the use of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) to detect WNV, WEEV, and SLEV RNA extracted from pooled mosquito samples collected in California, including novel primer sets for specific detection of WEEV and SLEV, targeting the nonstructural protein 4 (nsP4) gene of WEEV and the 3’ untranslated region (3’-UTR) of SLEV. Our WEEV and SLEV RT-LAMP primers allowed detection of <0.1 PFU/reaction of their respective targets in <30 minutes, and exhibited high specificity without cross reactivity when tested against a panel of alphaviruses and flaviviruses. Furthermore, the SLEV primers do not cross-react with WNV, despite both viruses being closely related members of the Japanese encephalitis virus complex. The SLEV and WEEV primers can also be combined in a single RT-LAMP reaction, with discrimination between amplicons by melt curve analysis. Although RT-qPCR is approximately one order of magnitude more sensitive than RT-LAMP for all three targets, the RT-LAMP technique is less instrumentally intensive than RT-qPCR and provides a more cost-effective method of vector-borne virus surveillance.« less

  2. Analysis of Critical Permeabilty, Capillary Pressure and Electrical Properties for Mesaverde Tight Gas Sandstones from Western U.S. Basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; Robert Cluff; John Webb; John Victorine; Ken Stalder; Daniel Osburn; Andrew Knoderer; Owen Metheny; Troy Hommertzheim; Joshua Byrnes; Daniel Krygowski; Stefani Whittaker

    2008-06-30

    Although prediction of future natural gas supply is complicated by uncertainty in such variables as demand, liquefied natural gas supply price and availability, coalbed methane and gas shale development rate, and pipeline availability, all U.S. Energy Information Administration gas supply estimates to date have predicted that Unconventional gas sources will be the dominant source of U.S. natural gas supply for at least the next two decades (Fig. 1.1; the period of estimation). Among the Unconventional gas supply sources, Tight Gas Sandstones (TGS) will represent 50-70% of the Unconventional gas supply in this time period (Fig. 1.2). Rocky Mountain TGS are estimated to be approximately 70% of the total TGS resource base (USEIA, 2005) and the Mesaverde Group (Mesaverde) sandstones represent the principal gas productive sandstone unit in the largest Western U.S. TGS basins including the basins that are the focus of this study (Washakie, Uinta, Piceance, northern Greater Green River, Wind River, Powder River). Industry assessment of the regional gas resource, projection of future gas supply, and exploration programs require an understanding of reservoir properties and accurate tools for formation evaluation. The goal of this study is to provide petrophysical formation evaluation tools related to relative permeability, capillary pressure, electrical properties and algorithms for wireline log analysis. Detailed and accurate moveable gas-in-place resource assessment is most critical in marginal gas plays and there is need for quantitative tools for definition of limits on gas producibility due to technology and rock physics and for defining water saturation. The results of this study address fundamental questions concerning: (1) gas storage; (2) gas flow; (3) capillary pressure; (4) electrical properties; (5) facies and upscaling issues; (6) wireline log interpretation algorithms; and (7) providing a web-accessible database of advanced rock properties. The following text briefly discusses the nature of these questions. Section I.2 briefly discusses the objective of the study with respect to the problems reviewed.

  3. Adaptation strategies for health impacts of climate change in Western Australia: Application of a Health Impact Assessment framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spickett, Jeffery T.; Brown, Helen L.; Katscherian, Dianne

    2011-04-15

    Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing the globe and there is substantial evidence that this will result in a number of health impacts, regardless of the level of greenhouse gas mitigation. It is therefore apparent that a combined approach of mitigation and adaptation will be required to protect public health. While the importance of mitigation is recognised, this project focused on the role of adaptation strategies in addressing the potential health impacts of climate change. The nature and magnitude of these health impacts will be determined by a number of parameters that are dependent upon the location. Firstly, climate change will vary between regions. Secondly, the characteristics of each region in terms of population and the ability to adapt to changes will greatly influence the extent of the health impacts that are experienced now and into the future. Effective adaptation measures therefore need to be developed with these differences in mind. A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework was used to consider the implications of climate change on the health of the population of Western Australia (WA) and to develop a range of adaptive responses suited to WA. A broad range of stakeholders participated in the HIA process, providing informed input into developing an understanding of the potential health impacts and potential adaptation strategies from a diverse sector perspective. Potential health impacts were identified in relation to climate change predictions in WA in the year 2030. The risk associated with each of these impacts was assessed using a qualitative process that considered the consequences and the likelihood of the health impact occurring. Adaptations were then developed which could be used to mitigate the identified health impacts and provide responses which could be used by Government for future decision making. The periodic application of a HIA framework is seen as an ideal tool to develop appropriate adaptation strategies to address the potential health impacts of climate change.

  4. Western Regional Partnership Overview

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Regional Partnership Overview June 2013 Briefing Overview  WRP Background  Importance of Region  WRP Tribal Relations Committee  WRP Energy Committee WRP Region's Uniqueness  5 states stretching from the Great Plains to the Pacific Ocean  Diverse terrain ranging from desert valleys to forested mountains  Significant State Trust Landholdings  Approximately 188 Federally recognized Tribes  Significant amounts of Federally managed land  According to GSA 2004 study, WRP

  5. Western Governor's Association Agenda

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Number of trucks, drivers, and trailers * Driver Incidents since fall meeting Gaylon Fuller CAST Specialty Transportation Randahl Mills Visionary Solutions 3:15 pm STATE BUSINESS...

  6. SPE Western Regional Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydrates Advisory Committee Meeting Program Funding Louis Capitanio Methane Hydrate Program Manager Office of Oil and Natural Gas June 7, 2013 FY 2012 & FY 2013 Budgets FY 2012...

  7. Western Nuclear Science Alliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Reese; George Miller; Stephen Frantz; Denis Beller; Denis Beller; Ed Morse; Melinda Krahenbuhl; Bob Flocchini; Jim Elliston

    2010-12-07

    The primary objective of the INIE program is to strengthen nuclear science and engineering programs at the member institutions and to address the long term goal of the University Reactor Infrastructure and Education Assistance Program.

  8. Unclassified Source Term and Radionuclide Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCord, John

    2004-08-01

    This report documents the evaluation of the information and data available on the unclassified source term and radionuclide contamination for Central and Western Pahute Mesa: Corrective Action Units (CAUs) 101 and 102.

  9. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy

    2011-04-30

    This report presents the results of the research and development conducted on an Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP) conceived and developed by Arizona Public Service Company (APS) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract: DE-FC26-06NT42759 for Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) production from western coal. A double-wall (i.e., a hydrogasification contained within a pressure shell) down-flow hydrogasification reactor was designed, engineered, constructed, commissioned and operated by APS, Phoenix, AZ. The reactor is ASME-certified under Section VIII with a rating of 1150 pounds per square inch gage (psig) maximum allowable working pressure at 1950 degrees Fahrenheit ({degrees}F). The reaction zone had a 1.75 inch inner diameter and 13 feet length. The initial testing of a sub-bituminous coal demonstrated ~ 50% carbon conversion and ~10% methane yield in the product gas under 1625{degrees}F, 1000 psig pressure, with a 11 seconds (s) residence time, and 0.4 hydrogen-to-coal mass ratio. Liquid by-products mainly contained Benzene, Toluene, Xylene (BTX) and tar. Char collected from the bottom of the reactor had 9000-British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) heating value. A three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic model simulation of the hydrodynamics around the reactor head was utilized to design the nozzles for injecting the hydrogen into the gasifier to optimize gas-solid mixing to achieve improved carbon conversion. The report also presents the evaluation of using algae for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) management and biofuel production. Nannochloropsis, Selenastrum and Scenedesmus were determined to be the best algae strains for the project purpose and were studied in an outdoor system which included a 6-meter (6M) radius cultivator with a total surface area of 113 square meters (m{sup 2}) and a total culture volume between 10,000 to 15,000 liters (L); a CO{sub 2} on-demand feeding system; an on-line data collection system for temperature, pH, Photosynthetically Activate Radiation (PAR) and dissolved oxygen (DO); and a ~2 gallons per minute (gpm) algae culture dewatering system. Among the three algae strains, Scenedesmus showed the most tolerance to temperature and irradiance conditions in Phoenix and the best self-settling characteristics. Experimental findings and operational strategies determined through these tests guided the operation of the algae cultivation system for the scale-up study. Effect of power plant flue gas, especially heavy metals, on algae growth and biomass adsorption were evaluated as well.

  10. Natural CO2 accumulations in the western Williston Basin: A mineralogical analog for CO2 injection at the Weyburn site

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ryerson, F. J.; Lake, John; Whittaker, Steven; Johnson, James W.

