Sample records for weight sulfur pounds

  1. ,"Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: EnergyShale ProvedTexas"Brunei (Dollars per ThousandPrice Sold to ElectricSulfur Content,

  2. WASTE DESCRIPTION TYPE OF PROJECT POUNDS REDUCED,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuel oil and Turkey Based Biofuel Energy Rocovery 12,000 Industrial Waste $30,000 $500 $29,500 1500WASTE DESCRIPTION TYPE OF PROJECT POUNDS REDUCED, REUSED, RECYCLED OR CONSERVED IN 2006 WASTE TYPE DESCRIPTION DETAILS * Aerosol Can Disposal System Recycling 528 66 pounds of hazardous waste per unit $7

  3. Weed Busters: How to Pound Threadleaf Groundsel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGinty, Allan; Hart, Charles R.; Cadenhead, J. F.

    2005-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    L-5470 9/05 How to Pound Threadleaf Groundsel (Senecio) Safe and effective three-step ways to control threadleaf groundsel Weed Treatment Series Allan McGinty, Charles Hart and J. F. Cadenhead Extension Range Specialists The Texas A&M University...

  4. WASTE DESCRIPTION TYPE OF PROJECT POUNDS REDUCED,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WASTE DESCRIPTION TYPE OF PROJECT POUNDS REDUCED, REUSED, RECYCLED OR CONSERVED IN 2004 WASTE TYPE Brake Cleaner Recycling System Mercury Utility Devices Substitution 60 Hazardous Waste $1,750 $2,500 $1 of one PCB spill and clean-up event. Organic Solvents Substitution 678 Hazardous Waste $1,355 $36,500 $26

  5. Potential Supply Impacts of Removal of 1-Pound RVP Waiver

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    by the Office of Oil and Gas of the Energy Information Administration. General questions concerning the report, Petroleum Division #12;1 Energy Information Administration/Potential Supply Impacts of Removal of 1-Pound;2 Energy Information Administration/Potential Supply Impacts of Removal of 1-Pound Waiver provides

  6. Waste Description Type of Project Pounds Reduced, Reused,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accelerator =1; National Synchrotron Light Source=1; Basic Energy Sciences=1) each handle 66 lbs. of hazardousWaste Description Type of Project Pounds Reduced, Reused, Recycled or Conserved in 2009 Waste Type Description Details * Alkaline batteries Recycling 200 Industrial waste $10 $0 $10 Two hundred pounds

  7. Pounding and impact of base isolated buildings due to earthquakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agarwal, Vivek Kumar

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    .3. Base isolation in both adjacent buildings.....................................................72 5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION.........................................................................85 5.1. Summary and scope of study... ..............................................................................................................................138 viii LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 1.1 Survey of earlier research on pounding of buildings...............................................5 3.1 Adjacent building configurations used in this study...

  8. Pound Ridge, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy ResourcesLoadingPenobscot County, Maine:Plug Power Inc JumpPortage,Austin,Pottstown,Pound Ridge, New

  9. Low Temperature Sorbents for Removal of Sulfur Compounds from Fluid Feed Streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sorbent material is provided comprising a material reactive with sulfur, a binder unreactive with sulfur and an inert material, wherein the sorbent absorbs the sulfur at temperatures between 30 and 200 C. Sulfur absorption capacity as high as 22 weight percent has been observed with these materials.

  10. Low Temperature Sorbents for removal of Sulfur Compounds from fluid feed Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, Ranjan

    1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A sorbent material is provided comprising a material reactive with sulfur, a binder unreactive with sulfur and an inert material, wherein the sorbent absorbs the sulfur at temperatures between 30 and 200 C. Sulfur absorption capacity as high as 22 weight percent has been observed with these materials.

  11. Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norman, John H. (LaJolla, CA)

    1983-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

  12. Geek-Up: 350,000 Pounds of Paper, 30,000 Particle Beams and 14...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Up: 350,000 Pounds of Paper, 30,000 Particle Beams and 14 Days in Flight Geek-Up: 350,000 Pounds of Paper, 30,000 Particle Beams and 14 Days in Flight July 30, 2010 - 5:00pm...

  13. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  14. The average person sheds 40 pounds of skin during his or her lifetime. That's the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Q: MSU N 19 o. The average person sheds 40 pounds of skin during his or her lifetime. That whether they are facts or opinions. Fact or opinion? A fact is something that can be tested. An opinion is something that someone thinks or believes. 1. Wooly mammoths are extinct. fact opinion 2. Ear wax can

  15. Understanding Pound-Drever-Hall locking using voltage controlled radio-frequency oscillators: An undergraduate experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le Roy, Robert J.

    Understanding Pound-Drever-Hall locking using voltage controlled radio-frequency oscillators. The three main pieces of equipment are a commercial voltage controlled oscillator, a resonating cavity of the voltage controlled oscillator. The cavity resonance is then observed by scanning the frequency

  16. Distribution and origin of sulfur in Colorado oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dyni, J.R.

    1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sulfur content of 1,225 samples of Green River oil shale from two core holes in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado, ranges from nearly 0 to 4.9 weight percent. In one core hole, the average sulfur content of a sequence of oil shale 555 m thick, which represents nearly the maximum thickness of oil shale in the basin, is 0.76 weight percent. The vertical distribution of sulfur through the oil shale is cyclic. As many as 25 sulfur cycles have lateral continuity and can be traced between the core holes. Most of the sulfur resides in iron sulfides (pyrite, marcasite, and minor. pyrrhotite), and small amounts are organically bound in kerogen. In general, the concentration of sulfur correlates moderately with oil shale yield, but the degree of association ranges from quite high in the upper 90 m of the oil shale sequence to low or none in the leached zone and in illitic oil shale in the lower part of the sequence. Sulfur also correlates moderately with iron in the carbonate oil shale sequence, but no correlation was found in the illitic samples. Sulfide mineralization is believed to have occurred during early and late stages of diagenesis, and after lithification, during development of the leached zone. Significant amounts of iron found in ankeritic dolomite and in illite probably account for the lack of a strong correlation between sulfur and iron.

  17. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

    1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

  18. DSRP, direct sulfur production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMichael, W.J.; Agarwal, S.K.; Jang, B.L.; Howe, G.B. [Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Chen, D.H.; Hopper, J.R. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate on a bench-scale the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for up to 99 percent or higher recovery of sulfur (as elemental sulfur) from regeneration off-gases and coal-gas produced in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generating systems. Fundamental kinetic and thermodynamic studies will also be conducted to enable development of a model to predict DSRP performance in large-scale reactors and to shed light on the mechanism of DSRP reactions. The ultimate goal of the project is to advance the DSRP technology to the point where industry is willing to support its further development.

  19. Sulfur Dioxide Regulations (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter of the law establishes that the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency provides sulfur dioxide emission limits for every county, as well as regulations for the emission, monitoring and...

  20. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Yun (Peking, CN); Yu, Qiquan (Peking, CN); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h.sup.-1. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications.

  1. Factors affecting birth weight, gestation length and dystocia in Charolais cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Charles

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    SIRE . . 20 21 22 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF BIRTH WEIGHT AS INFLUENCED BY PERCENTACiE OF FRENCH CHAROLAIS WITHIN PERCENTAGE OF CHAROLAIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z3 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF BIRTH WEIGHT AS INFLUENCED BY PERCENTAGE... herd must efficiently produce the maximum total pounds of a saleable product, i. e. calves. To increase his production, he has culled and selected for heav1er weaning weights and heavier yearling weights. In h1s efforts to increase the size...

  2. SULFUR POLYMER ENCAPSULATION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KALB, P.

    2001-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a thermoplastic polymer consisting of 95 wt% elemental sulfur and 5 wt% organic modifiers to enhance long-term durability. SPC was originally developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as an alternative to hydraulic cement for construction applications. Previous attempts to use elemental sulfur as a construction material in the chemical industry failed due to premature degradation. These failures were caused by the internal stresses that result from changes in crystalline structure upon cooling of the material. By reacting elemental sulfur with organic polymers, the Bureau of Mines developed a product that successfully suppresses the solid phase transition and significantly improves the stability of the product. SPC, originally named modified sulfur cement, is produced from readily available, inexpensive waste sulfur derived from desulfurization of both flue gases and petroleum. The commercial production of SPC is licensed in the United States by Martin Resources (Odessa, Texas) and is marketed under the trade name Chement 2000. It is sold in granular form and is relatively inexpensive ({approx}$0.10 to 0.12/lb). Application of SPC for the treatment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes was initially developed and patented by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the mid-1980s (Kalb and Colombo, 1985; Colombo et al., 1997). The process was subsequently investigated by the Commission of the European Communities (Van Dalen and Rijpkema, 1989), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (Darnell, 1991), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Mattus and Mattus, 1994). SPC has been used primarily in microencapsulation applications but can also be used for macroencapsulation of waste. SPC microencapsulation has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for a wide variety of wastes, including incinerator hearth and fly ash; aqueous concentrates such as sulfates, borates, and chlorides; blowdown solutions; soils; and sludges. It is not recommended for treatment of wastes containing high concentrations of nitrates because of potentially dangerous reactions between sulfur, nitrate, and trace quantities of organics. Recently, the process has been adapted for the treatment of liquid elemental mercury and mercury contaminated soil and debris.

  3. Understanding Pound-Drever-Hall locking using voltage controlled radio-frequency oscillators: An undergraduate experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liekhus-Schmaltz, C E

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A senior undergraduate experiment has been developed for learning about frequency stabilization techniques using radio-frequency electronics. The primary objective is to frequency stabilize a voltage controlled oscillator to a cavity resonance at 800 MHz using the Pound-Drever-Hall scheme. This technique is commonly applied to stabilize lasers at optical frequencies, but by using radio-frequency equipment exclusively it is possible to systematically study various aspects of the technique more thoroughly, inexpensively, and free from eye hazards. Students also learn about modular radio-frequency electronics and basic feedback control loops. By varying the temperature of the resonator, the students may determine the thermal expansion coefficients of copper, aluminum, and super invar.

  4. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

    1996-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

  5. In Wharton State Forest in New Jersey's Pine Barrens, scientists from Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, have just finished building a bridge over the Mullica River. It's so strong it not only can hold the world's heaviest elephant (14,500 pound

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    can hold the world's heaviest elephant (14,500 pounds), but a fully- loaded fire truck (72,000 pounds

  6. PANIC ATTACKS QUICK! Your heart is pounding, your chest aches, you can't catch a breath or swallow, your

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasman, Alex

    PANIC ATTACKS QUICK! Your heart is pounding, your chest aches, you can't catch a breath or swallow you feel you may go crazy, pass out, or die. What's wrong? Heart attacks? You've fallen in love? Well, maybe. But what you may be experiencing is a panic attack. What is a panic attack? You may have had

  7. Energy savings can be communicated in terms of kilowatt hours (energy), carbon (climate change) or pounds (cost).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAuley, Derek

    AIM Energy savings can be communicated in terms of kilowatt hours (energy), carbon (climate change) or pounds (cost). We want to know if these different communication units prime different motivations more broadly. This implies that considering carbon may result in wider changes in sustainable behaviour

  8. Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYear Jan FebThousand Cubicin North Dakota (MillionState Heating Weekly

  9. Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of switchgrass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic Dilute sulfuric acid Sulfur dioxide Biofuels Switchgrass a b s t r a c t Dacotah switchgrass was pretreated with sulfuric acid concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 wt.% at 140, 160, and 180 °C and with 1

  10. Sulfur Dioxide Crossover during the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    Sulfur Dioxide Crossover during the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer in the thermochemical conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid for the large-scale production of hydrogen, 2009. Published May 19, 2009. The hybrid sulfur process is being investigated as an efficient way

  11. Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuiliang; Li, Xiaolin

    2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter less than 50 nm..

  12. Sulfur-Free Selective Pulping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimmel, D. R.; Bozell, J. J.

    A joint research effort is being conducted on ways to produce cost-effective pulping catalysts from lignin. This project addresses improving selectivities and reducing the levels of sulfur chemicals used in pulping. Improved selectivity means...

  13. Sulfur minimization in bacterial leaching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seth, R.; Prasad, D.; Henry, J.G. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of sewage biosolids in Ontario in 1989 was estimated to be 7 million m{sup 3} of wet sludge per year. Of this amount, land application accounts for between 20 and 30% of the total. Unfortunately, the use of sewage biosolids on agricultural land is often prohibited because of heavy metal contamination of the biosolids. High cost and operational problems have made chemical methods of metal extraction unattractive. Consequently, microbiological methods of leaching of heavy metals have been studied for over a decade. A relatively simple microbiological process has been investigated in recent years in flask level experiments and recently in a semicontinuous system. The process exploits nonacidophilic and acidophilic indigenous thiobacilli to extract heavy metals from sewage biosolids. These thiobacilli use elemental sulfur as the energy source, producing sulfuric acid. However, the resulting decontaminated biosolids can cause environmental problems like acidification of the soil, when acid is generated from the residual sulfur in the biosolids. The present study examines the possibility of reducing the amount of sulfur added in batch and semicontinuous bacterial leaching systems, and maximizing sulfur oxidation efficiency, thereby reducing the residual sulfur in leached biosolids.

  14. Magneto-optical conductivity in graphene including electron-phonon coupling Adam Pound1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahlers, Guenter

    8S 4M1 3 The Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 1Z8 and 4 of spectral weight in each Landau level (LL) into phonon-assisted peaks in the spectral function. Other new, upright cone forming the conduction band and the lower, inverted cone forming the valence band

  15. LOW SULFUR HOME HEATING OIL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT SUMMARY REPORT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BATEY, J.E.; MCDONALD, R.J.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was funded by NYSERDA and has clearly demonstrated many advantages of using low sulfur content heating oil to provide thermal comfort in homes. Prior laboratory research in the United States and Canada had indicated a number of potential benefits of using lower sulfur (0.05%) heating oil. However, this prior research has not resulted in the widespread use of low sulfur fuel oil in the marketplace. The research project described in this report was conducted with the assistance of a well-established fuel oil marketer in New York State (NYS) and has provided clear proof of the many real-world advantages of marketing and using low sulfur content No. 2 fuel oil. The very positive experience of the participating marketer over the past three years has already helped to establish low sulfur heating oil as a viable option for many other fuel marketers. In large part, based on the initial findings of this project and the experience of the participating NYS oilheat marketer, the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) has already fully supported a resolution calling for the voluntary use of low sulfur (0.05 percent) home heating oil nationwide. The NORA resolution has the goal of converting eighty percent of all oil-heated homes to the lower sulfur fuel (0.05 percent by weight) by the year 2007. The Oilheat Manufacturers Association (OMA) has also passed a resolution fully supporting the use of lower sulfur home heating oil in the equipment they manufacture. These are important endorsements by prominent national oil heat associations. Using lower sulfur heating oil substantially lowers boiler and furnace fouling rates. Laboratory studies had indicated an almost linear relationship between sulfur content in the oil and fouling rates. The completed NYSERDA project has verified past laboratory studies in over 1,000 occupied residential homes over the course of three heating seasons. In fact, the reduction in fouling rates so clearly demonstrated by this project is almost the same as predicted by past laboratory studies. Fouling deposition rates are reduced by a factor of two to three by using lower sulfur oil. This translates to a potential for substantial service cost savings by extending the interval between labor-intensive cleanings of the internal surfaces of the heating systems in these homes. In addition, the time required for annual service calls can be lowered, reducing service costs and customer inconvenience. The analyses conducted as part of this field demonstration project indicates that service costs can be reduced by up to $200 million a year nationwide by using lower sulfur oil and extending vacuum cleaning intervals depending on the labor costs and existing cleaning intervals. The ratio of cost savings to added fuel costs is economically attractive based on past fuel price differentials for the lower sulfur product. The ratio of cost savings to added costs vary widely as a function of hourly service rates and the additional cost for lower sulfur oil. For typical values, the expected benefit is a factor of two to four higher than the added fuel cost. This means that for every dollar spent on higher fuel cost, two to four dollars can be saved by lowered vacuum cleaning costs when the cleaning intervals are extended. Information contained in this report can be used by individual oil marketers to estimate the benefit to cost ratio for their specific applications. Sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide air emissions are reduced substantially by using lower sulfur fuel oil in homes. Sulfur oxides emissions are lowered by 75 percent by switching from fuel 0.20 percent to 0.05 percent sulfur oil. This is a reduction of 63,000 tons a year nationwide. In New York State, sulfur oxide emissions are reduced by 13,000 tons a year. This translates to a total value of $12 million a year in Sulfur Oxide Emission Reduction Credits for an emission credit cost of $195 a ton. While this ''environmental cost'' dollar savings is smaller than the potential service costs reduction, it is very significant. It represents an important red

  16. Molecular Structures of Polymer/Sulfur Composites for Lithium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures of PolymerSulfur Composites for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Long Cycle Life. Molecular Structures of PolymerSulfur Composites for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Long...

  17. Fermentation, Hydrogen, and Sulfur Metabolism in Multiple Uncultivated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fermentation, Hydrogen, and Sulfur Metabolism in Multiple Uncultivated Bacterial Phyla. Fermentation, Hydrogen, and Sulfur Metabolism in Multiple Uncultivated Bacterial Phyla....

  18. Two stage sorption of sulfur compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, William E. (Manassas, VA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two stage method for reducing the sulfur content of exhaust gases is disclosed. Alkali- or alkaline-earth-based sorbent is totally or partially vaporized and introduced into a sulfur-containing gas stream. The activated sorbent can be introduced in the reaction zone or the exhaust gases of a combustor or a gasifier. High efficiencies of sulfur removal can be achieved.

  19. FY08 MEMBRANE CHARACTERIZATION REPORT FOR HYBRID SULFUR ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H; Mark Elvington, M

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes results from all of the membrane testing completed to date at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for the sulfur dioxide-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). Several types of commercially-available membranes have been analyzed for ionic resistance and sulfur dioxide transport including perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA), sulfonated polyether-ketone-ketone (SPEKK), and polybenzimidazole membranes (PBI). Of these membrane types, the poly-benzimidazole membrane, Celtec-L, exhibited the best combination of characteristics for use in an SDE. Several experimental membranes have also been analyzed including hydrated sulfonated Diels-Alder polyphenylenes (SDAPP) membranes from Sandia National Laboratory, perfluorosulfonimide (PFSI) and sulfonated perfluorocyclobutyl aromatic ether (S-PFCB) prepared by Clemson University, hydrated platinum-treated PFSA prepared by Giner Electrochemical Systems (GES) and Pt-Nafion{reg_sign} 115 composites prepared at SRNL. The chemical stability, SO{sub 2} transport and ionic conductivity characteristics have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton-conducting membranes. Commercially available PFSA membranes such as the Nafion{reg_sign} series exhibited excellent chemical stability and ionic conductivity in sulfur dioxide saturated sulfuric acid solutions. Sulfur dioxide transport in the Nafion{reg_sign} membranes varied proportionally with the thickness and equivalent weight of the membrane. Although the SO{sub 2} transport in the Nafion{reg_sign} membranes is higher than desired, the excellent chemical stability and conductivity makes this membrane the best commercially-available membrane at this time. Initial results indicated that a modified Nafion{reg_sign} membrane incorporating Pt nanoparticles exhibited significantly reduced SO{sub 2} transport. Reduced SO{sub 2} transport was also measured with commercially available PBI membrane and several experimental membranes produced at SNL and Clemson. These membranes also exhibit good chemical stability and conductivity in concentrated sulfuric acid solutions and, thus, serve as promising candidates for the SDE. Therefore, we recommend further testing of these membranes including electrolyzer testing to determine if the reduced SO{sub 2} transport eliminates the formation of sulfur-containing films at the membrane/cathode interface. SO{sub 2} transport measurements in the custom built characterization cell identified experimental limitations of the original design. During the last quarter of FY08 we redesigned and fabricated a new testing cell to overcome the previous limitations. This cell also offers the capability to test membranes under polarized conditions as well as test the performance of MEAs under selected electrolyzer conditions.

  20. Toward Understanding the Effect of Low-Activity Waste Glass Composition on Sulfur Solubility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Muller, Isabelle S.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2014-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The concentration of sulfur in nuclear waste glass melter feed must be maintained below the point where salt accumulates on the melt surface. The allowable concentrations may range from 0.37 to over 2.05 weight percent (of SO3 on a calcined oxide basis). If the amount of sulfur exceeds its tolerance level a molten salt will accumulate and upset melter operations and potentially shorten melter useful life. Therefore relatively conservative limits have been placed on sulfur loading in melter feed which in-turn significantly impacts the amount of glass that will be produced, in particular at the Hanford site. Crucible-scale sulfur solubility data and scaled melter sulfur tolerance data have been collected on simulated Hanford waste glasses over the last 15 years. These data were compiled and analyzed. A model was developed to predict the solubility of SO3 in glass based on 312 individual glass compositions. This model was shown to well represent the data, accounting for over 80% of the variation in data and was well validated. The model was also found to accurately predict the tolerance for sulfur in melter feed based on 19 scaled melter tests. The model is appropriate for control of waste glass processing which includes uncertainty quantification. The model also gives quantitative estimates of component concentration effects on sulfur solubility. The components that most increase sulfur solubility are Li2O > V2O5 ? TiO2 < CaO < P2O5 ? ZnO. The components that most decrease sulfur solubility are Cl > Cr2O3 > SiO2 ? ZrO2 > Al2O3.

  1. Toward Understanding the Effect of Nuclear Waste Glass Composition of Sulfur Solubility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Muller, I. S.; Kruger, Albert A.; Piepel, Gregory F.

    2014-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The concentration of sulfur in nuclear waste glass melter feed must be maintained below the point where salt accumulates on the melt surface. The allowable concentrations may range from 0.37 to over 2.05 weight percent (of SO3 on a calcined oxide basis) depending on the composition of the melter feed and processing conditions. If the amount of sulfur exceeds the melt tolerance level, a molten salt will accumulate, which may upset melter operations and potentially shorten the useful life of the melter. At the Hanford site, relatively conservative limits have been placed on sulfur loading in melter feed, which in turn significantly increases the amount of glass that will be produced. Crucible-scale sulfur solubility data and scaled melter sulfur tolerance data have been collected on simulated Hanford waste glasses over the last 15 years. These data were compiled and analyzed. A model was developed to predict the solubility of SO3 in glass based on 252 simulated Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) glass compositions. This model represents the data well, accounting for over 85% of the variation in data, and was well validated. The model was also found to accurately predict the tolerance for sulfur in melter feed for 13 scaled melter tests of simulated LAW glasses. The model can be used to help estimate glass volumes and make informed decisions on process options. The model also gives quantitative estimates of component concentration effects on sulfur solubility. The components that most increase sulfur solubility are Li2O > V2O5> CaO ? P2O5 > Na2O ? B2O3 > K2O. The components that most decrease sulfur solubility are Cl > Cr2O3 > Al2O3 > ZrO2 ? SnO2 > Others ? SiO2. The order of component effects is similar to previous literature data, in most cases.

  2. Natural Gas Processing Plant- Sulfur (New Mexico)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This regulation establishes sulfur emission standards for natural gas processing plants. Standards are stated for both existing and new plants. There are also rules for stack height requirements,...

  3. Sulfurization of a carbon surface for vapor phase mercury removal II: Sulfur forms and mercury uptake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borguet, Eric

    promote the formation of organic sulfur and the presence of H2S during the cooling process increased in the presence of H2S was very effective towards Hg uptake in nitrogen. Corre- lation of mercury uptake capacitySulfurization of a carbon surface for vapor phase mercury removal ­ II: Sulfur forms and mercury

  4. December 2002 Issue #13 2002 SULFUR RESPONSES AND THE WISCONSIN ALFALFA SULFUR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Teri C.

    December 2002 Issue #13 ­ 2002 SULFUR RESPONSES AND THE WISCONSIN ALFALFA SULFUR SURVEY 1/ K response of alfalfa in the final 2 years of a 4-year experiment at Arlington on a 3.8% organic matter soil better identification of sulfur need and improved S management on Wisconsin alfalfa. Question #1

  5. Transition metal-catalyzed oxidation of atmospheric sulfur: Global implications for the sulfur budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, Becky

    processes, volca- noes) or produced within the atmosphere by oxidation of re- duced sulfur speciesTransition metal-catalyzed oxidation of atmospheric sulfur: Global implications for the sulfur importance of sulfate production by Fe(III)- and Mn(II)-catalyzed oxidation of S(IV) by O2. We scale

  6. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

  7. Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA)

    2006-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

  8. Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode Structures. Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode...

  9. Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  10. Formation of Nitrogen- and Sulfur-Containing Light-Absorbing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nitrogen- and Sulfur-Containing Light-Absorbing Compounds Accelerated by Evaporation of Water from Secondary Formation of Nitrogen- and Sulfur-Containing Light-Absorbing Compounds...

  11. Method for Determining Performance of Sulfur Oxide Adsorbents...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Method for Determining Performance of Sulfur Oxide Adsorbents for Diesel Emission Control Using Online Measurement of SO2 and Method for Determining Performance of Sulfur Oxide...

  12. Method of removal of sulfur from coal and petroleum products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verkade, John G. (Ames, IA); Mohan, Thyagarajan (Ames, IA); Angelici, Robert J. (Ames, IA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the removal of sulfur from sulfur-bearing materials such as coal and petroleum products using organophosphine and organophosphite compounds is provided.

  13. Waste Description Pounds Reduced,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for toxic solvents, chemical storage, and disposal associated with the cleaning of vacuum parts. Aerosol can liters of solvent and saves approximately 50 labor hours. Propane cylinder de- valver Recycling 75 Hazardous waste $7,500 $0 $7,500 The Collider Accelerator Division bought a propane cylinder de

  14. Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Liu, W.

    1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalytic reduction process is described for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(FO[sub 2])[sub 1[minus]n](RO)[sub n

  15. Quantifying Individual Potential Contributions of the Hybrid Sulfur Electrolyzer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    transport to the anode influences the concentration of the sulfuric acid produced. The resulting sulfuric loss is the diffusion of SO2 through the sulfuric acid to the catalyst site. Here, we extend our and correlated the operating potential to the sulfuric acid concentration produced at the anode.15-17 We have

  16. Definition of Non-Conventional Sulfur Utilization in Western Kazakhstan for Sulfur Concrete (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalb, Paul

    2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Battelle received a contract from Agip-KCO, on behalf a consortium of international oil and gas companies with exploration rights in the North Caspian Sea, Kazakhstan. The objective of the work was to identify and help develop new techniques for sulfur concrete products from waste, by-product sulfur that will be generated in large quantitites as drilling operations begin in the near future. BNL has significant expertise in the development and use of sulfur concrete products and has direct experience collaborating with the Russian and Kazakh partners that participated. Feasibility testing was successfully conducted for a new process to produce cost-effective sulfur polymer cement that has broad commerical applications.

  17. Process for removing sulfur from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aida, T.; Squires, T.G.; Venier, C.G.

    1983-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

  18. World copper smelter sulfur balance-1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Towle, S.W. (Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1989, the US Bureau of Mines initiated a contract to gather engineering, operating, and environmental cost data for 1988 for 30 major foreign primary copper smelters in market economy countries. Data were collected for 29 of the designated smelters together with information on applicable environmental regulations. Materials balance data obtained were used with available data for the eight US smelters to determine the approximate extent of copper smelter sulfur emission control in 1988. A broad characterization of the status of sulfur emission control regulation was made. The 37 US and foreign smelters represented roughly 73.2% of world and 89.3% of market economy primary copper production in 1988. The 29 non-US smelters attained 55.3% control of their input sulfur in 1988. Combined with the 90.4% control of US smelters, an aggregate 63.4% sulfur control existed. Roughly 1,951,100 mt of sulfur was emitted from the 37 market economy smelters in 1988. Identifiable SO[sub 2] control regulations covered 72.4% of the 29 foreign smelters, representing 65.5% of smelting capacity. Including US smelters, 78.4% of the major market economy smelters were regulated, representing 73.1% of smelting capacity. Significant changes since 1988 that may increase sulfur emission control are noted.

  19. Toward Understanding the Effect of Nuclear Waste Glass Composition of Sulfur Solubility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Muller, I. S.; Kruger, Albert A.; Piepel, Gregory F.

    2014-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The concentration of sulfur in nuclear waste glass melter feed must be maintained below the point where salt accumulates on the melt surface. The allowable concentrations may range from 0.37 to over 2.05 weight percent (of SO3 on a calcined oxide basis) depending on the composition of the melter feed and processing conditions. If the amount of sulfur exceeds the melt tolerance level, a molten salt will accumulate, which may upset melter operations and potentially shorten the useful life of the melter. At the Hanford site, relatively conservative limits have been placed on sulfur loading in melter feed, which in turn significantly increases the amount of glass that will be produced. Crucible-scale sulfur solubility data and scaled melter sulfur tolerance data have been collected on simulated Hanford waste glasses over the last 15 years. These data were compiled and analyzed. A model was developed to predict the solubility of SO3 in glass based on 252 simulated Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) glass compositions. This model represents the data well, accounting for over 85% of the variation in data, and was well validated. The model was also found to accurately predict the tolerance for sulfur in melter feed for 13 scaled melter tests of simulated LAW glasses. The model can be used to help estimate glass volumes and make informed decisions on process options. The model also gives quantitative estimates of component concentration effects on sulfur solubility. The components that most increase sulfur solubility are Li2O > V2O5> CaO ? P2O5 > Na2O ? B2O3 > K2O. The components that most decrease sulfur solubility are Cl > Cr2O3 > Al2O3 > ZrO2 ? SnO2 > Others ? SiO2. The order of component effects is similar to previous literature data, in most cases.

  20. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Subchronic Toxicity of Sulfur Mustard (HD) In Rats Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasser, L. B.; Miller, R. A.; Kalkwarf, D, R.; Buschbom, R. L.; Cushing, J. A.

    1989-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard [bis(2- chlorethyl)-sulfide], a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Seventytwo Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex, 6-7 weeks old, were divided into six groups (12/group/ sex) and gavaged with either 0, 0.003 , 0.01 , 0.03 , 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg of sulfur mustard in sesame oil 5 days/week for 13 weeks. No dose-related mortality was observed. A significant decrease (P ( 0.05) in body weight was observed in both sexes of rats only in the 0.3 mg/kg group. Hematological evaluations and clinical chemistry measurements found no consistent treatment-related effects at the doses studied. The only treatment-related lesion associated with gavage exposure upon histopathologic evaluation was epithelial hyperplasia of the forestomach of both sexes at 0.3 mg/kg and males at 0.1 mg/kg. The hyperplastic change was minimal and characterized by cellular disorganization of the basilar layer, an apparent increase in mitotic activity of the basilar epithelial cells, and thickening of the epithelial layer due to the apparent increase in cellularity. The estimated NOEL for HD in this 90-day study is 0.1 mg/kg/day when administered orally.

  1. Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...

  2. Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, Randy

    2011-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Problem drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) investigation of problem drywall incorporates three parallel tracks: (1) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and reported health symptoms; (2) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and electrical and fire safety issues in affected homes; and (3) tracing the origin and the distribution of the drywall. To assess the potential impact on human health and to support testing for electrical and fire safety, the CPSC has initiated a series of laboratory tests that provide elemental characterization of drywall, characterization of chemical emissions, and in-home air sampling. The chemical emission testing was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The LBNL study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1 of this study, LBNL tested thirty drywall samples provided by CPSC and reported standard emission factors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, reactive sulfur gases (RSGs) and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). The standard emission factors were determined using small (10.75 liter) dynamic test chambers housed in a constant temperature environmental chamber. The tests were all run at 25 C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and with an area-specific ventilation rate of {approx}1.5 cubic meters per square meter of emitting surface per hour [m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}/h]. The thirty samples that were tested in Phase 1 included seventeen that were manufactured in China in 2005, 2006 and 2009, and thirteen that were manufactured in North America in 2009. The measured emission factors for VOCs and aldehydes were generally low and did not differ significantly between the Chinese and North American drywall. Eight of the samples tested had elevated emissions of volatile sulfur-containing compounds with total RSG emission factors between 32 and 258 micrograms per square meter per hour [{micro}g/m{sup 2}/h]. The dominant sulfur containing compounds in the RSG emission stream were hydrogen sulfide with emission factors between 17-201 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h, and sulfur dioxide with emission factors between 8-64 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h. The four highest emitting samples also had a unique signature of VSC emissions including > 40 higher molecular weight sulfur-containing compounds although the emission rate for the VSCs was several orders of magnitude lower than that of the RSGs. All of the high emitting drywall samples were manufactured in China in 2005-2006. Results from Phase 1 provided baseline emission factors for drywall samples manufactured in China and in North America but the results exclude variations in environmental conditions that may exist in homes or other built structures, including various combinations of temperature, RH, ventilation rate and the influence of coatings such as texture and paints. The objective of Phase 2 was to quantify the effect of temperature and RH on the RSG emission factors for uncoated drywall, and to measure the effect of plaster and paint coatings on RSG emission factors from drywall. Additional experiments were also performed to assess the influence of ventilation rate on measured emission factors for drywall.

  3. An Aerosol Condensation Model for Sulfur Trioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant, K E

    2008-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes a model for condensation of sulfuric acid aerosol given an initial concentration and/or source of gaseous sulfur trioxide (e.g. fuming from oleum). The model includes the thermochemical effects on aerosol condensation and air parcel buoyancy. Condensation is assumed to occur heterogeneously onto a preexisting background aerosol distribution. The model development is both a revisiting of research initially presented at the Fall 2001 American Geophysical Union Meeting [1] and a further extension to provide new capabilities for current atmospheric dispersion modeling efforts [2]. Sulfuric acid is one of the most widely used of all industrial chemicals. In 1992, world consumption of sulfuric acid was 145 million metric tons, with 42.4 Mt (mega-tons) consumed in the United States [10]. In 2001, of 37.5 Mt consumed in the U.S., 74% went into producing phosphate fertilizers [11]. Another significant use is in mining industries. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] estimate that, in 1996, 68% of use was for fertilizers and 5.8% was for mining. They note that H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} use has been and should continue to be very stable. In the United States, the elimination of MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether) and the use of ethanol for gasoline production are further increasing the demand for petroleum alkylate. Alkylate producers have a choice of either a hydrofluoric acid or sulfuric acid process. Both processes are widely used today. Concerns, however, over the safety or potential regulation of hydrofluoric acid are likely to result in most of the growth being for the sulfuric acid process, further increasing demand [11]. The implication of sulfuric acid being a pervasive industrial chemical is that transport is also pervasive. Often, this is in the form of oleum tankers, having around 30% free sulfur trioxide. Although sulfuric acid itself is not a volatile substance, fuming sulfuric acid (referred to as oleum) is [7], the volatile product being sulfur trioxide. Sulfate aerosols and mist may form in the atmosphere on tank rupture. From chemical spill data from 1990-1996, Lawuyi02 and Fingas [7] prioritize sulfuric acid as sixth most serious. During this period, they note 155 spills totaling 13 Mt, out of a supply volume of 3700 Mt. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] summarize information on three major sulfuric acid spills. On 12 February 1984, 93 tons of sulfuric acid were spilled when 14 railroad cars derailed near MacTier, Parry Sound, Ontario. On 13 December 1978, 51 railroad cars derailed near Springhill, Nova Scotia. One car, containing 93% sulfuric acid, ruptured, spilling nearly its entire contents. In July 1993, 20 to 50 tons of fuming sulfuric acid spilled at the General Chemical Corp. plant in Richmond, California, a major industrial center near San Francisco. The release occurred when oleum was being loaded into a nonfuming acid railroad tank car that contained only a rupture disk as a safety device. The tank car was overheated and this rupture disk blew. The resulting cloud of sulfuric acid drifted northeast with prevailing winds over a number of populated areas. More than 3,000 people subsequently sought medical attention for burning eyes, coughing, headaches, and nausea. Almost all were treated and released on the day of the spill. By the day after the release, another 5,000 people had sought medical attention. The spill forced the closure of five freeways in the region as well as some Bay Area Rapid Transit System stations. Apart from corrosive toxicity, there is the additional hazard that the reactions of sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid vapors with water are extremely exothermic [10, 11]. While the vapors are intrinsically denser than air, there is thus the likelihood of strong, warming-induced buoyancy from reactions with ambient water vapor, water-containing aerosol droplets, and wet environmental surface. Nordin [12] relates just such an occurrence following the Richmond, CA spill, with the plume observed to rise to 300 m. For all practical purposes, sulfur trioxide was the constituent released from the heated tank

  4. Safety considerations for the use of sulfur in sulfur-modified pavement materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Carolyn Yuriko

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    on the surround1ng environment. As sulfur-modified paving materials were being developed, there was a corresponding concern for studying the amounts of gaseous emiss1ons that were generated. The Texas Trans- portat1on Inst1tute (TTI) was one of the first... organizations in the United States to become 1nvolved in the research and development of sulfur-modified pavements, Throughout 1ts laboratory stud1es TTI cont1nually mon1tored hydrogen sulf1de (H25) and sulfur d1oxide (502) em1ssions produced during mix...

  5. Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for increased sulfur loading Cathode Anode Investigatingoptimizing Li and Si composite anodes Exploring polymer electrolytes Electrolyte Determining new...

  6. Posting type Advisory update Subject Inconstant bias in XRF sulfur

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Emily V.

    Posting type Advisory update Subject Inconstant bias in XRF sulfur Module/Species A/ S Sites entire attention to observable discontinuities in XRF sulfur data. Shifts in the sulfur/sulfate ratio during 2003-4 were shown to coincide with recalibrations of the XRF system and to correlate with other XRF biases

  7. Short communication Influence of molybdenum and sulfur on copper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Short communication Influence of molybdenum and sulfur on copper metabolism in sheep: comparison of molybdenum able to trigger the copper sulfur molybdenum interference in sheep was measured with either only) and 4 increasing molybdenum doses. The sulfur-molybdenum-copper interference was quantified

  8. Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases: high calcium fly-ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T. (Austin, TX); Chang, John C. S. (Cary, NC)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure relates to improved processes for treating hot sulfur-containing flue gas to remove sulfur therefrom. Processes in accordance with the present invention include preparing an aqueous slurry composed of a calcium alkali source and a source of reactive silica and/or alumina, heating the slurry to above-ambient temperatures for a period of time in order to facilitate the formation of sulfur-absorbing calcium silicates or aluminates, and treating the gas with the heat-treated slurry components. Examples disclosed herein demonstrate the utility of these processes in achieving improved sulfur-absorbing capabilities. Additionally, disclosure is provided which illustrates preferred configurations for employing the present processes both as a dry sorbent injection and for use in conjunction with a spray dryer and/or bagfilter. Retrofit application to existing systems is also addressed.

  9. Method to prevent sulfur accumulation in membrane electrode assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steimke, John L; Steeper, Timothy J; Herman, David T

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of operating a hybrid sulfur electrolyzer to generate hydrogen is provided that includes the steps of providing an anolyte with a concentration of sulfur dioxide, and applying a current. During steady state generation of hydrogen a plot of applied current density versus concentration of sulfur dioxide is below a boundary line. The boundary line may be linear and extend through the origin of the graph with a slope of 0.001 in which the current density is measured in mA/cm2 and the concentration of sulfur dioxide is measured in moles of sulfur dioxide per liter of anolyte.

  10. The number of individuals sampled (n), coefficient values (a, loge(b)), standard errors for values (SE[a], SE[loge(b)]), and correlation coefficient (r2) of the relationship between prosomal width and weight for horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    conversion factors used to estimate landings Page 238, Equation 1. The y-intercept variable reads "b. These numbers were converted to pounds using various conversion factors. The number of horseshoe Prosomal-width-to-weight relationships in American horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus): examining conversion factors used to estimate

  11. Sulfur dioxide removal by enhanced electrostatics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larkin, K.; Tseng, C.; Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The economic removal of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) still represents a significant technical challenge which could determine the use of certain types of fossil fuels for energy production. This paper will present the preliminary results of an innovative research project utilizing a low-cost wet electrostatic precipitator to remove sulfur dioxide. There are many aspects for gas removal in an electrostatic precipitator which are not currently being used. This project utilizes electron attachment of free electrons onto gas molecules and ozone generation to remove sulfur dioxide which is a typical flue gas pollutant. This research was conducted on a bench-scale, wet electrostatic precipitator. A direct-current negative discharge corona is used to generate the ozone in-situ. This ozone will be used to oxidize SO{sub 2} to form sulfuric acid, which is very soluble in water. However, it is believed that the primary removal mechanism is electron attachment of the free electrons from the corona which force the SO{sub 2} to go to equilibrium with the water and be removed from the gas stream. Forcing the equilibrium has been shown to achieve removal efficiencies of up to 70%. The bench scale unit has been designed to operate wet or dry, positive and negative for comparison purposes. The applied dc voltage is variable from 0 to 100 kV, the flow rate is a nominal 7 m{sup 3}/hr and the collecting electrode area is 0.20 m{sup 2}. Tests are conducted on a simulated flue gas stream with SO{sub 2} ranging from 0 to 4,000 ppmv. This paper presents the results of tests conducted to determine the effect of operating conditions on removal efficiency. The removal efficiency was found to vary with gas residence time, water flow rate, inlet concentration, applied power, and the use of corona pulsing.

