Sample records for wecc primary energy

  1. WECC Response to DOE Quadrennial Energy Review

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradley Nickell Director of Transmission Planning - WECC WesternWECC

  2. Energy-water analysis of the 10-year WECC transmission planning study cases.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Passell, Howard David; Castillo, Cesar; Moreland, Barbara

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2011 the Department of Energy's Office of Electricity embarked on a comprehensive program to assist our Nation's three primary electric interconnections with long term transmission planning. Given the growing concern over water resources in the western U.S. the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) requested assistance with integrating water resource considerations into their broader electric transmission planning. The result is a project with three overarching objectives: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western Interconnection to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), Western Governors Association (WGA), the Western States Water Council (WSWC) and their associated stakeholder teams. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water stress implications of the transmission planning scenarios put forward by WECC, WGA, and WSWC. The foundation for the Energy-Water DSS is Sandia National Laboratories Energy-Power-Water Simulation (EPWSim) model (Tidwell et al. 2009). The modeling framework targets the shared needs of energy and water producers, resource managers, regulators, and decision makers at the federal, state and local levels. This framework provides an interactive environment to explore trade-offs, and 'best' alternatives among a broad list of energy/water options and objectives. The decision support framework is formulated in a modular architecture, facilitating tailored analyses over different geographical regions and scales (e.g., state, county, watershed, interconnection). An interactive interface allows direct control of the model and access to real-time results displayed as charts, graphs and maps. The framework currently supports modules for calculating water withdrawal and consumption for current and planned electric power generation; projected water demand from competing use sectors; and, surface and groundwater availability. WECC's long range planning is organized according to two target planning horizons, a 10-year and a 20-year. This study supports WECC in the 10-year planning endeavor. In this case the water implications associated with four of WECC's alternative future study cases (described below) are calculated and reported. In future phases of planning we will work with WECC to craft study cases that aim to reduce the thermoelectric footprint of the interconnection and/or limit production in the most water stressed regions of the West.

  3. Property:EIA/861/NercWecc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkins County, Nebraska:PrecourtOid Jump to: navigation,AltFuelVehicle2 JumpNercSerc

  4. WECC and Peak Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WECC and Peak Update Transmission B O N N E V I L L E P O W E R A D M I N I S T R A T I O N Pre-decisional. For Discussion Purposes Only. WECC and Peak Background In the...

  5. National Assessment of Energy Storage for Grid Balancing and Arbitrage: Phase 1, WECC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Balducci, Patrick J.; Colella, Whitney G.; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Jin, Chunlian; Nguyen, Tony B.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Zhang, Yu

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To examine the role that energy storage could play in mitigating the impacts of the stochastic variability of wind generation on regional grid operation, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) examined a hypothetical 2020 grid scenario in which additional wind generation capacity is built to meet renewable portfolio standard targets in the Western Interconnection. PNNL developed a stochastic model for estimating the balancing requirements using historical wind statistics and forecasting error, a detailed engineering model to analyze the dispatch of energy storage and fast-ramping generation devices for estimating size requirements of energy storage and generation systems for meeting new balancing requirements, and financial models for estimating the life-cycle cost of storage and generation systems in addressing the future balancing requirements for sub-regions in the Western Interconnection. Evaluated technologies include combustion turbines, sodium sulfur (Na-S) batteries, lithium ion batteries, pumped-hydro energy storage, compressed air energy storage, flywheels, redox flow batteries, and demand response. Distinct power and energy capacity requirements were estimated for each technology option, and battery size was optimized to minimize costs. Modeling results indicate that in a future power grid with high-penetration of renewables, the most cost competitive technologies for meeting balancing requirements include Na-S batteries and flywheels.

  6. Delivering Energy Efficiency to Middle Income Single Family Households

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zimring, Mark

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cohen (DOE), Todd Conkey (WECC), Neely Crane-Smit (MNCEE),Diamond (LBNL), George Edgar (WECC), Lara Ettenson & team (Assistance Program WECC – Wisconsin Energy Conservation

  7. WECC 10-Year Plan general presentation

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradley Nickell Director of Transmission Planning - WECC Western

  8. WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book: Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Du, Pengwei; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Vyakaranam, Bharat

    2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The document titled “WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book”. This book is divided into two volumes; one is the main document (volume 1)and the other is appendices (volume 2). The main document is a collection of the best practices and the information regarding the application and impact of variables generation on power system planning. This volume (appendices) has additional information on the following topics: Probabilistic load flow problems. 2. Additional useful indices. 3. high-impact low-frequency (HILF) events. 4. Examples of wide-area nomograms. 5. Transmission line ratings, types of dynamic rating methods. 6. Relative costs per MW-km of different electric power transmission technologies. 7. Ultra-high voltage (UHV) transmission. 8.High voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC). 9. HVDC. 10. Rewiring of existing transmission lines. 11. High-temperature low sag (HTLS) conductors. 12. The direct method and energy functions for transient stability analysis in power systems. 13.Blackouts caused by voltage instability. 14. Algorithm for parameter continuation predictor-corrector methods. 15. Approximation techniques available for security regions. 16. Impacts of wind power on power system small signals stability. 17. FIDVR. 18. FACTS. 19. European planning standard and practices. 20. International experience in wind and solar energy sources. 21. Western Renewable Energy Zones (WREZ). 22. various energy storage technologies. 23. demand response. 24. BA consolidation and cooperation options. 25. generator power management requirements and 26. European planning guidelines.

  9. WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Du, Pengwei; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Vyakaranam, Bharat

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This planning reference book is a document reflecting a Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) effort to put together multiple sources of information and provide a clear, systemic, comprehensive outline of the problems, both existing and anticipated; their impacts on the system; currently used and proposed solutions by the industry and research community; planning practices; new technologies, equipment, and standards; and expected future trends. This living (periodically updated) document could help WECC and other practicing engineers, especially the younger generation of engineers joining the workforce, to get familiar with a large variety of information related to the integration of variable resources into the WECC system, bypassing in part the need for time-consuming information gathering and learning processes from more experienced engineers or from the literature.

  10. WECC Report 1/98 An Integrated Criterion for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wania, Frank

    WECC Report 1/98 An Integrated Criterion for the Persistence of Organic Chemicals Based on Model Science Department of the Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A. WECC Wania Environmental-416-977-4953, E-mail: frank.wania@utoronto.ca #12;WECC Report 1/98 2 Table of Contents Some Introductory Thoughts

  11. NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) to support in increased cycling of conventional fossil generation. Previous studies by NREL and WECC have corroborated

  12. Exploration of Resource and Transmission Expansion Decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone Initiative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Investments in the WECC. ” The Electricity Journal 22(9):Coordinating Council (WECC). In Section 3 we examine theannual energy demand in the WECC with new RE for a target

  13. Exploration of Resource and Transmission Expansion Decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone Initiative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Investments in the WECC. ” The Electricity Journal 22(9):when unbundled RECs are allowed on a WECC-wide basis.renewable energy costs WECC-wide by using RECs is found to

  14. Energy Optimization (Electric)- Commercial Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Optimization Programs, administered by WECC, provides commercial electric incentives for the following Michigan utilities:

  15. Energy Optimization (Electric)- Residential Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Optimization Programs, administered by WECC, provides residential electric incentives for the following Michigan utilities:

  16. WECC releases its first-ever transmission plan for the Western Interconnection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) announced the release of its first 10-Year Regional Transmission Plan (Plan) for the Western Interconnection.

  17. Estimation of the WECC System Inertia Using Observed Frequency Transients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David P. Chassin; Zhenyu Huang; Matthew K. Donnelly; Candee Hassler; Enrique Ramirez; Cody Ray

    2004-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Computer models being developed to understand the interaction between demand-response technology, power system deregulation and market transformation depend in part on understanding the relationship between system frequency and load-control. Frequency, load, and plant outage events data collected over the last several years have permitted analysis to determine the Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) system's inertia during each event. This data was used to evaluate the relationship of system inertia to total load, which is used to model system response to load curtailment programs in next generation power system simulations.

  18. Modeling Interregional Transmission Congestion in the National Energy Modeling System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Lesieutre, Bernard; Marnay, Chris; Wang, Juan

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    5 Figure 1-4 Four-Node Example Based on the WECC6 Figure 1-5 Four-Node Example Based on the WECCPAE PBA RA RON SERC TWh WECC Annual Energy Outlook U.S.

  19. Review of the WECC EDT phase 2 EIM benefits analysis and results report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veselka, T.D.; Poch, L.A.; Botterud, A. (Decision and Information Sciences)

    2012-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A region-wide Energy Imbalance Market (EIM) was recently proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). In order for the Western Area Power Administration (Western) to make more informed decisions regarding its involvement in the EIM, Western asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to review the EIM benefits study (the October 2011 revision) performed by Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3). Key components of the E3 analysis made use of results from a study conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); therefore, we also reviewed the NREL work. This report examines E3 and NREL methods and models used in the EIM study. Estimating EIM benefits is very challenging because of the complex nature of the Western Interconnection (WI), the variability and uncertainty of renewable energy resources, and the complex decisions and potentially strategic bidding of market participants. Furthermore, methodologies used for some of the more challenging aspects of the EIM have not yet matured. This review is complimentary of several components of the EIM study. Analysts and modelers clearly took great care when conducting detailed simulations of the WI using well-established industry tools under stringent time and budget constraints. However, it is our opinion that the following aspects of the study and the interpretation of model results could be improved upon in future analyses. The hurdle rate methodology used to estimate current market inefficiencies does not directly model the underlying causes of sub-optimal dispatch and power flows. It assumes that differences between historical flows and modeled flows can be attributed solely to market inefficiencies. However, flow differences between model results and historical data can be attributed to numerous simplifying assumptions used in the model and in the input data. We suggest that alternative approaches be explored in order to better estimate the benefits of introducing market structures like the EIM. In addition to more efficient energy transactions in the WI, the EIM would reduce the amount of flexibility reserves needed to accommodate forecast errors associated with variable production from wind and solar energy resources. The modeling approach takes full advantage of variable resource diversity over the entire market footprint, but the projected reduction in flexibility reserves may be overly optimistic. While some reduction would undoubtedly occur, the EIM is only an energy market and would therefore not realize the same reduction in reserves as an ancillary services market. In our opinion the methodology does not adequately capture the impact of transmission constraints on the deployment of flexibility reserves. Estimates of flexibility reserves assume that forecast errors follow a normal distribution. Improved estimates could be obtained by using other probability distributions to estimate up and down reserves to capture the underlying uncertainty of these resources under specific operating conditions. Also, the use of a persistence forecast method for solar is questionable, because solar insolation follows a deterministic pattern dictated by the sun's path through the sky. We suggest a more rigorous method for forecasting solar insolation using the sun's relatively predictable daily pattern at specific locations. The EIM study considered only one scenario for hydropower resources. While this scenario is within the normal range over the WI footprint, it represents a severe drought condition in the Colorado River Basin from which Western schedules power. Given hydropower's prominent role in the WI, we recommend simulating a range of hydropower conditions since the relationship between water availability and WI dispatch costs is nonlinear. Also, the representation of specific operational constraints faced by hydropower operators in the WI needs improvements. The model used in the study cannot fully capture all of the EIM impacts and complexities of power system operations. In particular, a primary benefit of the EIM is a shorter dispa

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: Energy Surety

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News, News & Events, Renewable Energy, SMART Grid, Systems Analysis, Transmission Grid Integration, Wind Energy Sandia finalized and submitted the updated "WECC Wind Power Plant...

  1. Thomas J. Feeley, III National Energy Technology Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Arturo A.

    , 2005. Energy Information Agency, Annual Energy Outlook 2006, Regional Tables, 2007. WECC/CA WECC/RM 29Thomas J. Feeley, III National Energy Technology Laboratory First Western Forum on Energy & Water on Energy & Water, March 22, 2007 Outline · Background on issue · Thermoelectric withdrawal and consumption

  2. Analysis of the Impact of Balancing Area Cooperation on the Operation of WECC and the Compounding Effect of Wind and Solar Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, G.; Piwko, D.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is the intent of this analysis to examine the operational benefits of increased cooperation between a large number of WECC operating regions.

  3. US Dept of Energy's EECBG-SEP Technical Assistance Program Webinar...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Corporation, or WECC. Todd's responsibilities include researching and developing energy efficiency and renewables financing models. He is also charged with finding additional...

  4. SWITCH-WECC http://rael.berkeley.edu/switch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    -synchronized demand, wind output, and solar output data per investment period · Linearized unit-commitment #12; and solar power in California. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, Energy and Resources., 2013. SunShot solar power reduces costs and uncertainty in future low-carbon electricity systems

  5. Primary Energy Ventures | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkins County, Nebraska:Precourt Institute for EnergyWister Area

  6. Looking past the first year: Do the savings last?. A study of the persistence of energy savings in low-income Wisconsin residences, final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narum, D.; Pigg, S.; Schlegel, J.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wisconsin Energy Conservation Corporation (WECC) conducted a Study of the Persistence of Energy Savings in Low-Income Wisconsin Residences for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Existing Buildings Efficiency Program. The study assessed the persistence of energy savings resulting from participation in the Wisconsin Utility Weatherization Assistance Program (UWAP). The study assessed the impact of weatherization and heating system measures up to eight years after the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) in low-income, gas-heated residences, the majority of which are 1- and 2-unit buildings. Primary data for the study came from two utilities, Wisconsin Gas Company and Madison Gas & Electric Company. Both utilities provided WECC with their weatherization program databases, which contained participant information back to 1982. WECC also obtained fuel consumption information for the program participants from each utility. The consumption histories spanned a 6-year period from March 1985 through May 1991 for Wisconsin Gas Company participants, and a 5-year period from October 1986 through August 1991 for Madison Gas & Electric Company participants. After attrition, the study included 5,129 customers from the Wisconsin Gas Company program and 1,553 customers from the Madison Gas & Electric Company program.

  7. Use of the WECC WAMS in Wide Area Probing Tests for Validation of System Performance & Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauer, John F.; Mittelstadt, William; Martin, Kenneth E.; Burns, J. W.; Lee, Harry; Pierre, John W.; Trudnowski, Daniel

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During 2005 and 2006 the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) performed three major tests of western system dynamics. These tests used a Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) based primarily on Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) to determine response to events including the insertion of the 1400-MW Chief Joseph braking resistor, probing signals, and ambient events. Test security was reinforced through real-time analysis of wide area effects, and high-quality data provided dynamic profiles for interarea modes across the entire western interconnection. The tests established that low-level optimized pseudo-random ±20-MW probing with the Pacific DC Intertie (PDCI) roughly doubles the apparent noise that is natural to the power system, providing sharp dynamic information with negligible interference to system operations. Such probing is an effective alternative to use of the 1400-MW Chief Joseph dynamic brake, and it is under consideration as a standard means for assessing dynamic security.

  8. Property:Primary Organization | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag Jump to: navigation,ProjectStartDateProperty EditResultsUtilityPartOfPrimary

  9. Modeling Interregional Transmission Congestion in the National Energy Modeling System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Lesieutre, Bernard; Marnay, Chris; Wang, Juan

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Administration. 2005a. Annual Energy Outlook 2005. EIA/DOE.RON SERC TWh WECC Annual Energy Outlook U.S. Department ofAccording to the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) 2004 Reference

  10. The primary energy estimation of inclined giant Jean Noel Capdevielle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Laboratory 90-950 Lodz 1, POBox 447, Poland Abstract-- Determination of the primary energy by surface arraysThe primary energy estimation of inclined giant EAS Jean Noel Capdevielle and Fabrice Cohen APC showers is no longer valid. As follows from simulations at energies near to 100 EeV, the density at 600 m

  11. Primary Science of Energy Teacher and Student Guides (42 Activities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Teacher and Student Guides (42 Activities) Primary Science of Energy Teacher and Student Guides (42 Activities) Below is information about the student activitylesson plan from...

  12. Introduction Radiation is the primary energy source and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    18 Introduction Radiation is the primary energy source and the ultimate energy sink for the Earth in the Earth's atmosphere and can be used for the evaluation and improvement of models designed for weather research was the primary reason for the joint scientific committee of the World Climate Research Programme

  13. Coupling Renewable Energy Supply with Deferrable Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papavasiliou, Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    8.1.1 The WECC Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Generation mix of the WECC model . . . . . . . . . . . .Net load of WECC for each day type (not including wind power

  14. Annual Energy Outlook 2015 - Appendix F

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15. SRCE SERC Central 16. SRVC SERC VACAR 17. SPNO SPP North 18. SPSO SPP South 19. AZNM WECC Southwest 20. CAMX WECC California 21. NWPP WECC Northwest 22. RMPA WECC Rockies...

  15. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    publications.html PG&E. 2007a. WECC Regional PlanningCalifornia Electric: WECC Regional Planning Project,Presentation January 23,2008 WECC Regional Planning Review

  16. Financial Analysis of Incentive Mechanisms to Promote Energy Efficiency: Case Study of a Prototypical Southwest Utility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappers, Peter

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conservation Corporation (WECC) 1993. “Evaluation of DSMnumber of future years (WECC 1993). Disallowance of theseutility’s financial strength (WECC 1993). Utilities focused

  17. Energy Efficiency as a Preferred Resource: Evidence from Utility Resource Plans in the Western United States and Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopper, Nichole

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coordinating Council (WECC) (2005). Hourly Demands 1998-Coordinating Council (WECC, 2005). 3 To compare utilities’one to three years. The WECC control area roughly includes

  18. Energy Efficiency in Western Utility Resource Plans: Impacts on Regional Resources Assessment and Support for WGA Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopper, Nicole; Goldman, Charles; Schlegal, Jeff

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PNM PSCO PSE PUC SDG&E SCE WECC average megawatts Britishwith appropriate NERC and WECC committees and subcommitteesconsistent across NERC, WECC and state/regional assessments

  19. Analysis of Potential Energy Corridors Proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuiper, James A.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hlava, Kevin J.; Moore, H Robert; Orr, Andrew B.; Zvolanek, Emily A.

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This report, Analysis of Potential Energy Corridors Proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). The intent of WECC’s work was to identify planning-level energy corridors that the Department of Energy (DOE) and its affiliates could study in greater detail. Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the WECC Proposed Energy Corridors in five topic areas for use in reviewing and revising existing corridors, as well as designating additional energy corridors in the 11 western states. In compliance with Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), the Secretaries of Energy, Agriculture, and the Interior (Secretaries) published a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement in 2008 to address the proposed designation of energy transport corridors on federal lands in the 11 western states. Subsequently, Records of Decision designating the corridors were issued in 2009 by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the U.S. Forest Service (USFS). The 2012 settlement of a lawsuit, brought by The Wilderness Society and others against the United States, which identified environmental concerns for many of the corridors requires, among other things, periodic reviews of the corridors to assess the need for revisions, deletions, or additions. A 2013 Presidential Memorandum requires the Secretaries to undertake a continuing effort to identify and designate energy corridors. The WECC Proposed Energy Corridors and their analyses in this report provide key information for reviewing and revising existing corridors, as well as designating additional energy corridors in the 11 western states. Load centers and generation hubs identified in the WECC analysis, particularly as they reflect renewable energy development, would be useful in reviewing and potentially updating the designated Section 368 corridor network. Argonne used Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to analyze the proposed energy corridors in the WECC report in five topic areas: ? Federal land jurisdiction, ? Existing Section 368 corridors, ? Existing transmission lines, ? Previously studied corridor locations, and ? Protected areas. Analysis methods are explained and tables and maps are provided to describe the results of the analyses in all five topic areas. WECC used a rational approach to connecting the hubs it identified, although there may be opportunities for adapting some of the proposed WECC routes to previously designated Section 368 corridors, for example: ? The WECC proposed energy corridors are in fact centerlines of proposed routes connecting hubs of various descriptions related to electric energy transmission. Although the centerlines were sited to avoid sensitive areas, infrastructure proposed within actual pathways or corridors defined by the centerlines would sometimes affect lands where such development would not normally be allowed, such as National Parks and Monuments, National Wildlife Refuges, and Wilderness Areas. ? Many WECC proposed energy corridors are sited along centerlines of existing roads, including Interstate Highways, where in some cases additional width to accommodate energy transmission infrastructure may not be available. Examples include the WECC Proposed Corridor along Interstate 70 through Glenwood Canyon in Colorado, and along U.S. Highway 89 across Glen Canyon Dam in Arizona. ? Several WECC proposed energy corridors are parallel to designated Section 368 corridors that have already cleared the preliminary steps to right-of-way approval. In many of these cases, the WECC hub connection objectives can be met more efficiently by routing on the designated Section 368 corridors.

  20. Interactions between Energy Efficiency Programs funded under the Recovery Act and Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Minnesota OES), Sue Hason (WECC), Alan Hee, Robert Jackson (Power), Kathy Kuntz (WECC), Thad Kurowski (Colorado GEO),

  1. Property:News/PrimaryLocation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag Jump to: navigation,ProjectStartDateProperty Edit withTieredDoc JumpPrimaryLocation

  2. Renewable portfolio standards, Greenhouse gas reduction, and Long-Line transmission investments in the WECC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, Arne; Orans, Ren; Allen, Doug; Moore, Jack; Woo, C.K.

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    New, long-distance transmission lines to remote areas with concentrations of high-quality renewable resources can help western states meet the challenges of increasing renewable energy procurement and reducing greenhouse gas emissions more cost-effectively than reliance on local resources alone. The approach applied here to the Western Electricity Coordinating Council is useful for an initial determination of the net benefits of long-line transmission between regions with heterogeneous resource quality. (author)

  3. Primary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a evie _ =_ In7, 2011 atJohnPrices,2: PricesData33Net

  4. Western Region Renewable Energy Markets: Implications for the Bureau of Land Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haase, S.; Billman, L.; Gelman, R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) with an overview of renewable energy (RE) generation markets, transmission planning efforts, and the ongoing role of the BLM RE projects in the electricity markets of the 11 states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming) that comprise the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Region. This analysis focuses on the status of, and projections for, likely development of non-hydroelectric renewable electricity from solar (including photovoltaic [PV] and concentrating solar power [CSP]), wind, biomass and geothermal resources in these states. Absent new policy drivers and without the extension of the DOE loan guarantee program and Treasury's 1603 program, state RPS requirements are likely to remain a primary driver for new RE deployment in the western United States. Assuming no additional policy incentives are implemented, projected RE demand for the WECC states by 2020 is 134,000 GWh. Installed capacity to meet that demand will need to be within the range of 28,000-46,000 MW.

  5. Understanding Bulk Power Reliability: The Importance of Good Data and A Critical Review of Existing Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Emily

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    separation ConEd NY - Terrorist Attack WECC- AZNMSNVcontractor accident WECC- NWPP severe weather Date #Rain TransEnergie short circuit WECC line fault Jacksonville

  6. ,"Plant","Primary Energy Source","Operating Company","Net Summer...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Virginia" ,"Plant","Primary Energy Source","Operating Company","Net Summer Capacity (MW)" 1,"Bath County","Pumped Storage","Virginia Electric & Power Co",3003 2,"North...

  7. Fact #864: March 16, 2015 Imports of Primary Energy have Declined...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    have declined by about 34% since the peak reached in 2007. During this same period, exports of primary energy have more than doubled. The combination of decreasing imports and...

  8. Fact #864: March 16, 2015 Imports of Primary Energy have Declined Sharply Since the Peak Reached in 2007

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file and dataset for Imports of Primary Energy have Declined Sharply Since the Peak Reached in 2007

  9. Primary Characteristics of Loan Loss Reserve Funds | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHA AdministrativeofDepartmentEnergyLoan loss reserve (LLR) funds

  10. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Primary school | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18, 2012EnergyBuilding Type: Medium officeEnergyof

  11. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Primary school | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18, 2012EnergyBuilding Type: Medium

  12. Table C3. Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2012

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. Coal Stocks at Manufacturing:: Total

  13. Primary Science of Energy Teacher and Student Guides (42 Activities) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+ Report Presentation: Hubs+DepartmentDepartment of Energy Teacher

  14. Texas Large Construction Site Notice for Primary Operators | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <Maintained ByManagement IncDrillbeInformation Leasing

  15. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Primary school | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18, 2012EnergyBuilding Type: Mediumpre1980_v1.3_5.0.zip

  16. Table of Contents Page 1 NERC 2007 Long-Term Reliability Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ..........................................................................................................................................................................35 WECC

  17. Primary Science of Energy Student Guide (42 Activities) | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+ Report Presentation: Hubs+Department

  18. Driving Demand for Home Energy Improvements: Motivating residential customers to invest in comprehensive upgrades that eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, Merrian C.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conservation Corporation (WECC). The project‘s goal was toConservation Corporation (WECC was contracted to support theRESNET RFP RPV SMUD VCEM WECC ZIP Baltimore Neighborhood

  19. Distributed Energy Resource Optimization Using a Software as Service (SaaS) Approach at the University of California, Davis Campus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael, Stadler

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SaaS TCF TOU UCD USDOE WAPA WECC Building Automation SystemCoordinating Council (WECC), and the emissions represent theother words, electricity in WECC is assumed fully fungible

  20. Energy Research and Development Division FINAL PROJECT REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ................................................................. 1 1.0 Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) WAMS (Wide Area Measurement System

  1. "Table B22. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1999"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal"1" "Shell Storage1.2. Primary

  2. Resonance Raman Analysis of the Mechanism of Energy Storage and Chromophore Distortion in the Primary Visual Photoproduct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Belinda

    Resonance Raman Analysis of the Mechanism of Energy Storage and Chromophore Distortion modes and their relation to energy storage in the primary photoproduct. Low-temperature (77 K) resonance interactions of the 9- and 13-methyl groups with surrounding residues. This distortion stores light energy

  3. File:Wind Is Energy Teacher Guide for Primary Students.pdf | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 NoEuropeStrat.pdf JumpNotificationWhiskey flats 100k.pdf

  4. Table E1. Primary Energy, Electricity, and Total Energy Price Estimates, 2012

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. CoalInputsTotal Stocks DefinitionsWeekly.

