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Sample records for watershed westslope cutthroat

  1. South Fork Flathead Watershed Westslope Cutthroat Trout Conservation Program, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grisak, Grant; Marotz, Brian

    2003-06-01

    In 1999, Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks (MFWP) began a program aimed at conserving the genetically pure populations of westslope cutthroat trout in the South Fork Flathead River drainage. The objective of this program is to eliminate all of the exotic and hybrid trout that threaten the genetically pure westslope cutthroat populations in the South Fork Flathead. The exotic and hybrid trout populations occur in several headwater lakes and their outflow streams. In 2001 MFWP released a draft environmental assessment, pursuant to the Montana Environmental Policy Act (MEPA), that addressed the use of motorized equipment to deliver personnel and materials to some of these lakes in the Bob Marshall and Great Bear Wildernesses (Grisak 2001). After a 30-day public comment period, MFWP determined that the complexity of issues was too great and warranted a more detailed analysis. These issues included transportation options for personnel, equipment and materials, the use of motorized equipment in wilderness, fish removal methods, fish stocking, and the status and distribution of amphibian populations in the project area. Because the program also involves the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the environmental analysis needs to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In October 2001, pursuant to NEPA, MFWP, along with the USFS and BPA initiated an environmental assessment to address these issues. In June 2002, the three agencies determined that the scope of these issues warranted an Environmental Impact Statement. This specialist report describes the logistical, technical and biological issues associated with this project and provides an analysis of options for fish removal, transportation and fish stocking. It further analyzes issues and concerns associated with amphibian populations and creating new domesticated stocks of westslope cutthroat trout. Finally, this document provides a description of each lake, the best method of fish removal that would achieve the goals of the project, logistics for carrying out the fish removal, and the immediate management direction for each lake following fish removal. The USFS is preparing a specialist report detailing land management issues that relate to National Forest, designated Hiking Areas, and Wilderness. Information from these two documents will be used by BPA to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement.

  2. EIS-0353: South Fork Flathead Watershed/Westlope Cutthroat Trout Conservation Project, Montana

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In cooperation with Montana, Fish, Wildlife, and Parks, Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to implement a conservation program to preserve the genetic purity of the westslope cutthroat trout populations in the South Fork of the Flathead River drainage.

  3. Box Canyon Model Watershed Project : Annual Report 1997/1998.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalispel Natural Resource Department

    1998-01-01

    In 1997, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) initiated the Box Canyon Watershed Project. This project will concentrate on watershed protection and enhancement from an upland perspective and will complement current instream restoration efforts implemented through the Kalispel Resident Fish Project. Primary focus of this project is the Cee Cee Ah Creek watershed due to its proximity to the Reservation, importance as a traditional fishery, and potential for bull trout and west-slope cutthroat trout recovery.

  4. EIS-0353: DOE Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    South Fork Flathead Watershed Westslope Cutthroat Trout Conservation Program, Flathead County, Montana

  5. EIS-0353: Draft Environmental Impact Statement | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Watershed Westslope Cutthroat Trout Conservation Program In cooperation with Montana, Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to implement a...

  6. EIS-0353: Final Environmental Impact Statement | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Watershed Westslope Cutthroat Trout Conservation Program In cooperation with Montana, Fish, Wildlife, and Parks, Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to implement a...

  7. Watersheds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Watershed Protection at the Fernald Preserve in Ohio Watershed Protection at the Fernald Preserve in Ohio April 19, 2016 - 4:41pm Addthis What does this project do? Goal 4: Optimize the use of land and assets. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) are working with a local land trust organization to acquire conservation easements within the Paddys Run watershed. Funds for this effort are provided from a