  12. Development of the Hybrid Sulfur Thermochemical Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summers, William A.; Steimke, John L

    2005-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of hydrogen via the thermochemical splitting of water is being considered as a primary means for utilizing the heat from advanced nuclear reactors to provide fuel for a hydrogen economy. The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process is one of the baseline candidates identified by the U.S. Department of Energy [1] for this purpose. The HyS Process is a two-step hybrid thermochemical cycle that only involves sulfur, oxygen and hydrogen compounds. Recent work has resulted in an improved process design with a calculated overall thermal efficiency (nuclear heat to hydrogen, higher heating value basis) approaching 50%. Economic analyses indicate that a nuclear hydrogen plant employing the HyS Process in conjunction with an advanced gas-cooled nuclear reactor system can produce hydrogen at competitive prices. Experimental work has begun on the sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer, the major developmental component in the cycle. Proof-of-concept tests have established proton-exchange-membrane cells (a state-of-the-art technology) as a viable approach for conducting this reaction. This is expected to lead to more efficient and economical cell designs than were previously available. Considerable development and scale-up issues remain to be resolved, but the development of a viable commercial-scale HyS Process should be feasible in time to meet the commercialization schedule for Generation IV gas-cooled nuclear reactors.

  13. Light weight phosphate cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S. (Naperville, IL); Natarajan, Ramkumar, (Woodridge, IL); Kahn, David (Miami, FL)

    2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  14. Generalized constructive tree weights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivasseau, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.rivasseau@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org [LPT, CNRS UMR 8627, Univ. Paris 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Waterloo (Canada)] [LPT, CNRS UMR 8627, Univ. Paris 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Waterloo (Canada); Tanasa, Adrian, E-mail: vincent.rivasseau@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org [Universit Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cit, 99, Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clment LIPN, Institut Galile, CNRS UMR 7030, F-93430 Villetaneuse, France and Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania)] [Universit Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cit, 99, Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clment LIPN, Institut Galile, CNRS UMR 7030, F-93430 Villetaneuse, France and Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

  15. Weighted control systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Radhi, Adhi Omar

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) 50 3-10 Defects per Unit Control Charts (Sudden Increase in Number of Defects) 51 3-11 Defects per Unit Control Charts (Slow Increase in Number of Defects) 52 3-12 O. C. Curves of Fraction Defectives Control Charts. 54 3-13 O. C. Curves.... The exponential smoothing principle was introduced to quality control field in 1959. It was first adapted in the mean control chart [25]. Through this control system, the most recent information is weighted and combined with the weighted past observations. 10...

  16. Corrosion performance of structural alloys in oxygen/sulfur/chlorine-containing environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.

    1998-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Component reliability and long-term trouble-free performance of structural materials are essential in power-generating processes that utilize coal as a feedstock. The combustion environments encompass a wide range of oxygen partial pressures, from excess-air conditions in conventional systems to air-deficient conditions in low-NO{sub x} systems. Apart from the environmental aspects of the effluent from coal combustion, one concern from the systems standpoint is the aggressiveness of the combustion environment toward boiler structural components such as waterwall tubes and steam superheaters. The corrosion tests in this program address the individual and combined effects of oxygen, sulfur, and chlorine on the corrosion response of several ASME-coded and noncoded boiler materials exposed to air-deficient and excess-air combustion conditions. Data in this paper address the corrosion behavior of structural materials such as Type 347 stainless steel, Alloys 800, 825, 625, 214, and Hastelloy X when exposed at 650 C to excess-air combustion conditions with and without HCl. Thermodynamic calculations were made to evaluate the gas chemistries formed from coal combustion. The results of such calculations, coupled with oxygen/sulfur/chlorine thermochemical diagrams, were used to select the gas environments for the laboratory test program. Results are presented for weight change, thickness loss, microstructural characteristics of corrosion products, mechanical integrity and cracking of scales, and the mechanistic understanding gained on the role of sulfur and chlorine in the corrosion process.

  17. SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY MERCURY WASTE.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ADAMS,J.W.; KALB,P.D.

    2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Brookhaven National Laboratory's Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process was used to treat approximately 90kg of elemental mercury mixed waste from Los Alamos National Laboratory. Treatment was carried out in a series of eight batches using a 1 ft{sup 3} pilot-scale mixer, where mercury loading in each batch was 33.3 weight percent. Although leach performance is currently not regulated for amalgamated elemental mercury (Hg) mixed waste, Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) testing of SPSS treated elemental mercury waste indicates that leachability is readily reduced to below the TCLP limit of 200 ppb (regulatory requirement following treatment by retort for wastes containing > 260 ppb Hg), and with process optimization, to levels less than the stringent Universal Treatment Standard (UTS) limit of 25 ppb that is applied to waste containing < 260 ppm Hg. In addition, mercury-contaminated debris, consisting of primary glass and plastic containers, as well as assorted mercury thermometers, switches, and labware, was first reacted with SPSS components to stabilize the mercury contamination, then macroencapsulated in the molten SPSS product. This treatment was done by vigorous agitation of the sulfur polymer powder and the comminuted debris. Larger plastic and metal containers were reacted to stabilize internal mercury contamination, and then filled with molten sulfur polymer to encapsulate the treated product.

  18. Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Najjar, Mitri S. (Hopewell Junction, NY); Corbeels, Roger J. (Wappingers Falls, NY); Kokturk, Uygur (Wappingers Falls, NY)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

  19. Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia detector for remote sensing of vehicle emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    with sulfuric and nitric acids formed from at- mospheric oxidations of sulfur dioxide SO2 and nitrogen oxides mobile sources comes from the combustion of sulfur compounds in fuel. The U.S. is in the process of reducing sulfur in fuel for all mobile sources. This process begins with ultralow sulfur on-road diesel

  20. Analyses of sulfur-asphalt field trials in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newcomb, David Edward

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    128 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGF Layout of SNPA sulfur bitumen binder pavem nt test ? U. S. Highway 69, Lufkin, Texas 15 Col 1oi d mi 1 1 furnished by SNPA for preparation of sul fur-asphalt emulsions View of mixing station showing sulfur... designed to investigate the advantage of using a colloid mill to prepare sulfur-asphalt binders as compared to comingling the asphalt and molten sulfur in a pipeline leading directly to the pug mill. After only six months of testing, the results...

  1. Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of long cycle-life in half cells and expand the synthesis of sulfurcarbon composite materials of various sulfur loadings 2. Compare the performance for different...

  2. Fundamental Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry PI: Nitash Balsara LBNL June 17, 2014 Project ID ESS224 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise...

  3. LARGE-SCALE MEASUREMENT OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE SULFUR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loo, B.W.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dispersive x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Concentrationsvalida- tion studies of XRF measurements have establishedelemental sulfur measurement by XRF can be closely related

  4. Project Profile: Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Related Links FAQs Contact Us Offices You are here Home Concentrating Solar Power Project Profile: Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based...

  5. SULFUR-TOLERANT CATALYST FOR THE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bozeman, Joe Frank, III

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??JP-8 fuel is easily accessible, transportable, and has hydrogen content essential to solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operation. However, this syngas has sulfur content which (more)

  6. Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

  7. Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narain, Nand K. (Bethel Park, PA); Ruether, John A. (McMurray, PA); Smith, Dennis N. (Herminie, PA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product.

  8. Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narain, N.K.; Ruether, J.A.; Smith, D.N.

    1987-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product. 2 figs.

  9. Effects of fine particulate matter and its constituents on low birth weight among full-term infants in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Rupa, E-mail: Rupa.Basu@oehha.ca.gov [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Air Pollution Epidemiology Section, Oakland, CA (United States)] [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Air Pollution Epidemiology Section, Oakland, CA (United States); Harris, Maria [School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States)] [School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States); Sie, Lillian [School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Malig, Brian; Broadwin, Rachel; Green, Rochelle [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Air Pollution Epidemiology Section, Oakland, CA (United States)] [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Air Pollution Epidemiology Section, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Relationships between prenatal exposure to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) and birth weight have been observed previously. Few studies have investigated specific constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, which may identify sources and major contributors of risk. We examined the effects of trimester and full gestational prenatal exposures to PM{sub 2.5} mass and 23 PM{sub 2.5} constituents on birth weight among 646,296 term births in California between 2000 and 2006. We used linear and logistic regression models to assess associations between exposures and birth weight and risk of low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), respectively. Models were adjusted for individual demographic characteristics, apparent temperature, month and year of birth, region, and socioeconomic indicators. Higher full gestational exposures to PM{sub 2.5} mass and several PM{sub 2.5} constituents were significantly associated with reductions in term birth weight. The largest reductions in birth weight were associated with exposure to vanadium, sulfur, sulfate, iron, elemental carbon, titanium, manganese, bromine, ammonium, zinc, and copper. Several of these PM{sub 2.5} constituents were associated with increased risk of term LBW. Reductions in birth weight were generally larger among younger mothers and varied by race/ethnicity. Exposure to specific constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, especially traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals, were associated with decreased birth weight in California. -- Highlights: Examine full gestational and trimester fine particle and its constituents on term birth weight. Fine particles and several of its constituents associated with birth weight reductions. Largest reductions for traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals. Greater birth weight reductions for younger mothers, and varied by race/ethnicity.

  10. Correlation for the total sulfur content in char after devolatilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasilije Manovic; Borislav Grubor [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia & Montenegro)

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall process of coal combustion takes place in two successive steps: devolatilization and char combustion. The fate of sulfur during the devolatilization of coal of different rank was investigated. The significance of the investigation is in fact that a major part of sulfur release occurs during devolatilization of coal, (i.e., emission of sulfur oxides during combustion of coal largely depends on sulfur release during devolatilization). The experimental investigations were conducted to obtain the data about the quantitative relation between sulfur content in the coal and sulfur content in the char. Standard procedures were used for obtaining the chars in a laboratory oven and determining the sulfur forms in the coal and char samples. The experiments were done with ground coal samples ({lt}0.2 mm), at the temperatures in the range of 500-1000{sup o}C. We showed that the amount of sulfur remaining in the char decreases, but not significantly in the temperature range 600-900{sup o}C. On the basis of the theoretical consideration of behavior of sulfur forms during devolatilization, certain simplifying assumptions, and obtained experimental data, we propose two correlations to associate the content of sulfur in the coal and in the char. The correlations are based on the results of the proximate analysis and sulfur forms in coal. Good agreement was found when the proposed correlations were compared with the experimental results obtained for investigated coals. Moreover, the correlations were verified by results found in the literature for numerous Polish, Albanian, and Turkish coals. Significant correlations (P {lt}0.05) between observed and calculated data with correlation coefficient, R {gt}0.9, were noticed in the case of all coals. 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert (Edgewood, NM); Pickard, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Parma, Jr., Edward J. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, Milton E. (Albuquerque, NM); Gelbard, Fred (Albuquerque, NM); Lenard, Roger X. (Edgewood, NM)

    2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

  12. Process for removing pyritic sulfur from bituminous coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Janiak, Jerzy S. (Edmonton, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw L. (Edmonton, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided for removing pyritic sulfur and lowering ash content of bituminous coals by grinding the feed coal, subjecting it to micro-agglomeration with a bridging liquid containing heavy oil, separating the microagglomerates and separating them to a water wash to remove suspended pyritic sulfur. In one embodiment the coal is subjected to a second micro-agglomeration step.

  13. Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    aerosols can potentially result in an increase in acid deposition. [4] Acid rain has been studiedSulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols Ben Kravitz,1 Alan limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2

  14. Metal-sulfur type cell having improved positive electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dejonghe, Lutgard C. (Berkeley, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Mailhe, Catherine C. (Berkeley, CA); Armand, Michel B. (St. Martin D'Uriage, FR)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An novel metal-sulfur type cell operable at a temperature of 200.degree. C. or less with an energy density of 150 Whrs/Kg or better is disclosed characterized by an organo-sulfur cathode formed from an organic-sulfur compound having the general formula, in its charged state, of (R(S).sub.y).sub.n wherein y=1 to 6; n=2 to 20; and R is one or more different aliphatic or aromatic organic moieties having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, which may include one or more oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen heteroatoms when R comprisises one of more aromatic rings, or one or more oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, or fluorine atoms associtated with the chain when R comprises an aliphatic chain, wherein the aliphatic group may be linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated, and wherein either the aliphatic chain or the aromatic ring may have substituted groups thereon.

  15. Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...

  16. Effect of sulfur loading on the desulfation chemistry of a commercial...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sulfur loading on the desulfation chemistry of a commercial lean NOx trap catalyst. Effect of sulfur loading on the desulfation chemistry of a commercial lean NOx trap catalyst....

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - amoco sulfur recovery process Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Medicine 80 Sulfur and oxygen isotope composition of the atmosphere in Saxony (Germany) Tichomirowa et al. Summary: ? a) Mixing processes 12;Sulfur and oxygen isotope...

  18. Sulfur and ash in Paleocene Wyodak-Anderson coal in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: A fuel source beyond 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, M.S.; Stricker, G.D.; Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When coal-fired power plants are required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to meet more stringent sulfur emission standards (0.6 pound per million Btu) after the year 2000, most of the clean and compliant coals will come from the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana. In 1996 more than 300 million short toms of these clean and compliant coals were produced from the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plans region. This is more than 30% of the total US coal production of 1.03 billion short tons in 1996. Future demand for clean and compliant coals can probably be met through production of more F or Union coals in the region. It is projected by the Energy Information Agency (1996) that most of the low-sulfur and low-ash coals in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region will be produced from the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed/zone of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin. To date, coal produced from the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed/zone, containing 0.5% sulfur, 1.2 lb SO{sub 2} per million btu, and 6% ash (mean values on an as-received basis) meet current EPA regulatory compliance. This coal bed/zone alone produced 262 million short toms of >26% of the total US coal production in 1996. Based on the current consumption rates of coal and a forecast by the EIA (1996), the Wyodak-Anderson coals are projected to produce an additional 153 million short tons a year by the year 2016. At this rate of production, high quality Wyodak-Anderson coals may be adequate to fill future energy needs.

  19. Sulfur and ash in paleocene Wyodak-Anderson coal in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: A fuel source beyond 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, M.S.; Stricker, G.D.; Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When coal-fired power plants are required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to meet more stringent sulfur emission standards (0.6 pound per million Btu) after the year 2000, most of the clean and compliant coals will come from the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana. In 1996 more than 300 million short tons of these clean and compliant coals were produced from the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region. This is more than 30 percent of the total US coal production of 1.03 billion short tons in 1996. Future demand for clean and compliant coals can probably be met through production of more Fort Union coals in the region. It is projected by the Energy Information Agency (1996) that most of the low-sulfur and low-ash coals in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region will be produced from the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed/zone of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin. To date, coal produced from the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed/zone, containing 0.5 percent sulfur, 1.2 lb SO{sub 2} per million btu, and 6 percent ash (mean values on an as-received basis) meet current EPA regulatory compliance. This coal bed/zone alone produced 262 million short tons or >26 percent of the total U.S. coal production in 1996. Based on the current consumption rates of coal and a forecast by the EIA (1996), the Wyodak-Anderson coals are projected to produce an additional 153 million short tons a year by the year 2016. At this rate of production, high quality Wyodak-Anderson coals may be adequate to fill our future energy needs.

  20. High-sulfur coals in the eastern Kentucky coal field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M. (Univ. of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)); Eble, C.F. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States))

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Eastern Kentucky coal field is notable for relatively low-sulfur, [open quotes]compliance[close quotes] coals. Virtually all of the major coals in this area do have regions in which higher sulfur lithotypes are common, if not dominant, within the lithologic profile. Three Middle Pennsylvanian coals, each representing a major resource, exemplify this. The Clintwood coal bed is the stratigraphically lowest coal bed mined throughout the coal field. In Whitley County, the sulfur content increase from 0.6% at the base to nearly 12% in the top lithotype. Pyrite in the high-sulfur lithotype is a complex mixture of sub- to few-micron syngenetic forms and massive epigenetic growths. The stratigraphically higher Pond Creek coal bed is extensively mined in portions of the coal field. Although generally low in sulfur, in northern Pike and southern Martin counties the top one-third can have up to 6% sulfur. Uniformly low-sulfur profiles can occur within a few hundred meters of high-sulfur coal. Pyrite occurs as 10-50 [mu]m euhedra and coarser massive forms. In this case, sulfur distribution may have been controlled by sandstone channels in the overlying sediments. High-sulfur zones in the lower bench of the Fire Clay coal bed, the stratigraphically highest coal bed considered here, are more problematical. The lower bench, which is of highly variable thickness and quality, generally is overlain by a kaolinitic flint clay, the consequence of a volcanic ash fall into the peat swamp. In southern Perry and Letcher counties, a black, illite-chlorite clay directly overlies the lower bench. General lack of lateral continuity of lithotypes in the lower bench suggests that the precursor swamp consisted of discontinuous peat-forming environments that were spatially variable and regularly inundated by sediments. Some of the peat-forming areas may have been marshlike in character.

  1. Molecular Structures of Polymer/Sulfur Composites for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Long Cycle Life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Lifen; Cao, Yuliang; Xiao, Jie; Schwenzer, Birgit; Engelhard, Mark H.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Nie, Zimin; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Liu, Jun

    2013-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Vulcanizedpolyaniline/sulfur (SPANI/S) nanostructures were investigated for Li-S battery applications, but the detailed molecular structures of such composites have not been fully illustrated. In this paper, we synthesize SPANI/S composites with different S content in a nanorod configuration. FTIR, Raman, XPS, XRD, SEM and elemental analysis methods are used to characterize the molecular structure of the materials. We provide clear evidence that a portion of S was grafted on PANI during heating and connected the PANI chains with disulfide bonds to form a crosslinked network and the rest of S was encapsulated within it.. Polysulfides and elementary sulfur nanoparticles are physically trapped inside the polymer network and are not chemically bound to the polymer. The performance of the composites is further improved by reducing the particle size. Even after 500 cycles a capacity retention rate of 68.8% is observed in the SPANI/S composite with 55% S content.

  2. Autothermal reforming of sulfur-free and sulfur-containing hydrocarbon liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanisms by which various fuel component hydrocarbons related to both heavy petroleum and coal-derived liquids are converted to hydrogen without forming carbon were investigated. Reactive differences between paraffins and aromatics in autothermal reforming (ATR) were shown to be responsible for the observed fuel-specific carbon formation characteristics. The types of carbon formed in the reformer were identified by SEM and XRD analyses of catalyst samples and carbon deposits. From tests with both light and heavy paraffins and aromatics, it is concluded that high boiling point hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatics enhance the propensity for carbon formation. The effects of propylene addition on the ATR performance of benzene are described. In ATR tests with mixtures of paraffins and aromatics, synergistic effects on conversion characteristics were identified. Indications that the sulfur content of the fuel may be the limiting factor for efficient ATR operation were found. The conversion and degradation effects of the sulfur additive (thiophene) were examined.

  3. The weighted words collector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisberranger, Jrmie Du; Ponty, Yann

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Motivated by applications in bioinformatics, we consider the word collector problem, i.e. the expected number of calls to a random weighted generator of words of length $n$ before the full collection is obtained. The originality of this instance of the non-uniform coupon collector lies in the, potentially large, multiplicity of the words/coupons of a given probability/composition. We obtain a general theorem that gives an asymptotic equivalent for the expected waiting time of a general version of the Coupon Collector. This theorem is especially well-suited for classes of coupons featuring high multiplicities. Its application to a given language essentially necessitates some knowledge on the number of words of a given composition/probability. We illustrate the application of our theorem, in a step-by-step fashion, on three exemplary languages, revealing asymptotic regimes in $\\Theta(\\mu(n)\\cdot n)$ and $\\Theta(\\mu(n)\\cdot \\log n)$, where $\\mu(n)$ is the sum of weights over words of length $n$.

  4. High pressure sulfuric acid decomposition experiments for the sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velasquez, Carlos E; Reay, Andrew R.; Andazola, James C.; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Gelbard, Fred

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of three pressurized sulfuric acid decomposition tests were performed to (1) obtain data on the fraction of sulfuric acid catalytically converted to sulfur dioxide, oxygen, and water as a function of temperature and pressure, (2) demonstrate real-time measurements of acid conversion for use as process control, (3) obtain multiple measurements of conversion as a function of temperature within a single experiment, and (4) assess rapid quenching to minimize corrosion of metallic components by undecomposed acid. All four of these objectives were successfully accomplished. This report documents the completion of the NHI milestone on high pressure H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition tests for the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle project. All heated sections of the apparatus, (i.e. the boiler, decomposer, and condenser) were fabricated from Hastelloy C276. A ceramic acid injection tube and a ceramic-sheathed thermocouple were used to minimize corrosion of hot liquid acid on the boiler surfaces. Negligible fracturing of the platinum on zirconia catalyst was observed in the high temperature decomposer. Temperature measurements at the exit of the decomposer and at the entry of the condenser indicated that the hot acid vapors were rapidly quenched from about 400 C to less than 20 C within a 14 cm length of the flow path. Real-time gas flow rate measurements of the decomposition products provided a direct measurement of acid conversion. Pressure in the apparatus was preset by a pressure-relief valve that worked well at controlling the system pressure. However, these valves sometimes underwent abrupt transitions that resulted in rapidly varying gas flow rates with concomitant variations in the acid conversion fraction.

  5. Performance and cost models for the direct sulfur recovery process. Task 1 Topical report, Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frey, H.C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Williams, R.B. [Carneigie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project is to develop performance and cost models of the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). The DSRP is an emerging technology for sulfur recovery from advanced power generation technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. In IGCC systems, sulfur present in the coal is captured by gas cleanup technologies to avoid creating emissions of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere. The sulfur that is separated from the coal gas stream must be collected. Leading options for dealing with the sulfur include byproduct recovery as either sulfur or sulfuric acid. Sulfur is a preferred byproduct, because it is easier to handle and therefore does not depend as strongly upon the location of potential customers as is the case for sulfuric acid. This report describes the need for new sulfur recovery technologies.

  6. Hamilton Weights and Petersen Minors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, Hong-jian

    Hamilton Weights and Petersen Minors Hong-Jian Lai and Cun-Quan Zhangy DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS@math.wvu.edu Received April 18, 1997 Abstract: A (1, 2)-eulerian weight w of a cubic graph is called a Hamilton weight if every faithful circuit cover of the graph with respect to w is a set of two Hamilton circuits. Let G

  7. Amphiphilic Surface Modification of Hollow Carbon Nanofibers for Improved Cycle Life of Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    lithium sulfur batteries, due to their high specific energy and relatively low cost. Despite recent progress in addressing the various problems of sulfur cathodes, lithium sulfur batteries still exhibit at C/2. KEYWORDS: Lithium sulfur batteries; energy storage; surface modification Increasing the energy

  8. System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J; Weissman, Jeffrey G

    2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for adding sulfur to a reformate stream feeding a fuel cell stack, having a sulfur source for providing sulfur to the reformate stream and a metering device in fluid connection with the sulfur source and the reformate stream. The metering device injects sulfur from the sulfur source to the reformate stream at a predetermined rate, thereby providing a conditioned reformate stream to the fuel cell stack. The system provides a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

  9. Sulfur meter for blending coal at Plant Monroe: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trentacosta, S.D.; Yurko, J.O.

    1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An on-line sulfur analyzer, installed at the Detroit Edison, Monroe Power station, was placed into service and evaluated for coal blending optimization to minimize the cost of complying with changing stack gas sulfur dioxide regulations. The project involved debugging the system which consisted of an /open quotes/as-fired/close quotes/ sampler and nuclear source sulfur analyzer. The system was initially plagued with mechanical and electronic problems ranging from coal flow pluggages to calibration drifts in the analyzer. Considerable efforts were successfully made to make the system reliable and accurate. On-line testing showed a major improvement in control of sulfur dioxide emission rates and fuel blending optimization equivalent to as much as $6 million in fuel costs at the time of the evaluation. 7 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Sulfurized olefin lubricant additives and compositions containing same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braid, M.

    1980-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Lubricant additives having substantially improved extreme pressure characteristics are provided by modifying certain sulfurized olefins by reacting said olefins with a cyclic polydisulfide under controlled reaction conditions and at a temperature of at least about 130/sup 0/ C.

  11. Diesel Emissions Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Determine the impact of fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems that could be implemented to lower emissions of NO{sub x} and PM from on-highway trucks in the 2002-2004 time frame.

  12. Novel Sulfur-Tolerant Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei Yang; Meilin Liu

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the unique advantages of SOFCs over other types of fuel cells is the potential for direct utilization of hydrocarbon fuels (it may involve internal reforming). Unfortunately, most hydrocarbon fuels contain sulfur, which would dramatically degrade SOFC performance at parts-per-million (ppm) levels. Low concentration of sulfur (ppm or below) is difficult to remove efficiently and cost-effectively. Therefore, knowing the exact poisoning process for state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFCs with Ni-YSZ cermet anodes, understanding the detailed anode poisoning mechanism, and developing new sulfur-tolerant anodes are essential to the promotion of SOFCs that run on hydrocarbon fuels. The effect of cell operating conditions (including temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, cell voltage/current density, etc.) on sulfur poisoning and recovery of nickel-based anode in SOFCs was investigated. It was found that sulfur poisoning is more severe at lower temperature, higher H{sub 2}S concentration or lower cell current density (higher cell voltage). In-situ Raman spectroscopy identified the nickel sulfide formation process on the surface of a Ni-YSZ electrode and the corresponding morphology change as the sample was cooled in H{sub 2}S-containing fuel. Quantum chemical calculations predicted a new S-Ni phase diagram with a region of sulfur adsorption on Ni surfaces, corresponding to sulfur poisoning of Ni-YSZ anodes under typical SOFC operating conditions. Further, quantum chemical calculations were used to predict the adsorption energy and bond length for sulfur and hydrogen atoms on various metal surfaces. Surface modification of Ni-YSZ anode by thin Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} coating was utilized to enhance the sulfur tolerance. A multi-cell testing system was designed and constructed which is capable of simultaneously performing electrochemical tests of 12 button cells in fuels with four different concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Through systematical study of state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFC button cells, it is seen that the long-term sulfur poisoning behavior of those cells indicate that there might be a second-stage slower degradation due to sulfur poisoning, which would last for a thousand hour or even longer. However, when using G-18 sealant from PNNL, the 2nd stage poisoning was effectively prohibited.

  13. METHOD TO PREVENT SULFUR ACCUMULATION INSIDE MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steimke, J.; Steeper, T.; Herman, D.; Colon-Mercado, H.; Elvington, M.

    2009-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    HyS is conceptually the simplest of the thermochemical cycles and involves only sulfur chemistry. In the HyS Cycle hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) is produced at the cathode of the electrochemical cell (or electrolyzer). Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) is oxidized at the anode to form sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and protons (H{sup +}) as illustrated below. A separate high temperature reaction decomposes the sulfuric acid to water and sulfur dioxide which are recycled to the electrolyzers, and oxygen which is separated out as a secondary product. The electrolyzer includes a membrane that will allow hydrogen ions to pass through but block the flow of hydrogen gas. The membrane is also intended to prevent other chemical species from migrating between electrodes and undergoing undesired reactions that could poison the cathode or reduce overall process efficiency. In conventional water electrolysis, water is oxidized at the anode to produce protons and oxygen. The standard cell potential for conventional water electrolysis is 1.23 volts at 25 C. However, commercial electrolyzers typically require higher voltages ranging from 1.8 V to 2.6 V [Kirk-Othmer, 1991]. The oxidation of sulfur dioxide instead of water in the HyS electrolyzer occurs at a much lower potential. For example, the standard cell potential for sulfur dioxide oxidation at 25 C in 50 wt % sulfuric acid is 0.29 V [Westinghouse, 1980]. Since power consumption by the electrolyzers is equal to voltage times current, and current is proportional to hydrogen production, a large reduction in voltage results in a large reduction in electrical power cost per unit of hydrogen generated.

  14. Low temperature fracture evaluation of plasticized sulfur paving mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahboub, Kamyar

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    May 1985 Major Subject: Civil Engineering LOW TEMPERATURE FRACTURE EVALUATION OF PLASTICIZED SULFUR PAVING MIXTURES A Thesis by KAMYAR MAHBOUB Approved as to style and content by: Dallas N. Li tie (Chai rman of Committee) Ro e . Lytto Member... modifications to the standard ASTM procedure. These modifications were required due to the nature of plasticized sulfur mixtures and asphalt cement mixtures. The J-integral version of Paris ' law was successfully used to characterize the fatigue...

  15. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has investigated new metal oxide catalysts for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as CO. Significant progress in catalyst development has been made during the course of the project. We have found that fluorite oxides, CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}, and rare earth zirconates such as Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} are active and stable catalysts for reduction Of SO{sub 2} by CO. More than 95% sulfur yield was achieved at reaction temperatures about 450{degrees}C or higher with the feed gas of stoichiometric composition. Reaction of SO{sub 2} and CO over these catalysts demonstrated a strong correlation of catalytic activity with the catalyst oxygen mobility. Furthermore, the catalytic activity and resistance to H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} poisoning of these catalysts were significantly enhanced by adding small amounts of transition metals, such as Co, Ni, Co, etc. The resulting transition metal-fluorite oxide composite catalyst has superior activity and stability, and shows promise in long use for the development of a greatly simplified single-step sulfur recovery process to treat variable and dilute SO{sub 2} concentration gas streams. Among various active composite catalyst systems the Cu-CeO{sub 2} system has been extensively studied. XRD, XPS, and STEM analyses of the used Cu-CeO{sub 2} catalyst found that the fluorite crystal structure of ceria was stable at the present reaction conditions, small amounts of copper was dispersed and stabilized on the ceria matrix, and excess copper oxide particles formed copper sulfide crystals of little contribution to catalytic activity. A working catalyst consisted of partially sulfated cerium oxide surface and partially sulfided copper clusters. The overall reaction kinetics were approximately represented by a first order equation.

  16. Heat Transfer Characteristics of Sulfur and Sulfur Diluted with Hydrogen Sulfide Flowing Through Circular Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Porter Walwyn

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is called the pumping-power advantage factor, and has the value 2. 5 x 10 for sodium. The only metals having a higher value of H are 13 lithium 7 and bismuth. Lithium 7 comprises 92. 5% of natural lithium, but the cost of separating it from lithium 6...-section for thermal neutrons being 0. 130 barns. For comparison, water has an absorption cross-section of 0. 58 barns for thermal neutrons (2) . Sulfur is not activated by exposure to neutron flux in such a way as to produce a radioactive isotope which...

  17. Reaction of Elemental Sulfur with a Copper(I) Complex Forming a trans--1,2 End-On Disulfide Complex: New Directions in Copper-Sulfur Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Peng

    Reaction of Elemental Sulfur with a Copper(I) Complex Forming a trans-µ-1,2 End-On Disulfide Complex: New Directions in Copper-Sulfur Chemistry Matthew E. Helton, Peng Chen, Partha P. Paul, Zolta, investigations into copper-sulfur interactions have been of marked interest in the research fields of copper

  18. Hybrid Sulfur Thermochemical Process Development Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summers, William A.; Buckner, Melvin R.

    2005-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Thermochemical Process is a means of producing hydrogen via water-splitting through a combination of chemical reactions and electrochemistry. Energy is supplied to the system as high temperature heat (approximately 900 C) and electricity. Advanced nuclear reactors (Generation IV) or central solar receivers can be the source of the primary energy. Large-scale hydrogen production based on this process could be a major contributor to meeting the needs of a hydrogen economy. This project's objectives include optimization of the HyS process design, analysis of technical issues and concerns, creation of a development plan, and laboratory-scale proof-of-concept testing. The key component of the HyS Process is the SO2-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). Studies were performed that showed that an electrolyzer operating in the range of 500-600 mV per cell can lead to an overall HyS cycle efficiency in excess of 50%, which is superior to all other currently proposed thermochemical cycles. Economic analysis indicated hydrogen production costs of approximately $1.60 per kilogram for a mature nuclear hydrogen production plant. However, in order to meet commercialization goals, the electrolyzer should be capable of operating at high current density, have a long operating lifetime , and have an acceptable capital cost. The use of proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) technology, which leverages work for the development of PEM fuel cells, was selected as the most promising route to meeting these goals. The major accomplishments of this project were the design and construction of a suitable electrolyzer test facility and the proof-of-concept testing of a PEM-based SDE.

  19. CLOSEOUT REPORT FOR HYBRID SULFUR PRESSURIZED BUTTON CELL TEST FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steeper, T.

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the Close-Out Report for design and partial fabrication of the Pressurized Button Cell Test Facility at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This facility was planned to help develop the sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) that is a key component of the Hybrid Sulfur Cycle for generating hydrogen. The purpose of this report is to provide as much information as possible in case the decision is made to resume research. This report satisfies DOE Milestone M3GSR10VH030107.0. The HyS Cycle is a hybrid thermochemical cycle that may be used in conjunction with advanced nuclear reactors or centralized solar receivers to produce hydrogen by watersplitting. The HyS Cycle utilizes the high temperature (>800 C) thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid to produce oxygen and regenerate sulfur dioxide. The unique aspect of HyS is the generation of hydrogen in a water electrolyzer that is operated under conditions where dissolved sulfur dioxide depolarizes the anodic reaction, resulting in substantial voltage reduction. Low cell voltage is essential for both high thermodynamic efficiency and low hydrogen cost. Sulfur dioxide is oxidized at the anode, producing sulfuric acid that is sent to the high temperature acid decomposition portion of the cycle. Sulfur dioxide from the decomposer is cycled back to electrolyzers. The electrolyzer cell uses the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) concept. Anode and cathode are formed by spraying a catalyst, typically platinized carbon, on both sides of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM). SRNL has been testing SDEs for several years including an atmospheric pressure Button Cell electrolyzer (2 cm{sup 2} active area) and an elevated temperature/pressure Single Cell electrolyzer (54.8 cm{sup 2} active area). SRNL tested 37 MEAs in the Single Cell electrolyzer facility from June 2005 until June 2009, when funding was discontinued. An important result of the final months of testing was the development of a method that prevents the formation of a sulfur layer previously observed in MEAs used in the Hybrid Sulfur Cycle electrolyzer. This result is very important because the sulfur layer increased cell voltage and eventually destroyed the MEA that is the heart of the cell. Steimke and Steeper [2005, 2006, 2007, 2008] reported on testing in the Single Cell Electrolyzer test facility in several periodic reports. Steimke et. al [2010] issued a final facility close-out report summarizing all the testing in the Single Cell Electrolyzer test facility. During early tests, significant deterioration of the membrane occurred in 10 hours or less; the latest tests ran for at least 200 hours with no sign of deterioration. Ironically, the success with the Single Cell electrolyzer meant that it became dedicated to long runs and not available for quick membrane evaluations. Early in this research period, the ambient pressure Button Cell Electrolyzer test facility was constructed to quickly evaluate membrane materials. Its small size allowed testing of newly developed membranes that typically were not available in sizes large enough to test in the Single Cell electrolyzer. The most promising membranes were tested in the Single Cell Electrolyzer as soon as sufficient large membranes could be obtained. However, since the concentration of SO{sub 2} gas in sulfuric acid decreases rapidly with increasing temperature, the ambient pressure Button Cell was no longer able to achieve the operating conditions needed to evaluate the newer improved high temperature membranes. Significantly higher pressure operation was required to force SO{sub 2} into the sulfuric acid to obtain meaningful concentrations at increased temperatures. A high pressure (200 psig), high temperature (120 C) Button Cell was designed and partially fabricated just before funding was discontinued in June 2009. SRNL completed the majority of the design of the test facility, including preparation of a process and instrument drawing (P&ID) and preliminary designs for the major components. SRNL intended to complete the designs and procu

  20. Process and system for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gaseous streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basu, Arunabha (Aurora, IL); Meyer, Howard S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Lynn, Scott (Pleasant Hill, CA); Leppin, Dennis (Chicago, IL); Wangerow, James R. (Medinah, IL)

    2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-stage UCSRP process and system for removal of sulfur from a gaseous stream in which the gaseous stream, which contains a first amount of H.sub.2S, is provided to a first stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess SO.sub.2 mode at a first amount of SO.sub.2, producing an effluent gas having a reduced amount of SO.sub.2, and in which the effluent gas is provided to a second stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess H.sub.2S mode, producing a product gas having an amount of H.sub.2S less than said first amount of H.sub.2S.

  1. Indication of Meissner Effect in Sulfur-Substituted Strontium Ruthenates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gulian, Armen

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceramic samples of Sr2RuO(4-y)Sy (y=0.03-1.2) with intended isovalent substitution of oxygen by sulfur have been synthesized and explored in the temperature range 4-300K. It is found that at a range of optimum sulfur substitution the magnetic response of ceramic samples reveals large diamagnetic signal with amplitudes approaching comparability with that of the YBCO-superconductors. Contrary to a pure ceramic Sr2RuO4, if properly optimized, the resistivity of sulfur-substituted samples has a metallic behavior except at lower temperatures where an upturn occurs. Both synthesis conditions and results of measurements are reported. The Meissner effect may point to high-temperature superconductivity.

  2. Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Andres, Robert; Conception , Elvira; Lurz, Joshua

    2004-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one and a half century were estimated by using a combination of bottom-up and best available inventory methods including all anthropogenic sources. We find that global sulfur dioxide emissions peaked about 1980 and have generally declined since this time. Emissions were extrapolated to a 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} grid for the time period 1850-2000 at annual resolution with two emission height levels and by season. Emissions are somewhat higher in the recent past in this new work as compared with some comprehensive estimates. This difference is largely due to our use of emissions factors that vary with time to account for sulfur removals from fossil fuels and industrial smelting processes.

  3. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Elemental sulfur recovery from SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream is highly attractive as it produces a salable product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plant (reaction of SO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project will investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified in recent work at MIT as a superior catalyst for SO{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range (400--650{degree}C). The detailed kinetic and parametric studies of SO{sub 2} reduction planned in this work over various CeO{sub 2} formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a very simplified process, namely that of a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams. The potential cost- and energy-efficiency benefits from this approach can not be overstated. A first apparent application is treatment of a regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought ``Claus-alternative`` for coal-fired power plant applications.

  4. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wei; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.; Williams, R.S.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Elemental sulfur recovery from SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream is highly attractive as it produces a salable product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plant(reaction of SO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project will investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified in recent work at MIT as a superior catalyst for SO{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range(400--650{degrees}C). The detailed kinetic and parametric studies of SO{sub 2} reduction planned in this work over various CeO{sub 2}-formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a very simplified process, namely that of a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams, The potential cost- and energy-efficiency benefits from this approach can not be overstated. A first apparent application is treatment of a regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought ``Claus-alternative`` for coal-fired power plant applications.

  5. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Fourth quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams.

  6. Sulfur gas geochemical detection of hydrothermal systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rouse, G.E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether a system of exploration using sulfur gases was capable of detecting convecting hydrothermal systems. Three surveying techniques were used at the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA in Utah. These were (a) a sniffing technique, capable of instantaneous determinations of sulfur gas concentration, (b) an accumulator technique, capable of integrating the sulfur gas emanations over a 30 day interval, and (c) a method of analyzing the soils for vaporous sulfur compounds. Because of limitations in the sniffer technique, only a limited amount of surveying was done with this method. The accumulator and soil sampling techniques were conducted on a 1000 foot grid at Roosevelt Hot Springs, and each sample site was visited three times during the spring of 1980. Thus, three soil samples and two accumulator samples were collected at each site. The results are shown as averages of three soil and two accumulator determinations of sulfur gas concentrations at each site. Soil surveys and accumulator surveys were conducted at two additional KGRA's which were chosen based on the state of knowledge of these hydrothermal systems and upon their differences from Roosevelt Hot Springs in an effort to show that the exploration methods would be effective in detecting geothermal reservoirs in general. The results at Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah show that each of the three surveying methods was capable of detecting sulfur gas anomalies which can be interpreted to be related to the source at depth, based on resistivity mapping of that source, and also correlatable with major structural features of the area which are thought to be controlling the geometry of the geothermal reservoir. The results of the surveys at Roosevelt did not indicate that either the soil sampling technique or the accumulator technique was superior to the other.