  5. Table E8. Primary Energy, Electricity, and Total Energy Expenditure Estimates, 2012

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. CoalInputsTotal Stocks4.

  6. Mass Market Demand Response and Variable Generation Integration Issues: A Scoping Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappers, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D.C. E-Three (2011) WECC EDT Phase 2 EIM Benefits Analysis &2011. 23 pages. NREL/TP-5500-49218. WECC (2010) ProposedConcepts For the WECC Efficient Dispatch Toolkit Energy

  7. Keep in mind, that with formality, often comes more of a standing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advisor, Department of Energy (confirmed) Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) RTEP Status Update Byron Woertz, Senior Project Manager, WECC (confirmed) Western...

  8. A new multiparametric topological method for determining the primary cosmic ray mass composition in the knee energy region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Ambrosio; C. Aramo; D. D'Urso; A. D. Erlykin; F. Guarino; A. Insolia

    2004-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The determination of the primary cosmic ray mass composition from the characteristics of extensive air showers (EAS), obtained at an observation level in the lower half of the atmosphere, is still an open problem. In this work we propose a new method of the Multiparametric Topological Analysis and show its applicability for the determination of the mass composition of the primary cosmic rays at the PeV energy region.

  9. CALIFORNIA ENERGY RESOURCES CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT COMMISSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the WECC transmission system specified by the IOU in its power purchase contract with the facility. Filing

  10. Fractions of proton, helium, middle and heavy nuclei in primary cosmic rays at energy 10**16eV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maia Kalmakhelidze; Nina Roinishvili; Manana Svanidze

    2001-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Classification of gamma-hadron families, registered by the Pamir collaboration, on four groups of nuclei (P, He, middle and heavy), responsible for their generation, is made, and fractions of families in each of the groups are estimated. Results show, that below the knee of the energy spectrum the chemical composition of primary cosmic rays remains close to the normal one.

  11. Fact #863 March 9, 2015 Crude Oil Accounts for the Majority of Primary Energy Imports while Exports are Mostly Petroleum Products – Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file and dataset for Crude Oil Accounts for the Majority of Primary Energy Imports while Exports are Mostly Petroleum Products

  12. PSTAR: Primary and secondary terms analysis and renormalization: A unified approach to building energy simulations and short-term monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subbarao, K.

    1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a unified method of hourly simulation of a building and analysis of performance data. The method is called Primary and Secondary Terms Analysis and Renormalization (PSTAR). In the PSTAR method, renormalized parameters are introduced for the primary terms such that the renormalized energy balance equation is best satisfied in the least squares sense, hence, the name PSTAR. PSTAR allows extraction of building characteristics from short-term tests on a small number of data channels. These can be used for long-term performance prediction (''ratings''), diagnostics, and control of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems (HVAC), comparison of design versus actual performance, etc. By combining realistic building models, simple test procedures, and analysis involving linear equations, PSTAR provides a powerful tool for analyzing building energy as well as testing and monitoring. It forms the basis for the Short-Term Energy Monitoring (STEM) project at SERI.

  13. ,"Plant","Primary Energy Source","Operating Company","Net Summer...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Neal South","Coal","MidAmerican Energy Co",644.8 6,"Duane Arnold Energy Center","Nuclear","NextEra Energy Duane Arnold LLC",601.4 7,"Emery Station","Natural...

  14. ,"Plant","Primary Energy Source","Operating Company","Net Summer...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1,"William F Wyman","Petroleum","FPL Energy Wyman LLC",821.9 2,"Westbrook Energy Center Power Plant","Natural Gas","Westbrook Energy Center",506 3,"Maine Independence...

  15. ,"Plant","Primary Energy Source","Operating Company","Net Summer...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3,"Catawba","Nuclear","Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC",2258 4,"Bad Creek","Pumped Storage","Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC",1360 5,"Winyah","Coal","South Carolina Public...

  16. Characterization of structural and free energy properties of promoters associated with Primary and Operon TSS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bansal, Manju

    and Operon TSS in Helicobacter pylori genome and their orthologs ADITYA KUMAR and MANJU BANSAL* Molecular identification of different classes of transcription start sites) of Helicobacter pylori 26695 strain associated with Primary and Operon TSS in Helicobacter pylori genome and their orthologs. J. Biosci. 37 423

  17. ,"Plant","Primary Energy Source","Operating Company","Net Summer...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Source","Operating Company","Net Summer Capacity (MW)" 1,"Seabrook","Nuclear","NextEra Energy Seabrook LLC",1246.2 2,"Granite Ridge","Natural Gas","Granite...

  18. ,"Plant","Primary Energy Source","Operating Company","Net Summer...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Road Generating Plant","Natural Gas","Lake Road Generating Co LP",745 4,"Kleen Energy Systems Project","Natural Gas","Kleen Energy Systems, LLC",622 5,"New Haven...

  19. ,"Plant","Primary Energy Source","Operating Company","Net Summer...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy LP","Natural Gas","Entergy RISE",528 2,"Manchester Street","Natural Gas","Dominion Energy New England, LLC",447 3,"Tiverton Power Plant","Natural Gas","Tiverton Power...

  20. Table A33. Total Primary Consumption of Energy for All Purposes by Employment

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota" ,"FullWestQuantity of ElectricityPrimary

  1. ,"Plant","Primary Energy Source","Operating Company","Net Summer...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ion","Nuclear","Exelon Nuclear",2277 4,"Quad Cities Generating Station","Nuclear","Exelon Nuclear",1819 5,"Baldwin Energy Complex","Coal","Dynegy Midwest Generation Inc",1775...

  2. ,"Plant","Primary Energy Source","Operating Company","Net Summer...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Station","Coal","Wisconsin Electric Power Co",1268 2,"Point Beach Nuclear Plant","Nuclear","NextEra Energy Point Beach LLC",1197 3,"Pleasant Prairie","Coal","Wisconsin...

  3. ,"Plant","Primary Energy Source","Operating Company","Net Summer...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2,"Donald C Cook","Nuclear","Indiana Michigan Power Co",2069 3,"Ludington","Pumped Storage","Consumers Energy Co",1871 4,"Midland Cogeneration Venture","Natural...

  4. ,"Plant","Primary Energy Source","Operating Company","Net Summer...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    City Power & Light Co",1421.2 3,"Wolf Creek Generating Station","Nuclear","Wolf Creek Nuclear Optg Corp",1175 4,"Gordon Evans Energy Center","Natural Gas","Kansas Gas &...

  5. ,"Plant","Primary Energy Source","Operating Company","Net Summer...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Capacity (MW)" 1,"Victor J Daniel Jr","Coal","Mississippi Power Co",1992 2,"Grand Gulf","Nuclear","System Energy Resources, Inc",1190 3,"Baxter Wilson","Natural Gas","Entergy...

  6. ,"Plant","Primary Energy Source","Operating Company","Net Summer...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas","Constellation Mystic Power LLC",1975.2 2,"Brayton Point","Coal","Dominion Energy New England, LLC",1528.5 3,"Northfield Mountain","Pumped Storage","FirstLight Power...

  7. EIA Energy Efficiency-Table 2a. First Use for All Purposes (Primary a

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469DecadeOrigin State GlossaryEnergy ) for Selected

  8. EIA Energy Efficiency-Table 2b. Primary Fuel Consumption for Selected

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469DecadeOrigin State GlossaryEnergy ) for

  9. File:Large Construction Site Notice for Primary Operators.pdf | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdf Jump to: navigation,SizeEthiopiametstak.pdf JumpIntermediatesale

  10. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy source, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14Total Delivered Residentialtightb.Alabama"

  11. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy source, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14Total Delivered

  12. Table 5. Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14Total DeliveredPrincipal shale gas plays:Domestic

  13. Table 5. Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14Total DeliveredPrincipal shale gas

  14. Fact #864: March 16, 2015 Imports of Primary Energy have Declined Sharply

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport in RepresentativeDepartment ofDepartmentLast TenPrice of Gasoline |Energy

  15. "Table A11. Total Primary Consumption of Combustible Energy for Nonfuel"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal" "(Data1.30. Total Consumption

  16. "Table A3. Total Primary Consumption of Combustible Energy for Nonfuel"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal" "(Data1.30.2"

  17. "Table B23. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal"1" "Shell Storage1.2.

  18. Biomass Stove Pollution Sam Beck ATOC-3500 Biomass energy accounts for about 15% of the world's primary energy consumption and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Biomass Stove Pollution Sam Beck ATOC-3500 Biomass energy accounts for about 15% of the world. Furthermore, biomass often accounts for more than 90% of the total rural energy supplies in developing countries. The traditional stoves in developing countries waste a lot of biomass, mainly because

  19. Primary Isotope Yields and Characteristic Properties of the Fragmenting Source in Heavy-ion Reactions near the Fermi Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    X. Liu; W. Lin; R. Wada; M. Huang; Z. Chen; G. Q. Xiao; S. Zhang; X. Jin; J. Liu; F. Shi; P. Ren; H. Zheng; J. B. Natowitz; A. Bonasera

    2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    For central collisions of $^{40}$Ca $+ ^{40}$Ca at 35 MeV/nucleon, the density and temperature of a fragmenting source have been evaluated in a self-consistent manner using the ratio of the symmetry energy coefficient relative to the temperature, $a_{sym}/T$, extracted from the yields of primary isotopes produced in antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) simulations. The $a_{sym}/T$ values are extracted from all isotope yields using an improved method based on the Modified Fisher Model (MFM). The values of $a_{sym}/T$ obtained, using different interactions with different density dependencies of the symmetry energy term, are correlated with the values of the symmetry energies at the density of fragment formation. Using this correlation, the fragment formation density is found to be $\\rho/\\rho_0 = 0.67 \\pm 0.02$. Using the input symmetry energy value for each interaction temperature values are extracted as a function of isotope mass $A$. The extracted temperature values are compared with those evaluated from the fluctuation thermometer with a radial flow correction.

  20. Energy Efficiency in Western Utility Resource Plans: Impacts on Regional Resources Assessment and Support for WGA Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopper, Nicole; Goldman, Charles; Schlegal, Jeff

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interconnection overseen by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), which includes Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico,

  1. Distributed Energy Resource Optimization Using a Software as Service (SaaS) Approach at the University of California, Davis Campus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael, Stadler

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    UCD USDOE WAPA WECC Building Automation System CaliforniaSiemens’ Apogee Building Automation System (BAS). Figure 6.

  2. FEASIBILITY OF HYDROGEN PRODUCTION USING LASER INERTIAL FUSION AS THE PRIMARY ENERGY SOURCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M

    2006-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Average Power Laser (HAPL) program is developing technology for Laser IFE with the goal of producing electricity from the heat generated by the implosion of deuterium-tritium (DT) targets. Alternatively, the Laser IFE device could be coupled to a hydrogen generation system where the heat would be used as input to a water-splitting process to produce hydrogen and oxygen. The production of hydrogen in addition to electricity would allow fusion energy plants to address a much wider segment of energy needs, including transportation. Water-splitting processes involving direct and hybrid thermochemical cycles and high temperature electrolysis are currently being developed as means to produce hydrogen from high temperature nuclear fission reactors and solar central receivers. This paper explores the feasibility of this concept for integration with a Laser IFE plant, and it looks at potential modifications to make this approach more attractive. Of particular interest are: (1) the determination of the advantages of Laser IFE hydrogen production compared to other hydrogen production concepts, and (2) whether a facility of the size of FTF would be suitable for hydrogen production.

  3. Table ET1. Primary Energy, Electricity, and Total Energy Price and Expenditure Estimates, Selected Years, 1970-2012, United States

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. CoalInputsTotal Stocks4.E9. Total End-UseET1.

  4. 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with the WECC is a CA balancing authority; or where the renewable energy is dynamically transferred to a CA and RPS-eligible energy are procured from a generator whose first point of interconnection with the WECC

  5. The experimental feature on the data of the primary proton identification in stratospheric X-ray emulsion chambers at energies >10 TeV (RUNJOB experiment)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. S. Zayarnaya

    2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The RUNJOB balloon-born emulsion chamber experiments have been carried out for investigating the composition and energy spectra of primary cosmic rays at energies 10-1000 TeV/nucleon. On the data of the treatment of RUNJOB` X-ray emulsion chambers exposed since 1995 to 1999 year about 50 % proton tracks were identified. In remained half of the events from proton group the one charged primary tracks were not found in the search area determined with high accuracy by the triangulation method using the several background heavy tracks. Considered methodical reasons in this paper could not explain this experimental result. The one from the probable physical reasons that is the neutrons in cosmic ray flux does not explain it too.

  6. Experimental reconstruction of primary hot isotopes and characteristic properties of the fragmenting source in the heavy ion reactions near the Fermi energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Lin; X. Liu; M. R. D. Rodrigues; S. Kowalski; R. Wada; M. Huang; S. Zhang; Z. Chen; J. Wang; G. Q. Xiao; R. Han; Z. Jin; J. Liu; P. Ren; F. Shi; T. Keutgen; K. Hagel; M. Barbui; C. Bottosso; A. Bonasera; J. B. Natowitz; T. Materna; L. Qin; P. K. Sahu; H. Zheng

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The characteristic properties of the hot nuclear matter existing at the time of fragment formation in the multifragmentation events produced in the reaction $^{64}$Zn + $^{112}$Sn at 40 MeV/nucleon are studied. A kinematical focusing method is employed to determine the multiplicities of evaporated light particles, associated with isotopically identified detected fragments. From these data the primary isotopic yield distributions are reconstructed using a Monte Carlo method. The reconstructed yield distributions are in good agreement with the primary isotope distributions obtained from AMD transport model simulations. Utilizing the reconstructed yields, power distribution, Landau free energy, characteristic properties of the emitting source are examined. The primary mass distributions exhibit a power law distribution with the critical exponent, $A^{-2.3}$, for $A \\geq 15$ isotopes, but significantly deviates from that for the lighter isotopes. Landau free energy plots show no strong signature of the first order phase transition. Based on the Modified Fisher Model, the ratios of the Coulomb and symmetry energy coefficients relative to the temperature, $a_{c}/T$ and $a_{sym}/T$, are extracted as a function of A. The extracted $a_{sym}/T$ values are compared with results of the AMD simulations using Gogny interactions with different density dependencies of the symmetry energy term. The calculated $a_{sym}/T$ values show a close relation to the symmetry energy at the density at the time of the fragment formation. From this relation the density of the fragmenting source is determined to be $\\rho /\\rho_{0} = (0.63 \\pm 0.03 )$. Using this density, the symmetry energy coefficient and the temperature of fragmenting source are determined in a self-consistent manner as $a_{sym} = (24.7 \\pm 3.4) MeV$ and $T=(4.9 \\pm 0.2)$ MeV.

  7. Reconstructed primary fragments and symmetry energy, temperature and density of the fragmenting source in $^{64}$Zn + $^{112}$Sn at 40 MeV/nucleon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    X. Liu; W. Lin; R. Wada; M. Huang; S. Zhang; P. Ren; Z. Chen; J. Wang; G. Q. Xiao; R. Han; J. Liu; F. Shi; M. R. D. Rodrigues; S. Kowalski; T. Keutgen; K. Hagel; M. Barbui; H. Zheng; A. Bonasera; J. B. Natowitz

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Symmetry energy, temperature and density at the time of the intermediate mass fragment formation are determined in a self-consistent manner, using the experimentally reconstructed primary hot isotope yields and anti-symmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) simulations. The yields of primary hot fragments are experimentally reconstructed for multifragmentation events in the reaction system $^{64}$Zn + $^{112}$Sn at 40 MeV/nucleon. Using the reconstructed hot isotope yields and an improved method, based on the modified Fisher model, symmetry energy values relative to the apparent temperature, $a_{sym}/T$, are extracted. The extracted values are compared with those of the AMD simulations, extracted in the same way as that for the experiment, with the Gogny interaction with three different density-dependent symmetry energy terms. $a_{sym}/T$ values change according to the density-dependent symmetry energy terms used. Using this relation, the density of the fragmenting system is extracted first. Then symmetry energy and apparent temperature are determined in a self consistent manner in the AMD model simulations. Comparing the calculated $a_{sym}/T$ values and those of the experimental values from the reconstructed yields, $\\rho /\\rho_{0} = 0.65 \\pm 0.02 $, $a_{sym} = 23.1 \\pm 0.6$ MeV and $T= 5.0 \\pm 0.4$ MeV are evaluated for the fragmenting system experimentally observed in the reaction studied.

  8. PSTAR: Primary and secondary terms analysis and renormalization: A unified approach to building energy simulations and short-term monitoring: A summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subbarao, K.

    1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes a longer report entitled PSTAR - Primary and Secondary Terms Analysis and Renormalization. A Unified Approach to Building Energy Simulations and Short-Term Monitoring. These reports highlight short-term testing for predicting long-term performance of residential buildings. In the PSTAR method, renormalized parameters are introduced for the primary terms such that the renormalized energy balance equation is best satisfied in the least squares sense; hence, the name PSTAR. Testing and monitoring the energy performance of buildings has several important applications, among them: extrapolation to long-term performance, refinement of design tools through feedback from comparing design versus actual parameters, building-as-a-calorimeter for heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) diagnostics, and predictive load control. By combining realistic building models, simple test procedures, and analysis involving linear equations, PSTAR provides a powerful tool for analyzing building energy as well as testing and monitoring. It forms the basis for the Short-Term Energy Monitoring (STEM) project at SERI. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. An Energy Evolution: Alternative Fueled Vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    & Government) required for: ­ Hydrogen infrastructure ­ Electrical charging infrastructure · Government 2015 2025 2035 2045 2055 2065 2075 2085 2095 California/WECC Electricity Consumption Scaled to US 2065 2075 2085 2095 West Coast (WECC) Electricity Consumption Scaled to US (Billion kWh/year) Renewable

  10. The energy sector is comprised of a wide range of businesses involved in the exploration, extraction, production, refining, distribution, and sale of energy. The primary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    include petroleum, gas, electric, coal, and nuclear energy, along with renewable energies such as solar. Some major groups include: · Energy corporations and utility companies · Energy regulators to drive wind turbines for electricity generation. · Using solar radiation data to estimate solar energy

  11. Energy and water in the Western and Texas interconnects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy's Office of Electricity has initiated a $60M program to assist the electric industry in interconnection-level analysis and planning. The objective of this effort is to facilitate the development or strengthening of capabilities in each of the three interconnections serving the lower 48 states of the United States, to prepare analyses of transmission requirements under a broad range of alternative futures and develop long-term interconnection-wide transmission expansion plans. The interconnections are the Western Interconnection, the Eastern Interconnection, and the Texas Interconnection. One element of this program address the support and development of an integrated energy-water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning (the Eastern Interconnection is not participating in this element). Specific objectives include: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between members of this proposal team and the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), Western Governors Association (WGA), the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) and their associated stakeholder teams. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water stress implications of the transmission planning scenarios put forward by WECC, WGA, and ERCOT. The goals of this project are: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between Western Electricity Coordinating Council, Electric Reliability Council of Texas, Western Governors Association, and Western States Water Council. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water transmission planning scenarios.

  12. Primary Document

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah ProjectPRE-AWARDenergyEnergytransmission-ratesYearPrices33Power

  13. "Table A3. Total Primary Consumption of Combustible Energy for Nonfuel Purposes by Census Region,"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal" "(Data1.30.2" "Nonfuel

  14. "Table B29. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Total Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal"1" "Shell Storage1.2.5.6.7.9.

  15. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of China's Total Primary Energy Production by Source (1950-AAGR EJ Primary Energy Production (Mtce) Coal Oil NaturalRenewables Total Primary Energy Production by Source Shares*

  16. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Growth of China's Total Primary Energy Production (TPE) byFuel (Mtce) Primary Energy Production (Mtce) AAGR Coal Rawof China's Total Primary Energy Production (Mtce) AAGR Total

  17. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2 Emissions per Total Primary Energy Supply (2008) tonne COStock Changes Total Primary Energy Supply Transfer The eastlarge consumers. Total primary energy supply equals to the

  18. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2 Emissions per Total Primary Energy Supply (2009) tonnes COStock Changes Total Primary Energy Supply Transfer The eastlarge consumers. Total primary energy supply equals to the

  19. Analysis of Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market in the NWPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samaan, Nader A.; Bayless, Rich; Symonds, Mark; Nguyen, Tony B.; Jin, Chunlian; Wu, Di; Diao, Ruisheng; Makarov, Yuri V.; Kannberg, Landis D.; Guo, Tao; Dennison-Leonard , Sarah; Goodenough, Mike; Schellberg, Ron; Conger, Sid; Harris, Kevin; Rarity, Matt; Wallace, Steven; Austin, Jamie; Noteboom, Rod; Van Blaricom , Tim; McRunnel, Kim; Apperson, John; Empey, Marshall; Etingov, Pavel V.; Warady, Debra; Brush, Ray; Newkirk, Joshua; Williams, Peter; Landauer, Marv; Owen, Hugh; Morter, Wayne; Haraguchi, Keli; Portouw, Jim; Downey, kathryn; Sorey, Steve; Williams, Stan; Gossa, Teyent; Kalich, Clint; Damiano, Patrick; Macarthur, Clay; Martin, Tom; Hoerner, Joe; Knudsen, Steve; Johnson, Anders; Link, Rick; Holcomb, Dennis

    2013-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Northwest Power Pool (NWPP) Market Assessment Committee (MC) Initiative, which was officially launched on March 19, 2012, set out to explore a range of alternatives that could help the Balancing Authorities and scheduling utilities in the NWPP area address growing operational and commercial challenges affecting the regional power system. The MC formed an Analytical Team with technical representatives from each of the member Balancing Areas in the NWPP and with staff of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This Analytical Team was instructed to conduct extensive studies of intra-hour operation of the NWPP system in the year 2020 and of the NWPP region with 14,671 MW of wind penetration. The effort utilized a sub-hourly production cost model (the PLEXOS® computer model) that inputs data from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC)-wide Production Cost Model (PCM) to evaluate potential production cost savings. The Analytical Team was given two general options to evaluate: •Energy Imbalance Market (EIM): establishment of an automated, organized NWPP area market for economically supplying energy imbalance within the hour. •Enhanced Market-Operational Tools (EMT) that might augment or replace an EIM. The Analytical The Analytical Team built on the WECC-wide PCM data from prior work done in the WECC and carried forward the evolution of the original WECC Transmission Expansion Planning Policy Committee (TEPPC) 2020 PC0 data base. A large number of modifications and improvements were made to this case and the data were subjected to extensive review by the team members to improve the model representation of the Northwest (NW). MC meetings that were open to the public were held for interested parties to review and provide input to the study. Results for the test, base, and sensitivity case studies performed by the MC Initiative Analytical Team indicate that there are a wide range of benefits that could be obtained from the operation of an EIM in the NWPP depending on what assumptions are made. The instructions from the MC were to determine a "minimum high confidence" range of potential benefits. The results for the Base Case indicate that the EIM benefits ranged from approximately $40 million to $70 million in annual savings from the operation of an EIM in the NWPP footprint. A number of additional relevant sensitivity cases were performed, including low and high water conditions, low and high natural gas prices, and various flex reserve requirements, resource operations, and amounts of resource capability held back during the preschedule period. Along with the results for the Base Case, the results for these studies yielded EIM benefits that clustered within the range of $70 to $80 million dollars per year with potential benefits ranging from approximately $125 million to as little as $17 million per year. Because the design and operation of an EIM could enable participating Balancing Authorities (BAs) to collectively lower the quantity of resources they must carry to meet within-hour balancing needs, a sensitivity case was also performed to analyze the impact that such reductions might have on the benefits from an EIM. The results for this sensitivity case indicate that such reductions could increase the benefits from the operation of an EIM in the NWPP into the range of approximately $130 million to $160 million per year. Also, a sensitivity case for a WECC-wide EIM was performed with the results indicating that the potential benefits to the NWPP could increase into the range of $197 million to $233 million per year. While there may be potential reliability benefits from the coordinated dispatch process underlying the operation of an EIM, reliability benefits from an EIM were out of the scope of this study. The EIM benefit analyses that were performed by the Analytical Team are provided in this report.