    2013-01-17

    The Devonian carbonates of the Duperow Formation on the western flank of the Williston Basin in southwest Saskatchewan contain natural accumulations of CO2, and may have done so for as long as 50 million years. These carbonate sediments are characterized by a succession of carbonate cycles capped by anhydrite-rich evaporites that are thought to act as seals to fluid migration. The Weyburn CO2 injection site lies 400 km to the east in a series of Mississippian carbonates that were deposited in a similar depositional environment. That long-term isolation of natural CO2 can be accomplished within carbonate strata has motivated themore » investigation of the Duperow rocks as a potential natural analog for storage of anthropogenic CO2 in carbonate lithologies. For the Duperow strata to represent a legitimate analog for Midale injection and storage, the similarity in lithofacies, whole rock compositions, mineral compositions and porosity with the Midale Beds must be established. Here we compare lithofacies, whole rock compositions, mineralogy and mineral compositions from both locales. The major mineral phases at both locales are calcite, dolomite and anhydrite. In addition, accessory pyrite, fluorite, quartz and celestine (strontium sulfate) are also observed. Dawsonite, a potential CO2-trapping mineral, is not observed within the CO2-bearing horizons of the Duperow Formation, however. The distribution of porosity in the Midale Vuggy units is similar to that of the Duperow Formation, but the Marly units of the Midale have significantly higher porosity. The Duperow Formation is topped by the Dinesmore evaporite that is rich in anhydrite, and often contains authigenic K-feldspar. The chemistry of dolomite and calcite from the two localities also overlaps. Silicate minerals are in low abundance (<3%) within the analyzed Duperow samples, with quartz and K-feldspar the only silicates observed petrographically or in X-ray diffraction patterns. The Midale Beds contain significantly higher silica/silicate concentrations (Durocher et al., 2003), but the paucity of mono- and divalent cations that can be derived from dissolution of these silicate minerals likely precludes significant carbonate mineral formation. Therefore physical and solution trapping are likely to be the primary CO2 trapping mechanisms at both sites.« less

  11. Gulf of Mexico Sales 147 and 150: Central and Western planning areas. Final environmental impact statement, Volume 1: Sections 1 through 4.C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) covers the proposed 1994 Gulf of Mexico OCS oil and gas lease sales [Central Gulf of Mexico Sale 147 (March 1994) and Western Gulf of Mexico Sale 150 (August 1994)]. This document includes the purpose and background of the proposed actions, the alternatives, the descriptions of the affected environment, and the potential environmental impacts of the proposed actions and alternatives. Proposed mitigating measures and their effects are analyzed, in addition to potential cumulative impacts resulting from proposed activities.

  12. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-14, Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-03-05

    Well ER-EC-14 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Management Operations Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS; formerly Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in September and October 2012, as part of the Central and Western Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Unit Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information for the Fortymile Canyon composite hydrostratigraphic unit in the Timber Mountain moat area, within the Timber Mountain caldera complex, that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model. The main 55.9-centimeter (cm) hole was drilled to a total depth of 325.5 meters (m) and cased with 40.6-cm casing to 308.1 m. The hole diameter was then decreased to 37.5 cm, and drilling continued to a total depth of 724.8 m. The completion casing string, set to the depth of 690.9 m, consists of 16.8-cm stainless-steel casing hanging from 19.4-cm carbon-steel casing. The stainless-steel casing has two slotted intervals open to the Rainier Mesa Tuff. Two piezometer strings were installed in Well ER-EC-14. Both piezometer strings, each with one slotted interval, consist of 6.0-cm carbon-steel tubing at the surface, then cross over to 7.3-cm stainless-steel tubing just above the water table. The shallow piezometer string was landed at 507.8 m, and the deep piezometer string was landed at 688.6 m. Both piezometer strings are set to monitor groundwater within moderately to densely welded Rainier Mesa Tuff. Data collected during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3.0 m, various geophysical logs, water quality (including tritium and other radionuclides) measurements, and water level measurements. The well penetrated 15.2 m of alluvium and 709.6 m of Tertiary volcanic rocks. The stratigraphy and general lithology were not as expected due to the position of Well ER-EC-14 relative to the buried caldera margins of the Timber Mountain caldera complex. The well is located inside the Rainier Mesa caldera, but outside the younger Ammonia Tanks caldera. On November 5, 2012, a preliminary fluid level in the shallow piezometer string was measured at the depth of 311.8 m. This water level depth was taken before installation of the bridge plug (to be placed within the main completion casing to separate the two slotted zones). Well development, hydrologic testing, and sampling, will be conducted at a later date. No tritium above levels detectable by field methods were encountered in this hole. All Fluid Management Plan (FMP) requirements for Well ER-EC-14 were met. Analysis of monitoring samples and FMP confirmatory samples indicated that fluids generated during drilling at Well ER-EC-14 met the FMP criteria for discharge to an unlined sump or designated infiltration area. All sanitary and hydrocarbon waste generated was properly handled and disposed of.

  13. Well Completion Report for Well ER-20-11, Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2013-02-27

    Well ER-20-11 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Management Operations Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in September 2012 as part of the Central and Western Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Unit Phase II drilling program. Well ER-20-11 was constructed to further investigate the nature and extent of radionuclidecontaminated groundwater encountered in two nearby UGTA wells, to help define hydraulic and transport parameters for the contaminated Benham aquifer, and to provide data for the UGTA hydrostratigraphic framework model. The 44.5-centimeter (cm) surface hole was drilled to a depth of 520.0 meters (m) and cased with 34.0-cm casing to 511.5 m. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 cm, and the borehole was drilled to a total depth of 915.6 m. The hole was completed to allow access for hydrologic testing and sampling in the target aquifer, which is a lava-flow aquifer known as the Benham aquifer. The completion casing string, set to the depth of 904.3 m, consists of a string of 6⅝-inch (in.) stainless-steel casing hanging from a string of 7⅝-in. carbon-steel casing. The stainless-steel casing has one slotted interval at 796.3 to 903.6 m. One piezometer string was installed, which consists of 2⅞-in. stainless-steel tubing that hangs from 2⅜-in. carbon-steel tubing via a crossover sub. This string was landed at 903.8 m and is slotted in the interval 795.3 to 903.1 m. Data collected during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3.0 m, various geophysical logs, fluid samples (for groundwater chemistry analysis and tritium measurements), and water-level measurements. The well penetrated 915.6 m of Tertiary volcanic rock, including one saturated lava flow aquifer. Measurements on samples taken from the undeveloped well indicated elevated tritium levels within the Benham aquifer. The maximum tritium level measured with field equipment was 146,131 picocuries per liter from a sample obtained at the depth of 912.0 m. The fluid level was measured in the piezometer string at a depth of 504.5 m on September 26, 2012. All Fluid Management Plan (FMP) requirements for Well ER-20-11 were met. Analysis of monitoring samples and FMP confirmatory samples indicated that fluids generated during drilling at Well ER-20-11 met the FMP criteria for discharge to an unlined sump or designated infiltration area. Well development, hydrologic testing, and sampling will be conducted at a later date.

  14. Volume 9: A Review of Socioeconomic Impacts of Oil Shale Development WESTERN OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT: A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotariu,, G. J.

    1982-02-01

    The development of an oil shale industry in northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah has been forecast at various times since early this century, but the comparatively easy accessibility of other oil sources has forestalled development. Decreasing fuel supplies, increasing energy costs, and the threat of a crippling oil embargo finally may launch a commercial oil shale industry in this region. Concern for the possible impacts on the human environment has been fostered by experiences of rapid population growth in other western towns that have hosted energy resource development. A large number of studies have attempted to evaluate social and economic impacts of energy development and to determine important factors that affect the severity of these impacts. These studies have suggested that successful management of rapid population growth depends on adequate front-end capital for public facilities, availability of housing, attention to human service needs, long-range land use and fiscal planning. This study examines variables that affect the socioeconomic impacts of oil shale development. The study region is composed of four Colorado counties: Mesa, Moffat, Garfield and Rio Blanco. Most of the estimated population of 111 000 resides in a handful of urban areas that are separated by large distances and rugged terrain. We have projected the six largest cities and towns and one planned company town (Battlement Mesa) to be the probable centers for potential population impacts caused by development of an oil shale industry. Local planners expect Battlement Mesa to lessen impacts on small existing communities and indeed may be necessary to prevent severe regional socioeconomic impacts. Section II describes the study region and focuses on the economic trends and present conditions in the area. The population impacts analyzed in this study are contingent on a scenario of oil shale development from 1980-90 provided by the Department of Energy and discussed in Sec. III. We recognize that the rate of development, the magnitude of development, and the technology mix that will actually take place remain uncertain. Although we emphasize that other energy and mineral resources besides oil shale may be developed, the conclusions reached in this study reflect only those impacts that would be felt from the oil shale scenario. Socioeconomic impacts in the region reflect the uneven growth rate implied by the scenario and will be affected by the timing of industry developments, the length and magnitude of the construction phase of development, and the shift in employment profiles predicted in the scenario. The facilities in the southern portion of the oil shale region, those along the Colorado River and Parachute Creek, show a peak in the construction work force in the mid-1980s, whereas those f acil it i es in the Piceance Creek Bas into the north show a construction peak in the late 1980s. Together, the facilities will require a large construction work force throughout the decade, with a total of 4800 construction workers required in 1985. Construction at the northern sites and second phase construction in the south will require 6000 workers in 1988. By 1990, the operation work force will increase to 7950. Two important characteristics of oil shale development emerge from the work force estimates: (1) peak-year construction work forces will be 90-120% the size of the permanent operating work force; and (2) the yearly changes in total work force requirements will be large, as much as 900 in one year at one facility. To estimate population impacts on individual communities, we devised a population distribution method that is described in Sec. IV. Variables associated with the projection of population impacts are discussed and methodologies of previous assessments are compared. Scenario-induced population impacts estimated by the Los Alamos method are compared to projections of a model employed by the Colorado West Area Council of Governments. Oil shale development in the early decade, as defined by the scenario, will produce growth primarily

  15. Type A Accident Investigation Report – Western Area Power Administration Investigation of the June 7, 2004, Construction Contractor Electrical Accident at Double-Circuit Structure 38/1, Watertown-Granite Falls 230-kV Transmission Line East of Watertown, S

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report is an independent product of the Type A Accident Investigation board appointed by Timothy J. Meeks, Chief Operating Officer, Western Area Power Administration.

  16. The role of active and ancient geothermal processes in the generation, migration, and entrapment of oil in the basin and Range Province, western USA. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulen, J.B.; Collister, J.W.; Curtiss, D.K.