  7. Sulfur dioxide oxidation and plume formation at cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dellinger, B.; Grotecloss, G.; Fortune, C.R.; Cheney, J.L.; Homolya, J.B.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of source sampling at the Glens Falls cement kiln in Glens Falls, N.Y., are reported for sulfur oxides, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, oxygen, and moisture content. The origin of a detached, high-opacity, persistent plume originating from the cement kiln stack is investigated. It is proposed that this plume is due to ammonium salts of SOx and sulfuric acid that have been formed in condensed water droplets in the plume by the pseudocatalytic action of ammonia. (1 diagram, 1 graph, 22 references, 7 tables)

  8. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This second quarter report of 2002 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. Previous reports described development of a catalyst with the required selectivity and efficiency for producing sulfur dioxide from H{sub 2}S. In the laboratory, the catalyst was shown to be robust and stable in the presence of several intentionally added contaminants, including condensate from the pilot plant site. This report describes testing using the laboratory apparatus but operated at the pilot plant using the actual pilot plant gas, which contains far more contaminants than can be simulated in the laboratory. The results are very encouraging, with stable and efficient operation being obtained for a prolonged period of time.

  9. Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Gorski, A.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1993-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is [dis]associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

  10. Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, John B. L. (Naperville, IL); Gorski, Anthony J. (Woodridge, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

  11. The Quantitation of Sulfur Mustard By-Products, Sulfur-Containing Herbicides, and Organophosphonates in Soil and Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomkins, B.A., Sega, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)], Macnaughton, S.J. [Microbial Insights, Inc., Rockford, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past fifty years, the facilities at Rocky Mountain Arsenal have been used for the manufacturing, bottling, and shipping sulfur- containing herbicides, sulfur mustard, and Sarin. There is a need for analytical methods capable of determining these constituents quickly to determine exactly how specific waste structural materials should be handled, treated, and landfilled.These species are extracted rapidly from heated samples of soil or crushed concrete using acetonitrile at elevated pressure, then analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector. Thiodiglycol, the major hydrolysis product of sulfur mustard, must be converted to a silylated derivative prior to quantitation. Detection limits, calculated using two statistically-unbiased protocols, ranged between 2-13 micrograms analyte/g soil or concrete.

  12. System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mukerjee, Subhasish (Pittsford, NY); Haltiner, Jr., Karl J (Fairport, NY); Weissman, Jeffrey G. (West Henrietta, NY)

    2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack, having a reformer adapted to reform a hydrocarbon fuel stream containing sulfur contaminants, thereby providing a reformate stream having sulfur; a sulfur trap fluidly coupled downstream of the reformer for removing sulfur from the reformate stream, thereby providing a desulfurized reformate stream; and a metering device in fluid communication with the reformate stream upstream of the sulfur trap and with the desulfurized reformate stream downstream of the sulfur trap. The metering device is adapted to bypass a portion of the reformate stream to mix with the desulfurized reformate stream, thereby producing a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

  13. A design strategy applied to sulfur resistant lean NOx̳ automotive catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Hairong

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalyst poisoning due to sulfur compounds derived from fuel sulfur presents a major challenge, intractable thus far, to development of many advanced technologies for automotive catalysts such as the lean NOx, trap. Under ...

  14. Mitigation of Sulfur Poisoning of Ni/Zirconia SOFC Anodes by...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mitigation of Sulfur Poisoning of NiZirconia SOFC Anodes by Antimony and Tin . Mitigation of Sulfur Poisoning of NiZirconia SOFC Anodes by Antimony and Tin . Abstract: Surface...

  15. Correction to "Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Correction to "Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols (2010), Correction to "Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols" (Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, D14109

  16. Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of kraft lignins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidl, W.; Dong, D.; Fricke, A.L. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kraft lignins are the lignin degradation products from kraft pulping. They are complex, heterogeneous polymers with some polar character. The molecular weight of kraft lignins greatly affect the physical properties of black liquors, and are of primary importance in separation from black liquor and in evaluating potential uses. Several purified kraft lignins from slash pine were analyzed for number average molecular weight by vapor pressure osmometry (VPO), for weight average molecular weight by low angle laser light scattering (LALLS), and for the molecular weight distribution by high temperature size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The lignins were run in tetrahydrofuran (THF), N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF), DMF with 0.1M LiBr, and pyridine at conditions above the Theta temperature. Experimental methods are discussed. The results show that VPO may be used to determine M[sub n] for kraft lignins if the purity of the lignins and the identity of the impurities are known. LALLS can be used to determine M[sub w] for kraft lignins if measurements are made at or above the Theta temperature of the lignin-solvent pair. SEC should be used at temperatures at, or above, the Theta temperature of the lignin-solvent pair. Size separation is highly dependent on the solvent used, and DMF is a much better solvent than THF for high temperature SEC. Future work using moment resolution procedures to derive an accurate calibration curve are also discussed.

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric sulfur dioxide Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: (O3), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) will be measured... Ren...

  18. Chromium modified nickel-iron aluminide useful in sulfur bearing environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cathcart, John V. (Knoxville, TN); Liu, Chain T. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved nickel-iron aluminide containing chromium and molybdenum additions to improve resistance to sulfur attack.

  19. Sulfur Degassing From Volcanoes: Source Conditions, Surveillance, Plume Chemistry and Earth System Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of sulfur in magmas owes much to its multiple valence states (-II, 0, IV, VI), speciation (e.g., S2, H2S, SO on the redox chemistry of sulfur: by reducing sulfur, thiosulfate, sulfite and sulfate to H2S, or oxidizing sulfur and H2S to sulfate (e.g., Takano et al. 1997; Amend and Shock 2001; Shock et al. 2010

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous organic sulfur Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Prediction Laboratory, University of South Florida Collection: Geosciences 13 Microbial Architecture of Environmental Sulfur Processes: A Summary: ) Transmission electron...

  1. Sulfur Impregnation on Activated Carbon Fibers through H2S Oxidation for Vapor Phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borguet, Eric

    Sulfur Impregnation on Activated Carbon Fibers through H2S Oxidation for Vapor Phase Mercury: Sulfur was impregnated onto activated carbon fibers ACFs through H2S oxidation catalyzed by the sorbent CE Database subject headings: Activated carbon; Sulfur; Mercury; Hydrogen sulfides; Oxidation

  2. Vapor phase elemental sulfur amendment for sequestering mercury in contaminated soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Jackson, Dennis G.

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The process of treating elemental mercury within the soil is provided by introducing into the soil a heated vapor phase of elemental sulfur. As the vapor phase of elemental sulfur cools, sulfur is precipitated within the soil and then reacts with any elemental mercury thereby producing a reaction product that is less hazardous than elemental mercury.

  3. Sulfur-induced greenhouse warming on early Mars Sarah Stewart Johnson,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuber, Maria

    and 500 mbar CO2 with varying abundances of H2O and sulfur volatiles (H2S and SO2 mixing ratios of 10?3Sulfur-induced greenhouse warming on early Mars Sarah Stewart Johnson,1 Michael A. Mischna,2 melting model, we obtain a high sulfur solubility, approximately 1400 ppm, in Martian mantle melts. We

  4. REGULAR PAPER Photoproduction of hydrogen by sulfur-deprived C. reinhardtii

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meier, Iris

    dramatic was the effect of sulfur deprivation on the H2-production process, which depends both on the presREGULAR PAPER Photoproduction of hydrogen by sulfur-deprived C. reinhardtii mutants with impaired+Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract Photoproduction of H2 was examined in a series of sulfur-deprived Chlamydomonas

  5. Dissociation of Import of the Rieske Iron-Sulfur Protein into Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mitochondria from Proteolytic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trumpower, Bernard L.

    processing peptidase was investigated using high concentrations of metal chelators and iron-sulfur protein- sulfur protein into the mitochondrial matrix is inde- pendent of proteolytic processing first removes a 22-amino acid peptide from the prese- quence of the precursor iron-sulfur protein (p

  6. Revisit Carbon/Sulfur Composite for Li-S Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Wagner, Michael J.; Hays, Kevin; Li, Xiaohong S.; Zuo, Pengjian; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    To correlate the carbon properties e.g. surface area and porous structure, with the electrochemical behaviors of carbon/sulfur (C/S) composite cathodes for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, four different carbon frameworks including Ketjen Black (KB, high surface area and porous), Graphene (high surface area and nonporous), Acetylene Black (AB, low surface area and nonporous) and Hollow Carbon Nano Sphere (HCNS, low surface area and porous) are employed to immobilize sulfur (80 wt.%). It has been revealed that high surface area of carbon improves the utilization rate of active sulfur and decreases the real current density during the electrochemical reactions. Accordingly, increased reversible capacities and reduced polarization are observed for high surface area carbon hosts such as KB/S and graphene/S composites. The porous structure of KB or HCNS matrix promotes the long-term cycling stability of C/S composites but only at relatively low rate (0.2 C). Once the current density increases, the pore effect completely disappears and all Li-S batteries show similar trend of capacity degradation regardless of the different carbon hosts used in the cathodes. The reason has been assigned to the formation of reduced amount of irreversible Li2S on the cathode as well as shortened time for polysulfides to transport towards lithium anode at elevated current densities. This work provides valuable information for predictive selection on carbon materials to construct C/S composite for practical applications from the electrochemical point of view.

  7. Argonne Electrochemical Technology Program Sulfur removal from reformate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Argonne Electrochemical Technology Program Sulfur removal from reformate Xiaoping Wang, Theodore Krause, and Romesh Kumar Chemical Engineering Division Argonne National Laboratory Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies 2003 Merit Review Berkeley, CA May 19-22, 2003 #12;Argonne Electrochemical Technology

  8. Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

  9. Auction design and the market for sulfur dioxide emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Recent papers have argued that flaws in the design of the auctions that are part of this market have ...

  10. The Hybrid Sulfur Cycle for Nuclear Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summers, William A.; Gorensek, Maximilian B.; Buckner, Melvin R.

    2005-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Two Sulfur-based cycles--the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) and the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS)--have emerged as the leading thermochemical water-splitting processes for producing hydrogen utilizing the heat from advanced nuclear reactors. Numerous international efforts have been underway for several years to develop the SI Cycle, but development of the HyS Cycle has lagged. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the background, current status, recent development results, and the future potential for this thermochemical process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology since 2004 to evaluate and to conduct research and development for the HyS Cycle. Process design studies and flowsheet optimization have shown that an overall plant efficiency (based on nuclear heat converted to hydrogen product, higher heating value basis) of over 50% is possible with this cycle. Economic studies indicate that a nuclear hydrogen plant based on this process can be economically competitive, assuming that the key component, the sulfur dioxide-depolarized electrolyzer, can be successfully developed. SRNL has recently demonstrated the use of a proton-exchange-membrane electrochemical cell to perform this function, thus holding promise for economical and efficient hydrogen production.

  11. Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Remick, Robert J. (Naperville, IL)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

  12. Weighted Watson-Crick automata

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd [Department of Information System, Kulliyyah of Information and Communication Technology, International Islamic University Malaysia, 50728 Gombak, Selangor (Malaysia); Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku [Department of Computer Science, Kulliyyah of Information and Communication Technology, International Islamic University Malaysia, 50728 Gombak, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power.

  13. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. LOPEZ ORTIZ; D.P. HARRISON; F.R. GROVES; J.D. WHITE; S. ZHANG; W.-N. HUANG; Y. ZENG

    1998-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500C to 700C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in a twenty-five-cycle test. The sorbent was exposed for 58 consecutive days to temperatures between 600C and 800C and gas atmospheres from highly reducing to highly oxidizing without measurable loss of sulfur capacity or reactivity. In the process analysis phase of this study, a two-stage desulfurization process using cerium sorbent with SO2 regeneration followed by zinc sorbent with dilute O2 regeneration was compared to a single-stage process using zinc sorbent and O2 regeneration with SO2 in the regeneration product gas converted to elemental sulfur using the direct sulfur recovery process (DSRP). Material and energy balances were calculated using the process simulation package PRO/II. Major process equipment was sized and a preliminary economic analysis completed. Sorbent replacement rate, which is determined by the multicycle sorbent durability, was found to be the most significant factor in both processes. For large replacement rates corresponding to average sorbent lifetimes of 250 cycles or less, the single-stage zinc sorbent process with DSRP was estimated to be less costly. However, the cost of the two-stage cerium sorbent process was more sensitive to sorbent replacement rate, and, as the required replacement rate decreased, the economics of the two-stage process improved. For small sorbent replacement rates corresponding to average sorbent lifetimes of 1000 cycles or more, the two-stage cerium process was estimated to be less costly. In the relatively wide middle range of sorbent replacement rates, the relative economics of the two processes depends on other factors such as the unit cost of sorbents, oxygen, nitrogen, and the relative capital costs.

  14. Strong Sulfur Binding with Conducting Magneli-Phase TinO2n-1 Nanomaterials for Improving Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    will go through a series of soluble intermediate higher-order polysulfides (Li2S8, Li2S6, and Li2S4 of Li2S2, Li2S, and sulfur.6-8 In order to solve these challenges, there have been recent developmentsStrong Sulfur Binding with Conducting Magneli-Phase TinO2n-1 Nanomaterials for Improving Lithium-Sulfur

  15. Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

  16. Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, January - March 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

  17. Mass-dependent fractionation of quadruple stable sulfur isotope system as a new tracer of sulfur biogeochemical cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    - ing rare isotopes for Earth materials was the discovery of anomalous 17 O abundance in a wide variety, USA b Department of Geology and Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland and extraterrestrial materials. ? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Sulfur (32 S, 33 S, 34 S

  18. Standard test method for conducting drop-weight test to determine nil-ductility transition temperature of ferritic steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the nil-ductility transition (NDT) temperature of ferritic steels, 5/8 in. (15.9 mm) and thicker. 1.2 This test method may be used whenever the inquiry, contract, order, or specification states that the steels are subject to fracture toughness requirements as determined by the drop-weight test. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  19. Method of burning sulfur-containing fuels in a fluidized bed boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of burning a sulfur-containing fuel in a fluidized bed of sulfur oxide sorbent wherein the overall utilization of sulfur oxide sorbent is increased by comminuting the bed drain solids to a smaller average particle size, preferably on the order of 50 microns, and reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed. In comminuting the bed drain solids, particles of spent sulfur sorbent contained therein are fractured thereby exposing unreacted sorbent surface. Upon reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed, the newly-exposed unreacted sorbent surface is available for sulfur oxide sorption, thereby increasing overall sorbent utilization.

  20. Sulfur-tolerant anode materials for solid oxide fuel cell application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, M. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV); Liu, X. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV); Trembly, J.; Johnson, C.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes the degradation mechanisms for SOFC anodes in the presence of sulfur and recent developments in sulfur-tolerant anodes. There are two primary sulfur-degradation mechanisms for the anode materials: physical absorption of sulfur that blocks the hydrogen reaction sites, and chemical reaction that forms nickel sulfide. The sulfur-tolerant anodes are categorized into three kinds of materials: thiospinels and metal sulfides, metal cermets, and mixed ionic and electronic conductors. Each material has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the combined application of available materials to serve as different functional components in anodes through proper design may be effective to achieve a balance between stability and performance.

  1. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elemental sulfur recovery from SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream is highly attractive as it produces a salable product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plant (reaction of SO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project will investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified in recent work at MIT as a superior catalyst for SO{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range(400-650 {degrees}C). The detailed kinetic and parametric studies of SO{sub 2} reduction planned in this work over various CeO{sub 2}-formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a very simplified process, namely that of a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams. The potential cost- and energy-efficiency benefits from this approach can not be overstated. A first apparent application is treatment of a regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought {open_quotes}Claus-alternative{close_quotes} for coal-fired power plant applications.

  2. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, the authors have planned a structured program including: Market/process/cost/evaluation; Lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; Lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; Bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and Utility review. Progress is reported from all three organizations.

  3. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Dalrymple

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report describes the objectives, technical approach, results and conclusions for a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept is a configuration of CrystaTech, Inc.'s CrystaSulf{reg_sign} process which utilizes a direct oxidation catalyst upstream of the absorber tower to oxidize a portion of the inlet hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and elemental sulfur. This hybrid configuration of CrystaSulf has been named CrystaSulf-DO and represents a low-cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day and more. This hybrid process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both onshore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf is a nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes H{sub 2}S from gas streams and converts it to elemental sulfur. In CrystaSulf, H{sub 2}S in the inlet gas is reacted with SO{sub 2} to make elemental sulfur according to the liquid phase Claus reaction: 2H{sub 2}S + SO{sub 2} {yields} 2H{sub 2}O + 3S. The SO{sub 2} for the reaction can be supplied from external sources by purchasing liquid SO{sub 2} and injecting it into the CrystaSulf solution, or produced internally by converting a portion of the inlet gas H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} or by burning a portion of the sulfur produced to make SO{sub 2}. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, the needed SO{sub 2} is produced by placing a bed of direct oxidation catalyst in the inlet gas stream to oxidize a portion of the inlet H{sub 2}S. Oxidation catalysts may also produce some elemental sulfur under these conditions, which can be removed and recovered prior to the CrystaSulf absorber. The CrystaSulf-DO process can utilize direct oxidation catalyst from many sources. Numerous direct oxidation catalysts are available from many suppliers worldwide. They have been used for H{sub 2}S oxidation to sulfur and/or SO{sub 2} for decades. It was believed at the outset of the project that TDA Research, Inc., a subcontractor, could develop a direct oxidation catalyst that would offer advantages over other commercially available catalysts for this CrystaSulf-DO process application. This project involved the development of several of TDA's candidate proprietary direct oxidation catalysts through laboratory bench-scale testing. These catalysts were shown to be effective for conversion of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} and to elemental sulfur under certain operating conditions. One of these catalysts was subsequently tested on a commercial gas stream in a bench-scale reactor at CrystaTech's pilot plant site in west Texas with good results. However, commercial developments have precluded the use of TDA catalysts in the CrystaSulf-DO process. Nonetheless, this project has advanced direct oxidation catalyst technology for H{sub 2}S control in energy industries and led to several viable paths to commercialization. TDA is commercializing the use of its direct oxidation catalyst technology in conjunction with the SulfaTreat{reg_sign} solid scavenger for natural gas applications and in conjunction with ConocoPhillips and DOE for gasification applications using ConocoPhillips gasification technology. CrystaTech is commercializing its CrystaSulf-DO process in conjunction with Gas Technology Institute for natural gas applications (using direct oxidation catalysts from other commercial sources) and in conjunction with ChevronTexaco and DOE for gasification applications using ChevronTexaco's gasification technology.

  4. Integrated Process Configuration for High-Temperature Sulfur Mitigation during Biomass Conversion via Indirect Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta. A.; Cheah, S.; Bain, R.; Feik, C.; Magrini-Bair, K.; Phillips, S.

    2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur present in biomass often causes catalyst deactivation during downstream operations after gasification. Early removal of sulfur from the syngas stream post-gasification is possible via process rearrangements and can be beneficial for maintaining a low-sulfur environment for all downstream operations. High-temperature sulfur sorbents have superior performance and capacity under drier syngas conditions. The reconfigured process discussed in this paper is comprised of indirect biomass gasification using dry recycled gas from downstream operations, which produces a drier syngas stream and, consequently, more-efficient sulfur removal at high temperatures using regenerable sorbents. A combination of experimental results from NREL's fluidizable Ni-based reforming catalyst, fluidizable Mn-based sulfur sorbent, and process modeling information show that using a coupled process of dry gasification with high-temperature sulfur removal can improve the performance of Ni-based reforming catalysts significantly.

  5. Method of making sulfur-resistant composite metal membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Way, J. Douglas (Boulder, CO) [Boulder, CO; Lusk, Mark (Golden, CO) [Golden, CO; Thoen, Paul (Littleton, CO) [Littleton, CO

    2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides thin, hydrogen-permeable, sulfur-resistant membranes formed from palladium or palladium-alloy coatings on porous, ceramic or metal supports. Also disclosed are methods of making these membranes via sequential electroless plating techniques, wherein the method of making the membrane includes decomposing any organic ligands present on the substrate, reducing the palladium crystallites on the substrate to reduced palladium crystallites, depositing a film of palladium metal on the substrate and then depositing a second, gold film on the palladium film. These two metal films are then annealed at a temperature between about 200.degree. C. and about 1200.degree. C. to form a sulfur-resistant, composite PdAu alloy membrane.

  6. Posting type Informational Subject Changed reporting of XRF sulfur

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Emily V.

    Posting type Informational Subject Changed reporting of XRF sulfur Module/Species A/ S Sites entire network Period Starting 1/1/05 Submitter W.H. White, white@crocker.ucdavis.edu Supporting information XRF and 2005 seen in Figure 1. 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 12/1/04 1/1/05 2/1/05 3S/SO4 = ADJUSTMENT REPORTED XRF

  7. Intensities of electronic transitions in sulfur dioxide vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCray, James Arthur

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Relation between Oscillator Strength and Probability Coefficient of Absorption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 V. The Ultraviolet Spectrum of Sulfur Dioxide Gas . . . . . . 22 ) VI. Experimental Procedure and Computations . . . . . . . . . 23 U A... where )(e is defined as the dielectric constant of the medium. This equation holds for radiation which has a frequency sufficiently dif- ferent from that of the resonant frequencies of'the molecules of the medium, The polarizability o( of a molecule...

  8. How to Obtain Reproducible Results for Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Jianming; Lu, Dongping; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic requirements for getting reliable Li-S battery data have been discussed in this work. Unlike Li-ion batteries, electrolyte-rich environment significantly affects the cycling stability of Li-S batteries prepared and tested under the same conditions. The reason has been assigned to the different concentrations of polysulfide-containing electrolytes in the cells, which have profound influences on both sulfur cathode and lithium anode. At optimized S/E ratio of 50 g L-1, a good balance among electrolyte viscosity, wetting ability, diffusion rate dissolved polysulfide and nucleation/growth of short-chain Li2S/Li2S2 has been built along with largely reduced contamination on the lithium anode side. Accordingly, good cyclability, high reversible capacity and Coulombic efficiency are achieved in Li-S cell with controlled S/E ratio without any additive. Other factors such as sulfur content in the composite and sulfur loading on the electrode also need careful concern in Li-S system in order to generate reproducible results and gauge the various methods used to improve Li-S battery technology.

  9. Process for recovery of sulfur from acid gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Towler, Gavin P. (Kirkbymoorside, GB2); Lynn, Scott (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elemental sulfur is recovered from the H.sub.2 S present in gases derived from fossil fuels by heating the H.sub.2 S with CO.sub.2 in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of a catalyst selected as one which enhances the thermal dissociation of H.sub.2 S to H.sub.2 and S.sub.2. The equilibrium of the thermal decomposition of H.sub.2 S is shifted by the equilibration of the water-gas-shift reaction so as to favor elemental sulfur formation. The primary products of the overall reaction are S.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. Small amounts of COS, SO.sub.2 and CS.sub.2 may also form. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture results in a substantial increase in the efficiency of the conversion of H.sub.2 S to elemental sulfur. Plant economy is further advanced by treating the product gases to remove byproduct carbonyl sulfide by hydrolysis, which converts the COS back to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S. Unreacted CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H.sub.2 and CO, which has value either as a fuel or as a chemical feedstock and recovers the hydrogen value from the H.sub.2 S.

  10. Removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olmstead, W.N.

    1986-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for enhancing the removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale. The process consists of: (a) contacting the oil-shale with a sufficient amount of an aqueous base solution comprised of at least a stoichiometric amount of one or more alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal hydroxides based on the total amount of nitrogen and sulfur present in the oil-shale. Also necessary is an amount sufficient to form a two-phase liquid, solid system, a temperature from about 50/sup 0/C to about 350/sup 0/C., and pressures sufficient to maintain the solution in liquid form; (b) separating the effluents from the treated oil-shale, wherein the resulting liquid effluent contains nitrogen moieties and sulfur moieties from the oil-shale and any resulting gaseous effluent contains nitrogen moieties from the oil-shale, and (c) converting organic material of the treated oil-shale to shale-oil at a temperature from about 450/sup 0/C to about 550/sup 0/C.

  11. RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.

    2010-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In the HyS Process, sulfur dioxide is oxidized in the presence of water at the electrolyzer anode to produce sulfuric acid and protons. The protons are transported through a cation-exchange membrane electrolyte to the cathode and are reduced to form hydrogen. In the second stage of the process, the sulfuric acid by-product from the electrolyzer is thermally decomposed at high temperature to produce sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The two gases are separated and the sulfur dioxide recycled to the electrolyzer for oxidation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been exploring a fuel-cell design concept for the SDE using an anolyte feed comprised of concentrated sulfuric acid saturated with sulfur dioxide. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint compared to a parallel-plate electrolyzer design. This paper will provide a summary of recent advances in the development of the SDE for the HyS process.

  12. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Zhang, Xuran [Wuhan Univ. of Technology, Hubei (China); Dept. of Chemistry; Li, Chao [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; McKinnon, Meaghan E. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Sadok, Rachel G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Qu, Deyu [Wuhan Univ. of Technology, Hubei (China); Dept. of Chemistry; Yu, Xiqian [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Lee, Hung-Sui [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Qu, Deyang [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility of the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.

  13. Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Date Report No. 3: Diesel Fuel Sulfur Effects on Particulate Matter Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

    1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report covers the effects of diesel fuel sulfur level on particulate matter emissions for four technologies.

  14. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub X} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub X} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the previous semi-annual technical progress report (April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001). During the current reporting period, additional balance of plant impact information was determined for one of the two tests. These additional balance-of-plant results are presented and discussed in this report. There was no other technical progress to report, because all planned testing as part of this project has been completed.

  15. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. Balance of plant impacts, primarily on the ESP particulate control device, were also determined during both tests. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

  16. ENERGY EFFICIENCY LIMITS FOR A RECUPERATIVE BAYONET SULFURIC ACID DECOMPOSITION REACTOR FOR SULFUR CYCLE THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M.; Edwards, T.

    2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A recuperative bayonet reactor design for the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition step in sulfur-based thermochemical hydrogen cycles was evaluated using pinch analysis in conjunction with statistical methods. The objective was to establish the minimum energy requirement. Taking hydrogen production via alkaline electrolysis with nuclear power as the benchmark, the acid decomposition step can consume no more than 450 kJ/mol SO{sub 2} for sulfur cycles to be competitive. The lowest value of the minimum heating target, 320.9 kJ/mol SO{sub 2}, was found at the highest pressure (90 bar) and peak process temperature (900 C) considered, and at a feed concentration of 42.5 mol% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. This should be low enough for a practical water-splitting process, even including the additional energy required to concentrate the acid feed. Lower temperatures consistently gave higher minimum heating targets. The lowest peak process temperature that could meet the 450-kJ/mol SO{sub 2} benchmark was 750 C. If the decomposition reactor were to be heated indirectly by an advanced gas-cooled reactor heat source (50 C temperature difference between primary and secondary coolants, 25 C minimum temperature difference between the secondary coolant and the process), then sulfur cycles using this concept could be competitive with alkaline electrolysis provided the primary heat source temperature is at least 825 C. The bayonet design will not be practical if the (primary heat source) reactor outlet temperature is below 825 C.

  17. Advanced product recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Third quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied to 72,000 MW of US, coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed form the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its industry and commercialization advisor, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner, Tufts, plans to develop and scale-up an advanced, byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, catalytic process for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, they have planned a structured program including: market/process/cost/evaluation; lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and utility review. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning.

  18. Lithium Polysulfidophosphates: A Family of Lithium-Conducting Sulfur-Rich Compounds for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Zengcai [ORNL] [ORNL; Fu, Wujun [ORNL] [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Given the great potential for improving the energy density of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries by a factor of 5, a breakthrough in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries will have a dramatic impact in a broad scope of energy related fields. Conventional Li-S batteries that use liquid electrolytes are intrinsically short-lived with low energy efficiency. The challenges stem from the poor electronic and ionic conductivities of elemental sulfur and its discharge products. We report herein lithium polysulfidophosphates (LPSP), a family of sulfur-rich compounds, as the enabler of long-lasting and energy-efficient Li-S batteries. LPSP have ionic conductivities of 3.0 10-5 S cm-1 at 25 oC, which is 8 orders of magnitude higher than that of Li2S (~10-13 S cm-1). The high Li-ion conductivity of LPSP is the salient characteristic of these compounds that impart the excellent cycling performance to Li-S batteries. In addition, the batteries are configured in an all-solid state that promises the safe cycling of high-energy batteries with metallic lithium anodes.

  19. Weighted Guidelines | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomen Owned SmallOf The 2012NuclearBradleyBudgetFurnaces andWebmasterEnergyWeighted

  20. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2005.02.002 Sulfur diffusion in basaltic melts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    doi:10.1016/j.gca.2005.02.002 Sulfur diffusion in basaltic melts CARMELA FREDA,1, * DON R. BAKER,1,2 February 3, 2005) Abstract--We measured the diffusion coefficients of sulfur in two different basaltic for sulfur diffusion in anhydrous basalts: D 2.19 10 4 exp 226.3 58.3 RT where D is the diffusion coefficient

  1. Energy Aware Scheduling for Weighted Completion Time and Weighted Tardiness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrasco, Rodrigo A; Stein, Cliff

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ever increasing adoption of mobile devices with limited energy storage capacity, on the one hand, and more awareness of the environmental impact of massive data centres and server pools, on the other hand, have both led to an increased interest in energy management algorithms. The main contribution of this paper is to present several new constant factor approximation algorithms for energy aware scheduling problems where the objective is to minimize weighted completion time plus the cost of the energy consumed, in the one machine non-preemptive setting, while allowing release dates and deadlines.Unlike previous known algorithms these new algorithms can handle general job-dependent energy cost functions, extending the application of these algorithms to settings outside the typical CPU-energy one. These new settings include problems where in addition, or instead, of energy costs we also have maintenance costs, wear and tear, replacement costs, etc., which in general depend on the speed at which the machine r...

  2. Portable instrument and method for detecting reduced sulfur compounds in a gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaffney, J.S.; Kelly, T.J.; Tanner, R.L.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable real time instrument for detecting concentrations in the part per billion range of reduced sulfur compounds in a sample gas. Ozonized air or oxygen and reduced sulfur compounds in a sample gas stream react to produce chemiluminescence in a reaction chamber and the emitted light is filtered and observed by a photomultiplier to detect reduced sulfur compounds. Selective response to individual sulfur compounds is achieved by varying reaction chamber temperature and ozone and sample gas flows, and by the use of either air or oxygen as the ozone source gas.

  3. Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of long cycle life in half cells and expand the synthesis of sulfurcarbon composite materials of various sulfur loading 2. Compare the performance for different...

  4. Sulfur barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Christensen, Del Scot (Friendswood, TX)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for forming a barrier around at least a portion of a treatment area in a subsurface formation are described herein. Sulfur may be introduced into one or more wellbores located inside a perimeter of a treatment area in the formation having a permeability of at least 0.1 darcy. At least some of the sulfur is allowed to move towards portions of the formation cooler than the melting point of sulfur to solidify the sulfur in the formation to form the barrier.

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - ashless low-sulfur fuel Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Blendstocks for Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel in PADD III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17... markets for low ... Source: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Center for Transportation...

  6. Sulfur-tolerant natural gas reforming for fuel-cell applications.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hennings, Ulrich

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??An attractive simplification of PEM-FC systems operated with natural gas would be the use of a sulfur tolerant reforming catalyst, but such a catalyst has (more)

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous sulfuric acid Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Chemistry, Temple University Collection: Materials Science ; Chemistry 13 Microbial Architecture of Environmental Sulfur Processes: A Summary: , 2009. Accepted July 9, 2009....

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbing sulfur dioxide Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    provides some chemicals which are incompatible with other compounds. Summary: Potassium carbon tetrachloride, carbon dioxide, water Potassium chlorate sulfuric and other acids...

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient sulfur dioxide Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    provides some chemicals which are incompatible with other compounds. Summary: Potassium carbon tetrachloride, carbon dioxide, water Potassium chlorate sulfuric and other acids...

  10. Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    200 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type, and PAD District (Cents per Gallon...

  11. Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type, and PAD District (Cents per Gallon...

  12. Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    200 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type, and PAD District (Cents per Gallon...

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic sulfur heterocycles Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    distribution in the oil fractions obtained by thermal cracking of Jordanian El-Lajjun oil Shale Summary: . Polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles IV. Determination of polycyclic...

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric sulfur behavior Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    change are intimately linked to sulfur (1). Over the last 25 years the primary energy demand in Asia has Source: Jacobson, Mark - Department of Civil and Environmental...

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - agent sulfur mustard Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Types of defensive stragegies Summary: . 4 Glucosinolates (Thioglucosides, or Mustard Oils) sulfur containing glycosides - amino acid... as a foods - B. nigra, other species...

  16. Effects of dairy intake on weight maintenance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zemel, Michael B.; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Smith, Bryan K.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Richards, Joanna; Morgan-Hanusa, Danielle; Mayo, Matthew S.; Sun, Xiaocun; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Bailey, Bruce W.; Van Walleghen, Emily L.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2008-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    , randomized trial. Weight loss was baseline to 3 months, weight maintenance was 4 to 9 months. Participants were maintained randomly assigned to low dairy ( 3 servings/d) diets for the maintenance phase. Three...

  17. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the eighth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the semi-annual Technical Progress Report for the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. Additional balance of plant impact information for the two tests was reported in the Technical Progress Report for the time period October 1, 2001 through March 30, 2002. Additional information became available about the effects of byproduct magnesium hydroxide injection on SCR catalyst coupons during the long-term test at BMP, and those results were reported in the report for the time period April 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002. During the current period, process economic estimates were developed, comparing the costs of the furnace magnesium hydroxide slurry injection process tested as part of this project to a number of other candidate SO{sub 3}/sulfuric acid control technologies for coal-fired power plants. The results of this economic evaluation are included in this progress report.

  18. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to utilities with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species, a precursor to acid aerosol/condensable emissions, and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of SCR for NOX control on some coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project is testing the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium- and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents have been tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry produced from a wet flue gas desulfurization system waste stream, from a system that employs a Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime scrubbing process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles into the front wall of upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests. The longer-term tests are being conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. This reports presents the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

  19. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: LONG-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corp., the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Dravo Lime, Inc. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to power generators with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NO{sub x} control on many coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project previously tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium-and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide byproduct slurry produced from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization system. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP, Unit 3, and the second test was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant testing provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. This report presents the results from those long-term tests. The tests determined the effectiveness of injecting commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP) for sulfuric acid control. The results show that injecting either slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, this overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NOX control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The long-term tests also determined balance-of-plant impacts from slurry injection during the two tests. These include impacts on boiler back-end temperatures and pressure drops, SCR catalyst properties, ESP performance, removal of other flue gas species, and flue gas opacity. For the most part the balance-of-plant impacts were neutral to positive, although adverse effects on ESP performance became an issue during the BMP test.

  20. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to utilities with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species, a precursor to acid aerosol/condensable emissions, and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of SCR for NO{sub x} control on some coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project is testing the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium- and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents have been tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry produced from a wet flue gas desulfurization system waste stream, from a system that employs a Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime scrubbing process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles into the front wall of upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests. The longer-term tests are being conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. This reports presents the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

  1. Weighted Marshall-Olkin Bivariate Exponential Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kundu, Debasis

    Weighted Marshall-Olkin Bivariate Exponential Distribution Ahad Jamalizadeh & Debasis Kundu of weighted Marshall-Olkin bivariate exponential distribu- tions. This new singular distribution has of this paper is to introduce a weighted Marshall-Olkin bivariate exponential (WMOBE) distribution, using

  2. Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

  3. Sulfur polymer cement for macroencapsulation of mixed waste debris

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattus, C.H.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In FY 1997, the US DOE Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) sponsored a demonstration of the macroencapsulation of mixed waste debris using sulfur polymer cement (SPC). Two mixed wastes were tested--a D006 waste comprised of sheets of cadmium and a D008/D009 waste comprised of lead pipes and joints contaminated with mercury. The demonstration was successful in rendering these wastes compliant with Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR), thereby eliminating one Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) waste stream from the national inventory.

  4. Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey,(MonasterLowellis a town inRiver93.Information Martinez Sulfuric Acid

  5. A Soft Approach to Encapsulate Sulfur: Polyaniline Nanotubes for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert SouthwestTechnologies |November 2011A FirstEMSL Shell Model forIronLithium-Sulfur

  6. ULTRA-LOW SULFUR REDUCTION EMISSION CONTROL DEVICE/DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-BOARD FUEL SULFUR TRAP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ron Rohrbach; Gary Zulauf; Tim Gavin

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Honeywell is actively working on a 3-year program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an ''on-vehicle'' desulfurization fuel filter for heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NO{sub x} adsorbers. The NO{sub x} adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and ''2007-Rule'' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters will also be examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. It is anticipated that the technology developed for heavy-duty applications will be applicable to light-duty as well. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consists of four phases. Phase I will focus on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II we will concentrate on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III will study life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV will focus on efficacy and life testing and component integration. The project team will include a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Mack Trucks Inc.), a filter recycler (American Wastes Industries), and a low-sulfur fuel supplier (Equilon, a joint venture between Shell and Texaco).

  7. Catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivas, Girish (Thornton, CO); Bai, Chuansheng (Baton Rouge, LA)

    2000-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides catalysts for the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. In particular, the invention provides catalysts for the partial oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur and water. The catalytically active component of the catalyst comprises a mixture of metal oxides containing titanium oxide and one or more metal oxides which can be selected from the group of metal oxides or mixtures of metal oxides of transition metals or lanthanide metals. Preferred metal oxides for combination with TiO.sub.2 in the catalysts of this invention include oxides of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Hf, Ta, W, Au, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu. Catalysts which comprise a homogeneous mixture of titanium oxide and niobium (Nb) oxide are also provided. A preferred method for preparing the precursor homogenous mixture of metal hydroxides is by coprecipitation of titanium hydroxide with one or more other selected metal hydroxides. Catalysts of this invention have improved activity and/or selectivity for elemental sulfur production. Further improvements of activity and/or selectivity can be obtained by introducing relatively low amounts (up to about 5 mol %)of a promoter metal oxide (preferably of metals other than titanium and that of the selected second metal oxide) into the homogeneous metal/titanium oxide catalysts of this invention.

  8. Extracellular iron-sulfur precipitates from growth of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antonio, M. R.; Tischler, M. L.; Witzcak, D.

    1999-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have examined extracellular iron-bearing precipitates resulting from the growth of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans in a basal medium with lactate as the carbon source and ferrous sulfate. Black precipitates were obtained when D. desulfuricans was grown with an excess of FeSO{sub 4}. When D. desulfuricans was grown under conditions with low amounts of FeSO{sub 4}, brown precipitates were obtained. The precipitates were characterized by iron K-edge XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure), {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer-effect spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction. Both were noncrystalline and nonmagnetic (at room temperature) solids containing high-spin Fe(III). The spectroscopic data for the black precipitates indicate the formation of an iron-sulfur phase with 6 nearest S neighbors about Fe at an average distance of 2.24(1) {angstrom}, whereas the brown precipitates are an iron-oxygen-sulfur phase with 6 nearest O neighbors about Fe at an average distance of 1.95(1) {angstrom}.