  20. Use of Frequency Response Metrics to Assess the Planning and Operating Requirements for Reliable Integration of Variable Renewable Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eto, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    North America Dynamic Wind Generator Modeling Update, Basedperformed by the WECC Wind Generator Modeling Group and theand in particular, wind generators are the primary resources

  1. Primary cosmic ray chemical composition in the energy region around 10**16 eV investigated by means of gamma-hadron families

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maia Kalmakhelidze; Nina Roinishvili; Manana Svanidze

    2001-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Primary Cosmic Ray Chemical Composition is investigated in energy region close to 10**16 eV. Studies are based on comparisons of gamma-hadron families observed by Pamir and Pamir-Chacaltaya Collaboration, with families generated by means of quasi-scaling model MC0. It is shown, that all characteristics of observed families, including their intensity, are in a very good agreement with simulated event properties at the normal chemical composition and are in disagreement at heavy dominant compositions. Code CORSICA with VENUS and DPM models also contradicts with experimental data of families. One- and multi-dimensional methods of recognition of Fe-like families is worked up and approved. They are based on family characteristics sensitive to atomic number of induced nuclei and are not correlated between each others. It is shown that the fraction of Fe-like families is consistent with the normal chemical composition and strongly contradicts to heavy dominant ones. The success of MC0 model, in description of families properties, is due to large inelasticity coefficient of soft interactions at superhigh energies.

  2. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    total primary energy will be supplied by alternative energy by 2030 with the 2030 electricity supply

  3. SWITCH-WECC Data, Assumptions, and Model Formulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    ....................................................................................... 5 1.3 Cost and Fuel Price Inputs........................................................... 20 2.7 Fuel Prices ............................................................................................................. 20 2.8 Biomass Solid Supply Curve

  4. Estimation of WECC System Inertia Using Observed Frequency Transients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chassin, David P.; Huang, Zhenyu; Donnelly, Matt K.; Hassler, Candee A.; Ramirez, Enrique; Ray, Cody W.

    2005-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    As demand for electricity in the western United States increases, stresses upon the aging power grid are intensifying. Computer models based on complex mathematical relationships are being developed to assist in understanding the impact of deregulation and market transformation. Frequency, load, and plant outage events data collected over the last several years. Analysis of these events was performed to determine frequency deviation and the systems inertial constant (M) during each event. Utilizing a theoretical relationship that relates system inertia to power loss, M was calculated for 157 events. The relationship of M to system wide load was then examined.

  5. Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent: Significant Energy Savings over Traditional Activated Sludge Treatment This report presents results for an anaerobic digestion system operated;Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office

  6. Energy Use per Worker-Hour: Evaluating the Contribution of Labor to Manufacturing Energy Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Teresa; Dornfeld, David

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    activity, total primary energy supply, and non-industrialcountry or region’s total primary energy supply and IPES isa s Country Total Primary Energy Supply Industrial Final

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News, News & Events, Renewable Energy, SMART Grid, Systems Analysis, Transmission Grid Integration, Wind Energy Sandia finalized and submitted the updated "WECC Wind Power Plant...

  8. Primary enzyme quantitation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saunders, G.C.

    1982-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure relates to the quantitation of a primary enzyme concentration by utilizing a substrate for the primary enzyme labeled with a second enzyme which is an indicator enzyme. Enzyme catalysis of the substrate occurs and results in release of the indicator enzyme in an amount directly proportional to the amount of primary enzyme present. By quantifying the free indicator enzyme one determines the amount of primary enzyme present.

  9. Change of Primary Cosmic Radiation Nuclear Conposition in the Energy Range $10^{15} - 10^{17}$ eV as a Result of the Interaction with the Interstellar Cold Background of Light Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. T. Barnaveli; T. T. Barnaveli Jr; N. A. Eristavi; I. V. Khaldeeva

    2003-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the updated arguments in favor of a simple model, explaining from the united positions all peculiarities of the Extensive Air Shower (EAS) hadron E_h(E_0) (and muon E_mu(E_0)) component energy fluxes dependence on the primary particle energy E_0 in the primary energy region 10^{15} - 10^{17} eV are represented. These peculiarities have shapes of consequent distinct deeps of a widths dE_h/E_h of the order of 0.2 and of relative amplitudes dL/L of the order of {0.1 - 1.0}, and are difficult to be explained via known astrophysical mechanisms of particle generation and acceleration. In the basis of the model lies the destruction of the Primary Cosmic Radiation (PCR) nuclei on some monochromatic background of interstellar space, consisting of the light particles of the mass in the area of 36 eV (maybe the component of a dark matter). The destruction thresholds of PCR different nuclear components correspond to the peculiarities of E_h(E_0). In this work the results of the recent treatment of large statistical material are analyzed. The experimental results are in good agreement with the Monte-Carlo calculations carried out in the frames of the proposed model.

  10. Energy and the Evolution of World-Systems: Fueling Power and Environmental Degradation, 1800-2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Kirk Steven

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    were energy use (TPES, total primary energy supply, beforeis the “Total Primary Energy Supply” for the IEA, which

  11. Primary Prevention of Hypertension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Primary Prevention of Hypertension: Clinical and Public Health Advisory from the National High NIH PUBLICATION NO. 02-5076 NOVEMBER 2002 Primary Prevention of Hypertension: Clinical and Public OF HYPERTENSION CLINICAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH ADVISORY FROM THE NATIONAL HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE EDUCATION PROGRAM

  12. Education research Primary Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Education research Primary Science Survey Report December 2011 #12;Primary Science Survey Report, Wellcome Trust 1 Background In May 2009 Key Stage 2 science SATs (Standard Assessment Tests) were abolished fiasco might occur, where the results were delayed and their quality questioned. The loss of science SATs

  13. Master logo Primary version

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandara, Arosha

    Master logo Primary version The master logo is the most important visual representation practical, this primary version of the logo must be used. Need help with something? Contact: brand logos, trade marks, trade names, photographic and video images, sound recordings, audio tools

  14. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1989-1992 2. World Primary Commercial Energy Consumption, byLX-2. World Primary Commercial Energy Consumption by RegionLX-2. World Primary Commercial Energy Consumption by Region

  15. Looking past the first year: Do the savings last

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narum, D.; Pigg, S.; Schlegel, J.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wisconsin Energy Conservation Corporation (WECC) conducted a Study of the Persistence of Energy Savings in Low-Income Wisconsin Residences for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Existing Buildings Efficiency Program. The study assessed the persistence of energy savings resulting from participation in the Wisconsin Utility Weatherization Assistance Program (UWAP). The study assessed the impact of weatherization and heating system measures up to eight years after the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) in low-income, gas-heated residences, the majority of which are 1- and 2-unit buildings. Primary data for the study came from two utilities, Wisconsin Gas Company and Madison Gas Electric Company. Both utilities provided WECC with their weatherization program databases, which contained participant information back to 1982. WECC also obtained fuel consumption information for the program participants from each utility. The consumption histories spanned a 6-year period from March 1985 through May 1991 for Wisconsin Gas Company participants, and a 5-year period from October 1986 through August 1991 for Madison Gas Electric Company participants. After attrition, the study included 5,129 customers from the Wisconsin Gas Company program and 1,553 customers from the Madison Gas Electric Company program.

  16. Transportation Energy and Alternatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handy, Susan L.

    Petrol Natural Gas Nuclear Energy Use What Primary Energy Resources Can be Used? Some pathways have more

  17. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    definition, Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES) is equivalentcalculating its total primary energy supply. As such, fuelbunkers, the NBS Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES) is

  18. China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, Ed., David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    9B.2. World Total Primary Energy Supply/Primary Commercial9B.2. World Total Primary Energy Supply/Primary Commercialsubsections: Total Primary Energy Supply, Guide to the China

  19. Exploration of Resource and Transmission Expansion Decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone Initiative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    zone in the Base case, the HVDC Long Lines case, and the RECselection to meet 33% RE WECC-wide in the HVDC Long LinesREC Base Case Short Line HVDC Long Lines Equal Solar Finance

  20. China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tech Petroleum Natural Gas Coal Primary Energy Demand (Mtce)significant decline in coal primary energy demand under Maxone billion tonnes coal equivalent energy exists beyond the

  1. The `excess' of primary cosmic ray electrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang Li; Zhao-Qiang Shen; Bo-Qiang Lu; Tie-Kuang Dong; Yi-Zhong Fan; Lei Feng; Si-Ming Liu; Jin Chang

    2014-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    With the accurate cosmic ray (CR) electron and positron spectra (denoted as $\\Phi_{\\rm e^{-}}$ and $\\Phi_{\\rm e^{+}}$, respectively) measured by AMS-02 collaboration, the difference between the electron and positron fluxes (i.e., $\\Delta \\Phi=\\Phi_{\\rm e^{-}}-\\Phi_{\\rm e^{+}}$), dominated by the propagated primary electrons, can be reliably inferred. In the standard model, the spectrum of propagated primary CR electrons at energies $\\geq 30$ GeV softens with the increase of energy. The absence of any evidence for such a continuous spectral softening in $\\Delta \\Phi$ strongly suggests a significant `excess' of primary CR electrons and at energies of $100-400$ GeV the identified excess component has a flux comparable to that of the observed positron excess. Middle-age but `nearby' supernova remnants (e.g., Monogem and Geminga) are favored sources for such an excess.

  2. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    containing monthly energy production statistics] ChinaReserves Chapter IL Energy Production Chapter III. EnergyCountries CHAPTER II. ENERGY PRODUCTION 1. Primary Energy

  3. Primary Bilingual logo 02 Primary Unilingual Logo 02

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    brand Visual identity guidelines #12;logos Primary Bilingual logo 02 Primary Unilingual Logo 02 Logo 08 Athletics 09 Contents brand Colours Primary + Secondary Brand Colour 10 typography 13 friendships. #12;2 logos primary bilingual Crest logo Use the bilingual crest logo for all communications

  4. 10 Year Transmission Plan for the Western Electricity Interconnection Released

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) announced the release of its first 10-Year Regional Transmission Plan (Plan) for the Western Interconnection. The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability awarded WECC a $14.5 million grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to expand on its transmission planning activities.

  5. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of primary energy excluding biomass fuels. Figure 10 showsof primary energy without counting biomass fuels which areFinal Energy Consumption by Fuel (with Biomass) Coal

  6. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the IEA Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES). An averagetotal energy supply worldwide is lost into upstream processes that transform primary energy

  7. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    nuclear Historical Primary Energy Consumption by sector Energy Use by Sector (EJ Services Transportation Agriculture

  8. INTRODUCTION CHONDROCYTES DERIVE their primary energy supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waldman, Stephen D.

    of glucose (gly- colysis).1,2 As little of the pyruvate produced by glycol- ysis enters the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle),3,4 pyruvate is converted to lactic acid by lactate dehydrogenase (in 2:1 molar ratio in culture media because they can perform under both slightly acidic and alkaline conditions. However

  9. Energy Agency Coordinators for Energy Action Month

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Agency coordinators serve as primary Federal agency points of contact for Energy Action Month. Contact them if you have questions about implementing an Energy Action Month campaign.

  10. On the primary beam deceleration in the pulsar wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arzamasskiy, Lev; Prokofev, Vadim

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the motion of the primary beam outside the light cylinder in the pulsar wind. Inside the light cylinder both primary and secondary plasma move along dipole magnetic field lines where their energies can be arbitrary. But at larger distances the theory predicts quasi-radial motion with the velocity exactly corresponding to the drift velocity which cannot be the same for primary and secondary plasma. Hence, the deceleration of the primary beam is to take place simultaneously resulting in the acceleration of the secondary plasma. We investigate this process in the three-fluid MHD approximation and demonstrate that for most pulsars the energy of the beam remains practically unchanged. Only for young radio pulsars (Crab, Vela) essential deceleration up to the energy of the secondary plasma takes place outside the fast magnetosonic surface $r_{\\rm F} \\sim (10$-$100) R_{\\rm L}$, the energy of secondary plasma itself increasing insufficiently.

  11. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    National Harbor #12;U.S. Energy Consumption U.S. Primary Energy Consumption by Source and Sector 2 #12 · Efficiencies can be 60% (electrical) and 85% (with CHP) · > 90% reduction in criteria pollutants U.S. Department of Energy #12;7 Market Transformation Government acquisitions could significantly reduce the cost

  12. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AAGR Total Primary Energy (Mtce) Coal Production (1985-2009)Physical Unit to Coal Equivalent For this energy form 1Total Primary Energy Supply Coke Coal Gas not Coke Other

  13. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AAGR EJ Total Primary Energy (Mtce) Coal Production (1985-AAGR EJ Primary Energy Production (Mtce) Coal Oil Naturalby Fuel Shares Coal Oil Natural Gas Energy-Related CO 2

  14. Apportionment of ambient primary and secondary fine particulate matter at the Pittsburgh National Energy Laboratory particulate matter characterization site using positive matrix factorization and a potential source contributions function analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald V. Martello; Natalie J. Pekney; Richard R. Anderson (and others) [U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations associated with 202 24-hr samples collected at the National Energy Technology Laboratory particulate matter characterization site in south Pittsburgh from October 1999 through September 2001 were used to apportion PM2.5 into primary and secondary contributions using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2). Input included the concentrations of PM2.5 mass determined with a Federal Reference Method (FRM) sampler, semi-volatile PM2.5 organic material, elemental carbon (EC), and trace element components of PM2.5. A total of 11 factors were identified. The results of potential source contributions function analysis using PMF2 factors and HYSPLIT-calculated back-trajectories were used to identify those factors associated with specific meteorological transport conditions. The 11 factors were identified as being associated with emissions from various specific regions and facilities including crustal material, gasoline combustion, diesel combustion, and three nearby sources high in trace metals. Three sources associated with transport from coal-fired power plants to the southeast, a combination of point sources to the northwest, and a steel mill and associated sources to the west were identified. In addition, two secondary-material-dominated sources were identified, one was associated with secondary products of local emissions and one was dominated by secondary ammonium sulfate transported to the NETL site from the west and southwest. Of these 11 factors, the four largest contributors to PM2.5 were the secondary transported material, local secondary material, diesel combustion emissions, and gasoline combustion emissions. 26 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  15. 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). WECC has been relatively successful in developing 10 (and soon 20

  16. Effects of Temporal Wind Patterns on the Value of Wind-Generated Electricity in California and the Northwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan H

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory, private communi- cation, March 12, 2004. WECC, "WECC 2006 Power Supply Assessment," Western Electricity

  17. Assessing Reliability in Energy Supply Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Dan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    total of 15 metrics. Pathway reliability General objectives Adequacy Security Functional zones Primary energy supply

  18. Assessing reliability in energy supply systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Daniel

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    total of 15 metrics. Pathway reliability General objectives Adequacy Security Functional zones Primary energy supply

  19. BSM Primary Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rick S. Gupta; Alex Pomarol; Francesco Riva

    2014-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the predictive power of the effective field theory approach, we present a physical parametrization of the leading effects beyond the SM (BSM), that give us at present the best way to constrain heavy new-physics at low-energies. We show that other BSM effects are not independent from these ones, and we provide the explicit correlations. This information is useful to know where to primarily look for new physics in future experiments, and to know how this new physics is related to previous measurements, most importantly in electroweak-symmetry breaking processes or Higgs physics.

  20. Jan 28 Primary Productivity: Controls, Patterns, Consequences Yucatan, Mexico, Dry Subtropical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Andrew J.

    coming around to better integrate energy flow into thinking on population and community ecology History Central Surinam Reserve, Wet Tropical Grand Teton NP, Wyoming, Temperate Coniferous #12;Primary

  1. Calculating Long-Term Trends in the Real Real Prices of Primary Commodities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Tilton (2006). Key Words: primary commodity prices, Prebisch-Singer hypothesis, inflation correctionsCalculating Long-Term Trends in the Real Real Prices of Primary Commodities: Deflator Adjustment Resources; Energy; Environment; Other Primary Products Q32 - Exhaustible Resources and Economic Development

  2. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fridley, David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural Gas Coal Total Primary Energy Use (Mtce) Acceleratedimprovement of the energy performance of coal fired powermillion tonnes coal equivalent more primary energy than the

  3. Apportionment of ambient primary and secondary fine particulate matter at the Pittsburgh National Energy Laboratory particulate matter characterization site using positive matrix factorization and a potential source contributions function analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martello, D.V.; Pekney, N.J.; Anderson, R.R.; Davidson, C.I. (Carnegie Mellon U., Pittsburgh, PA); Hopke, P.K. (Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY); Kim, E. (Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY); Christensen, W.F. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT); Mangelson, N.F. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT); Eatough, D.J. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT)

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations associated with 202 24-hr samples collected at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) particulate matter (PM) characterization site in south Pittsburgh from October 1999 through September 2001 were used to apportion PM2.5 into primary and secondary contributions using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2). Input included the concentrations of PM2.5 mass determined with a Federal Reference Method (FRM) sampler, semi-volatile PM2.5 organic material, elemental carbon (EC), and trace element components of PM2.5. A total of 11 factors were identified. The results of potential source contributions function (PSCF) analysis using PMF2 factors and HYSPLIT-calculated back-trajectories were used to identify those factors associated with specific meteorological transport conditions. The 11 factors were identified as being associated with emissions from various specific regions and facilities including crustal material, gasoline combustion, diesel combustion, and three nearby sources high in trace metals. Three sources associated with transport from coal-fired power plants to the southeast, a combination of point sources to the northwest, and a steel mill and associated sources to the west were identified. In addition, two secondary-material-dominated sources were identified, one was associated with secondary products of local emissions and one was dominated by secondary ammonium sulfate transported to the NETL site from the west and southwest. Of these 11 factors, the four largest contributors to PM2.5 were the secondary transported material (dominated by ammonium sulfate) (47%), local secondary material (19%), diesel combustion emissions (10%), and gasoline combustion emissions (8%). The other seven factors accounted for the remaining 16% of the PM2.5 mass. The findings are consistent with the major source of PM2.5 in the Pittsburgh area being dominated by ammonium sulfate from distant transport and so decoupled from local activity emitting organic pollutants in the metropolitan area. In contrast, the major local secondary sources are dominated by organic material.

  4. Apportionment of ambient primary and secondary fine particulate matter at the Pittsburgh National Energy Laboratory particulate matter characterization site using positive matrix factorization and a potential source contributions function analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martello, DV [Martello, Donald V.; Pekney, NJ [Pekney, Natalie J.; Anderson, RR [Anderson, Richard; R,; Davidson, CI [Davidson, Cliff I.; Hopke, PK [Hopke, Philip K.; Kim, E [Kim, Eugene; Christensen, WF; (Christensen, William F.); Mangelson, NF [Mangelson, Nolan F.; Eatough, DJ [Eatough, Delbert J.

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations associated with 202 24-hr amples collected at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) particulate matter (PM) characterization site in south Pittsburgh from October 1999 through September 2001 were used to apportion PM2.5 into primary and secondary contributions using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2). Input included the concentrations of PM2.5 mass determined with a Federal Reference Method (FRM) sampler, semi-volatile PM2.5, organic material, elemental carbon (EC), and trace element components of PM2.5. A total of 11 factors were identified. The results of potential source contributions function (PSCF) analysis using PMF2 factors and HYSPLIT-calculated back-trajectories were used to identify those factors associated with specific meteorological transport conditions. The 11 factors were identified as being associated with emissions from various specific regions and facilities including crustal material, gasoline combustion, diesel combustion, and three nearby sources high in trace metals. Three sources associated with transport from coal-fired power plants to the southeast, a combination of point sources to the northwest, and a steel mill and associated sources to the west were identified. In addition, two secondary-material-dominated sources were identified, one was associated with secondary products of local emissions and one was dominated by secondary ammonium sulfate transported to the NETL site from the west and southwest. Of these 11 factors, the four largest contributors to PM2.5, were the secondary transported material (dominated by ammonium sulfate) (47%), local secondary material (19%), diesel combustion emissions (10%), and gasoline combustion emissions (8%). The other seven factors accounted for the remaining 16% of the PM2.5 mass. The findings are consistent with the major source of PM2.5 in the Pittsburgh area being dominated by ammonium sulfate from distant transport and so decoupled from local activity emitting organic pollutants in the metropolitan area. In contrast, the major local secondary sources are dominated by organic material.

  5. Apportionment of Ambient Primary and Secondary Fine Particulate Matter at the Pittsburgh National Energy Laboratory Particulate Matter Characterization Site Using Positive Matrix Factorization and a Potential Source Contributions Function Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martello, Donald [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Pekney, Natalie [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Anderson, Richard [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Davidson, Cliff [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA; Hopke, Philip [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States). Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, and Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kim, Eugene [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States). Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, and Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Christensen, William [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Dept. of Statistics; Mangelson, Nolan [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Eatough, Delbert [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations associated with 202 24-hr samples collected at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) particulate matter (PM) characterization site in south Pittsburgh from October 1999 through September 2001 were used to apportion PM2.5 into primary and secondary contributions using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2). Input included the concentrations of PM2.5 mass determined with a Federal Reference Method (FRM) sampler, semi-volatile PM2.5, organic material, elemental carbon (EC), and trace element components of PM2.5. A total of 11 factors were identified. The results of potential source contributions function (PSCF) analysis using PMF2 factors and HYSPLIT-calculated back-trajectories were used to identify those factors associated with specific meteorological transport conditions. The 11 factors were identified as being associated with emissions from various specific regions and facilities including crustal material, gasoline combustion, diesel combustion, and three nearby sources high in trace metals. Three sources associated with transport from coal-fired power plants to the southeast, a combination of point sources to the northwest, and a steel mill and associated sources to the west were identified. In addition, two secondary-material-dominated sources were identified, one was associated with secondary products of local emissions and one was dominated by secondary ammonium sulfate transported to the NETL site from the west and southwest. Of these 11 factors, the four largest contributors to PM2.5, were the secondary transported material (dominated by ammonium sulfate) (47%), local secondary material (19%), diesel combustion emissions (10%), and gasoline combustion emissions (8%). The other seven factors accounted for the remaining 16% of the PM2.5 mass. The findings are consistent with the major source of PM2.5 in the Pittsburgh area being dominated by ammonium sulfate from distant transport and so decoupled from local activity emitting organic pollutants in the metropolitan area. In contrast, the major local secondary sources are dominated by organic material.

  6. Renewable source controls for grid stability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Elliott, Ryan Thomas; Neely, Jason C.; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Schoenwald, David Alan; Grant, Lisa

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the small signal and transient stability of the Western Electric- ity Coordinating Council (WECC) under high penetrations of renewable energy, and to identify control technologies that would improve the system performance. The WECC is the regional entity responsible for coordinating and promoting bulk electric system reliability in the Western Interconnection. Transient stability is the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism after a large disturbance while small signal stability is the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism after a small disturbance. Tran- sient stability analysis usually focuses on the relative rotor angle between synchronous machines compared to some stability margin. For this study we employed generator speed relative to system speed as a metric for assessing transient stability. In addition, we evaluated the system transient response using the system frequency nadir, which provides an assessment of the adequacy of the primary frequency control reserves. Small signal stability analysis typically identi es the eigenvalues or modes of the system in response to a disturbance. For this study we developed mode shape maps for the di erent scenarios. Prony analysis was applied to generator speed after a 1.4 GW, 0.5 second, brake insertion at various locations. Six di erent WECC base cases were analyzed, including the 2022 light spring case which meets the renewable portfolio standards. Because of the di culty in identifying the cause and e ect relationship in large power system models with di erent scenarios, several simulations were run on a 7-bus, 5-generator system to isolate the e ects of di erent con gurations. Based on the results of the study, for a large power system like the WECC, incorporating frequency droop into wind/solar systems provides a larger bene t to system transient response than replacing the lost inertia with synthetic inertia. From a small signal stability perspective, the increase in renewable penetration results in subtle changes to the system modes. In gen- eral, mode frequencies increase slightly, and mode shapes remain similar. The system frequency nadir for the 2022 light spring case was slightly lower than the other cases, largely because of the reduced system inertia. However, the nadir is still well above the minimum load shedding frequency of 59.5 Hz. Finally, several discrepancies were identi ed between actual and reported wind penetration, and additional work on wind/solar modeling is required to increase the delity of the WECC models.

  7. Virginia Energy Plan (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 2010 Virginia Energy Plan affirms the state's support for the development of renewable energy. The Plan assesses the state’s energy picture through an examination of the state’s primary energy...

  8. Confluent primary fields in the conformal field theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajime Nagoya; Juanjuan Sun

    2010-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    For any complex simple Lie algebra, we generalize primary fileds in the Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten conformal field theory with respect to the case of irregular singularities and we construct integral representations of hypergeometric functions of confluent type, as expectation values of products of generalized primary fields. In the case of sl(2), these integral representations coincide with solutions to confluent KZ equations. Computing the operator product expansion of the energy-momentum tensor and the generalized primary field, new differential operators appear in the result. In the case of sl(2), these differential operators are the same as those of the confluent KZ equations.

  9. Energy security Where will our energy come from?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    Source: World Energy Outlook 2010, International Energy Agency, 2010 #12;Natural gas and coal prices are volatile Source: EIA, Natural Gas Wellhead Prices; Annual Energy Review 2010 $0 $10 $20 $30 $40 $50 $60 $0 Energy Outlook 2010 #12;Nova Scotia: Primary and secondary energy Primary energy sources Source TWh Crude

  10. Increasing primary energy and electricity demand. Persistent energy deficit situation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -dependence on coal. 450 million people without access to electricity. Off-grid (basic lighting, irrigation pumps, etc

  11. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  12. Development and Validation of WECC Variable Speed Wind Turbine Dynamic Models for Grid Integration Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behnke, M.; Ellis, A.; Kazachkov, Y.; McCoy, T.; Muljadi, E.; Price, W.; Sanchez-Gasca, J.

