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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "weight average ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Viscosity-average molecular weight  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

n .... An averaged molecular weight for high polymers that relates most closely to measurements of dilute-solution viscosities ...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Ordered Weighted Average Based Fuzzy Rough Sets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ordered Weighted Average Based Fuzzy Rough Sets Chris Cornelis 1 , Nele Verbiest1 , and Richard rough set model, which is based on a similar rationale, our proposal has the ad- vantage a feature selection application confirm the potential of the OWA-based model. Keywords: fuzzy rough sets

Gent, Universiteit

3

STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be used to calculate weight-averaged U-factors or averaged SHGC values for prescriptive envelope of window (the SHGC values of skylights cannot be averaged per §151(f)4A). a. "Area" can be replaced

4

Weighted Coherence: A More Effective Measure Than Average Coherence  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the statistic, “Weighted Coherence” in relation to the average or mean coherence in a particular frequency band after cross- ... using cross-spectral analysis is r...

Vikram Kumar Yeragani; Arindam Barua…

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

An Exact Thickness-Weighted Average Formulation of the Boussinesq Equations WILLIAM R. YOUNG  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Exact Thickness-Weighted Average Formulation of the Boussinesq Equations WILLIAM R. YOUNG application of thickness-weighted averaging to the Boussinesq equa- tions of motion results in averaged

Young, William R.

6

Innovative reliability allocation using the maximal entropy ordered weighted averaging method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reliability allocation is one of the most important factors to consider when determining the reliability and competitiveness of a product. The feasibility-of-objectives (FOO) technique has become the current standard for assessing reliability designs ... Keywords: Average weighting allocation method, Feasibility-of-objectives technique, Maximal entropy ordered weighted averaging, Reliability allocation

Yung-Chia Chang; Kuie-Hu Chang; Cheng-Shih Liaw

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

A study of the trophodynamic relationships among zooplankton groups in the Gulf of Mexico utilizing biomass determined by dry weight and ash-free dry weight analyses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A STUDY OF THE TROPHODYNAMIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG ZOOPLANKTON GROUPS IN THE GULF OF MEXICO UTILIZING BIOMASS DETERMINED BY DRY WEIGHT AND ASH-FREE DRY WEIGHT ANALYSES A Thesis by ALAN YAUTAK KWOK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A... WEIGHT AND ASH-FREE DRY WEIGHT ANALYSES A Thesis by ALAN YAUTAK KWOK Approved as to style and content by: '7 (Chairman of Committee) )l&z J( ii (Member) ember) (Head of Department) May 1980 ABSTRACT A Study of the Trophodynamic Relat1onships...

Kwok, Alan Yautak

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

,"Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities" Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities",16,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1985" ,"Release Date:","11/27/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","Last Week of December 2013" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pnp_crq_a_epc0_ycs_pct_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_crq_a_epc0_ycs_pct_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration"

9

An improved weighted average reactor temperature estimation for simulation of adiabatic industrial hydrotreaters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A study on the improvement of the representative operating temperature from the temperature profile of an industrial adiabatic reactor is presented. This temperature is used to simulate the reactor performance by small scale laboratory isothermal reactors. An improved methodology for the estimation of a Weighted Average Bed Temperature (WABT) was elaborated to simulate an industrial multi-bed HDS reactor. The improved WABT, so called Weighted Average Reactor Temperature (WART), was compared with the most usually used WABT in a wide range of operational conditions as well as of kinetic parameters. In case of a multi-bed industrial hydrotreater, where quench zones are located between the beds and the H2 flow rate, which enters each bed, is different, the optimal gas to oil ratio was estimated for the laboratory-scale reactor.

G.D. Stefanidis; G.D. Bellos; N.G. Papayannakos

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Generated using V3.0 of the official AMS LATEX templatejournal page layout FOR AUTHOR USE ONLY, NOT FOR SUBMISSION! An exact thickness-weighted average formulation of the Boussinesq equations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, NOT FOR SUBMISSION! An exact thickness-weighted average formulation of the Boussinesq equations William R. Young. ABSTRACT We show that a systematic application of thickness-weighted averaging to the Boussinesq equations

Young, William R.

11

Linear Relationship Between Weighted-Average Madelung and Density Functional Theory Energies for MgO Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energies for MgO Nanotubes Journal: The Journal of Physical Chemistry Manuscript ID: jp-2012-08041d.R1 Constants and Density Functional Theory Energies for MgO Nanotubes Mark D. Baker,*1 A. David Baker2 , Jane-average Madelung constants of MgO nanotubes correlate in an essentially perfectly linear way with cohesive energies

Hanusa, Christopher

12

Disposal of boiler ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As more boilers are converted from oil to solid fuels such as coal, the quantity of ash requiring disposal will increase dramatically. The factors associated with the development of land disposal systems for ash landfills are presented, including ash characterization, site selection procedures, design parameters, and costs.

Atwell, J.S.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Aqueous alteration of municipal solid waste ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Municipal solid waste (MSW) ash is composed largely of amorphous oxides and approximately 20% minerals including halite, magnetite, hematite, quartz, gypsum, calcite, and rutile. It is also enriched in toxic trace metals by up to three orders of magnitude over average soil. The thermodynamic stabilities and rates of dissolution of the minerals and glasses in MSW ash will determine whether the ash is an environmental problem. The authors have used batch reactors at 20, 40, and 60 C over time periods up to 60 days to simulate longer reaction times for ash under cooler landfill conditions. Soluble salts are most quickly dissolved, giving solutions dominated by Ca[sup 2+], Na[sup +], K[sup +], SO[sub 2][sup 2[minus

Kirby, C.S.; Rimstidt, J.D. (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Prediction of Chinese Coal Ash Fusion Temperatures in Ar and H2 Atmospheres  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Analysis of coal ashes on a weight percent basis shows that they consist mainly of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, and MgO, so that the properties of coal ashes at high temperature might be modeled by a five system SiO2?Al2O3?Fe2O3?CaO?MgO synthetic ash. ... The peaks from lab. ashes and corresponding combustion ashes derived from the same coals show clear differences which may be related to the evapn. of potassium during combustion and the reactions of the mineral residues to form combustion ash. ...

Wen J. Song; Li H. Tang; Xue D. Zhu; Yong Q. Wu; Zi B. Zhu; Shuntarou Koyama

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

15

Fly ash carbon passivation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

16

Lead contents of coal, coal ash and fly ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flameless atomic absorption spectrometry is applied for the determination of Pb in coal, coal ash and fly ash. Lead concentrations in coal and coal ash ranging from respectively 7 to 110 µg...?1 and 120 to 450 µg...

C. Block; R. Dams

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Recovery of iron oxide from coal fly ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high quality iron oxide concentrate, suitable as a feed for blast and electric reduction furnaces is recovered from pulverized coal fly ash. The magnetic portion of the fly ash is separated and treated with a hot strong alkali solution which dissolves most of the silica and alumina in the fly ash, leaving a solid residue and forming a precipitate which is an acid soluble salt of aluminosilicate hydrate. The residue and precipitate are then treated with a strong mineral acid to dissolve the precipitate leaving a solid residue containing at least 90 weight percent iron oxide.

Dobbins, Michael S. (Ames, IA); Murtha, Marlyn J. (Ames, IA)

1983-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

18

Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51%...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

average is the production-weighted harmonic mean. 2014 data are preliminary. Fact 849 Dataset Supporting Information Average Fuel Economy of New Midsize Cars - Hybrid vs....

19

The Fusibility of Blended Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) of coal ash are found at temperatures below the predicted liquidus temperature and, for ashes from blended coals, are generally nonlinear with respect to the blend proportion. ... ashing. ...

G. W. Bryant; G. J. Browning; H. Emanuel; S. K. Gupta; R. P. Gupta; J. A. Lucas; T. F. Wall

2000-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

20

Average Residential Price  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Data Series: Average Residential Price Residential Price - Local Distribution Companies Residential Price - Marketers Residential % Sold by Local Distribution Companies Average...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "weight average ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Utilization FLY ASH INFORMATION FROM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, quarries, and pits (34%), 6% for temporary stockpile, and 7% landfilled. Fly Ash In Europe, the utilization

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

22

Ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which utilizes the known ash level temperature profile to monitor the ash bed level. A bed stirrer which travels up and down through the extent of the bed ash level is modified by installing thermocouples to measure the bed temperature as the stirrer travels through the stirring cycle. The temperature measurement signals are transmitted to an electronic signal process system by an FM/FM telemetry system. The processing system uses the temperature signals together with an analog stirrer position signal, taken from a position transducer disposed to measure the stirrer position to compute the vertical location of the ash zone upper boundary. The circuit determines the fraction of each total stirrer cycle time the stirrer-derived bed temperature is below a selected set point, multiplies this fraction by the average stirrer signal level, multiplies this result by an appropriate constant and adds another constant such that a 1 to 5 volt signal from the processor corresponds to a 0 to 30 inch span of the ash upper boundary level. Three individual counters in the processor store clock counts that are representative of: (1) the time the stirrer temperature is below the set point (500.degree. F.), (2) the time duration of the corresponding stirrer travel cycle, and (3) the corresponding average stirrer vertical position. The inputs to all three counters are disconnected during any period that the stirrer is stopped, eliminating corruption of the measurement by stirrer stoppage.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

ASH EMISSIVITY CHARACTERIZATION AND PREDICTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The increased use of western subbituminous coals has generated concerns regarding highly reflective ash disrupting heat transfer in the radiant zone of pulverized-fuel boilers. Ash emissivity and reflectivity is primarily a function of ash particle size, with reflective deposits expected to consist of very small refractory ash materials such as CaO, MgO, or sulfate materials such as Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. For biomass fuels and biomass-coal blends, similar reflectivity issues may arise as a result of the presence of abundant organically associated calcium and potassium, which can transform during combustion to fine calcium, and potassium oxides and sulfates, which may act as reflective ash. The relationship of reflectivity to ash chemistry is a second-order effect, with the ash particle size distribution and melting point being determined by the size and chemistry of the minerals present in the starting fuel. Measurement of the emission properties of ash and deposits have been performed by several research groups (1-6) using both laboratory methods and measurements in pilot- and full-scale combustion systems. A review of the properties and thermal properties of ash stresses the important effect of ash deposits on heat transfer in the radiant boiler zone (1).

Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Charlene R. Crocker

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Modeling volcanic ash dispersal  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Explosive volcanic eruptions inject into the atmosphere large amounts of volcanic material (ash, blocks and lapilli). Blocks and larger lapilli follow ballistic and non-ballistic trajectories and fall rapidly close to the volcano. In contrast, very fine ashes can remain entrapped in the atmosphere for months to years, and may affect the global climate in the case of large eruptions. Particles having sizes between these two end-members remain airborne from hours to days and can cover wide areas downwind. Such volcanic fallout entails a serious threat to aircraft safety and can create many undesirable effects to the communities located around the volcano. The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard scenarios and/or to give short-term forecasts during emergency situations. This talk will be focused on the main aspects related to modeling volcanic ash dispersal and fallout with application to the well known problem created by the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland. Moreover, a short description of the main volcanic monitoring techniques is presented.

None

2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

25

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash bottom ash Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: of bottom ash, 3 million tons of boiler slag, and 28 million tons of clean-coal ash materials) were produced... CONTAINING CLEAN-COAL ASH AND CLASS F FLY ASH By...

26

Construction of an embankment with a fly and bottom ash mixture: field performance study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash and bottom ash are coal combustion by-products (CCBPs) that are generated in large quantities throughout the world. It is often economical to dispose ash as mixtures rather than separately; that notwithstanding, only a few studies have been performed to investigate the behavior of fly and bottom ash mixtures, particularly those with high contents of fly ash. Also, there is very limited data available in the literature on the field performance of structures constructed using ash mixtures. This paper describes the construction and the instrumentation of a demonstration embankment built with an ash mixture (60:40 by weight of fly ash:bottom ash) on State Road 641, Terre Haute, Ind. Monitoring of the demonstration embankment was conducted for a period of 1 year from the start of construction of the embankment. The settlement of the embankment stabilized approximately 5 months after the end of its construction. According to horizontal inclinometer readings, the differential settlement at the top of the embankment is about 5 mm. Results from field quality control tests performed during construction of the demonstration embankment and monitoring data from vertical and horizontal inclinometers and settlement plates indicate that the ash mixture investigated can be considered an acceptable embankment construction material.

Yoon, S.; Balunaini, U.; Yildirim, I.Z.; Prezzi, M.; Siddiki, N.Z. [Louisiana Transportation Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

Comparing properties of coal ash and alternative-fuel ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results of investigating ash produced in burning alternative kinds of fuel are discussed. Its impact on the environment is evaluated, and possibilities of recovering it are studied.

E. P. Dick; G. A. Ryabov; A. N. Tugov; A. N. Soboleva

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Spherical averages and applications to spherical splines and interpolation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article introduces a method for computing weighted averages on spheres based on least squares minimization that respects spherical distance. We prove existence and uniqueness properties of the weighted averages, and give fast iterative algorithms ... Keywords: Bézier curve, B-spline, barycentric coordinates, least squares minimization, quaternion interpolation, quaternions, spherical average, spherical interpolation, spherical mean, spline curve, spline interpolation

Samuel R. Buss; Jay P. Fillmore

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Unimodular Gravity and Averaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The question of the averaging of inhomogeneous spacetimes in cosmology is important for the correct interpretation of cosmological data. In this paper we suggest a conceptually simpler approach to averaging in cosmology based on the averaging of scalars within unimodular gravity. As an illustration, we consider the example of an exact spherically symmetric dust model, and show that within this approach averaging introduces correlations (corrections) to the effective dynamical evolution equation in the form of a spatial curvature term.

A. Coley; J. Brannlund; J. Latta

2011-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

30

HFAG Charm Mixing Averages  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recently the first evidence for charm mixing has been reported by several experiments. To provide averages of these mixing results and other charm results, a new subgroup of the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group has been formed. We here report on the method and results of averaging the charm mixing results.

B. Aa. Petersen

2007-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

31

Photosynthetic pigment concentrations, gas exchange and vegetative growth for selected monocots and dicots treated with two contrasting coal fly ashes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is uncertainty as to the rates of coal fly ash needed for optimum physiological processes and growth. In the current study we tested the hyothesis that photosynthetic pigments concentrations and CO{sub 2} assimilation (A) are more sensitive than dry weights in plants grown on media amended with coal fly ash. We applied the Terrestrial Plant Growth Test (Guideline 208) protocols of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to monocots (barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Secale cereale)) and dicots (canola (Brasica napus), radish (Raphanus sativus), field peas (Pisum sativum), and lucerne (Medicago sativa)) on media amended with fly ashes derived from semi-bituminous (gray ash) or lignite (red ash) coals at rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, or 20 Mg ha(-1). The red ash had higher elemental concentrations and salinity than the gray ash. Fly ash addition had no significant effect on germination by any of the six species. At moderate rates ({<=}10 Mg ha{sup -1}) both ashes increased (P < 0.05) growth rates and concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, but reduced carotenoid concentrations. Addition of either ash increased A in radish and transpiration in barley. Growth rates and final dry weights were reduced for all of the six test species when addition rates exceeded 10 Mg ha{sup -1} for gray ash and 5 Mg ha{sup -1} for red ash. We concluded that plant dry weights, rather than pigment concentrations and/or instantaneous rates of photosynthesis, are more consistent for assessing subsequent growth in plants supplied with fly ash.

Yunusa, I.A.M.; Burchett, M.D.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Skilbeck, C.G. [University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Environmental Science

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

32

Development of Artificial Ash Accelerated Accumulation Test ...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Artificial Ash Accelerated Accumulation Test Development of Artificial Ash Accelerated Accumulation Test Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions...

33

Prickly Ash and Prickly Pear  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Prickly Ash and Prickly Pear Prickly Ash and Prickly Pear Nature Bulletin No. 649-A October 1, 1977 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation PRICKLY ASH AND PRICKLY PEAR In the plant kingdom, as among people, there are so-me that we avoid. They have few virtues, if any, and our experiences with them are painful or have unpleasant after effects. Poison ivy is a notorious example. Prickly Ash, a shrub, is another. Although not poisonous it is thickly armed with wicked thorns and has no ornamental, economic or wildlife value. In 1821 when the first section lines were established in Cook County, the surveyor recorded -- for the benefit of land buyers -- the principal kinds of trees and other vegetation observed along each mile. He frequently encountered prickly ash in thickets near the Little Calumet River and also the north and south branches of the Chicago River.

34

Simulation of Coal Ash Particle Deposition Experiments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Simulation of Coal Ash Particle Deposition Experiments† ... Ichikawa et al.(7) measured deposition behavior for ash particles from ashing tests for a series of five coals, using a nominally 1 m tall × 60 mm diameter ash-heating tube that was fitted with a cooled, temperature-controlled particle impact probe oriented at a 30° angle to the atmospheric pressure air flow. ...

Weiguo Ai; John M. Kuhlman

2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

35

Insurance coverage for coal ash liabilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper discusses how liability insurance can be a valuable tool for limiting coal ash liabilities.

Elkind, D.L. [Dickstein Shapiro LLP (United States)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Effect of Coal Ash Composition on Ash Fusion Temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments have been conducted in which mixtures of selected coal ashes and SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, Fe2O3, and MgO were subjected to the standard test for ash fusibility. ... One property that specifically gives detail information on the suitability of a coal source [Alpern, B., Nahuys, J., Martinez, L. Mineral matter in ashy and non-washable coals-its influence on chem. ...

Wen J. Song; Li H. Tang; Xue D. Zhu; Yong Q. Wu; Zi B. Zhu; Shuntarou Koyama

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

37

Prediction of ash deposition in pulverized coal combustion systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A predictive scheme based on CCSEM flyash data and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been developed to study the slagging propensity of coals. The model has been applied to predict the deposition potential of three UK coals; Bentinck, Daw Mill and Silverdale, in a pilot scale single burner ash deposition test facility and an utility size multi-burner front wall-fired furnace. The project is part of a collaborative research program sponsored by the UK Department of Trade and Industry and involved various industrial organizations and universities. The objective of the project is to understand the fundamental aspects of slagging in pulverized coal-fired combustion systems. This paper is a sequel to the poster paper entitled: The Prediction of Ash Deposition in a Coal Fired Axi-symmetric Furnace, presented in the last Engineering Foundation Conference. The present model predicts the relative slagging propensity of the three coals correctly. The predicted deposition patterns are also consistent with the observations. The results from the model indicate a preferential deposition of iron during the initial stage of ash deposition. The average compositions of the deposits become closer to that of the bulk ash when the accumulation of ash deposits is taken into account.

Lee, F.C.C.; Riley, G.S. [National Power PLC, Swindon (United Kingdom); Lockwood, F.C. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

38

Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

(Percent) (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Type Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History U.S. 1.43 1.38 1.41 1.43 1.47 1.42 1985-2013 PADD 1 0.75 0.73 0.69 0.68 0.73 0.68 1985-2013 East Coast 0.67 0.66 0.61 0.63 0.66 0.57 1985-2013 Appalachian No. 1 2.0 1.72 1.52 1.40 1.55 1.74 1985-2013 PADD 2 1.42 1.34 1.44 1.46 1.61 1.49 1985-2013 Ind., Ill. and Ky. 1.45 1.36 1.47 1.56 1.75 1.67 1985-2013 Minn., Wis., N. Dak., S. Dak. 2.33 2.11 2.18 2.03 2.01 1.69 1985-2013 Okla., Kans., Mo. 0.89 0.89 0.92 0.82 0.87 0.85 1985-2013 PADD 3 1.54 1.48 1.51 1.52 1.54 1.48 1985-2013

39

Moon Dust and Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... struck by the similarity between the preliminary descriptions of moon dust and that of the ash residue collected from pulverized ... residue collected from pulverized coal-fired boilers (that is, pulverized fuel ...

A. B. HART; E. RAASK

1969-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

40

Growth and elemental accumulation by canola on soil amended with coal fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To explore the agronomic potential of an Australian coal fly ash, we conducted two glasshouse experiments in which we measured chlorophyll fluorescence, CO{sub 2} assimilation (A), transpiration, stomatal conductance, biomass accumulation, seed yield, and elemental uptake for canola (Brassica napus) grown on soil amended with an alkaline fly ash. In Experiment 1, application of up to 25 Mg/ha of fly ash increased A and plant weight early in the season before flowering and seed yield by up to 21%. However, at larger rates of ash application A, plant growth, chlorophyll concentration, and yield were all reduced. Increases in early vigor and seed yield were associated with enhanced uptake of phosphorus (P) by the plants treated with fly ash. Fly ash application did not influence accumulation of B, Cu, Mo, or Zn in the stems at any stage of plant growth or in the seed at harvest, except Mo concentration, which was elevated in the seed. Accumulation of these elements was mostly in the leaves, where concentrations of Cu and Mo increased with any amount of ash applied while that of B occurred only with ash applied at 625 Mg/ha. In Experiment 2, fly ash applied at 500 Mg/ha and mixed into the whole 30 cm soil core was detrimental to growth and yield of canola, compared with restricting mixing to 5 or 15 cm depth. In contrast, application of ash at 250 Mg/ha with increasing depth of mixing increased A and seed yield. We concluded that fly ash applied at not more than 25 Mg/ha and mixed into the top 10 to 15 cm of soil is sufficient to obtain yield benefits.

Yunusa, I.A.M.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Murray, B.R.; Nissanka, S.P. [University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "weight average ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Sustainable Use of Biofuel by Recycling Ash to Forests:? Treatment of Biofuel Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sustainable Use of Biofuel by Recycling Ash to Forests:? Treatment of Biofuel Ash ... Ash samples from combustion of biofuels in a circulating fluidized bed and grate-firing combustion plants are studied. ...

Maryam Mahmoudkhani; Tobias Richards; Hans Theliander

2007-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

42

Cast-Concrete Products Made with FBC Ash and Wet-Collected Coal-Ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. DOI: 10.1061/ ASCE 0899-1561 2005 17:6 659 CE Database subject headings: Recycling; Ashes; Concrete et al. 1991 . Fluidized bed combustion FBC ash is the ash produced by an FBC boiler in which the coal

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

43

Long duration ash probe  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during sootblowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon.

Hurley, John P. (Grand Forks, ND); McCollor, Don P. (Grand Forks, ND); Selle, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, MN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Long duration ash probe  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during soot blowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon. 8 figs.

Hurley, J.P.; McCollor, D.P.; Selle, S.J.

1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

45

Trophic structure and metal bioaccumulation differences in multiple fish species exposed to coal ash-associated metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On December 22, 2008 a dike containing coal fly ash from the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant near Kingston Tennessee USA failed and resulted in the largest coal ash spill in U.S. history. Coal ash, the by-product of coal combustion, is known to contain multiple contaminants of concern, including arsenic and selenium. The purpose of this study was to investigate the bioaccumulation of arsenic and selenium and to identify possible differences in trophic dynamics in feral fish at various sites in the vicinity of the Kingston coal ash spill. Elevated levels of arsenic and selenium were observed in various tissues of largemouth bass, white crappie, bluegill and redear sunfish from sites associated with the Kingston coal ash spill. Highest concentrations of selenium were found in redear sunfish with liver concentrations as high as 24.83 mg/kg dry weight and ovary concentrations up to 10.40 mg/kg dry weight at coal ash-associated sites. To help explain the elevated selenium levels observed in redear sunfish, investigations into the gut pH and trophic dynamics of redear sunfish and bluegill were conducted which demonstrated a large difference in the gut physiology between these two species. Redear sunfish stomach and intestinal pH was found to be 1.1 and 0.16 pH units higher than in bluegill, respectively. In addition, fish from coal ash-associated sites showed enrichment of 15N & 13C compared to no ash sites, indicating differences in food web dynamics between sites. These results imply the incorporation of coal ash-associated compounds into local food webs and/or a shift in diet at ash sites compared to the no ash reference sites. Based on these results, further investigation into a broader food web at ash-associated sites is warranted.

Otter, Ryan [Middle Tennessee State University; Bailey, Frank [Middle Tennessee State University; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Adams, Marshall [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

average | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

average average Dataset Summary Description This dataset is part of a larger internal dataset at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that explores various characteristics of large solar electric (both PV and CSP) facilities around the United States. This dataset focuses on the land use characteristics for solar facilities that are either under construction or currently in operation. Source Land-Use Requirements for Solar Power Plants in the United States Date Released June 25th, 2013 (7 months ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords acres area average concentrating solar power csp Density electric hectares km2 land land requirements land use land-use mean photovoltaic photovoltaics PV solar statistics Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon Master Solar Land Use Spreadsheet (xlsx, 1.5 MiB)

47

Fly ash chemical classification based on lime  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Typically, total lime content (CaO) of fly ash is shown in fly ash reports, but its significance is not addressed in US specifications. For certain applications a low lime ash is preferred. When a class C fly ash must be cementitious, lime content above 20% is required. A ternary S-A-C phase diagram pilot is given showing the location of fly ash compositions by coal rank and source in North America. Fly ashes from subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin usually contain sufficient lime to be cementitious but blending with other coals may result in calcium being present in phases other than tricalcium aluminate. 9 refs., 1 fig.

Fox, J. [BASF Construction Chemicals, LLC (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a reasonably high alkali content, thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present in the ash. The test sections were controlled to operate with an average surface metal temperature from approximately 1060 F to 1210 F which was well within the temperature range over which coal ash corrosion occurs. Thus, this combination of aggressive environment and high temperature was appropriate for testing the performance of candidate corrosion-resistant tube materials. Analyses of the deposit and scale confirmed that the aggressive alkali-iron-trisulfate constituent was present at the metal surface and active in tube metal wastage. The test sections were constructed so that the response of twelve different candidate tube and/or coating materials could be studied. The plan was to remove and evaluate one of the three test sections at time intervals of 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. This would permit an assessment of performance of the candidate materials as a function of time. This report provides the results of the evaluation of Test Section C, including the samples that remained in the Test Section for the full exposure period as well as those that were removed early. The analysis of Test Section C followed much the same protocol that was employed in the assessment of Test Section A. Again, the focus was on determining and documenting the relative corrosion rates of the candidate materials. The detailed results of the investigation are included in this report as a series of twelve appendices. Each appendix is devoted to the performance of one of the candidate alloys. The table below summarizes metal loss rate for the worst case sample of each of the candidate materials for both Test Sections A and C. The body of this report compares these for all of the samples in the test section. The 'Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program' is being conducted by The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) at Reliant Energy's Niles plant in Niles, Ohio to provide full-scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater materials. Fireside corrosion is a key issue for improving efficiency of new coal fired power plants and improving service life in existing plants. In November 1998, B&W began development of a system to permit testing of advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam temperatures (1100 F and higher) in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. In the spring of 1999 a system consisting of three identical sections, each containing multiple segments of twelve different materials, was installed. The sections are cooled by reheat steam, and are located just above the furnace entrance in Niles Unit No.1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. In November 2001 the first section was removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation after 29 months of operation. The second section was removed in August of 2003. Its evaluation has been completed and is the subject of this report. The final section remains in service and is expected to be removed in the spring of 2005. This paper describes the program; its importance, the design, fabrication, installation and operation of the test system, materials utilized, and experience to date. This report briefly reviews the results of the evaluation of the first section and then presents the results of the evaluation of the second section.

D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

2003-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

49

DOE Average Results  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOE DOE Average Results FY 12 DOE Target FY 12 Customer Perspective: Customer Satisfaction: -Timeliness 92 88 -Quality 94 92 Effective Service Partnership: -Extent of Customer Satisfaction with the responsiveness, etc. 90 92 Internal Business Perspective: Acquisition Excellence: -Extent to which internal quality control systems are effective 90 88 Most Effective Use of Contracting Approaches to Maximize Efficiency and Cost Effectiveness: Use of Competition: -% of total $'s obligated on competitive acquisitions >$3000 (Agency Level Only) 94 85 -% of acquisition actions competed for actions > $3000 (Agency Level Only) 65 68 Performance Based Acquisition: - % PBA actions relative to total eligible new acquisition actions (applicable to new actions > $25K) 82

50

Leaching of boron from coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Leaching of boron from coal ash ... First High-Resolution 11B Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectra of Coal Fly Ash by Satellite-Transition Magic Angle Spinning (STMAS) NMR ... First High-Resolution 11B Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectra of Coal Fly Ash by Satellite-Transition Magic Angle Spinning (STMAS) NMR ...

James A. Cox; Gary L. Lundquist; Andrzej Przyjazny; C. David Schmulbach

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Pollen Influx and Volcanic Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Artemisia) blooms in the fall and a dis-proportionate percentage...were recorded. The five pollen groups plotted in Fig. 5 were selected...expected to occur during the fall and perhaps winter months...probability of an initial ash-fall in late summer. Certain acid-resist-ant...

Peter J. Mehringer Jr.; Eric Blinman; Kenneth L. Petersen

1977-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

52

Coal Ash and Clean Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... IT is the normal view that the incombustible part of coal is not only a useless but even objectionable diluent. At times in the past, ... , familiar with the theory of contact catalysis of gas reactions, have speculated that the ash constituents might well play an active role in the processes of carbonisation and combustion. ...

H. J. HODSMAN

1926-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

53

Changes in trace element contents in ashes of oil shale fueled PF and CFB boilers during operation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Two oil shale combustion technologies, pulverized firing (PF) and circulated fluidized bed (CFB) were compared with respect to partitioning of selected elements (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sn, Sr, Th, Tl, U, V, and Zn) in the ashes along the flue gas ducts. The ash samples were characterized by high-resolution ICP-MS. The average contents of toxic heavy metals in fly ash samples from the CFB boiler are lower compared to the PF boiler. Main differences in trace element contents between combustion technologies were as follows: Cd content in the fly ash samples of PF boiler was up to 0.9 mg/kg while in CFB boiler it remained below 0.1 mg/kg in all analyzed ash samples; Hg was observed in the ashes of electrostatic precipitator (ESP) of CFB boiler while in the PF boiler it was close to or below detection limit. In the PF boiler content of Sn was detected only in the ashes of ESPs, while in CFB boiler it was evenly distributed between bottom and fly ash samples. Highest content among heavy metals in ash samples was observed for Pb in the last field of ESP of the PF boiler (142 mg/kg).

Janek Reinik; Natalya Irha; Eiliv Steinnes; Gary Urb; Jekaterina Jefimova; Eero Piirisalu; Jüri Loosaar

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Americans' Average Radiation Exposure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.

NA

2000-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

55

Petrographic characterization of economizer fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Policies for reducing NOx emissions have led power plants to restrict O{sub 2}, resulting in high-carbon fly ash production. Therefore, some potentially useful fly ash, such as the economizer fly ash, is discarded without a thorough knowledge of its composition. In order to characterize this type of fly ash, samples were collected from the economizer Portuguese power plant burning two low-sulfur bituminous coals. Characterization was also performed on economizer fly ash subsamples after wet sieving, density and magnetic separation. Analysis included atomic absorption spectroscopy, loss-on-ignition, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

Valentim, B.; Hower, J.C.; Soares, S.; Guedes, A.; Garcia, C.; Flores, D.; Oliveira, A. [University of Porto, Oporto (Portugal). Center of Geology

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

56

ACAA fly ash basics: quick reference card  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash is a fine powdery material created when coal is burned to generate electricity. Before escaping into the environment via the utility stacks, the ash is collected and may be stored for beneficial uses or disposed of, if necessary. The use of fly ash provides environmental benefits, such as the conservation of natural resources, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and eliminating the needed for ash disposal in landfills. It is also a valuable mineral resource that is used in construction and manufacturing. Fly ash is used in the production of Portland cement, concrete, mortars and stuccos, manufactured aggregates along with various agricultural applications. As mineral filler, fly ash can be used for paints, shingles, carpet backing, plastics, metal castings and other purposes. This quick reference card is intended to provide the reader basic source, identification and composition, information specifically related to fly ash.

NONE

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Ultrasonic ash/pyrite liberation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to develop a coal preparation concept which employed ultrasonics to precondition coal prior to conventional or advanced physical beneficiation processes such that ash and pyrite separation were enhanced with improved combustible recovery. Research activities involved a series of experiments that subjected three different test coals, Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8, and Upper Freeport, ground to three different size fractions (28 mesh [times] 0, 200 mesh [times] 0, and 325 mesh [times] 0), to a fixed (20 kHz) frequency ultrasonic signal prior to processing by conventional and microbubble flotation. The samples were also processed by conventional and microbubble flotation without ultrasonic pretreatment to establish baseline conditions. Product ash, sulfur and combustible recovery data were determined for both beneficiation processes.

Yungman, B.A.; Buban, K.S.; Stotts, W.F.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

The fluidized bed combustion ash management puzzle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As the electric and industrial power generation industry upgrades and expands, the amount of coal and other solid fuels also expands. With increased environmental controls, the introduction of a competitive market for power, and the increased interest in opportunity fuels will increase the usage of Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) boilers in the power industry. The combustion of these solid fuels will generate combustion ashes. Power generators, including FBC boilers owners, have traditionally looked to landfills for the disposal of their ash. With the tighter environmental controls being placed on landfills at the federal and state level, power generators are beginning to see constantly escalating tipping fees which now make the landfill option less attractive. In some instances, landfills are beginning to refuse to accept ash regardless of the tipping fee. In view of this, the power generators are now struggling to find a place to store or dispose of the ash that is produced by their power boiler. Other disposal alternatives such as backhaul to the mine and beneficial reuse are now being considered. Either alternative presents its own set of technical and environmental variables to be considered in developing an effective ash management plan. To be effective, these plans need to incorporate an aggressive, yet realistic, role to support beneficial reuse of the ash. Many applications exist for reuse of the various types of ash. The applications for conventional ashes such as those from pulverized coal boilers and stoker fired boilers are mature and more commonplace. The uses for FBC ash are not as well researched and demonstrated and therefore the marketing opportunities for FBC ash continue to require development. FBC boiler owners and operators must be willing to accept the challenges posed in developing these reuse applications for FBC ash for the market to accept the applications for FBC ash and allow the full value of the FBC ash to be realized.

Fitzgerald, H.B. [ReUse Technology, Inc., Kennesaw, GA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

59

Green Weight  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Green-weight is a novel system designed to supply a high-rise building with all its needs of electricity using wind energy and to supplement its lighting needs with natural sunlight. David Fisher has proposed an ingenious method to harness the wind...