  9. Demonstration of Mixed Waste Debris Macroencapsulation Using Sulfur Polymer Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattus, C.H.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers work performed during FY 1997 as part of the Evaluation of Sulfur Polymer Cement Fast-Track System Project. The project is in support of the ``Mercury Working Group/Mercury Treatment Demonstrations - Oak Ridge`` and is described in technical task plan (TTP) OR-16MW-61. Macroencapsulation is the treatment technology required for debris by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Based upon the results of previous work performed at Oak Ridge, the concept of using sulfur polymer cement (SPC) for this purpose was submitted to the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). Because of the promising properties of the material, the MWFA accepted this Quick Win project, which was to demonstrate the feasibility of macroencapsulation of actual mixed waste debris stored on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The waste acceptance criteria from Envirocare, Utah, were chosen as a standard for the determination of the final waste form produced. During this demonstration, it was shown that SPC was a good candidate for macroencapsulation of mixed waste debris, especially when the debris pieces were dry. The matrix was found to be quite easy to use and, once the optimum operating conditions were identified, very straightforward to replicate for batch treatment. The demonstration was able to render LDR compliant more than 400 kg of mixed wastes stored at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  10. A novel coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khang, S.J.; Lin, L.; Keener, T.C.; Yeh, P.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dual-screw feeder was designed for desulfurization of coal. This reactor contains two screw tubes, the inner tube acting as a coal pyrolizer and the outer tube acting as a desulfurizer with hot calcined lime pellets or other renewable sorbent pellets. The objectives of this project is to study the feasibility of an advanced concept of desulfurization and possibly some denitrification in this coal feeder. In this year, two basic studies have been performed: (1) the desulfurization and (2) the denitrification due to mild pyrolysis. Specifically, the following tasks have been performed: (1) Setting up the Dual-Screw reactor, (2) Determination of the pyrolysis product and the sulfur distribution in char, tar and gas based on experimental data, (3) Study of the devolatilization, the desulfurization kinetics and the denitrification kinetics and obtaining the basic kinetic parameters, (4) Study of the sulfur removal efficiency of lime pellets fed into the outer tube of the dual-feeder reactor, (5) Study of the effect of the coal particle size on pyrolysis and desulfurization, (6) Study of the coal pyrolysis and desulfurization using a TGA(Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer).

  11. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP Unit 3, and the second was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant test provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. A final task in the project was to compare projected costs for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries to estimated costs for other potential sulfuric acid control technologies. Estimates were developed for reagent and utility costs, and capital costs, for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries and seven other sulfuric acid control technologies. The estimates were based on retrofit application to a model coal-fired plant.

  12. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ZOOPLANKTON DISPLACEMENT VOLUME, WET WEIGHT, DRY WEIGHT, AND CARBONI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the regression line for log transformed values for carbon vs. dry weight and wet weight vs. displacement volumeRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ZOOPLANKTON DISPLACEMENT VOLUME, WET WEIGHT, DRY WEIGHT, AND CARBONI PETER H are identical. We have employed this type of analysis in determinations on samples from diverse sea areas

  13. Assessing historical global sulfur emission patterns for the period 1850--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lefohn, A.S. [A.S.L. and Associates, Helena, MT (United States); Husar, J.D.; Husar, R.B. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Center for Air Pollution Impact and Trend Analysis; Brimblecombe, P. [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)

    1996-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions from energy-producing and metal production activities have become an important factor in better understanding the relationship between humans and the environment. Concerns about (1) acid rain effects on the environment and (2) anthropogenic aerosols affecting possible global change have prompted interest in the transformation and fate of sulfur in the environment. One step in assessing the importance of sulfur emissions is the development of a reliable regional emission inventory of sulfur as a function of time. The objective of this research effort was to create a homogeneous database for historical sulfur emission estimates for the world. The time from 1850--1990 was selected to include the period of industrialization form the time the main production of fuels and minerals began until the most recent year for which complete production data exist. This research effort attempts to correct some of the deficiencies associated with previous global sulfur emission estimates by (1) identifying those production activities that resulted in sulfur emissions by country and (2) calculating historical emission trends by country across years. An important component of this study was the comparison of the sulfur emission results with those of previous studies.

  14. In Operando X-ray Diffraction and Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    In Operando X-ray Diffraction and Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Lithium Sulfur Batteries Johanna Information ABSTRACT: Rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries hold great potential for high of these batteries for commercial use. The two primary obstacles are the solubility of long chain lithium

  15. The sulfur content of volcanic gases on Mars Fabrice Gaillard, a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    principles, we model here the likely sulfur contents of (1) the martian and terrestrial mantles and (2 a denser atmosphere are shown to be dominated by CO ± CO2 and H2 ± H2O species, depending on fO2, sulfur by H2S, which should have favored the acidification of any persistent water layer. The calculated

  16. Evidence for a Plasma Core during Multibubble Sonoluminescence in Sulfuric Acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    .g., SOx, trace amounts of H2S, and elemental sulfur)7 are either highly soluble or solids. Prior MBSL to be problematic. These volatile products can have limited solubility in the liquid and therefore accumulate for the generation of higher temperatures during cavitation. Sulfuric acid is one such liquid because it has a very

  17. Density functional and Monte Carlo studies of sulfur. II. Equilibrium polymerization of the liquid phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Density functional and Monte Carlo studies of sulfur. II. Equilibrium polymerization of the liquid 7 July 2003; accepted 28 July 2003 The equilibrium polymerization of sulfur is investigated by Monte), within which polymerization occurs readily, with entropy from the bond distribution overcompensating

  18. Molecular and atomic emission during single-bubble cavitation in concentrated sulfuric acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    Molecular and atomic emission during single- bubble cavitation in concentrated sulfuric acid David during cavitation. Single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) from sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is much brighter than occurring during single- bubble cavitation. In fact, SBSL spectra from organic liquids8,9 have been

  19. STERN 978-0-12-370875-5 00005 Sulfur: From Acquisition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    159 STERN 978-0-12-370875-5 00005 Sulfur: From Acquisition to Assimilation David Gonzalez 5 INTRODUCTION Sulfur (S) is an essential element present in proteins, lipids, and important productivity s0010s0010 p0010p0010 CHAPTER CONTENTS Introduction 159 I. SO4 2 Acquisition and assimilation 160

  20. Modeling of Water-rock interaction in the Mackenzie Basin: competition between sulfuric and carbonic acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sulfuric and carbonic acids E. Beaulieu, Y. Godd´eris, D. Labat, C. Roelandt, D. Calmels, J. Gail- lardet of the resulting proof before it is published in its final form. Please note that during the production process in the Mackenzie Basin: competition between sulfuric and carbonic acids. E. Beaulieu1 , Y. Goddéris1 , D. Labat1

  1. The impact of dilute sulfuric acid on the selectivity of xylooligomer depolymerization to monomers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    The impact of dilute sulfuric acid on the selectivity of xylooligomer depolymerization to monomers of polymerization (DP) ranging from 2 to 5 was followed at 160 °C with sulfuric acid added to adjust the pH from acid is low in cost itself, the over- all process is still quite expensive due to the combined costs

  2. Fractionation of sulfur isotopes by Desulfovibrio vulgaris mutants lacking hydrogenases or type I tetraheme cytochrome c[subscript 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sim, Min Sub

    The sulfur isotope effect produced by sulfate reducing microbes is commonly used to trace biogeochemical cycles of sulfur and carbon in aquatic and sedimentary environments. To test the contribution of intracellular coupling ...

  3. Population, Economy and Energy Uses Influence on Sulfur Emissions in the United States Since 1900

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, J. K.; Husar, R. B.

    . The change in sulfur emissions is formulated as a function of changes in these trends. During this century, population growth and increasing economic activity have put upward pressure on sulfur emissions. The declining energy intensity of the economy...

  4. Nitrous oxide as a substitute for sulfur hexafluoride in the ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method of hood performance evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guffey, Eric J. (Eric Jemison)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method is the standard test for laboratory hood containment performance. Sulfur hexafluoride is specified as the gas most suitable for this test and is most commonly used. Sulfur hexafluoride use has ...

  5. Investigation of the sulfur and lithium to sulfur ratio threshold in stress corrosion cracking of sensitized alloy 600 in borated thiosulfate solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandy, R.; Kelly, K.

    1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The stress corrosion cracking of sensitized Alloy 600 was investigated in aerated solutions of sodium thiosulfate generally containing 1.3% boric acid. The aim of the investigation, among others, was to determine the existence, if any, of a threshold level of sulfur, and lithium to sulfur ratio governing the SCC. Specimens were first solution annealed at 1135/sup 0/C for 45 minutes, water quenched, and then sensitized at 621/sup 0/C for 18 hours. Reverse U-bends were tested at room temperature, whereas slow strain rate and constant load tests were performed at 80/sup 0/C. All tests were performed in solutions open to the atmosphere. The results indicate that in the borated thiosulfate solution containing 7 ppM sulfur, 5 ppM lithium as lithium hydroxide is sufficient to inhibit SCC in U-bends. The occurrence of inhibition seems to correlate to the rapid increase of pH and conductivity of the solution as a result of the lithium hydroxide addition. In the slow strain rate tests in the borated solution containing 0.7 ppM lithium as lithium hydroxide, significant stress corrosion cracking is observed at a sulfur level of 30 ppb, i.e., a lithium to sulfur ratio of 23. In a parallel test in 30 ppb sulfur level but without any lithium hydroxide, the stress corrosion cracking is more severe than that in the lithiated environment, thus implying that lithium hydroxide plays some role in the stress corrosion cracking inhibition.

  6. Petrography and chemistry of sized fly ash from low-sulfur and high-sulfur coal sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Trimble, A.S. [Franklin County High School, Frankfort, KY (United States); Eble, C.F. [Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States); Palmer, C. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash samples were collected in November and December, 1994, from two units representing high- and low-sulfur feed coals at a Kentucky power station. The ashes were wet screened at 100, 200, 325, and 500 mesh. The dried ({approximately}40 C) fractions were then weighed, split for petrographic and chemical analysis, mounted in epoxy and prepared as polished pellets, and analyzed for ash yield and carbon content. The November ashes had a similar size distribution in the +325 mesh fractions. The low-sulfur hot side and cool side ashes had a similar size distribution in the November ashes. In contrast, the December fly ashes showed the typical trend, the cool-side ash being finer (over 20% more ash in the {minus}500 mesh fraction) than the hot-side ash. Carbon tends to be relatively concentrated in the coarse fractions. The dominance of the {minus}325 mesh fractions in the overall size analysis implies, though, that carbon in the fine sizes is an important consideration in the utilization potential of the fly ash.

  7. Comparative analysis of polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles isolated from four shale oils. [Polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles; thiophenes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willey, C.; Pelroy, R.; Stewart, D.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the isolation of sulfur heterocycle fractions from four shale oils (Paraho, Geokinetics, Occidental, and Rio Blanco), the use of capillary column gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for the identification of individual mixture components, and a reverse (Ames) and forward mutation assay with Salmonella typhimurium to screen for possible health hazards. The major components of the Polycyclic Aromatic Sulfur Heterocycles (PASH) fractions for all four shale oils were found to be two- to three-ringed parent and alkylated thiophene compounds. In all cases the PASH fractions showed no more specific mutagenic response than the neutral PAC fractions from which they were isolated. The only mutagenic response which was detected in the PASH fractions was for the Rio Blanco shale oil and showed specific mutagenic response similar to the neutral PAC fraction from which it was isolated. Finally, the forward mutation 8-azaguanine test was apparently more sensitive than the Ames histidine reversion test in detecting mutagenic activity for the chemical fractions from the shale oils.

  8. Effect of Prussian blue on organic sulfur of coal in aqueous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is an attempt to desulfurize organic sulfur from coal samples with ferric hexacyanoferrate (II), Fe{sub 4} (Fe(CN){sub 6}), as the desulfurization agent. Effect of temperature, particle size and concentration of ferrocyanide ion on desulfurization from the coal samples has been investigated. The temperature and stirring time are the most important parameters for the level of desulfurization of organic sulfur. Removal of organic sulfur content increased continuously with increasing temperature from 298 to 368 K. The organic sulfur removal rate sharply increases from 10 min to 30 min stirring time. After 30 min, it reaches a value of plateau. Particle size between -100 mesh and -200 mesh slightly affects the amount of organic sulfur removal. Gradual increase in the concentration of ferric hexacyanoferrate (II) raised the magnitude of desulfurization, but at higher concentration, the variation is not significant.

  9. Sampling, preservation, and analytical methods research plan - liquid redox sulfur recovery technologies: Stretford process. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trofe, T.W.

    1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GRI has developed a sampling, preservation, and analytical (SPandA) methods research plan for developing and validating analytical methodologies for liquid redox sulfur recovery processes (e.g., Stretford process). The document describes the technical approach which will be used to direct research activities to develop SPandA methodologies to analyze gaseous, aqueous, and solid process streams from the Stretford sulfur recovery process. The primary emphasis is on developing and validating methodologies for analyzing vanadium (IV) and vanadium (V), anthraquinone disulphonic acids (ADA), polysulfide-sulfur, sulfide-sulfur, thiosulfate, sulfate, thiocyanate, total soluble sulfur, alkalinity, pH, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, and dissolved oxygen in aqueous process streams. The document includes descriptions of the process streams and chemical species, selection of candidate analytical methods, and technical approach for methods development and validation.

  10. WASTE DESCRIPTION TYPE OF PROJECT POUNDS REDUCED,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DESCRIPTION DETAILS * Radioactive Waste Source Reduction 1,500 Radioactive Waste $6,000 $2,500 $6,000 Waste Yard Sorting Table surveying to sort clean waste from radioactive waste Radioactive Emissions Emission lives. Radioactive Waste generated through wet chemistry Waste Minimization 30 Mixed waste / Liquid

  11. WASTE DESCRIPTION TYPE OF PROJECT POUNDS REDUCED,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /spills and subsequent clean up costs ($20,000) Sewage Sludge Volume Reduction 234,000 Radioactive Waste $910,000 $193,400 $716,600 60,000 gallons of radioactive STP liquid waste could have been disposed of through,000) Digital Imaging System Substitution 282 Hazardous Waste / Radioactive Waste / Industrial Waste $25,000 $25

  12. WASTE DESCRIPTION TYPE OF PROJECT POUNDS REDUCED,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sheds for reuse in Plant Engineering. Relocation cost $550, but avoided the purchase of new sheds or composted at the stump dump. Plant Engineering grounds vehicle wash system * Waste minimization 8,000 Oils POTENTIAL COSTS FOR TREATMENT & DISPOSAL COST OF RECYCLE, PREVENTION ESTIMATED COST SAVINGS PROJECT

  13. Queer as 3 Three Pound Notes #3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasgow, M.F.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . ?That depends, sir.? ?Aye, I suppose it would.? No-one who knew him trusted Cowley when he was smoothly plummy and so terribly mild. ?And what is it that it depends on?? ?3 STEP WE GAILY ?3 ?3 ?3 13?AS THREE ?3 NOTES by M. FAE GLASGOW Pointedly...?3 S ?AS THREE O T ENby M. FAE GLASGOW Issue Number Three in the BENT COPPERS Series ?3 S ?AS THREE O T ENby M. FAE GLASGOW Issue Number Three in the BENT COPPERS Series A Slash Zine of The Professionals OBLIQUE PUBLICATIONS P.O. BOX...

  14. WASTE DESCRIPTION TYPE OF PROJECT POUNDS REDUCED,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the manufacturer . Replaced with energy efficient light emitting diode (LED) signs. Project reduced risk of tritium

  15. Queer As a Three Pound Note #1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiple Contributors

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of homosexuality by those after money or power or secret informa- tion.? He sat at his desk, sloughing jacket and loosening tie, slapping a new file on the desk top in front of himself, his voice never once paus- ing, but becoming sonorous, a minister deliver...

  16. Queer as 2 Three Pound Notes #2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiple Contributors

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3 TWO ?3 NOTES ?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3 ?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3 Issue Number Two in the BENT COPPERS Series ?3?3?3...?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3 ?AS ?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3 ?3?3?3 ?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?3?AS TWO ?3 NOTES?3?3?3...

  17. Nanotechnology Alert. Nanofountain for Treatment of Cancer; Nanocomposites To Improve Computers' Life Span; Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Nanocarbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    ' Life Span; Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Nanocarbon Electrodes This issue profiles a nanofountain, and lithium sulfur batteries that use nanocarbon electrodes. Deliverable Type: Technical Insights Date OF CANCER 3. NANOCOMPOSITES TO IMPROVE COMPUTERS LIFE SPAN 4. LITHIUM SULFUR BATTERIES USING NANOCARBON

  18. atomic weights table: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    stability, atomic weights and molecular weights V. Paar, Bijeniccka 32, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia Accepted 15 January 2002 Abstract A power law is introduced weights. The power law...

  19. atomic weights tables: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    stability, atomic weights and molecular weights V. Paar, Bijeniccka 32, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia Accepted 15 January 2002 Abstract A power law is introduced weights. The power law...

  20. Computational procedures for weighted projective spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rossi, Michele

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a pdf print of the homonymous Maple file, freely available at http://www.maplesoft.com/applications/view.aspx?SID=127621, providing procedures which are able to produce the toric data associated with a (polarized) weighted projective space i.e. fans, polytopes and their equivalences. More originally it provides procedures which are able to detect a weights vector Q starting from either a fan or a polytope: we will call this process the recognition of a (polarized) weighted projective space. Moreover it gives procedures connecting polytopes of a polarized weighted projective space with an associated fan and viceversa.

  1. A Lithium Superionic Sulfide Cathode for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Zengcai [ORNL] [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work presents a facile synthesis approach for core-shell structured Li2S nanoparticles, which have Li2S as the core and Li3PS4 as the shell. This material functions as lithium superionic sulfide (LSS) cathode for long-lasting, energy-efficient lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The LSS has an ionic conductivity of 10-7 S cm-1 at 25 oC, which is 6 orders of magnitude higher than that of bulk Li2S (~10-13 S cm-1). The high lithium-ion conductivity of LSS imparts an excellent cycling performance to all-solid Li-S batteries, which also promises safe cycling of high-energy batteries with metallic lithium anodes.

  2. ALTERNATIVE FLOWSHEETS FOR THE SULFUR-IODINE THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN CYCLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BROWN,LC; LENTSCH,RD; BESENBRUCH,GE; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JE

    2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OAK-B135 A hydrogen economy will need significant new sources of hydrogen. Unless large-scale carbon sequestration can be economically implemented, use of hydrogen reduces greenhouse gases only if the hydrogen is produced with non-fossil energy sources. Nuclear energy is one of the limited options available. One of the promising approaches to produce large quantities of hydrogen from nuclear energy efficiently is the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) thermochemical water-splitting cycle, driven by high temperature heat from a helium Gas-Cooled Reactor. They have completed a study of nuclear-driven thermochemical water-splitting processes. The final task of this study was the development of a flowsheet for a prototype S-I production plant. An important element of this effort was the evaluation of alternative flowsheets and selection of the reference design.

  3. Sulfur-Iodine Integrated Lab Scale Experiment Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russ, Ben

    2011-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The sulfur-iodine (SI) cycle was deermined to be the best cycle for coupling to a high temperature reactor (HTR) because of its high efficiency and potential for further improvement. The Japanese Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has also selected the SI process for further development and has successfully completed bench-scale demonstrations of the SI process at atmospheric pressure. JEA also plans to proceed with pilot-scale demonstrations of the SI process and eventually plans to couple an SI demonstration plant to its High Temperature Test Reactor (HHTR). As part of an international NERI project, GA, SNL, and the Frech Commissariat L'Energie Atomique performed laboratory-scale demonstrations of the SI process at prototypical temperatures and pressures. This demonstration was performed at GA in San Diego, CA and concluded in April 2009.

  4. Study of alkali- and sulfur-enhanced corrosion of advanced energy systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stinespring, C.; Annen, K.; Stewart, G.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The initial stage of MHD anode corrosion process appears to be dominated by out-diffusion of metallic species into the powder deposit. In addition, K and S appear to diffuse into the native oxide and underlying metal substrate. The out-diffusion process clearly leads to a loss of metal species from either the native oxide or metal substrate, while in-diffusion leads to the formation of sulfides and possibly to the accumulation of K containing compounds which may ultimately flux the protective oxide scale. The results for MHD anodes may be compared with those from previous studies of alkali-sulfur enhanced corrosion of turbine alloys. Although the specific details of these studies differ, both agree that rapid or catastrophic corrosion is preceded by a variable length induction period. During this period, relatively small changes in weight are observed. However, the protective metal oxide scale is breached which establishes the condition for rapid direct attack by condensed corrosive deposits. Thus, the mechanisms and kinetics of processes associated with the induction period are of great interest in understanding the survivability of various alloys. In the corrosion modeling effort, it was found that a simple model which considered only the diffusion-limited corrosion of iron did not correctly predict the iron corrosion product species for iron-based alloys. This lack of agreement was due to the absence of the treatment of other metal constituents in the alloy which form corrosion products. A more detailed model which includes equilibrium and diffusion relations for all metal species is required for accurate modeling of the corrosion product composition. 14 refs.

  5. Ultra-low Sulfur Reduction Emission Control Device/Development of an On-board Fuel Sulfur Trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohrbach, Ron; Barron, Ann

    2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Honeywell has completed working on a multiyear program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an 'on-vehicle' desulfurization fuel filter for both light duty and heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NOx adsorbers. The NOx adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and '2007-Rule' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters was also examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. In the second phase of the program a light duty diesel engine test was also demonstrated. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consisted of four phases. Phase I focused on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II concentrated on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III studied life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV focused on efficacy and benefits in the desulfation steps of a NOx adsorber on both a heavy and light duty engine. The project team included a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Navistar Inc. (formerly International Truck & Engine Corporation) and Mack Trucks Inc.), and filter recycler (American Wastes Industries).

  6. Tribological behavior of near-frictionless carbon coatings in high- and low-sulfur diesel fuels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alzoubi, M. F.; Ajayi, O. O.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Ozturk, O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G.

    2000-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The sulfur content in diesel fuel has a significant effect on diesel engine emissions, which are currently subject to environmental regulations. It has been observed that engine particulate and gaseous emissions are directly proportional to fuel sulfur content. With the introduction of low-sulfur fuels, significant reductions in emissions are expected. The process of sulfur reduction in petroleum-based diesel fuels also reduces the lubricity of the fuel, resulting in premature failure of fuel injectors. Thus, another means of preventing injector failures is needed for engines operating with low-sulfur diesel fuels. In this study, the authors evaluated a near-frictionless carbon (NFC) coating (developed at Argonne National Laboratory) as a possible solution to the problems associated with fuel injector failures in low-lubricity fuels. Tribological tests were conducted with NFC-coated and uncoated H13 and 52100 steels lubricated with high- and low- sulfur diesel fuels in a high-frequency reciprocating test machine. The test results showed that the NFC coatings reduced wear rates by a factor of 10 over those of uncoated steel surfaces. In low-sulfur diesel fuel, the reduction in wear rate was even greater (i.e., by a factor of 12 compared to that of uncoated test pairs), indicating that the NFC coating holds promise as a potential solution to wear problems associated with the use of low-lubricity diesel fuels.

  7. Geologic controls on sulfur content of the Blue Gem coal seam, southeastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rimmer, S.M.; Moore, T.A.; Esterle, J.S.; Hower, J.C.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed petrographic and lithologic data on the Blue Gem coal seam for a local area in Knox County, Kentucky, suggest that a relationship may exist between overlying roof lithology, petrographic composition of the coal, and sulfur content. In the western part of the area, where thick (20-40 feet) shale sequences overlie the coal, sulfur contents are low (less than 1%). In isolated areas where discontinuous sandstones occur within 6 feet of the coal, sulfur contents range from 1% to over 3%. In the east, a sandstone body usually overlies and frequently scours out the coal, yet sulfur content varies independently of roof lithology. Towards the east, there is an increase in abundance, thickness and variability of fusain bands within the coal and an increase in pyrite and siderite either as cell fillings in fusinite or as masses within vitrinite; early emplacement of these minerals is indicated by compaction features. Data suggest the importance of depositional environment of the peat and overlying sediments as a control on sulfur occurrence. High sulfur contents in the west are related to sandstone bodies which may have allowed sulfate-bearing waters to permeate into the peat. In the east, where increases in pyrite, siderite and fusain content of the coal and coarsening of the overlying sediments suggest a change in environment, the presence or absence of pyrite-containing fusain bands may account for sulfur variability. Siderite occurrence may reflect local fluctuations in sulfate supply to the peat swamp.

  8. NONEQUILIBRIUM SULFUR CAPTURE & RETENTION IN AN AIR COOLED SLAGGING COAL COMBUSTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bert Zauderer

    2003-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Calcium oxide injected in a slagging combustor reacts with the sulfur from coal combustion to form sulfur-bearing particles. The reacted particles impact and melt in the liquid slag layer on the combustor wall by the centrifugal force of the swirling combustion gases. Due to the low solubility of sulfur in slag, it must be rapidly drained from the combustor to limit sulfur gas re-evolution. Prior analyses and laboratory scale data indicated that for Coal Tech's 20 MMBtu/hour, air-cooled, slagging coal combustor slag mass flow rates in excess of 400 lb/hr should limit sulfur re-evolution. The objective of this 42-month project was to validate this sulfur-in-slag model in a group of combustor tests. A total of 36 days of testing on the combustor were completed during the period of performance of this project. This was more that double the 16 test days that were required in the original work statement. The extra tests were made possible by cost saving innovations that were made in the operation of the combustor test facility and in additional investment of Coal Tech resources in the test effort. The original project plan called for two groups of tests. The first group of tests involved the injection of calcium sulfate particles in the form of gypsum or plaster of Paris with the coal into the 20 MMBtu/hour-combustor. The second group of tests consisted of the entire two-step process, in which lime or limestone is co-injected with coal and reacts with the sulfur gas released during combustion to form calcium sulfate particles that impact and dissolve in the slag layer. Since this sulfur capture process has been validated in numerous prior tests in this combustor, the primary effort in the present project was on achieving the high slag flow rates needed to retain the sulfur in the slag.

  9. Chapter 11Chapter 11 Estimating the Weighted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schubart, Christoph

    Chapter 11Chapter 11 Estimating the Weighted Average Cost of Capital DES Chapter 11 1 #12;U i th C.xls for shortfor short. DES Chapter 11 2 #12;S i l i hSteps to estimate value using the Corporate Valuation stockholders DES Chapter 11 7 #12;Estimating Target Weights Page 223: To calculate WACC, we need to estimate

  10. Method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tischer, R.P.; Winterbottom, W.L.; Wroblowa, H.S.

    1987-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This specification is directed to a method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery. The current collector so-made is electronically conductive and resistant to corrosive attack by sulfur/polysulfide melts. The method includes the step of forming the current collector for the sodium/sulfur battery from a composite material formed of aluminum filled with electronically conductive fibers selected from the group of fibers consisting essentially of graphite fibers having a diameter up to 10 microns and silicon carbide fibers having a diameter in a range of 500--1,000 angstroms. 2 figs.

  11. Method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tischer, Ragnar P. (Birmingham, MI); Winterbottom, Walter L. (Farmington Hills, MI); Wroblowa, Halina S. (West Bloomfield, MI)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This specification is directed to a method of making a current collector (14) for a sodium/sulfur battery (10). The current collector so-made is electronically conductive and resistant to corrosive attack by sulfur/polysulfide melts. The method includes the step of forming the current collector for the sodium/sulfur battery from a composite material (16) formed of aluminum filled with electronically conductive fibers selected from the group of fibers consisting essentially of graphite fibers having a diameter up to 10 microns and silicon carbide fibers having a diameter in a range of 500-1000 angstroms.

  12. World copper smelter sulfur balance, 1988. (Information circular, 1993). Information circular/1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Towle, S.W.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1989, the US Bureau of Mines initiated a contract to gather engineering, operating, and environmental cost data for 1988 for 30 major foreign primary copper smelters in market economy countries. Data were collected for 29 of the designated smelters together with information on applicable environmental regulations. Materials balance data obtained were used with available data for the eight US smelters to determine the approximate extent of copper smelter sulfur emission control in 1988. A broad characterization of the status of sulfur emission control regulation was made. Significant changes since 1988 that may increase sulfur emission control are noted.

  13. Update on Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On November 8, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator signed a direct final rule that will shift the retail compliance date for offering ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for highway use from September 1, 2006, to October 15, 2006. The change will allow more time for retail outlets and terminals to comply with the new 15 parts per million (ppm) sulfur standard, providing time for entities in the diesel fuel distribution system to flush higher sulfur fuel out of the system during the transition. Terminals will have until September 1, 2006, to complete their transitions to ULSD. The previous deadline was July 15, 2006.

  14. Influence of fuel sulfur on the selective reduction of NO by NH/sub 3/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, D.; Brown, N.J.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The selective reduction of NO by NH/sub 3/ addition has been studied in a lean-burning oil fired laboratory combustion tunnel with pyridine and thiophene added to the fuel oil. Two distinct, but interrelated effects were observed. The conversion of a fixed amount of fuel nitrogen to NO in the flame increased as the fuel sulfur concentration increased. In the post-combustion gases, there was a shift in the temperature dependence of the reduction process when the sulfur combustion products were present. The extent of the NO reduction was not significantly altered, but the optimum temperature for reduction shifted to higher values as the sulfur concentration increased.

  15. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL); Jalan, Vinod M. (Concord, MA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  16. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur-containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1982-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorbtion capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  17. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1984-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  18. Power laws and fractal behavior in nuclear stability, atomic weights and molecular weights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavin, Nenad

    Power laws and fractal behavior in nuclear stability, atomic weights and molecular weights V. Paar and molecular weights. In Section 2 we introduce the power law for the description of the line of nuclear, Bijeniccka 32, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia Accepted 15 January 2002 Abstract A power law is introduced

  19. Using Brain Weight to Predict Gestation in Mammals Bivariate Fit of Gestation By Brain Weight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carriquiry, Alicia

    1 Using Brain Weight to Predict Gestation in Mammals Bivariate Fit of Gestation By Brain Weight 0 100 200 300 400 500 Gestation 0 500 1000 1500 BrainWgt Linear Fit (All 50 mammals) Predicted Gestation = 85.248543 + 0.299867 Brain Weight Summary of Fit RSquare 0.372483 RSquare Adj 0.35941 Root Mean

  20. Arsenic biomineralization: The role of the sulfur cycle in preventing arsenic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, Noah

    contamination Lucia Rodriguez-Freire Dr. James A Field and Dr. Reyes Sierra-Alvarez Chemical and Environmental of sulfur cycle in preventing arsenic groundwater contamination Lucia Rodriguez-Freire 1 1. Introduction

  1. Sulfur-rich carbon cryogels for supercapacitors with improved conductivity and wettability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    Sulfur-rich carbon cryogels for supercapacitors with improved conductivity and wettability Yao Zhou electrolytes. 1 Introduction Supercapacitors have been extensively investigated for decades due as backup energy devices to batteries due to their higher power density. Generally, supercapacitors can

  2. Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Data Report No. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

    1999-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim data report summarizes results as of August, 1999, on the status of the test programs being conducted on three technologies: lean-NO{sub x} catalysts, diesel particulate filters and diesel oxidation catalysts.

  3. Cost-benefit analysis of ultra-low sulfur jet fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhn, Stephen (Stephen Richard)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth of aviation has spurred increased study of its environmental impacts and the possible mitigation thereof. One emissions reduction option is the introduction of an Ultra Low Sulfur (ULS) jet fuel standard for ...

  4. Table 17. U.S. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content and...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    EIA-782B, "Resellers'Retailers' Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Report." 17. U.S. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content and Sales Type Energy Information Administration ...

  5. ON-LINE OPTIMIZATION, ENERGY ANALYSIS AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF SULFURIC ACID CATALYZED ALKYLATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pike, Ralph W.

    pool, increased amounts of gasoline per volume of crude oil and high heats of combustion. The overall in sulfuric acid consumption potentially could be obtained. 1. Introduction Alkylation process is one

  6. The variability of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatterjee, A.

    High-frequency atmospheric measurements of methane (CH[subscript 4]), nitrous oxide (N[subscript 2]O) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF[subscript 6]) from Darjeeling, India are presented from December 2011 (CH[subscript 4])/March ...

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced sulfur control Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    No.7, July 1997 The Electrochemical Society, Inc. 2323 19. D. Davies, U. Evans, and J. Agar Proc. Roy. Soc., 225, Summary: solution of sulfuric acid was used as the electrolyte....

  8. Sulfur by-product formation in the Stretford process. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trofe, T.W.; DeBerry, D.W.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid redox sulfur recovery processes remove H2S from sour gas streams and produce elemental sulfur for sale or disposal. The Stretford Process is one of the oldest commercial liquid redox processes and it is based on a vanadium and anthraquinone redox system. Improvements in the operability and reliability of the Stretford process would be beneficial to the process user. The report presents results of research focused on developing an understanding of the process parameters and factors that impact sulfur by-product formation (e.g., sodium thiosulfate and sodium sulfate) in the Stretford process. The information in the report can help current Stretford plant process users better understand the operations of their plants, especially with regards to sulfur by-product formation and control strategies.

  9. Effect of Sulfur and Hydrocarbon Fuels on Titanate/Ceria SOFC Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, O.A.; Pedersen, L.R.; Stevenson, J.W.

    2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the project is to develop low-cost, high-performance anodes that offer low polarization resistance as well as improved tolerance for nonidealities in anode environment such as redox cycles, sulfur and other poisons, and hydrocarbons.

  10. Excellent Sulfur Resistance of Pt/BaO/CeO2 Lean NOx Trap Catalysts...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NOx Trap Catalysts. Excellent Sulfur Resistance of PtBaOCeO2 Lean NOx Trap Catalysts. Abstract: In this work, we investigated the NOx storage behavior of Pt-BaOCeO2 catalysts,...

  11. Soft x-ray emission spectroscopy studies of the electronic structure of silicon supersaturated with sulfur

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Joseph Timothy

    We apply soft x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) to measure the electronic structure of crystalline silicon supersaturated with sulfur (up to 0.7 at. %), a candidate intermediate-band solar cell material. Si L[subscript ...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic sulfur compounds Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    distribution in the oil fractions obtained by thermal cracking of Jordanian El-Lajjun oil Shale Summary: . It has been also shown that most of the sulfur compounds in oil shale are...

  13. Effective hydrogen generation and resource circulation based on sulfur cycle system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Hideyuki; Mabuchi, Takashi; Hayashi, Tsugumi; Yokoyama, Shun; Tohji, Kazuyuki [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University 6-6-20, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan)

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    For the effective hydrogen generation from H{sub 2}S, it should be compatible that the increscent of the photocatalytic (or electrochemical) activities and the development of effective utilization method of by-products (poly sulfide ion). In this study, system integration to construct the sulfur cycle system, which is compatible with the increscent of the hydrogen and or electron energy generation ratio and resource circulation, is investigated. Photocatalytic hydrogen generation rate can be enhanced by using stratified photocatalysts. Photo excited electron can be transpired to electrode to convert the electron energy to hydrogen energy. Poly sulfide ion as the by-products can be transferred into elemental sulfur and/or industrial materials such as rubber. Moreover, elemental sulfur can be transferred into H{sub 2}S which is the original materials for hydrogen generation. By using this system integration, the sulfur cycle system for the new energy generation can be constructed.

  14. The complete genome sequence of Staphylothermus marinus reveals differences in sulfur metabolism among heterotrophic Crenarchaeota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, iain J.; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Rodriguez, Jason; Hooper, Sean; Porat, Iris; Ulrich, Luke E.; Elkins, James G.; Mavromatis, Kostas; Sun, Hui; Land, Miriam; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Barry, Kerrie; Huber, Harald; Zhulin, Igor B.; Whitman, William B.; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2008-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Staphylothermus marinus is an anaerobic, sulfur-reducing peptide fermenter of the archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota. It is the third heterotrophic, obligate sulfur reducing crenarchaeote to be sequenced and provides an opportunity for comparative analysis of the three genomes. The 1.57 Mbp genome of the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeote Staphylothermus marinus has been completely sequenced. The main energy generating pathways likely involve 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductases and ADP-forming acetyl-CoA synthases. S. marinus possesses several enzymes not present in other crenarchaeotes including a sodium ion-translocating decarboxylase likely to be involved in amino acid degradation. S. marinus lacks sulfur-reducing enzymes present in the other two sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes that have been sequenced - Thermofilum pendens and Hyperthermus butylicus. Instead it has three operons similar to the mbh and mbx operons of Pyrococcus furiosus, which may play a role in sulfur reduction and/or hydrogen production. The two marine organisms, S. marinus and H. butylicus, possess more sodium-dependent transporters than T. pendens and use symporters for potassium uptake while T. pendens uses an ATP-dependent potassium transporter. T. pendens has adapted to a nutrient-rich environment while H. butylicus is adapted to a nutrient-poor environment, and S. marinus lies between these two extremes. The three heterotrophic sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes have adapted to their habitats, terrestrial vs. marine, via their transporter content, and they have also adapted to environments with differing levels of nutrients. Despite the fact that they all use sulfur as an electron acceptor, they are likely to have different pathways for sulfur reduction.

  15. Sulfur resistance of Group VIII transition metal promoted nickel catalysts for synthesis gas methanation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamlin, Kellee Hall

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    SULFUR RESISTANCE OF GROUP VIII TRANSITION METAL PROMOTED NICKEL CATALYSTS FOR SYNTHESIS GAS METHANATION A Thesis by KELLEE HALL HAMLIN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AgrM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement...: Aydin Akger n (Chairman of Co 'ttee) Ahme M. Gadalla (Member) Michael . Rosynek (Member) aries D. Holland . ( ead of Department) May 1986 ABSTRACT Sulfur Resistance of Group VIII Transition Metal Promoted Nickel Catalysts For Synthesis Gas...

  16. A Mathematical Model for a LithiumSulfur Cell Karthikeyan Kumaresan,a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S8 l is reduced to S2- in steps. For example, S8 l is reduced to S8 2- , then to S6 2- , S4 2- , S2,4 Figure 1 presents a typical experimental discharge profile at a C/50 rate C = 2.5 Ah . The lithium/sulfur Development The schematic of the lithium/sulfur cell modeled in this work is shown in Fig. 2. The cell is made

  17. New ZnO-Based Regenerable Sulfur Sorbents for Fluid-Bed/Transport Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slimane, R.B.; Lau, F.S.; Abbasian, J.; Ho, K.H.

    2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the ongoing sorbent development work at GTI is the advancement to the demonstration stage of a promising ZnO-TiO2 sulfur sorbent that has been developed under DCCA/ICCI and DOE/NETL sponsorship. This regenerable sorbent has been shown to possess an exceptional combination of excellent chemical reactivity, high effective capacity for sulfur absorption, high resistance to attrition, and regenerability at temperatures lower than required by typical zinc titanates.

  18. Development of Efficient Flowsheet and Transient Modeling for Nuclear Heat Coupled Sulfur Iodine Cyclefor Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shripad T. Revankar; Nicholas R. Brown; Cheikhou Kane; Seungmin Oh

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The realization of the hydrogen as an energy carrier for future power sources relies on a practical method of producing hydrogen in large scale with no emission of green house gases. Hydrogen is an energy carrier which can be produced by a thermochemical water splitting process. The Sulfur-Iodine (SI) process is an example of a water splitting method using iodine and sulfur as recycling agents.

  19. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

  20. Process for removing sulfur dioxide from flue gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, M.W. Jr.

    1989-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an improvement in a dry process for the removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gases by the addition thereto of hydrated lime containing sugar in a coal combustion unit, wherein the flue gases result from the combustion of a coal in a combustion chamber, and the flue gases are treated in an electrostatic precipitator prior to discharge to the atmosphere the improvement comprising: passing the flue gases, after the addition of the hydrated lime is of fine particles of a specific surface of 7 to 25 square meters per gram, through a conduit towards the electrostatic precipitator; and adding an aqueous media to the flue gases in the conduit in an amount to increase the water content of the flue gases and cool the same by evaporative cooling to a temperature no lower than 20{sup 0}F. about the dew point of the gas, so as to avoid forming water droplets in the gas, so as to prevent condensation of water therefrom.

  1. Longitudinal study of children exposed to sulfur oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodge, R.; Solomon, P.; Moyers, J.; Hayes, C.

    1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is a longitudinal comparison of the health of children exposed to markedly different concentrations of sulfur dioxide and moderately different concentrations of particulate sulfate. The four groups of subjects lived in two areas of one smelter town and in two other towns, one of which was also a smelter town. In the area of highest pollution, children were intermittently exposed to high SO/sub 2/ levels (peak three-hour average concentration exceeded 2,500 micrograms/m3) and moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= levels (average concentration was 10.1 micrograms/m3). When the children were grouped by the four gradients of pollution observed, the prevalence of cough (measured by questionnaire) correlated significantly with pollution levels (trend chi-square = 5.6, p = 0.02). No significant differences in the incidence of cough or other symptoms occurred among the groups of subjects over three years, and pulmonary function and lung function growth over the study were roughly equal among all the groups. These results suggest that intermittent elevations in SO/sub 2/ concentration, in the presence of moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= concentration, produced evidence of bronchial irritation in the subjects, but no chronic effect on lung function or lung function growth was detected.