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes reduced-order, simplified wind turbine models for analyzing the stability impact of large arrays of wind turbines with a single point of network interconnection.

  13. Safety and performance enhancement circuit for primary explosive detonators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Ronald W. (Tracy, CA)

    2006-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A safety and performance enhancement arrangement for primary explosive detonators. This arrangement involves a circuit containing an energy storage capacitor and preset self-trigger to protect the primary explosive detonator from electrostatic discharge (ESD). The circuit does not discharge into the detonator until a sufficient level of charge is acquired on the capacitor. The circuit parameters are designed so that normal ESD environments cannot charge the protection circuit to a level to achieve discharge. When functioned, the performance of the detonator is also improved because of the close coupling of the stored energy.

  14. Lead-free primary explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huynh, My Hang V.

    2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula (cat).sub.Y[M.sup.II(T).sub.X(H.sub.2O).sub.6-X].sub.Z, where T is 5-nitrotetrazolate, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  15. Primary Health Faculty of Medicine,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albrecht, David

    School of Primary Health Care Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences Central Clinical Hospital Centre for Inflammatory Diseases School of Public Health & Preventive Medicine Australasian Disability Health Victoria School of Psychology and Psychiatry Centre for Rural Mental Health (in abeyance

  16. China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, Ed., David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    9B.4. Shares of World Primary Energy Consumption by Country9B.4. Shares of World Primary Energy Consumption by Country9B.4. Shares of World Primary Energy Consumption by Country

  17. China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, Ed., David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Type, 1995 Chapter 2, Energy Production Table 2A.1.1.Primary Energy Production Table 2A.1.2.Primary Energy Production (Mtce) Table 2A.1.3. Primary

  18. India Energy Outlook: End Use Demand in India to 2020

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    nuclear hydro Energy output Own Uses Transmission and distribution loses Electricity delivered Primary factor The Agriculture

  19. Energy for 500 Million Homes: Drivers and Outlook for Residential Energy Consumption in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LPG is a major energy source, while coal and electricity areoil coal Figure 14 Residential Primary Energy Consumption bytotal primary energy supply in 2000, coal will drop to about

  20. Intense ultraviolet perturbations on aquatic primary producers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guimarais, Mayrene; Horvath, Jorge

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the last decade, the hypothesis that one or more biodiversity drops in the Phanerozoic eon, evident in the geological record, might have been caused by the most powerful kind of stellar explosion so far known (Gamma Ray Bursts) has been discussed in several works. These stellar explosions could have left an imprint in the biological evolution on Earth and in other habitable planets. In this work we calculate the short-term lethality that a GRB would produce in the aquatic primary producers on Earth. This effect on life appears as a result of ultraviolet (UV) re-transmission in the atmosphere of a fraction of the gamma energy, resulting in an intense UV flash capable of penetrating ~ tens of meters in the water column in the ocean. We focus on the action of the UV flash on phytoplankton, as they are the main contributors to global aquatic primary productivity. Our results suggest that the UV flash could cause an hemispheric reduction of phytoplankton biomass in the upper mixed layer of the World Ocean o...

  1. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intensity Trends: Primary Commercial Energy Consumption perEnergy Consumption Coal Consumption Shares, Selected Countries Energy Intensity Trends,energy consumption per unit of gross domestic product) of different national economies are problematic, intensity trends

  2. Annual Energy Outlook 2012

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of energy by electricity-only and combined heat and power plants whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. Includes small...

  3. Turkey's energy demand and supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balat, M. [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of the present article is to investigate Turkey's energy demand and the contribution of domestic energy sources to energy consumption. Turkey, the 17th largest economy in the world, is an emerging country with a buoyant economy challenged by a growing demand for energy. Turkey's energy consumption has grown and will continue to grow along with its economy. Turkey's energy consumption is high, but its domestic primary energy sources are oil and natural gas reserves and their production is low. Total primary energy production met about 27% of the total primary energy demand in 2005. Oil has the biggest share in total primary energy consumption. Lignite has the biggest share in Turkey's primary energy production at 45%. Domestic production should be to be nearly doubled by 2010, mainly in coal (lignite), which, at present, accounts for almost half of the total energy production. The hydropower should also increase two-fold over the same period.

  4. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Iron and Steel Industry in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    around 72% of total primary energy supply of Latin Americastudy with the total primary energy supply of Latin America,with the total primary energy supply of Latin America, the

  5. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Cement Industry in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    around 32% of total primary energy supply of Latin Americastudy with the total primary energy supply of Latin America,with the total primary energy supply of Latin America, the

  6. Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContractElectron-StateEnergy /newsroom/_assets/images/energy-icon.png Energy

  7. Primary Components of Binomial Ideals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eser, Zekiye

    2014-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 2.4 A band graph with an infinite component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 2.5 The band graph G6pMq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 2.6 Slice graphs for IpBq #16; xx4z #1; y4, x7z #1; y7y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 2... decomposition in charpkq #16; 0 and the primary components are Ii1,...,ir . The following example illustrates how the operations defined above work. All the computations are performed using the computer algebra system Singular, [16]. Example 1.45. Let D #16; #20...

  8. Introduction: The California Top Two Primary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinclair, Betsy

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with the adoption of the top two primary, and we lookIntroduction: The California Top Two Primary Betsy Sinclairfrequently asserted that the “top-two” would produce more

  9. Evaluation of Production Cost Savings from Consolidation of Balancing Authorities in the US Western Interconnection under High Wind and Solar Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Tony B.; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

    2014-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper introduces a comprehensive analysis to quantify the potential savings in production cost due to consolidation of 32 US western interconnection Balancing Authorities (BAs). Three simulation scenarios are developed: current Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) BAs structure, full copper-sheet consolidation, and full consolidation with transmission congestion considered. The study uses WECC Transmission Expansion Planning Policy Committee (TEPPC) model that was developed for the year 2020. The model assumes 8% wind and 3% solar energy penetration as percentage of total WECC demand in 2020. Sensitivity analyses are carried out to assess the impact of transmission hurdle rates between WECC BAs on potential benefits. The study shows savings that ranges from $400 Million (2.4% of total one year production cost) to $600 Million (3.2%) per year in thermal units production cost due to consolidation can be achieved. The copper sheet consolidation scenario shows an extra savings of $240 Million (1.4%) per year.

  10. 2010 Wind Technologies Market Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coordinating Council (WECC). 2010. Scope of the EfficientCoordinating Council (WECC) authorized a cost benefitthe Western Interconnection (WECC 2010). Some utilities are

  11. Regulation, Allocation, and Leakage in Cap-and-Trade Markets for CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushnell, Jim B; Chen, Yihsu

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the Western Electricity Coordinat- ing Council (WECC).The WECC is the organization responsible for coordinatingof these regions. First The WECC periodically reports on the

  12. An Examination of Temporal Trends in Electricity Reliability Based on Reports from U.S. Electric Utilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eto, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SAIDI SAIFI SERC SPP TRE WECC Alaska Systems CoordinatingElectricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Midwest ReliabilityCoordinating Council (WECC). Completeness of reported

  13. 2011 Wind Technologies Market Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    June 2012. Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC).2011. WECC Efficient Dispatch Toolkit Cost-Benefit Analysis.Coordinating Council (WECC). 2010. Scope of the Efficient

  14. REAL TIME SYSTEM OPERATIONS 2006-2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eto, Joseph H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Table 1: Spectral content of WECC data Arnold SchwarzeneggerCoordinating Council (WECC) utility  transmission Coordinating Council (WECC)  coordination, and North 

  15. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coordinating Council (WECC) region with increasedgeneration in the wider WECC region, at least partially.the region of study were WECC, geographic diversity of solar

  16. Approaches To Integrating A HIgh Penertration Of Solar PV and CPV Onto The Electrical Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Steven Craig

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric Coordinating Council (WECC), the National RenewableSubstations Recommendations For WECC Transmission Expansioncoordinated with the CAISO and WECC. OTHER The target budget

  17. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AD? OpenDocument WECC 2005, Frequency Response Standard,30-minute response. Finally, a WECC proposes a reduction ineach Balancing Area to a single WECC wide spinning reserve

  18. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Conditioner Testing in WECC,” IEEE Power  Engineering Air Conditioner Modeling, WECC Load Modeling Task  Force in power system studies: WECC progress update,? Power and 

  19. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric Coordinating Council (WECC); Fred LeBlanc, WesternAdministration (WAPA) and WECC; and Dorris Lam, Californiaon System Stability. WECC system stability is enhanced when

  20. DOE Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Program Focus Groups...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rating Program Focus Groups with Primary Stakeholders in Seattle -- Final Report DOE Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Program Focus Groups with Primary Stakeholders in...

  1. Long-term investigation of microbial fuel cells treating primary sludge or digested sludge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Microbial fuel cell Primary sludge Digested sludge Energy Biogas a b s t r a c t The long-term performance. Digested sludge can be further composted for agriculture uses, and biogas can be con- vertedLong-term investigation of microbial fuel cells treating primary sludge or digested sludge Zheng Ge

  2. Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMFormsGasRelease Date:researchEmerging ThreatsEmployment Openings

  3. Black Holes with Primary Hair in gauged N=8 Supergravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andres Anabalon; Fabrizio Canfora; Alex Giacomini; Julio Oliva

    2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we analyze the static solutions for the $U(1)^{4}$ consistent truncation of the maximally supersymmetric gauged supergravity in four dimensions. Using a new parametrization of the known solutions it is shown that for fixed charges there exist three possible black hole configurations according to the pattern of symmetry breaking of the (scalars sector of the) Lagrangian. Namely a black hole without scalar fields, a black hole with a primary hair and a black hole with a secondary hair respectively. This is the first, exact, example of a black hole with a primary scalar hair, where both the black hole and the scalar fields are regular on and outside the horizon. The configurations with secondary and primary hair can be interpreted as a spontaneous symmetry breaking of discrete permutation and reflection symmetries of the action. It is shown that there exist a triple point in the thermodynamic phase space where the three solution coexist. The corresponding phase transitions are discussed and the free energies are written explicitly as function of the thermodynamic coordinates in the uncharged case. In the charged case the free energies of the primary hair and the hairless black hole are also given as functions of the thermodynamic coordinates.

  4. Solar Energy System Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A solar energy system is defined as "any device that uses the heat of the sun as its primary energy source and is used to heat or cool the interior of a structure or swimming pool, or to heat...

  5. Energy

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling CorpNew 1325.8.Enaineer;/:4,4 (; ...) "..

  6. Technologies and Policies to Improve Energy Efficiency in Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Total Primary Energy Consumption World US China Californiaprimary energy consumption, compared to the world (39%), theFigure 3. Energy consumption by sector for the world, the

  7. India Energy Outlook: End Use Demand in India to 2020

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    patterns of energy consumption, trends in saturation and1 shows the trend in total primary energy consumption overvalue added – energy consumption. This trend can be observed

  8. National Laboratory Liaisons | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Laboratory Liaisons National Laboratory Liaisons The following U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory liaisons serve as primary contacts for the Federal Energy...

  9. Sensors, Controls, and Transactive Energy Research | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    40% of the primary energy (74% of the electricity) produced in the United States, and commercial buildings account for 46% percent of total building energy consumption. Over...

  10. Consistent Query Answering Of Conjunctive Queries Under Primary Key Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pema, Enela

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Queries and Primary Key Constraints . . . . . . . . . .of Employee w.r.t. the primary key SSN ? {name, salary} . .query answering under primary keys: a characterization of

  11. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    balance, by definition, Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES)definition, and thus the results are incomplete. The Chinese energy

  12. Working with SRNL - Our Facilities- Primary Standards Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsingWhat is abigpresentedMetal HydrideHighPrimary

  13. Frequency Control Performance Measurement and Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illian, Howard F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Standard Drafting Team, September 30. [81] WECC Tutorial onSpeed Governors, WECC Control Work Group, February 1998,http://www.wecc.biz/library/WECC%20Documents/Documents%

  14. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PV REC RPS RT SAM T&D TES WECC WREZ WWSIS VG VOLL AncillaryCoordinating Council (WECC). http://www.wecc.biz/committees/Coordinating Council (WECC). TEPPC TAS 2020 Dataset

  15. Dynamic Simulation Studies of the Frequency Response of the Three U.S. Interconnections with Increased Wind Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mackin, Peter

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on work performed by the WECC Wind Generator Modeling GroupModeling Approach in the WECC. ” IEEE Transactions on PowerNational Laboratory. 11. WECC. 2008. WECC Standard BAL-002-

  16. Use of Frequency Response Metrics to Assess the Planning and Operating Requirements for Reliable Integration of Variable Renewable Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eto, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Responsive Reserve Report. WECC Frequency Responsive Reserve=&View={BB5A76DA-21C8-48FC-9468-F82B395DF8F9} WECC.2008. WECC Standard BAL-002-WECC-1 - Contingency Reserves.

  17. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Analysis Capabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory Analysis Capabilities Overview The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the nation's primary laboratory for renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development (R&D). NREL

  18. ENERGY

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisory Board Contributions EMEM RecoveryManagement'sJuneAprilEMS U.S.

  19. Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWater UseCElizabethTwoJaniceEnerG2Energetics of Hydrogen .M

  20. Self Certifications | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    electric powerplant may be constructed or operated without the capability to use coal or another alternate fuel as a primary energy source. In order to meet the requirement...

  1. Zero Waste, Renewable Energy & Environmental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    incinerator has a high potential for energy recovery. Its primary or boiler efficiency exceeds 80 %, the power efficiency amounts to 20 ­ 25 % and in modern plant

  2. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Others Total Total Crude Oil Production by Region (1985-North West Chinese Crude Oil Production by Regional SharesEnergy Production (Mtce) AAGR Coal Raw Crude Oil Primary

  3. Assessment of the magnesium primary production technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flemings, M.C.; Kenney, G.B.; Sadoway, D.R.; Clark, J.P.; Szekely, J.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At current production levels, direct energy savings achievable in primary magnesium production are 1.2 milliquads of energy per annum. Were magnesium to penetrate the automotive market to an average level of 50 pounds per vehicle, the resultant energy savings at the production stage would be somewhat larger, but the resulting savings in gasoline would conserve an estimated 325 milliquads of energy per year. The principal barrier to more widespread use of magnesium in the immediate future is its price. A price reduction of magnesium of 10% would lead to widespread conversion of aluminum die and permanent mold castings to magnesium. This report addresses the technology of electrolytic and thermic magnesium production and the economics of expanded magnesium production and use.

  4. Impacts of Minnesota's Primary Seat Belt Law

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    for Excellence in Rural Safety Humphrey School of Public Affairs #12;CERS's "Safe Six Regardless of Residence Urban/Small City Suburban Rural/Small Town Primary Seat; . . AND IN MINNESOTA #12;Predicted Impact 2009 and 2010 CERS Reports: · Primary Seat Belt Laws

  5. CBDPP PRIMARY AND ALTERNATE MEMBERS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccess Stories Siteandscience, and8 FY0Link

  6. Benefit of Regional Energy Balancing Service on Wind Integration in the Western Interconnection of the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interest in various wide-area balancing schemes to help integrate wind have generated significant interest. As we have shown in past work, large balancing areas not only help with wind integration, but can also increase the efficiency of operations in systems without wind. Recent work on the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) has found that combining balancing over the WestConnect footprint will increase the efficiency of commitment and dispatch at wind penetrations ranging from 10-20% of annual electricity demand, and will be essential for high penetrations and small balancing areas. In addition the Northwest Wind Integration Action Plan recommended balancing area cooperation as a method to help integrate the large potential wind development. In this paper we investigate the potential impact of a proposed Energy Imbalance Service on the ability of the non-market portions of Western Electricity Coordinating Councils (WECC) United States footprint to integrate wind energy. We will utilize data adapted from the WWSIS for the Western Interconnection. The analysis uses time-synchronized wind and load data to evaluate the potential for ramp requirement reduction that could be achieved with combined operation. Chronological analysis and ramp duration analysis quantify the benefit in terms of not only the ramp sizes, but the frequency of the potentially avoided ramps that must be managed by the non-wind generation fleet. Multiple approaches that can be used to achieve these benefits will also be suggested in the paper. We also suggest other approaches that can help achieve much of the benefit of full consolidation without requiring the physical consolidation of balancing areas.

  7. Energetics of Primary Charge Separation in Bacterial Photosynthetic Reaction Center Mutants: Triplet Decay in Large Magnetic Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boxer, Steven G.

    energy change associated with primary charge separation in wild-type reaction centers. Introduction decay pathway leads to an approach for obtaining information on the relative energies of the radical of the absolute energy of 3 P from its phosphorescence, the energy of the initial charge separation reaction can

  8. Mechanical Design of the HER Synchrotron Light Monitor Primary Mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daly, Edward F.; /SLAC; Fisher, Alan S.; Kurita, Nadine R.; Langton, J.; /SLAC

    2011-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the primary mirror that images the visible portion of the synchrotron radiation (SR) extracted from the High Energy Ring (HER) of the PEP-II B-Factory. During off-axis operation, the water-cooled GlidCop mirror is subjected to a heat flux in excess of 2000 W/cm2. When on-axis imaging occurs, the heat flux due to scattered SR, resistive wall losses and Higher-Order-Mode (HOM) heating is estimated at 1 W/cm2. The imaging surface is plated with Electroless Nickel to improve its optical characteristics. The design requirements for the primary mirror are listed and discussed. Calculated mechanical distortions and stresses experienced by the mirror during on-axis and off-axis operation will be presented.

  9. India Energy Outlook: End Use Demand in India to 2020

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    input Coal gas oil nuclear hydro Energy output Own Uses Transmission and distribution loses Electricity delivered Primary factor The Agriculture

  10. Preparation of a primary argon beam for the CERN fixed target physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Küchler, D., E-mail: detlef.kuchler@cern.ch; O’Neil, M.; Scrivens, R. [CERN, BE Department, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)] [CERN, BE Department, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Thomae, R. [iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7130 (South Africa)] [iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7130 (South Africa)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The fixed target experiment NA61 in the North Area of the Super Proton Synchrotron is studying phase transitions in strongly interacting matter. Up to now they used the primary beams available from the CERN accelerator complex (protons and lead ions) or fragmented beams created from the primary lead ion beam. To explore a wider range of energies and densities a request was made to provide primary argon and xenon beams. This paper describes the results of the setting up and 10 week test run of the Ar{sup 11+} beam from the 14.5 GHz ECR ion source and the linear accelerator (Linac3) at CERN.

  11. LOGO, Mathematics and Upper Primary School Children 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finlayson, Helen M.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was set up to assess the contribution that a computer modelling approach using the language LOGO could make to the quality of mathematics learning in primary school children. Following a constructivist theory ...

  12. Table 5. Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    19,26551,6536,8975,17488,20731,12287,7472,8427,8149,0.5,0.1,0 "Wind",666983,508612,5028,5182,5453,5221,5784,5777,5081,5167,6043,871,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0.1,5.5 "IPP and...

  13. Energy and Security in Northeast Asia: Supply and Demand, Conflict and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fesharaki, Fereidun; Banaszak, Sarah; WU, Kang; Valencia, Mark J.; Dorian, James P.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    scenario, China's primary energy consumption is forecast toChina and Period Historical GDP Oil Coal Gas Fossil Energy Total Forecast:China Period Historical GDP Oil Coal Gas Nuclear Power Hydroelectricity Primary Energy Total Forecast:

  14. UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment Renewable Energy Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the total primary energy use in 2100 - WEC scenarios. (82% - phasing out most fossil fuel and CO2 below 450 costs, taxes (local and import), subsidies and energy prices Technical Lack of access to the technology

  15. Free electron gas primary thermometer: The bipolar junction transistor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mimila-Arroyo, J., E-mail: jmimila@cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Dpto. de Ing. Eléctrica-SEES, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional No 2508, México D.F. CP 07360 (Mexico)

    2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The temperature of a bipolar transistor is extracted probing its carrier energy distribution through its collector current, obtained under appropriate polarization conditions, following a rigorous mathematical method. The obtained temperature is independent of the transistor physical properties as current gain, structure (Homo-junction or hetero-junction), and geometrical parameters, resulting to be a primary thermometer. This proposition has been tested using off the shelf silicon transistors at thermal equilibrium with water at its triple point, the transistor temperature values obtained involve an uncertainty of a few milli-Kelvin. This proposition has been successfully tested in the temperature range of 77–450?K.

  16. Solar Energy Resources and Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solar energy provides electricity, heating, and cooling for Federal facilities through four primary technology types. The four technologies are broken into two categories; technologies for electricity production and thermal energy technologies.

  17. Solar Energy Sales Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "a set of devices whose primary purpose is to collect solar energy and convert and store it for useful purposes including heating and cooling buildings or other energy-using processes, or to...

  18. China Energy Primer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Primary Energy Consumption (Shares) Coal Crude Oil Naturalconsumption doubled from 5.1 to 10.53 Mtce , while both crude oilfuel consumption in 2006. The sector’s use of crude oil

  19. The Top Two Primary: What Can California Learn from Washington?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donovan, Todd

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Swanson Speaks Out against Top-Two Open Primary. ” BallotVery Partisan Non-Partisan Top Two Primary: Understanding2010/06/09/will- californias-top-two-primary-work/.

  20. Energy flow and ecosystem dynamics and wood energy in forest ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    source is the Sun which supplies the energy continuously for the Earth. All times some part of the Earth energy reaches the Earth is very small compared to the total energy emission from the Sun. The reason known as primary consumers consume the plants for their energy requirements. These primary consumers

  1. Realized and Projected Impacts of U.S. Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential and Commercial Appliances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Stephen P.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    but not on energy consumption, as the AHAM data reflect acalculated energy consumption based on annual data from AHAMwith corresponding data on primary energy consumption by the

  2. Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China's Commercial and Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Primary Electricity Coal Final energy use in buildings is9 million tonnes of coal equivalent energy could be saved byproportion of energy consumed from coal, coke, liquid fuels,

  3. DOE Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Program Focus Groups...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Program Focus Groups with Primary Stakeholders in Seattle -- Final Report DOE Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Program Focus Groups...

  4. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Source

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Read full section Mkt trends Market Trends Industrial and commercial sectors lead U.S. growth in primary energy use.... Read full section Growth in industrial energy...

  5. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Source

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Industrial Mkt trends Market Trends Industrial and commercial sectors lead U.S. growth in primary energy use.... Read full section Manufacturing heat and power energy consumption...

  6. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Source

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    declines from 2010 to 2040 ...Read full section Industrial and commercial sectors lead U.S. growth in primary energy use ...Read full section Renewable energy courses lead...

  7. Energy Research and Development Division STAFF REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Research and Development Division STAFF REPORT NATURAL GAS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 2013 Annual Report CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION Edmund G. Brown Jr., Governor OCTOBER 2013 CEC5002013111 #12; CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION Linda Schrupp Primary Authors Prepared for: California

  8. Transmission Planning Process and Opportunities for Utility-Scale Solar Engagement within the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hein, J.; Hurlbut, D.; Milligan, M.; Coles, L.; Green, B.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a primer for solar developers who wish to engage directly in expediting the regulatory process and removing market barriers related to policy and planning. Market barriers unrelated to technology often limit the expansion of utility-scale solar power, even in areas with exceptional resource potential. Many of these non-technical barriers have to do with policy, regulation, and planning, and hardly ever do they resolve themselves in a timely fashion. In most cases, pre-emptive intervention by interested stakeholders is the easiest way to remove/address such barriers, but it requires knowing how to navigate the institutional waters of the relevant agencies and boards. This report is a primer for solar developers who wish to engage directly in expediting the regulatory process and removing market barriers related to policy and planning. It focuses on the Western Interconnection (WI), primarily because the quality of solar resources in the Southwest makes utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaics (PV) economically feasible, and because the relevant institutions have evolved in a way that has opened up opportunities for removing non-technical market barriers. Developers will find in this report a high-level field manual to identify the venues for mitigating and possibly eliminating systemic market obstacles and ensuring that the economic playing field is reasonably level. Project-specific issues such as siting for transmission and generation resources are beyond the scope of this report. Instead, the aim is to examine issues that pervasively affect all utility-scale PV and CSP in the region regardless of where the project may be. While the focus is on the WI, many of the institutions described here also have their counterparts in the Eastern and the Texas interconnections. Specifically, this report suggests a number of critical engagement points relating to generation and transmission planning.

  9. Effect of Hydrophobic Primary Organic Aerosols on Secondary Organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrophobic Primary Organic Aerosols on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Ozonolysis of ?-Pinene. Effect of Hydrophobic Primary Organic Aerosols on Secondary Organic...

  10. Morphology of Mixed Primary and Secondary Organic Particles and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Mixed Primary and Secondary Organic Particles and the Adsorption of Spectator Organic Gases during Aerosol Morphology of Mixed Primary and Secondary Organic Particles and the...