  8. Flathead River Focus Watershed Coordinator, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DuCharme, Lynn

    2006-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has long been involved with funding of the Cooperative Habitat Protection and Improvement with Private Landowners program in accordance with the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish & Wildlife Program (Section 7.7). Section 7.7B.1 requires the establishment of ''at least one model watershed coordinator selected by each representative state''. This project was initiated in 1997 with the purpose of fulfilling the NWPCC's watershed program within the Flathead River basin in western Montana. Currently, the Flathead watershed has been radically altered by hydropower and other land uses. With the construction of Hungry Horse, Bigfork and Kerr dams, the Flathead River system has been divided into isolated populations. Bull trout have been listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and westslope cutthroat trout have been petitioned for listing. Many streams in the drainage have been destabilized during recent decades. Past legal and illegal species introductions are also causing problems. This project fosters in-kind, out-of-place mitigation to offset the impacts of hydroelectric power to 72 miles of the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries upstream of Hungry Horse Dam. Key subbasins within the Flathead drainage, which are critical to native species restoration, are experiencing rapid changes in land ownership and management direction. Subdivision and residential development of agricultural and timber lands adjacent to waterways in the drainage pose one of the greatest threats to weak but recoverable stocks of trout species. Plum Creek Timber Company, a major landholder in the Flathead drainage is currently divesting itself of large tracks of its lakeshore and streamside holdings. Growth of small tract development throughout the area and its tributaries is occurring at a record rate. Immediate to short-term action is required to protect stream corridors through many of these areas if cost-effective recovery efforts are to be implemented. In order to adequately address the issues, other segments of society and other (non-BPA) funding sources must be incorporated into the solution. As stated in the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program (section 7.7), ''Comprehensive watershed management should enhance and expedite implementation of actions by clearly identifying gaps in programs and knowledge, by striving over time to resolve conflicts, and by keying on activities that address priorities''. A watershed coordinator helps to initiate and facilitate efforts for addressing the issues mentioned above and pulling together a plan for mitigation. Local support is essential before local governments and individual citizens are going to allow government initiatives to be implemented.

  9. Flathead River Focus Watershed Coordinator, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DuCharme, Lynn

    2006-06-26

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has long been involved with funding of the Cooperative Habitat Protection and Improvement with Private Landowners program in accordance with the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish & Wildlife Program (Section 7.7). Section 7.7B.1 requires the establishment of ''at least one model watershed coordinator selected by each representative state''. This project was initiated in 1997 with the purpose of fulfilling the NWPCC's watershed program within the Flathead River basin in western Montana. Currently, the Flathead watershed has been radically altered by hydropower and other land uses. With the construction of Hungry Horse, Bigfork and Kerr dams, the Flathead River system has been divided into isolated populations. Bull trout have been listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and westslope cutthroat trout have been petitioned for listing. Many streams in the drainage have been destabilized during recent decades. Past legal and illegal species introductions are also causing problems. This project fosters in-kind, out-of-place mitigation to offset the impacts of hydroelectric power to 72 miles of the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries upstream of Hungry Horse Dam. Key subbasins within the Flathead drainage, which are critical to native species restoration, are experiencing rapid changes in land ownership and management direction. Subdivision and residential development of agricultural and timber lands adjacent to waterways in the drainage pose one of the greatest threats to weak but recoverable stocks of trout species. Plum Creek Timber Company, a major landholder in the Flathead drainage is currently divesting itself of large tracks of its lakeshore and streamside holdings. Growth of small tract development throughout the area and its tributaries is occurring at a record rate. Immediate to short-term action is required to protect stream corridors through many of these areas if cost-effective recovery efforts are to be implemented. In order to adequately address the issues, other segments of society and other (non-BPA) funding sources must be incorporated into the solution. As stated in the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program (section 7.7), ''Comprehensive watershed management should enhance and expedite implementation of actions by clearly identifying gaps in programs and knowledge, by striving over time to resolve conflicts, and by keying on activities that address priorities''. A watershed coordinator helps to initiate and facilitate efforts for addressing the issues mentioned above and pulling together a plan for mitigation. Local support is essential before local governments and individual citizens are going to allow government initiatives to be implemented.