Al-Haji, A.; Al-Omair, A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Cement Additives from Fly Ash Opportunity  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Device and Method for Separating Minerals, Carbon and Device and Method for Separating Minerals, Carbon and Cement Additives from Fly Ash Opportunity Research is currently active on the patented technology "Device and Method for Separating Minerals, Carbon, and Cement Additives from Fly Ash." The technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Depart- ment of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Overview This invention includes a device, along with a method, to recover and use fly ash as a source of high purity carbon, ash, and minerals. The device and associated method can isolate components of the fly ash based on size and electrical charge. By improving beneficiation and usage methods, fly ash can be transformed from a waste material to a valuable by-product. Recent shifts to low nitrogen

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "weight average ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Volcanic eruptions can produce a wide range of hazards. Although phenomena such as pyroclastic flows and surges, sector collapses, lahars and ballistic blocks are the most destructive and dangerous, volcanic ash is by far the most widely distributed eruption product. Although ash falls rarely endanger human life directly, threats to public health and disruption to critical infrastructure services, aviation and primary production can lead to significant societal impacts. Even relatively small eruptions can cause widespread disruption, damage and economic loss. Volcanic eruptions are, in general, infrequent and somewhat exotic occurrences, and consequently in many parts of the world, the management of critical infrastructure during volcanic crises can be improved with greater knowledge of the likely impacts. This article presents an overview of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure, other than aviation and fuel supply, illustrated by findings from impact assessment reconnaissance trips carried out to a wide range of locations worldwide by our international research group and local collaborators. ‘Critical infrastructure’ includes those assets, frequently taken for granted, which are essential for the functioning of a society and economy. Electricity networks are very vulnerable to disruption from volcanic ash falls. This is particularly the case when fine ash is erupted because it has a greater tendency to adhere to line and substation insulators, where it can cause flashover (unintended electrical discharge) which can in turn cause widespread and disruptive outages. Weather conditions are a major determinant of flashover risk. Dry ash is not conductive, and heavy rain will wash ash from insulators, but light rain/mist will mobilise readily-soluble salts on the surface of the ash grains and lower the ash layer’s resistivity. Wet ash is also heavier than dry ash, increasing the risk of line breakage or tower/pole collapse. Particular issues for water supply managers include: monitoring turbidity levels in raw water intakes, and if necessary increasing chlorination to compensate for higher turbidity; managing water demand; and communicating monitoring results with the public to allay fears of contamination. Ash can cause major damage to wastewater disposal systems. Ash deposited onto impervious surfaces such as roads and car parks is very easily washed into storm drains, where it can form intractable masses and lead to long-term flooding problems. It can also enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), both through sewer lines and by direct fallout. Damage to modern \\{WWTPs\\} can run into millions of dollars. Ash falls reduce visibility creating hazards for ground transportation. Dry ash is also readily remobilised by vehicle traffic and wind, and dry and wet ash deposits will reduce traction on paved surfaces, including airport runways. Ash cleanup from road and airports is commonly necessary, but the large volumes make it logistically challenging. Vehicles are vulnerable to ash; it will clog filters and brake systems and abrade moving parts within engines. Lastly, modern telecommunications networks appear to be relatively resilient to volcanic ash fall. Signal attenuation and interference during ash falls has not been reported in eruptions over the past 20 years, with the exception of interference from ash plume-generated lightning. However, some telecommunications equipment is vulnerable to airborne ash, in particular heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems which may become blocked from ash ingestion leading to overheating. This summary of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure provides insight into the relative vulnerability of infrastructure under a range of different ashfall scenarios. Identifying and quantifying these impacts is an essential step in building resilience within these critical systems. We have attempted to consider interdependencies between sectors in a holistic way using systems thinking. As modern society becomes increasingly complex and interdependent this

Thomas M. Wilson; Carol Stewart; Victoria Sword-Daniels; Graham S. Leonard; David M. Johnston; Jim W. Cole; Johnny Wardman; Grant Wilson; Scott T. Barnard

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

COAL ASH RESOURCES RESEARCH CONSORTIUM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium (CARRC, pronounced ?cars?) is the core coal combustion by-product (CCB) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCBs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCB utilization and ensuring its successful application. CARRC continued the partnership of industry partners, university researchers, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) addressing needs in the CCB industry through technical research and development projects. Technology transfer also continued through distribution and presentation of the results of research activities to appropriate audiences, with emphasis on reaching government agency representatives and end users of CCBs. CARRC partners have evolved technically and have jointly developed an understanding of the layers of social, regulatory, legal, and competition issues that impact the success of CCB utilization as applies to the CCB industry in general and to individual companies. Many CARRC tasks are designed to provide information on CCB performance including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC activities from 1993?1998 included a variety of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCBs. The tasks summarized in this report are 1) The Demonstration of CCB Use in Small Construction Projects, 2) Application of CCSEM (computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy) for Coal Combustion By-Product Characterization, 3) Development of a Procedure to Determine Heat of Hydration for Coal Combustion By-Products, 4) Investigation of the Behavior of High-Calcium Coal Combustion By-Products, 5) Development of an Environmentally Appropriate Leaching Procedure for Coal Combustion By-Products, 6) Set Time of Fly Ash Concrete, 7) Coal Ash Properties Database (CAPD), 8) Development of a Method for Determination of Radon Hazard in CCBs, 9) Development of Standards and Specifications, 10) Assessment of Fly Ash Variability, and 11) Development of a CCB Utilization Workshop. The primary goal of CARRC is to work with industry to solve CCB-related problems and promote the environmentally safe, technically sound, and economical utilization and disposal of these highly complex materials. CARRC 1993?1998 accomplishments included: C Updating the CAPD to a user-friendly database management system, and distributing it to CARRC members. C ASTM standard preparation for a guide to using CCBs as waste stabilization agents. C Preliminary identification of specific mineral transformations resulting from fly ash hydration. C Limited determination of the effects of fly ash on the set time of concrete. C Statistical evaluation of a select set of fly ashes from several regional coal-fired power plants. C Development and presentation of a workshop on CCB utilization focused on government agency representatives and interested parties with limited CCB utilization experience. C Participation in a variety of local, national, and international technical meetings, symposia, and conferences by presenting and publishing CCB-related papers.

NONE

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Characterization of ash cenospheres in fly ash from Australian power stations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ash cenospheres in fly ashes from five Australian power stations have been characterized. The experimental data show that ash cenosphere yield varies across the power stations. Ash partitioning occurred in the process of ash cenosphere formation during combustion. Contradictory to conclusions from the literature, iron does not seem to be essential to ash cenosphere formation in the cases examined in the present work. Further investigation was also undertaken on a series of size-fractioned ash cenosphere samples from Tarong power station. It is found that about 70 wt% of ash cenospheres in the bulk sample have sizes between 45 and 150 {mu}m. There are two different ash cenosphere structures, that is, single-ring structure and network structure. The percentage of ash cenospheres of a network structure increases with increasing ash cenosphere size. Small ash cenospheres (in the size fractions {lt}150 {mu}m) have a high SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio, and the majority of the ash cenospheres are spherical and of a single-ring structure. Large ash cenosphere particles (in the size fractions of 150-250 {mu}m and {gt}250 {mu}m) have a low SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio, and a high proportion of the ash cenospheres are nonspherical and of a network structure. A novel quantitative technique has been developed to measure the diameter and wall thickness of ash cenospheres on a particle-to-particle basis. A monolayer of size-fractioned ash cenospheres was dispersed on a pellet, which was then polished carefully before being examined using a scanning electron microscope and image analysis. The ash cenosphere wall thickness broadly increases with increasing ash cenosphere size. The ratios between wall thickness and diameter of ash cenospheres are limited between an upper bound of about 10.5% and a lower bound of about 2.5%, irrespective of the ash cenosphere size. 52 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

Ling-ngee Ngu; Hongwei Wu; Dong-ke Zhang [Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia). Centre for Fuels and Energy and Department of Chemical Engineering

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

64

Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

Boxley, Chett (Park City, UT)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

65

Application of Coal Fly Ash in Air Quality Management  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Application of Coal Fly Ash in Air Quality Management ... It has been found from the literature that fly ash possesses potential application in the management of air quality. ... Application of Zeolite Synthesized from Fly Ash in Air Quality Management ...

M. Ahmaruzzaman; V.K Gupta

2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

66

Detailed Characterization of Lubricant-Derived Ash-Related Species...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Characterization of Lubricant-Derived Ash-Related Species in Diesel Exhaust and Aftertreatment Systems Detailed Characterization of Lubricant-Derived Ash-Related Species in Diesel...

67

The Development of a Small Engine Based Accelerated Ash Loading...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Accelerated Ash Loading Protocol The Development of a Small Engine Based Accelerated Ash Loading Protocol Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan....

68

Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

illustrate ash particle growth and formation pathways, and influence of lubricant chemistry and exhaust conditions on fundamental ash properties deer12kamp.pdf More Documents...

69

Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with a Oil Conditioning Filter Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with a Oil Conditioning Filter Under the test...

70

Minimizing Lubricant-Ash Requirement and Impact on Emission Aftertreat...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Lubricant-Ash Requirement and Impact on Emission Aftertreatment Systems via an Oil Conditioning Filter Minimizing Lubricant-Ash Requirement and Impact on Emission...

71

Utilization of Coal Ash As Recycling Material Options in View Point of Geoenvironment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Disposed coal ash is result from the residual of coal refinery processes and become environmentalimportant issues. Coal ash consists of bottom ash and fly ash. The number of coal ash production is abundant, and c...

Ahmad Rifa’I; Noriyuki Yasufuku; Kiyoshi Omine…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Settlement of footing on compacted ash bed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Compacted coal ash fills exhibit capillary stress due to contact moisture and preconsolidation stress due to the compaction process. As such, the conventional methods of estimating settlement of footing on cohesionless soils based on penetration tests become inapplicable in the case of footings on coal ash fills, although coal ash is also a cohesionless material. Therefore, a method of estimating load-settlement behavior of footings resting on coal ash fills accounting for the effect of capillary and preconsolidation stresses is presented here. The proposed method has been validated by conducting plate load tests on laboratory prepared compacted ash beds and comparing the observed and predicted load-settlement behavior. Overestimation of settlement greater than 100% occurs when capillary and preconsolidation stresses are not accounted for, as is the case in conventional methods.

Ramasamy, G.; Pusadkar, S.S. [IIT Roorkee, Roorkee (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

73

Weighted Guidelines  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

───────────────────────────────────Chapter 15.4-2 (July 2010) 1 Weighted Guidelines [References: FAR 15.4, DEAR 915.4] Overview This section provides guidance for applying the Department of Energy's (DOE) structured approach in determining profit/fee. Background The Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) requires consideration of certain factors (described in 15.404-4 as "profit-analysis factors" or "common factors") in developing a structured profit/fee approach. It does not prescribe specific government-wide procedures for profit/fee analysis. Actual profit/fee may vary (FAR 15.404-4(a) (1)) as you perform your profit/fee analysis;

74

Fat turnover in obese slower than average  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

9-04 9-04 For immediate release: 09/23/2011 | NR-11-09-04 Fat turnover in obese slower than average Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov Printer-friendly This scanning electron micrograph image shows part of a lobule of adipose tissue (body fat). Adipose tissue is specialized connective tissue that functions as the major storage site for fat. Photo courtesy of David Gregory & Debbie Marshall/Wellcome Images LIVERMORE, Calif. -- It may be more difficult for obese people to lose fat because the "turnover" rate is much slower for those overweight than average weight individuals. New research in the Sept. 25 online edition of the journal Nature shows that the turnover (storage and loss rate) of fat in the human body is about 1 1/2 years compared to fat cells, which turnover about every 10 years,

75

Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

Boxley, Chett (Park City, UT); Akash, Akash (Salt lake City, UT); Zhao, Qiang (Natick, MA)

2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

76

Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

77

Use of Ekibastuzsk coal ash as a filler for acid resistant plaster  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Acid resistant plasters are used extensively at thermal power plants for protection of gas conduits, ash traps with spouts and hydraulic valves, and the internal surfaces of smoke pump housings. The surface being protected is preliminarily cleaned and a No. 16-20 steel grid attached to the surface by electrial welding. In producing the acid resistant plaster, 14-17 parts by weight of sodium silicofluoride are added to 100 parts by weight of sodium water glass; the remainder consists of andesite or diabase meal to the required consistency. The water glass fulfills the role of a binder; the sodium silicofluoride accelerates solidification of the water glass and the andesite and diabase meal serve as fillers. We found, tested in the laboratory and used successfully (under experimental-industrial conditions) a substitute for andesite and diabase meal. This substitute was ash of Ekibastuzsk coal, which was not only comparable to the meal in regard to quality of the acid resistant plaster, but even exceeded andesite and diabase meal in regard to several qualitative indicators. At the present time, a formula is being developed for an acid resistant plaster produced on the basis of water glass, sodium silicofluoride and ash of Ekibastuzsk coal. In order to verify the possibility of using other ashes instead of andesite and diabase meal, we also tested, under laboratory conditions, acid resistant plasters using ash from thermal power plants (TPP's) also burning Karagandinsk, Kuuchekinsk, Kuznetsk and Kansko-Achinsk coals. In compositions produced with polymer binders, Kansko-Achinsk coal ash was one of the best fillers, providing the most favorable physico-mechanical properties of the composition.

Korsakov, F.F.; Isichenko, I.I.; Kabanov, G.A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Averaging Hypotheses in Newtonian Cosmology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Average properties of general inhomogeneous cosmological models are discussed in the Newtonian framework. It is shown under which circumstances the average flow reduces to a member of the standard Friedmann--Lema\\^\\i tre cosmologies. Possible choices of global boundary conditions of inhomogeneous cosmologies as well as consequences for the interpretation of cosmological parameters are put into perspective.

T. Buchert

1995-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

79

Ash Deposition Behavior of Upgraded Brown Coal and Bituminous Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ash Deposition Behavior of Upgraded Brown Coal and Bituminous Coal ... Ash with a low melting point causes slagging and fouling problems in pulverized coal combustion boilers. ... The ash composition in coal and operational conditions in boilers such as heat load greatly affect the ash deposition behavior. ...

Katsuya Akiyama; Haeyang Pak; Toshiya Tada; Yasuaki Ueki; Ryo Yoshiie; Ichiro Naruse

2010-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

80

Fusibility and sintering characteristics of ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The temperature characteristics of ash fusibility are studied for a wide range of bituminous and brown coals, lignites, and shales with ratios R{sub B/A} of their alkaline and acid components between 0.03 and 4. Acritical value of R{sub B/A} is found at which the fusion temperatures are minimal. The sintering properties of the ashes are determined by measuring the force required to fracture a cylindrical sample. It is found that the strength of the samples increases sharply at certain temperatures. The alkali metal content of the ashes has a strong effect on their sintering characteristics.

Ots, A. A., E-mail: aots@sti.ttu.ee [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "weight average ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Rocky Flats ash test procedure (sludge stabilization)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rocky Flats Ash items have been identified as the next set of materials to be stabilized. This test is being run to determine charge sizes and soak times to completely stabilize the Rocky Flats Ash items. The information gathered will be used to generate the heating rampup cycle for stabilization. This test will also gain information on the effects of the glovebox atmosphere (moisture) on the stabilized material. This document provides instructions for testing Rocky Flats Ash in the HC-21C muffle furnace process.

Winstead, M.L.

1995-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

82

Molecular Weight Dependent Antimicrobial Activity by Chitosan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chitosan oligomers of average molecular weight 9300(P9300)...Escherichia coli, P2200 was not growth inhibitor but growth accelerator. The stacking of P9300...E. coli...was confirmed by the use of FITC(Fluorescein...

Seiichi Tokura; Keisuke Ueno…

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

Schenone, Carl E. (Madison, PA); Rosinski, Joseph (Vanderbilt, PA)

1984-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

84

Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

Schenone, Carl E. (Madison, PA); Rosinski, Joseph (Vanderbilt, PA)

1984-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

85

Fly ash system technology improves opacity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Unit 3 of the Dave Johnston Power Plant east of Glenrock, WY, USA had problems staying at or below the opacity limits set by the state. The unit makes use of a Lodge Cottrell precipitator. When the plant changed to burning Power River Basin coal, ash buildup became a significant issue as the fly ash control system was unable to properly evacuate hoppers on the unit. To overcome the problem, the PLC on the unit was replaced with a software optimization package called SmartAsh for the precipitator fly ash control system, at a cost of $500,000. After the upgrade, there have been no plugged hoppers and the opacity has been reduced from around 20% to 3-5%. 2 figs.

NONE

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

86

Carbonation of FBC ash by sonochemical treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work explores the sonochemical-enhanced carbonation of FBC ash for direct disposal in landfills. Tests have been conducted using four ashes originating from three commercial CFBC boilers. Experiments with additives such as NaCl and seawater have also been carried out. Tests were performed at low (20°, 40 °C) and high (60°, 80 °C) temperatures. Sonicated samples were analyzed using TGA, TGA–FTIR and XRD techniques to determine the influence of other calcium compounds (OCC). The particle size reduction brought about by sonication was quantified using wet sieving. The ash reactivity displays a strong temperature dependency with almost complete carbonation achieved in minutes at higher temperatures. Additives were found to increase the level of hydration of the ashes, in line with previous work; however, carbonation levels were unaffected. TGA, TGA–FTIR and XRD analysis of the samples indicated participation of OCC, which were also formed during hydration.

A. Rao; E.J. Anthony; L. Jia; A. Macchi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Rocky Flats Ash test procedure (sludge stabilization)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rocky Flats Ash items have been identified as the next set of materials to be stabilized. This test is being run to determine charge sizes and soak times to completely stabilize the Rocky Flats Ash items. The information gathered will be used to generate the heating rampup cycle for stabilization. The test will provide information to determine charge sizes, soak times and mesh screen sizes (if available at time of test) for stabilization of Rocky Flats Ash items to be processed in the HC-21C Muffle Furnace Process. Once the charge size and soak times have been established, a program for the temperature controller of the HC-21C Muffle Furnace process will be generated for processing Rocky Flats Ash.

Funston, G.A.

1995-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

88

Hydrothermal reactions of fly ash. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The emphasis of the work done has been to determine the reactivities of two ashes believed to be representative of those generated. A bituminous ash and a lignitic ash have been investigated. The reactions of these ashes undergo when subjected to mild hydrothermal conditions were explored. The nature of the reactions which the ashes undergo when alkaline activators, calcium hydroxide and calcium sulfate are present was also investigated. It was determined that calcium silicate hydrate, calcium aluminate hydrate, and the calcium sulfoaluminate hydrate ettringite form under these conditions. It appears 3CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}3CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}32H{sub 2}O (ettringite) formation needs to be considered in ashes which contain significant amounts of sulfate. Therefore the stability region for ettringite was established. It was also determined that calcium silicate hydrate, exhibiting a high internal surface area, will readily form with hydrothermal treatment between 50{degrees} and 100{degrees}C. This phase is likely to have a significant capacity to take up heavy metals and oxyanions and this ability is being explored.

Brown, P.W.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

89

Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority`s newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective.

Not Available

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a moderate alkali content (0.2% sodium equivalents), thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present in the ash. The test sections were controlled to operate with an average surface metal temperature from approximately 1060 F to 1210 F which was within the temperature range over which coal ash corrosion occurs. Thus, this combination of aggressive environment and high temperature was appropriate for testing the performance of candidate corrosion-resistant tube materials. Analyses of the deposit and scale confirmed that aggressive alkali sulfate constituents were present at the metal surface and active in tube metal wastage. The test sections were constructed so that the response of twelve different candidate tube and/or coating materials could be studied. The plan was to remove and evaluate one of the three test sections at time intervals of 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. This would permit an assessment of performance of the candidate materials as a function of time. Test Section A was removed in November 2001 after about 24 months of service at the desired steam temperature set point, with about 15.5 months of exposure at full temperature. A progress report, issued in October 2002, was written to document the performance of the candidate alloys in that test section. The evaluation described the condition of each tube sample after exposure. It involved a determination of the rate of wall thickness loss for these samples. In cases where there was more than one sample of a candidate material in the test section, an assessment was made of the performance of the alloy as a function of temperature. Test Sections B and C were examined during the November 2001 outage, and it was decided that, due to excessive wastage, certain tube samples needed to be removed and replaced in order to ensure that Test Sections B and C would have a chance of remaining in the boiler for their intended exposure period. These suspect tube samples were replaced and the two remaining test sections were put back into service. The tube samples that were removed from Test Sections B and C were set aside for later analysis at the end of the planned exposure period. Test Sections B and C were again examined approximately six months later. At that time, measured wall thickness losses raised concerns about additional tube samples. These suspect samples were also removed, set aside for later analysis, and replaced. The test sections then went back into service until the end of the second exposure period, which was concluded in May 2003 when, due to evidence of excessive wastage, the valves were opened increasing cooling steam flow and thereby effectively stopping corrosion. In August 2003, Test Sections B and C were removed for closer examination. Section C had experienced about 42 months of service at the desired team temperature set point with 28.5 months at temperature at full temperature. Additional suspect samples were removed from Test Section B, then, it was re-installed into the boiler (at the location originally occupied by Section C), where it remained in service until the end of the program. Due to this removal history, the samples from Test Section B had a total service duration that varied from a minimum of 15.5 months (for samples that performed poorly) to 37 months for samples the survived for the full intended service exposure for Section B. The figure below shows a schematic of Test Section B and indicates the length of service exposure for different locations. This report provides the results of the evaluation of Test Section B, including the samples that remained in the Test Section for the full exposure period as well as those that were removed early. This report also is intended to compare and summarize the results for all three test sections. The analysis of T

D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

91

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash technical progress Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and economic benefits. (1) Fly ash... of coal in conventional and or advanced clean coal technology combustors. These include fly ash, bottom... ash, boiler slag, and flue...

92

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash blended cement Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CLSM mixture utilized... . CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH FOR CEMENT-BASED MATERIALS 2 The major... investigation. Two additional ash ......

93

Core Measure Average KTR Results  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Measure Measure Average KTR Results FY 12 Target FY 12 DOE M&O CONTRACTOR (KTR) BSC RESULTS FY 2012 Customer Perspective and level of communication provided by the procurement office 95 92 Internal Business Perspective: Assessment (%) of the degree to which the purchasing system is in compliance with stakeholder requirements 97 Local Goals % Delivery on-time (includes JIT, excludes Purchase Cards) 88 84 % of total dollars obligated, on actions > $150K , that were awarded using effective competition 73 Local Goals Rapid Purchasing Techniques: -% of transactions placed by users 77 Local Goals -% of transactions placed through electronic commerce 62 Local Goals Average Cycle Time: -Average cycle time for <= $150K 8 6 to 9 days

94

Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The disposal of fly ash from the combustion of coal has become increasingly important. When the fly ash does not meet the required specification for the product or market intended, it is necessary to beneficiate it to achieve the desired quality. This project, conducted at PPL's Montour SES, is the first near full-scale ({approx}10 ton/day), demonstration of ash ozonation technology. Bituminous and sub bituminous ashes, including two ash samples that contained activated carbon, were treated during the project. Results from the tests were very promising. The ashes were successfully treated with ozone, yielding concrete-suitable ash quality. Preliminary process cost estimates indicate that capital and operating costs to treat unburned carbon are competitive with other commercial ash beneficiation technologies at a fraction of the cost of lost sales and/or ash disposal costs. This is the final technical report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730.

Rui Afonso; R. Hurt; I. Kulaots

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Characteristics and distribution of potential ash tree hosts for emerald ash borer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) is a recently discovered (July 2002) exotic insect pest, which has caused the death of millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in Detroit, MI, USA and has also spread into other areas of Michigan, isolated locations in Indiana, Ohio, Maryland and Virginia, and nearby Windsor, Ont., in Canada. Ash trees occur in many different forest ecosystems in North America, are one of the more widely planted trees in urban areas, and are a valuable commercial timber species. If emerald ash borer populations are not contained and eventually eradicated, the ash resource in North America could be devastated. The destruction caused by EAB and its rate of spread are likely to be strongly influenced by the spatial distribution and status of the ash tree host, but general information regarding the abundance, health and distribution of ash trees is diffused throughout the literature. Here, we summarize what is currently known regarding the characteristics and potential spatial distribution of various species of Fraxinus in natural and planted ecosystems in North America and evaluate this information with specific regard to assessing the relative risk of ash populations to EAB.

David W. MacFarlane; Shawna Patterson Meyer

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Utilization of ash from fluidized bed boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combustion ash from a fluidized bed combustion (FBC) boiler contains not only carbon, but also silica alumina, quicklime as a sorbent, and a calcium sulfate by-product. These substances react chemically during fluidized bed combustion, and with the addition of water, they start an ettringite reaction and solidify. We determined the conditions necessary for producing hard solids through the study of the composition, curing methods, and characteristics of the solidified ash. We then used two types of road base material, crushed stone and solidified ash from an FBC boiler, to construct a test road at a site with a great deal of heavy traffic. Construction began in 1985, and since then, periodic tests have been performed to evaluate the performance of the road base materials. The testing of the manufacturing techniques centered on the amount and manner that water was added to the mixture and the curing methods of the mixture. Additional testing focused on the handling of the ash powder, the mixtures, and the solidified ash. Since 1991, under the sponsorship of MITI, the Center for Coal Utilization, in conjunction with Naruto Salt Mfg., Ltd., Nippon Hodo Co., Ltd., and Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., has used the referenced results to undertake a joint research and development project aimed at the eventual practical application of the technology. In 1993, a pilot facility to solidify ash with the fluidized bed boiler of 75 t/h capacity was completed. At present, all the discharged ash from the pilot facility is being solidified, and experiments on solidification and road base application techniques are underway. Actual road base tests are also in progress, and we are continuing research to meet the national certification requirements for road base materials.

Takada, Tomoaki [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Akashi (Japan)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

97

West Texas Intermediate Spot Average ............................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil (dollars per barrel) Crude Oil (dollars per barrel) West Texas Intermediate Spot Average ............................ 102.88 93.42 92.24 87.96 94.34 94.10 105.84 96.30 95.67 95.33 95.67 93.33 94.12 97.64 95.00 Brent Spot Average ........................................................... 118.49 108.42 109.61 110.09 112.49 102.58 110.27 108.29 106.33 105.00 103.00 102.00 111.65 108.41 104.08 Imported Average .............................................................. 108.14 101.18 97.18 97.64 98.71 97.39 103.07 100.03 99.64 99.33 99.69 97.35 101.09 99.85 99.04 Refiner Average Acquisition Cost ...................................... 107.61 101.44 97.38 97.27 101.14 99.45 105.24 100.44 100.15 99.82 100.18 97.83 100.83 101.61 99.50 Liquid Fuels (cents per gallon) Refiner Prices for Resale Gasoline .........................................................................

98

Ash aerosol formation from oxy-coal combustion and its relation to ash deposit chemistry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Ash aerosol and ash deposit formation during oxy-coal combustion were explored through experiments in a self-sustained 100 kW rated down-fired oxy-fuel combustor. Inlet oxidant conditions consisted of 50% inlet oxygen with CO2 (hereafter denoted as OXY50 conditions). A Berner low pressure impactor (BLPI), a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) were used to obtain size segregated ash aerosol samples and to determine the particle size distributions (PSD). A novel surface temperature controlled ash deposition probe system that allowed inside and outside deposits to be separated was used to collect the ash deposits. The ash aerosol \\{PSDs\\} given by the BLPI and those produced by SMPS/APS were consistent with each other. Data suggested that oxy-coal combustion under these conditions did not change the formation mechanisms controlling the bulk ash aerosol composition, but it did increase the formation of ultra-fine particles initially formed through metal vaporization, due to increased vaporization of silicon at the higher combustion temperature. The smaller particles contained within the deposits had higher Si and lower Na and S concentrations under OXY50 conditions than for air combustion. Moreover, the ash aerosol composition for particle sizes less than 2.4 ?m was related to the composition of the inside deposits. A higher Na in the ash aerosol resulted in higher Na in inside deposits with comparable absolute Na concentrations in both those aerosol particles and those inside deposits particles. The contribution of S and Si to the inside deposits showed that S in the vaporization modes together with Si in the ultrafine vaporization mode, contributed significantly to the composition of the inside deposits. These results provided direct evidence that prediction of the chemistry of the initial deposit layer (but not of the bulk deposits) required knowledge of the size segregated chemistry of the ash aerosol.

Zhonghua Zhan; Andrew Fry; Yanwei Zhang; Jost O.L. Wendt

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Coal ash behavior in reducing environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is a four-year program designed to investigate the transformations and properties of coal ash in reducing environment systems. This project is currently midway through its third year. The work to date has emphasized four areas of research: (1) the development of quantitative techniques to analyze reduced species, (2) the production of gasification-type samples under closely controlled conditions, (3) the systematic gasification of specific coals to produce information about their partitioning during gasification, and (4) the study of the physical properties of ashes and slags under reducing atmospheres. The project is organized into three tasks which provide a strong foundation for the project. Task 1, Analytical Methods Development, has concentrated on the special needs of analyzing samples produced under a reducing atmosphere as opposed to the more often studied combustion systems. Task 2, Inorganic Partitioning and Ash Deposition, has focused on the production of gasification-type samples under closely controlled conditions for the study of inorganic partitioning that may lead to deposition. Task 3, Ash and Slag Physical Properties, has made large gains in the areas of sintering and strength development of coal ashes under reducing atmospheres for the evaluation of deposition problems. Results are presented for all three tasks.

Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Brekke, D.W.; Folkedahl, B.C.; Tibbetts, J.E.; Nowok, J.W.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Leaching of elements from bottom ash, economizer fly ash, and fly ash from two coal-fired power plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To assess how elements leach from several types of coal combustion products (CCPs) and to better understand possible risks from CCP use or disposal, coal ashes were sampled from two bituminous-coal-fired power plants. One plant located in Ohio burns high-sulfur (about 3.9%) Upper Pennsylvanian Pittsburgh coal from the Monongahela Group of the Central Appalachian Basin; the other in New Mexico burns low-sulfur (about 0.76%) Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation coal from the San Juan Basin, Colorado Plateau. The sampled \\{CCPs\\} from the Ohio plant were bottom ash (BA), economizer fly ash (EFA), and fly ash (FA); the sampled \\{CCPs\\} from the New Mexico plant were BA, mixed FA/EFA, FA, and cyclone-separated coarse and fine fractions of a FA/EFA and FA blend. Subsamples of each ash were leached using the long-term leaching (60-day duration) component of the synthetic groundwater leaching procedure (SGLP) or the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP, 18-hour duration). These ashes were all alkaline. Leachate concentrations and leachabilities of the elements from the \\{CCPs\\} were similar between corresponding CCP types (BA, EFA, and FA) from each plant. The leachabilities of most elements were lowest in BA (least leachable) and increased from EFA to FA (most leachable). Ca and Sr were leached more from EFA than from either BA or FA. Leachability of most elements also increased as FA particle size decreased, possibly due in part to increasing specific surface areas. Several oxyanion-forming elements (As, Mo, Se, U, and V) leached more under SGLP than under TCLP; the opposite was true for most other elements analyzed.

Kevin B. Jones; Leslie F. Ruppert; Sharon M. Swanson

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "weight average ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic weight determinations Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

N. Damon Summary: the interpolation weights, which are then used in the weighted geodesic average on the control atoms to get... and the weight list (1, 2, ..., N ), the...

102

Influence of Particle Morphology on the Hydraulic Behavior of Coal Ash and Sand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Residues of thermo electrical power plants are generically known as ashes, and can be classifies as slag, bottom ash and fly ash. Slag has a high content of unburned ... %) and coarse grains or clods. Bottom ash ...

Karla Salvagni Heineck; Rosemar Gomes Lemos…

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

The lime-soda sinter process for resource recovery from fly ash: A new look  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The lime-soda sinter process is one of the earliest and most thoroughly researched and evaluated of the several methods available for resource recovery from fly ash. The principle product, metallurgical grade alumina, is obtained with yields as high as 90% depending upon how much alumina needs to be left in the residue to form acceptable byproduct cement clinker. The process has the advantages of requiring a relatively low sintering temperature (1100-1200{degree}C), using conventional equipment of carbon steel construction, utilizing a variety of calcium and mineralizer raw materials, and producing only a single byproduct consisting of dicalcium silicate that has been shown to be an attractive raw material for the manufacture of portland cement. An economic feasibility study for a combined facility to produce alumina and cement from the fly ash generated by a 1000 MWe coal-fired power station shows a 10.5% return on average investment. This is increased to 14.2% when a disposal charge of $10/ton of fly ash consumed is credited to the process. Research has shown that the soda ash can be replaced by coal cleaning refuse or that the soda ash and one-fourth of the limestone can be replaced by FGD sludge with a savings in raw material cost in both cases. The return on average investment becomes 14.5% when the refuse is used and 15.2% when the sludge is used. The return could be increased further if an inexpensive fluxing agent were substituted for the alumina deliberately left in the residue. 12 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Burnet, G.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Ash limitation of physical coal beneficiation for medium–high ash coal—A geochemistry perspective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Nowadays the industrial coal beneficiation in China could only reduce the ash yield to about 10%, which could not meet the requirement or standard of environment protection. In this work, the possibility of reducing the ash yield was studied from the aspect of geochemistry. The channel samples were collected from two coal seams in Guizhou and Shanxi province, China and then conducted analysis by combining data from coals worldwide. The result reveals that the same coal seam or the coals deposited in the same peat swamp show a significantly positive correlation between ash yield and Al2O3 + SiO2 content, and the intercept of regression equation on the ash axis is always less than 5% (generally 2–5%). Overall, the coal from China is featured with a higher intercept compared with that in the other countries. The intercept of 2–5% on the ash axis indicates an original inorganic component in coal-forming peat. The research result also presents a theoretical limitation of coal ash by coal cleaning, because 2–5% of inorganic components in medium–high quality ash coal could hardly be separated by traditional physical coal beneficiation.

Wenfeng Wang; Weiduo Hao; Simon Xu; Fuchang Qian; Shuxun Sang; Yong Qin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Extraction of trace metals from fly ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous. The fly ash has a silicate base and contains surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like. The process is carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl/sub 3/ in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl/sub 3/ to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

Blander, M.; Wai, C.M.; Nagy, Z.

1983-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

106

Extraction of trace metals from fly ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous, the fly ash having a silicate base and containing surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like, with the process being carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl.sub.3 in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl.sub.3 to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

Blander, Milton (Palos Park, IL); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Nagy, Zoltan (Woodridge, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Grain characteristics and engineering properties of coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

?Ash produced by the coal fired thermal plants is often used as ... the grain characteristics and the engineering properties of coal ash. The results of x-ray diffraction, ... characteristic that may be used for ...

A. Trivedi; V. K. Sud

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

The Leaching of Major and Trace Elements from Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most power stations currently operate wet ash disposal systems. However, this method of ash disposal is being subjected to increasing scrutiny as there is a potential for contamination of surface and groundwat...

D. R. Jones

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

High carbon fly ash finds uses in highway construction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The beneficial use of high carbon fly ash in a highway construction project is discussed. The fly ash also had a relatively high content of mercury and some other heavy metals. 1 fig., 4 photos.

Wen, H.; Patton, R. [University of Wisconsin at Madison, Madison, WI (United States). Recycled Materials Resources Center

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Leaching of Selected Elements from Coal Ash Dumping  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal ash obtained by coal combustion in the "Nikola Tesla A ... ionic strength of river water, we extracted coal ash with distilled water and 0.002 M–...3. The results show that changes in river water ionic ...

A. Popovic; D. Radmanovic; D. Djordjevic; P. Polic

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Eco-friendly fly ash utilization: potential for land application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The increase in demand for power in domestic, agricultural, and industrial sectors has increased the pressure on coal combustion and aggravated the problem of fly ash generation/disposal. Consequently the research targeting effective utilization of fly ash has also gained momentum. Fly ash has proved to be an economical substitute for expensive adsorbents as well as a suitable raw material for brick manufacturing, zeolite synthesis, etc. Fly ash is a reservoir of essential minerals but is deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. By amending fly ash with soil and/or various organic materials (sewage sludge, bioprocess materials) as well as microbial inoculants like mycorrhizae, enhanced plant growth can be realized. Based on the sound results of large scale studies, fly ash utilization has grown into prominent discipline supported by various internationally renowned organizations. This paper reviews attempts directed toward various utilization of fly ash, with an emphasis on land application of organic/microbial inoculants amended fly ash.

Malik, A.; Thapliyal, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Utilization of blended fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash in geopolymer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, synthesis of geopolymer from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash was studied in order to effectively utilize both ashes. FBC-fly ash and bottom ash were inter-ground to three different finenesses. The ashes were mixed with as-received PCC-fly ash in various proportions and used as source material for synthesis of geopolymer. Sodium silicate (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}) and 10 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions at mass ratio of Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}/NaOH of 1.5 and curing temperature of 65 deg. C for 48 h were used for making geopolymer. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), degree of reaction, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the geopolymer pastes. Compressive strength was also tested on geopolymer mortars. The results show that high strength geopolymer mortars of 35.0-44.0 MPa can be produced using mixture of ground FBC ash and as-received PCC-fly ash. Fine FBC ash is more reactive and results in higher degree of reaction and higher strength geopolymer as compared to the use of coarser FBC ash. Grinding increases reactivity of ash by means of increasing surface area and the amount of reactive phase of the ash. In addition, the packing effect due to fine particles also contributed to increase in strength of geopolymers.

Chindaprasirt, Prinya [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Rattanasak, Ubolluk, E-mail: ubolluk@buu.ac.t [Department of Chemistry and Center for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Burapha University, Chonburi 20131 (Thailand)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

113

POLYVINYLCHLORIDE WASTE WITH OIL SHALE ASH TO CAPTURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

alkaline oil shale ash. Solid heat carrier (Galoter process)-type oil shale retorting units, where the

V. Oja; A. Elenurm; I. Rohtla; E. Tearo; E. Tali

114

Measurement of the Sintering Kinetics of Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurement of the Sintering Kinetics of Coal Ash ... A new technique has been developed to determine the sintering rate of coal ash based on the measurement of the pressure-drop across a pellet of ash. ... The technique developed in this study shows a good repeatability of the rate of sintering and confirms that viscous flow is the dominant mechanism for sintering of coal ash. ...

A. Y. Al-Otoom; L. K. Elliott; T. F. Wall; B. Moghtaderi

2000-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

115

Coal-ash spills highlight ongoing risk to ecosystems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal-ash spills highlight ongoing risk to ecosystems ... A holding pond for coal ash collapsed, releasing billions of gallons of coal-ash sludge onto nearby farmland and into the waters of the Emory and Tennessee rivers. ... For decades, researchers, environmental advocates, local communities, and even the U.S. EPA have been concerned about the ongoing risks posed by the unregulated management of coal ash. ...

Rhitu Chatterjee

2009-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

116

Fractionation and transport of nutrients among coal ash residues and in soil covered with fly ash-amended organic compost  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal-fired power plants generate different types of ash residues and discharge small particles and vapors to the atmosphere. The ash residues which account for the major part ... the byproducts are collected and ...

M. P. Menon; K. S. Sajwan; G. S. Ghuman; J. James…

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Impact of Coal Ash Lagoons Upon the Surrounding Soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ash and slag are the waste products from thermal power stations (TPS). In one Polish TPS, 10,000 Mg of slag, and 48,700 Mg of ash are produced every year. All the slag is utilizedi whereas the ash is tipped of...