    1997-06-01

    The Basin and Range (B&R) physiographic province of the western USA is famous not only for its geothermal and precious-metal wealth, but also for its thirteen oil fields, small but in some cases highly productive. The Grant Canyon field in Railroad Valley, for example, for years boasted production of more than 6000 barrels of oil (BO) per day from just two wells; aggregate current production from the Blackburn field in Pine Valley commonly exceeds 1000 BO per day. These two and several other Nevada oil fields are unusually hot at reservoir depth--up to 130{degrees}C at depths as shallow as 1.1 km, up to three times the value expected from the prevailing regional geothermal gradient.

  17. Larger foraminifer biostratigraphy of PEACE boreholes, Enewetak Atoll, Western Pacific Ocean. Geologic and geophysical investigations of Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Professional paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, T.G.; Margerum, R.

    1991-01-01

    Larger foraminiferal assemblages, including Lepidocyclina orientalis, Miogypsina thecideaeformis, Miogypsinoides dehaartii, etc., and a smaller foraminifer, Austrotrillina striata, are used to correlate upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata in the Pacific Atoll Exploration Program (PEACE) boreholes at Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, western Pacific Ocean, with the Te and Tf zones of the previously established Tertiary Far East Letter Zonation. Correlation using these two benthic groups is critical because calcareous nannofossils and planktic foraminifers are absent in the lower Miocene strata. Biostratigraphic data from these boreholes delineate a thick (greater than 700 feet) sequence of upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata corresponding to lower and upper Te zone. These strata document a major period of carbonate accumulation at Enewetak during the Late Oligocene and early Miocene (26 to 18 million years ago).

  18. Geologic and hydrologic research at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, West Valley, New York. Final report, August 1982-December 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albanese, J.R.; Anderson, S.L.; Fakundiny, R.H.; Potter, S.M.; Rogers, W.B.; Whitbeck, L.F.; LaFleur, R.G.; Boothroyd, J.C.; Timson, B.S.

    1984-06-01

    This report is the last in a series by the New York State Geological Survey on studies funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report covers five important aspects of the geology and hydrology of the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, near West Valley, New York: geomorphology, stratigraphy, sedimentology, surface water, and radionuclide analyses. We reviewed past research on these subjects and present new data obtained in the final phase of NYSGS research at the site. Also presented are up-to-date summaries of the present knowledge of geomorphology and stratigraphy. The report contains a significant bibliography of previous West Valley studies. Appendices include a report on the Fall 1983 Drilling Project and the procedures used, history and prognosis of Cattaraugus Creek and tributaries down cutting, and bar modification and landslide processes of Buttermilk Valley. 100 references, 7 figures, 7 tables.

  19. Implications of Model Configurations on Capacity Planning Decisions: Scenario Case Studies of the Western Interconnection and Colorado Region using the Resource Planning Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this report, we analyze the impacts of model configuration and detail in capacity expansion models, computational tools used by utility planners looking to find the least cost option for planning the system and by researchers or policy makers attempting to understand the effects of various policy implementations. The present analysis focuses on the importance of model configurations—particularly those related to capacity credit, dispatch modeling, and transmission modeling—to the construction of scenario futures. Our analysis is primarily directed toward advanced tools used for utility planning and is focused on those impacts that are most relevant to decisions with respect to future renewable capacity deployment. To serve this purpose, we develop and employ the NREL Resource Planning Model to conduct a case study analysis that explores 12 separate capacity expansion scenarios of the Western Interconnection through 2030.

  20. Executive summary: legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric potential in the seven mid-western states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The relationship of Federal law and regulation to state law and regulation of small-scale hydroelectric facilities is described. Important features of the constitutional law, statutory law, case law, and regulations of each of the 7 mid-western states (Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, West Virginia, and Wisconsin) are highlighted. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, i.e., the law of pre-emption, and the application of this law to the case of hydroelectric development and regulation of water resources. A state-by-state synopsis of these important provisions of the laws of the states that have a bearing on small-scale hydroelectric development is presented.

  1. Geothermal energy in the western United States and Hawaii: Resources and projected electricity generation supplies. [Contains glossary and address list of geothermal project developers and owners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Geothermal energy comes from the internal heat of the Earth, and has been continuously exploited for the production of electricity in the United States since 1960. Currently, geothermal power is one of the ready-to-use baseload electricity generating technologies that is competing in the western United States with fossil fuel, nuclear and hydroelectric generation technologies to provide utilities and their customers with a reliable and economic source of electric power. Furthermore, the development of domestic geothermal resources, as an alternative to fossil fuel combustion technologies, has a number of associated environmental benefits. This report serves two functions. First, it provides a description of geothermal technology and a progress report on the commercial status of geothermal electric power generation. Second, it addresses the question of how much electricity might be competitively produced from the geothermal resource base. 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Effects of soot-induced snow albedo change on snowpack and hydrological cycle in western United States based on Weather Research and Forecasting chemistry and regional climate simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Gustafson, William I.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ghan, Steven J.

    2009-02-14

    Radiative forcing induced by soot on snow is a major anthropogenic forcing affecting the global climate. However, it is uncertain how the soot-induced snow albedo perturbation affects regional snowpack and the hydrological cycle. In this study we simulated the deposition of soot aerosol on snow and investigated the resulting impact on snowpack and the surface water budget in the western United States. A yearlong simulation was performed using the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) to determine an annual budget of soot deposition, followed by two regional climate simulations using WRF in meteorology-only mode, with and without the soot-induced snow albedo perturbations. The chemistry simulation shows large spatial variability in soot deposition that reflects the localized emissions and the influence of the complex terrain. The soot-induced snow albedo perturbations increase the net solar radiation flux at the surface during late winter to early spring, increase the surface air temperature, reduce snow water equivalent amount, and lead to reduced snow accumulation and less spring snowmelt. These effects are stronger over the central Rockies and southern Alberta, where soot deposition and snowpack overlap the most. The indirect forcing of soot accelerates snowmelt and alters stream flows, including a trend toward earlier melt dates in the western United States. The soot-induced albedo reduction initiates a positive feedback process whereby dirty snow absorbs more solar radiation, heating the surface and warming the air. This warming causes reduced snow depth and fraction, which further reduces the regional surface albedo for the snow covered regions. Our simulations indicate that the change of maximum snow albedo induced by soot on snow contributes to 60% of the net albedo reduction over the central Rockies. Snowpack reduction accounts for the additional 40%.

  3. Class 1 overview of cultural resources for the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.; Walitschek, D.A.; Shogren, L.; Mathews, J.E.; Verhaaren, B.T.

    1993-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory conducted an inventory of known archaeological and historic sites in areas that could be affected by the hydropower operation alternatives under analysis in the power marketing environmental impact statement for the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects. The study areas included portions of the Green River (Flaming Gorge Dam to Cub Creek) in Utah and Colorado and the Gunnison River (Blue Mesa Reservoir to Crystal Dam) in Colorado. All previous archaeological surveys and previously recorded prehistoric and historic sites, structures, and features were inventoried and plotted on maps (only survey area maps are included in this report). The surveys were classified by their level of intensity, and the sites were classified according to their age, type, and contents. These data (presented here in tabular form) permit a general assessment of the character and distribution of archaeological remains in the study areas, as well as an indication of the sampling basis for such an assessment. To provide an adequate context for the descriptions of the archaeological and historic sites, this report also presents overviews of the environmental setting and the regional prehistory, history, and ethnography for each study area.

  4. sup 40 Ar/ sup 39 laser-probe dating by step heating and spot fusion of phengites from the Dora Maira nappe of the western Alps, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scaillet, S.; Feraud, G. ); Lagabrielle, Y. ); Ballevre, M.; Ruffet, G. )

    1990-08-01

    {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar laser-probe dating of phengitic micas has been carried out by step-heating and spot-fusion procedures. These micas represent successive deformation stages in the structural evolution of the internal Dora Maira nappe, western Alps. Single phengites from a gneiss affected by a single ductile strain under retrogressive conditions (sample 99.1) display complete isotopic resetting with nearly homogeneous intracrystalline Ar distribution and yield plateau ages of about 40 Ma. Small clusters of phengites from an earlier foliation were selected from a polydeformed mica schist (sample PTX3). They show a partial isotopic resetting in response to overprinting during the retrogressive deformation stage with a concentric age zoning from 68 Ma on the rim to 87 Ma in the core one cleavage plane. This zonation is fully consistent with the laser-derived discordant age spectrum, which ranges from 40 to 90 Ma from low to high temperatures. According to the deformation history of both samples, these preliminary data suggest a deformation control on Ar migration during recrystallization processes, and they are consistent with the timing of the collisional evolution previously reported for southern Dora Maira units. This study shows that the {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar continuous laser-probe dating technique produces data accurate enough to discriminate several tectonometamorphic episodes recorded in single hand samples.

  5. Aerial and ground-based inspections of mine sites in the Western U.S.-implications for on-site inspection overflights, under the CTBT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1997-07-01

    The verification regime of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) provides for the possibility of On-Site Inspections (OSI`s) to resolve questions concerning suspicious events which may have been clandestine nuclear tests. Overflights by fixed-wing or rotary-wing aircraft, as part of an OSI, are permitted by the Treaty. These flights are intended to facilitate the narrowing of the inspection area, from an initial permissible 1000 km{sup 2}, and to help select the locations to deploy observers and ground-based sensors (seismic, radionuclides, . . .) Because of the substantial amount of seismicity generated by mining operations worldwide, it is expected that mine sites and mine districts would be prime candidates for OSI`S. To gain experience in this context, a number of aerial and ground-based mine site inspections have been performed in the Western U.S. by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory since 1994. These inspections are part of a broad range of CTBT mining-related projects conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy and its National Laboratories. The various sites are described next, and inferences are made concerning CTBT OSI`S. All the mines are legitimate operations, with no implication whatsoever of any clandestine tests.