  10. Flathead River Focus Watershed Coordinator, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DuCharme, Lynn

    2004-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has long been involved with funding of the Cooperative Habitat Protection and Improvement with Private Landowners program in accordance with the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish & Wildlife Program (Section 7.7). Section 7.7B.1 requires the establishment of ''at least one model watershed coordinator selected by each representative state''. This project was initiated in 1997 with the purpose of fulfilling the NWPCC's watershed program within the Flathead River basin in western Montana. Currently, the Flathead watershed has been radically altered by hydropower and other land uses. With the construction of Hungry Horse, Bigfork and Kerr dams, the Flathead River system has been divided into isolated populations. Bull trout have been listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and westslope cutthroat trout have been petitioned for listing. Many streams in the drainage have been destabilized during recent decades. Past legal and illegal species introductions are also causing problems. This project fosters in-kind, out-of-place mitigation to offset the impacts of hydroelectric power to 72 miles of the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries upstream of Hungry Horse Dam. Key subbasins within the Flathead drainage, which are critical to native species restoration, are experiencing rapid changes in land ownership and management direction. Subdivision and residential development of agricultural and timber lands adjacent to waterways in the drainage pose one of the greatest threats to weak but recoverable stocks of trout species. Plum Creek Timber Company, a major landholder in the Flathead drainage is currently divesting itself of large tracks of its lakeshore and streamside holdings. Growth of small tract development throughout the area and its tributaries is occurring at a record rate. Immediate to short-term action is required to protect stream corridors through many of these areas if cost-effective recovery efforts are to be implemented. In order to adequately address the issues, other segments of society and other (non-BPA) funding sources must be incorporated into the solution. As stated in the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program (section 7.7), ''Comprehensive watershed management should enhance and expedite implementation of actions by clearly identifying gaps in programs and knowledge, by striving over time to resolve conflicts, and by keying on activities that address priorities''. A watershed coordinator helps to initiate and facilitate efforts for addressing the issues mentioned above and pulling together a plan for mitigation. Local support is essential before local governments and individual citizens are going to allow government initiatives to be implemented.

  11. John Day Watershed Restoration Projects, annual report 2003.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Linda

    2004-01-01

    The John Day is the nation's second longest free-flowing river in the contiguous United States and the longest containing entirely unsupplemented runs of anadromous fish. Located in eastern Oregon, the basin drains over 8,000 square miles, Oregon's fourth largest drainage basin, and incorporates portions of eleven counties. Originating in the Strawberry Mountains near Prairie City, the John Day River flows 284 miles in a northwesterly direction, entering the Columbia River approximately four miles upstream of the John Day dam. With wild runs of spring Chinook salmon and summer steelhead, westslope cutthroat, and redband and bull trout, the John Day system is truly a basin with national significance. The majority of the John Day basin was ceded to the Federal government in 1855 by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes). In 1997, the Tribes established an office in the basin to coordinate restoration projects, monitoring, planning and other watershed activities on private and public lands. Once established, the John Day Basin Office (JDBO) formed a partnership with the Grant Soil and Water Conservation District (GSWCD), which contracts the majority of the construction implementation activities for these projects from the JDBO. The GSWCD completes the landowner contact, preliminary planning, engineering design, permitting, construction contracting, and construction implementation phases of most projects. The JDBO completes the planning, grant solicitation/defense, environmental compliance, administrative contracting, monitoring, and reporting portion of the program. Most phases of project planning, implementation, and monitoring are coordinated with the private landowners and basin agencies, such as the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and Oregon Water Resources Department. In 2003, the JDBO and GSWCD proposed continuation of their successful partnership between the two agencies and basin landowners to implement an additional twelve (12) watershed conservation projects. The types of projects include off channel water developments, juniper control, permanent diversions, pump stations, and return-flow cooling systems. Due to funding issues and delays, permitting delays, fire closures and landowner contracting problems, 2 projects were canceled and 7 projects were rescheduled to the 2004 construction season. Project costs in 2003 totaled $115,554.00 with a total amount of $64,981.00 (56%) provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the remainder coming from other sources such as the Bureau of Reclamation (BOR), Oregon Watershed Enhancement Board, the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Partners in Wildlife Program and individual landowners.

  12. Comparative responses of speckled dace and cutthroat trout to air-supersaturated water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nebeker, A.V.; Hauck, A.K.; Baker, F.D.; Weitz, S.L.