E. S. Kempa; A. J?drczak

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Maintaining and Improving Marketability of Coal Fly Ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Maintaining and Improving Marketability of Coal Fly Ash John N. Ward Ben Franklin Headwaters;2 A Headline You May Have Seen What is the future of coal fly ash utilization in a mercury controls world? What is produced when coal is consumed by power plants Fly ash can be used beneficially in numerous applications

119

Utilization of CFB fly ash for construction applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Disposal in landfills has been the most common means of handling ash in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler power plants. Recently, larger CFB boilers with generating capacities up to 300 MWe are currently being planned, resulting in increased volumes and disposal cost of ash by-product. Studies have shown that CFB ashes do not pose environmental concerns that should significantly limit their potential utilization. Many uses of CFB ash are being investigated by Foster Wheeler, which can provide more cost-effective ash management. Construction applications have been identified as one of the major uses for CFB ashes. Typically, CFB ash cannot be used as a cement replacement in concrete due to its unacceptably high sulfur content. However, CFB ashes can be used for other construction applications that require less stringent specifications including soil stabilization, road base, structural fill, and synthetic aggregate. In this study, potential construction applications were identified for fly ashes from several CFB boilers firing diverse fuels such as petroleum coke, refuse derived fuel (RDF) and coal. The compressive strength of hydrated fly ashes was measured in order to screen their potential for use in various construction applications. Based on the results of this work, the effects of both ash chemistry and carbon content on utilization potential were ascertained. Actual beneficial uses of ashes evaluated in this study are also discussed.

Conn, R.E.; Sellakumar, K.; Bland, A.E.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Variable Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences Percent of Projections Over- Estimated Gross Domestic Product Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2) 1.0 42.6 Petroleum Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a) 35.2 18.6 Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Nominal $) (Table 3b) 34.7 19.7 Total Petroleum Consumption (Table 4) 6.2 66.5 Crude Oil Production (Table 5) 6.0 59.6 Petroleum Net Imports (Table 6) 13.3 67.0 Natural Gas Natural Gas Wellhead Prices (Constant $) (Table 7a) 30.7 26.1 Natural Gas Wellhead Prices (Nominal $) (Table 7b) 30.0 27.1 Total Natural Gas Consumption (Table 8) 7.8 70.2 Natural Gas Production (Table 9) 7.1 66.0 Natural Gas Net Imports (Table 10) 29.3 69.7 Coal Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants (Constant $)** (Table 11a)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "weight average ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Screening technology reduces ash in spiral circuits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2006, the James River Coal Co. selected the Stack Sizer to remove the minus 100 mesh high ash clay fraction from the clean coal spiral product circuits at the McCoy-Elkhorn Bevins Branch prep plant and at the Blue Diamond Leatherwood prep plant in Kentucky. The Stack Sizer is a multi-deck, high-frequency vibrating screen capable of separations as fine as 75 microns when fitted with Derrick Corp.'s patented high open area urethane screen panels. Full-scale lab tests and more than 10 months of continuous production have confirmed that the Stack Sizer fitted with Derrick 100 micron urethane screen panels consistently produces a clean coal fraction that ranges from 8 to 10% ash. Currently, each five-deck Stack Sizer operating at the Bevins Branch and Leatherwood prep plants is producing approximately 33 tons per hour of clean coal containing about 9% ash. This represents a clean coal yield of about 75% and an ash reduction of about 11% from the feed slurry. 3 figs. 2 tabs.

Brodzik, P. [Derrick Corp., Buffalo, NY (United States)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

122

Weighted Guidelines | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Weighted Guidelines Weighted Guidelines Weighted Guidelines More Documents & Publications Weighted Guidelines DOE F 4220.23 Microsoft Word - Final MR AL.doc...

123

The variability of fly ash and its effects on selected properties of fresh Portland cement/fly ash mortars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fly ash production. Researchers have subsequently had the opportunity to develop a full body of knowledge concerning bitum1nous ash and its applications. The first s1gn1ficant use of b1tuminous fly ash probably occurred 20 in the 1940's when...THE VARIABILITY OF FLY ASH AND ITS EFFECTS ON SELECTED PROPERTIES OF FRESH PORTLAND CEi'1ENT/FLY ASH MORTARS A Thesis by WILLIAM CARLTON MCKERALL Submitted to the Graduate Co11ege of Texas A&M Uni ver s i ty in partia1 fu1fi11ment...

McKerall, William Carlton

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Year Average Transportation Cost of Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

delivered costs of coal, by year and primary transport mode Year Average Transportation Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton) Average Delivered Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton)...

125

Fly ash and concrete: a study determines whether biomass, or coal co-firing fly ash, can be used in concrete  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current US national standards for using fly ash in concrete (ASTM C618) state that fly ash must come from coal combustion, thus precluding biomass-coal co-firing fly ash. The co-fired ash comes from a large and increasing fraction of US power plants due to rapid increases in co-firing opportunity fuels with coal. The fly ashes include coal fly ash, wood fly ash from pure wood combustion, biomass and coal co-fired fly ash SW1 and SW2. Also wood fly ash is blended with Class C or Class F to produce Wood C and Wood E. Concrete samples were prepared with fly ash replacing cement by 25%. All fly ash mixes except wood have a lower water demand than the pure cement mix. Fly ashes, either from coal or non coal combustion, increase the required air entraining agent (AEA) to meet the design specification of the mixes. If AEA is added arbitrarily without considering the amount or existence of fly ash results could lead to air content in concrete that is either too low or too high. Biomass fly ash does not impact concrete setting behaviour disproportionately. Switch grass-coal co-fired fly ash and blended wood fly ash generally lie within the range of pure coal fly ash strength. The 56 day flexure strength of all the fly ash mixes is comparable to that of the pure cement mix. The flexure strength from the coal-biomass co-fired fly ash does not differ much from pure coal fly ash. All fly ash concrete mixes exhibit lower chloride permeability than the pure cement mixes. In conclusion biomass coal co-fired fly ash perform similarly to coal fly ash in fresh and hardened concrete. As a result, there is no reason to exclude biomass-coal co-fired fly ash in concrete.

Wang, Shuangzhen; Baxter, Larry

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Adsorptive removal of thiophene and benzothiophene over zeolites from Mae Moh coal fly ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Zeolites have been hydrothermally synthesized using Thai coal fly ash from Mae Moh Power Plant as silica and alumina sources. The synthesis conditions, i.e., SiO2/Al2O3 ratio, amount of water, amount of base, and aging temperature, were varied to prepare different topologies of zeolitic products. The zeolites attained were sodalite (SOD), gismondine (GIS), and cancrinite (CAN). The zeolites have been applied to adsorption of thiophene and benzothiophene in n-hexane solution. It was found that GIS with higher specific surface area and average pore volume had superior performance to other synthesized materials. Adsorption capacity of our developed zeolites was compared to those of commercial zeolites, i.e. NaY, HUSY, beta, and ZSM-5 obtained via the conventional synthesis methods. The results suggested a potential of zeolites derived from Mae Moh coal fly ash for removal of refractory sulfur compounds, such as benzothiophene.

Chawalit Ngamcharussrivichai; Chatchawan Chatratananon; Sakdinun Nuntang; Pattarapan Prasassarakich

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Application of solid ash based catalysts in heterogeneous catalysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid wastes, fly ash, and bottom ash are generated from coal and biomass combustion. Fly ash is mainly composed of various metal oxides and possesses higher thermal stability. Utilization of fly ash for other industrial applications provides a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way of recycling this solid waste, significantly reducing its environmental effects. On the one hand, due to the higher stability of its major component, aluminosilicates, fly ash could be employed as catalyst support by impregnation of other active components for various reactions. On the other hand, other chemical compounds in fly ash such as Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} could also provide an active component making fly ash a catalyst for some reactions. In this paper, physicochemical properties of fly ash and its applications for heterogeneous catalysis as a catalyst support or catalyst in a variety of catalytic reactions were reviewed. Fly-ash-supported catalysts have shown good catalytic activities for H{sub 2} production, deSOx, deNOx, hydrocarbon oxidation, and hydrocracking, which are comparable to commercially used catalysts. As a catalyst itself, fly ash can also be effective for gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds, aqueous-phase oxidation of organics, solid plastic pyrolysis, and solvent-free organic synthesis. 107 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Shaobin Wang [Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia). Department of Chemical Engineering

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Ash fusibility and compositional data of solid recovered fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Several approaches are established to analyse the fouling and slagging propensities of coal ashes, but the same cannot be said of solid recovered fuel (SRF) ashes. This work has been conducted by using some fouling and slagging indicators, which are commonly applicable to coal ashes, on SRF ashes to ascertain their applicability. In this work, laboratory prepared ashes derived from municipal solid waste (MSW), sewage sludge, demolition wood, shredded rubber tyres, and plastic/paper fluff are analysed for their fusibility leading to fouling and slagging using three approaches; the ash fusibility temperatures (AFT), ternary phase diagrams, and fouling/slagging indices. The results from each approach are examined to determine the inclination of the ashes toward fouling and slagging. A subsequent inter-comparison of the methods was conducted to validate the methods which are in agreement and are applicable to SRF ashes. The study showed that ternary equilibrium phase diagram SiO2–CaO–Al2O3, various fouling and slagging indices, and AFT can be used to complement each other to predict ash fusion properties, fouling and slagging propensities of SRF ashes.

Gregory Dunnu; Jörg Maier; Günter Scheffknecht

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants. 6 figs.

Hnat, J.G.; Mathur, A.; Simpson, J.C.

1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

130

Does the Addition of Fly Ash to Concrete Present a Radon Hazard? J. A. Siegel1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Street, Suite 450, Austin, Texas, 78701, USA Summary: Fly ash, a waste material from coal-fired power of fly ash [9]. Fly ash is a waste material from coal fired power plants; when added to concrete, fly ashDoes the Addition of Fly Ash to Concrete Present a Radon Hazard? J. A. Siegel1 , M. Juenger1 and J

Siegel, Jeffrey

131

Use of High-Calcium Fly Ash in Cement-Based Construction Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, total coal ash production in the world was estimated to be 600 million tons, of which 100 million tons with ASTM 618, coal fly ash is classified into two main categories, Class F fly ash (low-calcium) and Class coal, and Class C fly ash is generated from burning of lignite and subbituminous coals. Class F fly ash

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

132

Factors Controlling the Solubility of Mercury Adsorbed on Fly Ash  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

N:\R&D_Projects_Partial\FlyAsh&CCBs\Meetings\2005_04_WorldOfCoalAsh\AnnKim\HgSol N:\R&D_Projects_Partial\FlyAsh&CCBs\Meetings\2005_04_WorldOfCoalAsh\AnnKim\HgSol ubility_Paper.doc Factors Controlling the Solubility of Mercury Adsorbed on Fly Ash Ann G. Kim 1 and Karl Schroeder 2 1 ORISE Research Fellow, National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, 626 Cochrans Mill Rd., Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 2 Research Group Leader, National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, 626 Cochrans Mill Rd., Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 KEYWORDS Coal Utilization By-Products, leaching, activated carbon, pH ABSTRACT It is expected that increased controls on Hg emissions will shift the environmental burden from the flue gas to the solid coal utilization by-products (CUB), such as fly ash and flue-gas

133

Volcanic ash in feed coal and its influence on coal combustion products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Geological Survey and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with an Indiana Utility to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) from a coal-fired power plant. The plant utilizes a low-sulfur (.23--.47 weight percent S) coal from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of feed coal samples identified two mineral suites. A primary suite (not authigenic) consisting of quartz (detrital and volcanic beta-form grains), biotite, and minor zircon and a secondary authigenic mineral suite containing calcite, alumino-phosphates (crandallite and gorceixite), kaolinite, quartz, anatase, barite, and pyrite. The authigenic minerals are attributed to air-fall and reworked volcanic ash that was deposited in peat-forming mires. The Powder River Basin feed coals contain higher amounts of Ba, Ca, Mg, Na, Sr, and P compared to other analyzed eastern coals. These elements are associated with alumino-phosphate, biotite, calcite, and clay minerals. The element associations are indicative of coal that incorporated volcanic ash during deposition. XRD analysis of CCPs revealed a predominance of glass, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, quartz, and phosphates with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite, hematite, and spinel group minerals in the fly ash; and quartz, plagioclase (albite and anorthite), pyroxene (augite and fassaite), rhodonite, and akermanite in the bottom ash. Microprobe and SEM analysis of fly ash samples revealed quartz, zircon, monazite, euhedral laths of corundum with merrillite, hematite, dendritic spinels/ferrites, and rounded grains of wollastonite with periclase. The abundant Ca and Mg mineral phases in the fly ashes are related to the presence of carbonate, clay, and phosphate minerals in the feed coal. The Ca- and Mg-rich mineral phases in the CCPs can be attributed to volcanic minerals deposited in the peat-forming mire. Dissolution and alteration of these minerals occurred either in the peat-forming sate or during coalification/diagenesis contributing to the authigenic mineral suite. Additionally, detrital mineral input and epigenetic ground-water flow may have affected the geochemistry of the feed coal.

Brownfield, M.E.; Affolter, R.H.; Cathcart, J.D.; Brownfield, I.K.; Hower, J.C.; Stricker, G.D.; O'Connor, J.T.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

NETL: Utilization Projects - Managing High-Carbon Ash  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Managing High-Carbon Ash Managing High-Carbon Ash Task 1: Effect of Coal Quality The objective of this task is to assess if fuel selection is an important factor determining ash quality. Work on this task will involve each of the three participating organizations. Ash samples from three coals will be generated under identical firing conditions in the pilot furnace at the University of Utah, and the matching ash and coal samples sent to Brown. Additional matching sets of coal and ash will be obtained from commercial-scale firing at Southern Company. The ashes will be characterized for LOI and surfactant adsorption activity under standard conditions and trends with fuel type identified. At the same time, chars will be prepared from the matching coal set under standard conditions in a laboratory furnace and also characterized for surfactant adsorptivity. A variety of standard conditions may need to be explored. The combined data set will be analyzed to determine cross correlations between ash behavior, standard laboratory char behavior, and parent coal properties. Our goal is to be able to anticipate ash behavior either (a) from coal properties directly, or (b) from the properties of chars made by a simple laboratory procedure. Either could be the basis for a coal quality index -- one based on fuel properties and the other based on a simple screening test.

135

Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ash Loading Protocol Rapid Aging and Poisoning Protocols to AssessFuel and Lube Effects on Diesel Aftertreatment (Agreement 13415) Neutron Imaging of Advanced Engine Technologies...

136

Determination of Ash in Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ash in Biomass Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: 7172005 A. Sluiter, B. Hames, R. Ruiz, C. Scarlata, J. Sluiter, and D. Templeton Technical Report NREL...

137

Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Bruce G. Bunting and Todd J. Toops Oak Ridge National Laboratory Adam Youngquist and Ke Nguyen University of...

138

Data Summary Report for Hanford Site Coal Ash Characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to present data and findings from sampling and analysis of five distinct areas of coal ash within the Hanford Site River Corridor

Sulloway, H. M.

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

139

The relation of body weight, egg weight, rate of production and breeding to feed efficiency for egg production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"+ Significant at the . 01 level of probability Body Weight Gtns. White Leghorn DeKatb 1st Hyline 934 2200 2100 2000 1900 1800 1700 1600 1500 I 2 3 4 S 6 7 Periods Figure I. Average Body Weights by 4-Week Periods Av. Egg Weight Gree Wiute... Leghorn DeKalb igl Hyline 934 63 61 59 57 55 53 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Periods Figure Z. Average Egg Weighte by 4-Week Period Percent Egg Production Hen-Day White leghorn DeKatb 101 Hyline 934 76 72 68 60 56 52 2 3 4 5 6 7 Periods Figure 3...

McCracken, Don Frederick

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

140

Zeolite formation from coal fly ash and its adsorption potential  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The possibility in converting coal fly ash (CFA) to zeolite was evaluated. CFA samples from the local power plant in Prachinburi province, Thailand, were collected during a 3-month time span to account for the inconsistency of the CFA quality, and it was evident that the deviation of the quality of the raw material did not have significant effects on the synthesis. The zeolite product was found to be type X. The most suitable weight ratio of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to CFA was approximately 2.25, because this gave reasonably high zeolite yield with good cation exchange capacity (CEC). The silica (Si)-to-aluminum (Al) molar ratio of 4.06 yielded the highest crystallinity level for zeolite X at 79% with a CEC of 240 meq/100 g and a surface area of 325 m{sup 2}/g. Optimal crystallization temperature and time were 90{sup o}C and 4 hr, respectively, which gave the highest CEC of approximately 305 meq/100 g. Yields obtained from all experiments were in the range of 50-72%. 29 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

Duangkamol Ruen-ngam; Doungmanee Rungsuk; Ronbanchob Apiratikul; Prasert Pavasant [Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand). Department of Chemical Engineering

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "weight average ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Capacity (Mt/yr) Raw Coal Ash content, dry weight GangueAverage Quality Commodity Coal Ash content, Total sulfur drysurvey data on sulfur and ash content of coal. [2] From all

Fridley, Ed., David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

China Energy Databook - Rev. 4  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coal non-caking Raw Coal ash content, dry weight gangue1991 Average Quality Commodity Coal ash content, dry weightcoal. Southern coals are generally higher in sulfur and ash,

Sinton Editor, J.E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Reburning Characteristics of Residual Carbon in Fly Ash from CFB Boilers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The content of residual carbon in fly ash of CFB boilers is a litter high especially when ... of fly ash through collection, recirculation in CFB furnace or external combustor is a possibly ... ash and correspond...

S. H. Zhang; H. H. Luo; H. P. Chen…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Utilization of Ash Fractions from Alternative Biofuels used in Power Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Utilization of Ash Fractions from Alternative Biofuels used in Power Plants PSO Project No. 6356 July 2008 Renewable Energy and Transport #12;2 Utilization of Ash Fractions from Alternative Biofuels)...............................................................................7 2. Production of Ash Products from Mixed Biofuels

145

Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using Iron-oxide Coated Coal Ash. In Arsenic Contaminationarea to volume ratio of coal ash is 200 times greater than1 mm diameters and spherical coal ash particles with 5 ?m

MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Coal Fly Ash as a Source of Iron in Atmospheric Dust. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coal Fly Ash as a Source of Iron in Atmospheric Dust. Coal Fly Ash as a Source of Iron in Atmospheric Dust. Abstract: Anthropogenic coal fly ash aerosols may represent a...

147

Seasonal effects of volatile oils in ashe and redberry juniper on preference and digestibility by goats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(qnodon dactylon (L.) Pers.), ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei Buchholz) and live Oak [Quercus virginiana (Small) Sarg. var. fusiformis] during the spring and fall. Angora and Spanish goats were exposed to ashe female, ashe male, redberry female and redberry...

Riddle, Richard R.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Experimental Study on Ash-Returned Reactor of CFB Atmospheric Air Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In an attempt to improve the gasification efficiency and decrease the carbon content in fly ash of atmospheric air CFB gasifiers, an innovatory equipment by name ash-returned ... ash, and hence the coal conversio...

Zhang Shihong; Tian Luning; Zhou Xianrong…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum-fly ash metal Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

extent, bottom ash, contain elevated amounts of heavy metals, and fly ash... . The dioxinsfurans on ash then don't seem to create an environmental problem. Heavy metals are...

150

Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using Iron-oxide Coated Coal Ash. In Arsenic Contaminationwater using  iron?oxide coated coal bottom ash  Johanna L.  using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash JOHANNA L. MATHIEU

MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Fact #807: December 9, 2013 Light Vehicle Weights Leveling Off  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The effect of the oil crisis in the mid-1970s and subsequent rise of smaller import vehicles is evident in the graph below, showing a dramatic fall in average vehicle weight from model years 1975...

152

Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential Means to Control the Impact on DPF Performance and Engine Efficiency  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Results illustrate ash particle growth and formation pathways, and influence of lubricant chemistry and exhaust conditions on fundamental ash properties

153

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash cenospheres composites Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Composites Addition of fly ash cenospheres to polymer matrix influences all... , polyethylene, etc.). The effects of addition of fly ash cenospheres on polymer composites...

154

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash slag silica Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Materials Science 91 By-Products Utilization Summary: pozzolans include coal fly ash, blast furnace slag, silica fume, and other combustion ashes. When...

155

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash deposition propensities Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ash, fouling, co-combustion 1... ;5 relative compositions of major ash species in coal, ... Source: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute Collection: Renewable Energy 51...

156

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash deposits part Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Reading Collection: Geosciences 24 Research Summary RECOAL: Reintegration of coal ash disposal sites and mitigation Summary: being used for coal ash deposits....

157

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash char deposits Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ash, fouling, co-combustion 1... ;5 relative compositions of major ash species in coal, ... Source: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute Collection: Renewable Energy 86...

158

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash nasal lavage Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to the people of North America for thousands of years. Of the nine ash... species, white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) and green ... Source: USDA, Forestry Service, Northern Research...

159

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash intranasal instillation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Combustion Residue: Origins, Fate and Potential for Treatment Summary: in the form of ash (Liberti et al. 2005). The management of this ash presents a unique challenge... or...

160

Characterization of the Thermal Transport Through a Temporally-Varying Ash Layer.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Ash deposits in commercial coal-fired boilers frequently pose serious maintenance challenges and decrease thermal efficiency. A better understanding of fundamental thermal transport properties in ash… (more)

Cundick,Darron Palmer 1979-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "weight average ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash disposal area Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Materials Science 83 Use of fly ash as an admixture for electromagnetic interference shielding Jingyao Cao, D.D.L. Chung* Summary: combustion 1. Fly ash is...

162

E-Print Network 3.0 - ashe higher education Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

higher abrasion... Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

163

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash quarterly technical Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

164

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash paving demonstration Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AND DEMONSTRATION... Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

165

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash penurunan kadar Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

166

E-Print Network 3.0 - ashes Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

167

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash ahto lobjakas Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

168

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash based gepolymer Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: . CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH FOR CEMENT-BASED MATERIALS 2 The major... large amounts of conventional or...

169

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

170

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash projekt vaendoera Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

171

E-Print Network 3.0 - average molecular weights Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of California at Berkeley Collection: Physics 17 Crystallization of quenched polyethylene. Part III : Mixtures of fractions Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Bt. 510,...

172

Advanced semiconductor fabrication process control using dual filter exponentially weighted moving average  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Semiconductor industry needs to meet high standards to ensure survival and success in the 21st century. Rising expectations from the customers are demanding the semiconductor industry to manufacture products with both accuracy and precision. To comply ... Keywords: Dual filter EWMA, EWMA, Process control, Run-to-run, Semiconductor fabrication process

Hyo-Heon Ko; Jihyun Kim; Sang-Hoon Park; Jun-Geol Baek; Sung-Shick Kim

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Study of ash deposition during coal combustion under oxyfuel conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a comparative study on ash deposition of two selected coals, Russian coal and lignite, under oxyfuel (O2/CO2) and air combustion conditions. The comparison is based on experimental results and subsequent evaluation of the data and observed trends. Deposited as well as remaining filter ash (fine ash) samples were subjected to XRD and ICP analyses in order to study the chemical composition and mineral transformations undergone in the ash under the combustion conditions. The experimental results show higher deposition propensities under oxyfuel conditions; the possible reasons for this are investigated by analyzing the parameters affecting the ash deposition phenomena. Particle size seems to be larger for the Russian coal oxy-fired ash, leading to increased impaction on the deposition surfaces. The chemical and mineralogical compositions do not seem to differ significantly between air and oxyfuel conditions. The differences in the physical properties of the flue gas between air combustion and oxyfuel combustion, e.g. density, viscosity, molar heat capacity, lead to changes in the flow field (velocities, particle trajectory and temperature) that together with the ash particle size shift seem to play a role in the observed ash deposition phenomena.

L. Fryda; C. Sobrino; M. Glazer; C. Bertrand; M. Cieplik

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

The recycling of the coal fly ash in glass production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recycling of fly ash obtained from the combustion of coal in thermal power plant has been studied. Coal fly ash was vitrified by melting at 1773 K for 5 hours without any additives. The properties of glasses produced from coal fly ash were investigated by means of Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. DTA study indicated that there was only one endothermic peak at 1003 K corresponding to the glass transition temperature. XRD analysis showed the amorphous state of the glass sample produced from coal fly ash. SEM investigations revealed that the coal fly ash based glass sample had smooth surface. The mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the glass sample were also determined. Recycling of coal fly ash by using vitrification technique resulted to a glass material that had good mechanical, physical and chemical properties. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results showed that the heavy metals of Pb, Cr, Zn and Mn were successfully immobilized into the glass. It can be said that glass sample obtained by the recycling of coal fly ash can be taken as a non-hazardous material. Overall, results indicated that the vitrification technique is an effective way for the stabilization and recycling of coal fly ash.

Erol, M.M.; Kucukbayrak, S.; Ersoy-Mericboyu, A. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

175

Reactivity of fly ashes in a spray dryer FGD process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the period 1981-1982, a study was performed to determine the ability of various fly ashes to retain sulfur dioxide in a pilot plant spray dryer/fabric filter flue gas desulfurization system. This knowledge would provide design engineers with the necessary data to determine whether the fly ash from a particular utility could be used as an effective supplement or substitute for slaked lime in a spray dryer system. The study commenced with the collection of 22 fly ashes from lignite, subbituminous, and bituminous eastern and western coals. The ashes were contacted with the flue gas entering the pilot plant by two different techniques. In the first, the ashes were slurried in water and injected into the spray dryer through a spinning disk atomizer. In the second, the ashes were injected as a dry additive into the flue gas upstream of the spray dryer. Analyses were conducted to determine the ability of each ash to retain sulfur dioxide in the system followed by statistical correlations of the sulfur retention with the physical/chemical properties of each ash. 17 references, 32 figures, 19 tables.

Davis, W.T.; Reed, G.D.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

IN HARM'S WAY: Lack Of Federal Coal Ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IN HARM'S WAY: Lack Of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers Americans And Their Environment 2010 Thirty-nine New Damage Cases of Contamination from Improperly Disposed Coal Combustion Waste, Editor and Contributing Author #12;IN HARM'S WAY: Lack of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers

Short, Daniel

177

Economic evaluation of losses to electric power utilities caused by ash fouling. Final technical report, November 1, 1979-April 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Problems with convection ash fouling and wall slagging were considerable during our study. The Dakota lignites posed the greatest problems, particularly with fouling. The subbituminous coals had considerable problems, related mostly with wall slagging. The Texas lignites had few problems, and those were only associated with wall slagging. The generation losses were as follows: The Dakota lignite burning stations averaged an overall availability of 87.13%. Convection fouling outages were responsible for 57.75% of this outage time for a decrease in availability of 7.43%. Fouling was responsible for curtailment losses of 317,649 Mwh or 8.25% of the remaining available generation. Slagging was responsible for losses of 2732 megawatt hours or .07% of the remaining available generation. Total ash related losses amounted to 16.08% of the total available generation. The subbituminous burning stations averaged an overall availability of 78.36%. Total ash related losses amounted to 1.54% of the total available generation. The Texas lignite burning stations averaged an overall availability of 80.63%. No ash related outage losses occurred. Slagging curtailments accounted 0.08% of the total available generation. Costs due to ash fouling and slagging related curtailments are a tremendous sum. Seven power stations were studied for a six month period to assess costs. The total cost directly attributable to ash slagging and fouling condition was $20,638,113. Recommendations for reducing the problems involve soot blowers, control of furnace gas exit temperature, water blowers and more conservative boiler design.

Burkhardt, F.R.; Persnger, M.M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Ashe County - Wind Energy System Ordinance | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ashe County - Wind Energy System Ordinance Ashe County - Wind Energy System Ordinance Ashe County - Wind Energy System Ordinance < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Multi-Family Residential Municipal Utility Nonprofit Residential Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State Government Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Wind Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State North Carolina Program Type Solar/Wind Permitting Standards Provider Ashe County Planning Department In 2007 Ashe County adopted a wind ordinance to regulate the use of wind-energy systems in unincorporated areas of the county and to describe the conditions by which a permit for installing such a system may be obtained. This policy was adopted in the context of an ongoing debate over

179

Purple traps yield Reservation's first detection of Emerald Ash Borer  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

traps yield Reservation's first detection of Emerald Ash Borer traps yield Reservation's first detection of Emerald Ash Borer The question of whether or not DOE's forests are infested with Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) has been answered. On May 10, a trap on Highway 95 at the Highway 58 interchange produced the first instance of the destructive non-native insect in Roane County. Five days later, a second trap on Bethel Valley Road near the East Portal turned up the first capture in Anderson County. "Unfortunately, these finds signal the beginning of a decline of ash species throughout the reservation" according to Greg Byrd, forester with the ORNL Natural Resources Program. "Dieback will become more prominent as the insect populations expand. Native ash trees have little defense against this pest, which was

180

State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department and Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-E Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

Atencio, B.P.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "weight average ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations; the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

Atencio, B.P.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

2003-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

183

STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

184

Evaluation of an on-line ash analysis system for low-grade and inhomogeneous Greek lignite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The possibility of using commercial on-line analysis systems for monitoring the ash content of low-grade lignites was investigated by carrying out numerous bench- and pilot-scale trials in the mines of Public Power Corporation SA, Greece. Pilot-scale trials were based on a dual-energy {gamma}-ray transmission analyzer, which was installed on the conveyor belt that transports lignite from the pit to the bunker of Kardia mine, Ptolemais. According to the obtained results, the accuracy of the on-line measurements was not adequate and did not allow lignite quality monitoring in real time. The deterioration of the on-line measurements' accuracy, compared to previous applications in other mining sites, was related to the intense variation of the lignite ash content and ash composition, which distorted the calibration of the analyzer. The latter is based on certain assumptions regarding the average atomic number of the organic and mineral matter contained in the lignite. Further experimental work is needed to investigate solutions for successful implementation of this method to low-grade lignites that exhibit large variation in ash content and composition. 17 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

Konstantinos V. Kavouridis; Francis F. Pavloudakis [Public Power Corporation SA, Athens (Greece). General Division of Mines

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

185

Effect of fuel properties on the bottom ash generation rate by a laboratory fluidized bed combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The range of fuels that can be accommodated by an FBC boiler system is affected by the ability of the fuel, sorbent, and ash-handling equipment to move the required solids through the boiler. Of specific interest is the bottom ash handling equipment, which must have sufficient capacity to remove ash from the system in order to maintain a constant bed inventory level, and must have sufficient capability to cool the ash well below the bed temperature. Quantification of a fuel's bottom ash removal requirements can be useful for plant design. The effect of fuel properties on the rate of bottom ash production in a laboratory FBC test system was examined. The work used coal products ranging in ash content from 20 to 40+ wt. %. The system's classification of solids by particle size into flyash and bottom ash was characterized using a partition curve. Fuel fractions in the size range characteristic of bottom ash were further analyzed for distributions of ash content with respect to specific gravity, using float sink tests. The fuel fractions were then ashed in a fixed bed. In each case, the highest ash content fraction produced ash with the coarsest size consist (characteristic of bottom ash). The lower ash content fractions were found to produce ash in the size range characteristic of flyash, suggesting that the high ash content fractions were largely responsible for the production of bottom ash. The contributions of the specific gravity fractions to the composite ash in the fuels were quantified. The fuels were fired in the laboratory test system. Fuels with higher amounts of high specific gravity particles, in the size ranges characteristic of bottom ash, were found to produce more bottom ash, indicating the potential utility of float sink methods in the prediction of bottom ash removal requirements.

Rozelle, P.L.; Pisupati, S.V.; Scaroni, A.W. [Penn State University, University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Energy & Geoenvironmental Engineering

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

186

Categorical Exclusion 4566, Ash Removal Project  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

FOrnI FOrnI Project Title: Ash Removal Project (4566) Program or Program Office: Y -12 Site Office Location: Oak Ridge Tennessee Project Description: This work scope is to split, containerize, package, transport and disposition one hundred and two (102) cans of mixed waste. General Administration/Management OA I - Routine business actions OA2 * Administrative contract amendments OA4 - Interpretations/rulings for existing regulations OA5 - Regulatory interpretations without environmental effect OA6 - Procedural rule makings upgrade OA 7 - Transfer of property, use unchanged OA8 . Award of technical supportlM&O/personal service contracts OA9 - Info gathering, analysis, documentation, dissemination, and training OA 10 - Reports on non-DOE legislation OA II -

187

Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of coal fly ash water leachate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to storage or ash ponds located near power stations. This has lain to waste thousands of hectares of land all over the world. Since leaching is often the cause of off-site contamination and pathway of introduction into the human environment, a study on the genotoxic effects of fly ash leachate is essential. Leachate prepared from the fly ash sample was analyzed for metal content, and tested for mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Analyses of metals show predominance of the metals - sodium, silicon, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and sulphate. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay, was conducted on two-tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a and TA102. For genotoxicity, the alkaline version of comet assay on fly ash leachate was carried in vitro on human blood cells and in vivo on Nicotiana plants. The leachate was directly mutagenic and induced significantconcentration-dependent increases in DNA damage in whole blood cells, lymphocytes, and in Nicotiana plants. The comet parameters show increases in tail DNA percentage (%), tail length (mu m), and olive tail moment (arbitrary units). Our results indicate that leachate from fly ash dumpsites has the genotoxic potential and may lead to adverse effects on vegetation and on the health of exposed human populations.

Chakraborty, R.; Mukherjee, A. [University of Calcutta, Calcutta (India). Dept. of Botany

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

188

Property:SalinityAverage | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SalinityAverage SalinityAverage Jump to: navigation, search Property Name SalinityAverage Property Type Number Description Mean average of the low and high end measurements of the salinity [ppm] of the fluid. This is a property of type Page. Subproperties This property has the following 1 subproperty: C Coso Geothermal Area Pages using the property "SalinityAverage" Showing 19 pages using this property. A Amedee Geothermal Area + 975 + B Beowawe Hot Springs Geothermal Area + 700 + Blue Mountain Geothermal Area + 4300 + Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Area + 3500 + C Chena Geothermal Area + 325 + D Desert Peak Geothermal Area + 6700 + Dixie Valley Geothermal Area + 2295 + E East Mesa Geothermal Area + 3750 + G Geysers Geothermal Area + 217 + K Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area + 18750 +

189

Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The "Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program" is being conducted by The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) at Reliant Energy?s Niles plant in Niles, Ohio to provide full-scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater materials. Fireside corrosion is a key issue for improving efficiency of new coal fired power plants and improving service life in existing plants. In November 1998, B&W began development of a system to permit testing of advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam temperatures (1100°F and higher) in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. In the spring of 1999 a system consisting of three identical sections, each containing multiple segments of twelve different materials, was installed. The sections are cooled by reheat steam, and are located just above the furnace entrance in Niles? Unit #1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. In November 2001 the first section was removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation after 33 months of operation. The second and third sections remain in service and the second is expected to be removed in the fall of 2003; the last is tentatively planned for the fall of 2004. This paper describes the program; its importance; the design, fabrication, installation and operation of the test system; materials utilized; experience to date; and results of the evaluation of the first section.

McDonald, D.K.

2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

190

Distribution of arsenic and mercury in lime spray dryer ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The partitioning of As and Hg in various components of lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples from a coal-fired boiler was characterized to better understand the form and fate of these elements in flue gas desulfurization byproducts. LSD ash samples, collected from the McCracken Power Plant on the Ohio State University campus, were separated by a 140-mesh (106 {mu}m) sieve into two fractions: a fly-ash-/unburned-carbon-enriched fraction (> 106 {mu}m) and a calcium-enriched fraction (< 106 {mu}m). Unburned carbon and fly ash in the material > 106 {mu}m were subsequently separated by density using a lithium heteropolytungstate solution. The concentrations of As and Hg were significant in all fractions. The level of As was consistently greater in the calcium-enriched fraction, while Hg was evenly distributed in all components of LSD ash. Specific surface area was an important factor controlling the distribution of Hg in the different components of LSD ash, but not for As. Comparing the LSD ash data to samples collected from the economizer suggests that As was effectively captured by fly ash at 600{sup o}C, while Hg was not. Leaching tests demonstrated that As and Hg were more stable in the calcium-enriched fraction than in the fly-ash- or carbon-enriched fractions, potentially because of the greater pH of the leachate and subsequently greater stability of small amounts of calcium solids containing trace elements in these fractions. 37 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Panuwat Taerakul; Ping Sun; Danold W. Golightly; Harold W. Walker; Linda K. Weavers [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

191

Thermomechanical Analysis of Coal Ash:? The Influence of the Material for the Sample Assembly  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Although the proposed temperatures were low compared to conventional AFTs, especially for iron-rich samples, the use of TMA appeared to be an excellent tool for routine characterization of ash fusibility of various coals. ... BN, C, and Al2O3 assemblies are not suitable in studying the thermal behavior of coal ashes due to reactions with components of the ash. ... ashing. ...