  6. ,"Month","Year","Contiguous U.S.","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    " ","Next Update: October 2007" ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1996 through 2004 " ,"(Megawatts)" ,"Month","Year","Contiguous U.S.","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

  7. ,"Net Energy For Load (Annual)",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7, 2008" ,"Next Update: Not applicable for this table format" ,"Table 1a. Historical Net Energy For Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004. " ,"(Thousands of Megawatthours)" ,"Net Energy For Load (Annual)",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

  8. ,"Projected Monthly Base","Year","Contiguous U.S.","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ","Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, " ,"1996 through 2004 and Projected 2005 through 2006 " ,"(Megawatts and 2004 Base Year)" ,"Projected Monthly Base","Year","Contiguous U.S.","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

  9. ,"Projected Year Base","Year","Summer",,,"Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid",,,"Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2005 and 2006 through 2010 " ,"(Megawatts and Percent)" ,"Projected Year Base","Year","Summer",,,"Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid",,,"Western Power Grid" ,,,"Contiguous U.S." ,,,,,,"FRCC",,,"MRO",,,"NPCC",,,"RFC",,,"SERC",,,"SPP",,,"ERCOT",,,"WECC" " ",,,"Net Internal Demand

  10. ,"Projected Year Base","Year","Summer",,,"Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid",,,"Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Summer Historic and Projected Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2006 and 2007 through 2011 " " ","(Megawatts and Percent)" ,"Projected Year Base","Year","Summer",,,"Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid",,,"Western Power Grid" ,,,"Contiguous U.S."

  11. ,"Projected Year Base","Year","Summer",,,"Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid",,,"Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    March 2009" ,"Next Update: October 2009" ,"Table 4. Summer Historic and Projected Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2007 and 2008 through 2012 " " ","(Megawatts and Percent)" ,"Projected Year Base","Year","Summer",,,"Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid",,,"Western Power Grid"

  12. ,"Projected Year Base","Year","Summer",,,"Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid",,,"Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Summer Historic and Projected Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2008 and 2009 through 2013 " " ","(Megawatts and Percent)" ,"Projected Year Base","Year","Summer",,,"Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid",,,"Western Power Grid" ,,,"Contiguous U.S." ,,,,,,"FRCC",,,"MRO

  13. ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7, 2008" ,"Next Update: Not applicable for this table format" ,"Table 2c. Historical Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004 " ,"(Megawatts)" ,,,,," " ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

  14. Quantifying sources of black carbon in western North America using observationally based analysis and an emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, R.; Wang, H.; Hegg, D. A.; Qian, Y.; Doherty, S. J.; Dang, C.; Ma, P.-L.; Rasch, P. J.; Fu, Q.

    2015-11-18

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5), equipped with a technique to tag black carbon (BC) emissions by source regions and types, has been employed to establish source–receptor relationships for atmospheric BC and its deposition to snow over western North America. The CAM5 simulation was conducted with meteorological fields constrained by reanalysis for year 2013 when measurements of BC in both near-surface air and snow are available for model evaluation. We find that CAM5 has a significant low bias in predicted mixing ratios of BC in snow but only a small low bias in predicted atmospheric concentrations over northwestern USA and westernmore » Canada. Even with a strong low bias in snow mixing ratios, radiative transfer calculations show that the BC-in-snow darkening effect is substantially larger than the BC dimming effect at the surface by atmospheric BC. Local sources contribute more to near-surface atmospheric BC and to deposition than distant sources, while the latter are more important in the middle and upper troposphere where wet removal is relatively weak. Fossil fuel (FF) is the dominant source type for total column BC burden over the two regions. FF is also the dominant local source type for BC column burden, deposition, and near-surface BC, while for all distant source regions combined the contribution of biomass/biofuel (BB) is larger than FF. An observationally based positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the snow-impurity chemistry is conducted to quantitatively evaluate the CAM5 BC source-type attribution. While CAM5 is qualitatively consistent with the PMF analysis with respect to partitioning of BC originating from BB and FF emissions, it significantly underestimates the relative contribution of BB. In addition to a possible low bias in BB emissions used in the simulation, the model is likely missing a significant source of snow darkening from local soil found in the observations.« less

  15. Quantifying sources of black carbon in Western North America using observationally based analysis and an emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Rudong; Wang, Hailong; Hegg, D. A.; Qian, Yun; Doherty, Sarah J.; Dang, Cheng; Ma, Po-Lun; Rasch, Philip J.; Fu, Qiang

    2015-11-18

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5), equipped with a technique to tag black carbon (BC) emissions by source regions and types, has been employed to establish source-receptor relationships for atmospheric BC and its deposition to snow over Western North America. The CAM5 simulation was conducted with meteorological fields constrained by reanalysis for year 2013 when measurements of BC in both near-surface air and snow are available for model evaluation. We find that CAM5 has a significant low bias in predicted mixing ratios of BC in snow but only a small low bias in predicted atmospheric concentrations over the Northwest USA and West Canada. Even with a strong low bias in snow mixing ratios, radiative transfer calculations show that the BC-in-snow darkening effect is substantially larger than the BC dimming effect at the surface by atmospheric BC. Local sources contribute more to near-surface atmospheric BC and to deposition than distant sources, while the latter are more important in the middle and upper troposphere where wet removal is relatively weak. Fossil fuel (FF) is the dominant source type for total column BC burden over the two regions. FF is also the dominant local source type for BC column burden, deposition, and near-surface BC, while for all distant source regions combined the contribution of biomass/biofuel (BB) is larger than FF. An observationally based Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis of the snow-impurity chemistry is conducted to quantitatively evaluate the CAM5 BC source-type attribution. While CAM5 is qualitatively consistent with the PMF analysis with respect to partitioning of BC originating from BB and FF emissions, it significantly underestimates the relative contribution of BB. In addition to a possible low bias in BB emissions used in the simulation, the model is likely missing a significant source of snow darkening from local soil found in the observations.

  16. Quantifying sources of black carbon in Western North America using observationally based analysis and an emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, R.; Wang, H.; Hegg, D. A.; Qian, Y.; Doherty, S. J.; Dang, C.; Ma, P.-L.; Rasch, P. J.; Fu, Q.

    2015-05-04

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5), equipped with a technique to tag black carbon (BC) emissions by source regions and types, has been employed to establish source-receptor relationships for atmospheric BC and its deposition to snow over Western North America. The CAM5 simulation was conducted with meteorological fields constrained by reanalysis for year 2013 when measurements of BC in both near-surface air and snow are available for model evaluation. We find that CAM5 has a significant low bias in predicted mixing ratios of BC in snow but only a small low bias in predicted atmospheric concentrations over the Northwest USA andmore » West Canada. Even with a strong low bias in snow mixing ratios, radiative transfer calculations show that the BC-in-snow darkening effect is substantially larger than the BC dimming effect at the surface by atmospheric BC. Local sources contribute more to near-surface atmospheric BC and to deposition than distant sources, while the latter are more important in the middle and upper troposphere where wet removal is relatively weak. Fossil fuel (FF) is the dominant source type for total column BC burden over the two regions. FF is also the dominant local source type for BC column burden, deposition, and near-surface BC, while for all distant source regions combined the contribution of biomass/biofuel (BB) is larger than FF. An observationally based Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis of the snow-impurity chemistry is conducted to quantitatively evaluate the CAM5 BC source-type attribution. While CAM5 is qualitatively consistent with the PMF analysis with respect to partitioning of BC originating from BB and FF emissions, it significantly underestimates the relative contribution of BB. In addition to a possible low bias in BB emissions used in the simulation, the model is likely missing a significant source of snow darkening from local soil found in the observations.« less

  17. Office of Inspector General audit report on the U.S. Department of Energy`s management of Associated Western Universities grant programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), recognizing the need to maintain a strong science and engineering base at a time when enrollments in these disciplines were declining, implemented several educational programs. Among these were educational programs to provide faculty and students of US colleges and universities with energy-related training and research experience. Associated Western Universities (AWU), a nonprofit organization, administered post-secondary educational programs for DOE through grants and, occasionally, subcontracts. The objectives of the audit were to determine whether: (1) DOE was achieving its goal of enhancing US science and engineering education and (2) AWU was appropriately accumulating and classifying its costs. It was found that DOE was not fully achieving its objective of enhancing science and engineering education for students of US colleges and universities. In addition, it was found that AWU had not complied with cost principles for nonprofit organizations as required under the terms of the grants. Specifically, AWU misclassified a $13,000 overrun of direct program cost as indirect cost, incurred $40,000 of idle facility costs that were unallowable under the terms of the grant, misclassified indirect costs as direct costs, and claimed reimbursement for consultant costs that were inappropriate under the terms of the consulting contract. These discrepancies resulted in $53,000 of questionable costs, as well as costs having been charged to the Office of Energy Research (ER) grant that should have been charged to the Richland and Idaho grants. The authors recommended that the Managers of the Richland and Idaho Operations offices take actions to ensure that the objectives of DOE`s educational programs are met. In addition, they recommended that the Manager, Idaho Operations Office, direct the Contracting Officer to have AWU comply with the appropriate cost principles for nonprofit organizations.

  18. 2014 State of Western's Assets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    In this report we document the State of Western’s Assets in terms of physical equipment, financial resources, strategic direction, and human capital, both at the organizational and regional levels. We identify the condition of our assets today and share what work we will be doing in these areas in the coming years.

  19. Western Renewable Energy Zones (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hein, J.

    2011-06-01

    This presentation summarizes recent developments and trends pertaining to competitive renewable energy zones, transmission planning and the integration of renewable generation resources.