  2. Sulfur dioxide-induced chronic bronchitis in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, S.A.; Wolff, R.K.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was done to produce a model of chronic bronchitis. Twelve beagle dogs were exposed to 500 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 2 h/d, 5d/wk for 21 wk and 4 dogs were sham-exposed to filtered ambient air for the same period. Exposure effects were evaluated by periodically examining the dogs using chest radiographs, pulmonary function, tracheal mucous clearance, and the cellular and soluble components of bronchopulmonary lavage fluids. Dogs were serially sacrificed after 13 and 21 wk of exposure and after 6 and 14 wk of recovery. Clinical signs produced in the SO/sub 2/-exposed dogs included mucoid nasal discharge, productive cough, moist rales on auscultation, tonsilitis, and conjunctivitis. Chest radiographs revealed mild peribronchiolar thickening. Histopathology, tracheal mucous clearance measurements, and lavage cytology were consistent with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. It is concluded that repeated exposure to 500 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 21 wk produced chronic bronchitis in the beagle dog. Complete recovery occurred within 5 wk following cessation of SO/sub 2/ exposure. 43 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Experimental and computational investigations of sulfur-resistant bimetallic catalysts for reforming of biomass gasification products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rangan, Meghana; Yung, Matthew M.; Medlin, J. William (NREL); (Colorado)

    2011-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A combination of density functional theory (DFT) calculations and experimental studies of supported catalysts was used to identify H{sub 2}S-resistant biomass gasification product reforming catalysts. DFT calculations were used to search for bimetallic, nickel-based (1 1 1) surfaces with lower sulfur adsorption energies and enhanced ethylene adsorption energies. These metrics were used as predictors for H{sub 2}S resistance and activity toward steam reforming of ethylene, respectively. Relative to Ni, DFT studies found that the Ni/Sn surface alloy exhibited enhanced sulfur resistance and the Ni/Ru system exhibited an improved ethylene binding energy with a small increase in sulfur binding energy. A series of supported bimetallic nickel catalysts was prepared and screened under model ethylene reforming conditions and simulated biomass tar reforming conditions. The observed experimental trends in activity were consistent with theoretical predictions, with observed reforming activities in the order Ni/Ru > Ni > Ni/Sn. Interestingly, Ni/Ru showed a high level of resistance to sulfur poisoning compared with Ni. This sulfur resistance can be partly explained by trends in sulfur versus ethylene binding energy at different types of sites across the bimetallic surface.

  4. Adsorption of sulfur dioxide from coal combustion gases on natural zeolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, better efficiency of SO{sub 2} removal in flue gas from lignite coal combustion by adding of NZ in the gas phase was achieved. Natural zeolite was exposed to flue gas containing sulfur dioxide at varying conditions of relative humidity and temperature. It was found that the amount of sulfate on the zeolite increased with increasing relative humidity and temperature. The percents of adsorbed sulfur dioxide were 86, 74, 56, and 35, while the values of relative humidity (RH) were 75, 60, 45, and 30% for 40 minutes, respectively. The percents of adsorbed sulfur dioxide sharply increased within the first 40 min for the values of RH were 75 and 60, and after 40 min, slightly increased, then reached a plateau. In general, as increasing the RH increased the amount of sulfur dioxide adsorbed by natural zeolite. The amounts of adsorbed sulfur dioxide increased with exposure time. It increased and reached 30.2 mg/g for 40 min. After 40 min, it slightly increased and then reached a plateau. The NZ adsorbs 35.1 mg SO{sub 2} per gram adsorbent with 75% RH at 298 K from a simulated coal combustion flue gas. The amounts of adsorbed sulfur dioxide increased with increasing temperature. The NZ adsorbs 71.5 mg SO{sub 2} per gram adsorbent with 75% RH for 100 min exposure time from the flue gas mixture.

  5. Highest weight Macdonald and Jack Polynomials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Th. Jolicoeur; J. G. Luque

    2011-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Fractional quantum Hall states of particles in the lowest Landau levels are described by multivariate polynomials. The incompressible liquid states when described on a sphere are fully invariant under the rotation group. Excited quasiparticle/quasihole states are member of multiplets under the rotation group and generically there is a nontrivial highest weight member of the multiplet from which all states can be constructed. Some of the trial states proposed in the literature belong to classical families of symmetric polynomials. In this paper we study Macdonald and Jack polynomials that are highest weight states. For Macdonald polynomials it is a (q,t)-deformation of the raising angular momentum operator that defines the highest weight condition. By specialization of the parameters we obtain a classification of the highest weight Jack polynomials. Our results are valid in the case of staircase and rectangular partition indexing the polynomials.

  6. QUANTITY SEX AGE WEIGHT WITH: VENDOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    QUANTITY SEX AGE WEIGHT NUMBER/ CAGE WITH: VENDOR: REFERENCE No: PO No: FACILITY: RECEIVED ON PLACED BY: DATE: SUGGESTED VENDOR: AUP No: USER's PHONE No: USER's NAME: USER's EMAIL: ANIMAL REQUEST

  7. Weight Perception Discrepancy Among Ethnically Diverse Youth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cromwell, Kate Duncan

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    not feel they are, may be at risk for negative health conditions. Social Comparison Theory may provide a tool for evaluating identified discrepancies. Given that minorities have higher obesity rates, it is hypothesized that weight perception discrepancy...

  8. Non-matrix corrected organic sulfur determination by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy for western Kentucky coals and residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, C.P.; Freeman, G.B.; Hower, J.C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for non-matrix corrected organic sulfur analysis by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy has been developed using petroleum coke standards. Typically, electron beam microanalysis is a rapid, nondestructive analytical technique to quantitatively measure organic sulfur in coal. The results show good correlation to ASTM values for numerous well characterized coals with a wide range in total and pyritic sulfur content. This direct analysis is capable of reducing error commonly associated with the present ASTM method which relies on an indirect measure of organic sulfur by difference. The precision of the organic sulfur values determined in the present study is comparable to that obtained by ZAF matrix corrected microanalysis. The energy dispersive microanalysis is capable of measuring micro as well as bulk organic sulfur levels.

  9. Isotope shift in the sulfur electron affinity: Observation and theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carette, Thomas; Scharf, Oliver; Godefroid, Michel [Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles - CP160/09, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Drag, Cyril; Blondel, Christophe; Delsart, Christian [Laboratoire Aime-Cotton, CNRS, Universite Paris-sud, F-91405 Orsay cedex (France); Froese Fischer, Charlotte [National Institute of Standards and Technology Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8420 (United States)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The sulfur electron affinities {sup e}A(S) are measured by photodetachment microscopy for the two isotopes {sup 32}S and {sup 34}S (16 752.975 3(41) and 16 752.977 6(85) cm{sup -1}, respectively). The isotope shift in the electron affinity is found to be more probably positive, {sup e}A({sup 34}S)- {sup e}A({sup 32}S) =+0.0023(70) cm{sup -1}, but the uncertainty allows for the possibility that it may be either ''normal''[{sup e}A({sup 34}S) > {sup e}A({sup 32}S)] or ''anomalous''[{sup e}A({sup 34}S) < {sup e}A({sup 32}S)]. The isotope shift is estimated theoretically using elaborate correlation models, monitoring the electron affinity and the mass polarization term expectation value. The theoretical analysis predicts a very large specific mass shift (SMS) that counterbalances the normal mass shift (NMS) and produces an anomalous isotope shift {sup e}A({sup 34}S)- {sup e}A({sup 32}S) =-0.0053(24) cm{sup -1}, field shift corrections included. The total isotope shift can always be written as the sum of the NMS (here +0.0169 cm{sup -1}) and a residual isotope shift (RIS). Since the NMS has nearly no uncertainty, the comparison between experimental and theoretical RIS is more fair. With respective values of -0.0146(70) cm{sup -1} and -0.0222(24) cm{sup -1}, these residual isotope shifts are found to agree within the estimated uncertainties.

  10. Biodesulfurization techniques: Application of selected microorganisms for organic sulfur removal from coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elmore, B.B.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As an alternative to post-combustion desulfurization of coal and pre-combustion desulfurization using physicochemical techniques, the microbial desulfurization of coal may be accomplished through the use of microbial cultures that, in an application of various microbial species, may remove both the pyritic and organic fractions of sulfur found in coal. Organisms have been isolated that readily depyritize coal but often at prohibitively low rates of desulfurization. Microbes have also been isolated that may potentially remove the organic-sulfur fraction present in coal (showing promise when acting on organic sulfur model compounds such as dibenzothiophene). The isolation and study of microorganisms demonstrating a potential for removing organic sulfur from coal has been undertaken in this project. Additionally, the organisms and mechanisms by which coal is microbially depyritized has been investigated. Three cultures were isolated that grew on dibenzothiophene (DBT), a model organic-sulfur compound, as the sole sulfur source. These cultures (UMX3, UMX9, and IGTS8) also grew on coal samples as the sole sulfur source. Numerous techniques for pretreating and ``cotreating`` coal for depyritization were also evaluated for the ability to improve the rate or extent of microbial depyritization. These include prewashing the coal with various solvents and adding surfactants to the culture broth. Using a bituminous coal containing 0.61% (w/w) pyrite washed with organic solvents at low slurry concentrations (2% w/v), the extent of depyritization was increased approximately 25% in two weeks as compared to controls. At slurry concentrations of 20% w/v, a tetrachloroethylene treatment of the coal followed by depyritization with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans increased both the rate and extent of depyritization by approximately 10%.

  11. The use of ethanol to remove sulfur from coal. Final report, September 1991--December 1992; Revision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savage, R.L.; Lazarov, L.K.; Prudich, M.E.; Lange, C.A.; Kumar, N.

    1994-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The initial technical goal in the project was to develop a chemical method for the cost effective removal of both inorganic and organic sulfur from Ohio coals. Verifying and using a process of reacting ethanol vapors with coal under conditions disclosed in U.S. Patent 4,888,029, the immediate technical objectives were to convert a small scale laborative batch process to a larger scale continuous process which can serve as the basis for commercial development of the technology. This involved getting as much information as possible from small scale batch autoclave or fluid bed laboratory reactors for use in pilot plant studies. The laboratory data included material balances on the coal and sulfur, temperature and pressure ranges for the reaction, minimum reaction times at different conditions, the effectiveness of different activators such as oxygen and nitric oxide, the amount and nature of by-products such as sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and acetaldehyde, the effect of coal particle size on the speed and completeness of the reaction, and the effectiveness of the reaction on different Ohio coals. Because the laboratory experiments using the method disclosed in U.S. 4,888,029 were not successful, the objective for the project was changed to develop a new laboratory process to use ethanol to remove sulfur from coal. Using copper as a catalyst and as an H{sub 2}S scavenger, a new laboratory procedure to use ethanol to remove sulfur from coal has been developed at Ohio University and a patent application covering this process was filed in March, 1993. The process is based on the use of copper as a catalyst for the dehydrogenation of ethanol to produce nascent hydrogen to remove sulfur from the coal and the use of copper as a scavenger to capture the hydrogen sulfide formed from the sulfur removed from coal.

  12. TUDE DE L'ABSORPTION ULTRAVIOLETTE DU SULFURE DE CARBONE Par Mlles ODETTE AMIOT et HENRIETTE MARSAC.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    dilué de plus en plus le sulfure de carbone dans un solvant inactif. Nous avons choisi l'hexane, liquide montage par autocollimation. 2. Purification du sulfure de carbone et prépa- ration des solutions. - On sait que le sulfure de car- bone est un liquide altérable et qu'il se décompose à la lumière avec

  13. Nitrous oxide as a substitute for sulfur hexafluoride in the ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method of hood performance evaluation .

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guffey, Eric J. (Eric Jemison)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method is the standard test for laboratory hood containment performance. Sulfur hexafluoride is specified as the gas most suitable for this test (more)

  14. Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative, Results of the Phase II Testing of Sulfur-Iodine Integrated Lab Scale Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin Russ; G. Naranjo; R. Moore; W. Sweet; M. Hele; N. Pons

    2009-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    International collaborative effort to construct a laboratory-scale Sulfur-Iodine process capable of producing 100-200 L/hr of hydrogen.

  15. National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    world-best-practice-energy- intensity-values-selected-World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for Selectedof the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in

  16. Geographic distribution of unexplained low birth weight

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason, C.J.; Samuhel, M.E.; Glick, B.J.; Welsh, A.K.

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low birth weight, largely in the form of intrauterine growth retardation, has been used in animal studies as a sensitive indicator of adverse reproductive outcomes to suspect toxic agents. Methodological problems have severely curtailed studies of low birth weight for human risk assessment. For white and black births, we explore the use of statistical techniques to adjust for maternal risk factors and to isolate US counties having a significantly elevated rate of unexplained low-birth-weight births in 1979. The data are derived from individual birth certificate information made available by the National Center for Health Statistics. Removing variation due to socioeconomic and other intrinsic factors available on birth certificates, clusters of high-risk counties appear. This paper discusses the methodology used to identify these counties.

  17. THE EFFECT OF ANOLYTE PRODUCT ACID CONCENTRATION ON HYBRID SULFUR CYCLE PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.

    2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) cycle (Fig. 1) is one of the simplest, all-fluids thermochemical cycles that has been devised for splitting water with a high-temperature nuclear or solar heat source. It was originally patented by Brecher and Wu in 1975 and extensively developed by Westinghouse in the late 1970s and early 1980s. As its name suggests, the only element used besides hydrogen and oxygen is sulfur, which is cycled between the +4 and +6 oxidation states. HyS comprises two steps. One is the thermochemical (>800 C) decomposition of sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), oxygen (O{sub 2}), and water. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} = SO{sub 2} + 1/2 O{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O. The other is the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis of water to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and hydrogen (H{sub 2}), SO{sub 2} + 2 H{sub 2}O = H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}, E{sup o} = -0.156 V, explaining the 'hybrid' designation. These two steps taken together split water into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} using heat and electricity. Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and at the University of South Carolina (USC) have successfully demonstrated the use of proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzers (Fig. 2) for the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis (sulfur oxidation) step, while Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) successfully demonstrated the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition (sulfur reduction) step using a bayonet-type reactor (Fig. 3). This latter work was performed as part of the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) cycle Integrated Laboratory Scale demonstration at General Atomics (GA). The combination of these two operations results in a simple process that will be more efficient and cost-effective for the massive production of hydrogen than alkaline electrolysis. Recent developments suggest that the use of PEMs other than Nafion will allow sulfuric acid to be produced at higher concentrations (>60 wt%), offering the possibility of net thermal efficiencies around 50% (HHV basis). The effect of operation at higher anolyte concentrations on the flowsheet, and on the net thermal efficiency for a nuclear-heated HyS process, is examined and quantified.

  18. Response Surfaces for Optimal Weight of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cracked Composite Panels; Melih Papila; Raphael T. Haftka

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two levels of fidelity are used for minimum weight design of a composite bladestiffened panel subject to crack propagation constraints. The low fidelity approach makes use of an equivalent strain constraint calculated by a closed form solution for the stress intensity factor. The high fidelity approach uses the stress intensity factor directly as the constraint and computes it from the stress distribution around the crack. A number of panels were optimized by both approaches for different values of applied load, crack length, and blade height, and response surface approximations for optimal weight as function of these configuration variables were constructed. Computational cost, noise and accuracy for the results are compared.

  19. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States)); Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States))

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This topical report on Sulfur Control'' presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT's electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

  20. MULTIMODE TREE CODING OF SPEECH WITH PERCEPTUAL PRE-WEIGHTING AND POST-WEIGHTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liebling, Michael

    Multimode Tree Coder, a simple mode classification method along with frame energy are used to classifyMULTIMODE TREE CODING OF SPEECH WITH PERCEPTUAL PRE-WEIGHTING AND POST-WEIGHTING Pravin Ramadas, Ying-Yi Li, and Jerry D. Gibson Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University

  1. Nutrition, Weight Control and Fast Food.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweeten, Mary K.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Page in Original Bulletin] Nutrition, Weight Control and Fast Food Mary K. Sweeten* The Fast Food Trend More people are eating fewer meals at home and more snack-type meals at fast food ' restaurants. Fast food sales in 1978 in the United States...

  2. Computational Study of Sulfurnickel Interactions: A New SNi Phase Diagram

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jeng-Han; Liu, Meilin

    2007-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Prediction of the interactions between H2S-contaminated hydrogen fuel and Ni surfaces under conditions similar to those for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operation using DFT (density function theory) calculations (with thermodynamic corrections) has resulted in a new SNi phase diagram, which suggests the existence of an intermediate state between clean Ni surfaces and nickel sulfides sulfur atoms adsorbed on Ni surfaces. This prediction is consistent with many experimental observations relevant to sulfur poisoning of Nibased anodes in SOFCs, which cannot be explained using the existing SNi bulk phase diagram from classical thermodynamics. The accurate prediction of the adsorption phase is vital to a fundamental understanding of the sulfur poisoning mechanism of Ni-based anodes under SOFC operating conditions.

  3. Desulfurization of organic sulfur from lignite by an electron transfer process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is an attempt to desulfurize organic sulfur from lignite samples with ferrocyanide ion as the electron transferring agent. Effect of temperature, particle size and concentration of ferrocyanide ion on desulfurization from the lignite samples has been investigated. The desulfurization process has been found to be continuous and gradually increases with increase of temperature from 298 to 368 K. The particle size has no significant impact on sulfur removal from the lignite samples. Particle size has no profound impact on the amount of sulfur removal. The desulfurization reaction has been found to be dependent on the concentration of potassium ferrocyanide. Gradual increase in the concentration of potassium ferrocyanide raised the magnitude of desulfurization, but at a higher concentration, the variation is not significant.

  4. Electrochemical separation and concentration of sulfur containing gases from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winnick, Jack (3805 Woodrail-on-the-Green, Columbia, MO 65201)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing sulfur oxides of H.sub.2 S from high temperature gas mixtures (150.degree.-1000.degree. C.) is the subject of the present invention. An electrochemical cell is employed. The cell is provided with inert electrodes and an electrolyte which will provide anions compatible with the sulfur containing anions formed at the anode. The electrolyte is also selected to provide inert stable cations at the temperatures encountered. The gas mixture is passed by the cathode where the sulfur gases are converted to SO.sub.4.sup.= or, in the case of H.sub.2 S, to S.sup.=. The anions migrate to the anode where they are converted to a stable gaseous form at much greater concentration levels (>10X). Current flow may be effected by utilizing an external source of electrical energy or by passing a reducing gas such as hydrogen past the anode.

  5. Sulfur dioxide emissions from primary nonferrous smelters in the Western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangeng, C.; Mead, R.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The greatest source of sulfur dioxide emissions in the West has been the pyrometallurgical processing of copper, lead, and zinc ores. Until the early 1970s, the emissions from most nonferrous metal smelters were released without control into the environment. However, recent Federal and State legislation has mandated the need for large reductions of emissions, a task that will require the introduction of highly efficient sulfur dioxide control technology. The particular processes at each smelter, the smelter location, the capital and operating costs including the cost of energy, the resolution of currently litigated issues, and the metal market prices will be major influences on the choice of technology and on the schedule for implementation of smelter control plans. These parameters are examined, and the problems and issues associated with them are described. The future impact of smelter sulfur dioxide emissions is discussed within the framework of the relevant economic, technologial, and legal issues.

  6. Development of Ni-based Sulfur Resistant Catalyst for Diesel Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunther Dieckmann

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In order for diesel fuel to be used in a solid oxide fuel cell auxiliary power unit, the diesel fuel must be reformed into hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. One of the major problems facing catalytic reforming is that the level of sulfur found in low sulfur diesel can poison most catalysts. This report shows that a proprietary low cost Ni-based reforming catalyst can be used to reform a 7 and 50 ppm sulfur containing diesel fuel for over 500 hours of operation. Coking, which appears to be route of catalyst deactivation due to metal stripping, can be controlled by catalyst modifications, introduction of turbulence, and/or by application of an electromagnetic field with a frequency from {approx}50 kHz to 13.56 MHz with field strength greater than about 100 V/cm and more preferably greater about 500 V/cm.

  7. Bimodal Distribution of Sulfuric Acid Aerosols in the Upper Haze of Venus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Peter; Crisp, David; Bardeen, Charles G; Yung, Yuk L

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The upper haze (UH) of Venus is variable on the order of days and it is populated by two particle modes. We use a 1D microphysics and vertical transport model based on the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres to evaluate whether interaction of upwelled cloud particles and sulfuric acid particles nucleated in situ on meteoric dust are able to generate the two size modes and whether their observed variability are due to cloud top vertical transient winds. Nucleation of photochemically produced sulfuric acid onto polysulfur condensation nuclei generates mode 1 cloud droplets that then diffuse upwards into the UH. Droplets generated in the UH from nucleation of sulfuric acid onto meteoric dust coagulate with the upwelled cloud particles and cannot reproduce the observed bimodal size distribution. The mass transport enabled by cloud top transient winds are able to generate a bimodal size distribution in a time scale consistent with observations. Sedimentation and convection in the middle and lower...

  8. The use of ethanol to remove sulfur from coal. Final report, September 1991--December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In developing the new Ohio University procedure the thermodynamic limitations of the reactions for removal of both pyritic and organic sulfur from coal at 400--600{degrees}C were studied using copper as a very strong H{sub 2}S-acceptor. Copper serves as a catalyst for ethanol dehydrogenation to form nascent hydrogen. Copper also serves as a scavenger to form copper sulfide from the hydrogen sulfide evolved during the reaction. Copper sulfide in turn serves as a catalyst for organic sulfur hydrodesulfurization reactions. If the coal to be desulfurized contains pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) or FeS, the copper scavenger effect reduces any back reaction of hydrogen sulfide with the iron and increases the removal of sulfur from the carbonaceous material. The desired effect of using copper can be achieved by using copper or copper containing alloys as materials of construction or as liners for a regenerable reactor. During the time period that Ohio Coal Development Office supported this work, small scale (560 grams) laboratory experiments with coals containing about 3.5% sulfur have achieved up to 90% desulfurization at temperatures of 500{degrees}C when using a copper reactor. Results from the autoclave experiments have identified the nature of the chemical reactions taking place. Because the process removes both pyritic and organic sulfur in coal, the successful scale up of the process would have important economic significance to the coal industry. Even though this and other chemical processes may be relatively expensive and far from being commercial, the reason for further development is that this process may hold the promise of achieving much greater sulfur reduction and of producing a cleaner coal than other methods. This would be especially important for small or older power plants and industrial boilers.

  9. Sulfur capture by oil shale ashes under atmospheric and pressurized FBC conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yrjas, K.P.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kuelaots, I.; Ots, A. [Tallinn Technical Univ. (Estonia). Thermal Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    When oil shale contains large quantities of limestone, a significant auto-absorption of sulfur is possible under suitable conditions. The sulfur capture by oil shale ashes has been studied using a pressurized thermogravimetric apparatus. The chosen experimental conditions were typical for atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed combustion. The Ca/S molar ratios in the two oil shales studied were 8 (Estonian) and 10 (Israeli). The samples were first burned in a gas atmosphere containing O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} (and CO{sub 2} if pressurized). After the combustion step, SO{sub 2} was added and sulfation started. The results with the oil shales were compared to those obtained with an oil shale cyclone ash from the Narva power plant in Estonia. In general, the results from the sulfur capture experiments under both atmospheric and pressurized conditions showed that the oil shale cannot only capture its own sulfur but also significant amounts of additional sulfur of another fuel if the fuels are mixed together. For example from the runs at atmospheric pressure, the conversion of CaO to CaSO{sub 4} was about 70% for Israeli oil shale and about 55% for Estonian oil shale (850 C). For the cyclone ash the corresponding conversion was about 20%. In comparison it could be mentioned that under the same conditions the conversions of natural limestones are about 30%. The reason the cyclone ash was a poor sulfur absorbent was probably due to its temperature history. In Narva the oil shale was burned at a significantly higher temperature (1,400 C) than was used in the experiments (750 C and 850 C). This caused the ash to sinter and the reactive surface area of the cyclone ash was therefore decreased.

  10. NO[sub x] reduction by sulfur tolerant coronal-catalytic apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathur, V.K.; Breault, R.W.; McLarnon, C.R.; Medros, F.G.

    1992-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention presents an NO[sub x] environment effective reduction apparatus comprising a sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst such as high dielectric coronal-catalysts like glass wool, ceramic-glass wool or zirconium glass wool and method of use. In one embodiment the invention comprises an NO[sub x] reduction apparatus of sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst adapted and configured for hypercritical presentation to an NO[sub x] bearing gas stream at a minimum of at least about 75 watts/cubic meter. 7 figs.

  11. NOx reduction by sulfur tolerant coronal-catalytic apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathur, V.K.; Breault, R.W.; McLarnon, C.R.; Medros, F.G.

    1993-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention presents an NO[sub x] environment effective reduction apparatus comprising a sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst such as high dielectric coronal-catalysts like glass wool, ceramic-glass wool or zirconium glass wool and method of use. In one embodiment the invention comprises an NO[sub x] reduction apparatus of sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst adapted and configured for hypercritical presentation to an NO[sub x] bearing gas stream at a minimum of at least about 75 watts/cubic meter.

  12. NO.sub.x reduction by sulfur tolerant coronal-catalytic apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathur, Virendra K. (Durham, NH); Breault, Ronald W. (Kingston, NH); McLarnon, Christopher R. (Exeter, NH); Medros, Frank G. (Waltham, MA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention presents an NO.sub.x environment effective reduction apparatus comprising a sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst such as high dielectric coronal-catalysts like glass wool, ceramic-glass wool or zirconium glass wool and method of use. In one embodiment the invention comprises an NO.sub.x reduction apparatus of sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst adapted and configured for hypercritical presentation to an NO.sub.x bearing gas stream at a minimum of at least about 75 watts/cubic meter.

  13. NO.sub.x reduction by sulfur tolerant coronal-catalytic apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathur, Virendra K. (Durham, NH); Breault, Ronald W. (Kingston, NH); McLarnon, Christopher R. (Exeter, NH); Medros, Frank G. (Waltham, MA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention presents an NO.sub.x environment effective reduction apparatus comprising a sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst such as high dielectric coronal-catalysts like glass wool, ceramic-glass wool or zirconium glass wool and method of use. In one embodiment the invention comprises an NO.sub.x reduction apparatus of sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst adapted and configured for hypercritical presentation to an NO.sub.x bearing gas stream at a minimum of at least about 75 watts/cubic meter.

  14. Sulfur adsorption on nickel(100) and its effect on carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, and deuterium chemisorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardegree, E.L.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The adsorption of CO, NO, and D/sub 2/ was studied on clean and sulfided Ni(100) near 100K using Auger electron spectroscopy, thermal desorption spectroscopy, X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies, and work function change measurements. The evidence suggests that sulfur's effects are predominantly steric in nature. Weak, short-range (approx.4 angstrom) electrostatic effects are also present, due to charge transfer of about 0.04 of an electron from nickel to sulfur. The blocking effect of S on the adsorption of each gas at various temperatures is discussed.

  15. Structural and Functional Studies on Human Mitochondrial Iron-Sulfur Cluster Biosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Chi-Lin

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    . (2003) Formation of iron-sulfur clusters in bacteria: an emerging field in bioinorganic chemistry. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 7, 166-173]. 3 as the nitrogen-fixation (NIF) machinery (8). The NIF pathway is often a specialized assembly system... of Fe?S Cluster Biogenesis in Human Mitochondria Name Essential in yeast Yeast homologs Bacterial homologs Proposed function & protein interactions Nfs1 Yes Nfs1 IscS, NifS, SufS Cysteine desulfurase, sulfur donor, Interacts with Isd11, Isu2...

  16. Sulfur determination in blood from inhabitants of Brazil using neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP) Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study the NAA technique was applied to analyze sulfur in blood from inhabitants of Brazil for the proposition of an indicative interval. The measurements were performed considering lifestyle factors (non-smokers, non-drinkers and no history of toxicological exposure) of Brazilian inhabitants. The influence of gender was also investigated considering several age ranges (18-29, 30-39, 40-49, >50 years). These data are useful in clinical investigations, to identify or prevent diseases caused by inadequate sulfur ingestion and for nutritional evaluation of Brazilian population.

  17. Cathodic reduction of sulfur dioxide at porous, phthalocyanine-containing electrodes in nonaqueous electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shembel', E.M.; Ksenzhek, O.S.; Danilova, N.P.; Shustov, V.A.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrodes containing catalysts, particularly electrodes containing metal chelate compounds, were studied for their effect on reducing cathodic sulfur dioxide. The electrodes were prepared with an iron phthalocyanine polymer deposited onto activated carbon. Fluoropolymer dispersions was used as the binder and electrochemical studies were performed in a glove box under dry argon. Lithium perchlorate solution in propylene carbonate was used as the electrolyte solution. The results indicate that materials with high catalytic activity show promise in raising the discharge voltage in power sources of the lithium-sulfur dioxide system.

  18. Morbidity And Sulfur Dioxide: Evidence From French Strikes At Oil Refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew Neidell; Emmanuelle Lavaine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the impact of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in France on health outcomes at a census track level. To do so, we use recent strikes affecting oil refineries in France, in October 2010, as a natural experiment. Our work offers several contributions. We first show that a temporal shut down in the refining process leads to a reduction in sulfur dioxide concentration. We then use this narrow time frame exogenous shock to assess the impact of a change in air pollution concentration on respiratory outcomes. Our estimates suggest that daily variation in SO2 air pollution has economically significant health effects at levels below the current standard. 0

  19. Bioprocessing of High-sulfur Crudes Via Appliaction of Critical Fluid Biocatalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginosar, Daniel Michael; Bala, Greg Alan; Anderson, Raymond Paul; Fox, Sandra Lynn; Stanescue, Marina A.

    2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This experimental research project investigated protein-based biocatalysis in supercritical fluid solvents as an integrated process approach to catalyze the removal of sulfur atoms from crude oils and fuels. The work focused on the oxidation of model sulfur-containing compounds in supercritical reaction media and included three major tasks: microbiological induction experiments, proteincatalyzed biooxidation in supercritical solvents, and a work-in-kind cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA). This work demonstrated that the biooxidation reaction could be improved by an order-of-magnitude by carrying out the reaction in emulsions in supercritical fluids.

  20. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for sodium/sulfur battery technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Triplett, M.B.; Winter, C.; Ashton, W.B.

    1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes development trends in sodium/sulfur battery technology based on data from US patents. Purpose of the study was to use the activity, timing and ownership of 285 US patents to identify and describe broad patterns of change in sodium/sulfur battery technology. The analysis was conducted using newly developed statistical and computer graphic techniques for describing technology development trends from patent data. This analysis suggests that for some technologies trends in patent data provide useful information for public and private R and D planning.

  1. Weight Watchers on prescription: An observational study of weight change among adults referred to Weight Watchers by the NHS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahern, Amy L; Olson, Ashley D; Aston, Louise M; Jebb, Susan A

    2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    the attitudes of the sponsor. Competing interests This data analysis presented here was funded by Weight Watchers through a grant to the Medical Research Council. None of the authors has benefitted personally from this research or received remuneration from... . London: The Health and Social Care Information Centre; 2009. 2. Foresight: Tackling Obesities: Future Choices - Project Report. Government Office for Science; 2007. 3. McCormick B, Stone I: Economic costs of obesity and the case for government...

  2. Fuel switch could bring big savings for HECO Liquefied natural gas beats low-sulfur oil in cost and equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuel switch could bring big savings for HECO Liquefied natural gas beats low-sulfur oil in cost gas instead of continuing to burn low-sulfur fuel oil, a report said. Switching to liquefied natural who switch from gasoline-powered vehicles to ones fueled by compressed natural gas could save as much

  3. subm. to Surf. Sci. Ab initio molecular dynamics study of H2 adsorption on sulfur-and chlorine-covered

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulm, Universität

    subm. to Surf. Sci. Ab initio molecular dynamics study of H2 adsorption on sulfur- and chlorine/Germany The adsorption of molecular hydrogen on sulfur- and chlorine-covered Pd(100) in a (2?2) geometry is studied by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The potential energy surfaces of H2/S(2 ? 2)/Pd(100) and H2/Cl(2

  4. Monte Carlo Simulations of Small Sulfuric Acid-Water Clusters S. M. Kathmann,* and B. N. Hale,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hale, Barbara N.

    -to-liquid nucleation1-5 to acid rain formation6-8 and ozone depletion mechanisms.9-11 Doyle's early work2 predictedMonte Carlo Simulations of Small Sulfuric Acid-Water Clusters S. M. Kathmann,* and B. N. Hale§,* En Form: August 7, 2001 Effective atom-atom potentials are developed for binary sulfuric acid

  5. Evaluation of Alfalfa Sulfur Needs in K.A. Kelling, P.E. Speth, and S. van Wychen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Teri C.

    Evaluation of Alfalfa Sulfur Needs in Wisconsin K.A. Kelling, P.E. Speth, and S. van Wychen: New versus older stands (Arlington and Lancaster) On-farm +/- S in three counties Alfalfa S survey;#12;Wisconsin Alfalfa Sulfur Survey: Sample numbers: ­ 53 in 2000 ­ 73 in 2001 ­ 9 to be analyzed 28 counties

  6. HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS REFERENCE DESIGN AND COST ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.; Boltrunis, C.; Lahoda, E.; Allen, D.; Greyvenstein, R.

    2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents a detailed study to determine the expected efficiency and product costs for producing hydrogen via water-splitting using energy from an advanced nuclear reactor. It was determined that the overall efficiency from nuclear heat to hydrogen is high, and the cost of hydrogen is competitive under a high energy cost scenario. It would require over 40% more nuclear energy to generate an equivalent amount of hydrogen using conventional water-cooled nuclear reactors combined with water electrolysis compared to the proposed plant design described herein. There is a great deal of interest worldwide in reducing dependence on fossil fuels, while also minimizing the impact of the energy sector on global climate change. One potential opportunity to contribute to this effort is to replace the use of fossil fuels for hydrogen production by the use of water-splitting powered by nuclear energy. Hydrogen production is required for fertilizer (e.g. ammonia) production, oil refining, synfuels production, and other important industrial applications. It is typically produced by reacting natural gas, naphtha or coal with steam, which consumes significant amounts of energy and produces carbon dioxide as a byproduct. In the future, hydrogen could also be used as a transportation fuel, replacing petroleum. New processes are being developed that would permit hydrogen to be produced from water using only heat or a combination of heat and electricity produced by advanced, high temperature nuclear reactors. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing these processes under a program known as the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). The Republic of South Africa (RSA) also is interested in developing advanced high temperature nuclear reactors and related chemical processes that could produce hydrogen fuel via water-splitting. This report focuses on the analysis of a nuclear hydrogen production system that combines the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), under development by PBMR (Pty.) Ltd. in the RSA, with the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, under development by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in the US as part of the NHI. This work was performed by SRNL, Westinghouse Electric Company, Shaw, PBMR (Pty) Ltd., and Technology Insights under a Technical Consulting Agreement (TCA). Westinghouse Electric, serving as the lead for the PBMR process heat application team, established a cost-shared TCA with SRNL to prepare an updated HyS thermochemical water-splitting process flowsheet, a nuclear hydrogen plant preconceptual design and a cost estimate, including the cost of hydrogen production. SRNL was funded by DOE under the NHI program, and the Westinghouse team was self-funded. The results of this work are presented in this Final Report. Appendices have been attached to provide a detailed source of information in order to document the work under the TCA contract.

  7. Development of bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery using LiBH{sub 4} electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unemoto, Atsushi, E-mail: unemoto@imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Ikeshoji, Tamio [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Yasaku, Syun; Matsuo, Motoaki [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nogami, Genki; Tazawa, Masaru; Taniguchi, Mitsugu [Mitsubishi Gas Chemicals Co., Ltd., 182 Tayuhama Shinwari, Kita-ku, Niigata 950-3112 (Japan); Orimo, Shin-ichi [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Stable battery operation of a bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery was demonstrated by using a LiBH{sub 4} electrolyte. The electrochemical activity of insulating elemental sulfur as the positive electrode was enhanced by the mutual dispersion of elemental sulfur and carbon in the composite powders. Subsequently, a tight interface between the sulfur-carbon composite and the LiBH{sub 4} powders was manifested only by cold-pressing owing to the highly deformable nature of the LiBH{sub 4} electrolyte. The high reducing ability of LiBH{sub 4} allows using the use of a Li negative electrode that enhances the energy density. The results demonstrate the interface modification of insulating sulfur and the architecture of an all-solid-state Li-S battery configuration with high energy density.

  8. Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Data Report No. 4: Diesel Particulate Filters -- Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

    2000-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This is the fourth and final report for the DPF test program and covers the effect of diesel sulfur level on: a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF), and a continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (CR-DPF).

  9. Replication regulates volume weighting in quantum cosmology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartle, James [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Hertog, Thomas [APC, UMR 7164 (CNRS, Universite Paris 7), 10 rue A.Domon et L.Duquet, 75205 Paris (France) and Intl Solvay Institutes, Boulevard du Triomphe, ULB-C.P. 231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Probabilities for observations in cosmology are conditioned both on the Universe's quantum state and on local data specifying the observational situation. We show the quantum state defines a measure for prediction through such conditional probabilities that is well-behaved for spatially large or infinite universes when the probabilities that our data are replicated are taken into account. In histories where our data are rare volume weighting connects top-down probabilities conditioned on both the data and the quantum state to the bottom-up probabilities conditioned on the quantum state alone. We apply these principles to a calculation of the number of inflationary e-folds in a homogeneous, isotropic minisuperspace model with a single scalar field moving in a quadratic potential. We find that volume weighting is justified and the top-down probabilities favor a large number of e-folds, hereby predicting the curvature of our Universe at the present time to be approximately zero.

  10. Information weights of nucleotides in DNA sequences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. R. Dudek; S. Cebrat; M. Kowalczuk; P. Mackiewicz; A. Nowicka; D. Mackiewicz; M. Dudkiewicz

    2003-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The coding sequence in DNA molecule is considered as a message to be transferred to receiver, the proteins, through a noisy information channel and each nucleotide is assigned a respective information weight. With the help of the nucleotide substitution matrix we estimated the lower bound of the amount of information carried out by nucleotides which is not subject of mutations. We used the calculated weights to reconstruct k-oligomers of genes from the Borrelia burgdorferi genome. We showed, that to this aim there is sufficient a simple rule, that the number of bits of the carried information cannot exceed some threshold value. The method introduced by us is general and applies to every genome.

  11. Sulfur Emissions from Volcanic A c t i v i t y i n 1985 and 1990 Carmen M. Benkovitz and M. A l t a f Mubaraki

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    APPENDIX C Sulfur Emissions from Volcanic A c t i v i t y i n 1985 and 1990 Carmen M. Benkovitz). Global estimates o f anthropogenic emissions o f sulfur f o r 1985 are approximately 65 Tg S y-l (Benkovi Anthropogenic Sulfur Emissions f o r 1985 and 1990 i n t h i s report). Sulfur from biogenic sources i s emitted

  12. A novel mechanism and kinetic model to explain enhanced xylose yields from dilute sulfuric acid compared to hydrothermal pretreatment of corn stover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    A novel mechanism and kinetic model to explain enhanced xylose yields from dilute sulfuric acid stover Dilute sulfuric acid Hydrothermal pretreatment Kinetic model Xylose a b s t r a c t Pretreatment of corn stover in 0.5% sulfuric acid at 160 °C for 40 min realized a maximum monomeric plus oligomeric

  13. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 105, NO. Dl, PAGES 1387-1415, JANUARY 20,2000 Sulfur chelllistry in the National Center for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    Understanding the tropospheric sulfur cycle is impor- tant because of its contribution to acid rain and its effect on the Earth's radiation balance. The role of sulfuric acid in acid rain has been recognizedJOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 105, NO. Dl, PAGES 1387-1415, JANUARY 20,2000 Sulfur

  14. Global Anthropogenic Sulfur Emissions for 1985 and 1990 Carmen M. Benkovitz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    remains mainly in the residual sulfur-containing materials (e.g., roast oil fraction. ing of ores inventory of SOx emissions from anthropogenic sources for circa 1985 was compiled by an international group under the umbrella of the Global Emissions Inventory Activity (Benkovit z and Graedel , 1992

  15. Understanding Sulfur Poisoning and Regeneration of Nickel Biomass Conditioning Catalysts using X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yung, M. M.; Cheah, S.; Kuhn, J. N.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of biofuels can proceed via a biomass gasification to produce syngas, which can then undergo catalytic conditioning and reforming reactions prior to being sent to a fuel synthesis reactor. Catalysts used for biomass conditioning are plagued by short lifetimes which are a result of, among other things, poisoning. Syngas produced from biomass gasification may contain between 30-300 ppm H2S, depending on the feedstock and gasification conditions, and H2S is a key catalyst poison. In order to overcome catalyst poisoning, either an H2S-tolerant catalyst or an efficient regeneration protocol should be employed. In this study, sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) was used to monitor sulfur species on spent catalyst samples and the transformation of these species from sulfides to sulfates during steam and air regeneration on a Ni/Mg/K/Al2O3 catalyst used to condition biomass-derived syngas. Additionally, nickel K-edge EXAFS and XANES are used to examine the state of nickel species on the catalysts. Post-reaction samples showed the presence of sulfides on the H2S-poisoned nickel catalyst and although some gaseous sulfur species were observed to leave the catalyst bed during regeneration, sulfur remained on the catalyst and a transformation from sulfides to sulfates was observed. The subsequent H2 reduction led to a partial reduction of sulfates back to sulfides. A proposed reaction sequence is presented and recommended regeneration strategies are discussed.