G. W. Bryant; G. J. Browning; S. K. Gupta; J. A. Lucas; R. P. Gupta; T. F. Wall

2000-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

192

Environmental hazard assessment of coal fly ashes using leaching and ecotoxicity tests  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental hazard assessment of coal fly ashes using leaching and ecotoxicity tests V. Tsiridis t The environmental hazard of six coal fly ash samples collected from various coal incineration plants were examined- bustion, considerable amounts of coal fly ash are still produced. Although coal fly ash can be moderately

Short, Daniel

193

Regional averaging and scaling in relativistic cosmology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Averaged inhomogeneous cosmologies lie at the forefront of interest, since cosmological parameters like the rate of expansion or the mass density are to be considered as volume-averaged quantities and only these can be compared with observations. For this reason the relevant parameters are intrinsically scale-dependent and one wishes to control this dependence without restricting the cosmological model by unphysical assumptions. In the latter respect we contrast our way to approach the averaging problem in relativistic cosmology with shortcomings of averaged Newtonian models. Explicitly, we investigate the scale-dependence of Eulerian volume averages of scalar functions on Riemannian three-manifolds. We propose a complementary view of a Lagrangian smoothing of (tensorial) variables as opposed to their Eulerian averaging on spatial domains. This program is realized with the help of a global Ricci deformation flow for the metric. We explain rigorously the origin of the Ricci flow which, on heuristic grounds, has already been suggested as a possible candidate for smoothing the initial data set for cosmological spacetimes. The smoothing of geometry implies a renormalization of averaged spatial variables. We discuss the results in terms of effective cosmological parameters that would be assigned to the smoothed cosmological spacetime.

Thomas Buchert; Mauro Carfora

2002-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

194

Ensemble bayesian model averaging using markov chain Monte Carlo sampling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has recently been proposed as a statistical method to calibrate forecast ensembles from numerical weather models. Successful implementation of BMA however, requires accurate estimates of the weights and variances of the individual competing models in the ensemble. In their seminal paper (Raftery etal. Mon Weather Rev 133: 1155-1174, 2(05)) has recommended the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for BMA model training, even though global convergence of this algorithm cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, we compare the performance of the EM algorithm and the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for estimating the BMA weights and variances. Simulation experiments using 48-hour ensemble data of surface temperature and multi-model stream-flow forecasts show that both methods produce similar results, and that their performance is unaffected by the length of the training data set. However, MCMC simulation with DREAM is capable of efficiently handling a wide variety of BMA predictive distributions, and provides useful information about the uncertainty associated with the estimated BMA weights and variances.

Vrugt, Jasper A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Diks, Cees G H [NON LANL; Clark, Martyn P [NON LANL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Average Data for Each Choke Setting (before 24-May 2010 06:00), 6-hour average (  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Average Data for Each Choke Setting (before 24-May 2010 06:00), 6-hour average (after 24-May 2010 06:00):" Average Data for Each Choke Setting (before 24-May 2010 06:00), 6-hour average (after 24-May 2010 06:00):" ,,"Choke","Average","Average","Fluid","Methanol","Water","Oil","Gas","Hyd. Eq.","Gas" ,"Choke","Setting","Upstream","Upstream","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery" "Date and Time","Setting","Duration","Pressure","Temp.","Rate","Rate","Rate","Rate","Rate","Rate","Portion" "dd-mmm-yy","(64ths)","(hours)","(psia)","(degF)","(bfpd)","(bfpd)","(bwpd)","(bopd)","(mmcfpd)","(boepd)","(%)"

196

Light weight phosphate cements  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

Wagh, Arun S. (Naperville, IL); Natarajan, Ramkumar, (Woodridge, IL); Kahn, David (Miami, FL)

2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

197

STEO January 2013 - average gasoline prices  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

gasoline prices are expected to decline over the next two years. The average pump price for regular unleaded gasoline was 3.63 a gallon during 2012. That is expected to fall...

198

average air temperature | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

average air temperature average air temperature Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Air Temperature at 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (deg C)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Air Temperature at 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (deg C)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated April 01st, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords average air temperature

199

The Development of a Small Engine Based Ash Loading Protocol  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

When 5% lubrication oil is added to diesel fuel in a small engine test, ash increases linearly and at the back of a filter, the amount depending on the differences in substrate and wash-coat type.

200

Determination of Total Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass: Laboratory...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: December 2, 2013 S. Van Wychen and L. M. L. Laurens Technical Report NRELTP-5100-60956 December...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "weight average ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Transcending Portland Cement with 100 percent fly ash concrete  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of concrete, made with 100% fly ash and no Portland cement, in buildings at the Transportation Institute in Bozeman, MT, USA, is described. 3 refs., 7 figs.

Cross, D.; Akin, M.; Stephens, J.; Cuelh, E. [Montana State University, MT (United States)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Coal ash composition of Australian low rank coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The iron-containing phases in nine precipitator ashes of widely differing composition have been analyzed by57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The importance of the relative proportion of calcium ferrite to magnesioferr...

L. J. Brown; J. D. Cashion; R. C. Ledger

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

INAA multielemental analysis of Nigerian bituminous coal and coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to analyzed Nigerian bituminous coal and ash. Good statistical agreement (p...?0.05) between the literature and reported elemental values of USGS AGV-1 sam...

V. O. Ogugbuaja; W. D. James

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Coal Ash from Thermal Power Plants in Finland  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This review summarizes formation mechanisms of coal ash, its chemistry and use pattern in the Finnish industry. Coal is composed of organic and inorganic materials. The properties of coal varies from one region t...

Arun B. Mukherjee; Ryunosuke Kikuchi

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

The mild hydrothermal synthesis of hydrogrossular from coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, an attempt was made to synthesize hydrogrossular, a group of garnet minerals, under hydrothermal conditions at temperatures below 180°C, using coal ash, which is the solid waste from thermal...

Satoru Fujita; Kenzi Suzuki; Yasuo Shibasaki

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Ultimate bearing capacity of footings on coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal ash is recognized as an alternative fill material to the conventional natural soils near a coal fired thermal power station where its large ... This paper presents experimental investigations on footings on

Ashutosh Trivedi; Vijay Kumar Sud

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Recovery Act Workers Complete Environmental Cleanup of Coal Ash Basin  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Savannah River Site (SRS) recently cleaned up a 17-acre basin containing coal ash residues from Cold War operations. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act project was safely completed at a...

208

Optical properties of fly ash. Volume 2, Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research performed under this contract was divided into four tasks under the following headings: Task 1, Characterization of fly ash; Task 2, Measurements of the optical constants of slags; Task 3, Calculations of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions; and Task 4, Measurements of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. Tasks 1 and 4 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Sarbajit Ghosal, while Tasks 2 and 3 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Jon Ebert. Together their doctoral dissertations give a complete account of the work performed. This final report, issued in two volumes consists of an executive summary of the whole program followed by the dissertation of Ghosal and Ebert. Volume 2 contains the dissertation of Ebert which covers the measurements of the optical constants of slags, and calculations of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. A list of publications and conference presentations resulting from the work is also included.

Self, S.A.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Guide to Using Wood Ash as an Agricultural Soil Amendment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

wastes Increases soil pH Add plant nutrients Low cost #12;UNH COOPERATIVE EXTENSION Food & Agriculture and scab-susceptible potatoes varieties thrive in acid soils, and should not be supplemented with wood ash

New Hampshire, University of

210

The impact of weathering and aging on a LIMB ash stockpile material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 1,500 ton temporary storage pile of water conditioned LIMB (Lime Injected Multistage Burner) ash by-product from the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant Lorain, OH was constructed in July, 1991 at a coal company near New Philadelphia, Ohio. This stockpile was created for dry FGD by-product material to be held in reserve for a land application uses field demonstration. High volume, beneficial uses of dry FGD by-products, such as for mine reclamation and embankment stabilization, will require temporary stockpiling of the by-product. Purpose for constructing this pile was to study changes with time in the LIMB by-product material when exposed to weathering. This by-product material was studied over a 2 1/2 year period. The water to control fugitive dust was added in the ash conditioner at the power plant while being loaded into dump trucks. Amount of water normally added in the conditioning process is close to the optimum moisture content of 40--50 % (dry weight basis), to construct a compacted road embankment or road base. Four environmental operating permits required for construction of the storage pile were obtained, three from Ohio EPA (air, water and solid waste), and one from the Ohio Division of Reclamation (revised reclamation area permit). There was no significant environmental impacts from storm runoff or leachate water from the LIMB ash stockpile during the initial 18 month period through December, 1992. After 2 1/2 years of storage, the potential value of the LIMB material for use as a road embankment material or soil conditioner has declined significantly. Ettringite formation occurs. Aging allows the expansive reaction to take place before its potential use as compacted structural fill or embankment.

Beeghly, J.H. [Dravo Lime Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bigham, J.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Natural Resources; Dick, W.A.; Stehouwer, R.C. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Dept. of Natural Resources; Wolfe, W.B. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Effects of Sediment Containing Coal Ash from the Kingston Ash Release on Embryo-Larval Development in the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The largest environmental release of coal ash in US history occurred in December 2008 ... Plant in East Tennessee. A byproduct of coal-burning power plants, coal ash is enriched in metals and metalloids such ... ...

Mark S. Greeley Jr.; Logan R. Elmore…

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Enhancement of phosphogypsum with high lime fly ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENHANCEMENT OF PHOSPHOGYPSUM WITH HIGH LIME FLY ASH A Thesis by CHUCK ALAN GREGORY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1983 Major... Subject: Civil Engineering ENHANCEMENT OF PHOSPHOGYPSUM WITH HIGH'LIME FLY ASH A Thesis by CHUCK ALAN GREGORY Approved as to style and content by: Dr. ona d Saylak (Chairman f Committee) Dr. W. edbetter ( ember) (Member) r. Lloyd Deuel, 3...

Gregory, Chuck Alan

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Use of Biomass Gasification Fly Ash in Lightweight Plasterboard  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In addition, the overall environmental benefit of waste gasification plus ash utilization of a difficult fly ash makes the overall process attractive. ... Only the Autonomous Government of Catalonia has established regional regulations for waste management, including limited recycling for some wastes considered as byproducts. ... viability of gasifying untreated olive stone, also called "orujillo", a byproduct of the olive oil industry that comprises both olive stone and pulp. ...

C. Leiva; A. Gómez-Barea; L. F. Vilches; P. Ollero; J. Vale; C. Fernández-Pereira

2006-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

214

A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF POST-COMBUSTION AMMONIA INJECTION ON FLY ASH QUALITY: CHARACTERIZATION OF AMMONIA RELEASE FROM CONCRETE AND MORTARS CONTAINING FLY ASH AS A POZZOLANIC ADMIXTURE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require large reductions in emissions of NO{sub x} from coal-fired electric utility boilers. This will necessitate the use of ammonia injection, such as in selective catalytic reduction (SCR), in many power plants, resulting in the deposition of ammonia on the fly ash. The presence of ammonia could create a major barrier to fly ash utilization in concrete because of odor concerns. Although there have been limited studies of ammonia emission from concrete, little is known about the quantity of ammonia emitted during mixing and curing, and the kinetics of ammonia release. This is manifested as widely varying opinions within the concrete and ash marketing industry regarding the maximum acceptable levels of ammonia in fly ash. Therefore, practical guidelines for using ammoniated fly ash are needed in advance of the installation of many more SCR systems. The goal of this project was to develop practical guidelines for the handling and utilization of ammoniated fly ash in concrete, in order to prevent a decrease in the use of fly ash for this application. The objective was to determine the amount of ammonia that is released, over the short- and long-term, from concrete that contains ammoniated fly ash. The technical approach in this project was to measure the release of ammonia from mortar and concrete during mixing, placement, and curing. Work initially focused on laboratory mortar experiments to develop fundamental data on ammonia diffusion characteristics. Larger-scale laboratory experiments were then conducted to study the emission of ammonia from concrete containing ammoniated fly ash. The final phase comprised monitoring ammonia emissions from large concrete slabs. The data indicated that, on average, 15% of the initial ammonia was lost from concrete during 40 minutes of mixing, depending on the mix proportions and batch size. Long-term experiments indicated that ammonia diffusion from concrete was relatively slow, with greater than 50% of the initial ammonia content remaining in an 11cm thick concrete slab after 1 month. When placing concrete in an enclosed space, with negligible ventilation, it is recommended that the ammonia concentration in the concrete mix water should not exceed 110 mg NH{sub 3}/L, if the NIOSH exposure limit of 25 ppm in the air is not to be exceeded. If even a modicum of ventilation is present, then the ammonia concentration in the concrete water should be less than 170 mg/L. The maximum level of ammonia in the fly ash can then be calculated using these limits if the concrete mix proportions are known. In general, during the mixing and placement of ammonia-laden concrete, no safety concerns were encountered. The only location where the ammonia concentration attained high levels (i.e. > 25 ppm in the air) was within the concrete mixing drum.

Robert F. Rathbone; Thomas L. Robl

2002-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

215

STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. This first project period, experiments were carried out to better understand the fundamental nature of the ozonation effect on ash. Carbon surfaces were characterized by surfactant adsorption, and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy before and after oxidation, both by air at 440 C and by ozone at room temperature. The results strongly suggest that the beneficial effect of ozonation is in large part due to chemical modification of the carbon surfaces.

Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth

2001-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

216

STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the present project was to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific issues addressed included: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity based on pilot-plant studies; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This laboratory data has provided scientific and engineering support and underpinning for parallel process development activities. The development work on the ash ozonation process has now transitioned into a scale-up and commercialization project involving a multi-industry team and scheduled to begin in 2004. This report describes and documents the laboratory and pilot-scale work in the above three areas done at Brown University and the University of Utah during this three-year project.

Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen; Indrek Kulaots

2004-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

217

Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

Poelker, Matthew [JLAB

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles using a probiotic from coal fly ash effluent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metal resistant probiotic species was isolated from coal fly ash effluent site. • Uniform sized anatase form of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized using Propionibacterium jensenii. • Diffraction patterns confirmed the anatase – TiO{sub 2} NPs with average size <80 nm. • TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle incorporated wound dressing exhibits better wound healing. - Abstract: The synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO{sub 2} NP) has gained importance in the recent years owing to its wide range of potential biological applications. The present study demonstrates the synthesis of TiO{sub 2} NPs by a metal resistant bacterium isolated from the coal fly ash effluent. This bacterial strain was identified on the basis of morphology and 16s rDNA gene sequence [KC545833]. The physico-chemical characterization of the synthesized nanoparticles is completely elucidated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM). The crystalline nature of the nanoparticles was confirmed by X-RD pattern. Further, cell viability and haemolytic assays confirmed the biocompatible and non toxic nature of the NPs. The TiO{sub 2} NPs was found to enhance the collagen stabilization and thereby enabling the preparation of collagen based biological wound dressing. The paper essentially provides scope for an easy bioprocess for the synthesis of TiO{sub 2} NPs from the metal oxide enriched effluent sample for future biological applications.

Babitha, S; Korrapati, Purna Sai, E-mail: purnasaik.clri@gmail.com

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

220

An overview of the behaviour of biomass during combustion: Part II. Ash fusion and ash formation mechanisms of biomass types  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An extended overview of the phase–mineral transformations of organic and inorganic matter during biomass combustion was conducted in Part I of the present work. The ash fusion and ash formation mechanisms of biomass types and sub-types during combustion are described in the present Part II. For that purpose the identified systematic associations based on the occurrence, content and origin of elements and phases in the biomass ash (BA) system, namely (1) Si–Al–Fe–Na–Ti (mostly glass, silicates and oxyhydroxides); (2) Ca–Mg–Mn (commonly carbonates, oxyhydroxides, glass, silicates and some phosphates and sulphates); and (3) K–P–S–Cl (normally phosphates, sulphates, chlorides, glass and some silicates and carbonates); were used as classification of \\{BAs\\} into four types (“S”, “C”, “K” and “CK”) and six sub-types with high, medium and low acid tendencies and their description was given. Then, topics related to ash fusion behaviour such as: some general considerations and observations about ash melting; ash fusion temperatures (AFTs) of biomass and their comparisons with coal; relationships between \\{AFTs\\} and inorganic composition of biomass and coal; and ash fusion mechanisms of biomass and coal are characterized. Further, issues connected with the ash formation mechanisms of BA types and sub-types are discussed. Subsequently, aspects related to potential applications of ash formation mechanisms for BA types and sub-types, namely some key technological problems (fusion, slagging and fouling predictions, low ash fusion temperatures, co-combustion and application of BA) and environmental risks (volatilization, capture and water leaching of hazardous elements) are described. Finally, it is emphasized that the application of this new classification approach based on combined phase–mineral and chemical composition of biomass and BA has not only fundamental importance, but also has potential applications in prediction of behaviour and properties connected with the innovative and sustainable utilization of biomass and BA. It is also demonstrated that the definitive utilization, technological and environmental advantages and challenges related to biomass and BA associate preferentially with their specific types and sub-types and they could be predictable to some extent by using the above or similar combined chemical and phase–mineral classification approaches.

Stanislav V. Vassilev; David Baxter; Christina G. Vassileva

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "weight average ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Laser Fusion Energy The High Average Power  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laser Fusion Energy and The High Average Power Program John Sethian Naval Research Laboratory Dec for Inertial Fusion Energy with lasers, direct drive targets and solid wall chambers Lasers DPPSL (LLNL) Kr posters Snead Payne #12;Laser(s) Goals 1. Develop technologies that can meet the fusion energy

222

HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

2005-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

223

Role of Fly Ash in the Removal of Organic Pollutants from Wastewater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In India the problem is further compounded by the use of wet fly ash collection systems by a large number of power plants, which results in degradation of the pozzolanic characteristics of ash, an essential ingredient for several ash-based products. ... To accommodate the many new subbituminous fly ashes, the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) established two classes of fly ash, Class F from bituminous coal and Class C from subbituminous and lignite coal. ... Thermal power plant waste material (bottom ash) was utilized as a potential adsorbent for the textile dye malachite green. ...

M. Ahmaruzzaman

2009-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

224

Study on the Volatility of Cesium in Dry Ashing Pretreatment and Dissolution of Ash by Microwave Digestion System - 13331  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Based on the regulation of the activity concentration of Cs-137, Co-58, Co-60, Fe-55, Ni-59, Ni-63, Sr-90, Nb-94, and Tc-99, and the total alpha from the radioactive waste acceptance criteria, the measurement of the activity concentration of these nuclides in low and intermediate levels of radioactive waste such as in paper, cotton, vinyl and plastic samples was investigated. A dry ashing method was applied to obtain a concentration effect of the samples. Owing to the temperature dependence of the volatility for cesium, the temperature of 300 to 650 deg. C was examined. It was found that 450 deg. C is the optimum dry ashing temperature. After dry ashing, the produced ash was dissolved with HNO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system. The ash sample, for the most part, was completely dissolved with 10 mL of HNO{sub 3}, 4 mL of HCl, and 0.25 mL of HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system using a nova high temperature rotor at 250 deg. C for 90 min until reaching 0.2 g. To confirm the reliability of cesium loss after the performance of the dry ashing procedure, a cesium standard solution for AAS and a Cs-137 standard solution for gamma spectrometry were added to a paper towel or a planchet of stainless steel, respectively. Cesium was measured by AAS, ICP-MS, and gamma spectrometry. The volatility of cesium did not occur until 450 deg. C ashing. (authors)

Choi, Kwang-Soon; Lee, Chang Heon; Ahn, Hong-Joo; Park, Yong Joon; Song, Kyuseok [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)] [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

2003 Conference on Unburned Carbon on Utility Fly Ash  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2003 Conference on Unburned Carbon on Utility Fly Ash 2003 Conference on Unburned Carbon on Utility Fly Ash October 28, 2003 Table of Contents Disclaimer Participants List [PDF-31KB] Papers and Presentations Control Measures Predictive Performance Tools (Including Instrumentation) Processing and Utilization of High-LOI Fly Ash Beneficiation of High-LOI Fly Ash Characterization of High-LOI Fly Ash Poster Presentations Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government or any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

226

Release of Ammonium and Mercury from NOx Controlled Fly Ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the goals of the Department of Energy is to increase the reuse of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) to 50% by 2010. This will require both developing new markets and maintaining traditional ones such as the use of fly ash in concrete. However, the addition of pollution control devices can introduce side-effects that affect the marketability of the CUB. Such can be the case when NOx control is achieved using selective catalytic or non-catalytic reduction (SCR or SNCR). Depending on site-specific details, the ammonia slip can cause elevated levels of NH3 in the fly ash. Disposal of ammoniated fly ash can present environmental concerns related to the amount of ammonia that might be released, the amount of water that might become contaminated, and the extent to which metals might be mobilized by the presence of the ammonia. Ammonia retained in fly ash appears to be present as either an ammonium salt or as a chemisorbed species. Mercury in the leachates correlated to neither the amount of leachable ammonium nor to the total amount of Hg in the ash. The strongest correlation was between the decreases in the amount of Hg leached with increased LOI.

Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; Kim, A.G

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

ADVANCED POWER SYSTEMS ASH BEHAVIOR IN POWER SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of this initiative is to develop fundamental knowledge of ash behavior in power systems for the purpose of increasing power production efficiency, reducing operation and maintenance costs, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. The specific objectives of this initiative focus primarily on ash behavior related to advanced power systems and include the following: ? Determine the current status of the fundamental ash interactions and deposition formation mechanisms as already reported through previous or ongoing projects at the EERC or in the literature. ? Determine sintering mechanisms for temperatures and particle compositions that are less well known and remain for the most part undetermined. ? Identify the relationship between the temperature of critical viscosity (Tcv ) as measured in a viscometer and the crystallization occurring in the melt. ? Perform a literature search on the use of heated-stage microscopy (HSM) for examining in situ ash-sintering phenomena and then validate the use of HSM in the determination of viscosity in spherical ash particles. ? Ascertain the formation and stability of specific mineral or amorphous phases in deposits typical of advanced power systems. ? Evaluate corrosion for alloys being used in supercritical combustion systems.

CHRISTOPHER J. ZYGARLICKE; DONALD P. MCCOLLOR; JOHN P. KAY; MICHAEL L. SWANSON

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION FOR UTILIZATION OF ASH IN SOIL STABILIZATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) approved the use of coal ash in soil stabilization, indicating that environmental data needed to be generated. The overall project goal is to evaluate the potential for release of constituents into the environment from ash used in soil stabilization projects. Supporting objectives are: (1) To ensure sample integrity through implementation of a sample collection, preservation, and storage protocol to avoid analyte concentration or loss. (2) To evaluate the potential of each component (ash, soil, water) of the stabilized soil to contribute to environmental release of analytes of interest. (3) To use laboratory leaching methods to evaluate the potential for release of constituents to the environment. (4) To facilitate collection of and to evaluate samples from a field runoff demonstration effort. The results of this study indicated limited mobility of the coal combustion fly ash constituents in laboratory tests and the field runoff samples. The results presented support previous work showing little to negligible impact on water quality. This and past work indicates that soil stabilization is an environmentally beneficial CCB utilization application as encouraged by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This project addressed the regulatory-driven environmental aspect of fly ash use for soil stabilization, but the demonstrated engineering performance and economic advantages also indicate that the use of CCBs in soil stabilization can and should become an accepted engineering option.

David J. Hassett; Loreal V. Heebink

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Influence of Coal Ash/Organic Waste Application on Distribution of Trace Metals in Soil, Plant, and Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study was conducted to evaluate effects of coal ash mixture (coal ash, biosolids and yard waste compost ratio of ... fruits, and its leaching potential into groundwater. Coal ash mixture was applied at rates...

Yuncong Li; Min Zhang; Peter Stoffella; Zhenli He…

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Ash bed level control system for a fixed-bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ash level control system is provided which incorporates an ash level meter to automatically control the ash bed level of a coal gasifier at a selected level. The ash level signal from the ash level meter is updated during each cycle that a bed stirrer travels up and down through the extent of the ash bed level. The ash level signal is derived from temperature measurements made by thermocouples carried by the stirrer as it passes through the ash bed and into the fire zone immediately above the ash bed. The level signal is compared with selected threshold level signal to determine if the ash level is above or below the selected level once each stirrer cycle. A first counter is either incremented or decremented accordingly. The registered count of the first counter is preset in a down counter once each cycle and the preset count is counted down at a selected clock rate. A grate drive is activated to rotate a grate assembly supporting the ash bed for a period equal to the count down period to maintain the selected ash bed level. In order to avoid grate binding, the controller provides a short base operating duration time each stirrer cycle. If the ash bed level drops below a selected low level or exceeds a selected high level, means are provided to notify the operator.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV); Rotunda, John R. (Fairmont, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

PERFORMANCE STATISTICS WEIGHTS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

90 lbs 90 lbs Delivered Curb Weight: 2936 lbs Distribution F/R: 59/41 % GVWR: 3795 lbs GAWR F/R: 2335/2250 lbs Payload: 905 lbs Performance Goal: 400 lbs DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 106 inches Track F/R: 59/58 inches Length: 175 inches Width: 67 inches Height: 57.8 inches Ground Clearance: 4.3 inches Performance Goal: 5.0 inches TIRES Tire Mfg: Goodyear Tire Model: Integrity Tire Size: P185/65R15 Tire Pressure F/R: 35/33 psi

232

PERFORMANCE STATISTICS WEIGHTS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

40 lbs 40 lbs Delivered Curb Weight: 3556 lbs Distribution F/R: 58/42 % GVWR: 4665 lbs GAWR F/R: Unavailable Payload: 1109 lbs Performance Goal: 400 lbs DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 109.3 in Track F/R: 62.0/61.6 in Length: 189.2 in Width: 71.7 in Height: 57.9 in Ground Clearance: 5.9 in Performance Goal: 5.0 in TIRES Tire Mfg: Michellin Tire Model: Energy MXV458 Tire Size: P215/60R16 Tire Pressure F/R: 32/32

233

PERFORMANCE STATISTICS WEIGHTS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5650 lbs 5650 lbs Delivered Curb Weight: 5579 lbs Distribution F/R: 51.8/48.2 GVWR: 7100 lbs GAWR F/R: 3200/4100 lbs Payload: 1521 lbs Performance Goal: 400 lbs DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 116.0 in Track F/R: 68.2/67.0 in Length: 202.0 in Width: 79.0 in Height: 74.6 in Ground Clearance: 9.5 in Performance Goal: 5.0 in TIRES Tire Mfg: Bridgestone Tire Model: Dueler H/R Tire Size: P265/65R18 Tire Pressure F/R: 32 psi

234

PERFORMANCE STATISTICS WEIGHTS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

27 lbs 27 lbs Delivered Curb Weight: 3618 lbs Distribution F/R: 58/42 % GVWR: 4680 lbs GAWR F/R: 2440/2440 lbs Payload: 1062 lbs Performance Goal: 400 lbs DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 103.2 inches Track F/R: 61.1/60.2 inches Length: 174.5 inches Width: 71.4 inches Height: 69.5 inches Ground Clearance: 7.8 inches Performance Goal: 5.0 inches TIRES Tire Mfg: Continental Tire Model: EcoPlus Tire Size: P235/70R16

235

PERFORMANCE STATISTICS WEIGHTS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3474 lbs 3474 lbs Delivered Curb Weight: 3435 lbs GVWR: 4718 lbs GAWR F/R: 2491/2436 lbs Distribution F/R: % Payload: 1283 lbs Performance Goal: 400 lbs DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 106.6 in Track F/R: 61.0/61.0 in Length: 181.3 in Width: 71.6 in Height: 65.3 in Ground Clearance: 7.0 in Performance Goal: 5.0 in TIRES Tire Mfg: General Tire Model: Ameri GS60 Tire Size: P215/70R16 Tire Pressure F/R: 35/35 psi

236

Sources Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure Natural background Medical Consumer products Industrial, security, educational and research Occupational 0.311 rem 0.300 rem 0.013 rem 0.0003 rem 0.0005 rem Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, provides radiological protection services and oversight at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These services include radiation dose measurements for persons who enter areas where they may be exposed to radiation or radioactive material. The results are periodically reported to monitored individuals. The results listed are based on a radiation dose system developed by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. The system uses the terms "effective dose," "equivalent dose" and units of rem. You may be more familiar with the term "millirem" (mrem), which is 1/1000 of a rem.

237

Natural Gas Prices: Well Above Recent Averages  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: The recent surge in spot prices at the Henry Hub are well above a typical range for 1998-1999 (in this context, defined as the average, +/- 2 standard deviations). Past price surges have been of short duration. The possibility of a downward price adjustment before the end of next winter is a source of considerable risk for storage operators who acquire gas at recent elevated prices. Storage levels in the Lower 48 States were 7.5 percent below the 5-year average (1995-1999) by mid-August (August 11), although the differential is only 6.4 percent in the East, which depends most heavily on storage to meet peak demand. Low storage levels are attributable, at least in part, to poor price incentives: high current prices combined with only small price

238

Indirect CP violation results and HFAG averages  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The current status of the search for indirect CP violation in the neutral D meson system at the B-factories and at LHCb is reported. The indirect CP asymmetry search is performed by the measurement of the proper-time asymmetry ($A_{\\Gamma}$) in decays of $D^0-\\bar{D^0}$ mesons to CP eigenstates, $K^-K^+$ and $\\pi^- \\pi^+$, and by $y_{CP}$, the ratio between the effective lifetime measured in decay to a CP eigenstate and that to the mixed eigenstate $K \\pi$. All results are consistent with the no CP violation hypothesis. The latest world averages for mixing and CP asymmetry in the charm sector evaluated by the Heavy Flavour Averaging Group are presented. The no mixing hypothesis is excluded at more than 12 standard deviations. The search for direct and indirect CP violation in the charm sector is consistent with no CP violation at 2.0% confident level.

Silvia Borghi

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

239

Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today’s CEBAF polarized source operating at ? 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

240

PILOT DEMONSTRATION OF TECHNOLOGY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF HIGH VALUE MATERIALS FROM THE ULTRA-FINE (PM 2.5) FRACTION OF COAL COMBUSTION ASH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Broad range dispersants, including naphthalene sulfonate-formaldehyde condensates (NSF) and polycarboxylate based products, were tested on both wet and dry fly ash samples from the LG&E Energy Corp. plants in the study. Tests included both total adsorption and measurement of sedimentation rate via time density relationships. A wide range of dosages were required, ranging from 0.3 to 10 g/kg. In general the ponded ash required less dispersant. Leaching tests of 5% ash solutions by weight revealed a wide range of soluble salts to be present in the ash, and found a relationship between calcium ion concentration and dispersant dosage requirement. Other parameters measured included SO{sub 4}, Cl, F, NO{sub 3}, PO{sub 4}, Al, Ca, Mg, K, Na and alkalinity. An assessment was made of the available software to digitally model the overall process circuit. No prefabricated digital model was found for hydraulic classification or froth flotation. Work focused on building a model for hydraulic classification in an Excel spread sheet based on Stokes Law. A pilot plant scale hydraulic classifier was fabricated and operated. The performance of the hydraulic classifier was found to be forecastable within reasonable bounds, and work to improve both are ongoing.

T.L. Robl; K.R. Henke; J.G. Groppo

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "weight average ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

The abundance of AsH3 in Jupiter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Both ground-based and airborne observations of the AsH3 Q-branch at 2126/cm, in conjunction with newly-analyzed laboratory comparison spectra at AsH3, are employed in the derivation of a new estimate of Jovian As abundance. The mole fraction on AsH3 in the Jovian atmosphere is 0.22 + or - 0.11 ppb; this is merely 0.5 times the solar abundance, and a factor-of-9 less than the mole fraction found in Saturn, duplicating the pattern noted in the relative abundance of P in these two planets and furnishing a useful constraint for models of heavy element incorporation in the outer planets' gaseous envelopes. 20 refs.

Noll, K.S.; Larson, H.P.; Geballe, T.R. (Arizona Univ., Tucson (USA) Joint Astronomy Centre, Hilo, HI (USA))

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Pilot Demonstration of Technology for the Production of High Value Materials from the Ultra-Fine (PM2.5) Fraction of Coal Combustion Ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this research was to determine the feasibility of recovering a very fine fraction of fly ash, that is 5 microns in diameter or less and examining the characteristics of these materials in new or at least less traditional applications. These applications included as a polymer filler or as a 'super' pozzolanic concrete additive. As part of the effort the ash from 6 power plants was investigated and characterized. This work included collection from ESP Hoppers and ponds. The ash was thoroughly characterized chemically and physically. Froth flotation was used to reduce the carbon and testing showed that flotation could effectively reduce carbon to acceptable levels (i.e. 0.5% LOI) for most of the substrates tested. in order to enable eventual use as fillers. Hydraulic classification was used in the separation of the fine ash from the coarse ash. Hydraulic classification requires the ash to be dispersed to be effective and a range of dispersants were tested for adsorption as well as sedimentation rate. A wide range of dosages were required (0.3 to 10 g/kg). In general the ponded ash required less dispersant. A model was developed for hydraulic classification. A pilot-scale hydraulic classifier was also designed and operated for the project. Product yields of up to 21% of feed solids were achieved with recoveries of <5 {micro}m particles as high as 64%. Mean particle sizes (D{sub 50}) of the ultra fine ash (UFA) products varied from 3.7 to 10 {micro}m. A patent was filed on the classifier design. A conceptual design of a Process Demonstration Unit (PDU) with a feed rate of 2 tons of raw ash feed per hour was also completed. Pozzolanic activity was determined for the UFA ashes in mortars. In general the overall strength index was excellent with values of 90% achieved in 3 days and {approx}100% in 7 days. Three types of thermoplastic polymers were evaluated with the UFA as a filler: high density polyethylene, thermoplastic elastomer and polyethylene terphthalate filled polymers were prepared and subjected to SEM analysis to verify that the UFA was well dispersed. The addition of fillers increased the modulus of the HDPE composite, but decreased both the offset yield stress and offset yield strain, showing that the fillers essentially made the composite stiffer but the transition to plastic deformation occurred earlier in filled HDPE as stress was applied. Similar results were obtained with TPE, however, the decrease in either stress or strain at offset yield were not as significant. Dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA) were also completed and showed that although there were some alterations in the properties of the HDPE and TPE, the alterations are small, and more importantly, transition temperatures are not altered. The UFA materials were also tested in expanded urethanes, were improvements were made in the composites strength and stiffness, particularly for lighter weight materials. The results of limited flammability and fire safety testing were encouraging. A flowsheet was developed to produce an Ultra-Fine Ash (UFA) product from reclaimed coal-fired utility pond ash. The flowsheet is for an entry level product development scenario and additional production can be accommodated by increasing operating hours and/or installing replicate circuits. Unit process design was based on experimental results obtained throughout the project and cost estimates were derived from single vendor quotes. The installation cost of this plant is estimated to be $2.1M.

T. L. Robl; J. G. Groppo; R. Rathbone; B. Marrs; R. Jewell

2008-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

243

Analysis of Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in Fly Ash from a Waste Incineration Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Article | 0 Benzofurans 0 Coal Ash 0 Particulate Matter...purification Carbon chemistry Coal Ash Gas Chromatography-Mass...Education,Departmentof Chemistry,42099 Konya,Turkey...obtained from various combustion processes.The combustionprocess......

Mustafa Pehlivan; Erol Pehlivan; Hüseyin Kara

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Effect of the Additives on the Desulphurization Rate of Flash Hydrated and Agglomerated CFB Fly Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CFB fly ash from separators was mixed with ... and water or additives was pumped into a CFB combustion chamber by a sludge pump. Because ... the temperature of flue gas was high in CFB, the fly ash was hydrated f...

D. X. Li; H. L. Li; M. Xu; J. F. Lu; Q. Liu…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash aqueous carbonation Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Purification Technology 40 (2004) 251257 Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil shale ash Summary: Jordanian oil shale ash was used as an adsorbent for the removal of...

246

SINGLE ELEMENT TEST PREDICTIONS FOR STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR OF PANKI FLY-ASH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Fly-ash is a waste product produced by burning of coal at thermal power plants. It is often used. Introduction Fly-ash is a fine powdery material, produced by burning of coal at thermal power plants. Fly

Prashant, Amit

247

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash silica fume Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

,and Bruce W. Ramme CBU-1996-08 REP-283 July 1996 Presented andPublished at the American Coal Ash Association... 's Twelfth International Coal Ash Use Symposium,Orlando,FL,January...

248

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash dosage du Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: ash and iron-foundry baghouse dust in the manufacturing of economical self-compacting concrete... . CONCLUSIONS: The limestone-quarry fines and Class C fly ash showed...

249

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash quality characterization Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: ash and iron-foundry baghouse dust in the manufacturing of economical self-compacting concrete... . CONCLUSIONS: The limestone-quarry fines and Class C fly ash showed...

250

Elemental characterization of coal ash and its leachates using sequential extraction techniques  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Over 50 million tons of coal ash are produced annually in North America. Technological ... but have also increased contaminant concentrations in the ash of coal-fired boiler applications. The leaching of heavy .....

S. Landsberger; J. F. Cerbus; S. Larson

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Ash Transformations in the Real-Scale Pulverized Coal Combustion of South African and Colombian Coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, the formation of ash particles in the combustion of South African Klein Kopie coal and a Colombian coal was studied by measuring the ash particle characteristics upstream of the electrostatic precip...

Terttaliisa Lind; Esko I. Kauppinen…

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Tephrochronology and Stratigraphy of Eocene and Oligocene Volcanic Ashes of East and Central Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using neutron activation analysis (NAA) of bulk ash and glass shards, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) of bulk ash, and electron microprobe analysis of both apatite phenocrysts and glass shards to characterize their geochemistry...