  20. ,"Month","Year","Contiguous U.S.","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2005 through 2009 " ,"(Megawatts)",,," " " " ,"Month","Year","Contiguous U.S.","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,,,,"FRCC"," MRO (U.S.)","NPCC (U.S.)","RFC","SERC","SPP","TRE (ERCOT)","WECC

  1. ,"Net Energy For Load (Annual)",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Historical Net Energy For Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2005 through 2009. " ,"(Thousands of Megawatthours)" ,"Net Energy For Load (Annual)",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,,"Year",,"FRCC","MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.) ","RFC","SERC","SPP","TRE","WECC

  2. ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    e. Historical Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2005 through 2009 " ,"(Megawatts)" ,,,,," " ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,,"Year",,"FRCC"," MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.) ","RFC","SERC","SPP","TRE

  3. ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    f. Historical Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2005 through 2010 " ,"(Megawatts)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,,"Year",,"FRCC","MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.) ","RFC","SERC","SPP","TRE ","WECC

  4. ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    d. Historical Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004 " ,"(Megawatts)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,,"Year",,"ECAR","FRCC","MAAC","MAIN","MAPP/MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.)

  5. WRF-Chem model predictions of the regional impacts of N2O5 heterogeneous processes on night-time chemistry over north-western Europe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lowe, Douglas; Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Morgan, Will; Allan, James D.; Utembe, Steve; Ouyang, Bin; Aruffo, Eleonora; Le Breton, Michael; Zaveri, Rahul A.; di Carlo, Piero; et al

    2015-02-09

    Chemical modelling studies have been conducted over north-western Europe in summer conditions, showing that night-time dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) heterogeneous reactive uptake is important regionally in modulating particulate nitrate and has a~modest influence on oxidative chemistry. Results from Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model simulations, run with a detailed volatile organic compound (VOC) gas-phase chemistry scheme and the Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC) sectional aerosol scheme, were compared with a series of airborne gas and particulate measurements made over the UK in July 2010. Modelled mixing ratios of key gas-phase species were reasonably accurate (correlationsmore » with measurements of 0.7–0.9 for NO2 and O3). However modelled loadings of particulate species were less accurate (correlation with measurements for particulate sulfate and ammonium were between 0.0 and 0.6). Sulfate mass loadings were particularly low (modelled means of 0.5–0.7 μg kg−1air, compared with measurements of 1.0–1.5 μg kg−1air). Two flights from the campaign were used as test cases – one with low relative humidity (RH) (60–70%), the other with high RH (80–90%). N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry was found to not be important in the low-RH test case; but in the high-RH test case it had a strong effect and significantly improved the agreement between modelled and measured NO3 and N2O5. When the model failed to capture atmospheric RH correctly, the modelled NO3 and N2O5 mixing ratios for these flights differed significantly from the measurements. This demonstrates that, for regional modelling which involves heterogeneous processes, it is essential to capture the ambient temperature and water vapour profiles. The night-time NO3 oxidation of VOCs across the whole region was found to be 100–300 times slower than the daytime OH oxidation of these compounds. The difference in contribution was less for alkenes (× 80) and comparable for dimethylsulfide (DMS). However the suppression of NO3 mixing ratios across the domain by N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry has only a very slight, negative, influence on this oxidative capacity. The influence on regional particulate nitrate mass loadings is stronger. Night-time N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry maintains the production of particulate nitrate within polluted regions: when this process is taken into consideration, the daytime peak (for the 95th percentile) of PM10 nitrate mass loadings remains around 5.6 μg kg−1air, but the night-time minimum increases from 3.5 to 4.6 μg kg−1air. The sustaining of higher particulate mass loadings through the night by this process improves model skill at matching measured aerosol nitrate diurnal cycles and will negatively impact on regional air quality, requiring this process to be included in regional models.« less

  6. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals-Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond Hobbs

    2007-05-31

    The Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP)--conversion of coal to methane--is being developed through NETL with a DOE Grant and has successfully completed its first phase of development. The results so far are encouraging and have led to commitment by DOE/NETL to begin a second phase--bench scale reactor vessel testing, expanded engineering analysis and economic perspective review. During the next decade new means of generating electricity, and other forms of energy, will be introduced. The members of the AHP Team envision a need for expanded sources of natural gas or substitutes for natural gas, to fuel power generating plants. The initial work the team has completed on a process to use hydrogen to convert coal to methane (pipeline ready gas) shows promising potential. The Team has intentionally slanted its efforts toward the needs of US electric utilities, particularly on fuels that can be used near urban centers where the greatest need for new electric generation is found. The process, as it has evolved, would produce methane from coal by adding hydrogen. The process appears to be efficient using western coals for conversion to a highly sought after fuel with significantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. Utilities have a natural interest in the preservation of their industry, which will require a dramatic reduction in stack emissions and an increase in sustainable technologies. Utilities tend to rank long-term stable supplies of fuel higher than most industries and are willing to trade some ratio of cost for stability. The need for sustainability, stability and environmentally compatible production are key drivers in the formation and progression of the AHP development. In Phase II, the team will add a focus on water conservation to determine how the basic gasification process can be best integrated with all the plant components to minimize water consumption during SNG production. The process allows for several CO{sub 2} reduction options including consumption of the CO{sub 2} in the original process as converted to methane. The process could under another option avoid emissions following the conversion to SNG through an adjunct algae conversion process. The algae would then be converted to fuels or other products. An additional application of the algae process at the end use natural gas fired plant could further reduce emissions. The APS team fully recognizes the competition facing the process from natural gas and imported liquid natural gas. While we expect those resources to set the price for methane in the near-term, the team's work to date indicates that the AHP process can be commercially competitive, with the added benefit of assuring long-term energy supplies from North American resources. Conversion of coal to a more readily transportable fuel that can be employed near load centers with an overall reduction of greenhouses gases is edging closer to reality.

  7. Tropical Ocean Climate Study (TOCS) and Japan-United States Tropical Ocean Study (JUSTOS) on the R/V KAIYO, 25 Jan to 2 March 1997, to the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean BNL component

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, R.M.; Smith, S.

    1997-04-11

    The Japanese U.S. Tropical Ocean Study (JUSTOS) cruise on the R/V KAIYO in the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean was a collaborative effort with participants from the Japanese Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), and Brookhaven National Laboratory BNL. This report is a summary of the instruments, measurements, and initial analysis of the BNL portion of the cruise only. It includes a brief description of the instrument system, calibration procedures, problems and resolutions, data collection, processing and data file descriptions. This is a working document, which is meant to provide both a good description of the work and as much information as possible in one place for future analysis.

  8. SCENARIOS FOR DEEP CARBON EMISSION REDUCTIONS FROM ELECTRICITY BY 2050 IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICA USING THE SWITCH ELECTRIC POWER SECTOR PLANNING MODEL California's Carbon Challenge Phase II Volume II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, James; Mileva, Ana; Johnston, Josiah; Kammen, Daniel; Wei, Max; Greenblatt, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    This study used a state-of-the-art planning model called SWITCH for the electric power system to investigate the evolution of the power systems of California and western North America from present-day to 2050 in the context of deep decarbonization of the economy. Researchers concluded that drastic power system carbon emission reductions were feasible by 2050 under a wide range of possible futures. The average cost of power in 2050 would range between $149 to $232 per megawatt hour across scenarios, a 21 to 88 percent increase relative to a business-as-usual scenario, and a 38 to 115 percent increase relative to the present-day cost of power. The power system would need to undergo sweeping change to rapidly decarbonize. Between present-day and 2030 the evolution of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council power system was dominated by implementing aggressive energy efficiency measures, installing renewable energy and gas-fired generation facilities and retiring coal-fired generation. Deploying wind, solar and geothermal power in the 2040 timeframe reduced power system emissions by displacing gas-fired generation. This trend continued for wind and solar in the 2050 timeframe but was accompanied by large amounts of new storage and long-distance high-voltage transmission capacity. Electricity storage was used primarily to move solar energy from the daytime into the night to charge electric vehicles and meet demand from electrified heating. Transmission capacity over the California border increased by 40 - 220 percent by 2050, implying that transmission siting, permitting, and regional cooperation will become increasingly important. California remained a net electricity importer in all scenarios investigated. Wind and solar power were key elements in power system decarbonization in 2050 if no new nuclear capacity was built. The amount of installed gas capacity remained relatively constant between present-day and 2050, although carbon capture and sequestration was installed on some gas plants by 2050.

  9. Final Report for Research Conducted at The Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego from 2/2002 to 8/2003 for ''Aerosol and Cloud-Field Radiative Effects in the Tropical Western Pacific: Analyses and General Circulation Model Parameterizations''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogelmann, A. M.

    2004-01-27

    OAK-B135 Final report from the University of California San Diego for an ongoing research project that was moved to Brookhaven National Laboratory where proposed work will be completed. The research uses measurements made by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to quantify the effects of aerosols and clouds on the Earth's energy balance in the climatically important Tropical Western Pacific.

  10. Western Michigan University Learner Centered * Discovery Driven...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... * Sheet-fed Press (GTW of Germany, prototyping) 240,000 * Software for Platemaking (DuPont and Esko) 150,000 * Various other smaller tools 270,000 * Total NRE 2,100,000 ...

  11. Western Resource Advocates | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Boulder, Colorado Zip: 80302 Region: Rockies Area Website: www.westernresourceadvocates.o Coordinates: 39.9998, -105.264094 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappings...

  12. Western Governors' Association | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    staffs exchange information and ideas about problem solving for a wide range of practical management concerns. The exchange helps Governors manage their resources more efficiently...

  13. Sandian Contributes to Western Electricity Coordinating Council...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency ... Power Plant Model Validation Guide-line. The document provides photovoltaic (PV) plant owners and transmission planners ...