  16. Two-dimensional kinetics of binary nucleation in sulfuric acidwater mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . INTRODUCTION Binary homogeneous nucleation is a mechanism for gas- to-particle conversion that can result in significant rates of new particle formation even if both components are under- saturated in the gas phase. An important example is the at- mospheric production of sulfuric acid in the presence of am- bient water vapor

  17. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1997-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was designed to evaluate the combustion performance of and emissions from a fluidized bed combustor during the combustion of mixtures of high sulfur and/or high chlorine coals and municipal solid waste (MSW). The project included four major tasks, which were as follows: (1) Selection, acquisition, and characterization of raw materials for fuels and the determination of combustion profiles of combination fuels using thermal analytical techniques; (2) Studies of the mechanisms for the formation of chlorinated organics during the combustion of MSW using a tube furnace; (3) Investigation of the effect of sulfur species on the formation of chlorinated organics; and (4) Examination of the combustion performance of combination fuels in a laboratory scale fluidized bed combustor. Several kinds of coals and the major combustible components of the MSW, including PVC, newspaper, and cellulose were tested in this project. Coals with a wide range of sulfur and chlorine contents were used. TGA/MS/FTIR analyses were performed on the raw materials and their blends. The possible mechanism for the formation of chlorinated organics during combustion was investigated by conducting a series of experiments in a tube furnace. The effect of sulfur dioxide on the formation of molecular chlorine during combustion processes was examined in this study.

  18. Posting type Advisory Subject Varying bias of XRF sulfur relative to IC sulfate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Emily V.

    Posting type Advisory Subject Varying bias of XRF sulfur relative to IC sulfate Module/Species A of evidence point to XRF measurement bias as the source of most of the observed variation. Figure 1 shows that was offset by two abrupt increases, each coming at the start of a new sample month. The XRF analyses, unlike

  19. Ensemble Forecasting of Volcanic Sulfur Emissions in Hawai'i Andre Pattantyus and Steven Businger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Businger, Steven

    of Hawai'i. The probabilistic forecast products show uncertainty in pollutant concentrations of pollution known as "vog" after volcanic smog. Prevailing northeast trade winds in Hawaii advectEnsemble Forecasting of Volcanic Sulfur Emissions in Hawai'i Andre Pattantyus and Steven Businger

  20. Remote Sensing of Ammonia and Sulfur Dioxide from On-Road Light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    ) or directly through adsorbed nitrogen and hydrogen atoms (11, 12). Ammonia emissions from tunnel studies have mea- surements than all other data combined. Sulfur compounds in gasoline combust in the engine to help facilitate the stringent 2007 diesel engine emission requirements. These reductions

  1. Multilayer sulfur-resistant composite metal membranes and methods of making and repairing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Way, J. Douglas; Hatlevik, Oyvind

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to thin, hydrogen-permeable, sulfur-resistant membranes formed from multi-layers of palladium or palladium-alloy coatings on porous, ceramic or metal supports, methods of making these membranes, methods of repairing layers of these membranes and devices that incorporate these membranes.

  2. Sulfur in peridotites and gabbros at Lost City (30N, MAR): Implications for hydrothermal alteration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    minerals in samples from near the base of hydrothermal carbonate towers at Lost City show d34 S valuesSulfur in peridotites and gabbros at Lost City (30°N, MAR): Implications for hydrothermal of serpentinized peridotites and gabbros beneath the Lost City Hydrothermal Field at the southern face

  3. Far-infrared spectroelectrochemistry: a study of linear molybdenum/iron/sulfur clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Far-infrared spectroelectrochemistry: a study of linear molybdenum/iron/sulfur clusters Michael D Received 7 June 2003; accepted 29 November 2003 Abstract The far-infrared spectroelectrochemistry of linear identical electro- chemical properties, allows one to observe solute bands in the 450-cm?1 region. The far-infrared

  4. Effects of sulfuric acid and nitrogen deposition on mineral nutrition of Picea abies (L.) Karst.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ecosystems, saplings have been sprayed with artificial acid rain, structured soil samples have been extractedEffects of sulfuric acid and nitrogen deposition on mineral nutrition of Picea abies (L.) Karst. B sites in the Fichtel- gebirge, and low fogwater pH (Trautner, 1989) of 2.2 indicate a high acid stress

  5. Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    74.4 73.3 70.4 60.5 69.0 71.9 77.8 71.0 60.5 See footnotes at end of table. 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type, and PAD District 242 Energy Information...

  6. Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    80.8 75.7 76.2 67.5 71.8 77.4 83.7 75.0 64.4 See footnotes at end of table. 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type, and PAD District 242 Energy Information...

  7. Sonic enhanced ash agglomeration and sulfur capture. Technical progress report, January 1995--March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This program is focused on the process for bimodal ash agglomeration and simultaneous sulfur capture for the development of coal fired combustion gas turbines. The process also accommodates injection of alkali gettering materials. During this period, further dismantling of the existing bimodal test unit was performed. The design of a revised process development unit and hot gas cleanup unit have been completed.

  8. Sulfur Cycling in the Terrestrial Subsurface: Commensal Interactions, Spatial Scales, and Microbial Heterogeneity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossman, Ethan L.

    Sulfur Cycling in the Terrestrial Subsurface: Commensal Interactions, Spatial Scales, and Microbial microbial processes in the terrestrial subsurface. Previous geochemical studies suggested that sulfide environment in shallow sediments (5 m), and produces acidic waters (pH 3.8) that are rich in sulfate (28 m

  9. Influence of transport and ocean ice extent on biogenic aerosol sulfur in the Arctic atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influence of transport and ocean ice extent on biogenic aerosol sulfur in the Arctic atmosphere S, such as methanesulfonic acid (MSA). This study examines relationships between changes in total sea ice extent north of 70. These results suggest that a decrease in seasonal ice cover influencing other mechanisms of DMS production could

  10. Mercury and Sulfur Dynamics in the SPRUCE Experiment Brandy Toner1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mercury and Sulfur Dynamics in the SPRUCE Experiment Brandy Toner1 , Randy Kolka2 , Steve Sebestyen will lead studies assessing the influence of SPRUCE treatments on the cycling of THg, MeHg and S. Mercury. Mercury levels are determined by complex interactions between deposition, chemical transformation

  11. The variability of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The variability of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India* A.L. Ganesan Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change combines cutting-edge scientific research with independent policy analysis to provide a solid foundation for the public and private decisions needed

  12. Sulfur surface chemistry on the platinum gate of a silicon carbide based hydrogen sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobin, Roger G.

    monitoring, solid-oxide fuel cells, and coal gasification, require operation at much higher temperatures thanSulfur surface chemistry on the platinum gate of a silicon carbide based hydrogen sensor Yung Ho to hydrogen sulfide, even in the presence of hydrogen or oxygen at partial pressures of 20­600 times greater

  13. Performance of Sulfur Tolerant Reforming Catalysts for Production of Hydrogen from Jet Fuel Simulants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    ,2 operated by fuel cells. Unfortunately, the lack of infrastructure, such as a network of hydrogen refueling of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which poisons the anode in the fuel cell stack, leading to low SOFC efficiencyPerformance of Sulfur Tolerant Reforming Catalysts for Production of Hydrogen from Jet Fuel

  14. Transport Properties and Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for the Hybrid Sulfur Electrolyzer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    not consume fossil fuels or pro- duce CO2 while producing highly pure hydrogen.1-10 Gaseous SO2 fedTransport Properties and Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for the Hybrid Sulfur and Biological Systems Department, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123, USA c Department of Materials Science

  15. Rare sulfur and triple oxygen isotope geochemistry of volcanogenic sulfate aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bindeman, Ilya N.

    Rare sulfur and triple oxygen isotope geochemistry of volcanogenic sulfate aerosols I.N. Bindeman a of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA c Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Que., Canada d Department of Geology and Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland

  16. Comparison of modified sulfur cement and hydraulic cement for encapsulation of radioactive and mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The majority of solidification/stabilization systems for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed waste, both in the commercial sector and at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, utilize hydraulic cement (such as portland cement) to encapsulate waste materials and yield a monolithic solid waste form for disposal. A new and innovative process utilizing modified sulfur cement developed by the US Bureau of Mines has been applied at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the encapsulation of many of these problem'' wastes. Modified sulfur cement is a thermoplastic material, and as such, it can be heated above it's melting point (120{degree}C), combined with dry waste products to form a homogeneous mixture, and cooled to form a monolithic solid product. Under sponsorship of the DOE, research and development efforts at BNL have successfully applied the modified sulfur cement process for treatment of a range of LLWs including sodium sulfate salts, boric acid salts, and incinerator bottom ash and for mixed waste contaminated incinerator fly ash. Process development studies were conducted to determine optimal waste loadings for each waste type. Property evaluation studies were conducted to test waste form behavior under disposal conditions by applying relevant performance testing criteria established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (for LLW) and the Environmental Protection Agency (for hazardous wastes). Based on both processing and performance considerations, significantly greater waste loadings were achieved using modified sulfur cement when compared with hydraulic cement. Technology demonstration of the modified sulfur cement encapsulation system using production-scale equipment is scheduled for FY 1991. 12 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Development of a new FGD process that converts sulfur dioxide to salable ammonium phosphate fertilizer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji-lu Chen

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Rich mineral resources have enabled Chinese coal output and energy consumption to rank second and third in the world, respectively. In 1992, up to 70 percent of the country`s electric power was generated by the combustion of some 300 million tons of coal. Although the average sulfur content level in Chinese coals is only about 0.8 percent, the share of high- sulfur coals with 2 percent or more sulfur content is as high as 18 percent. As a result, air pollution accompanied by acid rain now occurs over most of the country, especially in southwestern China. Currently, the area comprising Guangdong, Guangxi, the Sichuan Basin, and the greater part of Gueizhou, where the sulfur content in coal is between 2 and 7 percent and the average pH values of rain water are between 4 and 5 per annum, has become one of the three biggest acid rain-affected areas in the world. In 1992, the national installed coal-fired electricity generation capacity exceeded 100,000 MWe. By the year 2000, it is expected to reach as much as 200,000 MWe, according to a new scheduled program. Environmental pollution caused by large-scale coal combustion is a very important issue that needs to be considered in the implementation of the program. To ensure that the effects of coal-fired power generation on the environment can be properly controlled in the near future, TPRI (Thermal Power Research Institute), the sole thermal power engineering research institution within the Ministry of Electric Power Industry (MOEPI), has conducted a long-term research program to develop sulfur emission control technologies suitable to the special conditions prevalent in China since the early 1970s. The details are summarized. The objective of this chapter is to describe the fundamental concept and major pilot test results and present an economic evaluation of a new process combining flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and ammonium phosphate fertilizer production.

  18. Control Your Weight While Eating Out.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweeten, Mary K.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Station ? Texas [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] Control Your Weight While Eating Out Mary K. Sweeten* Eating Out Trend The eating out trend is here to stay. Approximately $61 billion was spent for food eaten away from home in 1978. In 1975, 56... or tea. Avoid using cream or sugar to flavor coffee or tea; substitute a dietetic sweetener if desi red. Stop eating when full and when you have eaten your allotted calories. Then ask the waitress to remove your plate and the remaining food from...

  19. Light-weight analyzer for odor recognition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vass, Arpad A; Wise, Marcus B

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a light weight analyzer, e.g., detector, capable of locating clandestine graves. The detector utilizes the very specific and unique chemicals identified in the database of human decompositional odor. This detector, based on specific chemical compounds found relevant to human decomposition, is the next step forward in clandestine grave detection and will take the guess-work out of current methods using canines and ground-penetrating radar, which have historically been unreliable. The detector is self contained, portable and built for field use. Both visual and auditory cues are provided to the operator.

  20. Weight Management Program - HPMC Occupational Health Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and Materials Disposition3February 2015Program > Weight

  1. Nonequilibrium sulfur capture and retention in an air cooled slagging coal combustor. Quarterly technical progress report, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zauderer, B.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this 24 month project is to determine the degree of sulfur retention in slag in a full scale cyclone coal combustor with sulfur capture by calcium oxide sorbent injection into the combustor. This sulfur capture process consists of two steps: Capture of sulfur with calcined calcium oxide followed by impact of the reacted sulfur-calcium particles on the liquid slag lining the combustor. The sulfur bearing slag must be removed within several minutes from the combustor to prevent re-evolution of the sulfur from the slag. To accomplish this requires slag mass flow rates in the range of several 100 lb/hr. To study this two step process in the combustor, two groups of tests are being implemented. In the first group, calcium sulfate in the form of gypsum, or plaster of Paris, was injected in the combustor to determine sulfur evolution from slag. In the second group, the entire process is tested with limestone and/or calcium hydrate injected into the combustor. This entire effort consists of a series of up to 16 parametric tests in a 20 MMtu/hr slagging, air cooled, cyclone combustor. During the present quarterly reporting period ending September 30,1996, three tests in this project were implemented, bringing the total tests to 5. In addition, a total of 10 test days were completed during this quarter on the parallel project that utilizes the same 20 MMtu/hr combustor. The results of that project, especially those related to improved slagging performance, have a direct bearing on this project in assuring proper operation at the high slag flow rates that may be necessary to achieve high sulfur retention in slag.

  2. Regenerative process and system for the simultaneous removal of particulates and the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen from a gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, M.R.; Gal, E.

    1993-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and system are described for simultaneously removing from a gaseous mixture, sulfur oxides by means of a solid sulfur oxide acceptor on a porous carrier, nitrogen oxides by means of ammonia gas and particulate matter by means of filtration and for the regeneration of loaded solid sulfur oxide acceptor. Finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is entrained in a gaseous mixture to deplete sulfur oxides from the gaseous mixture, the finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor being dispersed on a porous carrier material having a particle size up to about 200 microns. In the process, the gaseous mixture is optionally pre-filtered to remove particulate matter and thereafter finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is injected into the gaseous mixture.

  3. atomic weight values: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a sample of 10 100 atoms. Sumei Huang; Girish S. Agarwal 2015-01-10 3 Power laws and fractal behavior in nuclear stability, atomic weights and molecular weights Physics Websites...

  4. atomic weight determinations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Power laws and fractal behavior in nuclear stability, atomic weights and molecular weights Physics Websites...

  5. Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Yan, Nai-Qiang; Qu, Zan; Chi, Yao; Qiao, Shao-Hua; Dod, Ray; Chang, Shih-Ger; Miller, Charles

    2008-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidation of Hg0 with any oxidant or converting it to a particle-bound form can facilitate its removal. Two sulfur-chlorine compounds, sulfur dichloride (SCl2) and sulfur monochloride (S2Cl2), were investigated as oxidants for Hg0 by gas phase reaction and by surface-involved reactions in the presence of flyash or activated carbon. The gas phase reaction rate constants between Hg0 and the sulfur/chlorine compounds were determined, and the effects of temperature and the main components in flue gases were studied. The gas phase reaction between Hg0 and SCl2 is shown to be more rapid than the gas phase reaction with chlorine, and the second order rate constant was 9.1(+-0.5) x 10-18 mL-molecules-1cdots-1 at 373oK. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibited the gas phase reaction of Hg0 with sulfur-chlorine compounds. The presence of flyash or powdered activated carbon in flue gas can substantially accelerate the reaction. The predicted Hg0 removal is about 90percent with 5 ppm SCl2 or S2Cl2 and 40 g/m3 of flyash in flue gas. The combination of activated carbon and sulfur-chlorine compounds is an effective alternative. We estimate that co-injection of 3-5 ppm of SCl2 (or S2Cl2) with 2-3 Lb/MMacf of untreated Darco-KB is comparable in efficiency to the injection of 2-3 Lb/MMacf Darco-Hg-LH. Extrapolation of kinetic results also indicates that 90percent of Hg0 can be removed if 3 Lb/MMacf of Darco-KB pretreated with 3percent of SCl2 or S2Cl2 is used. Unlike gas phase reactions, NO exhibited little effect on Hg0 reactions with SCl2 or S2Cl2 on flyash or activated carbon. Mercuric sulfide was identified as one of the principal products of the Hg0/SCl2 or Hg0/S2Cl2 reactions. Additionally, about 8percent of SCl2 or S2Cl2 in aqueous solutions is converted to sulfide ions, which would precipitate mercuric ion from FGD solution.

  6. The Complexity of Weighted Boolean #CSP , Sangxia Huang2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The Complexity of Weighted Boolean #CSP Modulo k Heng Guo1 , Sangxia Huang2 , Pinyan Lu3@gmail.com Abstract We prove a complexity dichotomy theorem for counting weighted Boolean CSP modulo k for any similar to the one for the complex weighted Boolean #CSP, found by [Cai, Lu and Xia, STOC 2009]. Then we

  7. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. C. Kwon

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2} in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives using a monolithic catalyst reactor, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 40-560 seconds at 120-150 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperatures, total pressure, space time, and catalyst regeneration on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,600-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,800-2,000 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 23-27 v% hydrogen, 36-41 v% CO, 10-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 30-180 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-150 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is mai

  8. Feasibility of reconstructing paleoatmospheric records of selected alkanes, methyl halides, and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydin, M.; Williams, M. B; Saltzman, E. S

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    firn and ice at Summit, Greenland, J. Geophys. Res. , 98,AL. : TRACE GASES IN GREENLAND ICE CORE . Andreae Kettle,and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores M. Aydin, 1 M. B.

  9. Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Data Report No. 2: NO{sub x} Adsorber Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

    1999-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report discusses the results of the DECSE test program that demonstrates the potential of NOx adsorber catalyst technology across the range of diesel engine operation with a fuel economy penalty less than 4%.

  10. Refined understanding of sulfur amino acid nutrition in hybrid striped bass, Morone chrysops (male symbol) x M. saxatilis (female symbol)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, Mark Christopher

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    to methionine supported the lowest responses. Inclusion of MHA or AlimetTM did not affect TAN excretion of HSB. These findings will aid in refining diet formulations for HSB to ensure adequate sulfur amino acid nutrition....

  11. Lubricant oil consumption effects on diesel exhaust ash emissions using a sulfur dioxide trace technique and thermogravimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plumley, Michael J

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed experimental study was conducted targeting lubricant consumption effects on ,diesel exhaust ash levels using a model year 2002 5.9L diesel engine, high and low Sulfur commercial lubricants, and clean diesel ...

  12. The development of autocatalytic structural materials for use in the sulfur-iodine process for the production of hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miu, Kevin (Kevin K.)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sulfur-Iodine Cycle for the thermochemical production of hydrogen offers many benefits to traditional methods of hydrogen production. As opposed to steam methane reforming - the most prevalent method of hydrogen ...

  13. Complexity of Counting CSP with Complex Weights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Jin-Yi

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a complexity dichotomy theorem for the counting Constraint Satisfaction Problem (#CSP in short) with complex weights. To this end, we give three conditions for its tractability. Let F be any finite set of complex-valued functions, then we prove that #CSP(F) is solvable in polynomial time if all three conditions are satisfied; and is #P-hard otherwise. Our complexity dichotomy generalizes a long series of important results on counting problems: (a) the problem of counting graph homomorphisms is the special case when there is a single symmetric binary function in F; (b) the problem of counting directed graph homomorphisms is the special case when there is a single not-necessarily-symmetric binary function in F; and (c) the standard form of #CSP is when all functions in F take values in {0,1}.

  14. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Quarterly report, October - December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, W.-P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels project were two-fold. First, the effect of S0{sub 2} on the formation of chlorine during combustion processes was examined. To simulate the conditions used in the AFBC system, experiments were conducted in a quartz tube in an electrically heated furnace. The principle analytical technique used for identification of the products from this study was GC/MS. The evolved gas was trapped by an absorbent and analyzed with a GC/MS system. The preliminary results indicate an inhibiting effect of S0{sub 2} on the Deacon Reaction. Secondly, information on the evolution of chlorine, sulfur and organic compounds from coals 95031 and 95011 were studied with the AFBC system. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Sodium/sulfur battery engineering for stationary energy storage. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenig, A.; Rasmussen, J. [Silent Power, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of modular systems to distribute power using batteries to store off-peak energy and a state of the art power inverter is envisioned to offer important national benefits. A 4-year, cost- shared contract was performed to design and develop a modular, 300kVA/300-kWh system for utility and customer applications. Called Nas-P{sub AC}, this system uses advanced sodium/sulfur batteries and requires only about 20% of the space of a lead-acid-based system with a smaller energy content. Ten, 300-VDC, 40-kWh sodium/sulfur battery packs are accommodated behind a power conversion system envelope with integrated digital control. The resulting design facilities transportation, site selection, and deployment because the system is quiet and non-polluting, and can be located in proximity to the load. This report contains a detailed description of the design and supporting hardware development performed under this contract.

  16. An In-Situ Photometric and Energy Analysis of a Sulfur LampLighting System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, Doug; Gould, Carl; Packer, Michael; Rubinstein,Francis; Siminovitch, Michael

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results of a photometric and energy analysis that was conducted on a new light guide and sulfur lamp system recently installed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Forrestal Building. This novel system couples two high lumen output, high efficiency sulfur lamps to a single 73 m (240 ft.) hollow light guide lined with a reflective prismatic film. The system lights a large roadway and plaza area that lies beneath a section of the building. It has been designed to completely replace the grid of 280 mercury vapor lamps formerly used to light the space. This paper details the results of a field study that characterizes the significant energy savings and increased illumination levels that have been achieved. Comparisons to modeled HID lighting scenarios are also included.

  17. Chromatic acclimation and population dynamics of green sulfur bacteria grown with spectrally tailored light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saikin, Semion K; Huh, Joonsuk; Hannout, Moataz; Wang, Yaya; Zare, Farrokh; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan; Tang, Joseph Kuo-Hsiang

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Living organisms have to adjust to their surrounding in order to survive in stressful conditions. We study this mechanism in one of most primitive creatures - photosynthetic green sulfur bacteria. These bacteria absorb photons very efficiently using the chlorosome antenna complexes and perform photosynthesis in extreme low-light environments. How the chlorosomes in green sulfur bacteria are acclimated to the stressful light conditions, for instance, if the spectrum of light is not optimal for absorption, is unknown. Studying Chlorobaculum tepidum cultures with far-red to near-infrared light-emitting diodes, we found that these bacteria react to changes in energy flow by regulating the amount of light-absorbing pigments and the size of the chlorosomes. Surprisingly, our results indicate that the bacteria can survive in near-infrared lights capturing low-frequency photons by the intermediate units of the light-harvesting complex. The latter strategy may be used by the species recently found near hydrothermal ve...

  18. Iron distribution among phases in high- and low-sulfur coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M.; Rathbone, R.F. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Dyar, M.D.; Taylor, M.E. [West Chester Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Astronomy

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Moessbauer spectroscopy, reflected-light optical microscopy, scanning-electron microscopy, wet chemical, and X-ray diffraction studies were conducted on six fly ash samples. The fly ashes, representing the combustion by-products of coals with total sulfur contents of less than 2% to greater than 4%, ranged from 17.6 to 32.0% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by XRF analysis. Wet chemical analysis was used to determine the Fe{sup 3+}/{summation}Fe content of the ashes, which ranged from 72% to 83%. Optical analysis of the ashes indicated that the spinel, encompassing iron oxides of various compositions, ranges from 4.0 to 12.6% (vol.). Moessbauer analyses confirmed the presence of three Fe-bearing phases: magnetite, hematite (possibly of two different compositions), and glass. The variation in the Fe-oxidation state follows the variation in the sulfur, consequently pyrite, content of the feed coal.

  19. Near-frictionless carbon coatings for use in fuel injectors and pump systems operating with low-sulfur diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdemir, A.; Ozturk, O.; Alzoubi, M.; Woodford, J.; Ajayi, L.; Fenske, G.

    2000-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    While sulfur in diesel fuels helps reduce friction and prevents wear and galling in fuel pump and injector systems, it also creates environmental pollution in the form of hazardous particulates and SO{sub 2} emissions. The environmental concern is the driving force behind industry's efforts to come up with new alternative approaches to this problem. One such approach is to replace sulfur in diesel fuels with other chemicals that would maintain the antifriction and antiwear properties provided by sulfur in diesel fuels while at the same time reducing particulate emissions. A second alternative might be to surface-treat fuel injection parts (i.e., nitriding, carburizing, or coating the surfaces) to reduce or eliminate failures associated with the use of low-sulfur diesel fuels. This research explores the potential usefulness of a near-frictionless carbon (NFC) film developed at Argonne National Laboratory in alleviating the aforementioned problems. The lubricity of various diesel fuels (i.e., high-sulfur, 500 ppm; low sulfur, 140 ppm; ultra-clean, 3 ppm; and synthetic diesel or Fischer-Tropsch, zero sulfur) were tested by using both uncoated and NFC-coated 52100 steel specimens in a ball-on-three-disks and a high-frequency reciprocating wear-test rig. The test program was expanded to include some gasoline fuels as well (i.e., regular gasoline and indolene) to further substantiate the usefulness of the NFC coatings in low-sulfur gasoline environments. The results showed that the NFC coating was extremely effective in reducing wear and providing lubricity in low-sulfur or sulfur-free diesel and gasoline fuels. Specifically, depending on the wear test rig, test pair, and test media, the NFC films were able to reduce wear rates of balls and flats by factors of 8 to 83. These remarkable reductions in wear rates raise the prospect for using the ultra slick carbon coatings to alleviate problems that will be caused by the use of low sulfur diesel and gasoline fuels. Surfaces of the wear scars and tracks were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, and by Raman spectroscopy.

  20. Iron-based alloys with corrosion resistance to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Natesan, K.

    1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An iron-based alloy with improved performance with exposure to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases with the alloy containing about 9--30 wt. % Cr and a small amount of Nb and/or Zr implanted on the surface of the alloy to diffuse a depth into the surface portion, with the alloy exhibiting corrosion resistance to the corrosive gases without bulk addition of Nb and/or Zr and without heat treatment at temperatures of 1000--1100 C. 7 figs.

  1. Iron-based alloys with corrosion resistance to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Natesan, Krishnamurti (Naperville, IL)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An iron-based alloy with improved performance with exposure to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases with the alloy containing about 9-30 wt. % Cr and a small amount of Nb and/or Zr implanted on the surface of the alloy to diffuse a depth into the surface portion, with the alloy exhibiting corrosion resistance to the corrosive gases without bulk addition of Nb and/or Zr and without heat treatment at temperatures of 1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.

  2. Sulfur Iodine Process Summary for the Hydrogen Technology Down-Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin Russ

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the sulfur-iodine (SI) thermochemical water splitting process for the purpose of supporting the process for evaluating and recommending a hydrogen production technology to deploy with the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). This package provides the baseline process description as well as a comparison with the process as it was implemented in the Integrated Lab Scale (ILS) experiment conducted at General Atomics from 2006-2009.

  3. Frataxin (FXN) Based Regulation of the Iron-Sulfur Cluster Assembly Complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabb, Jennifer

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    ASSEMBLY ........................................................................... 25 II FRIENDREICH?S ATAXIA VARIANTS I154F AND W155R DIMINISH FRATAXIN-BASED ACTIVATION OF THE HUMAN IRON SULFUR CLUSTER ASSEMBLY COMPLEX... with permission from Darius J. R. Lane and Des R. Richardson (2010) Frataxin, a molecule of mystery: trading stability for function in its iron-binding site Biochem. J., 426(2) e1-e3. Copyright the Biochemical Society....................................... 12...

  4. EVALUATION OF PROTON-CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR USE IN A SULFUR-DIOXIDE DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.; Elvington, M.; Colon-Mercado, H.

    2009-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemical stability, sulfur dioxide transport, ionic conductivity, and electrolyzer performance have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for use in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). The SDE's function is to produce hydrogen by using the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, a sulfur based electrochemical/thermochemical hybrid cycle. Membrane stability was evaluated using a screening process where each candidate PEM was heated at 80 C in 60 wt. % H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 24 hours. Following acid exposure, chemical stability for each membrane was evaluated by FTIR using the ATR sampling technique. Membrane SO{sub 2} transport was evaluated using a two-chamber permeation cell. SO{sub 2} was introduced into one chamber whereupon SO{sub 2} transported across the membrane into the other chamber and oxidized to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at an anode positioned immediately adjacent to the membrane. The resulting current was used to determine the SO{sub 2} flux and SO{sub 2} transport. Additionally, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were prepared from candidate membranes to evaluate ionic conductivity and selectivity (ionic conductivity vs. SO{sub 2} transport) which can serve as a tool for selecting membranes. MEAs were also performance tested in a HyS electrolyzer measuring current density versus a constant cell voltage (1V, 80 C in SO{sub 2} saturated 30 wt% H2SO{sub 4}). Finally, candidate membranes were evaluated considering all measured parameters including SO{sub 2} flux, SO{sub 2} transport, ionic conductivity, HyS electrolyzer performance, and membrane stability. Candidate membranes included both PFSA and non-PFSA polymers and polymer blends of which the non-PFSA polymers, BPVE-6F and PBI, showed the best selectivity.

  5. The effect of sulfur, magnesium, and various rates of potassium on forage production in some sandy soils of East Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landua, Dennis Paul

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF SULFUR, MAGNESIUM, AND VARIOUS RATES OF POTASSIUM ON FORAGE PRODUCTION IN SOME SANDy SOILS OF EAST TEXAS A Thesis by DENNIS PAUL LANDUA Submitted to the Graduate Collccje of Texas AFM Unive, sity in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Ma 1969 Major Subject Soil Chemistr THE EFFECT OF SULFUR, MAGNESIUM, AND VARIOUS RATES OF POTASSIUM ON FORAGE PRODUCTION IN SOME SANDY SOILS OF EAST TEXAS A Thesis by DENNIS PAUL LANDUA Approved...

  6. Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers by Dry Removal with Lime and Limestone Sorbants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, M. H.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sulfur content is highly dependent upon coal type. In gen~ral, conventional coal cleaning does not effect sufficient sulfur reduction to permit combustion without! i additional flue gas desulfurization. Several novel technologies now under development..., or equilibrium limita tions requires that super stoichiometric quantities of CaO be charged to the boiler. Operationally the introduction of large amounts of calcium additive can pose increased problems due to slagging and fouling in the combustion chamber...

  7. NiW and NiRu Bimetallic Catalysts for Ethylene Steam Reforming: Alternative Mechanisms for Sulfur Resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rangan, M.; Yung, M. M.; Medlin, J. W.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous investigations of Ni-based catalysts for the steam reforming of hydrocarbons have indicated that the addition of a second metal can reduce the effects of sulfur poisoning. Two systems that have previously shown promise for such applications, NiW and NiRu, are considered here for the steam reforming of ethylene, a key component of biomass derived tars. Monometallic and bimetallic Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported Ni and W catalysts were employed for ethylene steam reforming in the presence and absence of sulfur. The NiW catalysts were less active than Ni in the absence of sulfur, but were more active in the presence of 50 ppm H{sub 2}S. The mechanism for the W-induced improvements in sulfur resistance appears to be different from that for Ru in NiRu. To probe reasons for the sulfur resistance of NiRu, the adsorption of S and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} on several bimetallic NiRu alloy surfaces ranging from 11 to 33 % Ru was studied using density functional theory (DFT). The DFT studies reveal that sulfur adsorption is generally favored on hollow sites containing Ru. Ethylene preferentially adsorbs atop the Ru atom in all the NiRu (111) alloys investigated. By comparing trends across the various bimetallic models considered, sulfur adsorption was observed to be correlated with the density of occupied states near the Fermi level while C{sub 2}H{sub 4} adsorption was correlated with the number of unoccupied states in the d-band. The diverging mechanisms for S and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} adsorption allow for bimetallic surfaces such as NiRu that enhance ethylene binding without accompanying increases in sulfur binding energy. In contrast, bimetallics such as NiSn and NiW appear to decrease the affinity of the surface for both the reagent and the poison.

  8. Development of viable solutions for the synthesis of sulfur bearing single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Xiao; Budko, Sergey; Canfield, Paul

    2012-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The discovery of high temperature superconductivity in FeAs and FeSe based compounds has once again focused the condensed matter community on the need to systematically explore compounds containing chalcogens and pnictogens. Whereas some solution growth techniques have been developed to handle P and As, and Sb and Bi are versatile solvents in their own right, S has remained a problematic element to incorporate into conventional solution growth. To a large extent its low boiling point, combined with its polymeric nature in a molten state have made S an uninviting solvent. In this paper we present our development of a range of binary sulfur bearing solutions (some even sulfur rich) and demonstrate how we have been able to use these as useful starting points for the growth of a wide range of transition metalsulfurX ternary compounds. We present growth details and basic characterization data for Ni{sub 3}Bi{sub 2}S{sub 2}, Co{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}S{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}GeS{sub 4}, CoSSb, and CePd{sub 3}S{sub 4}. In addition we present a remarkably simple method for the growth of single crystalline Co with crystallization taking place below the Curie temperature.

  9. Formation of Large Polysulfide Complexes during the Lithium-Sulfur Battery Discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Bin [Vanderbilt University, Nashville; Alhassan, Saeed M. [The Petroleum Institute; Pantelides, Sokrates T [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur cathodes have much larger capacities than transition-metal-oxide cathodes used in commercial lithium-ion batteries but suffer from unsatisfactory capacity retention and long-term cyclability. Capacity degradation originates from soluble lithium polysulfides gradually diffusing into the electrolyte. Understanding of the formation and dynamics of soluble polysulfides during the discharging process at the atomic level remains elusive, which limits further development of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Here we report first-principles molecular dynamics simulations and density functional calculations, through which the discharging products of Li-S batteries are studied. We find that, in addition to simple Li2Sn (1 n 8) clusters generated from single cyclooctasulfur (S8) rings, large Li-S clusters form by collectively coupling several different rings to minimize the total energy. At high lithium concentration, a Li-S network forms at the sulfur surfaces. The results can explain the formation of the soluble Li-S complex, such as Li2S8, Li2S6, and Li2S4, and the insoluble Li2S2 and Li2S structures. In addition, we show that the presence of oxygen impurities in graphene, particularly oxygen atoms bonded to vacancies and edges, may stabilize the lithium polysulfides that may otherwise diffuse into the electrolyte.

  10. HYBRID SULFUR FLOWSHEETS USING PEM ELECTROLYSIS AND A BAYONET DECOMPOSITION REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M; William Summers, W

    2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A conceptual design is presented for a Hybrid Sulfur process for the production of hydrogen using a high-temperature nuclear heat source to split water. The process combines proton exchange membrane-based SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolyzer technology being developed at Savannah River National Laboratory with silicon carbide bayonet decomposition reactor technology being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Both are part of the US DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. The flowsheet otherwise uses only proven chemical process components. Electrolyzer product is concentrated from 50 wt% sulfuric acid to 75 wt% via recuperative vacuum distillation. Pinch analysis is used to predict the high-temperature heat requirement for sulfuric acid decomposition. An Aspen Plus{trademark} model of the flowsheet indicates 340.3 kJ high-temperature heat, 75.5 kJ low-temperature heat, 1.31 kJ low-pressure steam, and 120.9 kJ electric power are consumed per mole of H{sub 2} product, giving an LHV efficiency of 35.3% (41.7% HHV efficiency) if electric power is available at a conversion efficiency of 45%.

  11. Resistance of biofilm-covered mortars to microbiologically influenced deterioration simulated by sulfuric acid exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soleimani, Sahar, E-mail: ssoleima@connect.carleton.ca; Isgor, O. Burkan, E-mail: burkan_isgor@carleton.ca; Ormeci, Banu, E-mail: banu_ormeci@carleton.ca

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Following the reported success of biofilm applications on metal surfaces to inhibit microbiologically influenced corrosion, effectiveness and sustainability of E. coli DH5? biofilm on mortar surface to prevent microbiologically influenced concrete deterioration (MICD) are investigated. Experiments simulating microbial attack were carried out by exposing incrementally biofilm-covered mortar specimens to sulfuric acid solutions with pH ranging from 3 to 6. Results showed that calcium concentration in control reactors without biofilm was 2347% higher than the reactors with biofilm-covered mortar. Formation of amorphous silica gel as an indication of early stages of acid attack was observed only on the control mortar specimens without biofilm. During acidification, the biofilm continued to grow and its thickness almost doubled from ? 30 ?m before acidification to ? 60 ?m after acidification. These results demonstrated that E. coli DH5? biofilm was able to provide a protective and sustainable barrier on mortar surfaces against medium to strong sulfuric acid attack. -- Highlights: Effectiveness of E.coli DH5? biofilm to prevent MICD was studied. Conditions that lead to MICD were simulated by chemical acidification. Biofilm-covered mortar specimens were exposed to sulfuric acid solutions. The presence of biofilm helped reduce the chemically-induced mortar deterioration. Biofilm remained alive and continued to grow during the acidification process.

  12. Effects of paleolatitude on coal quality - model for organic sulfur distribution in US coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Affolter, R.H.; Stricker, G.D.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the conterminous US, most Carboniferous peats accumulated at latitudes of 0/degrees/-15/degrees/S, Cretaceous Rocky Mountain province peats at 30/degrees/-45/degrees/N, Tertiary northern Great Plains peats at 40/degrees/-55/degrees/N, and Tertiary Gulf Coast peats at 30/degrees/-40/degrees/N. Alaskan Cretaceous and Tertiary peats accumulated at latitudes above 70/degrees/N. A comparison of paleolatitudes calculated from paleomagnetic poles and organic sulfur contents for more than 7000 coal samples indicates that the higher the latitude in which a peat swamp developed, the lower the mean organic sulfur content of the subsequent coal (correlation coefficient - 0.4; significant at the 99% confidence level). Mean organic sulfur contents range from 0.90% (range = 0.01-5.08%, standard deviation = 0.56) in low-latitude Carboniferous coal to 0.25% (range = 0.01-1.41%, standard deviation = 0.23) in high-latitude Alaskan Cretaceous and Tertiary coal.

  13. Degradation of solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects in fuels containing sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen is the main fuel for all types of fuel cells except direct methanol fuel cells. Hydrogen can be generated from all manner of fossil fuels, including coal, natural gas, diesel, gasoline, other hydrocarbons, and oxygenates (e.g., methanol, ethanol, butanol, etc.). Impurities in the fuel can cause significant performance problems and sulfur, in particular, can decrease the cell performance of fuel cells, including solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In the SOFC, the high (800-1000C) operating temperature yields advantages (e.g., internal fuel reforming) and disadvantages (e.g., material selection and degradation problems). Significant progress in reducing the operating temperature of the SOFC from ~1000 C to ~750 C may allow less expensive metallic materials to be used for interconnects and as balance of plant (BOP) materials. This paper provides insight on the material performance of nickel, ferritic steels, and nickel-based alloys in fuels containing sulfur, primarily in the form of H2S, and seeks to quantify the extent of possible degradation due to sulfur in the gas stream.

  14. The corrosion behavior of molybdenum and Hastelloy B in sulfur and sodium polysulfides at 623 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, A.P.

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was completed to determine the corrosion behavior of molybdenum and Hastelloy B, a nickel-based alloy with high molybdenum content, in sulfur and sodium polysulfides (Na/sub 2/S/sub 3/,Na/sub 2/S/sub 4/, Na/sub 2/S/sub 5/) at 623 K. In sulfur, molybdenum corrodes very slowly, with a parabolic rate constant of 3.6 x 10/sup -9/ cm s/sup -1/2/. Hastelloy B shows no measurable corrosion after 100h of exposure to sulfur. The corrosion reaction of molybdenum in Na/sub 2/S/sub 3/ is characterized by the formation of a protective film that effectively eliminates further corrosion after the first 100h of exposure. Hastelloy B, however, corrodes rapidly in Na/sub 2/S/sub 3/, with corrosion rates approaching those of pure nickel under the same conditions. After the first 4h of exposure, the kinetics for the corrosion of Hastelloy B in Na/sub 2/S/sub 3/ follows a linear rate law. The scale morphology has multiple spalled layers of NiS/sub 2/, with some crystallites of NiS/sub 2/ appearing on the leading face of the scale and between the individual scale layers. This spalling causes smaller coupons of the Hastelloy B to corrode faster than larger coupons.