Heintz, Mindi

2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

253

Leaching and standing water characteristics of bottom ash and composted manure blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal burning electrical generating facilities produce roughly 91 million metric tons of ash byproducts annually. Typically, this ash is retained at the power plant sites, adding to the cost of managing wastes at the plants. Another waste material...

Mathis, James Gregory

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated fly ash Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Materials Science 9 By-Products Utilization Summary: CONTAINING CLEAN-COAL ASH AND CLASS F FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Rafat Siddique... of...

255

E-Print Network 3.0 - ashing dry Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Shrinkage of Non-Air Entrained HRWRA Concrete -0.05% 0.00% 0.05% 0... NS3, 33% Clean Coal Ash, 5% Class F Fly Ash Fig. 15 - ... Source: Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of -...

256

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline coal ash Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... ") UTILIZING CLEAN-COAL ASH 1 This project was for the...

257

E-Print Network 3.0 - ashing wet Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sciences and Ecology 4 By-Products Utilization Summary: A3, containing 20% clean coal ash and 5% wet collected Class F ash had compressive strengths... 0 Center for...

258

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash utilization symposium Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... ") UTILIZING CLEAN-COAL ASH 1 This project was for the...

259

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash material analisis Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

was used in this work. An ASTM Class F fly ash... , and N3) were proportioned with clean coal fly ash containing 22% ... Source: Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of - Department...

260

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash dispersion utilizing Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization HIGH-STRENGTH HVFA CONCRETE CONTAINING CLEAN COAL ASH By Tarun R... , utilization rate of such ashes is much lower compared to a...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "weight average ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali-activated fly ash Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Materials Science 12 By-Products Utilization Summary: CONTAINING CLEAN-COAL ASH AND CLASS F FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Rafat Siddique... of...

262

E-Print Network 3.0 - ashes total contents Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fly ash content for normal concrete... contained fly ash up to a maximum of 35% of clean-coal ... Source: Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of - Department of Civil Engineering and...

263

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash formation transformations Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

chlorinated phenols because their presence in the ash could result in the formation of dioxins and furans... THE USE OF MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTOR ASH AS A PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF...

264

High-performance, high-volume fly ash concrete  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This booklet offers the construction professional an in-depth description of the use of high-volume fly ash in concrete. Emphasis is placed on the need for increased utilization of coal-fired power plant byproducts in lieu of Portland cement materials to eliminate increased CO{sub 2} emissions during the production of cement. Also addressed is the dramatic increase in concrete performance with the use of 50+ percent fly ash volume. The booklet contains numerous color and black and white photos, charts of test results, mixtures and comparisons, and several HVFA case studies.

NONE

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

265

Continuous air agglomeration method for high carbon fly ash beneficiation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The carbon and mineral components of fly ash are effectively separated by a continuous air agglomeration method, resulting in a substantially carboree mineral stream and a highly concentrated carbon product. The method involves mixing the fly ash comprised of carbon and inorganic mineral matter with a liquid hydrocarbon to form a slurry, contacting the slurry with an aqueous solution, dispersing the hydrocarbon slurry into small droplets within the aqueous solution by mechanical mixing and/or aeration, concentrating the inorganic mineral matter in the aqueous solution, agglomerating the carbon and hydrocarbon in the form of droplets, collecting the droplets, separating the hydrocarbon from the concentrated carbon product, and recycling the hydrocarbon.

Gray, McMahon L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Champagne, Kenneth J. (Monongahela, PA); Finseth, Dennis H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Continuous air Agglomeration Method for high Carbon fly ash Beneficiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The carbon and mineral components of fly ash are effectively separated by a continuous air agglomeration method, resulting in a substantially carbon-free mineral stream and a highly concentrated carbon product. The method involves mixing the fly ash comprised of carbon and inorganic mineral matter with a liquid hydrocarbon to form a slurry, contacting the slurry with an aqueous solution, dispersing the hydrocarbon slurry into small droplets within the aqueous solution by mechanical mixing and/or aeration, concentrating the inorganic mineral matter in the aqueous solution, agglomerating the carbon and hydrocarbon in the form of droplets, collecting the droplets, separating the hydrocarbon from the concentrated carbon product, and recycling the hydrocarbon.

Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Finseth, Dennis H.

1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

267

Duals of Weighted Exponential Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper considers the basis and frame properties of the system of weighted exponentials ... Keywords: 42C15, 46C99, Frames, Gabor systems, Overcompleteness, Riesz bases, Weighted exponentials

Gang Joon Yoon; Christopher Heil

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Exponential smoothing with credibility weighted observations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Our interest is in time series data smoothing. We view this process as an aggregation of previously observed values. We first discuss the features desired of a good smoothing operator. We particularly note the conflict that exists between our desire for minimal variance and desire to use the freshest data. We describe a number of commonly used smoothing techniques, moving average and exponential smoothing. We then consider the extension of these methods to the case where the observations can have different credibility or importances. Specifically we develop an extension of the exponential smoothing method to the case where the observations can have different importance weights in the smoothing process.

Ronald R. Yager

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

The Sensitivity of DPF Performance to the Spatial Distribution of Ash Generated from Six Lubricant Formulations  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Discusses potential of DPF pressure drop reduction by optimizing the spatial distribution of ash inside DPF inlet channel

270

Hamilton Weights and Petersen Minors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hamilton Weights and Petersen Minors Hong-Jian Lai and Cun-Quan Zhangy DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS@math.wvu.edu Received April 18, 1997 Abstract: A (1, 2)-eulerian weight w of a cubic graph is called a Hamilton weight if every faithful circuit cover of the graph with respect to w is a set of two Hamilton circuits. Let G

Lai, Hong-jian

271

Average resonance capture study of Te124  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An average resonance capture study of Te124 was carried out by bombarding samples of Te123 with 2- and 24-keV neutron beams. The complete set of 0+, 1+, 2+ states disclosed by the experiment is consistent with the data of Robinson, Hamilton, and Snelling, demonstrating that there are no undetected states of these spins (especially 0+ states) below about 2500 keV. In particular, proposed 0+ levels at 1156 and 1290 keV are ruled out. This impacts various attempted interpretations in terms of intruder states, U(5), and O(6) symmetries.

R. F. Casten; J.-Y. Zhang; B.-C. Liao

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Conversion of oil shale ash into zeolite for cadmium and lead removal from wastewater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conversion of oil shale ash into zeolite for cadmium and lead removal from wastewater Reyad; available online 29 October 2003 Abstract A by-product fly ash from oil shale processing was converted shale; Ash; Zeolite; Cadmium and lead removal 1. Introduction Oil shale exists in Jordan with large

Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

273

Hydration and strength development of binder based on high-calcium oil shale fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The properties of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, which are produced in Israeli power stations, were investigated. High-calcium oil shale fly ash was found to contain a great amount of CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} in the form of lime and anhydrite. Mixtures of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, termed fly ash binder, were shown to cure and have improved strength. The influence of the composition and curing conditions on the compressive strength of fly ash binders was examined. The microstructure and the composition of fly ash binder after curing and long-term exposure in moist air, water and open air conditions were studied. It was determined that ettringite is the main variable in the strength and durability of cured systems. The positive effect of calcium silicate hydrates, CSH, which are formed by interaction of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash components, on the carbonation and dehydration resistance of fly ash binder in open air is pronounced. It was concluded that high-calcium oil shale fly ash with high CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} content can be used as a binder for building products.

Freidin, C. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)] [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Spectroscopy of infrared emission characteristics of thermal power plant boiler coal ash deposits  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal radiation characteristics of ash deposits on a coal combustion boiler of an electric power plant are investigated. Normal emittance spectra in 2.5-25 µm wavelength region and total normal emittance are measured on four kinds of ash at 600-1100K ... Keywords: ash deposit, emittance, pulverized coal combustion boiler furnace, spectroscopic measurement, thermal radiation

Aleksandar Saljnikov; Darko Goricanec; Danijela Dobersek; Dorde Kozic

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Correlation relations between mineralogical components in ash from Kaa-Khem coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Regression analysis was used to study correlation relations between the mineral components of coals. Regularities in the variability of the concentrations of individual ash-forming elements with changing ash contents of coals and changing seam depth were found. The X-ray diffraction characteristics of coal ashes and the qualitative composition of their mineralogical components are presented.

N.N. Yanchat; L.Kh. Tas-ool [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kyzyl (Russia). Tuvinian Institute for Complex Exploration of Natural Resources

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

276

Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

S. W. Clark and H. M Sulloway

2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

277

Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

S. W. Clark and H. M. Sulloway

2007-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

278

Color Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/0702/citing-global- warming-georgia-judge-blocks-coal-plant/picture1.jpg/5307532-1-eng-US/picture1.jpgColor Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power color from pulp mill effluent using coal ash. Prevent coal ash adsorbent from leaching arsenic

Hutcheon, James M.

279

Measurement of natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rate in fly ash samples from a thermal power plant and estimation of radiation doses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fly ash produced by coal-burning in thermal power station has become a subject of world wide interest in recent years because of its diverse uses in construction activities and considerable economic and environmental importance. Fly ash is used in the production of bricks, sheets, cement and also in land filling etc. Indian coals used in thermal power plants are found to have high ash contents, resulting in the production of large amount of fly ash. Coal contains radionuclides including uranium (the source of inert gas radon), Th and K. Thus coal combustion results in enhanced concentration of natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. Since these radionuclides concentration in fly ash plays an important role in health physics it is important to measure radionuclides concentration in fly ash. In the present work enhanced radioactivity and radon exhalation rate from fly ash samples collected from a thermal power plant of NTPC (National Thermal Power Corporation), Dadri (U.P.) India, have been measured. A high resolution gamma ray spectroscopic system has been used for the measurement of natural radioactivity (226Ra, 232Th and 40K). Gamma spectrometric measurements were carried out at Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi using a coaxial n-type \\{HPGe\\} detector (EG&G, ORTEC, Oak Ridge, USA). Activity concentration of 226Ra varies from 81.8 ± 2.2 to 177.3 ± 10.0 Bq kg?1 with an average value of 118.6 ± 7.4 Bq kg?1 and of 232Th from 111.6 ± 3.2 to 178.5 ± 3.9 Bq kg?1 with an average value of 147.0 ± 3.4 Bq kg?1. 40K activity was found to be below detection limit in some samples while other samples have shown potassium activity to vary from 365.9 ± 4.8 to 495.9 ± 6.2 Bq kg?1 with an average value of 352.0 ± 4.5 Bq kg?1. Surface radon exhalation rates (EA) and Mass exhalation rates (EM) in these samples were measured by “Sealed can technique” using LR-115 type II track detectors. EA is found to vary from 80.1 ± 9.3 to 242.7 ± 16.3 mBq m?2 h?1 with an average value 155.5 ± 12.8 mBq m?2 h?1, while EM varies from 3.1 ± 0.4 to 9.3 ± 0.6 mBq kg?1 h?1 with an average value of 6.0 ± 0.5 mBq kg?1 h?1. Radium equivalent activity (Raeq), related to the external gamma dose and internal dose due to radon and its daughters range from 283.2 to 422.4 Bq kg?1 with an average value of 353.9 Bq kg?1. The calculated values of external hazard index (Hex) vary from 0.77 to 1.87 with an average value of 1.03. Most of the samples show the value of Raeq close to the allowed upper limit of 370 Bq kg?1 and Hex close to unity respectively except in two samples. Annual effective dose varies from 0.15 to 0.23 mSv y?1 with an average value 0.19 mSv y?1.

Mamta Gupta; Ajay Kumar Mahur; Rati Varshney; R.G. Sonkawade; K.D. Verma; Rajendra Prasad

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Average Price of Natural Gas Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. . Quantity and Average Price of Natural Gas Production in the United States, 1930-1996 (Volumes in Million Cubic Feet, Prices in Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Table Year Gross Withdrawals Used for Repressuring Nonhydro- carbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production Extraction Loss Dry Production Average Wellhead Price of Marketed Production 1930 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,978,911 75,140 1,903,771 0.08 1931 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,721,902 62,288 1,659,614 0.07 1932 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,593,798 51,816 1,541,982 0.06 1933 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,596,673 48,280 1,548,393 0.06 1934 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,815,796 52,190 1,763,606 0.06 1935 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,968,963 55,488 1,913,475 0.06 1936 ....................... 2,691,512 73,507 NA 392,528 2,225,477

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "weight average ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Average values and dispersion (in parentheses)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Average values and dispersion (in parentheses) Average values and dispersion (in parentheses) Base-pair Parameters --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Shear Stretch Stagger Buckle Propeller Opening 3DNA A 0.01(0.23) -0.18(0.10) 0.02(0.25) -0.13(7.77) -11.79(4.14) 0.57(2.80) B 0.00(0.21) -0.15(0.12) 0.09(0.19) 0.53(6.74) -11.35(5.26) 0.63(3.05) CEHS A 0.01(0.23) -0.18(0.10) 0.02(0.25) -0.13(7.75) -11.82(4.14) 0.56(2.78) B 0.00(0.21) -0.14(0.12) 0.09(0.19) 0.53(6.73) -11.37(5.27) 0.62(3.03) CompDNA A 0.01(0.23) -0.18(0.10) 0.02(0.25) -0.12(7.70) -11.81(4.14) 0.56(2.79) B 0.00(0.21) -0.15(0.12) 0.09(0.19) 0.53(6.70) -11.37(5.26) 0.62(3.03) Curves A 0.01(0.23) -0.18(0.10) 0.02(0.25) -0.13(7.85) -11.76(4.12) 0.57(2.80)

282

BEyond thE BAcklAsh: equity and participation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BEyond thE BAcklAsh: equity and participation in bicycle planning. executive summary | May 2011 Camp Conor Clarke Joe Delia Jennifer Harris-Hernandez Sungbae Park Brian Paul Scott Richmond Sam Stein Jessame Hannus ValeriaTreves Bill DiPaola Kristen Jones Paul Steely White Katie Lyon-Hart We thank

Qiu, Weigang

283

Cathode-Luminescence of Rare Earths in Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Samples of a number of Indian coals (from Darjeeling, Assam, Raniganj, Jharia and Hyderabad) were incinerated in thin layers ... in an electric furnace at 400° C. The presence of rare earths in the ashes so obtained could not be detected by arc spectrographic analysis with a current of 10 ...

BIBHUTI MUKHERJEE

1949-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

284

Thermal properties of high-volume fly ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

volume of concrete placed is receiving renewed interest. Concrete mixtures in which the fly ash replaces Academic Group on Concrete Technology, Universidad Auto´noma de Nuevo Leo´n, Monterrey, Nuevo Leo´n, Mexico are critical in assessing the potential energy efficiency of HVFA concrete structures, such as residential

Bentz, Dale P.

285

Spectroscopic research on infrared emittance of coal ash deposits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper deals with thermal radiation characteristics of ash deposits on a pulverized coal combustion boiler of an electric power plant. Normal emittance spectra in the near to medium infrared (2.5-25 {mu}m) region and total normal emittances were measured on four kinds of ground ash deposits. Measurements were conducted in the 570-1460 K temperature range which is common for boiler furnaces, by both heating and cooling the ash samples, with the aim to study the effect of their thermal history. Dependence of emittance on wavelength, temperature and chemical composition was studied, too. Samples were tested for transparency (opacity) to verify the accuracy of results. It was determined that the thicknesses used for the ash powders are opaque for infrared radiation for thicknesses in the order of a millimeter. Tests have shown that spectral emittance increases with an increase of wavelength with a characteristic pattern common for all samples. Spectral normal emittance increases strongly with temperature at shorter wavelengths and remains high and unchanged at longer ones. Emittance spectra are not very sensitive to chemical composition of ashes especially beyond {lambda} {approx} 5 {mu}m. With an increase of temperature, total emittance of the powdered sample decreases to a minimum value around 1200 K. Further temperature rise induces an increase of total emittance due to sintering in the ash. On cooling, the emittance increases monotonically following the hysteresis. Quantitative directions for evaluating thermal radiation characteristics of ash deposits for the merits of the safety design of boiler furnaces were proposed. That comprises correlating the experimentally obtained emittance spectra with curves of simple analytical form, i.e., a continuous function of minimum emittance vs. wavelength. The proposed method can be extended to other specimens from the same furnace and used to determine correlations for thermal calculation of old and design of new furnaces - with similar geometry and combusting similar coal. The method is potentially applicable to completely different boiler furnaces combusting different coal, and the authors recommend running the tests with new deposit samples. The data will then be applicable to the thermal design of a whole new class of furnaces, having similar geometry and combusting similar coal. This is expected to greatly enhance the accuracy and precision of thermal calculation as well as the efficiency of thermal design of steam boilers. (author)

Saljnikov, Aleksandar; Komatina, Mirko; Gojak, Milan [Department of Thermomechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Kraljice Marije 16, 11120 Belgrade 35 (RS); Vucicevic, Biljana [Laboratory for Thermal Engineering, Institute of Nuclear Sciences VINCA, P.O. Box 522, Belgrade 11001 (RS); Goricanec, Darko [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, Maribor 2000 (Slovenia); Stevanovic, Zoran [Faculty of Mining and Geology, University of Belgrade, Dusina 7, 11120 Belgrade 35 (RS)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

286

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4. Receipts and Quality of Coal by Rank Delivered for Electricity Generation: 4. Receipts and Quality of Coal by Rank Delivered for Electricity Generation: Commercial Sector by State, 2012 Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Census Division and State Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight New England 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Connecticut 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Maine 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Massachusetts 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- New Hampshire 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Rhode Island 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Vermont 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Middle Atlantic 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- --

287

Effect of freeze–thaw cycles on the strength and physical properties of cement-stabilised soil containing recycled bassanite and coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Earth materials deteriorate physically under freeze–thaw cycling. It is thus important to determine how freeze–thaw cycling affects their properties of new man-made materials in areas experiencing seasonal frost. The effect of variable freeze–thaw cycling on the durability of cement-stabilised soils containing bassanite and coal ash was quantified to promote the use of bassanite in earthwork project in seasonal frost areas. For this purpose, very soft clay was stabilised with 5% cement content by weight of dry soil, and bassanite and coal ash were mixed with it in differing proportions. These stabilised soil samples were subjected to differing numbers of freeze–thaw cycles (up to five cycles), after curing for 28 days. Unconfined compressive strength and several physical properties were investigated after freeze–thaw cycling. The results show that the addition of both bassanite and coal ash improves the strength and durability of stabilised soils significantly, whereas the addition of coal ash alone has a negative effect on strength improvement. Unconfined compressive strength increases with increased bassanite and coal ash contents. With respect to freezing and thawing durability, the first or second cycles of freeze–thaw action markedly decrease the unconfined compressive strength of both treated and untreated cement-stabilised soils, but further cycles have little additional influence. The use of both additives improves durability, and retains 65–85% strength compared to corresponding non-frozen stabilised soils; if either additive is used, the strength is 55–65%; and if no additives are used, about 50%. The effects of freeze–thaw cycling on water content and dry density are negligible compared to those of additive contents. Volume after freezing increased slightly with increase in the number of freeze–thaw cycles, although volume after thawing fell slightly and reached minimum at the first thawing process.

Toshihide Shibi; Takeshi Kamei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Average deployments versus missile and defender parameters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report evaluates the average number of reentry vehicles (RVs) that could be deployed successfully as a function of missile burn time, RV deployment times, and the number of space-based interceptors (SBIs) in defensive constellations. Leakage estimates of boost-phase kinetic-energy defenses as functions of launch parameters and defensive constellation size agree with integral predictions of near-exact calculations for constellation sizing. The calculations discussed here test more detailed aspects of the interaction. They indicate that SBIs can efficiently remove about 50% of the RVs from a heavy missile attack. The next 30% can removed with two-fold less effectiveness. The next 10% could double constellation sizes. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Canavan, G.H.

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Soil stabilization and pavement recycling with self-cementing coal fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This manual provides design information for self-cementing coal fly ash as the sole stabilizing agent for a wide range of engineering applications. As in any process, the application of sound engineering practices, appropriate testing, and evaluation of fly ash quality and characteristics will lend themselves to successful projects using the guidelines in this manual. Topics discussed include: self-cementing coal fly ash characteristics; laboratory mix design; stabilization of clay soils; stabilisation of granular materials; construction considerations; high sulfate ash; environmental considerations for fly ash stabilization; design considerations; state specification/guidelines/standards; and a sample of a typical stabilization specification.

NONE

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

290

Environment impact from ash disposal of the thermal power plant 'Kosova A'  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mining activities impact on environment is as old as these activities themselves. It is estimated that thermal power plants in Kosova produce about 1.6 million tons of ash per year, and all ash produced is disposed as waste material. The main problems for environment pollution are the ash dumps containing more than 40 million tons of ash cover about 150 ha of land. The ash dumps sites of the thermal power plant Kosovo 'A', which are situated among settlement, present one of the most serious problems in the environment and are one of the potential dangers for underground and surface water.

Sabri Avdullahi; Isalm Fejza; Raif Bytyqi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Ash Research from Palm Coast, Florida to Banff, Canada: Entry of Biomass in Modern Power Boilers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Six laboratories participated, and each performed five analyses, on three bituminous coal samples, focusing on their content of calcite, kaolinite, pyrite, and quartz. ... CCSEM of these ashes revealed that the fly ashes and deposits contained high quantities of salts, especially KCl, and varying quantities of K- and Ca-silicates, whereas the bottom ashes consisted of a mixture of quartz, K-, Ca-, and Al-silicates. ... Wang and Baxter(134) presented a work that systematically investigated the performance of biomass fly ash concrete, including mixtures of biomass fly ash and calcium hydroxide, with respect to strength, kinetics, and durability. ...

Flemming J. Frandsen

2009-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

292

Ash vaporization in circulating fluidized bed coal combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, the vaporization of the ash-forming constituents in circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) in a full-scale 80 MW{sub th} unit was studied. Ash vaporization in CFBC was studied by measuring the fly ash aerosols in a full-scale boiler upstream of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) at the flue gas temperature of 125{degree}C. The fly ash number size distributions showed two distinct modes in the submicrometer size range, at particle diameters 0.02 and 0.3 {mu}m. The concentration of the ultrafine 0.02-{mu}m mode showed a large variation with time and it decreased as the measurements advanced. The concentration of the 0.02-{mu}m mode was two orders of magnitude lower than in the submicrometer mode observed earlier in the bubbling FBC and up to three orders of magnitude lower than in the pulverized coal combustion. Scanning electron micrographs showed few ultrafine particles. The intermediate mode at 0.3 {mu}m consisted of particles irregular in shape, and hence in this mode the particles had not been formed via a gas to particle route. We propose that the 0.3-{mu}m mode had been formed from the partial melting of the very fine mineral particles in the coal. The mass size distribution in the size range 0.01-70 {mu}m was unimodal with maximum at 20 {mu}m. Less than 1% of the fly ash particles was found in the submicrometer size range. 35 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Lind, T.; Kauppinen, E.I.; Maenhaut, W. [Univ. of Gent (Belgium); Shah, A.; Huggins, F. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Utilization of SRS pond ash in controlled low strength material. Technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Design mixes for Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM) were developed which incorporate pond ashes (fly ashes) from the A-Area Ash Pile, the old F-Area Ash Basin and the D-Area Ash Basin. CLSM is a pumpable, flowable, excavatable backfill used in a variety of construction applications at SRS. Results indicate that CLSM which meets all of the SRS design specifications for backfill, can be made with the A-, D-, and F-Area pond ashes. Formulations for the design mixes are provided in this report. Use of the pond ashes may result in a cost savings for CLSM used at SRS and will utilize a by-product waste material, thereby decreasing the amount of material requiring disposal.

Langton, C.A.; Rajendran, N.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Test research of bed ash coolers for a 50 MWe CFB boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CFB boilers have been developed and commercialized in China. As one of the main auxiliaries of FBC boilers, the bed ash cooler plays an important role in regular operation of the boilers. A 50 MWe 2-shaped CFB boiler will be put into operation in North China. Many kinds of bed ash cooling systems for this boiler had been designed and compared. Then the optimum bed ash coolers were determined and made. Experimental research and pilot-scale test for the bed ash coolers were also carried out. The result indicates that the bed ash cooler can be operated reliably and can meet the demand for cooling bed ash of the 50 MWe CFB boiler. The test data are very useful for further improving the performance of ash coolers.

Chen, H.P.; Lu, J.D.; Lin, Z.J.; Liu, D.C. [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China). National Lab. of Coal Combustion; Hu, L.L.; Xie, P.J.; Yan, H.X.; Liu, M.C. [Hubei Boiler Auxiliary Factory, Jingshan, Hubei (China)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

295

Fuel Economy Standards, New Vehicle Sales, and Average Fuel Efficiency  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The average fuel efficiency of new automobiles sold in the ... trend stagnated in 1981, however, and average fuel efficiency has actually fallen since 1987. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards—the maj...

Steven G. Thorpe

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Fact #744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

4: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster than Average Used Light Vehicle Price Fact 744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster...

297

Leaching of mixtures of biochar and fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, especially CO2, and their effects on global temperature have led to interest in the possibility of carbon storage in terrestrial environments. Both the residual char from biomass pyrolysis (biochar) and fly ash from coal combustion have the potential to significantly expand terrestrial sequestration options. Both biochar and fly ash also have potentially beneficial effects on soil properties. Fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, Cl- and basic cations. Adding biochar to soil generally raises pH, increases total nitrogen and total phosphorous, encourages greater root development, improves cation exchange capacity and decreases available aluminum. A combination of these benefits likely is responsible for observed increases in yields for crops such as corn and sugarcane. In addition, it has been found that soils with added biochar emit lower amounts of other greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) than do unamended soils. Biochar and fly ash amendments may be useful in promoting terrestrial carbon sequestration on currently underutilized and degraded lands. For example, about 1% of the US surface lands consist of previously mined lands or highway rights-of-way. Poorly managed lands could count for another 15% of US area. Biochar and fly ash amendments could increase productivity of these lands and increase carbon storage in the soil. Previous results showed minimal leaching of organic carbon and metals from a variety of fly ashes. In the present study, we examined the properties of mixtures of biochar, fly ash, and soil and evaluated the leaching of organic carbon and metals from these mixtures. The carbon sorption experiments showed release of carbon from biochar, rather than sorption, except at the highest concentrations in the Biochar HW sample. Similar results were obtained by others for oxidative leaching of bituminous coal, in which more C was released as dissolved C than was oxidized to CO2 by the oxygen in water. We confirmed that both fly ash and two types of biochar (oak char [OKEB], and hardwood [HW] char) exhibited minimal leaching of heavy metals including Cr, Ni, Zn, Ga, and Ag, and no detectable leaching of Pb or Cd (data not shown) under the conditions tested. The Biochar HW had a slightly higher C/N ratio (334) and pH (7.7) than did the Biochar OKEB (284 and 6.5). There was no toxicity exhibited by the fly ash (not shown) or biochar leachates as measured by the Microtox© assay under the conditions tested. In previous results no toxicity was reported in testing the fly ash samples except for one high-pH sample. The most notable leachate component from both types of biochar, but not the fly ash, was organic carbon with the HW biochar leaching less organic carbon than the OKEB biochar (5.71 ppm vs. 59.3 ppm). Alone (in batch sorption experiments), or in mixtures of 90% soil and 10% biochar (column studies), we noted significant loss of carbon from the biochar into soluble components. However, when we added fly ash to the column experiments (80% soil, 10% fly ash, and 10% biochar) we observed significant decreases in the amounts of C leached (20% for HW, and 47% for OKEB). The results indicate that applying a combination of fly ash and biochar may result in maximizing the amount of carbon sequestration in soil while also increasing beneficial soil properties and fertility. The lower amount of carbon leached from the HW biochar compared to the OKEB biochar is likely due to the more recalcitrant form of the carbon in the HW char, due to its preparation at a higher temperature (600 ºC) than the OKEB biochar (450 ºC). High heat treatment temperatures during biochar preparation increase both the total carbon content of the biochar and the proportion of the carbon that is present in fused aromatic rings resistant to chemical and physical degradation.

Palumbo, Anthony V.; Porat, Iris; Phillips, Jana R.; Amonette, James E.; Drake, Meghan M.; Brown, Steven D.; Schadt, Christopher W.

2009-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

298

JV Task 6 - Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium{reg_sign} (CARRC{reg_sign}, pronounced 'cars') focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCB utilization and ensuring its successful application. The U.S. Department of Energy is a partner in CARRC through the EERC Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP), which provides matching funds for industrial member contributions and facilitates an increased level of effort in CARRC. CARRC tasks were designed to provide information on CCB performance, including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC technical research tasks are developed based on member input and prioritization. CARRC special projects are developed with members and nonmembers to provide similar information and to support activities, including the assembly and interpretation of data, support for standards development and technology transfer, and facilitating product development and testing. CARRC activities from 1998 to 2007 included a range of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCBs. CARRC topical reports were prepared on several completed tasks. Specific CARRC 1998B2007 accomplishments included: (1) Development of several ASTM International Standard Guides for CCB utilization applications. (2) Organization and presentation of training courses for CCB professionals and teachers. (3) Development of online resources including the Coal Ash Resource Center, Ash from Biomass in Coal (ABC) of cocombustion ash characteristics, and the Buyer's Guide to Coal-Ash Containing Products. In addition, development of expanded information on the environmental performance of CCBs in utilization settings included the following: (1) Development of information on physical properties and engineering performance for concrete, soil-ash blends, and other products. (2) Training of students through participation in CARRC research projects. (3) Participation in a variety of local, national, and international technical meetings, symposia, and conferences by presenting and publishing CCB-related papers.

Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Bruce Dockter; Kurt Eylands; David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Erick Zacher

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Ash & Pulverized Coal Deposition in Combustors & Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Further progress in achieving the objectives of the project was made in the period of October I to December 31, 1997. The direct numerical simulation of particle removal process in turbulent gas flows was continued. Variations of vorticity contours which are averaged over a short time duration are studied. It is shown that the near wall vortices profoundly affect the particle removal process in turbulent boundary layer flows. The sublayer model for evaluating the particle deposition in turbulent flows was extended to include the effect of particle rebound. A new more advance flow model for the near wall vortices is also used in these analysis. Sample particle trajectories are obtained and discussed. Experimental data for transport and deposition of fibrous particles in the aerosol wind tunnel was obtained. The measured deposition velocity is compared with the empirical correlation and the available data and discussed. Particle resuspension process in turbulent flows are studied. The model is compared with the experimental data. It is shown that when the effects of the near wall flow structure, as well as the surface roughness are included the model agrees with the available experimental data.

Goodarz Ahmadi

1998-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

300

Ash & Pulverized Coal Deposition in Combustors & Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Further progress in achieving the objectives of the project was made in the period of July 1 to September 30, 1997. The direct numerical simulation of particle removal process in turbulent gas flows was continued. Variations of vorticity contours which are averaged over a short time duration are studied. It is shown that the near wall vortices profoundly affect the particle removal process in turbulent boundary layer flows. The sublayer model for evaluating the particle deposition in turbulent flows was extended to include the effect of particle rebound. A new more advance flow model for the near wall vortices is also used in these analysis. Sample particle trajectories are obtained and discussed. Experimental data for transport and deposition of fibrous particles in the aerosol wind tunnel was obtained. The measured deposition velocity is compared with the empirical correlation and the available data and discussed. Particle resuspension process in turbulent flows are studied. The model is compared with the experimental data. It is shown that when the effects of the near wall flow structure, as well as the surface roughness are included the model agrees with the available experimental data.

Goodarz Ahmadi

1998-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "weight average ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA- 129) Ashe-Marion #2 [Mile 150-157]  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

7, 2003 7, 2003 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-4 SUBJECT: Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA- 129 Ashe-Marion #2 [Mile 150-157] Elizabeth Johnson Natural Resource Specialist- TFR/The Dalles Proposed Action: Vegetation Management for the Ashe-Marion #2 500 kV transmission line from structure 150/2 through structure 157/7 (reference line). The Buckley-Marion #1 transmission line is also present within the proposed corridor. Right of way width averages 135 feet. Location: The project location is within Wasco County, Oregon near the city of Pine Grove, and is within the Redmond Region. Proposed by: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Description of the Proposal: BPA proposes to remove unwanted vegetation along the right-of-

302

EFFECTS OF FLY ASH ON MERCURY OXIDATION DURING POST COMBUSTION CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tests were performed in simulated flue gas streams using two fly ash samples from the electrostatic precipitators of two full-scale utility boilers. One fly ash was derived from a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, while the other was derived from Blacksville coal (Pittsburgh No. 8 seam). The tests were performed at temperatures of 120 and 180 C under different gas compositions using whole fly ash samples as well as magnetic and nonmagnetic concentrates from sized fly ash. Only the Blacksville ash contained magnetic phases. The whole and fractionated fly ash samples were analyzed for morphology, chemical composition, mineralogical composition, total organic carbon, porosity, and surface area. Mineralogically, the Blacksville ash was composed predominantly of magnetite, hematite, quartz, and mullite, while the PRB ash contained mostly quartz with lesser amounts of lime, periclase, and calcium aluminum oxide. The iron oxides in the Blacksville ash were concentrated almost entirely in the largest size fraction. As anticipated, there was not a clean separation of magnetic (Fe-rich) and nonmagnetic (aluminosilicate-rich) phases for the Blacksville ash. The Blacksville ash had a significantly higher surface area and a much higher unburned carbon content than the PRB ash. Elemental mercury (Hg) streams were injected into the simulated flue gas and passed over filters (housed in a convection oven) loaded with fly ash. Concentrations of total, oxidized, and elemental Hg downstream from the ash samples were determined by the Ontario Hydro Method. The gas stream composition and whether or not ash was present in the gas stream were the two most important variables. Based on the statistical analyses, the presence of HCl, NO, NO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 2} and all two-way gas interactions were significant. In addition, it appears that even four-factor interactions between those gases are significant. The HCl, NO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 2} were critical gases resulting in Hg oxidation, while the presence of NO appeared to suppress oxidation. The Blacksville fly ash tended to show slightly more catalytic activity than the PRB fly ash, but this could be largely due to the higher surface area of the Blacksville ash. Temperature was not a statistically important factor. The magnetic (Fe-rich) phases did not appear to be more catalytically active than the nonmagnetic phases, and unburned carbon did not appear to play a critical role in oxidation chemistry.

Unknown

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

14 2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 SILVICS AND SILVICULTURE OF ASH IN MIXED HARDWOOD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IN MIXED HARDWOOD FORESTS OF THE SOUTHERN BOTTOMLANDS AND LOESSIAL HILLS Steve Meadows U.S. Forest Service wet bottomland sites. White ash is the primary ash species in the loessial hills and on other upland sites across the South. The natural range, distribution across site types, and associated forest cover

304

Blue Ash, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Blue Ash, Ohio: Energy Resources Blue Ash, Ohio: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 39.2320029°, -84.3782734° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.2320029,"lon":-84.3782734,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

305

Utilization of Biomineralization Processes with Fly Ash for Carbon Sequestration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization of Biomineralization Processes with Fly Ash Utilization of Biomineralization Processes with Fly Ash for Carbon Sequestration Y. Roh (rohy@ornl.gov; 865-576-9931) T. J. Phelps (phelpstj1@ornl.gov; 865-574-7290) Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory*, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6036 A. D. McMillan (mcmillanad@ornl.gov; 865-241-4554) R. J. Lauf (laufrj@ornl.gov; 865-574-5176) Metal and Ceramics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6085 *Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract number DE-AC05-00OR22725 Introduction The Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration estimates atmospheric greenhouse gas releases may exceed 8 billion metric tons by the year 2010 heightening its international environmental concern. Carbon dioxide will dominate the

306

Recovery Act Workers Complete Environmental Cleanup of Coal Ash Basin  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Site (SRS) recently cleaned up a 17- Site (SRS) recently cleaned up a 17- acre basin containing coal ash residues from Cold War operations. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act project was safely completed at a cost of $8.9 million, $2.9 million under budget. The manmade earthen basin received ash from the former R Area Pow- erhouse operations, which ended in 1964. The first of five reactors con- structed at SRS, the R Reactor produced nuclear materials for national defense. Recovery Act funding allowed SRS to accelerate cleanup of the basin and complete the project five years earlier than the target set in a regu- latory schedule. In late 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control determined the closure met all regulatory requirements after inspection

307

Limestone and Ash Storage Silos and Lime Preparation Equipment, Part  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Limestone and Ash Storage Silos and Lime Preparation Equipment, Part Limestone and Ash Storage Silos and Lime Preparation Equipment, Part of the System to Inject Limestone Sorbent for SO, Control. Nucla, CO Nucla...continued Before being repowered, the plant consisted of three 12 MWe coal stoker- fired units built in 1959, which were taken out of service in 1984 due to low efficiency and high fuel cost. Antici- pating a need for additional power in the early 1990s. and after review of many power generation alternatives, CUEA started constmction of the re- powered Nucla CFB plant in Novem- ber 1984 and completed the project in May 1987. The original boilers were replaced with a new Fympower Corp. CFB bailer, a new high pressure 74 MWe steam turbine generator was installed, the three original 12 MWe steam turbines were

308

Ultrasonic ash/pyrite liberation. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to develop a coal preparation concept which employed ultrasonics to precondition coal prior to conventional or advanced physical beneficiation processes such that ash and pyrite separation were enhanced with improved combustible recovery. Research activities involved a series of experiments that subjected three different test coals, Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8, and Upper Freeport, ground to three different size fractions (28 mesh {times} 0, 200 mesh {times} 0, and 325 mesh {times} 0), to a fixed (20 kHz) frequency ultrasonic signal prior to processing by conventional and microbubble flotation. The samples were also processed by conventional and microbubble flotation without ultrasonic pretreatment to establish baseline conditions. Product ash, sulfur and combustible recovery data were determined for both beneficiation processes.