  14. Tropical Western Pacific: A Year in Darwin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the Australian BMRC (Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre) -University of Wales EMERALD-2 (Egrett Microphysics Experiment with RAdiation Lidar and Dynamics) aircraft...

  15. Western Employee Presents Wind Award to Minnkota

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    More than 8,000 electric utility professionals attended the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association's annual Tech Advantage Conference, where North Dakota's Minnkota Power Cooperative received the 2011 Wind Cooperative of the Year Award.

  16. NorthWestern Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate...

  17. Western States Geothermal Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Company Place: Sparks, Nevada Zip: 89432-2627 Sector: Geothermal energy Product: Geothermal power plant developer and operator. Acquired by Ormat in 2001. Coordinates:...

  18. Western Governors Association Annual Breakfast | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    These facilities are world-renowned for their role in developing and maintaining our nation's nuclear deterrent, as well as for cutting-edge work in physics, chemistry, biology, ...

  19. Topic B Awardee: Western Governors' Association | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    For documents currently open to public review and comment, click here. SPSC member list, correspondence and chronology of actions CONTACT INFORMATION Doug Larson Executive ...

  20. Dragline mining returns to western Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2009-05-15

    Armstrong Coal Co. now owns three Page draglines-one now operating at the Midway Surface mine, one due to go into operation at the Equality surface mine and a third that is being rebuilt also for use there. Armstrong is banking on the economics of scale to once again prove that these older machines are still the most efficient way to move large volumes of overburden. 4 photos.

  1. National Electric Transmission Study 2006 Western Interconnection...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... it does not consider strategic values such as its insurance value during abnormal system conditions and a decrease in the need for additional infrastructure such as gas pipelines. ...

  2. Western Massachusetts Elec Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Green Button Access: Implemented Green Button Landing Page: www.wmeco.comResidential Green Button Reference Page: www.wmeco.comResidential References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final...

  3. 2011 Annual Report [WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    Western’s achievements for 2011 are reported and include: Experienced a banner water year – meaning more hydropower delivered; Changed energy scheduling— to better support intermittent renewable resources; Maintained reliability— ensuring maximum use of the grid by reducing the frequency and duration of planned and unplanned outages; Connected communities— providing customers energy products and related services at cost-based rates; Managed transmission projects.

  4. and the Western Area Power Administration...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    owned by counties, public utility districts, and states. ... which include natural gas, coal, nuclear, other hydropower ... Regulatory Commission (FERC) and the North American ...

  5. Western Governor's Association Agenda | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    West Virginia University West Virginia University July 7, 2005 - 2:04pm Addthis Remarks by Energy Secretary Samuel Bodman Thank you, President Hardesty. I visited West Virginia last year when I was with the Treasury Department, and I am glad to be back today. President Hardesty has had a pretty busy week hosting visitors from Washington. President Bush was here on Monday, and I imagine many of you were in the audience for that. So I thank you for showing up for another speech a few days later.

  6. Western Baldwin County, AL Grid Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas DeBell

    2011-09-30

    The Objective of this Project was to provide an additional supply of electricity to the affected portions of Baldwin County, AL through the purchase, installation, and operation of certain substation equipment.

  7. Case Western University (Vestas) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    225,000 W 225,000,000 mW 2.25e-4 GW Number of Units 1 Commercial Online Date 2012 Wind Turbine Manufacturer Vestas (refurb) References AWEA 2012 Market Report1 Loading map......

  8. Case Western University (Nordex) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    W 1,000,000,000 mW 1.0e-3 GW Number of Units 1 Commercial Online Date 2012 Wind Turbine Manufacturer Nordex (refurb) References AWEA 2012 Market Report1 Loading map......

  9. Western Kentucky University Research Foundation Biodiesel Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Cao, Yan

    2013-03-15

    Petroleum-based liquid hydrocarbons is exclusively major energy source in the transportation sector. Thus, it is the major CO{sub 2} source which is the associated with greenhouse effect. In the United States alone, petroleum consumption in the transportation sector approaches 13.8 million barrels per day (Mbbl/d). It is corresponding to a release of 0.53 gigatons of carbon per year (GtC/yr), which accounts for approximate 7.6 % of the current global release of CO{sub 2} from all of the fossil fuel usage (7 GtC/yr). For the long term, the conventional petroleum production is predicted to peak in as little as the next 10 years to as high as the next 50 years. Negative environmental consequences, the frequently roaring petroleum prices, increasing petroleum utilization and concerns about competitive supplies of petroleum have driven dramatic interest in producing alternative transportation fuels, such as electricity-based, hydrogen-based and bio-based transportation alternative fuels. Use of either of electricity-based or hydrogen-based alternative energy in the transportation sector is currently laden with technical and economical challenges. The current energy density of commercial batteries is 175 Wh/kg of battery. At a storage pressure of 680 atm, the lower heating value (LHV) of H{sub 2} is 1.32 kWh/liter. In contrast, the corresponding energy density for gasoline can reach as high as 8.88 kWh/liter. Furthermore, the convenience of using a liquid hydrocarbon fuel through the existing infrastructures is a big deterrent to replacement by both batteries and hydrogen. Biomass-derived ethanol and bio-diesel (biofuels) can be two promising and predominant U.S. alternative transportation fuels. Both their energy densities and physical properties are comparable to their relatives of petroleum-based gasoline and diesel, however, biofuels are significantly environmental-benign. Ethanol can be made from the sugar-based or starch-based biomass materials, which is easily fermented to create ethanol. In the United States almost all starch ethanol is mainly manufactured from corn grains. The technology for manufacturing corn ethanol can be considered mature as of the late 1980s. In 2005, 14.3 % of the U.S. corn harvest was processed to produce 1.48 x10{sup 10} liters of ethanol, energetically equivalent to 1.72 % of U.S. gasoline usage. Soybean oil is extracted from 1.5 % of the U.S. soybean harvest to produce 2.56 x 10{sup 8} liters of bio-diesel, which was 0.09 % of U.S. diesel usage. However, reaching maximum rates of bio-fuel supply from corn and soybeans is unlikely because these crops are presently major contributors to human food supplies through livestock feed and direct consumption. Moreover, there currently arguments on that the conversion of many types of many natural landscapes to grow corn for feedstock is likely to create substantial carbon emissions that will exacerbate globe warming. On the other hand, there is a large underutilized resource of cellulose biomass from trees, grasses, and nonedible parts of crops that could serve as a feedstock. One of the potentially significant new bio-fuels is so called "cellulosic ethanol", which is dependent on break-down by microbes or enzymes. Because of technological limitations (the wider variety of molecular structures in cellulose and hemicellulose requires a wider variety of microorganisms to break them down) and other cost hurdles (such as lower kinetics), cellulosic ethanol can currently remain in lab scales. Considering farm yields, commodity and fuel prices, farm energy and agrichemical inputs, production plant efficiencies, byproduct production, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and other environmental effects, a life-cycle evaluation of competitive indicated that corn ethanol yields 25 % more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas soybean bio-diesel yields 93 % more. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12 % by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41 % by bio-diesel. Bio-diesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. Bio-diesel has advantages over ethanol due to its lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion. Thus, to be a viable alternative, a bio-fuel firstly should be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. In this aspect, larger quantity supplies of cellulose biomass are likely viable alternatives. U. S. Congress has introduced an initiative and subsequently rolled into the basic energy package, which encourages the production of fuel from purely renewable resources, biomass. Secondly, a bio-fuel should also provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits and be economically competitive. In this aspect, bio-diesel has advantages over ethanol. The commonwealth of Kentucky is fortunate to have a diverse and abundant supply of renewable energy resources. Both Kentucky Governor Beshear in the energy plan for Kentucky "Intelligent Energy Choices for Kentucky's Future", and Kentucky Renewable Energy Consortium, outlined strategies on developing energy in renewable, sustainable and efficient ways. Smart utilization of diversified renewable energy resources using advanced technologies developed by Kentucky public universities, and promotion of these technologies to the market place by collaboration between universities and private industry, are specially encouraged. Thus, the initially question answering Governor's strategic plan is if there is any economical way to make utilization of larger quantities of cellulose and hemicellulose for production of bio-fuels, especially bio-diesel. There are some possible options of commercially available technologies to convert cellulose based biomass energy to bio-fuels. Cellulose based biomass can be firstly gasified to obtain synthesis gas (a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}), which is followed up by being converted into liquid hydrocarbon fuels or oxygenate hydrocarbon fuel through Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis. Methanol production is regarded to be the most economic starting step in many-year practices of the development of F-T synthesis technology since only C{sub 1} synthesis through F-T process can potentially achieve 100% conversion efficiency. Mobil's F-T synthesis process is based on this understanding. Considering the economical advantages of bio-diesel production over ethanol and necessary supply of methanol during bio-diesel production, a new opportunity for bio-diesel production with total supplies of biomass-based raw materials through more economic reaction pathways is likely identified in this proposal. The bio-oil part of biomass can be transesterified under available methanol (or mixed alcohols), which can be synthesized in the most easy part of F-T synthesis process using synthesis gas from gasification of cellulose fractions of biomass. We propose a novel concept to make sense of bio-diesel production economically though a coupling reaction of bio-oil transesterification and methanol synthesis. It will overcome problems of current bio-diesel producing process based on separated handling of methanol and bio-oil.

  10. TABLE37.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Zaire. e Includes Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. (s) Less than 500 barrels per day. Note: Totals may not equal sum of components...

  11. TABLE42.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Zaire. e Includes Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. (s) Less than 500 barrels per day. Note: Totals may not equal sum of components...