    1980-11-01

    Speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus) are more tolerant of air-supersaturated water than adult or juvenile cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki). Speckled dace were tested in concentrations from 110 to 142% saturation and had a 96-hour median lethal concentration (LC50) of 140%, a 7-day LC50 of 137%, and 2-week LC50's of 129 and 131% saturation. The estimated mean threshold concentration, based on time to 50% death (TM50), was 123% saturation. The speckled dace also exhibited consistent external signs of gas bubble disease. Cutthroat trout were tested from 111 to 130% saturation and had 96-hour LC50's of 119 and 120% (adults) and 119 and 119% (juveniles) saturation. Estimated mean threshold concentrations (from TM50 values) were 117% (adults) and 114% (juveniles) saturation. Signs of gas bubble disease exhibited by the cutthroat trout were similar to those seen with other salmonids examined in earlier studies.

  13. Multiscale Genetic Structure of Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout in the Upper Snake River Basin.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cegelski, Christine C.; Campbell, Matthew R.

    2006-05-30

    Populations of Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvierii have declined throughout their native range as a result of habitat fragmentation, overharvest, and introductions of nonnative trout that have hybridized with or displaced native populations. The degree to which these factors have impacted the current genetic population structure of Yellowstone cutthroat trout populations is of primary interest for their conservation. In this study, we examined the genetic diversity and genetic population structure of Yellowstone cutthroat trout in Idaho and Nevada with data from six polymorphic microsatellite loci. A total of 1,392 samples were analyzed from 45 sample locations throughout 11 major river drainages. We found that levels of genetic diversity and genetic differentiation varied extensively. The Salt River drainage, which is representative of the least impacted migration corridors in Idaho, had the highest levels of genetic diversity and low levels of genetic differentiation. High levels of genetic differentiation were observed at similar or smaller geographic scales in the Portneuf River, Raft River, and Teton River drainages, which are more altered by anthropogenic disturbances. Results suggested that Yellowstone cutthroat trout are naturally structured at the major river drainage level but that habitat fragmentation has altered this structuring. Connectivity should be restored via habitat restoration whenever possible to minimize losses in genetic diversity and to preserve historical processes of gene flow, life history variation, and metapopulation dynamics. However, alternative strategies for management and conservation should also be considered in areas where there is a strong likelihood of nonnative invasions or extensive habitat fragmentation that cannot be easily ameliorated.

  14. Kalispel Resident Fish Project : Annual Report, 2008.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersen, Todd

    2009-07-08

    In 2008, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) continued to implement its habitat enhancement projects for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi). Baseline fish population and habitat assessments were conducted in Upper West Branch Priest River. Additional fish and habitat data were collected for the Granite Creek Watershed Assessment, a cooperative project between KNRD and the U.S. Forest Service Panhandle National Forest (FS) . The watershed assessment, funded primarily by the Salmon Recovery Funding Board of the State of Washington, will be completed in 2009.

  15. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, 2006 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Christopher; Geist, David

    2007-04-01

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic habitat conditions, and biological integrity. In addition, human land-use impacts are factored into the conceptual model because they can alter habitat quality and can disrupt natural habitat forming processes. In this model (Figure S.1), aquatic habitat--both instream and riparian--is viewed as the link between watershed conditions and biologic responses. Based on this conceptual model, assessment of habitat loss and the resultant declines in salmonid populations can be conducted by relating current and historical (e.g., natural) habitat conditions to salmonid utilization, diversity, and abundance. In addition, assessing disrupted ecosystem functions and processes within the watershed can aid in identifying the causes of habitat change and the associated decline in biological integrity. In this same way, restoration, enhancement, and conservation projects can be identified and prioritized. A watershed assessment is primarily a landscape-scale evaluation of current watershed conditions and the associated hydrogeomorphic riverine processes. The watershed assessment conducted for this project focused on watershed processes that form and maintain salmonid habitat. Landscape metrics describing the level of human alteration of natural ecosystem attributes were used as indicators of water quality, hydrology, channel geomorphology, instream habitat, and biotic integrity. Ecological (watershed) processes are related to and can be predicted based on specific aspects of spatial pattern. This study evaluated the hydrologic regime, sediment delivery regime, and riparian condition of the sub-watersheds that comprise the upper Grays River watershed relative to their natural range of conditions. Analyses relied primarily on available geographic information system (GIS) data describing landscape characteristics such as climate, vegetation type and maturity, geology and soils, topography, land use, and road density. In addition to watershed-scale landscape characteristics, the study area was also evaluated on the riparian scale, with appropriate landscape variables analyzed within riparian buffers around each stream or river channel. Included in the overall watershed assessment are field habitat surveys and analyses of the physical and hydrological characteristics of primary chum and fall Chinook salmon spawning areas and spawning habitat availability and use. This assessment is a significant step in a comprehensive program to ensure the survival and recovery of Columbia River chum salmon in its most productive system and builds on existing recovery planning efforts for these ESA-listed salmonids within the Grays River and the lower Columbia River. This assessment also provides a basis for the recovery of other fish species in the Grays River, including coho salmon, winter steelhead, coastal cutthroat trout, and Pacific lamprey.