Yungman, B.A.; Buban, K.S.; Stotts, W.F.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Ash reduction in clean coal spiral product circuits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The article describes the Derrick Corporation's Stack Sizer{trademark} technology for high capacity fine wet cleaning with long-lasting high open-area urethane screen panels. After field trials, a Stack Sizer fitted with a 100-micron urethane panel is currently processing approximately 40 stph of clean coal spiral product having about 20% ash at McCoy-Elkhorn's Bevin Branch coal preparation plant in Kentucky, USA. Product yield is about 32.5 short tons per hour with 10% ash. The material is then fed to screen bowl centrifuges for further processing. At Blue Diamond Coal's Leatherwood preparation plant similar Stacker Sizers are achieving the same results. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 2 photo.

Brodzik, P.

2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

310

Microsoft Word - CX-Ashe-CGSFiberInstallation_WEB.doc  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

5, 2011 5, 2011 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-4 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Debbie Ruckwardt Electrical Engineer - TEP-CSB-1 Proposed Action: Installing fiber optic cables between Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Ashe Substation and Energy Northwest's Columbia Generating Station (CGS). Budget Information: Work Order # 00261540 PP&A Project No.: PP&A 1864 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3, Routine maintenance activities...for structures, rights of way, infrastructures such as roads, equipment... routine maintenance activities, corrective....are required to maintain...infrastructures...in a condition suitable for a facility to be used for its designed purpose. Location: The project takes place between BPA's Ashe Substation and Energy Northwest's

311

Ash Fork, Arizona: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ash Fork, Arizona: Energy Resources Ash Fork, Arizona: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 35.2250114°, -112.4840675° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":35.2250114,"lon":-112.4840675,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

312

Differences in gasification behaviors and related properties between entrained gasifier fly ash and coal char  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the study, two fly ash samples from Texaco gasifiers were compared to coal char and the physical and chemical properties and reactivity of samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM-energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} adsorption method, and isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. The main results were obtained. The carbon content of gasified fly ashes exhibited 31-37%, which was less than the carbon content of 58-59% in the feed coal. The fly ashes exhibited higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, richer meso- and micropores, more disordered carbon crystalline structure, and better CO{sub 2} gasification reactivity than coal char. Ashes in fly ashes occurred to agglomerate into larger spherical grains, while those in coal char do not agglomerate. The minerals in fly ashes, especial alkali and alkaline-earth metals, had a catalytic effect on gasification reactivity of fly ash carbon. In the low-temperature range, the gasification process of fly ashes is mainly in chemical control, while in the high-temperature range, it is mainly in gas diffusion control, which was similar to coal char. In addition, the carbon in fly ashes was partially gasified and activated by water vapor and exhibited higher BET surface area and better gasification activity. Consequently, the fact that these carbons in fly ashes from entrained flow gasifiers are reclaimed and reused will be considered to be feasible. 15 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Jing Gu; Shiyong Wu; Youqing Wu; Ye Li; Jinsheng Gao [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Department of Chemical Engineering for Energy Resources and Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Ministry of Education

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

313

Effects of pulverized coal fly-ash addition as a wet-end filler in papermaking  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This experimental study is based on the innovative idea of using pulverized coal fly ash as a wet-end filler in papermaking. This is the first evaluation of the possible use of fly ash in the paper industry. Coal-based thermal power plants throughout the world are generating fly ash as a solid waste product. The constituents of fly ash can be used effectively in papermaking. Fly ash has a wide variation in particle size, which ranges from a few micrometers to one hundred micrometers. Fly ash acts as an inert material in acidic, neutral, and alkaline papermaking processes. Its physical properties such as bulk density (800-980 kg/m{sup 3}), porosity (45%-57%), and surface area (0.138-2.3076 m{sup 2}/g) make it suitable for use as a paper filler. Fly ash obtained from thermal power plants using pulverized coal was fractionated by a vibratory-sieve stack. The fine fraction with a particle size below 38 micrometers was used to study its effect on the important mechanical-strength and optical properties of paper. The effects of fly-ash addition on these properties were compared with those of kaolin clay. Paper opacity was found to be much higher with fly ash as a filler, whereas brightness decreased as the filler percentage increased Mechanical strength properties of the paper samples with fly ash as filler were superior to those with kaolin clay.

Sinha, A.S.K. [SLIET, Longowal (India). Dept. of Chemical Technology

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

314

Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (formerly ICPP) ash reutilization study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since 1984, the coal-fired plant at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC, formerly Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) has been generating fly ash at a rate of approximately 1,000 tons per year. This ash is hydrated and placed in an ash bury pit near the coal-fired plant. The existing ash bury pit will be full in less than 1 year at its present rate of use. A conceptual design to build a new ash bury pit was completed, and the new pit is estimated to cost $1.7 million. This report evaluates ash reutilization alternatives that propose to eliminate this waste stream and save the $1.7 million required to build a new pit. The alternatives include using ash for landfill day cover, concrete admixture, flowable fill, soil stabilization, waste remediation, and carbon recovery technology. Both physical and chemical testing, under the guidance of the American Society for Testing and Materials, have been performed on ash from the existing pit and from different steps within the facility`s processes. The test results have been evaluated, compared to commercial ash, and are discussed as they relate to reutilization alternatives. This study recommends that the ash be used in flowable fill concrete for Deactivation and Demolition work at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

Langenwalter, T.; Pettet, M.; Ochoa, R.; Jensen, S.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Classification of carbon in Canadian fly ashes and their implications in the capture of mercury  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fly ashes produced from Canadian power plants using pulverized coal and fluidized bed combustors were examined for their carbon content to determine their ability to capture mercury. The feed coal used in these power plants were lignite, subbituminous, high and medium volatile bituminous, their blends, and also blends of coal with petroleum coke (Petcoke). The carbon and mercury content of the coals and fly ashes were determined using the ASTM standard method and by the cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry method. The carbon content of the fly ash was concentrated by strong acid digestion using \\{HCl\\} and HF. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of the carbon concentrate were made by using a reflected light microscope. The results show that the carbon content of fly ash appears to be partially related to depositional environment during coalification and to the rank of the coal. The Hg captured by the fly ash depends on the rank and blend of the feed coals and the type of carbon in the fly ash. The isotropic vitrinitic char is mostly responsible for the capture of most Hg in fly ash. The inadvertent increase in carbon content due to the blending of coal with petroleum coke did not increase the amount Hg captured by the fly ash. The fly ash collected by the hot side electrostatic precipitator has a low Hg content and no relation between the Hg and carbon content of the ash was observed. These results indicate that the quantity of carbon in the fly ash alone does not determine the amount Hg captured. The types of carbon present (isotropic and anisotropic vitrinitic, isotropic inertinitic and anisotropic Petcoke), the halogen content, the types of fly ash control devices, and the temperatures of the fly ash control devices all play major roles in the capture of Hg.

Fariborz Goodarzi; James C. Hower

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Leaching characteristics of arsenic and selenium from coal fly ash: role of calcium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the leaching behavior of arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) in coal fly ash is important in evaluating the potential environmental impact of coal fly ash. Batch experiments were employed to systematically investigate the leaching behavior of As and Se in two major types of coal fly ashes, bituminous coal ash and sub-bituminous coal ash, and to determine the underlying processes that control As and Se leaching. The effects of pH, solid/liquid (S/L) ratio, calcium addition, and leaching time on the release of As and Se were studied. Overall, bituminous coal ash leached significantly more As and Se than sub-bituminous coal ash, and Se was more readily leachable, in both absolute concentration and relative fraction, than As for both types of fly ashes. Adsorption/desorption played a major role on As and Se leaching from bituminous coal ashes. However, calcium precipitation played the most important role in reducing As and Se leaching from sub-bituminous coal ashes in the entire experimental pH range. The leaching of As and Se from bituminous coal ashes generally increased with increases in the S/L ratio and leaching time. However, for sub-bituminous coal ashes, the leaching of As was not detected under most experimental conditions, while the leaching of Se increased with increases in the S/L ratio and leaching time. As{sup V} and Se{sup IV} were found to be the major species in all ash leachates in this study. 46 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Tian Wang; Jianmin Wang; Yulin Tang; Honglan Shi; Ken Ladwig [Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States). Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, and Environmental Research Center (ERC)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

317

The reactions and ashes of thermonuclear explosions on neutron stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper reports on the detailed rp-process reaction flow on an accreting neutron star and the resulting ashes of a type I X-ray burst. It is obtained by coupling a 298 isotope reaction network to a self-consistent one-dimensional model calculation with a constant accretion rate of dM/dt=1.0e17g/s (0.09 Eddington).

J. L. Fisker; E. Brown; M. Liebendoerfer; F. -K. Thielemann; M. Wiescher

2004-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

318

Effects of Sediment Containing Coal Ash from the Kingston Ash Release on Embryo-Larval Development in the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The largest environmental release of coal ash in U.S. history occurred in December 2008 with the failure of a retention structure at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee. A byproduct of coal-burning power plants, coal ash is enriched in metals and metalloids such as selenium and arsenic with known toxicity to fish including embryonic and larval stages. The effects of contact exposure to sediments containing up to 78 % coal ash from the Kingston spill on the early development of fish embryos and larvae were examined in 7-day laboratory tests with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). No significant effects were observed on hatching success, incidences of gross developmental abnormalities, or embryo-larval survival. Results suggest that direct exposures to sediment containing residual coal ash from the Kingston ash release may not present significant risks to fish eggs and larvae in waterways affected by the spill.

Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL] [ORNL; Elmore, Logan R [ORNL] [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL] [ORNL; Sherrard, Rick [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)] [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Modelling fly ash generation for UK power station coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An in-depth characterization has been made of three UK bituminous coals and the combustion products from these coals when burned at a power station and on a range of experimental combustion facilities. The coals were chosen to represent the range of ash compositions and slagging propensities found at UK power stations. CCSEM analysis of the pulverized coals has been performed to provide quantitative data on the size and chemical composition of individual mineral occurrences, and to determine the nature of the mineral-mineral and mineral-organic associations in the pulverized fuel. In a similar way the size and chemical composition of individual fly ash particle has been determined. The mineral-mineral association information has been used to predict the effects of mineral coalescence, the dominant mineral transformation process for UK power station coals. The CCSEM information correctly identifies the types of mineral-mineral association and hence the predicted effects of coalescence. The limitations of the information are inherent in the analysis of a cross-section, but useful information for the modelling of ash generation may still be obtained.

Wigley, F.; Williamson, J. [Imperial Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

320

Oil shale ash-layer thickness and char combustion kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retort is being studied at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In the HRS process, raw shale is heated by mixing it with burnt retorted shale. Retorted shale is oil shale which has been heated in an oxygen deficient atmosphere to pyrolyze organic carbon, as kerogen into oil, gas, and a nonvolatile carbon rich residue, char. In the HRS retort process, the char in the spent shale is subsequently exposed to an oxygen environment. Some of the char, starting on the outer surface of the shale particle, is burned, liberating heat. In the HRS retort, the endothermic pyrolysis step is supported by heat from the exothermic char combustion step. The rate of char combustion is controlled by three resistances; the resistance of oxygen mass transfer through the gas film surrounding the solid particle, resistance to mass transfer through a ash layer which forms on the outside of the solid particles as the char is oxidized and the resistance due to the intrinsic chemical reaction rate of char and oxygen. In order to estimate the rate of combustion of the char in a typical oil shale particle, each of these resistances must be accurately estimated. We begin by modeling the influence of ash layer thickness on the over all combustion rate of oil shale char. We then present our experimental measurements of the ash layer thickness of oil shale which has been processed in the HRS retort.

Aldis, D.F.; Singleton, M.F.; Watkins, B.E.; Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.

1992-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "weight average ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Unique method of ash disposal can benefit marine life  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As more communities turn to waste-to-energy facilities to help solve their solid waste disposal problems, the amount of ash created by these facilities increases. Incineration of solid waste produces particulate residues which are often rich in lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc because of the concentration which occurs as a result of reduction. It has been shown that such metals can sometimes be leached from ash residues, giving rise to special concerns that incineration ashes be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. In urban coastal areas where landfills are few and increasingly distant, ocean disposal of stabilized incineration residues (SIR) may provide an acceptable alternative to current landfill practices. In May 1985, a research program was initiated at the Marine Sciences Research Center to examine the feasibility of utilizing SIR for artificial reef construction in the ocean. Results of these studies showed that particulate incineration residues could be combined with cement to form a solid block possessing physical properties necessary for ocean disposal. The stabilized residues were subjected to regulatory extraction protocols, and in no instance did the metal concentrations in the leachates exceed the regulatory limits for toxicity. Bioassays revealed no adverse effects on the phytoplankton communities exposed to elutriate concentrations higher than could be encountered under normal disposal conditions. The success of the laboratory studies resulted in securing the necessary permits for the placement of an artificial habitat constructed using SIR in coastal wasters. Results from this program are described.

Roethel, F.J.; Breslin, V.T. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook (USA))

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Superheater Tube Corrosion in Wood Gasifier Ash Deposits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The upper operating temperature of tubes in heat exchangers/steam generators is strongly influenced by the degradation that can occur because of the reaction of the exchanger/generator tubing with the deposits that accumulate on the surface of the tubes. In fact, severe corrosion has been observed in some biomass fired systems, particularly with elevated potassium and chlorine concentrations in the deposits. Wood gasifiers have recently been and are currently being constructed at several sites in North America. In these systems, the syngas is burned to produce steam and the performance of the heat exchanger tubes under ash deposits is of great concern. As temperatures of the heat exchangers are increased in an effort to increase their operating efficiency, the performance of the tubes is of greater interest. The corrosion behavior of alloy steel tubes as a function of temperature has been investigated by exposing samples of selected alloys to ash collected from the steam generator fired by syngas produced in wood gasifiers. This study compares corrosion rates from laboratory exposures of synthesis gas and ash at 500 C and 600 C. This study investigated the material performance of four ferritic steels and one austenitic steel exposed to conditions expected on the fireside of a wood gasifier. The purpose of this study was to identify an effective method for determining material performance for samples exposed to both the process gas and the fly ash that is typically observed within the steam generator for times up to 1000 hours. Mass changes were measured for all of the samples, but this information can be misleading concerning material performance due to the difficulty in sufficiently cleaning the samples after exposure in the ash. Therefore, small cross sections of the samples were collected and imaged using optical microscopy. Oxide thicknesses were measured along with metal losses. The metal loss information provides a clear indication of material performance. The metal loss rates for the ferritic steels at 500 C were almost half of those observed at 600 C and the rates decreased with increasing exposure time. It was also reported that the metal loss rates generally decrease with increasing chromium concentration.

Bestor, Michael A [ORNL] [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL] [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta A [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin American Recovery and Reinvestment Act workers recently cleaned up a second basin containing coal ash residues from Cold War operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). About $24 million from the Recovery Act funded the environmental restoration project, allowing SRS to complete the project at least five years ahead of schedule. The work is part of a larger Recovery Act cleanup of the P Area scheduled for completion by the end of September 2011. Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin More Documents & Publications Recovery Act Workers Complete Environmental Cleanup of Coal Ash Basin Recovery Act Workers Add Time Capsule Before Sealing Reactor for Hundreds

324

Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This integrated, multi-product approach for utilizing Illinois coal starts with the production of ultra low-ash coal and then converts it to high-vale, coal-derived, products. The ultra low-ash coal is produced by solubilizing coal in a phenolic solvent under ChemCoal{trademark} process conditions, separating the coal solution from insoluble ash, and then precipitating the clean coal by dilution of the solvent with methanol. Two major products, liquids and low-ash char, are then produced by mild gasification of the low-ash coal. The low ash-char is further upgraded to activated char, and/or an oxidized activated char which has catalytic properties. Characterization of products at each stage is part of this project.

Kruse, C.W.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Mineralogical characterization of Sasol feed coals and corresponding gasification ash constituents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Feed coal and coarse ash particles (heated rock fragments and clinkers), produced from Sasol-Lurgi gasifier tests under different operating conditions, have been characterized by quantitative X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe analysis, and associated chemical techniques, as a basis for better understanding of the relations between the mineralogical and physical properties of the ash particles. Crystalline phases in the ashes include quartz particles inherited directly from the feed coal, as well as anorthite, mullite, and diopside, derived from solid-state reactions or crystallization of a silicate melt during the gasification process. Glass, cooled from the melt, is also abundant in the ash materials. The abundance of large particles of hard minerals in the coal or the ash, such as quartz, anorthite, pyrite, and diopside, has been correlated with a laboratory-determined abrasion index and may contribute significantly to wear on mechanical equipment during coal- or ash-handling operations. 21 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

Aivo B. Hlatshwayo; Ratale H. Matjie; Zhongsheng Li; Colin R. Ward [Sasol Technology (Proprietary) Limited, Sasolburg (South Africa)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

326

An Empirical Method for the Prediction of Coal Ash Slag Viscosity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An Empirical Method for the Prediction of Coal Ash Slag Viscosity ... Samples were prepared by ashing coals to completion at 815 °C; then a slag was generated under nitrogen at >1650 °C with the appropriate amount of reagent grade calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as flux added. ... (5)?Watt, J. D.; Fereday, F. The Flow Properties of Slags Formed from the Ashes of British Coals:? Part 1. Viscosity of Homogeneous Liquid Slags in Relation to Slag Composition. ...

G. J. Browning; G. W. Bryant; H. J. Hurst; J. A. Lucas; T. F. Wall

2003-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

327

A review of ash in conventional and advanced coal-based power systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Process conditions are briefly described for conventional and advanced power systems. The advanced systems include both combustion and gasification processes. We discuss problems in coal-based power generation systems, including deposition, agglomeration and sintering of bed materials, and ash attack are discussed. We also discuss methods of mitigating ash problems and anticipated changes anticipated in ash use by converting from conventional to advanced systems.

Holcombe, N.T.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

328

through 20-gauge (nominal inner diameter: 0.6 mm) needles into rotating 40 wt.-% PEI (branched; average molecular weight,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. [16] M. Shim, A. Javey, N. W. S. Kam, H. Dai, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 11 512. [17] E. V. Basiuk] T. V. Sreekumar, T. Liu, B. G. Min, H. Guo, S. Kumar, R. H. Hauge, R. E. Smalley, Adv. Mater. 2004

Weibel, Douglas B.

329

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash upptag av Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Processing Conference Proceedings ASME 1994 MONTGOMERY COUNTY Summary: for cooling the condensate and auxiliary cooling water. Incombustible material and ash residue from the...

330

MARKET ASSESSMENT AND TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY STUDY OF PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH USE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Western Research Institute, in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute, Foster Wheeler International, Inc. and the US Department of Energy, has undertaken a research and demonstration program designed to examine the market potential and the technical feasibility of ash use options for PFBC ashes. Ashes from the Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot-scale circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, combusting (1) low-sulfur subbituminous and (2) high-sulfur bituminous coal, and ash from the AEP's high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing at WR1. The technical feasibility study examined the use of PFBC ash in construction-related applications, including its use as a cementing material in concrete and use in cement manufacturing, fill and embankment materials, soil stabilization agent, and use in synthetic aggregate production. Testing was also conducted to determine the technical feasibility of PFBC ash as a soil amendment for acidic and sodic problem soils and spoils encountered in agricultural and reclamation applications. The results of the technical feasibility testing indicated the following conclusions. PFBC ash does not meet the chemical requirements as a pozzolan for cement replacement. However, it does appear that potential may exist for its use in cement production as a pozzolan and/or as a set retardant. PFBC ash shows relatively high strength development, low expansion, and low permeability properties that make its use in fills and embankments promising. Testing has also indicated that PFBC ash, when mixed with low amounts of lime, develops high strengths, suitable for soil stabilization applications and synthetic aggregate production. Synthetic aggregate produced from PFBC ash is capable of meeting ASTM/AASHTO specifications for many construction applications. The residual calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate in the PFE3C ash has been shown to be of value in making PFBC ash a suitable soil amendment for acidic and sodic problem soils and mine spoils. In conclusion, PFBC ash represents a viable material for use in currently established applications for conventional coal combustion ashes. As such, PFBC ash should be viewed as a valuable resource, and commercial opportunities for these materials should be explored for planned PFBC installations.

A.E. Bland; T.H. Brown

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

E-Print Network 3.0 - agglomerating ash process Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Materials Science 8 Assembly and Testing of an On-Farm Manure to Energy Conversion BMP for Animal Waste Pollution Control Summary: index for animal manure ash...

332

Ash chemistry and mineralogy of an Indonesian coal during combustion: Part 1 Drop-tube observations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper reports a systematic and comprehensive laboratory investigation into the ash chemistry and mineralogical changes undergone by a low-rank Indonesian coal during combustion. Combustion experiments conducted in a drop-tube furnace included ash formation experiments (using cyclone and filter arrangement) under closely controlled conditions in the range of 1200–1400 °C and deposition experiments at a probe temperature of 750 °C. Tests conducted with raw coal, coal/additive mixtures and washed coal indicated significant changes in ash characteristics. Of the ash formation and deposit samples examined, the raw coal + bauxite showed the lowest glass content and high contents of corundum indicating low ash deposition propensities. When compared to the ash formation samples, the deposit samples showed even significantly lower glass contents and were enriched in quartz. With the exception of the raw coal + bauxite sample, all are characterized by high silica and iron and moderate aluminium contents. In contrast, the raw coal + bauxite sample have low silica and much higher alumina contents which is in agreement with XRD observations. QEMSCAN™ results showed that the ash particles are sparsely distributed suggesting lack of a deposit initiation layer. Experimental observations suggest that the use of raw coal with bauxite would appear to offer the best performance with respect to handling ash-related issues. Present findings are of practical significance to power utilities employing Indonesian coal as there is no comprehensive work reported in the literature on ash chemistry and mineralogy of such coals.

H.B. Vuthaluru; D. French

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash forming acid-resistant Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

European Summer Fly Ash Workshop," Warsaw, Poland, June 2005. Department... combustion of coal in conventional and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. These include fly...

334

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash financial aspects Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conference on Fly Ash, Silica Fume, Slag, and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete, Bangkok, Thailand Source: Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of - Department of Civil Engineering and...

335

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash separators Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conference on Fly Ash, Silica Fume, Slag, and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete, Bangkok, Thailand Source: Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of - Department of Civil Engineering and...

336

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash flowable fill Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: ash as filler. A highly flowable concrete is not necessarily self-compacting because SCC should... ;4. Kurita, M., and Nomura, T., "High-Flowable Steel...

337

2.8-Ma Ash-Flow Caldera At Chegem River In The Northern Caucasus...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ma Ash-Flow Caldera At Chegem River In The Northern Caucasus Mountains (Russia), Contemporaneous Granites, And Associated Ore Deposits Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

338

INVESTIGATION OF AMMONIA ADSORPTION ON FLY ASH DUE TO INSTALLATION OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes an investigation of the potential impacts associated with the utilization of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems at coal-fired power plants. The study was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Emission Control By-Products Consortium, Dominion Generation, the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and GAI Consultants, Inc. SCR systems are effective in reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions as required by the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments. However, there may be potential consequences associated with ammonia contamination of stack emissions and combustion by-products from these systems. Costs for air quality, landfill and pond environmental compliance may increase significantly and the marketability of ash may be seriously reduced, which, in turn, may also lead to increased disposal costs. The potential impacts to air, surface water, groundwater, ash disposal, ash utilization, health and safety, and environmental compliance can not be easily quantified based on the information presently available. The investigation included: (1) a review of information and data available from published and unpublished sources; (2) baseline ash characterization testing of ash samples produced from several central Appalachian high-volatile bituminous coals from plants that do not currently employ SCR systems in order to characterize the ash prior to ammonia exposure; (3) an investigation of ammonia release from fly ash, including leaching and thermal studies; and (4) an evaluation of the potential impacts on plant equipment, air quality, water quality, ash disposal operations, and ash marketing.

G.F. Brendel; J.E. Bonetti; R.F. Rathbone; R.N. Frey Jr.

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Prediction of Chinese coal ash fusion temperatures in Ar and H{sub 2} atmospheres  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ash fusion temperatures (AFTs) of 21 typical Chinese coal ash samples and 60 synthetic ash samples were measured in Ar and H{sub 2} atmospheres. The computer software package FactSage was used to calculate the temperatures corresponding to different proportions of the liquid phase and predict the phase equilibria of synthetic ash samples. Empirical liquidus models were derived to correlate the AFTs under both Ar and H{sub 2} atmospheres of 60 synthetic ash samples, with their liquidus temperatures calculated by FactSage. These models were used to predict the AFTs of 21 Chinese coal ash samples in Ar and H{sub 2} atmospheres, and then the AFT differences between the atmospheres were analyzed. The results show that, for both atmospheres, there was an apparently linear correlation and good agreement between the AFTs of synthetic ash samples and the liquidus temperatures calculated by FactSage (R > 0.89, and {sigma} < 30{sup o}C). These models predict the AFTs of coal ash samples with a high level of accuracy (SE < 30{sup o}C). Because the iron oxides in coal ash samples fused under a H{sub 2} atmosphere are reduced to metallic iron and lead to changes of mineral species and micromorphology, the AFTs in a H{sub 2} atmosphere are always higher than those with an Ar atmosphere. 34 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

Wen J. Song; Li H. Tang; Xue D. Zhu; Yong Q. Wu; Zi B. Zhu; Shuntarou Koyama [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

340

Characterization and modeling of toxic fly ash constituents in the environment.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Coal fly ash is a by-product of coal combustion that has drawn renewed public scrutiny due to the negative environmental impacts from accidental release of… (more)

Zhu, Zhenwei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "weight average ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Coal deposit characterization by gamma-gamma density/percent dry ash relationships  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: pb = C + Va(pa) Equation 3 where C is a constant. Ash content can therefore be geophysically determined as variations In log-derived bulk density measurements are in direct response to variations in ash content. However, when any of the above... by applying the relationships between geophysi cally-derived gamma-gamma density and laboratory-derived percent dry ash. The linear gamma-gamma density/percent dry ash relationship is dependent upon a constant fuel ratio (percent fixed carbon...

Wright, David Scott

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash corrosion resistant Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Materials Science 48 Use of fly ash as an admixture for electromagnetic interference shielding Jingyao Cao, D.D.L. Chung* Summary: in improved resistance to...

343

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash cement matrixes Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Materials Science 13 Use of fly ash as an admixture for electromagnetic interference shielding Jingyao Cao, D.D.L. Chung* Summary: to a construc- tion material...

344

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash confinement time Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Materials Science 36 ccsd-00002019,version1-18Oct2004 Stabilization of Burn Conditions in an ITER FEAT Summary: with Uncertainties in the Helium Ash Confinement...

345

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash quality recycling Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... CANMET Conference on Quality of Concrete Structures and...

346

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash fraxinus excelsior Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

we planted green ash trees... Identification of a Biomarker Gene for Fraxinus spp. Darla French and ... Source: Purdue University, Department of Forestry and Natural Resources,...

347

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash related problems Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the environment is an environmental problem created. It is generally conceded... . The dioxinsfurans on ash then don't seem to create an ... Source: Columbia University -...

348

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash inhalation exposure Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in England and Summary: tests on blocks containing mixed ash. 1 See page 17, Dioxins, what they are, their sources, our exposure... into the potential exposure to dioxins...

349

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash impact sorbent Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for By-Products Utilization Collection: Engineering ; Materials Science 23 Leaching of Dioxins from Municipal Waste Combustor Residues Summary: , and baghouses) including fly ash,...

350

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash management regulations Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Air and Waste Management Division U.S. Environmental... unacceptable levels of dioxins and furans. Thus they argue for cradle to grave ash management under Subtitle C......

351

A Method for Making In Situ Emittance Measurements of Coal Ash Deposits.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A major problem associated with any power generation process in which coal is burned is the formation of ash and slag from the inorganic constituents… (more)

Moore, Travis J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Extracting Coal Ash Content from Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Spectra by Multivariate Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) combined with partial least squares (PLS) analysis has been applied for the quantitative analysis of the ash content of coal in this...

Yao, Shunchun; Lu, Jidong; Dong, Meirong; Chen, Kai; Li, Junyan; Li, Jun

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

E-Print Network 3.0 - altered volcanic ash Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: when hot ash flows enter the sea. Volcanic activity was practically absent on Gran Canaria between 9... expected the Slump scarp Subaerial volcanics Sealevel Distal...

354

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

8: July 12, 2004 8: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles on AddThis.com... Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles Twenty-five percent of the respondents to a nationwide survey said that

355

Fact #614: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The average age of household vehicles has increased from 6.6 years in 1977 to 9.2 years in 2009. Pickup trucks have the oldest average age in every year listed. Sport utility vehicles (SUVs), first...

356

Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

According to the latest National Household Travel Survey, the average trip length grew to over 10 miles in 2009, just slightly over the 9.9 mile average in 2001. Trips to work in 2009 increased to...

357

Fact #835: August 25, Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

5: August 25, Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 Fact 835: August 25, Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 When adjusted for inflation,...

358

Speciation of Selenium, Arsenic, and Zinc in Class C Fly Ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major environmental concern associated with coal fly ash is the mobilization of trace elements that may contaminate water. To better evaluate proper use of fly ash, determine appropriate disposal methods, and monitor postdisposal conditions, it is important to understand the speciation of trace elements in fly ash and their possible environmental impact. The speciation of selenium, arsenic, and zinc was determined in five representative Class C fly ash samples from combustion of sub-bituminous Powder River Basin coal using synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy to provide an improved understanding of the mechanisms of trace element association with the fly ash. Selenium in all fly ash samples occurs predominantly as Se(IV), with the exception of one sample, in which there was a minor amount of Se(0). Se(0) is likely associated with the high content of unburned coal in the sample. Arsenic exists in the fly ash as a single phase most consistent with calcium pyroarsenate. In contrast, zinc occurs as two distinct species in the silicate glass matrix of the fly ash. This work demonstrates that residual carbon in fly ash may reduce potential Se mobility in the environment by retaining it as less soluble elemental Se instead of Se(IV). Further, this work suggests that As and Zn in Class C fly ash will display substantially different release and mobilization behaviors in aquatic environments. While As release will primarily depend upon the dissolution and hydrolysis of calcium pyroarsenate, Zn release will be controlled by the dissolution of alkaline aluminosilicate glass in the ash.

Luo, Yun; Giammar, Daniel E.; Huhmann, Brittany L.; Catalano, Jeffrey G. (WU)

2011-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

359

Sintering and fouling characterization of ashes with high calcium oxide content  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research work has taken into consideration the behavior of Estonian oil shale ash with high calcium oxide content under typical FB conditions while focusing the main attention on bed agglomeration and fireside deposits. The different types of ashes tested included: (1) ash collected from the cyclone of a PF oil shale boiler, (2) ash collected from the electrostatic precipitator of the same boiler, and (3) oil shale ash prepared by standard laboratory procedures. The ashes were tested for their compression strength, a sintering test under laboratory conditions. First, cylindrical pellets were made from the ash samples. Then the pellets were exposed for four hours to various atmospheres, and various temperatures in the range 300--1,050 C, in a tube furnace. After the exposure, the pellets were tested for compression strength, and the pellet crushing stress was taken as an indicator for the degree of sintering. The compression tests were complemented with chemical analyses of heat treated ash pellets. Changes of mass and dimensions of the heat treated pellets were also recorded. Some experiments were also made to simulate the impact energy of different ash particles, to investigate the buildup of ash deposits on the heat transfer surfaces of boilers. The tests showed that significant sintering occurred under most of the conditions tested. The sintering of the oil shale ash was found to be dependent on both heat treatment temperature and gas atmosphere. Higher pressure at pellet making resulted in some cases in increased sintering. Based on these results, it was concluded that bed sintering would probably not be a problem in a FBC, but fouling of the heat transfer surfaces after the fluidized bed combustor could be a potential problem, in particular, at flue gas temperatures in the range 600 to 900 C.

Ots, A.; Parve, T. [Tallinn Technical Univ. (Estonia); Skrifvars, B.J.; Hupa, M. [Abo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

360

Characterization of Reactor Ash Deposits from Pilot-Scale Pressurized Entrained-Flow Gasification of Woody Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(21, 22) Second, crude syngases can carry fly ash particles and gaseous inorganics that cause detrimental effects downstream, such as corrosion of heat recovery systems, contamination of syngas cleaning sorbents, and poisoning of biofuel production catalysts. ... Milled fuel is fed into the reactor via a single top-fired centrally positioned burner. ... The near-wall temperatures attained in the PEFG reactor were around 200–300 °C higher than the bed temperatures of most FB gasifiers/combustors.(4, 47-49) Considering also the temporal temperature elevations of particles (e.g., vicinal burning particles and passage through the O2-enriched flame regions), this would mean that both the average and temporal peak particle temperatures are significantly higher during PEFG. ...

Charlie Ma; Fredrik Weiland; Henry Hedman; Dan Boström; Rainer Backman; Marcus Öhman

2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "weight average ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Calculator program optimizes bit weight, rotary speed, reducing drilling cost  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bit selection, bit weight, and rotary speed have repeatedly proven to be the most important and commonly overlooked alterable factors which control penetration rate, footage, and overall drilling cost. This is particularly true in offshore operations where drilling costs are highest and the greatest cost savings stand to be achieved through implementation of proven optimization techniques. The myth that bit weights and rotary speeds cannot be optimized in directional holes has hindered the industry from using this virtually cost-free method for reducing drilling cost. The use of optimized bit weights and rotary speeds in conjunction with minimum cost bit programs based on cost per foot analysis of previous bit runs in the area was implemented on a five-well platform in the Grand Isle Block 20 field, offshore Louisiana. Each of the directional wells was drilled substantially faster and cheaper than the discovery well, which was a straight hole. Average reductions in footage cost of 31.3%, based on daily operating cost of $30,000/day, and increase in average daily footage drilled of 45.2% were effected by ''collectively optimizing'' drilling performance. The ''Optimizer'' program is an HP-41CV adaptation of the Bourgoyne and Young drilling model. It was used to calculate the optimum bit weights and rotary speeds based on field drilling tests; historical bit and bearing wear data; and current operating conditions, cost, and constraints.

Simpson, M.A.

1984-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

362

Controlled Experiments on the Effects of Lubricant/Additive (Low-Ash, Ashless) Characteristics on DPF Degradation  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Effects of lubricant additive chemistries and exhaust conditions on ash properties affecting diesel particulate filter performance. Comparison of ash characteristics such as packing density and elemental composition in field and laboratory aged DPFs.

363

Influence of combustion conditions and coal properties on physical properties of fly ash generated from pulverized coal combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To develop combustion technology for upgrading the quality of fly ash, the influences of the coal properties, such as the size of pulverized coal particles and the two-stage combustion ratio during the combustion, on the fly ash properties were investigated using our test furnace. The particle size, density, specific surface area (obtained by the Blaine method), and shape of fly ash particles of seven types of coal were measured. It was confirmed that the size of pulverized coal particles affects the size of the ash particles. Regarding the coal properties, the fuel ratio affected the ash particle size distribution. The density and shape of the ash particles strongly depended on their ash size. Our results indicated that the shape of the ash particles and the concentration of unburned carbon affected the specific surface area. The influence of the two-stage combustion ratio was limited. 8 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Hiromi Shirai; Hirofumi Tsuji; Michitaka Ikeda; Toshinobu Kotsuji [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Kanagawa (Japan)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

364

Anion exchange method for the sequential determination of uranium, thorium and lead-210 in coal and coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A radiochemical procedure is presented for the sequential determination of uranium isotopes, thorium isotopes, and210Pb in coal and coal ash. This procedure consists of dry ashing the...210Pb is measured by beta ...

V. R. Casella; C. T. Bishop; A. A. Glosby…

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Effectiveness of wood ash containing charcoal as a fertilizer for a forest plantation in a temperate region  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Amendment of forest soils with mixed wood ash (MWA) generated in biomass power plants can prevent the depletion of ... that results from the intensive harvesting of forest plantations. Unlike fly wood ash, MWA co...

Martín Santalla; Beatriz Omil; Roque Rodríguez-Soalleiro; Agustín Merino

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Issues with the Use of Fly Ash for Carbon Sequestration A.V. Palumbo1*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Issues with the Use of Fly Ash for Carbon Sequestration A.V. Palumbo1* , L. S. Fisher1 , J of the potential for carbon sequestration in degraded mine lands, we have found that based on laboratory and field and its influence on carbon sequestration. Also, addition of fly ash to soil, while generally considered

Tiquia-Arashiro, Sonia M.