  12. WRF-Chem model predictions of the regional impacts of N2O5 heterogeneous processes on night-time chemistry over north-western Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, Douglas; Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Morgan, Will; Allan, James D.; Utembe, Steve; Ouyang, Bin; Aruffo, Eleonora; Le Breton, Michael; Zaveri, Rahul A.; di Carlo, Piero; Percival, Carl; Coe, H.; Jones, Roderic L.; McFiggans, Gordon

    2015-02-09

    Chemical modelling studies have been conducted over north-western Europe in summer conditions, showing that night-time dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) heterogeneous reactive uptake is important regionally in modulating particulate nitrate and has a~modest influence on oxidative chemistry. Results from Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model simulations, run with a detailed volatile organic compound (VOC) gas-phase chemistry scheme and the Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC) sectional aerosol scheme, were compared with a series of airborne gas and particulate measurements made over the UK in July 2010. Modelled mixing ratios of key gas-phase species were reasonably accurate (correlations with measurements of 0.70.9 for NO2 and O3). However modelled loadings of particulate species were less accurate (correlation with measurements for particulate sulfate and ammonium were between 0.0 and 0.6). Sulfate mass loadings were particularly low (modelled means of 0.50.7 ?g kg?1air, compared with measurements of 1.01.5 ?g kg?1air). Two flights from the campaign were used as test cases one with low relative humidity (RH) (6070%), the other with high RH (8090%). N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry was found to not be important in the low-RH test case; but in the high-RH test case it had a strong effect and significantly improved the agreement between modelled and measured NO3 and N2O5. When the model failed to capture atmospheric RH correctly, the modelled NO3 and N2O5 mixing ratios for these flights differed significantly from the measurements. This demonstrates that, for regional modelling which involves heterogeneous processes, it is essential to capture the ambient temperature and water vapour profiles.

    The night-time NO3 oxidation of VOCs across the whole region was found to be 100300 times slower than the daytime OH oxidation of these compounds. The difference in contribution was less for alkenes ( 80) and comparable for dimethylsulfide (DMS). However the suppression of NO3 mixing ratios across the domain by N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry has only a very slight, negative, influence on this oxidative capacity. The influence on regional particulate nitrate mass loadings is stronger. Night-time N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry maintains the production of particulate nitrate within polluted regions: when this process is taken into consideration, the daytime peak (for the 95th percentile) of PM10 nitrate mass loadings remains around 5.6 ?g kg?1air, but the night-time minimum increases from 3.5 to 4.6 ?g kg?1air. The sustaining of higher particulate mass loadings through the night by this process improves model skill at matching measured aerosol nitrate diurnal cycles and will negatively impact on regional air quality, requiring this process to be included in regional models.

  13. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The sun, seen through a dusty atmosphere, sets at Niamey, the capital of Niger, which is located in the African Sahara. Anvil clouds that accompany thunderstorms....

  14. Scientists Help Define the Healthy Human Microbiome

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    intestine. The microbial communities in each body site can be as different as the microbes in the Amazon Rainforest versus the Sahara Desert. Researchers then purified all...

  15. Central and southern Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrew, H.J.

    1981-10-01

    Exploration in central and southern Africa continued to expand during 1980. The greatest concentration of activity was in Nigeria. However, there was considerable increase in the level of exploratory work in Cameroon and Congo. Significant new finds have been made in Ivory Coast. Geological and geophysical activity was carried out in 18 of the countries, with those in the western part having the largest share. Seismic work involved 225 party months of operation. Most of this time was spent on land, but marine operations accounted for 73,389 km of new control. Gravity and magnetic data were recorded during the marine surveys, and several large aeromagnetic projects were undertaken to obtain a total of 164,498 line km of data. Exploratory and development drilling accounted for a total of 304 wells and 2,605,044 ft (794,212 m) of hole. The 92 exploratory wells that were drilled resulted in 47 oil and gas discoveries. In development drilling 89% of the 212 wells were successful. At the end of the year, 27 exploratory wells were underway, and 34 development wells were being drilled for a total of 61. Oil production from the countries that this review covers was 918,747,009 bbl in 1980, a drop of about 9% from the previous year. Countries showing a decline in production were Nigeria, Gabon, Cabinda, and Zaire. Increases were recorded in Cameroon, Congo, and Ghana. A new country was added to the list of producers when production from the Belier field in Ivory Coast came on stream. 33 figures, 15 tables.

  16. AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    45,570 2001 73,089 49,756 14,694 9,332 3,451 2,875 6,062 6,478 4,540 12,152 23,995 ... 32,482 12,519 4,236 6,641 22,027 16,128 8,451 10,983 12,464 96,156 2010 84,346 62,519 ...

  17. AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    -25,220 -24,329 -5,839 16,729 38,273 67,451 1999 69,515 80,399 64,585 48,540 32,484 ... 2,313 7,394 9,508 16,605 22,495 37,411 22,451 4,920 2,429 -32,688 6,382 2011 -18,184 ...

  18. Join Us for the Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative's Western...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... Innovation Successes and New Opportunities for Public-Private Partnerships Upcoming Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative (CEMI) Southeast Regional Summit on July 9 in Atlanta, GA

  19. Audit of the Western Area Power Administration's Contract with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as incorrectly calculating discounts, royalty payments, and imputed interest costs; (5) made faulty calculations of amortization rates for deferred costs; (6) used a shorter ...

  20. Western Consuming Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's -23,206 -28,616 82,844 18,423 -49,929 20,650 2000's 87,535 -108,544 6,061 16,905 -33,411 -6,052 -9,935 -2,132 -3,731 -65,419 2010's -19,131 -8,535 -74,234 119,255 -40,011

  1. Western Farmers Elec Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 20447 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  2. Western Coop Electric Assn Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 20476 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  3. AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA Not Available; W Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 03312016 Next Release Date: 04292016 Referring Pages: Underground Base

  4. Variable Crustal Thickness In The Western Great Basin- A Compilation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    et al., 2004). In addition, we have created contoured crustal thickness maps based on literature cited from the comprehensive Braile et al. (1989) study. These maps provide a...

  5. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2010-05-01

    This Study investigates the operational impact of up to 35% energy penetration of wind, photovoltaics (PVs), and concentrating solar power (CSP) on the power system operated by the WestConnect group of utilities in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming.

  6. Western Riverside Council of Governments - Home Energy Renovation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    assessments on their property taxes. In most cases the property tax assessment will stay with the property if it is sold, though the buyer's lender may impose restrictions on...

  7. Topic A Awardee: Western Electricity Coordinating Council | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    energy developers, and consumer advocates and expects to begin the project in the first quarter of 2010 with the formation of a multi-stakeholder Scenario Planning ...

  8. Notices DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    - Dec. 13, 2011 | Department of Energy Proposed Rulemaking: Federal Register Notice Volume 76, No. 239 - Dec. 13, 2011 Notice of Proposed Rulemaking: Federal Register Notice Volume 76, No. 239 - Dec. 13, 2011 The Department of Energy proposes to amend its regulations for the timely coordination of Federal authorizations for proposed interstate electric transmission facilities pursuant to section 216(h) of the Federal Power Act (FPA). The proposed rule would require permitting entities to

  9. Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western and Eastern...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    be released separately. For more information on how OE is laying the framework for a modern electricity system by contributing to the development and implementation of...

  10. NREL: Transmission Grid Integration - Western Wind and Solar...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (e.g., loss of a large power plant or a major transmission line) is critical to system ... of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated ...

  11. NREL: Transmission Grid Integration - Eastern and Western Wind...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geographic diversity Load correlation Estimate power ... variability Potential transmission line loadings Simple economic ... Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, ...

  12. Western Grid Can Handle High Renewables in Challenging Conditions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (e.g., loss of a large power plant or a major transmission line) with high penetrations of renewable energy. ... of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated ...

  13. Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western and Eastern...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Athens SPS in service 2008-2010 (and 2011). DAM data include ... as for BEPM (Blue Canyon Windpower) and INDN (City ... Statement of Glen Thomas on Behalf of the PJM Power ...

  14. Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) - Overview and Collaboration with Tribes

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    West Virginia Recovery Act State Memo West Virginia Recovery Act State Memo West Virginia has substantial natural resources, including coal and hydroelectric power. The American Recovery & Reinvestment Act (ARRA) is making a meaningful down payment on the nation's energy and environmental future. The Recovery Act investments in West Virginia are supporting a broad range of clean energy projects, from energy efficiency and the smart grid, to carbon capture and storage, transportation

  15. AGA Western Consuming Region Underground Natural Gas Storage...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    991,488 991,751 1,009,253 1,056,144 1,083,106 1,106,909 1994-2015 Base Gas 635,794 638,153 638,175 638,180 638,180 638,181 1994-2015 Working Gas 355,694 353,598 371,078 417,964...

  16. On the Configuration of the US Western Interconnection Voltage...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: IEEE PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition, April 14-17, 2014, Chicago, Illinois, 1-5 Publisher: IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, United ...

  17. Air quality studies in the western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, T.

    1989-01-01

    Los Alamos investigators participated in SCENES, WHITEX, Winter Intensive Tracer Experiments conducted from January 7 through February 18, 1987, in the area 400 km (east-west) /times/ 250 km (north-south) centered around Page, Arizona. The purpose of the experiment was to quantify the attribution of a local source (Navajo Generating Station) and remote sources (copper smelters in southern Arizona, Mojave generating station, power plants and large urban areas) to the haze occurrences in the Grand Canyon and Canyonlands National Parks, and Glen Canyon National Recreation area. In order to ''tag'' plumes emitted from the Navajo Generating Station (NGS), a trace gas was released from the NGS stack during the entire experimental period. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate, by using Los Alamos three-dimensional atmospheric flow models, large diurnal and spatial variations of wind, turbulence and plume characteristics over complex topographic areas. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Fuel from the Sky: Solar Power's Potential for Western Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... As with most other renewable forms of energy, CSP technologies will require incentives, such as buydowns, investment and production tax credits, and green energy premiums paid by ...