  11. Molecular primary probe for secondary ion mass spectrometry of organics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appelhans, A.D.; Delmore, J.E.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the course of development of a fast, highly focused neutral molecular primary beam probe for Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), the question as to the relative efficiency of a molecule versus an atom for producing secondary ions of organic molecules was raised. Theoretical and experimental studies have indicated sputtering efficiency should increase as more energy is deposited near the surface. This would seem to be especially true when trying to sputter large organic molecules that must be desorbed from the surface with minimum molecular heating to remain intact. The kinetic energy of an SF6 molecule is distributed among 7 atoms and the SF6 molecule is large (geometrically) compared to an atom. Thus although at equivalent accelerating voltages an SF6/sup /minus// molecular ion (146 u) and a Cs atomic ion (133 u) deposit nearly the same amount of energy, the spatial distribution of this energy on surface will be quite different. The SF6 molecule will deposit more energy near the surface. To determine if this results in more efficient sputtering of molecules residing on the surface we have compared the SF6 molecular beam with a Cs atomic ion beam under organic static SIMS conditions. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  12. BSM Primary Effects: The complete set of predictions from the dimension-6 BSM Lagrangian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rick S. Gupta

    2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a physical parameterization of the leading effects beyond the SM (BSM), that give us, at present, the best way to constrain heavy new-physics at low-energies. We call these effects that constrain all possible interactions at the dimension 6 level, BSM Primary effects; there are 8 primaries related to Higgs physics, 3 related to Triple Gauge Couplings and 7 related to Z- pole measurements at LEP. Starting from these experimentally measurable deformations (and not operators), we construct the dimension 6 Lagrangian in a bottom up way. We, thus, show that other BSM effects are not independent from the primary ones and we provide the explicit correlations. We also discuss the theoretical expectation for the size of these BSM primaries in some well-motivated BSM theories.

  13. Primary and Secondary Three Dimensional Microbatteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirigliano, Nicolas

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Figure 1.4.1: World energy consumption and projected valuesFigure 1.4.1: World energy consumption and projected values

  14. Methods for detailed energy data collection of miscellaneous and electronic loads in a commercial office building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    and electronic loads (MELs) consume about 20% of the primary energy used in U.S. buildings, and this share Buildings account for 40% of the total primary energy con- sumption in the U.S., with 22% consumed-third of the primary energy used in U.S. buildings in the next 20 years [2]. MELs energy use is spread among many

  15. The Vermont Primary Care Workforce 2012 SNAPSHOT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    T PrimArY cAre PerSiSTS #12;About vermont AHec The Vermont Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) Program, in collaboration with many partners, improves access to quality health care through its focus on workforce and residents at Fletcher Allen Health Care; and support to help recruit and retain a high-quality healthcare

  16. The Vermont Primary Care Workforce 2013 SNAPSHOT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    with many partners, improves access to health care through its focus on workforce development. AHEC work at Fletcher Allen Health Care; and support to help recruit and retain an appropriate healthcare workforce programming to Vermont's primary care practitioners and supports community health education. AHEC believes

  17. Primary Cilia: Cellular Sensors for the Skeleton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stearns, Tim

    Primary Cilia: Cellular Sensors for the Skeleton CHARLES T. ANDERSON,1 * ALESHA B. CASTILLO,2 of microtubules and are thus called 910 cilia. The pri- mary cilium is enclosed in a specialized membrane (Vieira. Anderson, Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California. E-mail: ctanders

  18. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program FINAL PROJECT REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : California Energy Commission Prepared by: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory #12;Prepared by: PrimaryRelated Environmental Research · Energy Systems Integration · Environmentally Preferred Advanced Generation information about the PIER Program, please visit the Energy Commission's website at www.energy

  19. Energy Research and Development Division FINAL PROJECT REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Research and Development Division FINAL PROJECT REPORT SMUD OFFPEAK OVERCOOLING PROJECT DECEMBER 2007 CEC5002013066 Prepared for: California Energy Commission Prepared by: Davis Energy Group #12; PREPARED BY: Primary Author(s): David Springer Davis Energy Group Davis, CA

  20. Energy Research and Development Division FINAL PROJECT REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Research and Development Division FINAL PROJECT REPORT Demonstration: California Energy Commission Prepared by: Electric Power Research Institute #12; Prepared by: Primary: California Energy Commission Jamie Patterson Contract Manager Fernando Pina Office Manager Energy Efficiency

  1. Energy Research and Development Division FINAL PROJECT REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Research and Development Division FINAL PROJECT REPORT DEVELOPMENT Energy Commission Prepared by: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory #12; PREPARED BY: Primary-09-010 Prepared for: California Energy Commission Matthew Fung Contract Manager Virginia Lew Office Manager Energy

  2. Utility Energy Services Contracting (UESC) Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    * Upgrade of Central Power Plants * Metering & Energy Information Systems * Gas-fired Infrared Heaters * PrimarySecondary Pumping Systems * Decentralization of Domestic Hot Water...

  3. Bonneville Power Administration, Oregon Energy Northwest, Washington...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bonneville Power Administration, Oregon Energy Northwest, Washington; Wholesale Electric Primary Credit Analyst: David N Bodek, New York (1) 212-438-7969; david.bodek@standardandpo...

  4. China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial Primary Energy Use (Mtce) More gas boiler & heat pumps with greater efficiency 40% more efficient cooling technologies more efficient lighting more efficient water heaters

  5. Energy Department Announces Offshore Wind Demonstration Awardees...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    demonstration partnerships with broad consortia that are developing breakthrough offshore wind energy generation projects. The primary goals of these projects are to...

  6. Energy for 500 Million Homes: Drivers and Outlook for Residential Energy Consumption in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of primary energy, not including biomass fuels which areResidential Energy Consumption by Fuel (with Biomass) FigurePrimay Energy Consumption by Fuel (without Biomass) 8 of 17

  7. Ris Energy Report 5 Renewable energy outlook for selected regions 1 4 Renewable energy outlook for selected regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø Energy Report 5 Renewable energy outlook for selected regions 1 4 Renewable energy outlook, are now gradually expanding their role in global energy supply. In 2004, renewable energy from all sources.2 0.0% Biomass 48.3 10.4% Total renewable 60.9 13.1% Total global primary energy consumption 465.4 100

  8. Green Jobs and Energy Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    as a key area for investment for three primary reasons: greater energy in- dependence, improvedGreen Jobs and the Clean Energy Economy THOUGHT LEADERSHIP SERIES Co-authors Ditlev Engel, Chief Distinguished Professor of Energy Founding Director, Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory Co

  9. DuPont Energy Innovations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    21 1 6 2 9 9 U. S. Primary Energy Consumption by Source and Sector, 2007 (Quadrillion BTU) Source by Energy Type, Indexed to 1970 INDEXEDPRICE Source: Energy Information Administration, website data #12 energy flat with 1990 levels. Progress: · Consumption down 7 percent overall as compared to 1990. · Since

  10. Improved Great Lakes Ice Cover Climatology Primary Investigator: Raymond Assel -NOAA GLERL (Emeritus)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Improved Great Lakes Ice Cover Climatology Primary Investigator: Raymond Assel - NOAA GLERL (Emeritus) Co-Investigators: Thomas Croley - NOAA GLERL (Emeritus) Overview Ice cover affects mass and energy exchange between the planetary boundary layer and the waters of the Great Lakes. The improved ice

  11. Latitudinal gradients in sea ice and primary production determine Arctic seabird colony

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laidre, Kristin L.

    will indirectly alter energy transfer through the pelagic food web and ultimately impact apex predators. We-based observations of sea ice concentration from the Nimbus-7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR, 1979 recession of high Arctic seasonal ice cover created a temporally predictable primary production bloom

  12. Energy Realpolitik: Towards a Sustainable Energy Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroeder, W Udo

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A long-term strategy based on existing technological, ecological, economical, and geopolitical realities is urgently needed to develop a sustainable energy economy, which should be designed with adaptability to unpredicted changes in any of these aspects. While only a highly diverse energy portfolio and conservation can ultimately guarantee optimum sustainability, based on a comparison of current primary energy generation methods, it is argued that future energy strategy has to rely heavily on expanded coal and nuclear energy sectors. A comparison of relative potentials, merits and risks associated with fossil-fuel, renewable, and nuclear technologies suggests that the balance of technologies should be shifted in favor of new-generation, safe nuclear methods to produce electricity, while clean-coal plants should be assigned to transportation fuel. Novel nuclear technologies exploit fission of uranium and thorium as primary energy sources with fast-spectrum and transmutation (burner) reactors. A closed fuel cy...

  13. Primary geologic controls on coalbed methane content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, W.A.; Hines, R.A.

    1985-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Three primary factors that control gas content in coal beds are present depth of coal, maximum original burial depth, and depositional environments of the coal. Complex distribution of gas content suggests an interplay between these primary factors, as well as other controls. Present depth can be predicted in terms of surface geology and structure. Four closely spaced core holes in the Tuscaloosa area provide detailed data for interpretation of depositional environments and for inference of relative original depth of burial. Gas content apparently is higher in bayfill and bay-margin coals than in coals that were deposited in other environments. Data from petrophysical logs of petroleum wells can be used for regional stratigraphic mapping to outline extent of depositional systems. Correlations show that the section in the Cahaba synclinorium is thicker and contains more coal beds than that in the Black Warrior basin. 15 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Comparison of Three Primary Surface Recuperator Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, Wendy [Capstone Turbines; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Walker, Larry R [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extensive work performed by Capstone Turbine Corporation, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and various others has shown that the traditional primary surface recuperator alloy, type 347 stainless steel, is unsuitable for applications above 650 C ({approx}1200 F). Numerous studies have shown that the presence of water vapor greatly accelerates the oxidation rate of type 347 stainless steel at temperatures above 650 C ({approx}1200 F). Water vapor is present as a product of combustion in the microturbine exhaust, making it necessary to find replacement alloys for type 347 stainless steel that will meet the long life requirements of microturbine primary surface recuperators. It has been well established over the past few years that alloys with higher chromium and nickel contents than type 347 stainless steel have much greater oxidation resistance in the microturbine environment. One such alloy that has replaced type 347 stainless steel in primary surface recuperators is Haynes Alloy HR-120 (Haynes and HR-120 are trademarks of Haynes International, Inc.), a solid-solution-strengthened alloy with nominally 33 wt % Fe, 37 wt % Ni and 25 wt % Cr. Unfortunately, while HR-120 is significantly more oxidation resistant in the microturbine environment, it is also a much more expensive alloy. In the interest of cost reduction, other candidate primary surface recuperator alloys are being investigated as possible alternatives to type 347 stainless steel. An initial rainbow recuperator test has been performed at Capstone to compare the oxidation resistance of type 347 stainless steel, HR-120, and the Allegheny Ludlum austenitic alloy AL 20-25+Nb (AL 20-25+Nb is a trademark of ATI Properties, Inc. and is licensed to Allegheny Ludlum Corporation). Evaluation of surface oxide scale formation and associated alloy depletion and other compositional changes has been carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The results of this initial rainbow test will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  15. Primary coal crushers grow to meet demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Mine operators look for more throughput with less fines generation in primary crushers (defined here as single role crushers and two stage crushers). The article gives advice on crusher selection and application. Some factors dictating selection include the desired product size, capacity, Hard Grove grindability index, percentage of rock to be freed and hardness of that rock. The hardness of coal probably has greatest impact on product fineness. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. DISTRIBUTED ENERGY SYSTEMS IN CALIFORNIA'S FUTURE: A PRELIMINARY REPORT, VOLUME I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Totals Supply/Demand Balance Distributed Cases Supply/Demand Balance Centralized Cases Primary Energy SupplyPrimary Energy Supply to California (10 Petroleum Natural Gas Hydroe1ectric Geothermalb Nuclear LPG Coal Total

  17. Renewable energy annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

  18. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY DISTRIBUTED ENERGY STORAGE BATTERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LANDI, J.T.; PLIVELICH, R.F.

    2006-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Electro Energy, Inc. conducted a research project to develop an energy efficient and environmentally friendly bipolar Ni-MH battery for distributed energy storage applications. Rechargeable batteries with long life and low cost potentially play a significant role by reducing electricity cost and pollution. A rechargeable battery functions as a reservoir for storage for electrical energy, carries energy for portable applications, or can provide peaking energy when a demand for electrical power exceeds primary generating capabilities.

  19. Molecular dynamics studies of the primary state of radiation damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Averback, R.S.; Robertson, I.M.; Benedek, R.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes recent progress in the understanding of energetic displacement cascades in metals achieved with the molecular-dynamics (MD) simulation technique. Recoil events with primary-knock-on-atom (PKA) energies up to 5 keV were simulated in Cu and Ni. The initial development of displacement cascades was similar in both metals, with replacement collision sequences providing the most efficient mechanism for the separation of interstitials and vacancies. The thermal-spike behavior in these metals, however, is quite different; Cu cascades are characterized by lower defect production and greater atomic disordering than those in Ni. The thermal spike significantly influences various other properties of cascades, such as total defect production and defect clustering. 32 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Non-contact pumping of light emitters via non-radiative energy transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM); Achermann, Marc (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A light emitting device is disclosed including a primary light source having a defined emission photon energy output, and, a light emitting material situated near to said primary light source, said light emitting material having an absorption onset equal to or less in photon energy than the emission photon energy output of the primary light source whereby non-radiative energy transfer from said primary light source to said light emitting material can occur yielding light emission from said light emitting material.

  1. International energy annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power and geothermal, solar, and wind electric power. Also included are biomass electric power for Brazil and the US, and biomass, geothermal, and solar energy produced in the US and not used for electricity generation. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed of primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values (Appendices E and F) familiar to the American public. 93 tabs.

  2. Comparison of Carbon and Hi-Z Primary Collimators for the LHC Phase II Collimation System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Lewis; /SLAC; Markiewicz, Thomas; /SLAC; Smith, Jeffrey; /SLAC; Assmann, Ralph; /CERN; Bracco, Chiara; /CERN; Weiler, Thomas; /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol.

    2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A current issue with the LHC collimation system is single-diffractive, off-energy protons from the primary collimators that pass completely through the secondary collimation system and are absorbed immediately downbeam in the cold magnets of the dispersion suppressor section. Simulations suggest that the high impact rate could result in quenching of these magnets. We have studied replacing the 60 cm primary graphite collimators, which remove halo mainly by inelastic strong interactions, with 5.25 mm tungsten, which remove halo mainly by multiple coulomb scattering and thereby reduce the rate of single-diffractive interactions that cause losses in the dispersion suppressor.

  3. 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Board, sponsored a high-level, westwide benefit/cost study of the proposal, which WECC Board an overview of the proposed Energy Imbalance Market (EIM) and will review the conclusions of the benefit/cost through the Western Interstate Energy Board, has benefit/cost study of the proposal, which was presented

  4. Autonomous Demand Response for Primary Frequency Regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donnelly, Matt; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Mattix, S.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The research documented within this report examines the use of autonomous demand response to provide primary frequency response in an interconnected power grid. The work builds on previous studies in several key areas: it uses a large realistic model (i.e., the interconnection of the western United States and Canada); it establishes a set of metrics that can be used to assess the effectiveness of autonomous demand response; and it independently adjusts various parameters associated with using autonomous demand response to assess effectiveness and to examine possible threats or vulnerabilities associated with the technology.

  5. A National Direct Primary for the Presidency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crookham, Arthur L.

    1912-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sphere of acti vi ty left ''It-O : him~ ' ·In the caucus, primary or .( , .' conventi.on, ~ un~e'g\\{iated 'by law, he has realized his . ", ";. .,:., 'r, ~~.; ~ '>-- opportunit~·e~.~'ttci~\\ ~~~,. :fil,i.f.e~t degree. "Let me control , ,,;. .' 'I... if the defection was s.trong enough to threaten disaster, and then to bind all who stayed thr ough the caucus to its decision. When there is remembered, the added fact that Congress was conven- iently in session previous to the president'ial elect- ion (an item...

  6. Why the Top Two Primary Fails California Voters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maviglio, Steven

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Why the Top Two Primary Fails California Voters Steven14, the proponents of the Top Two primary made some boldto voters. They said the Top Two would “reduce gridlock,” “

  7. California’s Top Two Primary and the Business Agenda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGhee, Eric

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quinn, Tony. 2013. The “Top Two” System: Working Like ItAssessing California’s Top-Two Primary and RedistrictingCalifornia’s Top Two Primary and the Business Agenda Eric

  8. attending primary care: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a renaissance in, and a positive future for, primary care. The seven principles are 1) Health care must be organized to serve the needs of patients; 2) the goal of primary care...

  9. assist primary care: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a renaissance in, and a positive future for, primary care. The seven principles are 1) Health care must be organized to serve the needs of patients; 2) the goal of primary care...

  10. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) primary national laboratory for renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development. From scientific renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies from concept to the commercial marketplace through

  11. Commercial Building Energy Efficiency Education Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this grant is to educate the public about carbon emissions and the energy-saving and job-related benefits of commercial building energy efficiency. investments in Illinois.

  12. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Intensity Figure DataThe energy intensity of the U.S. economy, measured as primary energy use (in Btu) per dollar of GDP (in 2005 dollars), declines by 40 percent from 2009 to 2035...

  13. EIA - Annual Energy Outlook 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    an average of 0.5 percent per year from 2010 to 2035. The energy intensity of the U.S. economy, measured as primary energy use in British thermal units (Btu) per dollar of gross...

  14. Tips: Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    half of us use natural gas. | Source: Buildings Energy Data Book 2011, 2.1.1 Residential Primary Energy Consumption, by Year and Fuel Type (Quadrillion Btu and Percent of Total)....

  15. EIA - Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of projections in the AEO2013 and AEO2012 Reference case, 2010-2040 2025 2035 2040 Energy and economic factors 2010 2011 AEO2013 AEO2012 AEO2013 AEO2012 AEO2013 Primary energy...

  16. EIA - Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy and economic factors 2011 2012 AEO2014 AEO2013 AEO2014 AEO2013 Primary energy production (quadrillion Btu) Crude oil and natural gas plant liquids 15.31 17.08 23.03...

  17. Energy Conservation Aspect of Energy Systems Technology Education Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McBride, R. B.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary purpose of this paper is to present a brief explanation of the Energy Systems Technology Education Program (ESTEP). This program is a system of continuing education that has been devised for the technical and supervisory personnel...

  18. Ion source with improved primary arc collimation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dagenhart, William K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved negative ion source is provided in which a self-biasing, molybdenum collimator is used to define the primary electron stream arc discharge from a filament operated at a negative potential. The collimator is located between the anode and the filament. It is electrically connected to the anode by means of an appropriate size resistor such that the collimator is biased at essentially the filament voltage during operation. Initially, the full arc voltage appears across the filament to collimator until the arc discharge strikes. Then the collimator biases itself to essentially filament potential due to current flow through the resistor thus defining the primary electron stream without intercepting any appreciable arc power. The collimator aperture is slightly smaller than the anode aperture to shield the anode from the arc power, thereby preventing the exposure of the anode to the full arc power which, in the past, has caused overheating and erosion of the anode collimator during extended time pulsed-beam operation of the source. With the self-biasing collimator of this invention, the ion source may be operated from short pulse periods to steady-state without destroying the anode.

  19. Ion source with improved primary arc collimation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dagenhart, W.K.

    1983-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved negative ion source is provided in which a self-biasing, molybdenum collimator is used to define the primary electron stream arc discharge from a filament operated at a negative potential. The collimator is located between the anode and the filament. It is electrically connected to the anode by means of an appropriate size resistor such that the collimator is biased at essentially the filament voltage during operation. Initially, the full arc voltage appears across the filament to collimator until the arc discharge strikes. Then the collimator biases itself to essentially filament potential due to current flow through the resistor thus defining the primary electron stream without intercepting any appreciable arc power. The collimator aperture is slightly smaller than the anode aperture to shield the anode from the arc power which, in the past, has caused overheating and erosion of the anode collimator during extended time pulsed-beam operation of the source. With the self-biasing collimator of this invention, the ion source may be operated from short pulse periods to steady-state without destroying the anode.

  20. Magma energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, J.C.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal energy contained in magmatic systems represents a huge potential resource. In the US, useful energy contained in molten and partially-molten magma within the upper 10 km of the crust has been estimated at 5 to 50 x 10/sup 22/ J (50,000 to 500,000 Quads). The objective of the Magma Energy Extraction Program is to determine the engineering feasibility of locating, accessing, and utilizing magma as a viable energy resource. This program follows the DOE/OBES-funded Magma Energy Research Project that concluded scientific feasibility of the magma energy concept. A primary long-range goal of this program is to conduct an energy extraction experiment directly in a molten, crustal magma body. Critical to determining engineering feasibility are several key technology tasks: (1) Geophysics - to obtain detailed definition of potential magma targets, (2) Geochemistry/Materials - to characterize the magma environment and select compatible engineering materials, (3) Drilling - to develop drilling and completion techniques for entry into a magma body, and (4) Energy Extraction - to develop heat extraction technology.

  1. International energy annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  2. ATLAS strategy for primary vertex reconstruction during Run-II of the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ATLAS Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on experience gained from run-I of the LHC, the ATLAS vertex reconstruction group has developed a refined primary vertex reconstruction strategy for run-II.  With instantaneous luminosity exceeding 10^34 cm-2 s-1, an average of 40 to 50 pp collisions per bunch crossing are expected. Together with the increase of the center-of-mass collision energy from 8 TeV to 13 TeV, this will create a challenging environment for primary vertex pattern recognition. This contribution explains the ATLAS strategy for primary vertex reconstruction in high pile-up conditions.  The new approach is based on vertex seeding with a medical-imaging algorithm, adaptive reconstruction of vertex positions, and iterative recombination of occasional split vertices. The mathematical foundation and software implementation of the method are described in detail. Monte Carlo-based estimates of vertex reconstruction performance for LHC run-II are presented.

  3. Communication and Effectiveness in Primary Health Jean Carletta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carletta, Jean

    Communication and Effectiveness in Primary Health Care Teams Jean Carletta Human Communication.Carletta@edinburgh.ac.uk ABSTRACT Primary health care team members need to communicate effectively with each other in order of cross-disciplinary team meetings, we describe communication in primary health care teams, explore

  4. Health Information Systems for Primary Health Care: Thinking About Participation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahay, Sundeep

    Health Information Systems for Primary Health Care: Thinking About Participation Elaine Byrne in supporting primary health care functioning, the design, development and implementation of these systems information systems, human rights 1. Introduction: Primary health care is a crucial element of national health

  5. A study of English primary care trusts Research report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birmingham, University of

    Setting priorities in health A study of English primary care trusts Research report Suzanne priorities in health: a study of English primary care trusts Contents List of figures and tables 4 Glossary 6 priorities in health: a study of English primary care trusts 3. Priority setting: the national picture 21

  6. Numerical simulation of turbulent jet primary breakup in Diesel engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helluy, Philippe

    Numerical simulation of turbulent jet primary breakup in Diesel engines Peng Zeng1 Marcus Herrmann" IRMA Strasbourg, 23.Jan.2008 #12;Introduction DNS of Primary Breakup in Diesel Injection Phase Transition Modeling Turbulence Modeling Summary Outline 1 Introduction 2 DNS of Primary Breakup in Diesel

  7. Current Status and Future Scenarios of Residential Building Energy Consumption in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of primary energy without counting biomass fuels (Figure 2).the dominant fuel, accounting for 79% of non-biomass energyof traditional biomass fuels. Additional increases in energy

  8. 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­ Western Interconnection (WECC) 5 WECC 10 and 20 Year Plans § In 2007, WECC's Transmission Expansion, WECC expanded this effort under the Regional Transmission Expansion Project (RTEP) project and agreed to develop "Transmission Plans" in 2011 and 2013 #12;7/26/2012 4 WECC 10 and 20 Year Plans The first 10 year

  9. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of projected world energy consumption by fuel type. For theTable 1. World Primary Energy Consumption, A1 and B2has slightly higher world final energy consumption values,

  10. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    produced. Primary energy associated with coal products wasUse EJ China Residential Energy Use Gas Coal Oil Biomass GasUse EJ China Residential Energy Use Gas Coal Oil Gas Biomass

  11. Energy Research and Development Division FINAL PROJECT REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Research and Development Division FINAL PROJECT REPORT ENERGYEFFICIENT Energy Commission Prepared by: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory #12; PREPARED BY: Primary.lbl.gov Contract Number: 500-06-053 Prepared for: California Energy Commission Paul Roggensack Contract Manager

  12. China Energy Databook. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinton, J. E.; Fridley, D. G.; Levine, M. D.; Yang, F.; Zhenping, J.; Xing, Z.; Kejun, J.; Xiaofeng, L.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Analysis Program at LBL first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and energy demand held in Nanjing Nov. 1988. EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute of China`s State Planning Commission. It was decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Primary interest was to use the data to help understand the historical evolution and likely future of the Chinese energy system; thus the primary criterion was to relate the data to the structure of energy supply and demand in the past and to indicate probable developments (eg, as indicated by patterns of investment). Caveats are included in forewords to both the 1992 and 1996 editions. A chapter on energy prices is included in the 1996 edition. 1993 energy consumption data are not included since there was a major disruption in energy statistical collection in China that year.