367

Market Assessment and Technical Feasibility Study of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Ash Use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Western Research Institute in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute, Foster Wheeler Energy International, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy Technology Center (METC), has undertaken a research and demonstration program designed to examine the market potential and the technical feasibility of ash use options for pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) ashes. The assessment is designed to address six applications, including: (1) structural fill, (2) road base construction, (3) supplementary cementing materials in portland cement, (4) synthetic aggregate, and (5) agricultural/soil amendment applications. Ash from low-sulfur subbituminous coal-fired Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, and ash from the high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired American Electric Power (AEP) bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing. This paper addresses the technical feasibility of ash use options for PFBC unit using low- sulfur coal and limestone sorbent (karhula ash) and high-sulfur coal and dolomite sorbents (AEP Tidd ash).

Bland, A.E.; Brown, T.H. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

368

California bearing ratio behavior of soil-stabilized class F fly ash systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash is a finely divided mineral residue resulting from the combustion of coal in power plants that occupies large extents of land and also causes environmental problems. Hence, concerted attempts are being made to effectively use fly ash in an environmentally friendly way instead of dumping. Several studies have been carried out for its bulk utilization, such as its addition to improve the California bearing ratio (CBR) of soil in roads and embankments. But a thorough mixing of fly ash with soil may not be possible in the field. Hence a study has been carried out on the CBR behavior of black cotton soil and Raichur fly ash (which is class F) in layers and compared with the same in mixes. The results show that the CBR values of soil-fly ash mixes are better than layers, as expected. To improve the strength of layers, cement is used as an additive to fly ash. The results show that black cotton soil can be improved with stabilized fly ash, solving its strength problem as well as the disposal problem of fly ash.

Leelavathamma, B.; Mini, K.M.; Pandian, N.S. [Indian Institute for Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. for Civil Engineering

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Radioactivity of coals and ashes from Çatalazi coal-fired power plant in Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......from 15 countries(4). The combustion of coal in a CFPP leads to an increase...of utilization of Turkish coal combustion fly ash in concrete production...7440-29-1 Thorium | Coal analysis Coal Ash analysis chemistry Environmental Exposure analysis......

Hüseyin Aytekin; Ridvan Baldik

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Updating for Ash Cooler Fluidized Air System of a 410 t/h CFB Boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper presents an updating scheme for ash cooler fluidized air system of a 410 t/h CFB boiler. The ash cooler fluidized air, which is originally designed, is provided by the independent configuration of two forced fans. By analyzing and studying ...

Gao Jian-qiang; Chen Hong-wei; Zhang Wei

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Resuspension of Relic Volcanic Ash and Dust from Katmai: Still an Aviation Hazard  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Northwest winds were strong enough to continuously resuspend relic volcanic ash from the Katmai volcano cluster and the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes on 20–21 September 2003. The ash cloud reached over 1600 m and extended over 230 km into the ...

David Hadley; Gary L. Hufford; James J. Simpson

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial fly ash-clay Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fly ash-clay Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Study of composite cement containing burned oil shale Summary: studied. Context SiO2 CaO Al2O3 OPC BFS Class C fly ash Clays Metakaolin...

373

Separation and Purification Technology 40 (2004) 251257 Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil shale ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jordanian oil shale ash was used as an adsorbent for the removal of copper and zinc from aqueous solution.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Oil shale; Ash; Adsorption; Copper and zinc removal 1. IntroductionSeparation and Purification Technology 40 (2004) 251­257 Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil

Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

374

Re-imaging coal: novel process removes mercury while retaining ash sales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two-stage thermal pretreatment process for removing moisture and mercury from raw coal has been developed by the Western Research Institute. This allows sales of ash from power plants to continue since no sorbents end up in the ash. 3 figs., 1 photo.

Bland, A. [Western Research Institute (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Properties of concrete incorporating high volumes of ASTM Class F fly ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents the results of research performed in developing high-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete incorporating ASTM Type I cement and ASTM Class F fly ash from Big Brown Power Plant of TU Electric, Texas. In HVFA concrete, the proportion...

Li, Wei Tung

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Effect of Fly Ash on Solidification and Heavy Metals Chemical Speciation of Sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to explore new municipal sewage sludge treatment method and reduce its harm for environment, fly ash discarded from power plant was used as conditioner in sludge treatment in the paper. The properties of sewage sludge were changed after adding ... Keywords: fly ash, sludge, compressive strength, heavy metal, speciation

Yongjian Piao; Mingsong Wu; Xun Xu; Qingliang Zhao; Fugui Zhang; Nanqi Ren

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Determination of Total Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This procedure describes the methods used to determine the amount of moisture or total solids present in a freeze-dried algal biomass sample, as well as the ash content. A traditional convection oven drying procedure is covered for total solids content, and a dry oxidation method at 575?C is covered for ash content.

Van Wychen, S.; Laurens, L. M. L.

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Geochemical Constraints on the Origin of a Shallow Ash Occurrence: in the Mahanadi Basin, offshore India  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Geochemical Constraints on the Origin of a Shallow Ash Occurrence: in the Mahanadi Basin, offshore sampled in the continental margins offshore India (Fig 1). A volcanic ash layer was recovered below seafloor Surrounding Sediments: Grey sediment in A is a nannofossil and plant debris bearing clay

New Hampshire, University of

379

Investigation of Vanadium Compounds in Ashes from a CFBC Firing 100 Petroleum Coke  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigation of Vanadium Compounds in Ashes from a CFBC Firing 100 Petroleum Coke ... The ash pits have since gone through an extensive remedial process. ... The other metals investigated (i.e., Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb) also were present predominantly as sulfates. ...

L. Jia; E. J. Anthony; J. P. Charland

2002-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

380

Improvement of the Coal Ash Slagging Tendency by Coal Washing and Additive Blending with Mullite Generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Four typical coals and two pretreatment methods were investigated to prevent slagging by facilitating mullite formation in coal ash at a high temperature. ... Both security and economy in power plant can be improved substantially as long as ash deposition and slagging tendency alleviated. ... Pilot-projects about coal washing and coal blending economic benefit are looking forward to put into practice. ...

Zhenyu Huang; Yan Li; Dan Lu; Zhijun Zhou; Zhihua Wang; Junhu Zhou; Kefa Cen

2013-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "weight average ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Evaluation of rice husk ash as filler in tread compounds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Rice which is one of the largest agriculture crops produces around 22% of rice rusk during its milling process. This material is mainly used as fuel for energy generation which results in an ash which disposal represents an environmental issue. The rice husk ash (RHA) contains over than 70% of silica in an amorphous form and a lot of applications is being developed for it all over the world. The use of silica as a filler in the tire industry is growing since it contributes significantly to the reduction of fuel consumption of the automobiles allowing at the same time better traction (safety). This paper presents an evaluation of the use of RHA as filler in rubber tread compounds prepared in lab scale and compares its performance with compounds prepared with commercial silica and carbon black the fillers normally used in tire industry. Mechanical and rheological properties are evaluated with emphasis for tan delta as an indicator of tread performance related with rolling resistance (fuel consumption) and wet grip/traction (safety).

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Controlling ettringite formation in FBC fly ash geopolymer concrete  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Fluidized bed coal combstion (FBC) is extensively used in small self-generation power plants. The fly ash obtained from this FBC process contains high quantity of calcium and sulfate compounds which hinders its use in the construction industry. In addition, its reactivity is low and additional source material or additive is, therefore, needed to increase the reaction. This research studied the use of Al(OH)3 and high concentrations of NaOH to control ettringite formation in the FBC fly ash geopolymer. Two replacement levels of 2.5 wt.% and 5.0 wt.% of Al(OH)3 and three NaOH concentrations of 10, 12 and 15 M were used in the study. Results indicated that the NaOH concentration affected the ettringite formation and strength of the FBC geopolymer. No ettringite was formed at high NaOH concentration of 15 M which helped the dissolution of calcium sulfate and formed the additional calcium hydroxide. The subsequent pozzolanic reaction led to strength gain of the geopolymer. For 15 M NaOH, the addition of 2.5 wt.% Al(OH)3 promoted the reaction and formed a dense matrix of alumino silicate compound. Relatively high 7-day compressive strength of 30 MPa was obtained.

Prinya Chindaprasirt; Siwanant Thaiwitcharoen; Supranee Kaewpirom; Ubolluk Rattanasak

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Ambient Airborne Solids Concentrations Including Volcanic Ash at Hanford, Washington Sampling Sites Subsequent to the Mount St. Helens Eruption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major eruption of Mount St. Helens occurred on May 18, 1980. Subsequently, airborne solid concentrations were measured as a function of time at two sites within the southern edge of the fallout plume about 211 km east of Mount St. Helens. This ash was a source for investigating area-wide resuspension. Rain had a variable effect on decreasing airborne concentrations from resuspension. From 0.5 to 1.5 cm of rain were required to significantly reduce airborne solid concentrations through July. For a more aged resuspension source in September, a rain of 2.0 cm had a negligible effect. A monthly average threshold-wind speed for resuspension was defined as 3.6 m/s. For monthly-average wind speeds less than the threshold wind speed, monthly-average airborne concentrations tended to decrease with time. A decrease was recorded between September and October. For this 4-month time period, the half-life was on the order of 50 days, corresponding to a weathering rate of 5.1 year/sup -1/.

Sehmel, G.A.

1982-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

384

Argonne CNM HighlightL Hard X-ray characterization of fly ash geopolymers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hard X-ray characterization of fly ash geopolymers Hard X-ray characterization of fly ash geopolymers Calcium Map Calcium map of an activated fly ash geopolymer displays regions of high calcium concentration (circled). Their distribution suggests localization as a discrete calcium-rich phase within the lower-calcium aluminosilicate geopolymer gel. Use of the Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe (HXN) has provided the first access to the nature of heterogeneity in real fly ash-derived geopolymers at the nanoscale. Direct evidence of the formation of discrete high-calcium nanometer-sized particles within a hydroxide-activated geopolymer synthesized from a low-calcium fly ash has been obtained using HXN fluorescence characterization. Additionally, the team of CNM users from the University of Melbourne, the Universidad del Valle of Colombia, and the

385

Influence of curing temperature on cement hydration and mechanical strength development of fly ash mortars  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The influence of fly ash and curing temperature on cement hydration and compressive strength development of mortars was investigated. Test parameters included type of fly ash (two different Class F fly ashes were tested), the level of cement replacement (10, 20 and 30% by mass), and curing temperature (20 C and 40 C). The mortar physical and microstructural properties were determined by means of thermal analyses, compressive strength measurements and SEM observations. Test results confirm that fly ash tends to increase significantly the rate of cement hydration at early age. Data also demonstrate that an elevation of the curing temperature reduces the long-term compressive strength of the reference mortar mixture. In contrast, an increase of the curing temperature seems to have no detrimental effect on the long-term compressive strength of the fly ash mixtures.

Maltais, Y.; Marchand, J. [Univ. Laval, Quebec (Canada). Centre de Recherche Interuniversitaire sur le Beton] [Univ. Laval, Quebec (Canada). Centre de Recherche Interuniversitaire sur le Beton

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin American Recovery and Reinvestment Act workers recently cleaned up a second basin containing coal ash residues from Cold War operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). About $24 million from the Recovery Act funded the environmental restoration project, allowing SRS to complete the project at least five years ahead of schedule. The work is part of a larger Recovery Act cleanup of the P Area scheduled for completion by the end of September 2011. Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin More Documents & Publications EIS-0220: Final Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0220: Final Environmental Impact Statement

387

Simulation of Coal Ash Particle Deposition Experiments (Copyright 2011, American Chemical Society)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Existing experimental ash particle deposition measurements from the literature have been simulated using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) discrete phase model (DPM) Lagrangian particle tracking method and an existing ash particle deposition model based on the Johnson?Kendall?Roberts (JKR) theory, in the Fluent commercial CFD code. The experimental heating tube was developed to simulate ash temperature histories in a gasifier; ash-heating temperatures ranged from 1873 to 1573 K, spanning the ash-melting temperature. The present simulations used the realizable k?? turbulence model to compute the gas flow field and the heat transfer to a cooled steel particle impact probe and DPM particle tracking for the particle trajectories and temperatures. A user-defined function (UDF) was developed to describe particle sticking/rebounding and particle detachment on the impinged wall surface. Expressions for the ash particle Young’s modulus in the model, E, versus the particle temperature and diameter were developed by fitting to the E values that were required to match the experimental ash sticking efficiencies from several particle size cuts and ash-heating temperatures for a Japanese bituminous coal. A UDF that implemented the developed stiffness parameter equations was then used to predict the particle sticking efficiency, impact efficiency, and capture efficiency for the entire ash-heating temperature range. Frequency histogram comparisons of adhesion and rebound behavior by particle size between model and experiments showed good agreement for each of the four ash-heating temperatures. However, to apply the present particle deposition model to other coals, a similar validation process would be necessary to develop the effective Young’s modulus versus the particle diameter and temperature correlation for each new coal.

Ai, Weiguo; Kuhlman, John M

2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

388

Feasible experimental study on the utilization of a 300 MW CFB boiler desulfurizating bottom ash for construction applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CFB boiler ash cannot be used as a cement replacement in concrete due to its unacceptably high sulfur content. The disposal in landfills has been the most common means of handling ash in circulating fluidized bed boiler power plants. However for a 300 MW CFB boiler power plant, there will be 600,000 tons of ash discharged per year and will result in great volumes and disposal cost of ash byproduct. It was very necessary to solve the utilization of CFB ash and to decrease the disposal cost of CFB ash. The feasible experimental study results on the utilization of the bottom ashes of a 300 MW CFB boiler in Baima power plant in China were reported in this paper. The bottom ashes used for test came from the discharged bottom ashes in a 100 MW CFB boiler in which the anthracite and limestone designed for the 300 MW CFB project was burned. The results of this study showed that the bottom ash could be used for cementitious material, road concrete, and road base material. The masonry cements, road concrete with 30 MPa compressive strength and 4.0 MPa flexural strength, and the road base material used for base courses of the expressway, the main road and the minor lane were all prepared with milled CFB bottom ashes in the lab. The better methods of utilization of the bottom ashes were discussed in this paper.

Lu, X.F.; Amano, R.S. [University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Maternal Transfer of Contaminants to Eggs in Common Grackles (Quiscalus quiscala) Nesting on Coal Fly Ash Basins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

common grackles (Quiscalus quis- cala) nesting in association with coal fly ash settling basins be warranted. The disposal of slurried coal combustion waste (hereafter, ash) into open settling impoundments grackles (Quiscalus quiscala) nesting at coal ash settling basins for trace elements to determine

Hopkins, William A.

390

Coal ash as an absorbent to remove SO2, and its activity change in NO?NH3 reaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

After being activated with NaOH aqueous solution, coal ash showed a maximal sorption capacity of about...3 SO2/g ash. Catalytic activity of coal ash for the NO?NH3 reaction was gradually depressed by the presence...

F. Nozaki; O. Watanabe; T. Sodesawa

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Use of fly ash as an admixture for electromagnetic interference shielding Jingyao Cao, D.D.L. Chung*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Use of fly ash as an admixture for electromagnetic interference shielding Jingyao Cao, D.D.L. Chung The use of fly ash as an admixture results in enhancement of the electromagnetic interference (EMI of fly ash as an admixture for enhancing the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding. EMI shielding

Chung, Deborah D.L.

392

Journal of Hazardous Materials B132 (2006) 244252 Zeolite synthesis from paper sludge ash at low temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Journal of Hazardous Materials B132 (2006) 244­252 Zeolite synthesis from paper sludge ash at low 2005 Available online 4 November 2005 Abstract Paper sludge ash was partially converted into zeolites by reaction with 3 M NaOH solution at 90 C for 24 h. The paper sludge ash had a low abundance of Si

Downs, Robert T.

393

Smoking Status and Occupational Exposure Affects Oxidative DNA Injury in Boilermakers Exposed to Metal Fume and Residual Oil Fly Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...sensitization by residual oil fly ash particles...composition of residual oil fly ash determines...coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry...particulate-mediated cytokine production in lung epithelial...et al. Residual oil fly ash induces cytotoxicity...probably through cumulative oxidative DNA damage...

Sutapa Mukherjee; Lyle J. Palmer; Jee Young Kim; David B. Aeschliman; Robert S. Houk; Mark A. Woodin; and David C. Christiani

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #310: March 8, 2004 Average Material  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

0: March 8, 2004 0: March 8, 2004 Average Material Consumption for a Domestic Automobile to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #310: March 8, 2004 Average Material Consumption for a Domestic Automobile on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #310: March 8, 2004 Average Material Consumption for a Domestic Automobile on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #310: March 8, 2004 Average Material Consumption for a Domestic Automobile on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #310: March 8, 2004 Average Material Consumption for a Domestic Automobile on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #310: March 8, 2004 Average Material Consumption for a Domestic Automobile on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #310:

395

Average Interest Rate for Treasury Securities | Data.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Average Interest Rate for Treasury Securities Average Interest Rate for Treasury Securities Consumer Data Apps Challenges Resources About Blogs Let's Talk Feedback Consumer You are here Data.gov » Communities » Consumer » Data Average Interest Rate for Treasury Securities Dataset Summary Description This dataset shows the average interest rates for U.S Treasury securities for the most recent month compared with the same month of the previous year. The data is broken down by the various marketable and non-marketable securities. The summary page for the data provides links for monthly reports from 2001 through the current year. Average Interest Rates are calculated on the total unmatured interest-bearing debt. The average interest rates for total marketable, total non-marketable and total interest-bearing debt do not include the U.S. Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities.

396

Evaluating the Effects of the Kingston Fly Ash Release on Fish Reproduction: Spring 2009 - 2010 Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On December 22, 2008, a dike containing fly ash and bottom ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee failed and released a large quantity of ash into the adjacent Emory River. Ash deposits from the spill extended 4 miles upstream of the facility to Emory River mile 6 and downstream to Tennessee River mile 564 ({approx}8.5 miles downstream of the confluence of the Emory River with the Clinch River, and {approx}4 miles downstream of the confluence of the Clinch River with the Tennessee River). A byproduct of coal combustion, fly ash contains a variety of metals and other elements which, at sufficient concentrations and in specific forms, can be harmful to biological systems. The ecological effects of fly ash contamination on exposed fish populations depend on the magnitude and duration of exposure, with the most significant risk considered to come from elevated levels of certain metals in the ash, particularly selenium, on fish reproduction and fish early life stages (Lemly 1993; Besser and others 1996). The ovaries of adult female fish in a lake contaminated by coal ash were reported to have an increased frequency of atretic oocytes (dead or damaged immature eggs) and reductions in the overall numbers of developing oocytes (Sorensen 1988) associated with elevated body burdens of selenium. Larval fish exposed to selenium through maternal transfer of contaminants to developing eggs in either contaminated bodies of water (Lemly 1999) or in experimental laboratory exposures (Woock and others 1987, Jezierska and others 2009) have significantly increased incidences of developmental abnormalities. Contact of fertilized eggs and developing embryos to ash in water and sediments may also pose an additional risk to the early life stages of exposed fish populations through direct uptake of metals and other ash constituents (Jezierska and others 2009). The establishment and maintenance of fish populations is intimately associated with the ability of individuals within a population to reproduce. Reproduction is thus generally considered to be the most critical life function affected by environmental contamination. From a regulatory perspective, the issue of potential contaminant-related effects on fish reproduction from the Kingston fly ash spill has particular significance because the growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life is a specific classified use of the affected river systems. To address the potential effects of fly ash from the Kingston spill on the reproductive health of exposed fish populations, ORNL has undertaken a series of studies in collaboration with TVA that include: (1) a combined field study of metal bioaccumulation in ovaries and other fish tissues (Adams and others 2012) and the reproductive condition of sentinel fish species in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers affected by the fly ash spill (the current report); (2) laboratory tests of the potential toxicity of fly ash from the spill area on fish embryonic and larval development (Greeley and others 2012); (3) additional laboratory experimentation focused on the potential effects of long-term exposures to fly ash on fish survival and reproductive competence (unpublished); and (4) a combined field and laboratory study examining the in vitro developmental success of embryos and larvae obtained from fish exposed in vivo for over two years to fly ash in the Emory and Clinch Rivers (unpublished). The current report focuses on the reproductive condition of adult female fish in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers influenced by the fly ash spill at the beginning of the spring 2009 breeding season - the first breeding season immediately following the fly ash release - and during the subsequent spring 2010 breeding season. Data generated from this and related reproductive/early life stage studies provide direct input to ecological risk assessment efforts and complement and support other phases of the overall biomonitoring program associated with the fly ash spill.

Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Adams, Marshall [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Facebook icon Twitter icon Home Organizations DLR - Deutsches Zentrum fr ... Solar: monthly and annual ... Dataset Activity Stream Solar: monthly and annual average...

398

,"Selected National Average Natural Gas Prices"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Selected National Average Natural Gas Prices" Selected National Average Natural Gas Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Average Natural Gas Prices",11,"Monthly","11/2013","1/15/1973" ,"Data 2","Annual Average Natural Gas Prices",11,"Annual",2012,"6/30/1922" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","ngm03vmall.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/oil_gas/natural_gas/data_publications/natural_gas_monthly/ngm.html"

399

JV Task 120 - Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium{reg_sign} (CARRC{reg_sign}, pronounced 'cars') is the core coal combustion product (CCP) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCPs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCP utilization and ensuring its successful application. The U.S. Department of Energy is a partner in CARRC through the EERC Jointly Sponsored Research Program, which provides matching funds for industrial member contributions and facilitates an increased level of effort in CARRC. CARRC tasks were designed to provide information on CCP performance, including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC technical research tasks are developed based on member input and prioritization. CARRC special projects are developed with members and nonmembers to provide similar information and to support activities, including the assembly and interpretation of data, support for standards development and technology transfer, and facilitating product development and testing. CARRC activities from 2007 to 2009 included a range of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCPs. The tasks were included in four categories: (1) Environmental Evaluations of CCPs; (2) Evaluation of Impacts on CCPs from Emission Controls; (3) Construction and Product-Related Activities; and (4) Technology Transfer and Maintenance Tasks. All tasks are designed to work toward achieving the CARRC overall goal and supporting objectives. The various tasks are coordinated in order to provide broad and useful technical data for CARRC members. Special projects provide an opportunity for non-CARRC members to sponsor specific research or technology transfer consistent with CARRC goals. This report covers CARRC activities from January 2007 through March 2009. These activities have been reported in CARRC Annual Reports and in member meetings over the past 2 years. CARRC continues to work with industry and various government agencies with its research, development, demonstration, and promotional activities nearing completion at the time of submission of this report. CARRC expects to continue its service to the coal ash industry in 2009 and beyond to work toward the common goal of advancing coal ash utilization by solving CCP-related technical issues and promoting the environmentally safe, technically sound, and economically viable management of these complex and changing materials.

Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Loreal Heebink; David Hassett; Bruce Dockter; Kurt Eylands; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher

2009-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

400

Growth and elemental accumulation of plants grown in acidic soil amended with coal fly ash-sewage sludge co-compost  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth and heavy-metal accumulation of Brassica chinensis and Agropyron elongatum in 10 and 25% ash-sludge co-compost (ASC)-amended loamy acidic soil (pH 4.51) at two different application rates: 20% and 40% (v/v). Soil pH increased, whereas electrical conductivity decreased with the amendment of ASC to soil. Bioavailable Cu, Zn, and Mn contents of ASC-amended soil decreased, whereas Ni, Pb, and B contents increased. Concentrations of bioavailable Cu, Zn, and Mn in sludge compost (SC)-amended soils were 5.57, 20.8, and 8.19 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. These concentrations were significantly lower than those in soil receiving an application rate of 20 or 25% ASC as 2.64, 8.48, and 5.26 mg kg(-1), respectively. Heavy metals and B contents of the composting mass significantly increased with an increase in ASC application rate from 20 to 40% (6.2 to 16.6 mg kg{sup -1} for 10% ASC- and 9.4 to 18.6 mg kg{sup -1} for 25% ASC-amended soil. However, when the ash content in co-compost increased from 10 to 25% during composting, bioavailable heavy-metal contents decreased. However, B contents increased with an increase in ash content. Addition of co-composts increased the dry-weight yield of the plants, and this increase was more obvious as the ash amendment rate in the co-composts and the ASC application rate increased. In case of B. chinensis, the biomass of 2.84 g/plant for 40% application of 25% ASC was significantly higher than SC (0.352 g/plant), which was 40% application of 10% ASC (0.434 g/plant) treatments. However, in A. elongatum, the differences between biomass of plants grown with 10% (1.34-1.94 g/ plant) and 25% ASC (2.12-2.21 g/plant) were not significantly different. ASC was favorable in increasing the growth of B. chinensis and A. elongatum. The optimal ash amendment to the sludge composting and ASC application rates were at 25 and 20%, respectively.

Wong, J.W.C.; Selvam, A. [Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "weight average ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Apparatus and method for direct measurement of coal ash sintering and fusion properties at elevated temperatures and pressures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-pressure microdilatometer is provided for measuring the sintering and fusion properties of various coal ashes under the influence of elevated pressures and temperatures in various atmospheres. Electrical resistivity measurements across a sample of coal ash provide a measurement of the onset of the sintering and fusion of the ash particulates while the contraction of the sample during sintering is measured with a linear variable displacement transducer for detecting the initiation of sintering. These measurements of sintering in coal ash at different pressures provide a mechanism by which deleterious problems due to the sintering and fusion of ash in various combustion systems can be minimized or obviated.

Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Methods for Characterization of Composition of Fly Ashes from Coal-Fired Power Stations:? A Critical Overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

HTA and LTA are laboratory-produced coal ashes that are originated at (i) regulated temperatures, commonly at 500?815 °C in air (after the spontaneous coal combustion), and (ii) oxygen plasma ashing (normally at 150?200 °C), respectively. ... The wet disposal of ash, from the coal-fired thermal power plants, involves its mixing with water and its impoundment in the ash ponds or lagoons. ... The fabric, mineralogy, and chem. of high-calcium ash deposits from the Agios Dimitrios pulverized-lignite power plant in northern Greece were investigated as a key to the ability to improve the performance of the power plant. ...

Stanislav V. Vassilev; Christina G. Vassileva

2005-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

403

Geopolymer concretes: a green construction technology rising from the ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers at Louisiana Tech University have embarked on a multi-year research initiative to develop applications for inorganic polymer concrete, or geopolymer concrete, in the area of civil construction, and to bring solve of these applications to market. One objective was to produce a spray-on coating for use in the harsh environment of wastewater conveyance and treatment facilities. Another project is to establish relationships between fly ash composition and particle size distribution and the mechanical attributes and workability of the resulting geopolymer concrete. A third project is to develop a 'smart' geopolymer concrete whose response to a given electric current can be correlated to the stress level to which the structure is subjected. 1 fig., 6 photos.

Allouche, E. [Louisiana Tech University, LA (United States)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee has identified radioactive contaminants that could interfere with the safe reuse of sewage sludge. The study found that typical levels of radioactive materials in most municipal sewage sludge and incinerator ash do not present a health hazard to sewage treatment plant workers or to the general public. The inter-agency committee has developed recommendations for operators of sewage treatment plants for evaluating measured or estimated levels of radioactive material in sewage sludge and for determining whether actions to reduce potential exposures are appropriate.

Bachmaier, J. T.; Aiello, K.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J.-J.; Chiu, W. A.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhart, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A. B.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Yu, C.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Environmental Science Division; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. EPA; N.J. Dept of Environmental Protection; NRC

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

INVESTIGATION OF FLY ASH AND ACTIVATED CARBON OBTAINED FROM PULVERIZED COAL BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addresses the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addresses the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project is determining the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed are also being determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control, are being analyzed to determine the effect of SCR on the ash.

Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Hydrothermal treatment of MSWI bottom ash forming acid-resistant material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To recycle municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash, synthesis of hydrothermal minerals from bottom ash was performed to stabilize heavy metals. MSWI bottom ash was mixed with SiO{sub 2}, Al(OH){sub 3}, and Mg(OH){sub 2} so its chemical composition was similar to that of hydrothermal clay minerals. These solid specimens were mixed with water at a liquid/solid ratio of 5. The reaction temperature was 200 deg. C, and reactions were performed for 24-240 h. Generation of kaolinite/smectite mixed-layer clay mineral was found in the samples after the reaction of the mixture of bottom ash, SiO{sub 2}, and Mg(OH){sub 2}. Calcium silicate hydrate minerals such as tobermorite and xonotlite were also generated. X-ray powder diffraction suggested the presence of amorphous materials. Leaching tests at various pHs revealed that the concentration of heavy metals in the leachates from MSWI bottom ash hydrothermally treated with SiO{sub 2} and Mg(OH){sub 2} was lower than that in leachates from non-treated bottom ash, especially under acid conditions. Hydrothermal treatment with modification of chemical composition may have potential for the recycling of MSWI bottom ash.

Etoh, Jiro [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)], E-mail: etoh@doc.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Kawagoe, Takeshi [Department of Earth System Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Shimaoka, Takayuki [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Watanabe, Koichiro [Department of Earth System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

407

Regeneratively cooled coal combustor/gasifier with integral dry ash removal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A coal combustor/gasifier is disclosed which produces a low or medium combustion gas for further combustion in modified oil or gas fired furnaces or boilers. Two concentric shells define a combustion volume within the inner shell and a plenum between them through which combustion air flows to provide regenerative cooling of the inner shell for dry ash operation. A fuel flow and a combustion air flow having opposed swirls are mixed and burned in a mixing-combustion portion of the combustion volume and the ash laden combustion products flow with a residual swirl into an ash separation region. The ash is cooled below the fusion temperature and is moved to the wall by centrifugal force where it is entrained in the cool wall boundary layer. The boundary layer is stabilized against ash re-entrainment as it is moved to an ash removal annulus by a flow of air from the plenum through slots in the inner shell, and by suction on an ash removal skimmer slot.

Beaufrere, Albert H. (Huntington, NY)

1983-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

408

Assessment of the effect of high ash content in pulverized coal combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The existing literature on CFD-based coal combustion modelling is applicable mainly for coals of low ash content and the calculations are done on an ash-free basis. In Indian coals, the ash content may be significantly higher, up to 40% or more. Studies reported in the literature show that the mineral matter in the coal may have a number of effects on the combustion characteristics. In the present study, a sensitivity analysis is performed, using the CFD code CFX of AEA Technology, on the likely effect of ash content on the char reactivity, oxygen diffusion rate for char combustion and on the radiative heat transfer parameters. The results show that the effect of enhanced char reactivity is negligible whereas reduced oxygen diffusion rates due to a thicker ash layer may result in a significant reduction in char oxidation rates with a resultant decrease in the peak temperature in the furnace. The global parameters such as the peak temperature and the flue gas temperature remain relatively insensitive to the presence of high ash content. These results are consistent with the experimental observations of Kurose et al. . Kurose, M. Ikeda, H. Makino, Combustion characteristics of high ash coal in pulverized coal combustion, J. Fuel 80 (2001) 1447-1455).

Jayanti, S.; Maheswaran, K.; Saravanan, V. [Indian Institute of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

409

Assessing determinants of industrial waste reuse: The case of coal ash in the United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Devising effective strategies to facilitate waste reuse depends on the solid understanding of reuse behaviors. However, previous studies of reuse behavior have been limited in scope, focusing mostly on household recycling behaviors or very limited types of industrial wastes. To gain a better understanding of the business reuse behaviors, this study examined the impact of various factors in technical, economic, regulatory, and behavioral categories in the case of coal ash generated in the United States. The results of fixed effect models for fly ash and bottom ash particularly showed the significance role of the behavioral factor. In both models, a proxy variable, which represents knowledge sharing among the power plants or the utility's decision-making, turned out to be statistically significant and had the largest coefficient estimates among a group of variables. This finding may imply that the characteristics of waste reuse behavior are determined more by business decision-making behaviors than by market or institutional factors. However, the role of the behavioral variable was stronger in the bottom ash models than in the fly ash models. While the reuse of bottom ash was determined primarily by the behavioral variable, fly ash reuse was determined by more diverse factors including economic and regulatory variables. This could be explained by material characteristics in relation to competing resources and the nature of reuse applications.

Joo Young Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Ash content prediction of coarse coal by image analysis and GA-SVM  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Ash content is one of the most important indexes of coal quality, and fast prediction of ash content is urgent and important for coal processing industry. The aim of this paper is to propose a method of ash content prediction of coarse coal by the use of image analysis and GA-SVM. Coal particles on the surface were randomly selected to measure the ash content, and a semi-automatic local-segmentation algorithm was proposed to identify the corresponding coal particle regions. Thirty-eight features were extracted, and selected by GA. Ash content prediction model was established by SVM, and K-CV method is used to determine the hyper-parameters (c, g) of SVM. RMSE and R-square were used to measure the prediction effects of ash content. Results indicated that the prediction effects of narrow size fractions are better than wide size fraction, and larger size fraction is more accurate than smaller size fraction in ash content prediction.

Zelin Zhang; Jianguo Yang; Yuling Wang; Dongyang Dou; Wencheng Xia

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Characterization of fly ashes from circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boilers cofiring coal and petroleum coke  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemistry, mineralogy, morphology, and particle size distribution were investigated in fly ashes from the burning of Datong (ShanXi, China) bituminous coal and the cofiring of Mideast high-sulfur petroleum coke (PC) with 30:70 (cal %) and 50:50 (cal %) blends of Datong bituminous coal in two commercial CFBC boilers. With the exception of CaO, the amounts of major oxides in the fly ashes from cofiring PC and coal were close to those of the common coal fly ashes. The PC-coal fly ashes were enriched in Ni, V, and Mo, implying these trace elements were mainly derived from PC. Ni and V, along with several other elements, such as Cr, Cu, Se, Pb, U, Th, and possibly As and Cd, increased in content with a decrease in temperature of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The results of chemistry, mineralogy, and morphology studies suggested that the desulfurization rate of the CFBC boilers at current conditions was low, and the PC tends to coarsen the fly ash particles and increase the loss on ignition (LOI) values, making these fly ashes unsuitable for use as a cement additive or a mineral admixture in concrete. Further studies on the combustion status of the CFBC boilers are needed if we want to be able to increase the desulfurization rate and produce high-quality fly ashes for broader and full utilization. 22 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Feihu Li; Jianping Zhai; Xiaoru Fu; Guanghong Sheng [Nanjing University, Nanjing (China). State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resource Reuse, School of the Environment

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

412

Higher-order averaging, formal series and numerical integration II  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

systems of ordinary differential equations with d 1 non- resonant constant frequencies. Formal series frequency and four resonant fast frequencies. Keywords and sentences: Averaging, high-order averaging, quasi Schumann, 35170 Bruz, France. Email: Philippe.Chartier@inria.fr Konputazio Zientziak eta A. A. Saila

Murua, Ander

413

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global horizontal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

East Asia from NREL East Asia from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

414

Do Diurnal Aerosol Changes Affect Daily Average Radiative Forcing?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Strong diurnal variability of aerosol has been observed frequently for many urban/industrial regions. How this variability may alter the direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF), however, is largely unknown. To quantify changes in the time-averaged DARF, we perform an assessment of 29 days of high temporal resolution ground-based data collected during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) on Cape Cod, which is downwind of metropolitan areas. We demonstrate that strong diurnal changes of aerosol loading (about 20% on average) have a negligible impact on the 24-h average DARF, when daily averaged optical properties are used to find this quantity. However, when there is a sparse temporal sampling of aerosol properties, which may preclude the calculation of daily averaged optical properties, large errors (up to 100%) in the computed DARF may occur. We describe a simple way of reducing these errors, which suggests the minimal temporal sampling needed to accurately find the forcing.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Lantz, K.; Hodges, G. B.

2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

415

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global horizontal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Africa from NREL Africa from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

416

The use of PFBC ashes to ameliorate acid conditions: An equilibrium and greenhouse study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pilot-scale development at the Foster Wheeler Energia Oy 10 MW{sub th} circulating PFBC at Karhula, Finland, has demonstrated the advantages of pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) technology. Commercial scale deployment of the technology at the Lakeland Utilities MacIntosh Unit No. 4 has been proposed. Development of uses for the ashes from PFBC systems is being actively pursued as part of commercial demonstration of PFBC technologies. Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with the US Department of Energy (DOE), Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), Foster Wheeler Energy International, Inc., and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), conducted a laboratory scale investigation of the technical feasibility of PFBC ash as an amendment for acidic soils and spoils encountered in agricultural and reclamation applications. Ashes were collected from the Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, operating on (1) low-sulfur subbituminous and (2) high-sulfur bituminous coals. The results of the technical feasibility testing indicated the following: (1) PFBC fly ash (Karhula-low S fly ash) and ag-lime (CaCO{sub 3}) were used as amendments attempting to ameliorate acid spoil conditions. These materials were found to be effective acid mine spoil amendments. (2) The greenhouse study demonstrated that PFBC ash and/or bed ash amended spoils resulted in similar seed germination numbers as compared to the ag-lime amended spoils. (3) The greenhouse study also demonstrated that PFBC fly ash and/or bed ash amended spoils resulted in comparable plant productivity to the ag-lime amended spoils. In fact, all amendments resulted in statistically the same levels of plant production for each plant species.