  19. of Western Area Power Administration's Cyber Security Program

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... automation, project management and multimedia functions; * During internal ... functions such as office automation, multimedia and project management that were not ...

  20. NorthWestern Energy- Commercial Rebate Program (Electric)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    All installments must meet certain energy efficiency standards to qualify. Receipts must be turned in with the program application in order to qualify for the rebate.  Visit the program web site...

  1. NorthWestern Energy- Residential Rebate Program (Electric)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    All installments must meet certain energy efficiency standards to qualify. Receipts must be turned in with the program application in order to qualify for the rebate.  Visit the program web site...

  2. NorthWestern Energy- USB Renewable Energy Fund

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Most renewable energy projects include a public education or demonstration component to increase awareness of renewable energy. Residential solar PV incentives are available at a fixed rate of $2...

  3. Western Illinois University Wind Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - Yankton School District Wind Project

  4. Secretary Bodman Praises Western States' "Frontier Line" | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with Qatari Officials to Promote Energy Expansion Efforts Secretary Bodman Travels to Saudi Arabia to Discuss Global Energy Investments Secretary Bodman Travels to the Middle East

  5. FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AGREEMENT FOR PART 2 OF THE MESQUITE SOLAR ENERGY PROJECT IN MARICOPA COUNTY, ARIZONA ... (EA) (DOEEA-1796) to analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with ...

  6. A Decade of Atmospheric Research in the Tropical Western Pacific...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Long-term ARM datasets critical for cloud and solar energy studies. Print Text Size: A A A ... Facility has collected atmospheric data for more than a decade in the equatorial ...

  7. NorthWestern Energy- Residential Rebate Program (Gas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    All installments must meet certain energy efficiency standards to qualify. Receipts must be turned in with the program application in order to qualify for the rebate.  Visit the program web sit...

  8. NorthWestern Energy - Commercial Rebate Program (Gas) | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Website http:www.northwesternenergy.combusiness-servicesefficiency-plussout... State South Dakota Program Type Rebate Program Rebate Amount Basement Wall...

  9. Biofuel Production in the Western U.S.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... using USGS 8-digit HUC runoff data (Brakehill et al., 2011). 7 Livestock Mining Thermoelectric 18 (12 x 12 ... We evaluated the introduction of Alamo, Blackwell, and Kanlow ...

  10. THURSDAY: Deputy Secretary of Energy to Visit Western Area Power...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Arizona Utilities Announce Transmission Infrastructure Project Energization PHOTOS: Vice President Biden Swears in New Deputy Secretary of Energy VIDEO: Welcoming Deputy...

  11. Western New York Nuclear Service Center: Geology Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation made by Paul J. Bembia for the NTSF annual meeting held from May 14-16, 2013 in Buffalo, NY.

  12. Mapping Geothermal Potential In The Western United States | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for heat flow, Quaternary magmatism, Quaternary faulting, seismicity, and tectonic stress. The results highlight and quantify the strong correlation of geothermal systems with...

  13. Mapping the Hydrothermal System Beneath the Western Moat of Long...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    papers or abstracts of papers presented at a two-day symposium held at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) on 17 and 18 March 1987. Speakers presented a large body of new...

  14. NorthWestern Energy (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    homes. Customers who purchase or implement energy efficient appliances, lighting, HVAC services, insulation and programmable thermostats are eligible for prescriptive rebates...

  15. MHK Projects/Western Irrigation District | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corporation Project Technology *MHK TechnologiesEnCurrent Turbine Project Licensing Environmental Monitoring and Mitigation Efforts See Tethys << Return to the MHK database...

  16. U.S. Department of Energy Western Area Power Administration,

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Affected Environment Sensitive Receptors Some land uses are considered more sensitive to air pollution than others due to the types of population groups or activities involved....

  17. FACT SHEET U.S. Department of Energy Tropical Western...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The TWP locale spans an area roughly between 10N to 10S of the equator from Indonesia ... Manus Island - The Manus facility is located at Momote Airport on Los Negros Island, Papua ...

  18. Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 14 688 2010's 2,491 6,043 9,408 18,078 28,311 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 West Virginia Shale Gas Proved

  19. Western Springs, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Springs, Illinois: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 41.8097532, -87.9006155 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingserv...

  20. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Western Area PowerAdministratio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    January 5, 2015 CX-013361: Categorical Exclusion Determination Medicine Bow Substation ... August 29, 2014 CX-012768: Categorical Exclusion Determination Poncha Substation Access ...

  1. EIS-0361: Western Greenbrier Co-Production Demonstration Project, WV

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS is about the potential environmental impacts of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) proposal to provide federal financial assistance for the construction and demonstration of a 98 megawatt (MWe) net power plant and cement manufacturing facility to be located in the municipality of Rainelle, Greenbrier County, West Virginia.

  2. Robert Berger > Asst. Professor - Western Washington University > Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Robert B. Raines Associate Administrator for Acquisition and Project Management Robert B. Raines With over 30 years of experience in construction management, design management, utilities systems operations, employee development, budgeting and contracting, Robert B. Raines serves as the Associate Administrator for Acquisition and Project Management (APM). Bob comes to NNSA from DOE's Office of Engineering and Construction Management where he served as the Director for Project Management Systems

  3. AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    997,644 956,234 1995 902,782 884,830 865,309 860,012 897,991 945,183 975,307 986,131 1,011,948 1,032,357 1,033,363 982,781 1996 896,744 853,207 837,980 849,221 885,715 916,778...

  4. AGA Western Consuming Region Underground Natural Gas Storage...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    65,419 -19,131 -8,535 -74,234 119,255 -40,011 1994-2014 Injections 404,441 391,645 431,766 404,750 357,835 471,769 1994-2014 Withdrawals 339,022 372,515 423,231 330,516 477,090...

  5. COMMENTS OF THE WESTERN PUBLIC AGENCIES GROUP IN RESPONSE TO...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Association, Tanner Electric Cooperative, the Cities of Port Angeles, Ellensburg and Milton, Washington, the Towns of Eatonville and Steilacoom, Washington; Alder Mutual Light...

  6. Obama Administration's Rural Tour Stops in Western Alaska | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Zanesville, OH, to discuss green jobs and a new energy economy, with a focus on renewable energies. AUGUST 17TH Secretaries Arne Duncan and Tom Vilsack will travel to Hamlet,...

  7. NorthWestern Energy- Custom Business Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The E+ Business Partners Program offers funding for local energy conservation and load management projects in new and retrofit applications including commercial, institutional, industrial,...

  8. Helium Isotopes in Geothermal and Volcanic Gases of the Western...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    are also occurring, although near-surface, pH-related CO2HCO3 equilibria obscure the nature of this effect.Substantial changes in View the MathML source ratios were observed in...

  9. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Western Reserve University...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    , Ohio OH.32-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 OH.32-1 Site Operations: Research involving Thorium. ... Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Thorium OH.32-1 Radiological Survey(s): None ...

  10. NorthWestern Energy (Electric) - Commercial Energy Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Equipment Maximum Rebate Lighting: Rebates will not be provided for lamps or fixtures placed in stock in excess of 5% of installed equipment Program Info Sector Name Utility...

  11. AGA Western Consuming Region Underground Natural Gas Storage - All

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Operators 1,019,826 1,064,981 1,095,743 1,133,663 1,115,253 1,074,675 1994-2014 Base Gas 636,593 637,002 637,715 637,997 637,992 635,804 1994-2014 Working Gas 383,233 427,980 458,028 495,666 477,261 438,871 1994-2014 Net Withdrawals -46,047 -45,346 -30,762 -37,930 18,467 38,394 1994-2014 Injections 55,245 53,001 40,771 46,040 23,019 18,129 1994-2014 Withdrawals 9,198 7,655 10,009 8,110 41,485 56,524 1994-2014 Change in Working Gas from Same Period Previous Year Volume -99,914 -80,367 -79,219

  12. Renewable Electricity Futures: Operational Analysis of the Western...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of integrating large amounts of renewable electricity generation into the U.S. power system (Mai et al. 2012). RE Futures examined renewable energy resources, technical issues...

  13. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  14. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  15. Department of Energy Announces Start of Western Area Power Administrat...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Almost two-thirds of the 214-mile transmission line will be ... of renewable energy production. "By integrating renewable energy sources onto the electrical grid now, we are ...

  16. MHK Projects/Western Passage OCGen | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    *112012 In the first half of 2012, following FERC approval, ORPC will begin the Maine Tidal Energy Project by installing a commercial TidGen(tm) Power System in Cobscook Bay....

  17. Energy Efficiency in Western Utility Resource Plans Implications for

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Data Centers Energy Efficiency in Data Centers Energy Efficiency in Data Centers The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) encourages agencies and organizations to improve data center energy efficiency. To help them construct and maintain energy-efficient data centers, FEMP provides a variety of publications, tools, and training opportunities. Learn about the Potential for Data Center Efficiency Improvements in FEMP's data center program overview. Center of Expertise Logo for the Center of

  18. Clean Cities: Western Riverside County Clean Cities coalition

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    region of Riverside County. Designated: October 24, 1997 Alternative Fueling Stations: Natural Gas: 5 Electric: 34 Propane: 6 Petroleum and GHG Savings* Total Gallons Saved Total...

  19. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  20. Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas Western Hemisphere...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    At the Second Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas (ECPA) Ministerial, hosted May 25-26, 2015 in Merida, Mexico, Energy Ministers of Mexico, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, ...