  16. Protect and Restore the Upper Lochsa : Annual Progress Report, May 2008 – April 2009.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lloyd, Rebecca; Forestieri, David

    2009-08-13

    The Upper Lochsa watersheds included in the project contain critical spawning and rearing habitat for anadromous and resident fish (Clearwater National Forest 1999). Species that depend on the tributary habitat include spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Snake River summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), bull trout (Salvelinus confluentes), and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi). Steelhead and bull trout populations are currently listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), and westslope cutthroat trout has been petitioned for listing. Both out-of-basin and in-basin factors threaten fish populations in the Lochsa Drainage (Clearwater Subbasin Plan 2003). Out-of-basin factors include the hydroelectric system and ocean conditions, while in-basin factors include a variety of management activities leading to habitat degradation. This project is implemented under Bonneville Power Administration's Fish and Wildlife program in order to meet National Marine Fisheries Service requirements to offset losses caused by the operation of the hydrosystem by improving tributary habitats to promote increased productivity of salmon and steelhead. The Clearwater Subbasin Plan (2003) defines limiting factors to fisheries in the area as watershed disturbances, habitat degradation, sediment, temperature, and connectivity.

  17. CX-008722: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reintroduction of Westslope Cutthroat Trout in the Pend Orielle basin CX(s) Applied: B1.20 Date: 05/07/2012 Location(s): Washington Offices(s): Bonneville Power Administration

  18. CX-005964: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reintroduction of Westslope Cutthroat Trout in the Pend Orielle BasinCX(s) Applied: B1.20Date: 05/19/2011Location(s): Pend Oreille County, WashingtonOffice(s): Bonneville Power Administration

  19. Bethel Valley Watershed | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Bethel Valley Watershed Bethel Valley Watershed This document discusses the Bethel Valley Watershed. Topics include: * The area's safety * Any use limitations for the area * History and cleanup background for this area * How DOE's cleanup program addressed the problem PDF icon Bethel Valley Watershed More Documents & Publications Bear Creek Valley Watershed Oak Ridge National Laboratory Cleanup Melton Valley Watershed

  20. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program Research, Monitoring and Evaluation Plan; Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation, 1997-2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitale, Angelo; Lamb, Dave; Peters, Ronald