Brown, T.H.; Bland, A.E.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Averaged dynamics of ultra-relativisitc charged particles beams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, we consider the suitability of using the charged cold fluid model in the description of ultra-relativistic beams. The method that we have used is the following. Firstly, the necessary notions of kinetic theory and differential geometry of second order differential equations are explained. Then an averaging procedure is applied to a connection associated with the Lorentz force equation. The result of this averaging is an affine connection on the space-time manifold. The corresponding geodesic equation defines the averaged Lorentz force equation. We prove that for ultra-relativistic beams described by narrow distribution functions, the solutions of both equations are similar. This fact justifies the replacement of the Lorentz force equation by the simpler {\\it averaged Lorentz force equation}. After this, for each of these models we associate the corresponding kinetic model, which are based on the Vlasov equation and {\\it averaged Vlasov equation} respectively. The averaged Vlasov equation is simpler than the original Vlasov equation. This fact allows us to prove that the differential operation defining the averaged charged cold fluid equation is controlled by the {\\it diameter of the distribution function}, by powers of the {\\it energy of the beam} and by the time of evolution $t$. We show that the Vlasov equation and the averaged Vlasov equation have similar solutions, when the initial conditions are the same. Finally, as an application of the {\\it averaged Lorentz force equation} we re-derive the beam dynamics formalism used in accelerator physics from the Jacobi equation of the averaged Lorentz force equation.

Ricardo Gallego Torromé

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

418

Conversion of Fly Ash into Mesoporous Aluminosilicate Hsiao-Lan Chang, Chang-Min Chun, Ilhan A. Aksay, and Wei-Heng Shih*,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and aluminum sources. Fly ash, which is a byproduct of coal burning, contains mostly aluminosilicates. Recently, several authors have studied the conversion of fly ash into zeolites.5-7 Shige- moto et al.8 increased the yield of zeolites by first fusing the fly ash with NaOH. The reaction of fly ash with NaOH produced

Aksay, Ilhan A.

419

Study on ash deposition under oxyfuel combustion of coal/biomass blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Combustion in an O2/CO2 mixture (oxyfuel) has been recognized as a promising technology for CO2 capture as it produces a high CO2 concentration flue gas. Furthermore, biofuels in general contribute to CO2 reduction in comparison with fossil fuels as they are considered CO2 neutral. Ash formation and deposition (surface fouling) behavior of coal/biomass blends under O2/CO2 combustion conditions is still not extensively studied. Aim of this work is the comparative study of ash formation and deposition of selected coal/biomass blends under oxyfuel and air conditions in a lab scale pulverized coal combustor (drop tube). The fuels used were Russian and South African coals and their blends with Shea meal (cocoa). A horizontal deposition probe, equipped with thermocouples and heat transfer sensors for on line data acquisition, was placed at a fixed distance from the burner in order to simulate the ash deposition on heat transfer surfaces (e.g. water or steam tubes). Furthermore, a cascade impactor (staged filter) was used to obtain size distributed ash samples including the submicron range at the reactor exit. The deposition ratio and propensity measured for the various experimental conditions were higher in all oxyfuel cases. The SEM/EDS and ICP analyses of the deposit and cascade impactor ash samples indicate K interactions with the alumina silicates and to a smaller extend with Cl, which was all released in the gas phase, in both the oxyfuel and air combustion samples. Sulfur was depleted in both the air or oxyfuel ash deposits. S and K enrichment was detected in the fine ash stages, slightly increased under air combustion conditions. Chemical equilibrium calculations were carried out to facilitate the interpretation of the measured data; the results indicate that temperature dependence and fuels/blends ash composition are the major factors affecting gaseous compounds and ash composition rather than the combustion environment, which seems to affect the fine ash (submicron) ash composition, and the ash deposition mechanisms.

L. Fryda; C. Sobrino; M. Cieplik; W.L. van de Kamp

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Crystallization of Coal Ash Slags at High Temperatures and Effects on the Viscosity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The coal samples were ashed in a muffle furnace at 815 °C, according to the Chinese Standard GB/T1574-2007. ... Shenfu and Beisu coals are enriched in glass modifying oxides (CaO + Fe2O3 + MgO > 30%), while the contents of Al2O3 in Baodian coal ash is higher than 30%; therefore, they exhibit the crystalline slag behavior. ... compn. of coals and coal ashes from a wide variety of deposits (41) were studied by a melting test, x-ray diffractometry, light microscopy, differential-thermal, thermogravimetric and chem. ...

Haiping Yuan; Qinfeng Liang; Xin Gong

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "weight average ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Risk Ranking of Bioaccessible Metals from Fly Ash Dissolved in Simulated Lung and Gut Fluids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Power plant fly ash from two fuels, coal and a mixture of coal and shredded tires, were evaluated for trace metal solubility in simulated human lung and gut fluids (SLF and SGF, respectively) to estimate bioaccessibility. ... The proportion of bioaccessible to total metal ranged from zero (V) to 80% (Zn) for coal-derived ash in SLF and from 2 (Th) to 100% (Cu) for tire-derived fly ash in SGF. ... On dissolution in SLF, the most limiting metals were Pb, Cu, and Zn. ...

John Twining; Peter McGlinn; Elaine Loi; Kath Smith; Reto Gieré

2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

422

Measurement of average resistance in underwater breathing apparatus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Underwater Breathing Apparatus (UBA) have long been characterized by the mechanical work done on them during simulated breathing. For 20 years, the work of breathing has been divided by tidal volume to yield what is properly considered a volume-averaged pressure. The authors assert that when volume-averaged pressure is divided by a factor proportional to ventilation, the result is a measure of flow resistance averaged over an entire breath. This point is illustrated with both theoretical and actual pressure-volume and pressure-flow curves for a MK 16 closed-circuit UBA.

Clarke, J.R. [Navy Experimental Diving Unit, Panama City, FL (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Time average vibration fringe analysis using Hilbert transformation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quantitative phase information from a single interferogram can be obtained using the Hilbert transform (HT). We have applied the HT method for quantitative evaluation of Bessel fringes obtained in time average TV holography. The method requires only one fringe pattern for the extraction of vibration amplitude and reduces the complexity in quantifying the data experienced in the time average reference bias modulation method, which uses multiple fringe frames. The technique is demonstrated for the measurement of out-of-plane vibration amplitude on a small scale specimen using a time average microscopic TV holography system.

Kumar, Upputuri Paul; Mohan, Nandigana Krishna; Kothiyal, Mahendra Prasad

2010-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

424

annual average heating degree days | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

average heating degree days average heating degree days Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Heating Degree Days below 18° C (degree days)The monthly accumulation of degrees when the daily mean temperature is below 18° C.NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly Average & Annual Sum (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Heating Degree Days Below 18 degrees C (degree days)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/ Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated April 01st, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords annual average heating degree days climate GIS NASA SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 2.7 MiB)

425

Averaging Spacetime: Where do we go from here?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The construction of an averaged theory of gravity based on Einstein's General Relativity is very difficult due to the non-linear nature of the gravitational field equations. This problem is further exacerbated by the difficulty in defining a mathematically precise covariant averaging procedure for tensor fields over differentiable manifolds. Together, these two ideas have been called the averaging problem for General Relativity. In the first part of the talk, an attempt to review some the various approaches to this problem will be given, highlighting strengths, weaknesses, and commonalities between them. In the second part of the talk, an argument will be made, that if one wishes to develop a well-defined averaging procedure, one may choose to parallel transport along geodesics with respect to the Levi-Cevita connection or, use the Weitzenb\\"ock connection and ensure the transportation is independent of path. The talk concludes with some open questions to generate further discussion.

R. J. van den Hoogen

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

426

U.S. average gasoline price up slightly  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

average retail price for regular gasoline rose slightly to 3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's up a tenth of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S....

427

Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Federal Highway Administration studies traffic volume and flow on major truck routes by tracking more than 500,000 trucks. The average speed of trucks on selected interstate highways is between...

428

Abstract Interpretation for Worst and Average Case Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy usage whilst bounding the average number of requests waiting to be served. PRISM is used phase extracts a control flow graph ­ for some classes of language this may already involve an abstract

Di Pierro, Alessandra

429

Table 17. Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing U.S. Mines by Mine Production Range and Mine Type, 2012 (million short tons) U.S. Energy Information...

430

2.8-Ma Ash-Flow Caldera At Chegem River In The Northern Caucasus Mountains  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2.8-Ma Ash-Flow Caldera At Chegem River In The Northern Caucasus Mountains 2.8-Ma Ash-Flow Caldera At Chegem River In The Northern Caucasus Mountains (Russia), Contemporaneous Granites, And Associated Ore Deposits Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: 2.8-Ma Ash-Flow Caldera At Chegem River In The Northern Caucasus Mountains (Russia), Contemporaneous Granites, And Associated Ore Deposits Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: Diverse latest Pliocene volcanic and plutonic rocks in the north-central Caucasus Mountains of southern Russia are newly interpreted as components of a large caldera system that erupted a compositionally zoned rhyolite-dacite ash-flow sheet at 2.83 ± 0.02 Ma (sanidine and biotite 40Ar/39Ar). Despite its location within a cratonic collision zone, the Chegem system is structurally and petrologically similar to typical

431

Hunt's Ash Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hunt's Ash Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Hunt's Ash Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hunt's Ash Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Hunt's Ash Springs Sector Geothermal energy Type Pool and Spa Location Hiko, Nevada Coordinates Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

432

Calculating the higher heat of coal combustion in the wet ash-free state  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Analysis of the coal concentrates used in the Ukrainian coke industry yields a mathematical formula for predicting the higher heat of coal combustion in the wet ash-free state on the basis of the coal’s charac...

D. V. Miroshnichenko; Ya. S. Balaeva

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Rapid Analysis of PAHs in Fly Ash Using Thermal Desorption and Fast GC-TOF-MS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Department of Chemistry, Western...of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology...Carbon chemistry Coal Ash Gas Chromatography-Mass...incomplete combustion of organic...Department of Chemistry, Western...of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology......

Daozhong Zou; Kunlei Liu; Wei-Ping Pan; John T. Riley; Yiqan Xu

434

Experimental Study on Heat Transfer in a Rolling Ash Cooler used in the CFB Boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

From the view of the reliability and the techno-economy, the rolling ash cooler is feasible for the large-scale CFB boilers. However, existing studies on heat...

W. Wang; J. J. Li; S. Yang; X. D. Si…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Synthesis of CFB-Coal Fly Ash Clay Bricks and Their Characterisation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this work was to test CFB-derived fly ash for its potential to ... . Results showed that large-scale production of CFB FA-containing bricks is feasible, as their...

Nikolaos Koukouzas; Chrisovalantis Ketikidis…

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Evaluation of environmental pollution and possible management options of heavy oil fly ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Due to the presence of toxic metals, dumping of heavy oil fly ash (HOFA) is causing ever-growing environmental problem including the pollution of air, water and soil. The present study investigates the possibl...

Abdullah Mofarrah; Tahir Husain

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Optimizing Cr(VI) adsorption on activated carbon produced from heavy oil fly ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to explore the beneficial utilization of heavy oil fly ash (HOFA) generated in the power plants, the present study is intended to optimize the chromium(VI) [Cr(VI)] adsorption on activated carbon prod...

Abdullah Mofarrah; Tahir Husain; Bing Chen

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Use of Heavy Oil Fly Ash as a Color Ingredient in Cement Mortar  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Heavy oil fly ash (HOFA) is a byproduct generated by the burning of heavy fuel oil. Chemical analysis showed that HOFA is mainly composed of unburned carbon with a significant amount of heavy metals. Due to to...

Abdullah Mofarrah; Tahir Husain

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Using oil shale ash waste as a modifier for asphalt binders  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oil shale rocks represent one of the most available ... Jordan land contains about 50 billion tons of oil shale, which makes Jordan the third in the ... world of the reserve of this material. Oil shale ash is a b...

Khalid Ghuzlan; Ghazi Al-Khateeb…

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash fiber fundamental Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5 Composite Interfaces 18 (2011) 169184 brill.nlci Summary: Fiber-Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete with Fly Ash Osman Gencel a,b , Witold Brostow b, , Tea... . Important for...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "weight average ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash-silica fume pastes Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

; Engineering 100 By-Products Utilization Summary: of Recycled Aggregates in Self-Compacting4 Concrete", Fly Ash, Silica Fume, Slag and Natural Pozzolans... (0.00028 in.). For...

442

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash alter innate Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Ecology 4 By-Products Utilization Summary: not meet ASTM C 618 requirements for coal fly ash for use as mineral admixture in concrete, and one source... of variable carbon fly...

443

Sewage sludge ash as an alternative low-cost oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, novel low-cost oxygen carriers containing Fe2O3 are evaluated for use in chemical looping combustion. Sewage sludge ashes and reference samples were...2...) fuel and a solid fuel (hard coal) were t...

Ewelina Ksepko

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Experimental Options for Determining the Temperature for the Onset of Sintering of Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a comparison of techniques that can be used to obtain the sintering temperature of coal ash. These techniques are thermal conductivity analysis (TCA), thermomechanical analysis (TMA), the compressive strength test (CS), and a proposed ...

A. Y. Al-Otoom; G. W. Bryant; L. K. Elliott; B. J. Skrifvars; M. Hupa; T. F. Wall

1999-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

445

Production of low ash coal by thermal extraction with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Present study was conducted for the purpose of producing low ash coal from LRC (low rank coals) such as lignite and sub-bituminous coal through thermal extraction using polar solvent. Extraction from bituminous coal

Sang Do Kim; Kwang Jae Woo; Soon Kwan Jeong…

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Attrition of coal ash particles in a fluidized-bed reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental data of ash-particles attrition in a fluidized bed is presented, and also the results of modeling. Five sizes of ash particles (1.02-1.25; 1.25-1.6; 1.6-2.0; 2.0-5.0; 5.0-10.0 mm) produced in an industrial CFB boiler were examined. A new model of mechanical attrition has been proposed which incorporates new parameters: the shape factor of particles and the ratio of the bed height to bed diameter, strongly influencing the rate of bed mass loss. The model describes very well experimental data for coal-ash particles attrition. The attrition-rate coefficient for ash particles was evaluated.

Tomeczek, J.; Mocek, P. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

447

Removal of radium from acidic solutions containing same by adsorption on coal fly ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a process for the removal of radium from acidic aqueous solutions. In one aspect, the invention is a process for removing radium from an inorganic-acid solution. The process comprises contacting the solution with coal fly ash to effect adsorption of the radium on the ash. The radium-containing ash then is separated from the solution. The process is simple, comparatively inexpensive, and efficient. High radium-distribution coefficients are obtained even at room temperature. Coal fly ash is an inexpensive, acid-resistant, high-surface-area material which is available in large quantities throughout the United States. The invention is applicable, for example, to the recovery of .sup.226 Ra from nitric acid solutions which have been used to leach radium from uranium-mill tailings.

Scheitlin, Frank M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Study on structural and compositional transitions of coal ash by using NMR  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Structural and compositional transitions of Datong coal ash and its CaCO3...additional effects were carefully examined at a temperature range of 300 to 1 600 °C by using XRD and solid state NMR. The quantitative ...

Xiong-chao Lin; Keiko Ideta; Jin Miyawaki…

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

2007 American Coal Ash Association membership directory as of June 21, 2007  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A listing of names, addresses, contact numbers and websites is given for 101 members of the American Coal Ash Association. Honorary members are also named. Included are power generation companies, combustion by-product manufacturers and university departments.

NONE

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Iron Minerals in Coal, Weathered Coal and Coal Ash – SEM and Mössbauer Results  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of the present investigation was to identify and quantify the iron mineral phases present in South African coal from various coal fields and in coal ash, after industrial and laboratory combustion process...

F. B. Waanders; E. Vinken; A. Mans; A. F. Mulaba-Bafubiandi

451

Soil stabilization using optimum quantity of calcium chloride with Class F fly ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On-going research at Texas A&M University indicated that soil stabilization using calcium chloride filter cake along with Class F fly ash generates high strength. Previous studies were conducted with samples containing calcium chloride filter cake...

Choi, Hyung Jun

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

452

Heterogeneous Surface-Based Freezing of Atmospheric Aerosols Containing Ash, Soot, and Soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nucleation will occur through one of several mechanisms including the contact and immersion freezing mechanisms. Through a series of contact freezing experiments, we have characterized the ability of aerosols composed of volcanic ash, soot, and peat soil...

Fornea, Adam P.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

453

Ashe juniper seed production and germination, seedling dynamics and response of live oak/juniper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Germination of Ashe juniper seed were compared in a controlled environment at different levels of fruit maturation, lengths of storage, and seed stratification to determine potential germination. Annual mean germination varied by an order...

Reinecke, Rudolph Klaus

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash belite cement Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(WTERT) Collection: Renewable Energy 77 Use of fly ash as an admixture for electromagnetic interference shielding Jingyao Cao, D.D.L. Chung* Summary: to a construc- tion material...

455

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash content Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: ash content Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Eltra dok nr. 147024, sag 1991 Eltra PSO project no....

456

Close Out Report for the Ash Pit Operable Unit I Area of Concern 2F  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

..............................................................................................................1 2.2 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, shrubs, and grasses. 2.2 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study The boundary of the Ash Pits ...................................................................................2 2.4 Remedial Activities

457

Notes on the efficacy of wet versus dry screening of fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The methodology used to obtain fly ash subsamples of different sizes is generally based on wet or dry sieving methods. However, the worth of such methods is not certain if the methodology applied is not mentioned in the analytical procedure. After performing a fly ash mechanical dry, sieving, the authors compared those results with the ones obtained by laser diffraction on the same samples and found unacceptable discrepancies. A preliminary, study of a wet sieving analysis carried out on an economizer fly ash sample showed that this method was more effective than the dry sieving. The importance of standardizing the way samples are handled, pretreated and presented to the instrument of analysis are suggested and interlaboratory reproducibility trials are needed to create a common standard methodology to obtain large amounts of fly ash size fraction subsamples.

Valentim, B.; Hower, J.C.; Flores, D.; Guedes, A. [Center and Department of Geology, Oporto (Portugal)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

458

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash dump leachate Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Volume 28, no. 1, Jan.-Feb. 1999.Copyright0 1999,ASA, CSSA, SSSA Summary: ). Leachate Analysis PH The pH values for all leachates from the ash- and sludge-amended soil columns...

459

Apparatus having inductively coupled coaxial coils for measuring buildup of slay or ash in a furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The buildup of slag or ash on the interior surface of a furnace wall is monitored by disposing two coils to form a transformer which is secured adjacent to the inside surface of the furnace wall. The inductive coupling between the two coils of the transformer is affected by the presence of oxides of iron in the slag or ash which is adjacent to the transformer, and the application of a voltage to one winding produces a voltage at the other winding that is related to the thickness of the slag or ash buildup on the inside surface of the furnace wall. The output of the other winding is an electrical signal which can be used to control an alarm or the like or provide an indication of the thickness of the slag or ash buildup at a remote location.

Mathur, Mahendra P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Ekmann, James M. (Bethel Park, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Fusibility Characteristics of Residual Ash from Lignite Fluidized-Bed Gasification To Understand Its Formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lignite is an abundant resource, which accounts for approximately 40% of global coal reserves. ... The effects of leaching and floatation on the ash fusion temperatures of three selected lignites ...

Feng-hai Li; Jie-jie Huang; Yi-tian Fang; Quan-run Liu

2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "weight average ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash-flow tuff yucca Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: ash-flow tuff yucca Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 27 (1986)...

462

Non-Destructive X-ray Measurement of Soot, Ash, Washcoat and...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Non-Destructive X-ray Measurement of Soot, Ash, Washcoat and Regeneration Damage for DPFs Charles E.A. Finney, Todd J. Toops, C. Stuart Daw Oak Ridge National Laboratory Jan...

463

Table A44. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam" 4. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, Census Division, and" " Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1994" " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Units)" ," Electricity",," Steam" ," (kWh)",," (million Btu)" ,,,,,"RSE" ,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Factors"

464

Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

465

Natural radioactivity of Zambian coal and coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

226Ra and232Th specific activities in coal from Maamba Collieries in Zambia have been...?1..., respectively. These values are nearly two and a half times larger than the world average for coal an...

P. Hayumbu; M. B. Zaman; S. S. Munsanje

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Energy Aware Scheduling for Weighted Completion Time and Weighted Tardiness  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ever increasing adoption of mobile devices with limited energy storage capacity, on the one hand, and more awareness of the environmental impact of massive data centres and server pools, on the other hand, have both led to an increased interest in energy management algorithms. The main contribution of this paper is to present several new constant factor approximation algorithms for energy aware scheduling problems where the objective is to minimize weighted completion time plus the cost of the energy consumed, in the one machine non-preemptive setting, while allowing release dates and deadlines.Unlike previous known algorithms these new algorithms can handle general job-dependent energy cost functions, extending the application of these algorithms to settings outside the typical CPU-energy one. These new settings include problems where in addition, or instead, of energy costs we also have maintenance costs, wear and tear, replacement costs, etc., which in general depend on the speed at which the machine r...

Carrasco, Rodrigo A; Stein, Cliff

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global horizontal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

South America from NREL South America from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to the model. The local cloud cover can vary significantly even within a single grid cell as a result of terrain effects and other microclimate influences. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the modeled estimates increase with distance from reliable measurement sources and with the complexity of the terrain.

468

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global horizontal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Central America and the Carribean from NREL Central America and the Carribean from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to the model. The local cloud cover can vary significantly even within a single grid cell as a result of terrain effects and other microclimate influences. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the modeled estimates increase with distance from reliable measurement sources and with the complexity of the terrain.

469

U.S. Refiner Sales to End Users (Average) Prices  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales Type: Sales to End Users, Average Through Retail Outlets Sales for Resale, Average DTW Rack Bulk Sales Type: Sales to End Users, Average Through Retail Outlets Sales for Resale, Average DTW Rack Bulk Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Formulation/ Grade Sales Type Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Conventional, Average 3.030 3.137 3.122 3.063 3.042 2.972 1994-2013 Conventional Regular 3.005 3.116 3.102 3.040 3.017 2.948 1994-2013 Conventional Midgrade 3.167 3.256 3.239 3.200 3.193 3.121 1994-2013 Conventional Premium 3.269 3.354 3.327 3.291 3.274 3.203 1994-2013 Oxygenated, Average - - - - - - 1994-2013 Oxygenated Regular - - - - - - 1994-2013 Oxygenated Midgrade - - - - - - 1994-2013

470

Ash chemistry and mineralogy of an Indonesian coal during combustion: Part II — Pilot scale observations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reports on combustion experiments carried out in a pilot scale furnace as a follow-up to research previously carried out using a drop-tube furnace to investigate the combustion behaviour of an Indonesian coal, in particular the effects of additives on ash chemistry, mineralogy and ash deposit formation. Combustion experiments were carried out in a pilot scale furnace to test the effectiveness of bauxite addition in reducing ash build-up. Samples collected from deposits on the slagging panels and fouling probe tubes, electrostatic precipitator fly ash, the furnace ash and tunnel ash were fully characterized using various analytical techniques. Experimental results substantiated earlier drop-tube observations suggesting that the use of raw coal with an addition of 3 wt.% bauxite would appear to offer the best performance with respect to slagging and fouling propensity in comparison to use of the raw coal alone. Observations on the reduction in glass content resulting from the addition of bauxite during PSF test runs support the earlier findings of the drop-tube tests. The reduction in glass content found in the slagging panel and fouling probe samples is comparable to that found in ash formation experiments conducted at 1400 °C despite the observed differences in mineralogy. Although deposits are still likely to form as indicated by the PSF runs they appear to be more friable and hence amenable to removal by conventional methods such as frequent soot blowing. These findings demonstrate how the results of laboratory experiments can be combined with those of pilot scale trials to provide data for full-scale trials on the effects of additives in the remediation of ash problems associated with the firing low-rank coals.

H.B. Vuthaluru; D. French

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Investigation of the potential of fly ash as an adsorbent for removal of priority pollutants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INVESTIGATION OF THE POTENTIAL OF FLY ASH AS AN ADSORBENT FOR REMOVAL OF PRIORITY POLLUTANTS A Thesis by MINOO ZARDKOOHI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1993 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering INVESTIGATION OF THE POTENTIAL OF FLY ASH AS AN ADSORBENT FOR REMOVAL OF PRIORITY POLLUTANTS A Thesis by MINOO ZARDKOOHI Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial...

Zardkoohi, Minoo

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

472

Influence of age/size and grazing history on understory relationships of Ashe juniper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INFLUENCE OF AGE/SIZE AND GRAZING HISTORY ON UNDERSTORY RELATIONSHIPS OF ASHE JUNIPER A Thesis by SAMUEL DEAN FUHLENDORF Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1992 Major Subject: Rangeland Ecology and Management INFLUENCE OF AGE/SIZE AND GRAZING HISTORY ON UNDERSTORY RELATIONSHIPS OF ASHE JUNIPER A Thesis by SAMUEL DEAN FUHLENDORF Approved as to style and content by...

Fuhlendorf, Samuel Dean

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Selected life history and synecological characteristics of ashe juniper on the Edwards Plateau of Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SELECTED LIFE HISTORY AND SYNECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ASHE JUNIPER ON THE EDWARDS PLATEAU OF TEXAS A Thesis by KEVIN WAYNE BLOMQUIST Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject: Range Science SELECTED LIFE HISTORY AND SYNECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ASHE JUNIPER QN THE EDWARDS PLATEAU OF TEXAS A Thesis by KEVIN WAYNE BLOMQUIST Approved as to style...

Blomquist, Kevin Wayne

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Canopy, litter and allelopathic effects of Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei, Buchholz) on understory vegetation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CANOPY, ~ AND ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF ASHE JUNIPER (JUNIPERUS ASHEI, BUCHHOLZ) ON UNDERSTORY VEGETATION A Thesis by LISA YVONNE YAGER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fufillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1993 Major Subject: Range Science CANOPY, LIITER AND ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF ASHE JUNIPER (JUNIPERUS ASHEI, BUCHHOLZ) ON UNDERSTORY VEGETATION A Thesis by LISA YVONNE YAGER Submitted to Texas A...

Yager, Lisa Yvonne

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Evaluation of lime-fly ash stabilized bases and subgrades using static and dynamic deflection systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EVALUATION OF LIME-FLY ASH STABILIZED BASFS AND SUBGRADES USING STATIC AND DYNAMIC DEFLECTION SYSTEMS A Thesis GARY W. RABA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1982 Major Subject: Civil Engineering EVALUATION OF LIME-FLY ASH STABILIZED BASES AND SUBGRADES USING STATIC AND DYNAMIC DEFLECTION SYSTEMS A Thesis by Gary Nl. Raba Approved as to style and content by: !Chairman...

Raba, Gary W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Factors influencing plant succession following fire in Ashe juniper woodland types in Real County, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FACTORS INFLUENCING PLANT SUCCESSION FOLLOWING FIRE IN ASHE JUHIPER WOODLAND TYPES IN REAL COUNTY& TEXAS By DONAID L. RUSS Approved as to style end content by: ~c-". '~ Z). 4:-. = Chairman of Committee Bead of Depantme Nay l954. LIBgARV A... A M GOLLEGL OF TEXAS FACTORS INFLUENCING PLANT SUCCESSION FOLLOWING FIRE IN ASHE JUNIPER WO(NILAND TIPES IN REAL COUNTI, TEUIS Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment oi...

Huss, Donald Lee

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

The Influence of Individuality, Age, and Season Upon the Weights of Fleeces Produced by Angora Goats Under Range Conditions.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

heavier fleeces at later ages. The average weight of the fleeces of mohair is more strongly influenced by changes in seasonal con- 3 than is the average weight of the fleeces of wool. Fall fleeces of r are heavier than spring fleeces. ditionr mohai... and concerned the weight of the scoured fleeces produced by twenty-nine Rambouillet wethers one year on the range and three years in the feed lot. The second detailed study was reported in Bulletin No. 311 of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station and con...

Lush, Jay L. (Jay Laurence); Jones, J. M. (John McKinley)

1924-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Effects of wood chip ash fertilization on soil chemistry in a Norway spruce plantation on a nutrient-poor soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Harvest of forest biomass for energy production may lead to export of nutrients from the forest. Recirculation of nutrients from wood chip combustion by ash spreading in forests has been proposed as a means for counteracting the nutrient export. This study was carried out to examine the effect of wood chip ash application on soil chemistry in a 44-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies) plantation on a nutrient-poor soil in Denmark and to investigate the effect of applying different ash types and doses. Soil samples were collected and analyzed 2.5 years (3 growing seasons) after ash application. This study shows that, regardless of ash formulation, preparation or dose, application of wood ash to forest soil has a liming effect in the O-horizon manifested as an increase in CECe, BS and pH. This effect was not seen in the mineral soil within the time frame of this study. At the same time, an increase in Cd was found in the O-horizon, corresponding to the amount added in the ashes. Generally, no other increase in soil contents of the heavy metals was seen. Hardening of the wood ash did not decrease the chemical impact on the soil chemistry as compared to non-treated ash whereas an increase in ash application dose increases the liming effect.

Morten Ingerslev; Mette Hansen; Lars Bo Pedersen; Simon Skov

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Effects of dairy intake on weight maintenance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, randomized trial. Weight loss was baseline to 3 months, weight maintenance was 4 to 9 months. Participants were maintained randomly assigned to low dairy ( 3 servings/d) diets for the maintenance phase. Three...

Zemel, Michael B.; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Smith, Bryan K.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Richards, Joanna; Morgan-Hanusa, Danielle; Mayo, Matthew S.; Sun, Xiaocun; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Bailey, Bruce W.; Van Walleghen, Emily L.; Washburn, Richard A.

2008-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

480

Occupational requirements as compared to worker capabilities with respect to total weight lifted per day  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Gender r resentation in each wei ht rou Weight Group 0- 7000- 11500-22500 22500-34000 34000-45500 7000 k 11500 kg k kg 'lo of Females '/o of Males 38 62 4 96 6 94 2 98 6 94 13 Male A erage Age p=o. cool Female Average Age p =-0. 07 87...). Females in the jobs with the lowest weight demands had significantly lower working VO& measurements than those in jobs with higher weight demands. Females in the 0-7000 kg group had a mean working VOq value of 0. 8 L/min, which was significantly...

Narvaez, Angela Marae

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "weight average ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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481

Changes in Diet and Lifestyle and Long-Term Weight Gain in Women and Men  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...beverages and long-term weight gain, suggesting that dietary quality (the types of foods and beverages consumed) influences dietary quantity (total calories). Several dietary metrics that are currently emphasized, such as fat content, energy density, and added sugars, would not have reliably identified... This study followed 120,877 U.S. women and men for 12 to 20 years to examine relationships between diet, lifestyle, and weight change. Participants gained an average of 3.35 lb every 4 years. Specific diet and lifestyle factors were independently associated with weight gain.

Mozaffarian D.Hao T.Rimm E.B.Willett W.C.Hu F.B.

2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

482

Status of coal ash corrosion resistant materials test program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In November of 1998, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) began development of a system to permit testing of several advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam conditions of 1100 F and higher in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO), B and W, and First Energy's Ohio Edison jointly fund the project. CONSOL Energy Company is also participating as an advisor. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. The coal-ash corrosion resistant materials test program will provide full scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater and reheater tube materials. These newer materials may be capable of operating at higher steam temperatures while resisting external/fire-side corrosion. For high sulfur coal applications, this is a key issue for advanced cycle pulverized coal-fired plants. Fireside corrosion is also a critical issue for many existing plants. Previous testing of high temperature materials in the United States has been based primarily on using laboratory test coupons. The test coupons did not operate at conditions representative of a high sulfur coal-fired boiler. Testing outside of the United States has been with low sulfur coal or natural gas firing and has not addressed corrosion issues. This test program takes place in an actual operating boiler and is expected to confirm the performance of these materials with high sulfur coal. The system consists of three identical sections, each containing multiple pieces of twelve different materials. They are cooled by reheater steam, and are located just above the furnace exit in Ohio Edison's Niles Unit No.1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. After one year of operation, the first section will be removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation. The second and third sections will operate for three and five years respectively prior to removal and evaluation. The objective is to determine how well each material resists corrosion at different operating temperatures and over different time periods and provide characteristic data. Selection of the test materials, system engineering, fabrication, installation and startup of this system is now completed and data acquisition is in progress. This paper gives an overview of the program and its objectives, explains the system, describes section fabrication, identifies the materials selected, and describes ORNL's experience in fabricating four of the advanced materials.

McDonald, D.K.; Meisenhelter, D.K.; Sikka, V.K.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Effect of environment atmosphere on the sintering of Thai lignite fly ashes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sintering of ash particles, related to deposit formation in a pulverized coal-fired boiler, was investigated for two lignite fly ashes obtained from Mae Moh and Bangpudum coal seams. The tests involved measuring the compressive strength of cold sintered pellets at varying sintering temperature, both under oxidizing (air) and non-oxidizing atmospheres (CO{sub 2}). Under ambient air condition, Mae Moh fly ash which contained higher amount of glassy phase gave significantly higher sinter strength than Bangpudum fly ash. The role of glassy phase was confirmed by the lowering of sinter strength when HF-extracted fly ash was tested. Sintering under CO{sub 2} environment resulted in larger strength development than sintering in air. Under this non-oxidizing condition, the pellet color turned black, indicating that most of the iron was in the reduced state and could form additional low melting-point glassy phase, hence facilitated sintering rate. In addition, blending of the two ashes yielded intermediate maximum strength, under both air and CO{sub 2} environments. This observation substantiates the important role of glassy phase in the sintering process and indicates the possibility of lowering deposit strength by judicious mixing of different raw coal feeds.

Tangsathitkulchai, C.; Tangsathitkulchai, M. [Suranaree Univ. of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

484

Coal fly ash disposal in the ocean: an alternative worth considering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical and biological experiments measured the solubility of 16 elements in coal fly ash and the short-term toxicity of coal fly ash to clams and phytoplankton. Of the elements studied, 10 to 60% of the As, Br, Cr, Sb, Se, Ni, Pb, and Sr dissolved within a 24-hour period. Elements which were less than 10% soluble in 24-hours included Cu, Zn, Na, La, Sc, Fe, Co and Eu. Littleneck clams (Protothaca staminea) were exposed to coal fly ash in flowing seawater for a 25-day period. At the end of the exposure Cu concentration in gills was 15 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ dry wt compared to 6 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ in control clams. Elements that were not elevated in the exposed clams were Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Se and As. The effects of the soluble fraction of coal fly ash on primary production was measured by /sup 14/C uptake rate on coastal phytoplankton. The addition of soluble coal fly ash material had no effect on the /sup 14/C uptake rate of phytoplankton. These measurements were made in the productive Washington shelf water during August. The literature indicates coal fly ash has a relatively low toxicity to plants and animals. Disposal methods could be designed so EPA water quality criteria levels would not be exceeded except in the immediate vicinity of the dumpsite.

Crecelius, E.A.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Contributions of wood ash magnetism to archaeomagnetic properties of fire pits and hearths  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Magnetic studies were conducted on a variety of plant ash and ash material from fire pits to investigate the possible contribution of ash to the magnetic signature of hearths. The measurements included magnetic susceptibility, remanence acquisition to saturation (SIRM), alternating field demagnetization of SIRM and remanent coercivity (Brc). We conclude from these studies that wood ash produces fine-grained magnetic iron oxides. These oxides are probably magnetic that is concentrated enough to add to the magnetic signature of hearths and fire pits. At one site (Ellicottville, New York), the ash layer exhibits a magnetic susceptibility that is 22 times greater than a control soil sample from the site. We attribute this large enhancement to repeated burns at the site which continued to add ferromagnetic material to the fire pit. The source of the magnetic material is probably phytoferritin from plants. The variation in the intensity of magnetic anomalies over ancient hearths and fire pits may in part be caused by the magnetic contribution from ash.

Richard G. McClean; W.F. Kean

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

The Laconia, New Hampshire bottom ash paving project: Volume 3, Physical Performance Testing Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bottom ash is the principal waste stream from the combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW). It is comprised of grate ash (97%), the slag material discharged at the end of the grate system, and grate sifting (3%), the material that melts or falls through the grate structure. This project was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of using municipal solid waste grate ash as an aggregate substitute in the construction of a pavement binder course for a portion of Rt. 3 in Laconia, New Hampshire. The research was conducted over a two year period during 1993 and 1994. This study is the culmination of an earlier two year characterization study between 1990 and 1992 that documented the physical and environmental characteristics of the bottom ash as it was produced at the Concord, N.H. waste-to-energy (@) facility and used in an asphaltic binder course. Together, these two studies provide a complete evaluation of the potential for using grate ash or bottom ash in asphalt binder course or as recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) in base courses in pavements.

NONE

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Thermal treatment modifies the calorific value and ash content in some wood species  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Thermo-treated wood is a new material that has recently been introduced to the market. Thus, the increase in the amount of treated wood in the wood industry and in the interior of buildings creates demands for the evaluation of its fire risk. However, few evidences have yet been published on the calorific evaluation a