  15. Encapsulation of mixed radioactive and hazardous waste contaminated incinerator ash in modified sulfur cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some of the process waste streams incinerated at various Department of Energy (DOE) facilities contain traces of both low-level radioactive (LLW) and hazardous constituents, thus yielding ash residues that are classified as mixed waste. Work is currently being performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop new and innovative materials for encapsulation of DOE mixed wastes including incinerator ash. One such material under investigation is modified sulfur cement, a thermoplastic developed by the US Bureau of Mines. Monolithic waste forms containing as much as 55 wt % incinerator fly ash from Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have been formulated with modified sulfur cement, whereas maximum waste loading for this waste in hydraulic cement is 16 wt %. Compressive strength of these waste forms exceeded 27.6 MPa. Wet chemical and solid phase waste characterization analyses performed on this fly ash revealed high concentrations of soluble metal salts including Pb and Cd, identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as toxic metals. Leach testing of the ash according to the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) resulted in concentrations of Pb and Cd above allowable limits. Encapsulation of INEL fly ash in modified sulfur cement with a small quantity of sodium sulfide added to enhance retention of soluble metal salts reduced TCLP leachate concentrations of Pb and Cd well below EPA concentration criteria for delisting as a toxic hazardous waste. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. RF driven sulfur lamp having driving electrodes which face each other

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gabor, G.; Orr, T.R.; Greene, C.M.; Crawford, D.G.; Berman, S.M.

    1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A high intensity discharge lamp without mercury is disclosed radiating a selected spectrum of which can be almost entirely in the visible range from an envelope that contains a sulfur containing substance. The lamp utilizes a signal source that generates an excitation signal that is externally coupled to the exterior surface of the envelope to excite the enclosed sulfur containing substance. Various embodiments of the lamp use electrodes adjacent the envelope to couple the excitation signal thereto with the face of the electrodes shaped to complement the shape of the exterior surface of the envelope. Two shapes discussed are spherical and cylindrical. To minimize filamentary discharges each envelope may include an elongated stem affixed to the exterior thereof whereby a rotational subsystem spins the envelope. In yet another embodiment the envelope has a Dewar configuration with two electrodes, one positioned near the external curved side surface of the body, and a second to the inner surface of the hole through the envelope. Further, the envelope may contain a backfill of a selected inert gas to assist in the excitation of lamp with that backfill at a pressure of less than 1 atmosphere, wherein the backfill pressure is directly related to the increase or decrease of peak output and inversely related to the increase and decrease of the emitted spectrum from the envelope. The emitting fill can be less than 6 mg/cc, or at least 2 mg/cc of the envelope of a sulfur containing substance. 17 figs.

  17. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash coat, and catalytic metals, to develop a regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor. The task of developing kinetic rate equations and modeling the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants will be abandoned since formulation of catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS is being in progress. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 46-570 seconds under reaction conditions to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases and evaluate their capabilities in reducing hydrogen sulfide and COS in coal gases. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,200-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-20,000-ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-27 v% hydrogen, 29-41 v% CO, 8-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of simulated coal gas mixtures to the reactor are 30 - 180 cm{sup 3}/min at 1 atm and 25 C (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio

  18. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. C. Kwon

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 130-156 seconds at 120-140 C to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases, evaluate removal capabilities of hydrogen sulfide and COS from coal gases with formulated catalysts, and develop an economic regeneration method of deactivated catalysts. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,300-3,800-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-1,900 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-21 v% hydrogen, 29-34 v% CO, 8-10 v% CO{sub 2}, 5-18 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 114-132 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-140 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 116-129 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is

  19. Lithium-sulfur batteries based on nitrogen-doped carbon and ionic liquid electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon (NC) and sulfur were used to prepare an NC/S composite cathode, which was evaluated in an ionic liquid electrolyte of 0.5 M lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in methylpropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (MPPY.TFSI) by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cycle testing. To facilitate the comparison, a C/S composite based on activated carbon (AC) without nitrogen doping was also fabricated under the same conditions as those for the NC/S composite. Compared with the AC/S composite, the NC/S composite showed enhanced activity toward sulfur reduction, as evidenced by the early onset sulfur reduction potential, higher redox current density in the CV test, and faster charge transfer kinetics as indicated by EIS measurement. At room temperature under a current density of 84 mA g-1 (C/20), the battery based on the NC/S composite exhibited higher discharge potential and an initial capacity of 1420 mAh g-1 whereas that based on the AC/S composite showed lower discharge potential and an initial capacity of 1120 mAh g-1. Both batteries showed similar capacity fading with cycling due to the intrinsic polysulfide solubility and the polysulfide shuttle mechanism; the capacity fading can be improved by further modification of the cathode.

  20. Electrochemical and metallurgical aspects of stress corrosion cracking of sensitized Alloy 600 in simulated primary water containing sulfur contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandy, R.; Kelly, K.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of sensitized Alloy 600 was investigated in aerated solutions of sodium thiosulfate containing 1.3% boric acid. Results indicate that in the borated thiosulfate solution containing 7 ppM sulfur, 5 ppM lithium as lithium hydroxide is sufficient to inhibit SCC in U-bends. The occurrence of inhibition seems to correlate to the rapid increase of pH and conductivity of the solution as a result of the lithium hydroxide addition. In the slow strain rate tests in the borated solution containing 0.7 ppM lithium as lithium hydroxide, significant SCC is observed at a sulfur level of 30 ppB, i.e., a lithium to sulfur ratio of 23. In a parallel test in 30 ppB sulfur level but without any lithium hydroxide, the SCC is more severe than that in the lithiated environment. In the constant load test on a specimen held initially at a nominal stress near the yield strength of the material, cracks continue to grow until fracture during controlled, progressive dilution of the bulk solution, leading to final lithium concentration of 1.5 ppM and sulfur concentration (as thiosulfate) of 9.6 ppB i.e., a lithium to sulfur ratio of about 156, although lithium hydroxide retards the rate of crack propagation to some extent. The crack growth rate is strongly influenced by the electrochemical potential which is primarily governed by the local crack tip chemistry.

  1. ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF CARBON DISULFIDE-OXYGEN ICES: TOWARD THE FORMATION OF SULFUR-BEARING MOLECULES IN INTERSTELLAR ICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maity, Surajit; Kaiser, Ralf I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of sulfur-bearing molecules in interstellar ices was investigated during the irradiation of carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2})-oxygen (O{sub 2}) ices with energetic electrons at 12 K. The irradiation-induced chemical processing of these ices was monitored online and in situ via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to probe the newly formed products quantitatively. The sulfur-bearing molecules produced during the irradiation were sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS). Formations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O{sub 3}) were observed as well. To fit the temporal evolution of the newly formed products and to elucidate the underlying reaction pathways, kinetic reaction schemes were developed and numerical sets of rate constants were derived. Our studies suggest that carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) can be easily transformed to carbonyl sulfide (OCS) via reactions with suprathermal atomic oxygen (O), which can be released from oxygen-containing precursors such as water (H{sub 2}O), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and/or methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) upon interaction with ionizing radiation. This investigation corroborates that carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) are the dominant sulfur-bearing molecules in interstellar ices.

  2. Kinetics of Direct Oxidation of H2S in Coal Gas to Elemental Sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced Vision 21 plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These Vision 21 plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppm and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation Vision 21 plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and 400 square cells/inch{sup 2}, {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-wash-coated monolithic catalyst, and various reactors such as a micro packed-bed reactor, a micro bubble reactor, and a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam.

  3. Characterization of fly ash from low-sulfur and high-sulfur coal sources: Partitioning of carbon and trace elements with particle size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Trimble, A.S. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research]|[Franklin County High School, Frankfort, KY (United States); Eble, C.F. [Kentucky Geological survey, Lexington, KY (United States); Palmer, C.A.; Kolker, A. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash samples were collected in November and December of 1994, from generating units at a Kentucky power station using high- and low-sulfur feed coals. The samples are part of a two-year study of the coal and coal combustion byproducts from the power station. The ashes were wet screened at 100, 200, 325, and 500 mesh (150, 75, 42, and 25 {micro}m, respectively). The size fractions were then dried, weighed, split for petrographic and chemical analysis, and analyzed for ash yield and carbon content. The low-sulfur heavy side and light side ashes each have a similar size distribution in the November samples. In contrast, the December fly ashes showed the trend observed in later months, the light-side ash being finer (over 20% more ash in the {minus}500 mesh [{minus}25 {micro}m] fraction) than the heavy-side ash. Carbon tended to be concentrated in the coarse fractions in the December samples. The dominance of the {minus}325 mesh ({minus}42 {micro}m) fractions in the overall size analysis implies, though, that carbon in the fine sizes may be an important consideration in the utilization of the fly ash. Element partitioning follows several patterns. Volatile elements, such as Zn and As, are enriched in the finer sizes, particularly in fly ashes collected at cooler, light-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) temperatures. The latter trend is a function of precipitation at the cooler-ESP temperatures and of increasing concentration with the increased surface area of the finest fraction. Mercury concentrations are higher in high-carbon fly ashes, suggesting Hg adsorption on the fly ash carbon. Ni and Cr are associated, in part, with the spinel minerals in the fly ash.

  4. Alaska has 4. 0 trillion tons of low-sulfur coal: Is there a future for this resource

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stricker, G.D. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA))

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The demand for and use of low-sulfur coal may increase because of concern with acid rain. Alaska's low-sulfur coal resources can only be described as enormous: 4.0 trillion tons of hypothetical onshore coal. Mean total sulfur content is 0.34% (range 0.06-6.6%, n = 262) with a mean apparent rank of subbituminous B. There are 50 coal fields in Alaska; the bulk of the resources are in six major fields or regions: Nenana, Cook Inlet, Matanuska, Chignik-Herendeen Bay, North Slope, and Bering River. For comparison, Carboniferous coals in the Appalachian region and Interior Province have a mean total sulfur content of 2.3% (range 0.1-19.0%, n = 5,497) with a mean apparent rank of high-volatile A bituminous coal, and Rocky Mountain and northern Great Plains Cretaceous and Tertiary coals have a mean total sulfur content of 0.86% (range 0.02-19.0%, n = 2,754) with a mean apparent rank of subbituminous B. Alaskan coal has two-fifths the total sulfur of western US coals and one-sixth that of Carboniferous US coals. Even though Alaska has large resources of low-sulfur coal, these resources have not been developed because of (1) remote locations and little infrastructure, (2) inhospitable climate, and (3) long distances to potential markets. These resources will not be used in the near future unless there are some major, and probably violent, changes in the world energy picture.

  5. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control. Topical report for Subtask 3.1, In-bed sulfur capture tests; Subtask 3.2, Electrostatic desulfurization; Subtask 3.3, Microbial desulfurization and denitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States); Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This topical report on ``Sulfur Control`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT`s electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

  6. affects body weight: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    weight perceptions may be influ- enced by food habits and food environments, nutritional knowledge, cultural norms and expectations and mass media Mikolajczyk, Rafael T; Maxwell,...

  7. Light weight and economical exhaust heat exchanger for waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    exhaust heat exchanger for waste heat recovery using mixed radiant and convective heat transfer Light weight and economical exhaust heat exchanger for waste heat recovery...

  8. Instrument Development and Measurements of the Atmospheric Pollutants Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrate Radical, and Nitrous Acid by Cavity Ring-down Spectroscopy and Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medina, David Salvador

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A. , A method of nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxidedetermination of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide in theDOAS) have measured nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitrate

  9. On the Subject of Analyzing Iron and Sulfur Bearing Minerals from Three Extreme Environments| Geological Carbon Sequestration, Acid Mine Drainage, and Mars.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sklute, Elizabeth Christ

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? The global iron and sulfur cycles are linked to some of the most ancient metabolisms on our planet, and, therefore, possibly other planetary bodies. (more)

  10. Journal of Catalysis 212, 201-206 (2002) doi: 10.1 oo6/jcat.2002.3788

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Jack

    Catalytic hydrotreating bas become an important pro- cess for removal of sulfur and nitrogen tram petroleum the hydrotreating process removes sulfur and nitrogen simultaneously, nitrogen com- pounds are maTe resistant than

  11. INVESTIGATION OF MIXED METAL SORBENT/CATALYSTS FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS REMOVAL OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN OXIDES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu

    2000-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4}-air mixtures.

  12. INVESTIGATION OF MIXED METAL SORBENT/CATALYSTS FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS REMOVAL OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN OXIDES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu

    1999-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded research of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4} air mixtures.

  13. Investigation of mixed metal sorbent/catalysts for the simultaneous removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

    1999-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4}-air mixtures.

  14. Coal Cleaning Using Resonance Disintegration for Mercury and Sulfur Reduction Prior to Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Lucero

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal-cleaning processes have been utilized to increase the heating value of coal by extracting ash-forming minerals in the coal. These processes involve the crushing or grinding of raw coal followed by physical separation processes, taking advantage of the density difference between carbonaceous particles and mineral particles. In addition to the desired increase in the heating value of coal, a significant reduction of the sulfur content of the coal fed to a combustion unit is effected by the removal of pyrite and other sulfides found in the mineral matter. WRI is assisting PulseWave to develop an alternate, more efficient method of liberating and separating the undesirable mineral matter from the carbonaceous matter in coal. The approach is based on PulseWave's patented resonance disintegration technology that reduces that particle size of materials by application of destructive resonance, shock waves, and vortex generating forces. Illinois No.5 coal, a Wyodak coal, and a Pittsburgh No.8 coal were processed using the resonance disintegration apparatus then subjected to conventional density separations. Initial microscopic results indicate that up to 90% of the pyrite could be liberated from the coal in the machine, but limitations in the density separations reduced overall effectiveness of contaminant removal. Approximately 30-80% of the pyritic sulfur and 30-50% of the mercury was removed from the coal. The three coals (both with and without the pyritic phase separated out) were tested in WRI's 250,000 Btu/hr Combustion Test Facility, designed to replicate a coal-fired utility boiler. The flue gases were characterized for elemental, particle bound, and total mercury in addition to sulfur. The results indicated that pre-combustion cleaning could reduce a large fraction of the mercury emissions.

  15. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammel, C.J.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines the shipping regulations that govern the shipment of dangerous goods. Since the elemental sodium contained in both sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries is classified as a dangerous good, and is listed on both the national and international hazardous materials listings, both national and international regulatory processes are considered in this report The interrelationships as well as the differences between the two processes are highlighted. It is important to note that the transport regulatory processes examined in this report are reviewed within the context of assessing the necessary steps needed to provide for the domestic and international transport of sodium-beta batteries. The need for such an assessment was determined by the Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) of the EV Battery Readiness Working Group (Working Group), created in 1990. The Working Group was created to examine the regulatory issues pertaining to in-vehicle safety, shipping, and recycling of sodium-sulfur batteries, each of which is addressed by a sub-working group. The mission of the SSWG is to establish basic provisions that will ensure the safe and efficient transport of sodium-beta batteries. To support that end, a proposal to the UN Committee of Experts was prepared by the SSWG, with the goal of obtaining a proper shipping name and UN number for sodium-beta batteries and to establish the basic transport requirements for such batteries (see the appendix for the proposal as submitted). It is emphasized that because batteries are large articles containing elemental sodium and, in some cases, sulfur, there is no existing UN entry under which they can be classified and for which modal transport requirements, such as the use of packaging appropriate for such large articles, are provided for. It is for this reason that a specific UN entry for sodium-beta batteries is considered essential.

  16. Synergistic capture mechanisms for alkali and sulfur species from combustion. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, T.W.; Shadman, F.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Mwabe, P.O.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental work was carried out on a 17 kW, 600 cm long, gas laboratory combustor, to investigate the post flame reactive capture of alkali species by kaolinite. Emphasis was on alkali/sorbent interactions occurring in flue gas at temperatures above the alkali dewpoint and on the formation of water insoluble reaction products. Time-temperature studies were carried out by injecting kaolinite at different axial points along the combustor. The effect of chlorine and sulfur on alkali capture was investigated by doping the flame with SO{sub 2} and Cl{sub 2} gases to simulate coal flame environments. Particle time and temperature history was kept as close as possible to that which would ordinarily be found in a practical boiler. Experiments designed to extract apparent initial reaction rates were carried using a narrow range, 1-2 {mu}m modal size sorbent, while, a coarse, multi size sorbent was used to investigate the governing transport mechanisms. The capture reaction has been proposed to be between alkali hydroxide and activated kaolinite, and remains so in the presence of sulfur and chlorine. The presence of sulfur reduces sodium capture by under 10% at 1300{degree}C. Larger reductions at lower temperatures are attributed to the elevated dewpoint of sodium ({approximately}850{degree}C) with subsequent reduction in sorbent residence time in the alkali gas phase domain. Chlorine reduces sodium capture by 30% across the temperature range covered by the present experiments. This result has been linked to thermodynamic equilibria between sodium hydroxide, sodium chloride and water.

  17. Influence of Age, Type and Fertility in Rambouillet Ewes on Fineness of Fibers, Fleece Weight, Staple Length, and Body Weight.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, R.E.; Warwick, B.L.; Davis, S. P; Dameron, W. H.; Jones, J. M. (John McKinley)

    1944-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - - PEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR College Station. Texas BULLETIN NO. 657 AUGUST 1944 ' INFLUENCE OF AGE, TYPE AND FERTILITY IN RAMBOUILLET EWES ON FINENESS I 1 OF FIBER, FLEECE WEIGHT, STAPLE LENGTH... type in Rambouillet ewes on fleece weight, length staple, fineness of fiber and body weight. Heaviest scoured fleeces .e produced during the third age year, however when considered on rer an unscoured or scoured basis the differences in production...

  18. Treatability study on the use of by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan for the stabilization of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalb, P.D.; Milian, L.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Environmental and Waste Technology Center; Yim, S.P. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. (Korea, Republic of); Dyer, R.S.; Michaud, W.R. [Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Republic of Kazakhstan generates significant quantities of excess elemental sulfur from the production and refining of petroleum reserves. In addition, the country also produces hazardous, and radioactive wastes which require treatment/stabilization. In an effort to find secondary uses for the elemental sulfur, and simultaneously produce a material which could be used to encapsulate, and reduce the dispersion of harmful contaminants into the environment, BNL evaluated the use of the sulfur polymer cement (SPC) produced from by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan. This thermoplastic binder material forms a durable waste form with low leaching properties and is compatible with a wide range of waste types. Several hundred kilograms of Kazakhstan sulfur were shipped to the US and converted to SPC (by reaction with 5 wt% organic modifiers) for use in this study. A phosphogypsum sand waste generated in Kazakhstan during the purification of phosphate fertilizer was selected for treatment. Waste loadings of 40 wt% were easily achieved. Waste form performance testing included compressive strength, water immersion, and Accelerated Leach Testing.

  19. Treatability study on the use of by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan for the stabilization of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yim, Sung Paal; Kalb, P.D.; Milian, L.W.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Republic of Kazakhstan generates significant quantities of excess sulfur from the production and refining of petroleum reserves. In addition, the country also produces hazardous, and radioactive wastes which require treatment/stabilization. In an effort to find secondary uses for the elemental sulfur, and simultaneously produce a material which could be used to encapsulate, and reduce the dispersion of harmful contaminants into the environment, BNL evaluated the use of the sulfur polymer cement (SPC) produced from by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan. This thermoplastic binder material forms a durable waste form with low leaching properties and is compatible with a wide range of waste types. Several hundred kilograms of Kazakhstan sulfur were shipped to the U.S. and converted to SPC (by reaction with 5 wt% organic modifiers) for use in this study. A phosphogypsum sand waste generated in Kazakhstan during the purification of phosphate fertilizer was selected for treatment. Waste loading of 40 wt% were easily achieved. Waste form performance testing included compressive strength, water immersion, and Accelerated Leach Testing. 14 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Clarification of C-S relationships of marine black shales using stable isotopic composition of reduced sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaback, D.A.; Pratt, L.M. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon-sulfur relationships are compared for the Miocene Monterey Formation (Santa Maria Basin, California) and the Upper Devonian New Albany Shale (Illinois Basin, Indiana). In both formations, C-S concentrations covary for samples with the lower to more intermediate organic carbon concentrations and become invariant at higher organic carbon concentrations. While the similarity of these relationships in Monterey and New Albany suggest sulfur diagenesis occurred in similar depositional environments, sulfur isotopic data clearly indicate differences in the depositional environments. In the Monterey, the most organic-rich laminated shales are characterized by isotopic enrichment of reduced S and low S ratios and indicate that sulfate reduction occurred under sulfate-limited conditions within the sediments. In the New Albany, organic-rich laminated shales exhibit isotopic depletion of reduced S coupled with low S[sub reduced]/C[sub org] and suggest sulfur diagenesis occurred under euxinic conditions. These data show that in the absence of sulfur isotopic data, misleading conclusions concerning depositional environments can be made when using C-S plots and the traditional interpretations that are associated with these types of plots.

  1. VHF EPR quantitation and speciation of organic sulfur in coal. Technical report, September 1, 1993--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarkson, R.B.; Belford, R.L. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the last few years, we have developed a non-destructive technique called Very High Frequency Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (VHF-EPR) that is proving to be a practical and very sensitive analytical method for the organic sulfur in coal. Already, although still under development, the technique rapidly can quantify organic sulfur, and perhaps provide information on organic oxygen and nitrogen, in typical Illinois coals. At this stage, the precision is not well enough calibrated, and specificity for particular species needs more development. This year`s proposal outlined a 12 month work plan designed to improve and extend the utility of VHF-EPR. Two main goals of the work are: (1) refinement and calibration of organic sulfur analysis, in coals of differing rank, over a concentration range from 0.1% to 5%, and (2) better utilization of VHF-EPR coal spectral data for sulfur speciation. This quarter, goal (1) is being pursued; results will be ready to describe in a future report. Meanwhile, work toward goal (2) has produced detailed information about the VHF-EPR spectral behavior of several comparison compounds -- sulfur -- containing thiophenic fused-ring molecules.

  2. Sulfur poisoning of H/sub 2/ and CO adsorption on supported nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartholomew, C.H.; Pannell, R.B.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects of H/sub 2/S on adsorption of H/sub 2/ and CO on unsupported nickel are: H/sub 2/ adsorption at 298/sup 0/K and CO adsorption at 190/sup 0/K were lowered by presulfiding; and irreversible CO adsorption at 298/sup 0/K was decreased, whereas reversible adsorption was increased after presulfiding, the stoichiometry in the latter case suggesting the formation of Ni(CO)/sub 4/. Recent studies indicate a similar, but even more complex behavior in the case of supported nickel. These effects of sulfur poisoning on H/sub 2/ and CO adsorption on supported nickel are described and discussed.

  3. ADVANCED BYPRODUCT RECOVERY: DIRECT CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF SO2 TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert S. Weber

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its commercialization partner, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner Tufts, investigated a single-step process for direct, catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide from regenerable flue gas desulfurization processes to the more valuable elemental sulfur by-product. This development built on recently demonstrated SO{sub 2}-reduction catalyst performance at Tufts University on a DOE-sponsored program and is, in principle, applicable to processing of regenerator off-gases from all regenerable SO{sub 2}-control processes. In this program, laboratory-scale catalyst optimization work at Tufts was combined with supported catalyst formulation work at Engelhard, bench-scale supported catalyst testing at Arthur D. Little and market assessments, also by Arthur D. Little. Objectives included identification and performance evaluation of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. The catalyst formulation was improved significantly over the course of this work owing to the identification of a number of underlying phenomena that tended to reduce catalyst selectivity. The most promising catalysts discovered in the bench-scale tests at Tufts were transformed into monolith-supported catalysts at Engelhard. These catalyst samples were tested at larger scale at Arthur D. Little, where the laboratory-scale results were confirmed, namely that the catalysts do effectively reduce sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur when operated under appropriate levels of conversion and in conditions that do not contain too much water or hydrogen. Ways to overcome those limitations were suggested by the laboratory results. Nonetheless, at the end of Phase I, the catalysts did not exhibit the very stringent levels of activity or selectivity that would have permitted ready scale-up to pilot or commercial operation. Therefore, we chose not to pursue Phase II of this work which would have included further bench-scale testing, scale-up, pilot-scale (0.5 MW{sub e}) testing at conditions representative of various regenerable SO{sub 2}-control systems, preparation of a commercial process design, and development of a utility-scale demonstration plan.

  4. The vibrational and rotational structure of the 2400 to 1950 A? absorption spectrum of sulfur dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riggs, James Willborn

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    0. $ ? Vs TBE YiaUSXOKtf U ? m sm U M A L M W of thb 2400 to 1950 2 Ammwim mmmm m s u m m m a m A. BisMrtatiim % James Willbom Biggs, Jfe. Submitted to the Gra4taata Sdtotd tdt HA* Agricultural and Maofcudoal Qtlltc* %ff I'M* 3*i partial... fulfillment of' %hm r*tuir??Mi*s f?r %ift ??' m m m m m m & m s t Major Sttfejoott Rupeio* THE VIBRATIONAL AND ROTATIONAL STRUCTURE OP THE 2400 TO 1950 A ABSORPTION SPECTRUM OP SULFUR DIOXIDE A Dissertation 37 James Willborn Riggs, Jr. Approved...

  5. Nonadiabatic calculations of ultraviolet absorption cross section of sulfur monoxide: Isotopic effects on the photodissociation reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danielache, Sebastian O.; Tomoya, Suzuki; Nanbu, Shinkoh [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, Chiyoda Ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan)] [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, Chiyoda Ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Kondorsky, Alexey [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Science, Leninsky pr., 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation) [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Science, Leninsky pr., 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Institutsky per., 9, Dolgoprudny Moscow region, 141700 (Russian Federation); Tokue, Ikuo [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of the main and substituted sulfur monoxide (SO) isotopologues were calculated using R-Matrix expansion technique. Energies, transition dipole moments, and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements were calculated at MRCI/AV6Z level. The calculated absorption cross section of {sup 32}S{sup 16}O was compared with experimental spectrum; the spectral feature and the absolute value of photoabsorption cross sections are in good agreement. Our calculation predicts a long lived photoexcited SO* species which causes large non-mass dependent isotopic effects depending on the excitation energy in the ultraviolet region.

  6. Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing. Final technical report, June 1993--July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erekson, E.J.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this research project was to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process, called the HSM (Hydrogen Sulfide-Methane) Process, consists of two steps that each use catalysts and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) to convert natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) to convert CS{sub 2} to gasoline-range liquids. Experimental data generated in this project were for use in evaluating the commercial potential of the process.

  7. Tellurium-Containing Conjugated Materials for Solar Cells: From Sulfur to Tellurium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park Y. S.; Kale, T.; Wu, Q.; Ocko, B.M.; Black, C.T., Grubbs, R.B.

    2013-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of diketopyrrolopyrrole(DPP)-based small molecules have been synthesized by palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions. Electron-donating moieties (benzothiophene, benzoselenophene, and benzotellurophene) are bridged by an electron-withdrawing DPP unit to generate donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) type molecules. We observe red-shifts in absorption spectra of these compounds by varying heteroatoms from sulfur to tellurium. In bulk heterojunction solar cells with [6,6]phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) as acceptor, we obtain power conversion efficiencies of 2.4% (benzothiophene), 4.1% (benzoselenophene), and 3.0% (benzotellurophene), respectively.

  8. A high-efficiency indirect lighting system utilizing the solar 1000 sulfur lamp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siminovitch, M.; Gould, C.; Page, E.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-lumen light sources represent unique challenges and opportunities for the design of practical and efficient interior lighting systems. High-output sources require a means of large-scale distribution and avoidance of high-luminance glare while providing efficient delivery. An indirect lighting system has been developed for use with a 1,000 Watt sulfur lamp that efficiently utilizes the high-output source to provide quality interior lighting. This paper briefly describes the design and initial testing of this new system.

  9. Method to improve lubricity of low-sulfur diesel and gasoline fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali

    2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for providing lubricity in fuels and lubricants includes adding a boron compound to a fuel or lubricant to provide a boron-containing fuel or lubricant. The fuel or lubricant may contain a boron compound at a concentration between about 30 ppm and about 3,000 ppm and a sulfur concentration of less than about 500 ppm. A method of powering an engine to minimize wear, by burning a fuel containing boron compounds. The boron compounds include compound that provide boric acid and/or BO.sub.3 ions or monomers to the fuel or lubricant.

  10. The effect of sulfate sulfur on the yield and chemical composition of oats, vetch, and turnips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gipson, Jack Rogers

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    agricultural Chemists (28) . Table g. Planting and harvesting dates. o ation ro Planti date arvestin ate Tyler Oats Vetch Greene Ootober il, 1957 October 11, 1957 October 11 1 7 april 19, 1958 May 7, 1958 Not harvested Oats Nacogdoohes Vetch... of sulfur ratea upon tbe production of forage oata at Kirbywille. 3850 3500 3150 2800 2450 1750 4 8 +00 350 Figure g. Effect of looation on ths produotiea of forage oats (average of all 5 treatments). s 1 = Tyler, 2 = Maoogdoohes, 3 = Q...

  11. Ultra-Low Sulfur diesel Update & Future Light Duty Diesel | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of EnergyTheTwo New EnergyofDEVELOPMENTEnergy Low Sulfur diesel Update

  12. The influence of flowable sulfur on controlled-release of NPK fertilizers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tammakrut, Somkid

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    were determined in the laboratory. Wheat plants were grown in the greenhouse to investigate N and P availability in acid and limed Lufkin soil from the urea and DAP products as well as the effect of S in a rock phosphate sulfur suspension (RP... Page Dry matter yield of wheat plant from two harvests as affected by TSP and DAP fer- tilizers incubated in acid or limed soil 6 weeks before planting. (Bars within an array having the same letters are not significantly different at P = . 05...

  13. H[sub 2]S-removal and sulfur-recovery processes using metal salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn, S.; Cairns, E.J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scrubbing a sour gas stream with a solution of copper sulfate allows the clean-up temperature to be increased from ambient to the adiabatic saturation temperature of the gas. The copper ion in solution reacts with the H[sub 2]S to produce insoluble CuS. The choice of copper sulfate was set by the very low solubility of CuS and the very rapid kinetics of the Cus formation. Since the copper sulfate solutions used are acidic, CO[sub 2] will not be co-absorbed. In a subsequent step the solid CuS is oxidized by a solution of ferric sulfate. The copper sulfate is regenerated, and elemental sulfur is formed together with ferrous sulfate. The ferrous sulfate is reoxidized to ferric sulfate using air. Since the copper sulfate and ferric solutions are regenerated, the overall reaction in this process is the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen to form sulfur. The use of copper sulfate has the further advantage that the presence of sulfuric acid, even as concentrated as 1 molar, does not inhibit the sorption of H[sub 2]S. Furthermore, the absorption reaction remains quite favorable thermodynamically over the temperature range of interest. Because the reaction goes to completion, only a single theoretical stage is required for complete H[sub 2]S removal and cocurrent gas/liquid contacting may be employed. The formation of solids precludes the use of a packed column for the contacting device. However, a venturi scrubber would be expected to perform satisfactorily. The kinetics of the oxidation of metal sulfides, in particular zinc and copper sulfide, is reported in the literature to be slow at near-ambient temperatures. The proposed process conditions for the oxidation step are different from those reported in the literature, most notably the higher temperature. The kinetics of the reaction must be studied at high temperatures and corresponding pressures. An important goal is to obtain sulfur of high purity, which is a salable product.

  14. H{sub 2}S-removal and sulfur-recovery processes using metal salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn, S.; Cairns, E.J.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scrubbing a sour gas stream with a solution of copper sulfate allows the clean-up temperature to be increased from ambient to the adiabatic saturation temperature of the gas. The copper ion in solution reacts with the H{sub 2}S to produce insoluble CuS. The choice of copper sulfate was set by the very low solubility of CuS and the very rapid kinetics of the Cus formation. Since the copper sulfate solutions used are acidic, CO{sub 2} will not be co-absorbed. In a subsequent step the solid CuS is oxidized by a solution of ferric sulfate. The copper sulfate is regenerated, and elemental sulfur is formed together with ferrous sulfate. The ferrous sulfate is reoxidized to ferric sulfate using air. Since the copper sulfate and ferric solutions are regenerated, the overall reaction in this process is the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen to form sulfur. The use of copper sulfate has the further advantage that the presence of sulfuric acid, even as concentrated as 1 molar, does not inhibit the sorption of H{sub 2}S. Furthermore, the absorption reaction remains quite favorable thermodynamically over the temperature range of interest. Because the reaction goes to completion, only a single theoretical stage is required for complete H{sub 2}S removal and cocurrent gas/liquid contacting may be employed. The formation of solids precludes the use of a packed column for the contacting device. However, a venturi scrubber would be expected to perform satisfactorily. The kinetics of the oxidation of metal sulfides, in particular zinc and copper sulfide, is reported in the literature to be slow at near-ambient temperatures. The proposed process conditions for the oxidation step are different from those reported in the literature, most notably the higher temperature. The kinetics of the reaction must be studied at high temperatures and corresponding pressures. An important goal is to obtain sulfur of high purity, which is a salable product.

  15. Sulfur Iodine Process Summary for the Hydrogen Technology Down-Selection: Process Performance Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin Russ

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the details of implementing a Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) hydrogen production plant to deploy with the Next General Nuclear Power Plant (NGNP). Technical requirements and specifications are included, and a conceptual plant design is presented. The following areas of interest are outlined in particular as a baseline for the various technology comparisons: (1) Performance Criteria - (a) Quantity of hydrogen produced, (b) Purity of hydrogen produced, (c) Flexibility to serve various applications, (d) Waste management; (2) Economic Considerations - (a) Cost of hydrogen, (b) Development costs; and (3) Risk - (a) Technical maturity of the S-I process, (b) Development risk, (c) Scale up options.

  16. The relation of body weight, egg weight, rate of production and breeding to feed efficiency for egg production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCracken, Don Frederick

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    "+ Significant at the . 01 level of probability Body Weight Gtns. White Leghorn DeKatb 1st Hyline 934 2200 2100 2000 1900 1800 1700 1600 1500 I 2 3 4 S 6 7 Periods Figure I. Average Body Weights by 4-Week Periods Av. Egg Weight Gree Wiute... Leghorn DeKalb igl Hyline 934 63 61 59 57 55 53 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Periods Figure Z. Average Egg Weighte by 4-Week Period Percent Egg Production Hen-Day White leghorn DeKatb 101 Hyline 934 76 72 68 60 56 52 2 3 4 5 6 7 Periods Figure 3...

  17. A component GARCH model with time varying weights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nesterov, Yurii

    2007/19 A component GARCH model with time varying weights Luc Bauwens and Giuseppe Storti #12;CORE DISCUSSION PAPER 2007/19 A component GARCH model with time varying weights Luc BAUWENS1 and Giuseppe STORTI2 March2007 Abstract We present a novel GARCH model that accounts for time varying, state dependent

  18. Computing Symmetrized Weight Enumerators for Lifted Quadratic Residue Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duursma, Iwan M.

    Computing Symmetrized Weight Enumerators for Lifted Quadratic Residue Codes I. M. Duursma Dept for the computation of structural parameters for ring-linear codes. This article therefore presents a method to e?ciently compute weight enumerators of linear codes over primary integer residue rings. For the lifted QR-codes

  19. Codes of constant Lee or Euclidean weight Jay A. Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Jay

    Codes of constant Lee or Euclidean weight Jay A. Wood Department of Mathematics, Computer Science & Statistics Purdue University Calumet Hammond, Indiana 46323 2094 USA wood@calumet.purdue.edu http: www.calumet.purdue.edu public math wood Abstract. Carlet 2 has determined the linear codes over Z=4 of constant Lee weight

  20. Weighted Hypothesis Testing Larry Wasserman and Kathryn Roeder1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    loss remains nearly constant. specified weights, but minute power loss for poorly specified weights; and (ii) in the non-sparse case, under weak conditions, the worst case power loss for poorly specified the potential power loss. Figure 2 shows the non-sparse case. The plots on the left show the power as a function

  1. Weighted Parametric Operational Hydrology Forecasting Thomas E. Croley II1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Weighted Parametric Operational Hydrology Forecasting Thomas E. Croley II1 1 Great Lakes forecasts in operational hydrology builds a sample of possibilities for the future, of climate series from-parametric method can be extended into a new weighted parametric hydrological forecasting technique to allow

  2. A Nonempirical Test on the Weight of Pseudorandom Number Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsumoto, Makoto

    A Nonempirical Test on the Weight of Pseudorandom Number Generators Makoto Matsumoto1 and Takuji introduce a theoretical test, named weight discrepancy test, on pseu- dorandom number generators. This test selected. This test can be performed for most generators based on a linear recursion over the two

  3. The Complexity of Weighted Boolean #CSP with Mixed Signs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bulatov, Andrei

    The Complexity of Weighted Boolean #CSP with Mixed Signs Andrei Bulatova , Martin Dyerb , Leslie constraint satisfaction problem (CSP), which corresponds to the case where all functions in have range {0, 1}. The problem we consider here is to compute the partition function of a given instance of weighted CSP; that is

  4. STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL CEC-WS-2R (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION Area Weighted Average Calculation Worksheet WS-2R Residential (Page 1 of 1) Site/Time: ____________________ HERS Provider: __________________ 2008 Residential Compliance Forms August 2009 This worksheet should

  5. Implementing Weighted Abduction in Markov Logic James Blythe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Richard

    Implementing Weighted Abduction in Markov Logic James Blythe USC ISI blythe@isi.edu Jerry R. Hobbs@cs.utexas.edu Abstract Abduction is a method for finding the best explanation for observations. Arguably the most advanced approach to abduction, especially for natural language processing, is weighted abduction, which

  6. Oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons on platinum and palladium catalysts in the presence of sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panchishnyi, V.I.; Bondareva, N.K.; Sklyarov, A.V.; Rozanov, V.V.; Chadina, G.P.

    1988-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report on a study of the effect of sulfur dioxide on the activity of platinum and palladium catalysts with respect to oxidation of the principal toxic components in the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines: carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons (propylene (C/sub 3/H/sub 6/) and propane (C/sub 3/H/sub 8/)). The experiments were carried out in a flow system equipped with Beckman infrared analyzers to monitor the concentrations of CO and hydrocarbons and of sulfur dioxide. A series of thermal desorption experiments was carried out in a low-pressure flow system with mass spectrometric analysis of the gas phase. The results indicate that the low-temperature adsorption of sulfur dioxide on platinum (and also palladium) catalysts inhibits the oxidation of carbon monoxide and propylene. The poisoning effect of O/sub 2/ is due to blockage of the platinum centers for adsorption of the oxidizable compounds and oxygen.

  7. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy as an experimental probe for S-nitroso proteins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szilagyi, Robert K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)]. E-mail: Szilagyi@Montana.EDU; Schwab, David E. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2005-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the sulfur K-edge (2.4-2.6 keV) provides a sensitive and specific technique to identify S-nitroso compounds, which have significance in nitric oxide-based cell signaling. Unique spectral features clearly distinguish the S-nitroso-form of a cysteine residue from the sulfhydryl-form or from a methionine thioether. Comparison of the sulfur K-edge spectra of thiolate, thiol, thioether, and S-nitroso thiolate compounds indicates high sensitivity of energy positions and intensities of XAS pre-edge features as determined by the electronic environment of the sulfur absorber. A new experimental setup is being developed for reaching the in vivo concentration range of S-nitroso thiol levels in biological samples.

  8. Nitrogen and Sulfur Requirements for Clostridium thermocellum and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii on Cellulosic Substrates in Minimal Nutrient Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kridelbaugh, Donna M [ORNL; Nelson, Josh C [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Growth media for cellulolytic Clostridium thermocellum and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii bacteria usually contain excess nutrients that would increase costs for consolidated bioprocessing for biofuel production and create a waste stream with nitrogen, sulfur and phosphate. C. thermocellum was grown on crystalline cellulose with varying concentrations of nitrogen and sulfur compounds, and growth rate and alcohol production response curves were determined. Both bacteria assimilated sulfate in the presence of ascorbate reductant, increasing the ratio of oxidized to reduced fermentation products. From these results, a low ionic strength, defined minimal nutrient medium with decreased nitrogen, sulfur, phosphate and vitamin supplements was developed for the fermentation of cellobiose, cellulose and acid-pretreated Populus. Carbon and electron balance calculations indicate the unidentified residual fermentation products must include highly reduced molecules. Both bacterial populations were maintained in co-cultures with substrates containing xylan or hemicellulose in defined medium with sulfate and basal vitamin supplements.