  13. Green Jobs and Energy Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    , that is The clean energy industry has been targeted as a key area for investment for three primary reasons: greaterGreen Jobs and the Clean Energy Economy ThoughT Leadership series Co-authors Daniel M. Kammen, Founding Director, Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory University of California, Berkeley Ditlev

  14. California Energy Commission STAFF REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the Energy Commission identified high-risk areas as those in non-attainment air basins for ozoneCalifornia Energy Commission STAFF REPORT MARCH 2011 CEC-600-2010-004-AD Program Under Solicitation PON-09-003 #12;CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION Pilar Magaña Primary

  15. Secondary emission electron gun using external primaries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni (Shoreham, NY); Ben-Zvi, Ilan (Setauket, NY)

    2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron gun for generating an electron beam is provided, which includes a secondary emitter. The secondary emitter includes a non-contaminating negative-electron-affinity (NEA) material and emitting surface. The gun includes an accelerating region which accelerates the secondaries from the emitting surface. The secondaries are emitted in response to a primary beam generated external to the accelerating region. The accelerating region may include a superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavity, and the gun may be operated in a continuous wave (CW) mode. The secondary emitter includes hydrogenated diamond. A uniform electrically conductive layer is superposed on the emitter to replenish the extracted current, preventing charging of the emitter. An encapsulated secondary emission enhanced cathode device, useful in a superconducting RF cavity, includes a housing for maintaining vacuum, a cathode, e.g., a photocathode, and the non-contaminating NEA secondary emitter with the uniform electrically conductive layer superposed thereon.

  16. Secondary emission electron gun using external primaries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni (Shoreham, NY); Ben-Zvi, Ilan (Setauket, NY); Kewisch, Jorg (Wading River, NY); Chang, Xiangyun (Middle Island, NY)

    2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron gun for generating an electron beam is provided, which includes a secondary emitter. The secondary emitter includes a non-contaminating negative-electron-affinity (NEA) material and emitting surface. The gun includes an accelerating region which accelerates the secondaries from the emitting surface. The secondaries are emitted in response to a primary beam generated external to the accelerating region. The accelerating region may include a superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavity, and the gun may be operated in a continuous wave (CW) mode. The secondary emitter includes hydrogenated diamond. A uniform electrically conductive layer is superposed on the emitter to replenish the extracted current, preventing charging of the emitter. An encapsulated secondary emission enhanced cathode device, useful in a superconducting RF cavity, includes a housing for maintaining vacuum, a cathode, e.g., a photocathode, and the non-contaminating NEA secondary emitter with the uniform electrically conductive layer superposed thereon.

  17. Combustor with two stage primary fuel assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharifi, Mehran (Winter Springs, FL); Zolyomi, Wendel (Oviedo, FL); Whidden, Graydon Lane (Orlando, FL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustor for a gas turbine having first and second passages for pre-mixing primary fuel and air supplied to a primary combustion zone. The flow of fuel to the first and second pre-mixing passages is separately regulated using a single annular fuel distribution ring having first and second row of fuel discharge ports. The interior portion of the fuel distribution ring is divided by a baffle into first and second fuel distribution manifolds and is located upstream of the inlets to the two pre-mixing passages. The annular fuel distribution ring is supplied with fuel by an annular fuel supply manifold, the interior portion of which is divided by a baffle into first and second fuel supply manifolds. A first flow of fuel is regulated by a first control valve and directed to the first fuel supply manifold, from which the fuel is distributed to first fuel supply tubes that direct it to the first fuel distribution manifold. From the first fuel distribution manifold, the first flow of fuel is distributed to the first row of fuel discharge ports, which direct it into the first pre-mixing passage. A second flow of fuel is regulated by a second control valve and directed to the second fuel supply manifold, from which the fuel is distributed to second fuel supply tubes that direct it to the second fuel distribution manifold. From the second fuel distribution manifold, the second flow of fuel is distributed to the second row of fuel discharge ports, which direct it into the second pre-mixing passage.

  18. Overview of U. S. Department of Energy Program in Industrial Energy Conservation Technology Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massey, R. G.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary responsibility for Federal industrial energy conservation is in the Office of Industrial Programs which reports to the Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Solar Energy. The objectives of the Federal program are to: achieve maximum...

  19. International energy outlook 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents international energy projections through 2025, prepared by the Energy Information Administration. The outlooks for major energy fuels are discussed, along with electricity, transportation, and environmental issues. After a chapter entitled 'Highlights', the report begins with a review of world energy and an economic outlook. The IEO2005 projections cover a 24 year period. The next chapter is on world oil markets. Natural gas and coal reserves and resources, consumption and trade discussed. The chapter on electricity deals with primary fuel use for electricity generation, and regional developments. The final section is entitled 'Energy-related greenhouse gas emissions'.

  20. Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carla Aramo

    2005-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes methods used for the detection of cosmic rays with energies above 10^18 eV (UHECR, UltraHigh Energy Cosmic Rays). It had been anticipated there would be a cutoff in the energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays around 3 10^19 eV induced by their interaction with the 2.7 K primordial photons. This has become known as the GZK cutoff. However, several showers have been detected with estimated primary energy exceeding this limit.

  1. Upper limit on the primary photon fraction from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Risse, Markus; /Karlsruhe, Forschungszentrum

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on observations of the depth of shower maximum performed with the hybrid detector of the Auger Observatory, an upper limit on the cosmic-ray photon fraction of 26% (at 95% confidence level) is derived for primary energies above 10{sup 19} eV. Additional observables recorded with the surface detector array, available for a sub-set of the data sample, support the conclusion that a photon origin of the observed events is not favoured.

  2. The aftermath of primary power and its implications for independent transmission in PJM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrah, Elias G.; Elstein, S. Shamai

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent decision by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission in ''Primary Power'' will have fundamental ramifications for transmission investment in the far-reaching PJM footprint. This decision, which is pending on rehearing and will likely be appealed, will determine whether transmission projects that are entitled to regulated rate recovery under the PJM tariff can only be built by incumbent transmission owners and whether new independent transmission entities are limited to building transmission projects on a ''merchant'' basis. (author)

  3. Ris Energy Report 5 New and emerging technologies for renewable energy 51 in the transport sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø Energy Report 5 New and emerging technologies for renewable energy 51 in the transport sector technologies and fuels based on renewable energy sources. Primary renewable energy sources and their conversion With the prominent exception of biomass, renewable energy resources--solar, wind, ocean, hydro--and nu- clear power

  4. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry with transmission of energetic primary cluster ions through foil targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirata, K., E-mail: k.hirata@aist.go.jp [National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Saitoh, Y.; Chiba, A.; Yamada, K.; Matoba, S.; Narumi, K. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute (TARRI), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Takasaki, Gumma 370-1292 (Japan)] [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute (TARRI), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Takasaki, Gumma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We developed time-of-flight (TOF) secondary ion (SI) mass spectrometry that provides informative SI ion mass spectra without needing a sophisticated ion beam pulsing system. In the newly developed spectrometry, energetic large cluster ions with energies of the order of sub MeV or greater are used as primary ions. Because their impacts on the target surface produce high yields of SIs, the resulting SI mass spectra are informative. In addition, the start signals necessary for timing information on primary ion incidence are provided by the detection signals of particles emitted from the rear surface of foil targets upon transmission of the primary ions. This configuration allows us to obtain positive and negative TOF SI mass spectra without pulsing system, which requires precise control of the primary ions to give the spectra with good mass resolution. We also successfully applied the TOF SI mass spectrometry with energetic cluster ion impacts to the chemical structure characterization of organic thin film targets.

  5. Lead by Example with Smart Energy Management FEMP (Revised Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This brochure provides the primary audience of Federal facility and energy managers with an accurate understanding of the services and assistance available through FEMP.

  6. Quarterly Analysis Review February 2015 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    QAR2014Q3420150223.pdf More Documents & Publications Fact 863 March 9, 2015 Crude Oil Accounts for the Majority of Primary Energy Imports while Exports are Mostly Petroleum...

  7. Bill, Waugama, Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    cost SPIDERS primary objective is mission assurance Page-4 SPIDERS Program Summary CAMP SMITH ENERGY ISLAND * Entire Installation Smart Microgrid * Islanded Installation * High...

  8. Commercial Building Energy Asset Score - 2014 BTO Peer Review...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Score - 2014 BTO Peer Review Commercial Building Energy Asset Score - 2014 BTO Peer Review Presenter: Nora Wang, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory One of the primary market...

  9. ,"Energy","Water","Renewable","Petroleum","Alt. Fuel",,"On-Line...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy","Water","Renewable","Petroleum","Alt. Fuel",,"On-Line Data Collection System",,"Report Period","Due In",,,"Primary","Secondary","Secondary" 2003,,,"EMS4","Environmental...

  10. Primary Uranium Supply: Past, Present, and Future

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah ProjectPRE-AWARDenergyEnergytransmission-ratesYearPrices33PowerNew

  11. Compton backscattered and primary X-rays from solar flares: angle dependent Green's function correction for photospheric albedo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eduard P. Kontar; Alec L. MacKinnon; Richard A. Schwartz; John C. Brown

    2005-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The observed hard X-ray (HXR) flux spectrum $I(\\epsilon)$ from solar flares is a combination of primary bremsstrahlung photons $I_P(\\epsilon)$ with a spectrally modified component from photospheric Compton backscatter of downward primary emission. The latter can be significant, distorting or hiding the true features of the primary spectrum which are key diagnostics for acceleration and propagation of high energy electrons and of their energy budget. For the first time in solar physics, we use a Green's function approach to the backscatter spectral deconvolution problem, constructing a Green's matrix including photoelectric absorption. This approach allows spectrum-independent extraction of the primary spectrum for several HXR flares observed by the {\\it Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager} (RHESSI). We show that the observed and primary spectra differ very substantially for flares with hard spectra close to the disk centre. We show in particular that the energy dependent photon spectral index $\\gamma (\\epsilon)=-d \\log I/d \\log \\epsilon$ is very different for $I_P(\\epsilon)$ and for $I(\\epsilon)$ and that inferred mean source electron spectra ${\\bar F}(E)$ differ greatly. Even for a forward fitting of a parametric ${\\bar F}(E)$ to the data, a clear low-energy cutoff required to fit $I(\\epsilon)$ essentially disappears when the fit is to $I_P(\\epsilon)$ - i.e. when albedo correction is included. The self-consistent correction for backscattered photons is thus shown to be crucial in determining the energy spectra of flare accelerated electrons, and hence their total number and energy.

  12. Primary Outage-Based Resource Allocation Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gesbert, David

    , the scheme would have governed transmitter power on a variable basis calculated to limit the energy at victim, 2003). Rather than merely regulate transmitter power at fixed levels, as it has been done in the past in this work by proposing three resource management strategies based on outage probability. The motivation

  13. Primary Production of the Biosphere: Integrating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Falkowski, Paul G.

    . Approaches based on satellite indices of absorbed solar ra- diation indicate marked heterogeneity in NPP for land and ocean models, calculates NPP as a function of the driving energy for photosynthesis, the absorbed pho- tosynthetically active (400 to 700 nm) solar radiation (APAR), and an average light utili

  14. 20 IEEE power & energy magazine july/august 20061540-7977/06/$20.002006 IEEE july/august 2006 IEEE power & energy magazine 21

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Cheong

    more. China's primary energy depends largely on coal. The coun- try's breakdown of primary energy- ment is used for generating elec- tricity. The other major consumptions of coal include some energy20 IEEE power & energy magazine july/august 20061540-7977/06/$20.00©2006 IEEE #12;A july

  15. Comparing the Primary Electron Transfer Process in Organic Photovoltai...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Comparing the Primary Electron Transfer Process in Organic Photovoltaic Heterojunctions with Photosynthetic Reaction Centers October 4, 2011 at 3pm36-428 Garry Rumbles National...

  16. asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    STUDY OF DNA DOUBLE-STRAND BREAKS IN BYSTANDER PRIMARY HUMAN FIBROBLASTS L. B. Smilenov-or-nothing manner(7) . Bystander cells exhibit a variety of characteristics of...

  17. aliphatic primary diamines: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    STUDY OF DNA DOUBLE-STRAND BREAKS IN BYSTANDER PRIMARY HUMAN FIBROBLASTS L. B. Smilenov-or-nothing manner(7) . Bystander cells exhibit a variety of characteristics of...

  18. analysing primary health: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: School of Primary Health Care Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences Central Clinical Hospital...

  19. attending primary health: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: School of Primary Health Care Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences Central Clinical Hospital...

  20. african primary health: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: School of Primary Health Care Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences Central Clinical Hospital...

  1. Energy and Society Week 4 Section Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    was the largest source of primary energy consumption for the world in 2013: A. Coal B. Natural gas C. Nuclear D of world energy. Oil, coal, natural gas, nuclear, hydro, and renewable contributed to the world's 20131 9/17/2014 Energy and Society Week 4 Section Solution TOPIC 1: Energy & Development: [iClicker]-1

  2. Int. J. Critical Infrastructures, Vol. 3, Nos. 1/2, 2007 235 Copyright 2007 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Andrew

    Council (WECC). We present simulations to show the change in the WECC system over 20 years. We explain-term model. The usefulness of the model is illustrated by showing simulated impacts on the WECC system due

  3. Renewable Portfolio Standards in the United States - A Status Report with Data Through 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PUC PV REC RPS SEP TWh WECC WREGIS alternative complianceoriginating within M-RETS; OR: WECC for unbundled RECs, U.S.portion of WECC and delivered to LSE for renewable

  4. Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scown, Corinne Donahue

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cycle Water Consumption for WECC NERC Region ElectricityCycle Water Withdrawals for WECC NERC Region ElectricityTRE TS&D USDA USGS VC W WECC WSI International Organization

  5. Physical Impacts of Climate Change on the Western US Electricity System: A Scoping Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Katie

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lett. 34:L19703. [46] WECC 2005. Power Supply Assessment.=index&req=getit&lid [56] WECC Planning Data White Paper,Coordinating Council (WECC) [46, 55, 56], while our

  6. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration -- Phase 2 Findings from the Summer of 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eto, Joseph H.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    than required by NERC and WECC reliability rules. 2. TheRMSE SCADA SCE SDP VHF WAN WECC Air conditioning AutonomousElectric Coordinating Council (WECC) rules for contingency

  7. Commercial and Industrial Base Intermittent Resource Management Pilot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Grid in accordance with WECC standards. Operating Reserves 5required to meet NERC and WECC reliability standards. Theseand Operator (CAISO 2010c). WECC Standard BAL-STD-002-0 –

  8. The Implementation of California AB 32 and its Impact on Wholesale Electricity Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushnell, Jim B

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the dirtiest plants in the WECC fall into two categories,Capacity factors of non-Cal WECC plants (> 75 MW) with CO2consumed elsewhere in the WECC. If those regions are not

  9. Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limpaitoon, Tanachai

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2.4 Case Study: WECC 225-Bus2.4.1 Characteristics of the WECC 225-Bus3.2.1 Characteristics of the WECC 225-Bus System . . . . . .

  10. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    System Operator. WECC (2006) Information Summary, Westernx SDG&E SMR SMUD TID v VMT WECC San Diego Gas & ElectricCoordinating Council (WECC) differ somewhat from the CEC and

  11. A Regional Approach to Market Monitoring in the West

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barmack, Matthew; Kahn, Edward; Tierney, Susan; Goldman, Charles

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RTO SMUD SCED SCUC SSG-WI WAPA WECC Arizona Public Serviceaggregated form. For example, WECC publishes a daily reportfor three sub-regions of WECC, but the report does not

  12. Real Time Grid Reliability Management 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eto, Joe

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to be Incorporated into the WECC Phasor Network PMU Locationand Validation in the WECC. ” IEEE Transactions on PowerkV line in the Portland area. WECC system was separated into

  13. California's Greenhouse Gas Policies: Local Solutions to a Global Problem?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushnell, Jim B; Peterman, Carla Joy; Wolfram, Catherine D

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RPS programs of states in the WECC is from The Database forRenewables Natural Gas Oil Coal AZ-NM OR-WA Rest of WECCTotal WECC % Total WECC Source: Platt’s Powerdat database.

  14. Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report examines energy use and emissions from primary energy source through vehicle operation to help researchers understand the impact of the upstream mix of electricity generation technologies

  15. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Sabharwall; M. Green; S.J. Yoon; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With growing concerns in the production of reliable energy sources, the next generation in reliable power generation, hybrid energy systems, are being developed to stabilize these growing energy needs. The hybrid energy system incorporates multiple inputs and multiple outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilizing and storing the overproduction of energy to meet peak demands of energy at the time of need. With high thermal energy production of the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct properties. This paper will discuss the different energy storage options with the criteria for efficient energy storage set forth, and will primarily focus on different molten salt energy storage system options through a thermodynamic analysis

  16. 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    assessment concluded that the Loss of Load Hours (LOLH) and Expected Unserved Energy #12;851 S.W. Sixth, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) develops a transmission expansion plan, a reliability participating utilities. Individual utilities also conduct their own transmission system expansion planning

  17. Renewable Energy Markets and Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renewable Energy Markets and Policies Romeo Pacudan, PhD Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark HAPUA Working Group No. 4 Meeting Renewable Energy and Environment in ASEAN Melia Hotel, Hanoi, Vietnam 23-24 June 2005 #12;1. Renewables in Energy Supply Share in Primary Energy Supply 5,9 5,7 4,8 5,8 0 1 2 3 4 5

  18. Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    impact of 4.1 quadrillion BTU (quads) of primary energy 1 .systems with U-factors of 0.1 Btu/hr-ft²-°F Dynamic windows:for 1 quadrillion (10 15 ) Btu = 1.056 EJ. percent (Apte,

  19. GeoEnergy technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1980-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the GeoEnergy Technology Program is to improve the understanding and efficiency of energy extraction and conversion from geologic resources, hence maintaining domestic production capability of fossil energy resources and expanding the usage of geothermal energy. The GeoEnergy Technology Program conducts projects for the Department of Energy in four resource areas--coal, oil and gas, synthetic fuels and geothermal energy. These projects, which are conducted collaboratively with private industry and DOE`s Energy Technology Centers, draw heavily on expertise derived from the nuclear weapons engineering capabilities of Sandia. The primary technologies utilized in the program are instrumentation development and application, geotechnical engineering, drilling and well completions, and chemical and physical process research. Studies in all four resource areas are described.

  20. Candidates Battle for the Hispanic Vote Ahead of Florida's Primary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belogay, Eugene A.

    the heart of the primary's Latino voters ­ and in a tight race, their support is key By Edward B. Colby-person appeal to Cuban-American voters. They make up the heart of the primary's Latino voters ­ and in a tight issues for Latino voters are "the same as Anglo voters ­ it's jobs, the economy, the housing crisis

  1. Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Planning Template for Primary Care Offices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Plan Template for Primary Care Provider Offices is intended to assist primary care providers and office managers with preparing their offices for quickly putting a plan in place to handle an increase in patient calls and visits, whether during the 2009-2010 influenza season or future influenza seasons.

  2. Lubricating Oil Dominates Primary Organic Aerosol Emissions from Motor Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Lubricating Oil Dominates Primary Organic Aerosol Emissions from Motor Vehicles David R. Worton, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Motor vehicles are major sources of primary organic characterization of motor vehicle POA emissions in a roadway tunnel with a mass closure of >60%. The observed POA

  3. Enhanced Control of PWR Primary Coolant Water Chemistry Using Selective Separation Systems for Recovery and Recycle of Enriched Boric Acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Czerwinski; Charels Yeamans; Don Olander; Kenneth Raymond; Norman Schroeder; Thomas Robison; Bryan Carlson; Barbara Smit; Pat Robinson

    2006-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop systems that will allow for increased nuclear energy production through the use of enriched fuels. The developed systems will allow for the efficient and selective recover of selected isotopes that are additives to power water reactors' primary coolant chemistry for suppression of corrosion attack on reactor materials.

  4. Managing Energy Efficiency Improvement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almaguer, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    results has been the utilization of Six Sigma methodology to identify and seize opportunities to improve our performance and to better meet customer needs. Since its implementation in 1999, Six Sigma has proven to be a breakthrough process that can... take Dow to the next level of performance for all our key stakeholders. The Six Sigma methodology has been especially successful in improving energy efficiency and reducing energy costs and is the primary methodology used by technology center...

  5. Baytown Energy Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porter, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    which maximize the yield of saleable products. Distillation towers consume most of the energy required for aromatics separation. BEP reconfigured the existing towers in the product recovery section to a new fractionation scheme. The new... and toluene sidestream from the primary benzene recovery tower. The result was a 30% reduction in energy in the benzene/toluene fractionation area. The project also debottlenecked the toluene disproportionation unit by 20%. The project was completed...

  6. China's Energy Economy: A Survey of the Literature by Hengyun Ma and Les Oxley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    : i) the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, ii) China's changing energy largest oil importer in the world. China's primary energy consumption reached 1863.4 million tonnes oil of Chinese yuan to US dollar is 6.9:1 on the 2006 price base. #12;4 China's global shares of primary energy

  7. Primary Contractors/Employers - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnical News, information andNet electricity trade index

  8. Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China's Commercial and Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Case 25 Figure 9 CO2 Emissions from Commercial Buildings (27 Figure 12 CO2 Emissions by Sector (Primary Energy,16 Office Building CO2 Emissions (Reference Case, Primary

  9. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Gleckman, Philip L. (Chicago, IL); O'Gallagher, Joseph J. (Flossmoor, IL)

    1991-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes.

  10. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, R.; Gleckman, P.L.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

    1991-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes. 7 figures.

  11. Development and Verification for the Control Method Using Surplus Pressure of Primary Pumps in Chiller Plant Systems for Air Conditioning which Adopts Primary/Secondary Piping Systems PPT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsushita, N.; Fujimura, M.; Sumiyoshi, D.; Akashi, Y.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary/secondary piping systems are often employed in large chiller plant Systems. Normally, the primary flow becomes more than secondary flow, and the flow difference returns to a chiller via decoupler, which is common to primary flow loop...

  12. PRIMARY PUBLIC INFORMATION LIAISON COORDINATOR (PILC) Primary Contact E-Mail SECONDARY PILC Secondary Contact E-Mail

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PRIMARY PUBLIC INFORMATION LIAISON COORDINATOR (PILC) Primary Contact E-Mail SECONDARY PILC to President's Office that do not have their own PILC [Ex: Commandant's Office, etc.] SEND THROUGH PRESIDENT jowilliams@tamu.edu Karen Bigley bigleyk@tamu.edu Units reporting to SVPA that do not have their own PILC [Ex

  13. Arnold Schwarzenegger REAL-TIME GRID RELIABILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .....................................................6 1.1.1 Summary of Recommendations by WECC.....................................................6 1.1.2 WECC Voltage Stability Criteria ....................................................................9 1

  14. Document 2006-17 September 19, 2006 Pacific Northwest Resource Adequacy Implementation Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coordinating Council (WECC) is developing guidelines to recommend appropriate methodologies for assessing resource adequacy. Although the NERC and WECC efforts act as drivers, momentum is also building within

  15. Document 2006-22 November 15, 2006 Pacific Northwest Resource Adequacy Warning Implementation Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coordinating Council (WECC) is developing guidelines to recommend appropriate methodologies for assessing resource adequacy. Although the NERC and WECC efforts act as drivers, momentum is also building within

  16. Strategic Planning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a single BPA data repository * Data quality improvements * Improve model alignment with WECC planning data * Improve WECC base case coordination * Align the BPA data model with...

  17. Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 - Estimation for the Potential of Massive CO2 Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komiyama, Ryoichi

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    No.4 Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario towe projected Japan's energy demand/supply and energy-relatedcrises (to cut primary energy demand per GDP ( T P E S / G D

  18. Energy Savings and Comfort Improvements through Plant- and Operating mode Optimisation Demonstrated by Means of Project Examples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muller, C.

    More than 40 percent of Europe's primary energy is required for conditioning of buildings. By improving energy efficiency, approximately 30 percent of this energy could be saved. Energy counts for 35 percent of the operating cost and put...

  19. The value of schedule update frequency on distributed energy storage performance in renewable energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    The value of schedule update frequency on distributed energy storage performance in renewable of Distributed Energy Storage devices for Renewable Energy integration. The primary objective is to describe scheduling on the storage performance in renewable energy integration. Optimal schedules of Distributed

  20. Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diamond, Richard

    1 Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy in order to achieve a sustainable energy balance. Along the way, we may find it possible to shift Siderius ABSTRACT We argue that a primary focus on energy efficiency may not be sufficient to slow (and

  1. Accurate Modeling and Prediction of Energy Availability in Energy Harvesting Real-Time Embedded Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Qinru

    Binghamton University, State University of New York Binghamton, New York, USA {jlu5, sliu5, qwu, qqiuAccurate Modeling and Prediction of Energy Availability in Energy Harvesting Real-Time Embedded}@binghamton.edu Abstract -- Energy availability is the primary subject that drives the research innovations in energy

  2. Energy reconstruction of hadron-initiated showers of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ros, G; Supanitsky, A D; del Peral, L; Rodríguez-Frías, M D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current methods to determine the primary energy of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are different when dealing with hadron or photon primaries. The current experiments combine two different techniques, an array of surface detectors and fluorescence telescopes. The latter allow an almost calorimetric measurement of the primary energy. Thus, hadron-initiated showers detected by both type of detectors are used to calibrate the energy estimator from the surface array (usually the interpolated signal at a certain distance from the shower core S(r0)) with the primary energy. On the other hand, this calibration is not feasible when searching for photon primaries since no high energy photon has been unambiguously detected so far. Therefore, pure Monte Carlo parametrizations are used instead. In this work, we present a new method to determine the primary energy of hadron-induced showers in a hybrid experiment based on a technique previously developed for photon primaries. It consists on a set of calibration ...