  9. INVESTIGATION OF MIXED METAL SORBENT/CATALYSTS FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS REMOVAL OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN OXIDES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtle

    2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}.

  10. Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Cheng; Xiao, Jie; Shao, Yuyan; Zheng, Jianming; Bennett, Wendy D.; Lu, Dongping; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Ji, Liwen; Zhang, Jiguang; Li, Xiaolin; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun

    2014-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have recently attracted extensive attention due to the high theoretical energy density and potential low cost. Even so, significant challenges prevent widespread adoption, including continuous dissolution and consumption of active sulfur during cycling. Here we present a fundamentally new design using electrically connected graphite and lithium metal as a hybrid anode to control undesirable surface reactions on the anode. The lithiated graphite placed in front of the lithium metal functions as an artificial self-regulated solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer to actively control the electrochemical reaction while minimizing the deleterious side reactions on the surface and bulk lithium metal. Continuous corrosion and contamination of lithium anode by dissolved polysulfides is largely mitigated. Excellent electrochemical performance has been observed. Li-S cell incorporating the hybrid design retain a capacity of more than 800 mAh g-1 for 400 cycles, corresponding to only 11% fade and a Coulombic efficiency above 99%. This simple hybrid concept may also provide new lessons for protecting metal anodes in other energy storage devices.

  11. Sulfur-Modified Zero-Valent Iron for Remediation Applications at DOE Sites - 13600

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fogwell, Thomas W. [Fogwell Consulting, P.O. Box 20221, Piedmont, CA 94620 (United States)] [Fogwell Consulting, P.O. Box 20221, Piedmont, CA 94620 (United States); Santina, Pete [SMI-PS, Inc., 2073 Prado Vista, Lincoln, CA 95648 (United States)] [SMI-PS, Inc., 2073 Prado Vista, Lincoln, CA 95648 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many DOE remediation sites have chemicals of concern that are compounds in higher oxidation states, which make them both more mobile and more toxic. The chemical reduction of these compounds both prevents the migration of these chemicals and in some cases reduces the toxicity. It has also been shown that zero-valent iron is a very effective substance to use in reducing oxygenated compounds in various treatment processes. These have included the treatment of halogenated hydrocarbons in the form volatile organic compounds used as solvents and pesticides. Zero-valent iron has also been used to reduce various oxidized metals such as chromium, arsenic, and mercury in order to immobilize them, decrease their toxicity, and prevent further transport. In addition, it has been used to immobilize or break down other non-metallic species such as selenium compounds and nitrates. Of particular interest at several DOE remediation sites is the fact that zero-valent iron is very effective in immobilizing several radioactive metals which are mobile in their oxidized states. These include both technetium and uranium. The main difficulty in using zero-valent iron has been its tendency to become inactive after relatively short periods of time. While it is advantageous to have the zero-valent iron particles as porous as possible in order to provide maximum surface area for reactions to take place, these pores can become clogged when the iron is oxidized. This is due to the fact that ferric oxide has a greater volume for a given mass than metallic iron. When the surfaces of the iron particles oxidize to ferric oxide, the pores become narrower and will eventually shut. In order to minimize the degradation of the chemical activity of the iron due to this process, a modification of zero-valent iron has been developed which prevents or slows this process, which decreases its effectiveness. It is called sulfur-modified iron, and it has been produced in high purity for applications in municipal water treatment applications. Sulfur-modified iron has been found to not only be an extremely economical treatment technology for municipal water supplies, where very large quantities of water must be treated economically, but it has also been demonstrated to immobilize technetium. It has the added benefit of eliminating several other harmful chemicals in water supplies. These include arsenic and selenium. In one large-scale evaluation study an integrated system implemented chemical reduction of nitrate with sulfur-modified iron followed by filtration for arsenic removal. The sulfur-modified iron that was used was an iron-based granular medium that has been commercially developed for the removal of nitrate, co-contaminants including uranium, vanadium and chromium, and other compounds from water. The independent study concluded that 'It is foreseen that the greatest benefit of this technology (sulfur-modified iron) is that it does not produce a costly brine stream as do the currently accepted nitrate removal technologies of ion exchange and reverse osmosis. This investigation confirmed that nitrate reduction via sulfur-modified iron is independent of the hydraulic loading rate. Future sulfur-modified iron treatment systems can be designed without restriction of the reactor vessel dimensions. Future vessels can be adapted to existing site constraints without being limited to height-to-width ratios that would exist if nitrate reduction were to depend on hydraulic loading rate'. Sulfur-modified iron was studied by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for its effectiveness in the reduction and permanent sequestration of technetium. The testing was done using Hanford Site groundwater together with sediment. The report stated, 'Under reducing conditions, TcO{sub 4} is readily reduced to TcIV, which forms highly insoluble oxides such at TcO{sub 2}.nH{sub 2}O. However, (re)oxidation of TcIV oxides can lead to remobilization. Under sulfidogenic conditions, most TcIV will be reduced and immobilized as Tc{sub 2}S{sub 7}, which is less readily re-mobilized, ev

  12. Non-LTE Abundances of Magnesium, Aluminum and Sulfur in OB Stars Near the Solar Circle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Daflon; K. Cunha; V. V. Smith; K. Butler

    2002-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-LTE abundances of magnesium, aluminum and sulfur are derived for a sample of 23 low-v \\sin i stars belonging to six northern OB associations of the Galactic disk within 1 kpc of the Sun. The abundances are obtained from the fitting of synthetic line profiles to high resolution spectra. A comparison of our results with HII region abundances indicates good agreement for sulfur while the cepheid abundances are higher. The derived abundances of Mg show good overlap with the cepheid results. The aluminum abundances for OB stars are significantly below the cepheid values. But, the OB star results show a dependence with effective temperature and need further investigation. The high Al abundances in the cepheids could be the result of mixing. A discussion of the oxygen abundance in objects near the solar circle suggests that the current mean galactic oxygen abundance in this region is 8.6-8.7 and in agreement with the recently revised oxygen abundance in the solar photosphere. Meaningful comparisons of the absolute S, Al and Mg abundances in OB stars with the Sun must await a reinvestigation of these elements, as well as the meteoritic reference element Si, with 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres for the Sun. No abundance gradients are found within the limited range in galactocentric distances in the present study. Such variations would be expected only if there were large metallicity gradients in the disk.

  13. Cathodic reduction of sulfur dioxide in nonaqueous electrolytes. polarization curves at porous Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shembel, E.M.; Danilova, N.P.; Ksenzhek, O.S.

    1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes some results obtained from studying the poloarization characteristics of cathodic sulfur dioxide reduction at porous electrodes made by applying a mixture of carbon black, graphite, and binder to a metal screen serving as current collector. Solutions of lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate and in a mixture of propylene carbonate and acetonitrile were used as the electrolytes. Some typical galvanostatic discharge curves are shown for sulfur dioxide reduction at porous electrodes. The discharge capacity increases with increasing electrode porosity and decreasing current density. One can see when comparing the curves that the discharge capacities differ substantially for highly porous electrodes which had practically the same porosity of about 70%. The effect of current density is more important in solutions with a high SO/sub 2/ concentration. The operating efficiency of porous electrodes which serve as cathodes in high power Li-SO/sub 2/ power sources can be predicted on the basis of polorization curves for the porous electrodes which reflect the influence of macrostructure on the cathodic process.

  14. 2008 GRC Iron Sulfur Enzymes-Conference to be held June 8-13, 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Cramer, Nancy Ryan Gray

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron-sulfur proteins are among the most common and ancient enzymes and electron-transfer agents in nature. They play key roles in photosynthesis, respiration, and the metabolism of small molecules such as H2, CO, and N2. The Iron Sulfur Enzyme Gordon Research Conference evolved from an earlier GRC on Nitrogen Fixation that began in 1994. The scope of the current meeting has broadened to include all enzymes or metalloproteins in which Fe-S bonds play a key role. This year's meeting will focus on the biosynthesis of Fe-S clusters, as well as the structure and mechanism of key Fe-S enzymes such as hydrogenase, nitrogenase and its homologues, radical SAM enzymes, and aconitase-related enzymes. Recent progress on the role of Fe-S enzymes in health, disease, DNA/RNA-processing, and alternative bio-energy systems will also be highlighted. This conference will assemble a broad, diverse, and international group of biologists and chemists who are investigating fundamental issues related to Fe-S enzymes, on atomic, molecular, organism, and environmental scales. The topics to be addressed will include: Biosynthesis & Genomics of Fe-S Enzymes; Fundamental Fe-S Chemistry; Hydrogen and Fe-S Enzymes; Nitrogenase & Homologous Fe-S Enzymes; Fe-S Enzymes in Health & Disease; Radical SAM and Aconitase-Related Fe-S Enzymes; Fe-S Enzymes and Synthetic Analogues in BioEnergy; and Fe-S Enzymes in Geochemistry and the Origin of Life.

  15. Molten iron oxysulfide as a superior sulfur sorbent. Final report, [September 1989--1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The studies had as original objective the analysis of conditions for using liquid iron oxysulfide as a desulfuring agent during coal gasification. Ancillary was a comparison of iron oxysulfide with lime as sorbents under conditions where lime reacts with S-bearing gases to form Ca sulfate or sulfide. Primary thrust is to determine the thermodynamic requirements for desulfurization by iron additions (e.g., taconite concentrate) during combustion in gasifiers operating at high equivalence ratios. Thermodynamic analysis of lime-oxygen-sulfur system shows why lime is injected into burners under oxidizing conditions; reducing conditions forms CaS, requiring its removal, otherwise oxidation and release of S would occur. Iron as the oxysulfide liquid has a range of stability and can be used as a desulfurizing agent, if the burner/gasifier operates in a sufficiently reducing regime (high equivalence ratio); this operating range is given and is calculable for a coal composition, temperature, stoichiometry. High moisture or hydrogen contents of the coal yield a poorer degree of desulfurization. Kinetic tests on individual iron oxide particles on substrates or Pt cups with a TGA apparatus fail to predict reaction rates within a burner. Preliminary tests on the Dynamic Containment Burner with acetylene give some promise that this system can produce the proper conditions of coal gasification for use of added iron as a sulfur sorbent.

  16. Excess carrier generation in femtosecond-laser processed sulfur doped silicon by means of sub-bandgap illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guenther, Kay-Michael, E-mail: kay-michael.guenther@efzn.de [Clausthal University of Technology, EFZN, Am Stollen 19B, 38640 Goslar (Germany); Gimpel, Thomas; Ruibys, Augustinas; Kontermann, Stefan [Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute, Am Stollen 19B, 38640 Goslar (Germany); Tomm, Jens W. [Max Born Institut, Max-Born-Strae 2A, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Winter, Stefan [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Schade, Wolfgang [Clausthal University of Technology, EFZN, Am Stollen 19B, 38640 Goslar (Germany); Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute, Am Stollen 19B, 38640 Goslar (Germany)

    2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    With Fourier-transform photocurrent spectroscopy and spectral response measurements, we show that silicon doped with sulfur by femtosecond laser irradiation generates excess carriers, when illuminated with infrared light above 1100?nm. Three distinct sub-bandgap photocurrent features are observed. Their onset energies are in good agreement with the known sulfur levels S{sup +}, S{sup 0}, and S{sub 2}{sup 0}. The excess carriers are separated by a pn-junction to form a significant photocurrent. Therefore, this material likely demonstrates the impurity band photovoltaic effect.

  17. The effects of soil type, sulfur fertility, and maturity on the pungency of 'Texas Grano 1015Y' onions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Brian Keith

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECTS OF SOIL TYPE, SULFUR FERTILITY, AND MATURITY ON THE PUNGENCY OF 'TEKAS GRANO 1015Y' ONIONS A Thesis by BRIAN KEITH HAMILTON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1994 Major Subject: Horticulture THE EFFECTS OF SOIL TYPF. , SULFUR FERTILITY, AND MATURITY ON THE PUNGENCY OF 'TEXAS GRANO I015Y' ONIONS A Thesis by BRIAN KEITH HAMILTON Submitted to Texas ASM...

  18. New Model to Predict Formation Damage due to Sulfur Deposition in Sour M.A. Mahmoud and A.A. Al-Majed, KFUPM, all SPE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Majed, Abdulaziz Abdullah

    .A. Mahmoud and A.A. Al-Majed, KFUPM, all SPE Copyright 2012, Society of Petroleum Engineers This paper result in sulfur deposition in the reservoir, wellbore and surface facilities (Hands et al. 2002 and Shedid et al. 2006). Deposition of elemental sulfur in the near-wellbore region may significantly reduce

  19. abragam-pound theory: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and mutlilinear algebra. George Svetlichny 1999-03-12 450 Benchmarking Nuclear Fission Theory Nuclear Experiment (arXiv) Summary: We suggest a small set of fission observables...

  20. VOLUME & VALUE OF CATCH BY REGIONS 1970 Million Pounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .7 million; in 1969, $580.8 million. There were record packs of tuna, shrimp, and animal (pet) food. Recorded, and retail. In 1970, demand for fiShery products was strong. Both consumption and prices rose. On the average

  1. Emergency Operations donates more than 357 pounds of food | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    2013 (18) August 2013 (17) July 2013 (20) June 2013 (19) May 2013 (25) April 2013 (17) March 2013 (23) February 2013 (22) January 2013 (21) December 2012 (19) November 2012 (19)...

  2. APPRECIATING POUND The Confucian Odes. The Classic An-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franklin, James

    have ignored is the fact that nearly fifty years have passed since Cathay began to appear dowr. this road, muddy and slow, hungry and thirsty and blue as doubt (no one feels half of what we

  3. High frequency Pound-Drever-Hall optical ring resonator sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chambers, James Paul

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    ............................................................................................. 25 Sandia Ring Resonator.................................................................................. 26 Nomadics Little Optics Ring Resonator........................................................ 28 Group Delay..................................................................................................... 29 Laser and Optical Amplification................................................................... 30 5. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP................................................................................. 34 Environmental Test...

  4. High frequency Pound-Drever-Hall optical ring resonator sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chambers, James Paul

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ............................................................................................. 25 Sandia Ring Resonator.................................................................................. 26 Nomadics Little Optics Ring Resonator........................................................ 28 Group Delay..................................................................................................... 29 Laser and Optical Amplification................................................................... 30 5. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP................................................................................. 34 Environmental Test...

  5. Site Recycles Millions of Pounds of Metal | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartment of Energyof the Americas |DOE FormerEnergy Data Access|

  6. Melter Pours 10 Millionth Pound of Glass | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGY TAX POLICIES7.pdfFuel2007Naval Reactors'InformationSOLARMedicalJulyMinutes:6064AMelter

  7. Trends and inferred emissions of atmospheric high molecular weight perfluorocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivy, Diane Jean

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric observations and atmospheric observation-based global emission estimates are presented for the five high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs): decafluorobutane (C 4 F 1 0 ), dodecafluoropentane (C5 F1 2 ), ...

  8. Optimization of parameters for coverage of low molecular weight proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muller, Stephan A.

    Proteins with molecular weights of <25 kDa are involved in major biological processes such as ribosome formation, stress adaption (e.g., temperature reduction) and cell cycle control. Despite their importance, the coverage ...

  9. Human Growth and Body Weight Dynamics: An Integrative Systems Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahmandad, Hazhir

    Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and ...

  10. RELATIVE ONE-WEIGHT LINEAR CODES JAY A. WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Jay

    RELATIVE ONE-WEIGHT LINEAR CODES JAY A. WOOD In memory of Professor F. E. P. Hirzebruch, 17 October University. 1 #12;2 JAY A. WOOD G thus defines a linear functional (a "coordinate functional") on the k

  11. An improved method for weighted least squares IIR filter design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davila-Pazmino, Javier

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, a new method for IIR weighted least squares filter design has been proposed. In this method, the problem of approximating a desired frequency response using a rational function is solved using an iterative approach. After studying...

  12. abnormally weighting energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Is Dark Energy Abnormally Weighting? Astrophysics (arXiv) Summary: We present a new interpretation of...

  13. Approximating the Minimum Spanning Tree Weight in Sublinear Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trevisan, Luca

    Approximating the Minimum Spanning Tree Weight in Sublinear Time Bernard Chazelle #3; Ronitt a parameter 0 minimum spanning tree- components algorithm picks O(1=#15; 2 ) vertices in the graph and then grows \\local spanning trees" whose

  14. Technology Portfolio Planning by Weighted Graph Analysis of System Architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Technology Portfolio Planning by Weighted Graph Analysis of System Architectures Peter Davison and Bruce Cameron Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 Edward F. Crawley Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Skolkovo 143025, Russia Abstract5 Many systems undergo significant

  15. Weighted Flow Algorithms (WFA) for stochastic particle coagulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVille, R.E.L., E-mail: rdeville@illinois.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1409 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Riemer, N., E-mail: nriemer@illinois.edu [Department of Atmospheric Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 105 S. Gregory Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); West, M., E-mail: mwest@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Stochastic particle-resolved methods are a useful way to compute the time evolution of the multi-dimensional size distribution of atmospheric aerosol particles. An effective approach to improve the efficiency of such models is the use of weighted computational particles. Here we introduce particle weighting functions that are power laws in particle size to the recently-developed particle-resolved model PartMC-MOSAIC and present the mathematical formalism of these Weighted Flow Algorithms (WFA) for particle coagulation and growth. We apply this to an urban plume scenario that simulates a particle population undergoing emission of different particle types, dilution, coagulation and aerosol chemistry along a Lagrangian trajectory. We quantify the performance of the Weighted Flow Algorithm for number and mass-based quantities of relevance for atmospheric sciences applications.

  16. Feasibility of reconstructing paleoatmospheric records of selected alkanes, methyl halides, and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saltzman, Eric

    , and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores M. Aydin,1 M. B. Williams,1 and E. S. Saltzman1 Received 7-lived atmospheric trace gases were measured in 25 ice core samples from Summit, Greenland. Samples were selected. The CH3Br results are consistent with previous observations of ``excess'' CH3Br in Greenland firn air

  17. Enhanced Intersystem Crossing Rate in Polymethine-Like Molecules: Sulfur-Containing Squaraines versus Oxygen-Containing Analogues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Stryland, Eric

    characterization includes absorption, fluorescence, quantum yield, anisotropy, and singlet oxygen generation versus Oxygen-Containing Analogues Davorin Peceli, Honghua Hu, Dmitry A. Fishman, Scott Webster, Olga V of new squaraine molecules, where one or two oxygen atoms in a squaraine bridge are replaced with sulfur

  18. Steam-Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litster, Shawn

    looping gasification using a calcium oxide-carbonate cycle, in which a pure stream of CO2 is generatedSteam-Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture Nicholas S. Siefert operating a CaO-CaCO3 chemical looping gasification reactor. For example, the steam-coal gasification

  19. COPPER-CATALYZED CROSS-COUPLING REACTIONS: THE FORMATION OF CARBON-CARBON AND CARBON-SULFUR BONDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkataraman, Dhandapani "DV"

    COPPER-CATALYZED CROSS-COUPLING REACTIONS: THE FORMATION OF CARBON-CARBON AND CARBON-SULFUR BONDS Chemistry #12;© Copyright by Craig G. Bates 2005 All Rights Reserved #12;COPPER-CATALYZED CROSS without her. Thank You January 24, 2005 #12;vi ABSTRACT COPPER-CATALYZED CROSS-COUPLING REACTIONS

  20. May 4, 2012 Page 1 of 5 PROTOCOL FOR ON-FARM RESEARCH TO ESTABLISH SULFUR RESPONSE IN ALFALFA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Teri C.

    May 4, 2012 Page 1 of 5 PROTOCOL FOR ON-FARM RESEARCH TO ESTABLISH SULFUR RESPONSE IN ALFALFA-263-2795, laboski@wisc.edu Rationale: A statewide alfalfa plant analysis survey in 2010 and 2011 found that over 50% of alfalfa fields sampled, which had not received manure in the previous 18 months, had less than 0

  1. KINETICS OF OXIDATION OF AQUEOUS SULFUR(IV) BY NITROGEN DIOXIDE YIN-NAN LEE AND STEPHEN E. SCHWARTZ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    clarified the role of aqueous-phase production of strong acids in the atmosphere. Oxidation of dissolvedKINETICS OF OXIDATION OF AQUEOUS SULFUR(IV) BY NITROGEN DIOXIDE YIN-NAN LEE AND STEPHEN E. SCHWARTZ) are the precursors of the strong acids (i.e., HzS04 and HN03) found in precipitation,! the detailed mechanisms

  2. Direct Sulfonation of Methane to Methanesulfonic Acid by Sulfur Trioxide Catalyzed by Cerium(IV) Sulfate in the Presence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexis T.

    Direct Sulfonation of Methane to Methanesulfonic Acid by Sulfur Trioxide Catalyzed by Cerium@cchem.berkeley.edu Received: March 1, 2004; Accepted: June 12, 2004 Abstract: Direct sulfonation of methane with SO3 concentration, and methane pressure have been examined on the rate of SO3 conversion to MSA. The conversion

  3. The Effect of Flow Rate of Very Dilute Sulfuric Acid on Xylan, Lignin, and Total Mass Removal from Corn Stover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    The Effect of Flow Rate of Very Dilute Sulfuric Acid on Xylan, Lignin, and Total Mass Removal from mass, xylan, and lignin and increases cellulose digestibility compared to batch operations at otherwise at a constant residence time also significantly accelerated xylan solubilization. Although lignin removal

  4. Sulfur distribution in the oil fractions obtained by thermal cracking of Jordanian El-Lajjun oil Shale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

    by the thermal cracking process of the El-Lujjan oil shale showed that the yield of oil was around 12 wt of the boiling point for different distillate fractions. Sulfur in Jordanian oil shale was found to be mainly the dominant phases in these fractions. q 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd. 1. Introduction Oil shale

  5. Effects of reactive element additions and sulfur removal on the oxidation behavior of FECRAL alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stasik, M.C.; Pettit, F.S.; Meier, G.H. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Ashary, A. (Praxair, Indianapolis, IN (United States)); Smialek, J.L. (NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States))

    1994-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of this study have shown that desulfurization of FeCrAl alloys by hydrogen annealing can result in improvements in cyclic oxidation comparable to that achieved by doping with reactive elements. Moreover, specimens of substantial thicknesses can be effectively desulfurized because of the high diffusivity of sulfur in bcc iron alloys. The results have also shown that there is less stress generation during the cyclic oxidation of Y-doped FeCrAl compared to Ti-doped or desulfurized FeCrAl. This indicates that the growth mechanism, as well as the strength of the oxide/alloy interface, influences the ultimate oxidation morphology and stress state which will certainly affect the length of time the alumina remains protective.

  6. Sulfur poisoning of H/sub 2/ and CO adsorption on supported nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartholomew, C.H.; Pannell, R.B.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New and previously published adsorption data for hydrogen and carbon monoxide on various fresh and presulfided nickel/alumina catalysts showed that at 298/sup 0/K, the fractional hydrogen uptake decreased linearly with sulfur coverage; that irreversible adsorption of carbon monoxide was higher on sulfided than on fresh catalysts at 190/sup 0/, 273/sup 0/, and 300/sup 0/K, probably as a result of nickel tetracarbonyl formation; and that substantial amounts of nickel tetracarbonyl were formed in the gas phase in the presence of sulfided catalysts, which caused significant loss of nickel. The formation of the nickel tetracarbonyl probably proceeded via stable subcarbonyl species. At carbon monoxide pressures of < 1 mm Hg, no carbon monoxide absorbed at room temperature, but at methanation temperature (473/sup 0/-673/sup 0/K), dissociative adsorption did take place. Chemisorption of carbon monoxide therefore, cannot be used to measure nickel dispersion on used catalysts.

  7. Failure of man-made cavities in salt and surface subsidence due to sulfur mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coates, G.K.; Lee, C.A.; McClain, W.C.; Senseny, P.E.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An engineering data base relevant to subsidence due to sulfur mining and to structural failure of cavities in salt is established, evaluated and documented. Nineteen failure events are discussed. Based on these documented failure events, capabilities of and inputs to a mathematical model of cavity failure are determined. Two failure events are adequately documented for use in model verification studies. A conclusion of this study that is pertinent to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve is that cavity failures in dome salt are fairly rare, but that as the number of large cavities (especially those having large roof spans) increases, failures will probably be more common unless stability and failure mechanisms of cavities are better understood.

  8. Ultraviolet photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- and nano-crystalline diamond

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mendoza, Frank; Makarov, Vladimir; Hidalgo, Arturo; Weiner, Brad; Morell, Gerardo

    2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The room-temperature photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- (MCD), submicro- (SMCD) and nano- (NCD) crystalline diamond films synthesized by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition was studied. The structure and composition of these diamond materials were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The UV sensitivity and response time were studied for the three types of diamond materials using a steady state broad UV excitation source and two pulsed UV laser radiations. It was found that they have high sensitivity in the UV region, as high as 109 sec-1mV-1 range, linear response in a broad spectral range below 320 nm, photocurrents around ~10-5 A, and short response time better than 100 ns, which is independent of fluency intensity. A phenomenological model was applied to help understand the role of defects and dopant concentration on the materials photosensitivity.

  9. VHF EPR analysis of organic sulfur in coal. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarkson, R.B.; Belford, R.L.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a report of the second quarter of a two-year investigation exploiting electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), especially novel, very high frequency (VHF) spectroscopy techniques and instrumentation (the only high-modulation W-band EPR spectrometer in the world) developed earlier by these authors, to conduct further qualitative and quantitative studies of heteroatomic organic molecules in coal with particular emphasis on sulfur. New model compounds have been prepared in EPR-active forms and surveyed with X-band EPR. Previous W-band (96 GHz) VHF-EPR work is being extended to studies of these new model compounds as well as to a variety of coal and desulfurized coal samples. Typically, the model compounds under investigation and their analogues are found in coals as stable free radicals which give rise to an EPR signal.

  10. EFFECT OF ELECTROLYZER CONFIGURATION AND PERFORMANCE ON HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS NET THERMAL EFFICIENCY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M

    2007-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid Sulfur cycle is gaining popularity as a possible means for massive production of hydrogen from nuclear energy. Several different ways of carrying out the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis step are being pursued by a number of researchers. These alternatives are evaluated with complete flowsheet simulations and on a common design basis using Aspen Plus{trademark}. Sensitivity analyses are performed to assess the performance potential of each configuration, and the flowsheets are optimized for energy recovery. Net thermal efficiencies are calculated for the best set of operating conditions for each flowsheet and the results compared. This will help focus attention on the most promising electrolysis alternatives. The sensitivity analyses should also help identify those features that offer the greatest potential for improvement.

  11. Effect of {gamma} phase on corrosive wear of duplex stainless steel in sulfuric acid solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, X.C. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). National Tribology Lab.; Li, S.Z.; Jiang, X.X.; Zhang, T.C. [Academia Sinica, Shenyang (China). Inst. of Metal Research

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A modified pin-on-ring device was used to study corrosive wear of a duplex stainless steel (DSS) containing ferrite ({alpha}) and austenite ({gamma}) phases in 1 mol/L sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) at room temperature. Different percentages of {gamma} phase in the matrix ({gamma}{sub p}) were obtained by annealing at different solution temperatures. The corrosive wear resistance of the DSS containing small amounts of {gamma} phase was shown to be greater than that of DSS containing large amounts of {gamma} phase under low loads (< 22 N), but the opposite was true under high loads (> 22 N). The same relationships between corrosive wear rate and load were found under cathodic protection at {minus}600 mV{sub SCE}. The morphologies of wear tracks and debris were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The influence of the amount of {gamma} phase in the matrix on hardness, corrosion, and corrosive wear resistance was evaluated.

  12. Influence of fuel sulfur on the selective reduction of NO by NH/sub 3/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, D.; Brown, N.J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More intensive regulations of the emissions of nitrogen oxides from stationary combustion sources have prompted the innovation and characterization of new control technologies suitable for applications in utilities. One of the more recent and attractive abatement technologies is the Thermal DeNO/sub x/ process which has been described by Lyon and Longwell. This process removes NO by selectively reducing it with NH/sub 3/ added to the post-combustion gases containing excess oxygen. This process is thus independent of the NO formation mechanism and makes no distinction between thermal and fuel NO. The present study is concerned with characterizing the selective reduction process for light distillate oil fuel admixed with variable amounts of pyridene and thiophene in a laboratory scale combustion tunnel under a variety of experimental conditions. This paper reports on those aspects of the study concerned with the investigation of possible synergistic effects between the sulfur and selective reduction chemistry.

  13. High Permeability Ternary Palladium Alloy Membranes with Improved Sulfur and Halide Tolerances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Coulter

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The project team consisting of Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} (SwRI{reg_sign}), Georgia Institute of Technology (GT), the Colorado School of Mines (CSM), TDA Research, and IdaTech LLC was focused on developing a robust, poison-tolerant, hydrogen selective free standing membrane to produce clean hydrogen. The project completed on schedule and on budget with SwRI, GT, CSM, TDA and IdaTech all operating independently and concurrently. GT has developed a robust platform for performing extensive DFT calculations for H in bulk palladium (Pd), binary alloys, and ternary alloys of Pd. Binary alloys investigated included Pd96M4 where M = Li, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Tl, Pb, Bi, Ce, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu. They have also performed a series of calculations on Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Ag{sub 4}, Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Au{sub 4}, Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Ni{sub 4}, Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Pt{sub 4}, and Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Y{sub 4}. SwRI deposited and released over 160 foils of binary and ternary Pd alloys. There was considerable work on characterizing and improving the durability of the deposited foils using new alloy compositions, post annealing and ion bombardment. The 10 and 25 {micro}m thick films were sent to CSM, TDA and IdaTech for characterization and permeation testing. CSM conducted over 60 pure gas permeation tests with SwRI binary and ternary alloy membranes. To date the PdAu and PdAuPt membranes have exhibited the best performance at temperatures in the range of 423-773 C and their performance correlates well with the predictions from GT. TDA completed testing under the Department of Energy (DOE) WGS conditions on over 16 membranes. Of particular interest are the PdAuPt alloys that exhibited only a 20% drop in flux when sulfur was added to the gas mixture and the flux was completely recovered when the sulfur flow was stopped. IdaTech tested binary and ternary membranes on a simulated flue gas stream and experienced significant difficulty in mounting and testing the sputter deposited membranes. IdaTech was able to successfully test PdAu and PdAuPt membranes and saw similar sulfur tolerance to what TDA found. The Program met all the deliverables on schedule and on budget. Over ten presentations at national and international conferences were made, four papers were published (two in progress) in technical journals, and three students (2 at GT and 1 at CSM) completed their doctorates using results generated during the course of the program. The three major findings of program were; (1) the DFT modeling was verified as a predictive tool for the permeability of Pd based ternary alloys, (2) while magnetron sputtering is useful in precisely fabricating binary and ternary alloys, the mechanical durability of membranes fabricated using this technique are inferior compared to cold rolled membranes and this preparation method is currently not ready for industrial environments, (3) based on both modeling and experimental verification in pure gas and mixed gas environments PdAu and PdAuPt alloys were found to have the combination of the highest permeability and tolerance to sulfur.

  14. The Mechanism of Electropolishing of Niobium in Hydrofluoric-Sulfuric Acid Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Hui; Corcoran, Sean; Reece, Charles; Kelley, Michael

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Niobium surfaces are commonly electropolished in an effort to obtain optimal smoothness for high-field superconducting radio-frequency cavity applications. We report the use of controlled electrochemical analysis techniques to characterize electropolishing of Nb in a sulfuric and hydrofluoric acid electrolyte. Through the use of a reference electrode, we are able to clearly distinguish the anode and cathode polarization potentials as well as the electrolyte voltage drop, which together sum to the applied power supply voltage. We then identify the temperature and HF concentration dependence of each potential. We also report the use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) on this system. EIS results are consistent with the compact salt film mechanism for niobium electropolishing (EP) in this electrolyte and are not consistent with either the porous salt film or the absorbate-acceptor mechanism. Microscopic understanding of the basic Nb EP mechanism is expected to provide an appro

  15. The south Karelia air pollution study: Effects of low-level expsoure to malodorous sulfur compounds on symptoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partti-Pellinen, K.; Marttila, O. [South Karelia Allergy and Environment Inst., Tiuruniemi (Finland); Vilkka, V. [South Karelia Central Hospital, Lappeenranta (Finland); Jaakkola, J.J. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)]|[National Inst. of Public Health, Oslo (Norway)] [and others

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exposure to very low levels of ambient-air malodorous sulfur compounds and their effect on eye irritation, respiratory-tract symptoms, and central nervous system symptoms in adults were assessed. A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire (response rate = 77%) was distributed during March and April 1992 to adults (n = 336) who lived in a neighborhood that contained a pulp mill and in a nonpolluted reference community (n = 380). In the exposed community, the measured annual mean concentrations of total reduced sulfur compounds and sulfur dioxide measured in two stations were 2 to 3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and 1 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. In the reference community, the annual mean concentration of sulfur dioxide was 1 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. The residents of the community near the pulp mill reported an excess of cough, respiratory infections, and headache during the previous 4 wk, as well as during the preceding 12 mo. The relative risk for headache was increased significantly in the exposed community, compared with the reference area: the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was 1.83 (95% confidence interval [95% Cl] = 1.06-3.15) during the previous 4 wk and 1.70 (95% Cl = 1.05-2.73) during the preceding 12 mo. The relative risk for cough was also increased during the preceding 12 mo (aOR = 1.64, 95% Cl = 1.01-2.64). These results indicated that adverse health effects of malodorous sulfur compounds occur at lower concentrations than reported previously. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Improved Recovery Boiler Performance Through Control of Combustion, Sulfur, and Alkali Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Larry L.

    2008-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involved the following objectives: 1. Determine black liquor drying and devolatilization elemental and total mass release rates and yields. 2. Develop a public domain physical/chemical kinetic model of black liquor drop combustion, including new information on drying and devolatilization. 3. Determine mechanisms and rates of sulfur scavenging in recover boilers. 4. Develop non-ideal, public-domain thermochemistry models for alkali salts appropriate for recovery boilers 5. Develop data and a one-dimensional model of a char bed in a recovery boiler. 6. Implement all of the above in comprehensive combustion code and validate effects on boiler performance. 7. Perform gasification modeling in support of INEL and commercial customers. The major accomplishments of this project corresponding to these objectives are as follows: 1. Original data for black liquor and biomass data demonstrate dependencies of particle reactions on particle size, liquor type, gas temperature, and gas composition. A comprehensive particle submodel and corresponding data developed during this project predicts particle drying (including both free and chemisorbed moisture), devolatilization, heterogeneous char oxidation, char-smelt reactions, and smelt oxidation. Data and model predictions agree, without adjustment of parameters, within their respective errors. The work performed under these tasks substantially exceeded the original objectives. 2. A separate model for sulfur scavenging and fume formation in a recovery boiler demonstrated strong dependence on both in-boiler mixing and chemistry. In particular, accurate fume particle size predictions, as determined from both laboratory and field measurements, depend on gas mixing effects in the boilers that lead to substantial particle agglomeration. Sulfur scavenging was quantitatively predicted while particle size required one empirical mixing factor to match data. 3. Condensed-phase thermochemistry algorithms were developed for salt mixtures and compared with sodium-based binary and higher order systems. Predictions and measurements were demonstrated for both salt systems and for some more complex silicate-bearing systems, substantially exceeding the original scope of this work. 4. A multi-dimensional model of char bed reactivity developed under this project demonstrated that essentially all reactions in char beds occur on or near the surface, with the internal portions of the bed being essentially inert. The model predicted composition, temperature, and velocity profiles in the bed and showed that air jet penetration is limited to the immediate vicinity of the char bed, with minimal impact on most of the bed. The modeling efforts substantially exceeded the original scope of this project. 5. Near the completion of this project, DOE withdrew the BYU portion of a multiparty agreement to complete this and additional work with no advanced warning, which compromised the integration of all of this material into a commercial computer code. However, substantial computer simulations of much of this work were initiated, but not completed. 6. The gasification modeling is nearly completed but was aborted near its completion according to a DOE redirection of funds. This affected both this and the previous tasks.

  17. Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification Treatability Study of Mercury Contaminated Soil from the Y-12 Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalb P.; Milian, L.; Yim, S. P.

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    As a result of past operations, the Department of Energys (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Plant) has extensive mercury-contamination in building structures, soils, storm sewer sediments, and stream sediments, which are a source of pollution to the local ecosystem. Because of mercurys toxicity and potential impacts on human health and the environment, DOE continues to investigate and implement projects to support the remediation of the Y-12 site.URS and #9122;CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) under its prime contract with DOE has cleanup responsibilities on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation and is investigating potential mercury-contaminated soil treatment technologies through an agreement with Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) Y-12, the Y-12 operating contractor to DOE. As part of its investigations, UCOR has subcontracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to conduct laboratory-scale studies evaluating the applicability of the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process using surrogate and actual mixed waste Y-12 soils containing mercury (Hg) at 135, 2,000, and 10,000 ppm.SPSS uses a thermoplastic sulfur binder to convert Hg to stable mercury sulfide (HgS) and solidifies the chemically stable product in a monolithic solid final waste form to reduce dispersion and permeability. Formulations containing 40 60 dry wt% Y-12 soil were fabricated and samples were prepared in triplicate for Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing by an independent laboratory. Those containing 50 and 60 wt% soil easily met the study criteria for maximum allowable Hg concentrations (47 and 1 ppb, respectively compared with the TCLP limit of 200 ppb Hg). The lowest waste loading of 40 wt% yielded TCLP Hg concentrations slightly higher (240 ppb) than the allowable limit. Since the Y-12 soil tended to form clumps, the improved leaching at higher waste loadings was probably due to reduction in particle size from friction of the soil mixing, which creates more surface area for chemical conversion. This was corroborated by the fact that the same waste loading pre-treated by ball milling to reduce particle size prior to SPSS processing yielded TCLP concentrations almost 30 times lower, and at 8.5 ppb Hg was well below EPA limits. Pre-treatment by ball milling also allowed a reduction in the time required for stabilization, thus potentially reducing total process times by 30%.Additional performance testing was conducted including measurement of compressive strength to confirm mechanical integrity and immersion testing to determine the potential impacts of storage or disposal under saturated conditions. For both surrogate and actual Y-12 treated soils, waste form compressive strengths ranged between 2,300 and 6,500 psi, indicating very strong mechanical integrity (a minimum of greater than 40 times greater than the NRC guidance for low-level radioactive waste). In general, compressive strength increases with waste loading as the soil acts as an aggregate in the sulfur concrete waste forms. No statistically significant loss in strength was recorded for the 30 and 40 wt% surrogate waste samples and only a minor reduction in strength was measured for the 43 wt% waste forms. The 30 wt% Y-12 soil did not show a significant loss in strength but the 50 wt% samples were severely degraded in immersion due to swelling of the clay soil. The impact on Hg leaching, if any, was not determined.

  18. Understanding the ocean carbon and sulfur cycles in the context of a variable ocean : a study of anthropogenic carbon storage and dimethylsulfide production in the Atlantic Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Naomi Marcil

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anthropogenic activity is rapidly changing the global climate through the emission of carbon dioxide. Ocean carbon and sulfur cycles have the potential to impact global climate directly and through feedback loops. Numerical ...

  19. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report No. 6, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives for this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coals with refuse derived fuels were two-fold. First, the effects of different experimental parameters such as temperature, flow rates and reaction times on the formation of chlorinated organic compounds were studied using the tubular furnace as a reactor followed by GC/MS analysis. Secondly, the effect of fuel/air ratio on the flue gas composition and combustion efficiency were studied with the AFBC system.

  20. The determination of sulfur-containing surfactants with a high pressure liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hobill, Jonathan Edward

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the blank millivolt intensities 78 17 Average millivolt intensities for the nickel standard solution 79 Table Page 18 Standard deviations of the nickel standard millivolt intensities 80 19 Slopes of the calibration lines calculated from the blank... widely used sulfur-containing surfactants. The alkylbenzenesulfonates 1 strongly absorb in the UV region and, therefore are easily monitored by UV detectors. Other surfactants, such as alkyl sulfates 2 [13-17], alpha olefin sulfonates 3 [16...