  3. Annual Energy Review, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents statistics on energy useage for 1995. A reviving domestic economy, generally low energy prices, a heat wave in July and August, and unusually cold weather in November and December all contributed to the fourth consecutive year of growth in U.S. total energy consumption, which rose to an all-time high of almost 91 quadrillion Btu in 1995 (1.3). The increase came as a result of increases in the consumption of natural gas, coal, nuclear electric power, and renewable energy. Petroleum was the primary exception, and its use declined by only 0.3 percent. (Integrating the amount of renewable energy consumed outside the electric utility sector into U.S. total energy consumption boosted the total by about 3.4 quadrillion Btu, but even without that integration, U.S. total energy consumption would have reached a record level in 1995.)

  4. Strategies for reducing energy demand in the materials sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahni, Sahil

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research answers a key question - can the materials sector reduce its energy demand by 50% by 2050? Five primary materials of steel, cement, aluminum, paper, and plastic, contribute to 50% or more of the final energy ...

  5. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Extent Of The Primary Groundwater Contaminants At The Y-12 National Security Complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents data summary tables and maps used to define and illustrate the approximate lateral extent of groundwater contamination at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The data tables and maps address the primary (i.e., most widespread and mobile) organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in the groundwater. The sampling locations, calculated contaminant concentrations, plume boundary values, and paired map format used to define, quantify, delineate, and illustrate the approximate extent of the primary organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in groundwater at Y-12 are described.

  6. Seismic Imaging of Receiver Ghosts of Primaries Instead of Primaries Themselves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Nan

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The three key steps of modern seismic imaging are (1) multiple attenuation, (2) velocity estimation, and (3) migration. The multiple-attenuation step is essentially designed to remove the energy that has bounces at the free surface (also known...

  7. Regeneration of Aluminum Hydride - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hydride is an attractive alternative to the traditional metal hydrides for the storage of hydrogen for its use as an energy source. Alanes use as the primary source of hydrogen has...

  8. Step 6: Build Partnerships | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    way to deliver program messages. They can become your primary sales force for home energy improvements-as long as your program is designed to be something contractors want to...

  9. Energy Efficiency Supporting Policy and Heat Pumping Technology in Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    % improvement energy consumption per real GDP of Japan> Ref: METI/ Energy Data Modeling Centre, comprehensive energy statistics *Total consumption of primary energy (tons in crude oil equivalent) / real GDP heating , 25% Cooling, 2% Water heating, 29% Power, etc., 36% cooking , 8% Energy consumption by end- use

  10. Home Energy Management as a Service over Networking Platforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Faruque, Mohammad Abdullah

    for the residential sector (22% of the U.S. primary energy). Moreover, towards this goal, U.S. Department of Energy Energy Management (HEM) may be used to improve the energy consumption in the residential buildings and existing residential and commercial buildings to reduce the national energy consumption [3]. Therefore

  11. Abatement of Air Pollution: Connecticut Primary and Secondary Standards (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    No person shall operate a source which has a significant impact on air quality in such a manner as to cause or contribute to a violation of ambient air quality standards. Connecticut primary and...

  12. accuracy primary detector: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Anisotropy of 10 TeV Primary Cosmic Ray Nuclei Flux with the Super-Kamiokande-I Detector CERN Preprints Summary: The relative sidereal variation in the arrival direction of...

  13. aged primary coolant: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    problem.(1,2 with a variety of functions that often span the different hypotheses of aging.(2) It is unsurprising senescence, is a primary mechanism of organismal aging.(9-13)...

  14. Great Lakes Water Level Statistics Primary Investigator: Cynthia Sellinger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Great Lakes Water Level Statistics Primary Investigator: Cynthia Sellinger Overview Extreme Great disruption throughout the Great Lakes system. Reliable lake level frequency distributions are a critical of monthly lake levels reflect secular changes in connecting channel hydraulics, watershed hydrologic

  15. Is California's Top Two Primary Bad for Women Candidates?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merrill, Katie

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to assess the impact of the Top Two over the next two orIs California’s Top Two Primary Bad for Women Candidates?Katie Merrill Since the Top Two was first used in the

  16. Voter Behavior in California’s Top Two Primary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagler, Jonathan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    simply need time to adapt. The Top Two was a radical changelonger-term effect of the Top Two. References Alvarez, R.915–930. Donovan, Todd. 2012. “The Top Two Primary: What Can

  17. aboveground primary production: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plant biomass, and above and belowground annual net primary productivity for Canada north of the northern limit of trees. The area mapped covers 2.5 million km2 including...

  18. An Overview of the Louisiana Primary Solid Wood Products Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    goal of this second study is to profile the primary solid wood products industry. In addition (including pulp and paper) and secondary manufacturing establishments (Jacob et al. 1987). The forest

  19. Adaptive primary side control for a wireless power transfer optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogoda, Thilani Imanthika Dissanayake

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A resonant inductive wireless power transfer system, consisting of a primary (transmitter) circuit and secondary (receiver) circuit, was designed and implemented. This document also contains a novel indirect feedback method ...

  20. Primary lead smelter, Doe Run, Herculaneum, Missouri (kit)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Emission Standards Division (ESD) is investigating the primary lead smelting source category to identify and quantify organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emitted from blast furnaces. The primary objective was to obtain data on the emissions of volatile and semi-volatile organic HAPs, aldehydes, and ketones from primary lead smelter blast furnaces. A secondary objective was to obtain data on the emissions of carbon monoxide. The data will be used by ESD to determine whether organic HAPs are emitted at levels that would justify regulation under the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) program. The Doe Run Company, which operates a primary lead smelter in Herculaneum, Missouri was selected by the ESD as the host facility for this project.

  1. Primary aluminum production : climate policy, emissions and costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harnisch, Jochen.; Sue Wing, Ian.; Jacoby, Henry D.; Prinn, Ronald G.

    Climate policy regarding perfluorocarbons (PFCs) may have a significant influence on investment decisions in the production of primary aluminum. This work demonstrates an integrated analysis of the effectiveness and likely ...

  2. attending public primary: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 3.3 Schools for Primary Care, Social Care and Public Health Research Version 8 (January 2014) Mathematics Websites Summary: 3.3...

  3. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    430 million tonnes coal-equivalent energy use by 2025. More187 kilograms of coal equivalent primary energy use for eachof usable acquired energy from coal, oil and natural over

  4. Optimizing Distributed Energy Resources and Building Retrofits with the Strategic DER-CAModel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    net, final and primary energy demand for heating, cooling,40% of the total final energy demand in Europe, and 36% ofDirect reduction of energy demand and increased use of

  5. Research on the Integration Characteristics of Cooling Energy Recovery from Room Exhausting Cool Air in Summer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, W.; Wu, J.; Wei, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, the design and construction of buildings and building energy systems are far from reasonable. The requirement and consumption of primary energy resources is aggravated, the use of building energy is free and wasteful, and pollution...

  6. Energy Policy Scenarios of CCS Implementation in the Greek Electricity Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ioakimidis, Christos

    The energy balance of Greece is strongly dependent on imported oil. The rather late introduction of natural gas has increased the diversity of the energy mix while the share of renewable sources in primary energy supply ...

  7. BP Statistical Review of World Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    32 Reserves 32 Prices 34 Production 35 Consumption Nuclear energy 36 Consumption Hydroelectricity 38 Consumption Primary energy 40 Consumption 41 Consumption by fuel 43 R/P ratios Appendices 44 Approximate 1965 for many sections. · Additional data for natural gas, coal, hydroelectricity, nuclear energy

  8. Computational Energy Cost of TCP Bokyung Wang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Suresh

    present results from a detailed energy measurement study of TCP. We focus on the node- level cost have characterized the cost of the primary TCP functions; (3) our node-level energy models canComputational Energy Cost of TCP Bokyung Wang Telecommunications System Division SAMSUNG

  9. Decision Models for Bulk Energy Transportation Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    ... ... Primary Energy Supplies Gas Coal Railroad, Barge ... ... Storage & Transportation Systems Energy Transportation Networks #12;Structural Model: Energy Flows GAS COAL ELECTRIC Case A: 2002, and the amount of electricity generated #12;Structural Model: Effects of Katrina Average natural gas nodal price

  10. THE JOURNAL OF ENERGY AND DEVELOPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    THE JOURNAL OF ENERGY AND DEVELOPMENT C.-Y. Cynthia Lin, "Estimating Supply and Demand in the World of power, not only because it is a primary source of the energy needed to fuel modern industrialized, businesspeople, and policy makers have spent an inordinate amount of time and energy studying the oil in- dustry

  11. International energy annual, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 200 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy includes hydroelectric, geothermal, solar and wind electric power and alcohol for fuel. The data were largely derived from published sources and reports from US Embassy personnel in foreign posts. EIA also used data from reputable secondary sources, industry reports, etc.

  12. Poland: An energy and environmental overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Bhatti, N.; Buehring, W.A.; Streets, D.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Balandynowicz, H.W. (Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. Podstawowych Problemow Techniki)

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Poland's reliance on coal as its primary source of energy imposes heavy environmental costs on its economy and population. Specifically, many of Poland's air and water pollution problems can be traced to the high energy intensity of Polish industrial production. This overview presents environment and energy information for Poland. Topics discussed include: energy resources, production and use; energy production, trade and use; environmental quality and impacts; and control strategies. 109 refs., 25 figs., 40 tabs.

  13. Microsoft Word - CR-091 Primary Basis of Cost Savings and Cost Savings Amount Custom Fields

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked Questions forCheneyNovember S. DEPARTMENTthe UseCR-091 Primary Basis of Cost

  14. Detailed Energy Data Collection for Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads in a Commercial Office Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Culler, David E.

    Miscellaneous and electronic loads (MELs) consume about 20% of the primary energy used in U.S. buildings and accurate data to inform MELs energy use. Introduction Background Buildings account for 40% of the total), and this end use is projected to grow to one-third of the primary energy used in U.S. buildings in the next 20

  15. Additional requirements for leak-before-break application to primary coolant piping in Belgium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roussel, G. [AIB Vincotte Nuclear, Brussels (Belgium)

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Leak-Before-Break (LBB) technology has not been applied in the first design of the seven Pressurized Water Reactors the Belgian utility is currently operating. The design basis of these plants required to consider the dynamic effects associated with the ruptures to be postulated in the high energy piping. The application of the LBB technology to the existing plants has been recently approved by the Belgian Safety Authorities but with a limitation to the primary coolant loop. LBB analysis has been initiated for the Doel 3 and Tihange 2 plants to allow the withdrawal of some of the reactor coolant pump snubbers at both plants and not reinstall some of the restraints after steam generator replacement at Doel 3. LBB analysis was also found beneficial to demonstrate the acceptability of the primary components and piping to the new conditions resulting from power uprating and stretch-out operation. LBB analysis has been subsequently performed on the primary coolant loop of the Tihange I plant and is currently being performed for the Doel 4 plant. Application of the LBB to the primary coolant loop is based in Belgium on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements. However the Belgian Safety Authorities required some additional analyses and put some restrictions on the benefits of the LBB analysis to maintain the global safety of the plant at a sufficient level. This paper develops the main steps of the safety evaluation performed by the Belgian Safety Authorities for accepting the application of the LBB technology to existing plants and summarizes the requirements asked for in addition to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission rules.

  16. Why Voters May Have Failed to Reward Proximate Candidates in the 2012 Top Two Primary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahler, Douglas; Citrin, Jack; Lenz, Gabriel S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Gabriel S. Lenz. 2014. “Do Top-Two Primaries ImproveTest of California’s 2012 Top-Two Primary. ” Bafumi, Joseph,Assessing California’s Top-Two Primary and Redistricting

  17. Monthly energy review: January 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two major industry groups--the chemicals and allied products industry and the petroleum and coal products industry--accounted for more than half of US 1991 manufacturing primary energy consumption, which totaled 20.3 quadrillion Btu. Those two groups and four others (paper and allied products; primary metals; food and kindred products; and stone, clay, and glass products) accounted for 88 percent of the 1991 total. Those are among the results of the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), which is one of four major energy end-use surveys conducted by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the only comprehensive source of national-level data on US manufacturing energy use. The 1991 MECS is the third in an ongoing series of surveys conducted at 3-year intervals through 1994.

  18. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Feng, Wei; Lu, Alison; Xia, Jianjun; Yang, Le; Shen, Qi; Im, Piljae; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. and China are the world’s top two economics. Together they consumed one-third of the world’s primary energy. It is an unprecedented opportunity and challenge for governments, researchers and industries in both countries to join together to address energy issues and global climate change. Such joint collaboration has huge potential in creating new jobs in energy technologies and services. Buildings in the US and China consumed about 40% and 25% of the primary energy in both countries in 2010 respectively. Worldwide, the building sector is the largest contributor to the greenhouse gas emission. Better understanding and improving the energy performance of buildings is a critical step towards sustainable development and mitigation of global climate change. This project aimed to develop a standard methodology for building energy data definition, collection, presentation, and analysis; apply the developed methods to a standardized energy monitoring platform, including hardware and software, to collect and analyze building energy use data; and compile offline statistical data and online real-time data in both countries for fully understanding the current status of building energy use. This helps decode the driving forces behind the discrepancy of building energy use between the two countries; identify gaps and deficiencies of current building energy monitoring, data collection, and analysis; and create knowledge and tools to collect and analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and actionable information for key stakeholders.

  19. FY 2011 Annual Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DEVELOPMENT, SYSTEMS ANALYSIS, AND TESTING One of the primary objectives of the Energy Storage effort is the development of durable and affordable advanced batteries and...

  20. Residential and Transport Energy Use in India: Past Trend and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    16 Figure 10. Residential Primary Energy Use in 2000 and3. Fuel Consumption in the Residential Sector in 2005 in10 Table 6. Residential Activity

  1. Clinic-Level Process of Care for Depression in Primary Care Settings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fickel, Jacqueline J.; Yano, Elizabeth M.; Parker, Louise E.; Rubenstein, Lisa V.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in VA primary care clinics. Psychiatric Services (Affairs primary care clinics. Health Services Research, 42(009-0207-1 ORIGINAL PAPER Clinic-Level Process of Care for

  2. Importance of Hospital Entry: Walk-in STEMI and Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of primary percutaneous coronary intervention: Door-to-College percutaneous coronary intervention. JAMA. 2010;304(for primary percutaneous coronary intervention remains a

  3. Lung Cancer as a Second Primary Malignancy: Increasing Prevalence and Its Influence on Survival

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quadrelli, Silvia; Lyons, Gustavo; Colt, Henri; Chimondeguy, Domingo; Silva, Carlos

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    therapy for multiple primary lung cancers. Chest. REFERENCEMR. Multiple primary lung cancers. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg.606–12. 2. Johnson BE. Second lung cancers in patients after

  4. Fracture mechanics evaluation for at typical PWR primary coolant pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, T. [Kansai Electric Power Company, Osaka (Japan); Shimizu, S.; Ogata, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan, cast duplex stainless steel which is excellent in terms of strength, corrosion resistance, and weldability has conventionally been used. The cast duplex stainless steel contains the ferrite phase in the austenite matrix and thermal aging after long term service is known to change its material characteristics. It is considered appropriate to apply the methodology of elastic plastic fracture mechanics for an evaluation of the integrity of the primary coolant piping after thermal aging. Therefore we evaluated the integrity of the primary coolant piping for an initial PWR plant in Japan by means of elastic plastic fracture mechanics. The evaluation results show that the crack will not grow into an unstable fracture and the integrity of the piping will be secured, even when such through wall crack length is assumed to equal the fatigue crack growth length for a service period of up to 60 years.

  5. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In addition to promoting energy efficiency, China has actively pursued alternative energy development as a strategy to reduce its energy demand and carbon emissions. One area of particular focus has been to raise the share of alternative energy in China’s rapidly growing electricity generation with a 2020 target of 15% share of total primary energy. Over the last ten years, China has established several major renewable energy regulations along with programs and subsidies to encourage the growth of non-fossil alternative energy including solar, wind, nuclear, hydro, geothermal and biomass power as well as biofuels and coal alternatives. This study thus seeks to examine China’s alternative energy in terms of what has and will continue to drive alternative energy development in China as well as analyze in depth the growth potential and challenges facing each specific technology. This study found that despite recent policies enabling extraordinary capacity and investment growth, alternative energy technologies face constraints and barriers to growth. For relatively new technologies that have not achieved commercialization such as concentrated solar thermal, geothermal and biomass power, China faces technological limitations to expanding the scale of installed capacity. While some alternative technologies such as hydropower and coal alternatives have been slowed by uneven and often changing market and policy support, others such as wind and solar PV have encountered physical and institutional barriers to grid integration. Lastly, all alternative energy technologies face constraints in human resources and raw material resources including land and water, with some facing supply limitations in critical elements such as uranium for nuclear, neodymium for wind and rare earth metals for advanced solar PV. In light of China’s potential for and barriers to growth, the resource and energy requirement for alternative energy technologies were modeled and scenario analysis used to evaluate the energy and emission impact of two pathways of alternative energy development. The results show that China can only meets its 2015 and 2020 targets for non-fossil penetration if it successfully achieves all of its capacity targets for 2020 with continued expansion through 2030. To achieve this level of alternative generation, significant amounts of raw materials including 235 Mt of concrete, 54 Mt of steel, 5 Mt of copper along with 3 billion tons of water and 64 thousand square kilometers of land are needed. China’s alternative energy supply will likely have relatively high average energy output to fossil fuel input ratio of 42 declining to 26 over time, but this ratio is largely skewed by nuclear and hydropower capacity. With successful alternative energy development, 32% of China’s electricity and 21% of its total primary energy will be supplied by alternative energy by 2030. Compared to the counterfactual baseline in which alternative energy development stumbles and China does not meet its capacity targets until 2030, alternative energy development can displace 175 Mtce of coal inputs per year and 2080 Mtce cumulatively from power generation by 2030. In carbon terms, this translates into 5520 Mt of displaced CO{sub 2} emissions over the twenty year period, with more than half coming from expanded nuclear and wind power generation. These results illustrate the critical role that alternative energy development can play alongside energy efficiency in reducing China’s energy-related carbon emissions.

  6. Primary Atomization of a Liquid Jet in Crossflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rana, Sandeep

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this fluid dynamics video, we present a visualization of the primary atomization of a turbulent liquid jet injected into a turbulent gaseous crossflow. It is based on a detailed numerical simulation of the primary atomization region of the jet using a finite volume, balanced force, incompressible LES/DNS flow solver coupled to a Refined Level Set Grid (RLSG) solver to track the phase interface position. The visualization highlights the two distinct breakup modes of the jet: the column breakup mode of the main liquid column and the ligament breakup mode on the sides of the jet and highlights the complex evolution of the phase interface geometry.

  7. Matter & Energy Solar Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    See Also: Matter & Energy Solar Energy· Electronics· Materials Science· Earth & Climate Energy at the University of Illinois, the future of solar energy just got brighter. Although silicon is the industry Electronics Over 1.2 Million Electronics Parts, Components and Equipment. www.AlliedElec.com solar energy

  8. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Federal buildings which begin the planning process by 2020 to achieve zero-net energy by 2030 PotentialEnergy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Dr. Sunita of Energy Military Energy and Alternative Fuels Conference March 17-18, 2010 San Diego, CA #12;2 1. Overview

  9. The Role of Primary 16O as a Neutron Poison in AGB stars and Fluorine primary production at Halo Metallicities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallino, R; Cristallo, S; Straniero, O

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The discovery of a historical bug in the s-post-process AGB code obtained so far by the Torino group forced us to reconsider the role of primary 16O in the 13C-pocket, produced by the 13C(a, n)16O reaction, as important neutron poison for the build up of the s-elements at Halo metallicities. The effect is noticeable only for the highest 13C-pocket efficiencies (cases ST*2 and ST). For Galactic disc metallicities, the bug effect is negligible. A comparative analysis of the neutron poison effect of other primary isotopes (12C, 22Ne and its progenies) is presented. The effect of proton captures, by 14N(n, p)14C, boosts a primary production of Fluorine in Halo AGB stars, with [F/Fe] comparable to [C/Fe], without affecting the s-elements production.

  10. Energy Research and Development Division FINAL PROJECT REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Principal Economist at Itron Inc., in interpreting and analyzing Itron energy efficiency data. Likewise: California Energy Commission Prepared by: Schatz Energy Research Center #12; Prepared by: Primary Alstone, Adam Schumaker, Colin Sheppard, and Jim Zoellick, SERC Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) 1

  11. Energy Research and Development Division FINAL PROJECT REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Research and Development Division FINAL PROJECT REPORT RWE SCHOTT SOLAR Energy Commission Prepared by: RWE Schott Solar, Inc #12; PREPARED BY: Primary Author(s): Miles C on the following RD&D program areas: · Buildings EndUse Energy Efficiency · Energy Innovations Small Grants

  12. Energy Research and Development Division FINAL PROJECT REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Research and Development Division FINAL PROJECT REPORT ENERGY INNOVATIONS: California Energy Commission Prepared by: San Diego State Research Foundation #12; Prepared by: Primary Diego, CA 92182-1858 (619) 594-1900 Contract Number: 500-98-014 Prepared for: California Energy

  13. Energy Research and Development Division FINAL PROJECT REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Research and Development Division FINAL PROJECT REPORT DRILLING AND TESTING5002013083AP Prepared for: California Energy Commission Prepared by: Layman Energy Associates, Inc. #12; PREPARED BY: Primary Author(s): Erik B. Layman Layman Energy Associates, Inc. 1584 Cordova Drive San Luis

  14. Energy Research and Development Division FINAL PROJECT REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Research and Development Division FINAL PROJECT REPORT DRILLING AND TESTING Prepared for: California Energy Commission Prepared by: Layman Energy Associates, Inc. #12; PREPARED BY: Primary Author(s): Erik B. Layman Layman Energy Associates, Inc. 1584 Cordova Drive San Luis

  15. Energy Research and Development Division FINAL PROJECT REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Research and Development Division FINAL PROJECT REPORT ENERGY INNOVATIONS: California Energy Commission Prepared by: San Diego State Research Foundation #12; Prepared by: Primary-1858 (619) 594-1900 Contract Number: 500-98-014 Prepared for: California Energy Commission Raquel E. Kravitz

  16. Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    $5% of world primary energy con- sumption in 2006. The global potential for biomass energy production usage. Increasing biomass energy production beyond this level would probably reduce food security that can be used for biomass energy production. The third is alternative uses for the land and water

  17. CARBON FOOTPRINT STUDY OF A ZERO ENERGY COSUMPTION RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    frequently the term of zero energy building (ZEB) is called when designing a new building. A net zero-energyCARBON FOOTPRINT STUDY OF A ZERO ENERGY COSUMPTION RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION Tiberiu Catalina 1 and coal), which provides currently more than 80% of the primary energies marketed in the world

  18. Multiple reflection solar energy absorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooley, W.L.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of converting solar energy into heat energy thereby generating power is described comprising the steps: (a) focusing said solar energy by means of a primary concentrator, (b) concentrating said solar energy from said primary concentrator by means of a secondary concentrator located at the focal point of said primary concentrator, (c) slowing the flux of said solar energy from said secondary concentrator by means of a multiple reflection chamber attached to the rear aperture of the secondary concentrator, (d) circulating a working fluid by means of a working fluid delivery tube into said secondary concentrator and said multiple reflection chamber, (e) absorbing said solar energy into said working fluid by means of an ultra high concentration of said solar energy in said multiple reflection chamber, (f) insulating said working fluid by means of a surrounding thermal barrier, (g) exhausting the heat working fluid by means as of a nozzle joined to said multiple reflection chamber, (h) replacing said working fluid by means of a working fluid delivery tube, thereby completing a cycle for generating power.

  19. Crack stability analysis of low alloy steel primary coolant pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, T.; Kameyama, M. [Kansai Electric Power Company, Osaka (Japan); Urabe, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Takasago (Japan)] [and others

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At present, cast duplex stainless steel has been used for the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan and joints of dissimilar material have been applied for welding to reactor vessels and steam generators. For the primary coolant piping of the next APWR plants, application of low alloy steel that results in designing main loops with the same material is being studied. It means that there is no need to weld low alloy steel with stainless steel and that makes it possible to reduce the welding length. Attenuation of Ultra Sonic Wave Intensity is lower for low alloy steel than for stainless steel and they have advantageous inspection characteristics. In addition to that, the thermal expansion rate is smaller for low alloy steel than for stainless steel. In consideration of the above features of low alloy steel, the overall reliability of primary coolant piping is expected to be improved. Therefore, for the evaluation of crack stability of low alloy steel piping to be applied for primary loops, elastic-plastic future mechanics analysis was performed by means of a three-dimensioned FEM. The evaluation results for the low alloy steel pipings show that cracks will not grow into unstable fractures under maximum design load conditions, even when such a circumferential crack is assumed to be 6 times the size of the wall thickness.

  20. alloy primary water: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    primary water First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Characterization of the oxide films...

  1. Highcliffe School Woodfuel Innovative heating for a Leicestershire Primary School

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Highcliffe School Woodfuel Innovative heating for a Leicestershire Primary School objectives Living school through the simple act of replacing an ageing, coal-fired boiler with a modern, wood will come from poplar trees planted in the school grounds. As well as reducing the school's carbon footprint

  2. Aquatic primary production in a high-CO2 world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fussman, Gregor

    Aquatic primary production in a high-CO2 world Etienne Low-De´carie, Gregor F. Fussmann, and Graham-Penfield, Montreal, QC, H3A 1B1, Canada Here, we provide a review of the direct effect of increas- ing CO2 on aquatic: the assessment of theories about limitation of productivity and the integration of CO2 into the co

  3. Automatic learning for the classification of primary frequency control behaviour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehenkel, Louis

    types of expected or unexpected behaviours. The proposed approach is based on automatic learning whichAutomatic learning for the classification of primary frequency control behaviour Bertrand. Abstract-- In this paper we propose a methodology based on supervised automatic learning in order

  4. AUTOMATIC GUIDING OF THE PRIMARY IMAGE OF SOLAR GREGORY TELESCOPES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and declination angles of the Sun. Gregory-type telescopes have an elliptical secondary mirror behind the primeAUTOMATIC GUIDING OF THE PRIMARY IMAGE OF SOLAR GREGORY TELESCOPES G. KÃ?VELER1, E. WIEHR2, D of solar Gregory telescopes is used for automatic guiding. This new system avoids temporal varying

  5. PRIMARY RESEARCH Open Access Anticonvulsant and analgesic activities of crude

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PRIMARY RESEARCH Open Access Anticonvulsant and analgesic activities of crude extract and its with anticonvulsant and analgesic activities. We investigated the efficacy of crude extract and its semi in mice. Among the series the crude extract exhibited interesting analgesic activity in a dose dependent

  6. Scaling Up Primary Education Services in Rural India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scaling Up Primary Education Services in Rural India Nirupam Bajpai, Ravindra H. Dholakia and Sustainable Development The Earth Institute at Columbia University www.earth.columbia.edu #12;Scaling up attempt to address two key questions in this paper: 1) In terms of state-wide scaling up of rural services

  7. Scaling Up Primary Health Services in Rural India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scaling Up Primary Health Services in Rural India Nirupam Bajpai, Ravindra H. Dholakia and Jeffrey and Sustainable Development The Earth Institute at Columbia University www.earth.columbia.edu #12;Scaling up Abstract We attempt to address two key questions in this paper: 1) In terms of state-wide scaling up

  8. Research Article Effects of alpine hydropower operations on primary production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research Article Effects of alpine hydropower operations on primary production in a downstream lake the past century, the construction of hydropower dams in the watershed of Lake Brienz has significantly. According to model calculations, hydropower operations have significantly altered the seasonal dynamics

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Quantification of net primary production of Chinese

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Tonglin

    Abstract Net primary production (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystems provides food, fiber, construction to rising population and biofuel uses. Assessing national forest NPP is of importance to best use forest resources in China. To date, most estimates of NPP are based on process-based ecosystem modeling, forestry

  10. Understanding Hydraulic Processes Primary Investigator: Frank H. Quinn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Understanding Hydraulic Processes Primary Investigator: Frank H. Quinn Overview The hydraulic and connecting channel hydraulics models for use in Great Lakes water resource studies. 2000 Plans Niagara River Hydraulic Studies: Detailed analysis of the impact of hydraulic regime changes in the Niagara River

  11. Ultrastructure of Primary Afferent Terminals and Synapses in the Rat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, David L.

    Ultrastructure of Primary Afferent Terminals and Synapses in the Rat Nucleus of the Solitary Tract tympani (CT), and glossopharyngeal (IX) nerves terminate in overlapping patterns in the brainstem electron microscopy. Although all three nerves had features charac- teristic of excitatory nerve terminals

  12. Cleaning Cesium Radionuclides from BN-350 Primary Sodium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanenko, O.G.; Allen, K.J.; Wachs, D.M.; Planchon, H.P.; Wells, P.B.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Nazarenko, P.; Dumchev, I.; Maev, V.; Zemtzev, B.; Tikhomirov, L.; Yakovlev, V.; Synkov, A

    2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports the successful design and operation of a system to remove highly radioactive cesium from the sodium coolant of the BN-350 reactor in Aktau, Kazakhstan. As an international effort between the United States and the Republic of Kazakhstan, a cesium-trapping system was jointly designed, fabricated, installed, and successfully operated. The results are significant for a number of reasons, including (a) a significant reduction of radioactivity levels of the BN-350 coolant and reactor surfaces, thereby reducing exposure to workers during shutdown operations; (b) demonstration of scientific ideas; and (c) the engineering application of effective cesium trap deployment for commercial-sized liquid-metal reactors. About 255 300 GBq (6900 Ci) of cesium was trapped, and the {sup 137}Cs specific activity in BN-350 primary sodium was decreased from 296 MBq/kg (8000 {mu}Ci/kg) to 0.37 MBq/kg (10 {mu}Ci/kg) by using seven cesium traps containing reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) as the cesium adsorbent. Cesium trapping was accomplished by pumping sodium from the primary circuit, passing it through a block of RVC within each trap, and returning the cleaned sodium to the primary circuit. Both to predict and to analyze the behavior of the cesium traps in the BN-350 reactor primary circuit, a model was developed that satisfactorily describes the observed results of the cesium trapping. By using this model, thermodynamic parameters, such as the heat of adsorption of cesium atoms on RVC and on internal piping surfaces of the BN-350 reactor primary circuit, -22.7 and -5.0 kJ/mole, respectively, were extracted from the experimental data.

  13. Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handy, Susan L.

    · Electricity · Low-carbon liquid fuels (coal / NG with sequestration) #12;POTENTIAL FOR VEHICLE ENERGY infrastructure Low carbon primary supply · Each solution faces non-trivial technical, economic, policy-in hybrids Fossil Fuels Bus. as usual Low-carbon fuels (incl. CCS) Consumer Demand & Behavior Infrastructure

  14. California Energy Commission ADOPTED REGULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez Angela Gould Primary Author(s) Kate Zocchetti Acting Office Manager Renewable Energy Office of procurement that a POU must meet for a particular year for the purposes of calculating historic carryover Independent System Operator Corporation, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, Balancing Authority

  15. FUTURE POWER GRID INITIATIVE Future Power Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and WECC model » Prototyping proposed control strategy utilizing high performance computing (HPC) APPROACH

  16. 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    studied to examine interactions among them for WECC rating purposes · Rating establishes maximum safe

  17. DRAFT Released for Public Comment February 14, 2008 W. Bill Booth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coordinating Council (WECC) for consideration in its assessment of West-wide resource adequacy. The term

  18. 21 a 25 de maio de 2006 May 21rst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    recently, studies of the WECC power systems, which spans the western US, have identified load modelling

  19. DATE Apr 26 2011 RECD. Apr 26 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coordinating Council (WECC). The proposed changes include new Conditions of Certification for the gas turbine

  20. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    16/j.apenergy.2011.04.011. Western Electricty Coordinatingcommittees/ Western Electricty Coordinating Council (WECC).

  1. Energy Conservation Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delgado, Mauricio

    Energy Conservation Renewable Energy The Future at Rutgers University Facilities & Capital Planning Operations & Services Utilities Operations 6 Berrue Circle Piscataway, NJ 08854 #12;Energy Conservation Wh C ti ? R bl EWhy Conservation? Renewable Energy · Climate control reduces green house gases · Reduces

  2. International energy annual 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1992-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The International Energy Annual presents current data and trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in more than 190 countries, dependencies, and area of special sovereignty. Also included are prices on crude oil, petroleum products, natural gas, electricity, and coal in selected countries. (VC)

  3. Energy Management at Dow Chemical Co.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almaguer, J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As one of the largest industrial consumers of energy in the world, The Dow Chemical Company and its 46,000 employees have put energy efficiency at the very core of its business – both as a cost savings initiative and as a primary corporate social...

  4. Zero Energy Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Windows in the U.S. consume 30 percent of building heating and cooling energy, representing an annual impact of 4.1 quadrillion BTU (quads) of primary energy. Windows have an even larger impact on peak energy demand and on occupant comfort. An additional 1 quad of lighting energy could be saved if buildings employed effective daylighting strategies. The ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program has made standard windows significantly more efficient. However, even if all windows in the stock were replaced with today's efficient products, window energy consumption would still be approximately 2 quads. However, windows can be ''net energy gainers'' or ''zero-energy'' products. Highly insulating products in heating applications can admit more useful solar gain than the conductive energy lost through them. Dynamic glazings can modulate solar gains to minimize cooling energy needs and, in commercial buildings, allow daylighting to offset lighting requirements. The needed solutions vary with building type and climate. Developing this next generation of zero-energy windows will provide products for both existing buildings undergoing window replacements and products which are expected to be contributors to zero-energy buildings. This paper defines the requirements for zero-energy windows. The technical potentials in terms of national energy savings and the research and development (R&D) status of the following technologies are presented: (1) Highly insulating systems with U-factors of 0.1 Btu/hr-ft{sup 2}-F; (2) Dynamic windows: glazings that modulate transmittance (i.e., change from clear to tinted and/or reflective) in response to climate conditions; and (3) Integrated facades for commercial buildings to control/ redirect daylight. Market transformation policies to promote these technologies as they emerge into the marketplace are then described.

  5. Industrial energy efficiency policy in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan; Yun, Jiang

    2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chinese industrial sector energy-efficiency policy has gone through a number of distinct phases since the founding of the People s Republic in 1949. An initial period of energy supply growth in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s was followed by implementation of significant energy efficiency programs in the 1980s. Many of these programs were dismantled in the 1990s during the continuing move towards a market-based economy. In an effort to once again strengthen energy efficiency, the Chinese government passes the Energy Conservation Law in 1997 which provides broad guidance for the establishment of energy efficiency policies. Article 20 of the Energy Conservation Law requires substantial improvement in industrial energy efficiency in the key energy-consuming industrial facilities in China. This portion of the Law declares that ''the State will enhance energy conservation management in key energy consuming entities.'' In 1999, the industrial sector consumed nearly 30 EJ, or 76 percent of China's primary energy. Even though primary energy consumption has dropped dramatically in recent years, due mostly to a decline in coal consumption, the Chinese government is still actively developing an overall policy for energy efficiency in the industrial sector modeled after policies in a number of industrialized countries. This paper will describe recent Chinese government activities to develop industrial sector energy-efficiency targets as a ''market-based'' mechanism for improving the energy efficiency of key industrial facilities.

  6. V1FY 2013 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Jean St-Pierre (Primary Contact), Yunfeng Zhai,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V­1FY 2013 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Jean St-Pierre (Primary applications, 80-kWe (net) integrated transportation fuel cell power systems operating on direct hydrogen-Pierre ­ Hawaii Natural Energy InstituteV.E Fuel Cells / Impurities V­2DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2013

  7. (Data in thousand metric tons of metal, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2000, 12 companies operated 23 primary aluminum reduction plants. Montana,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and Issues: Domestic primary aluminum production decreased owing in large part to the smelter production cutbacks caused by increased energy costs, particularly in the Pacific Northwest. Domestic smelters aluminum smelter in Hawesville, KY. The acquisition was subject to the completion of a labor agreement

  8. EBR-II Primary Tank Wash-Water Alternatives Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demmer, R. L.; Heintzelman, J. B.; Merservey, R. H.; Squires, L. N.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The EBR-II reactor at Idaho National Laboratory was a liquid sodium metal cooled reactor that operated for 30 years. It was shut down in 1994; the fuel was removed by 1996; and the bulk of sodium metal coolant was removed from the reactor by 2001. Approximately 1100 kg of residual sodium remained in the primary system after draining the bulk sodium. To stabilize the remaining sodium, both the primary and secondary systems were treated with a purge of moist carbon dioxide. Most of the residual sodium reacted with the carbon dioxide and water vapor to form a passivation layer of primarily sodium bicarbonate. The passivation treatment was stopped in 2005 and the primary system is maintained under a blanket of dry carbon dioxide. Approximately 670 kg of sodium metal remains in the primary system in locations that were inaccessible to passivation treatment or in pools of sodium that were too deep for complete penetration of the passivation treatment. The EBR-II reactor was permitted by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) in 2002 under a RCRA permit that requires removal of all remaining sodium in the primary and secondary systems by 2022. The proposed baseline closure method would remove the large components from the primary tank, fill the primary system with water, react the remaining sodium with the water and dissolve the reaction products in the wash water. This method would generate a minimum of 100,000 gallons of caustic, liquid, low level radioactive, hazardous waste water that must be disposed of in a permitted facility. On February 19-20, 2008, a workshop was held in Idaho Falls, Idaho, to look at alternatives that could meet the RCRA permit clean closure requirements and minimize the quantity of hazardous waste generated by the cleanup process. The workshop convened a panel of national and international sodium cleanup specialists, subject matter experts from the INL, and the EBR-II Wash Water Project team that organized the workshop. The workshop was conducted by a trained facilitator using Value Engineering techniques to elicit the most technically sound solutions from the workshop participants. The path forward includes developing the OBA into a well engineered solution for achieving RCRA clean closure of the EBR-II Primary Reactor Tank system. Several high level tasks are also part of the path forward such as reassigning responsibility of the cleanup project to a dedicated project team that is funded by the DOE Office of Environmental Management, and making it a priority so that adequate funding is available to complete the project. Based on the experience of the sodium cleanup specialists, negotiations with the DEQ will be necessary to determine a risk-based de minimus quantity for acceptable amount of sodium that can be left in the reactor systems after cleanup has been completed.

  9. The Causes and Consequences of Congressional Endorsements in Presidential Primaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Christopher

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF CONGRESSIONAL ENDORSEMENTS IN PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARIES A Dissertation by CHRISTOPHER LEIF ANDERSON Submitted to the O ce of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment... 2013 Christopher Leif Anderson ABSTRACT Little is known about why elected o cials choose to get involved in presidential nomination struggles. Recent research argues that elected o cials have a collective incentive to nominate an electorally viable...

  10. Energy implications of mechanical and mechanical–biological treatment compared to direct waste-to-energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cimpan, Ciprian, E-mail: cic@kbm.sdu.dk; Wenzel, Henrik

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Compared systems achieve primary energy savings between 34 and 140 MJ{sub primary}/100 MJ{sub input} {sub waste.} • Savings magnitude is foremost determined by chosen primary energy and materials production. • Energy consumption and process losses can be upset by increased technology efficiency. • Material recovery accounts for significant shares of primary energy savings. • Direct waste-to-energy is highly efficient if cogeneration (CHP) is possible. - Abstract: Primary energy savings potential is used to compare five residual municipal solid waste treatment systems, including configurations with mechanical (MT) and mechanical–biological (MBT) pre-treatment, which produce waste-derived fuels (RDF and SRF), biogas and/or recover additional materials for recycling, alongside a system based on conventional mass burn waste-to-energy and ash treatment. To examine the magnitude of potential savings we consider two energy efficiency levels (state-of-the-art and best available technology), the inclusion/exclusion of heat recovery (CHP vs. PP) and three different background end-use energy production systems (coal condensing electricity and natural gas heat, Nordic electricity mix and natural gas heat, and coal CHP energy quality allocation). The systems achieved net primary energy savings in a range between 34 and 140 MJ{sub primary}/100 MJ{sub input} {sub waste}, in the different scenario settings. The energy footprint of transportation needs, pre-treatment and reprocessing of recyclable materials was 3–9.5%, 1–18% and 1–8% respectively, relative to total energy savings. Mass combustion WtE achieved the highest savings in scenarios with CHP production, nonetheless, MBT-based systems had similarly high performance if SRF streams were co-combusted with coal. When RDF and SRF was only used in dedicated WtE plants, MBT-based systems totalled lower savings due to inherent system losses and additional energy costs. In scenarios without heat recovery, the biodrying MBS-based system achieved the highest savings, on the condition of SRF co-combustion. As a sensitivity scenario, alternative utilisation of SRF in cement kilns was modelled. It supported similar or higher net savings for all pre-treatment systems compared to mass combustion WtE, except when WtE CHP was possible in the first two background energy scenarios. Recovery of plastics for recycling before energy recovery increased net energy savings in most scenario variations, over those of full stream combustion. Sensitivity to assumptions regarding virgin plastic substitution was tested and was found to mostly favour plastic recovery.

  11. Applied Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 14, 2013 ... atmosphere and thereby mitigating the greenhouse effect, CCS especially the long-term storage has to be safe. Potential leakage is the primary ...

  12. Data:2295166d-6943-49df-843b-2c9aad7c3adc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Pennsylvania Electric Co Effective date: 20110101 End date if known: Rate name: Large Primary Rate...

  13. Data:294ec82e-808a-4365-adb8-109f1b16823d | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Potomac Electric Power Co Effective date: End date if known: Rate name: Time Metered General Service - Primary...

  14. Data:5a76dc24-df1f-4475-ba37-3db967893ecb | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Commercial Description: *Riders:Power charge rider, Ohio Excise tax rider, Transition cost Rider. Primary metering adjustment:energy charge multiplied by 0.98 Source...

  15. 2007 Estimated International Energy Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy flow chart or 'atlas' for 136 countries has been constructed from data maintained by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and estimates of energy use patterns for the year 2007. Approximately 490 exajoules (460 quadrillion BTU) of primary energy are used in aggregate by these countries each year. While the basic structure of the energy system is consistent from country to country, patterns of resource use and consumption vary. Energy can be visualized as it flows from resources (i.e. coal, petroleum, natural gas) through transformations such as electricity generation to end uses (i.e. residential, commercial, industrial, transportation). These flow patterns are visualized in this atlas of 136 country-level energy flow charts.

  16. Energy Conservation and Efficiency Improvement for the Electric Motors Operating in U.S. Oil Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ula, S.; Cain, W.; Nichols, T.

    Because of its versatility, electricity consumption continues to grow all over the world more rapidly than any other energy form. The portion of the United States' primary energy supply used as electricity has expanded from near zero at the turn...

  17. How Would You Use Your Mobile Device to Save Energy? | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to heat our homes, nearly half of us use natural gas. | Source: Buildings Energy Data Book 2011, 2.1.1 Residential Primary Energy Consumption, by Year and Fuel Type...

  18. Assessing methods for predicting retrofit energy savings in buildings : case study of a Norwegian school

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricker, Elizabeth, S.M. (Elizabeth Ann). Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work investigates methods for predicting retrofit energy savings in existing Norwegian buildings. A case study is performed on a 30 year old primary school in Trondheim, Norway. The energy consumption in the school ...

  19. SU-E-I-100: Heterogeneity Studying for Primary and Lymphoma Tumors by Using Multi-Scale Image Texture Analysis with PET-CT Images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Dengwang [Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong Province (China); Wang, Qinfen [Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Li, H; Chen, J [Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Jinan, Shandong (China)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is studying tumor heterogeneity of the primary and lymphoma by using multi-scale texture analysis with PET-CT images, where the tumor heterogeneity is expressed by texture features. Methods: Datasets were collected from 12 lung cancer patients, and both of primary and lymphoma tumors were detected with all these patients. All patients underwent whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT scan before treatment.The regions of interest (ROI) of primary and lymphoma tumor were contoured by experienced clinical doctors. Then the ROI of primary and lymphoma tumor is extracted automatically by using Matlab software. According to the geometry size of contour structure, the images of tumor are decomposed by multi-scale method.Wavelet transform was performed on ROI structures within images by L layers sampling, and then wavelet sub-bands which have the same size of the original image are obtained. The number of sub-bands is 3L+1.The gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) is calculated within different sub-bands, thenenergy, inertia, correlation and gray in-homogeneity were extracted from GLCM.Finally, heterogeneity statistical analysis was studied for primary and lymphoma tumor using the texture features. Results: Energy, inertia, correlation and gray in-homogeneity are calculated with our experiments for heterogeneity statistical analysis.Energy for primary and lymphomatumor is equal with the same patient, while gray in-homogeneity and inertia of primaryare 2.59595±0.00855, 0.6439±0.0007 respectively. Gray in-homogeneity and inertia of lymphoma are 2.60115±0.00635, 0.64435±0.00055 respectively. The experiments showed that the volume of lymphoma is smaller than primary tumor, but thegray in-homogeneity and inertia were higher than primary tumor with the same patient, and the correlation with lymphoma tumors is zero, while the correlation with primary tumor isslightly strong. Conclusion: This studying showed that there were effective heterogeneity differences between primary and lymphoma tumor by multi-scale image texture analysis. This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61201441), Research Fund for Excellent Young and Middle-aged Scientists of Shandong Province (No. BS2012DX038), Project of Shandong Province Higher Educational Science and Technology Program (No. J12LN23), Jinan youth science and technology star (No.20120109)

  20. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    new Federal buildings which begin the planning process by 2020 to achieve zero net energy by 2030zero-net

  1. Energy Research and Development Division FINAL PROJECT REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FOR REDUCING BIODIESEL FACILITY WATER CONSUMPTION AND WASTEWATER DISCHARGE JULY 2013 CEC5002013018 Prepared for: California Energy Commission Prepared by: American Biodiesel, Inc. dba Community Fuels #12; Prepared by: Primary Authors: Lisa Mortenson Christopher Young American Biodiesel, Inc. dba

  2. Model predictive control for energy efficient cooling and dehumidification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zakula, Tea

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy has become a primary concern in countries worldwide, and is a focus of debates on national security, climate change, global economy, and the developing world. With more people in developing countries adopting the ...

  3. Energy Management in a Multi-Industry Organization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tenneco operates in seven of the nation's ten most energy intensive industries: Petroleum Refining, Chemicals Manufacturing, Pulp and Paper, Transportation Equipment, Primary Metals, Food Processing, and Machinery. This diversification...

  4. Sandia Energy - Installation Energy Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Installation Energy Security Home Stationary Power Grid Modernization Resilient Electric Infrastructures Military Installation Energy Security Installation Energy SecurityTara...

  5. ,"Plant","Primary Energy Source","Operating Company","Net Summer...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Co",744 2,"Dworshak","Hydroelectric","USACE Northwestern Division",400 3,"Langley Gulch Power Plant","Natural Gas","Idaho Power Co",298.7 4,"Cabinet Gorge","Hydroelectric","Avist...

  6. ,"Plant","Primary Energy Source","Operating Company","Net Summer...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Generation & Tran Coop",458 7,"Gadsby","Natural Gas","PacifiCorp",347.5 8,"Kennecott Power Plant","Coal","Kennecott Utah Copper",212.7 9,"Milford Wind Corridor I...

  7. Primary electron energy dependent flashover in surface polarity on Au films M. Catalfano,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    .1063/1.4803484] I. INTRODUCTION Incident electron-induced charging of insulators in vac- uum can lead due to the presence or absence of oxide growth and carbon contamination on the surface of various occur in insulating materials, leading to either surface flash- over16 or dielectric breakdown.17

  8. Impacts of Electric Vehicles on Primary Energy Consumption and Petroleum Displacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Quanlu; Delucchi, Mark A.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    These studiesprojected electricity consumption EVs and theMPG) and EV electricity consumption (in Kwh per mile).weight of increases. 3.2. Electricity Consumption EVs of To

  9. ,"Plant","Primary Energy Source","Operating Company","Net Summer...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ee","Nuclear","Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee",604.3 2,"Kingdom Community Wind","Wind","Green Mountain Power Corp",65 3,"J C McNeil","Wood","City of Burlington Electric - (VT)",52...

  10. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy source, 1990 throu

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period:Dakota" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","TypeWyoming"5 Selected5. Light

  11. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy source, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period:Dakota" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","TypeWyoming"5 Selected5. LightAlaska"

  12. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy source, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period:Dakota" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","TypeWyoming"5 Selected5. LightAlaska"

  13. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy source, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period:Dakota" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","TypeWyoming"5 Selected5.

  14. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy source, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period:Dakota" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","TypeWyoming"5 Selected5.Colorado"

  15. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy source, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period:Dakota" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","TypeWyoming"5

  16. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy source, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period:Dakota" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","TypeWyoming"5Delaware"

  17. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy source, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period:Dakota" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","TypeWyoming"5Delaware"District of

  18. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy source, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period:Dakota" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","TypeWyoming"5Delaware"District

  19. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy source, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period:Dakota" "megawatthours"

  20. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy source, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period:Dakota" "megawatthours"Hawaii" "megawatts" "Item", 2013, 2012, 2011,