    2002-11-01

    Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) are currently of special concern regionally and are important to the culture and subsistence needs of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. The mission of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program is to restore and maintain these native trout and the habitats that sustain them in order to provide subsistence harvest and recreational fishing opportunities for the Reservation community. The adfluvial life history strategy exhibited by westslope cutthroat and bull trout in the Lake Coeur d'Alene subbasin makes these fish susceptible to habitat degradation and competition in both lake and stream environments. Degraded habitat in Lake Coeur d'Alene and its associated streams and the introduction of exotic species has lead to the decline of westslope cutthroat and listing of bull trout under the endangered species act (Peters et al. 1998). Despite the effects of habitat degradation, several streams on the Reservation still maintain populations of westslope cutthroat trout, albeit in a suppressed condition (Table 1). The results of several early studies looking at fish population status and habitat condition on the Reservation (Graves et al. 1990; Lillengreen et al. 1993, 1996) lead the Tribe to aggressively pursue funding for habitat restoration under the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NWPPC) resident fish substitution program. Through these efforts, habitat restoration needs were identified and projects were initiated. The Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program is currently involved in implementing stream habitat restoration projects, reducing the transport of sediment from upland sources, and monitoring fish populations in four watersheds on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation (Figure 1). Restoration projects have included riparian plantings, addition of large woody debris to streams, and complete channel reconstruction to restore historical natural channel forms. In addition, ponds have been constructed to trap sediment from rill and gully erosion associated with agricultural practices, and to provide flow enhancement and ameliorate elevated stream temperatures during the summer base flow period. The implementation of restoration efforts that target the key habitats and lifestages for resident westslope cutthroat trout on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation is one means the Tribe is using to partially mitigate for lost anadromous fisheries. In this context, restoration is consistent with the definition provided by Ebersole et al. (1997), who described stream restoration as the reexpression of habitat capacity in a stream system. At the reach scale, habitat capacity is affected by biotic (e.g., riparian vegetation) and physical (e.g., flooding) processes. Superimposed on the natural biotic and physical processes are anthropogenic stressors (e.g., logging, roads and grazing) that suppress habitat capacity and can result in simplified, degraded stream reaches. The effectiveness of habitat restoration, measured as an increase in native trout abundance, is dependent on reducing limiting factors (e.g., passage barriers, high water temperatures, sediment transport from source areas) in areas that are critical for spawning and rearing lifestages. This plan outlines a monitoring strategy to help determine the effectiveness of specific restoration/enhancement treatments and to track the status of trout populations in four target watersheds.

  1. Montana Watershed Coordination Council | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coordination Council Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Montana Watershed Coordination Council Name: Montana Watershed Coordination Council Place: Helena, Montana Zip: 59604-6873...

  2. Kalispel Non-Native Fish Suppression Project 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wingert, Michele; Andersen, Todd

    2008-11-18

    Non-native salmonids are impacting native salmonid populations throughout the Pend Oreille Subbasin. Competition, hybridization, and predation by non-native fish have been identified as primary factors in the decline of some native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) populations. In 2007, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) initiated the Kalispel Nonnative Fish Suppression Project. The goal of this project is to implement actions to suppress or eradicate non-native fish in areas where native populations are declining or have been extirpated. These projects have previously been identified as critical to recovering native bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout (WCT). Lower Graham Creek was invaded by non-native rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) after a small dam failed in 1991. By 2003, no genetically pure WCT remained in the lower 700 m of Graham Creek. Further invasion upstream is currently precluded by a relatively short section of steep, cascade-pool stepped channel section that will likely be breached in the near future. In 2008, a fish management structure (barrier) was constructed at the mouth of Graham Creek to preclude further invasion of non-native fish into Graham Creek. The construction of the barrier was preceded by intensive electrofishing in the lower 700 m to remove and relocate all captured fish. Westslope cutthroat trout have recently been extirpated in Cee Cee Ah Creek due to displacement by brook trout. We propose treating Cee Cee Ah Creek with a piscicide to eradicate brook trout. Once eradication is complete, cutthroat trout will be translocated from nearby watersheds. In 2004, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) proposed an antimycin treatment within the subbasin; the project encountered significant public opposition and was eventually abandoned. However, over the course of planning this 2004 project, little public involvement or education was conducted prior to the planned implementation. Therefore, in 2007 we implemented an extensive process to provide public education, address public concerns and provide opportunity for public involvement in implementing piscicides and other native fish recovery actions in the subbasin.

  3. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

    1995-04-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

  4. EIS-0353: Record of Decision | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to fund Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks Department's (MFWP) South Fork Flathead Watershed Westslope...

  5. Grays River Watershed Geomorphic Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geist, David R.

    2005-04-30

    This investigation, completed for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), is part of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment commissioned by Bonneville Power Administration under project number 2003-013-00 to assess impacts on salmon habitat in the upper Grays River watershed and present recommendations for habitat improvement. This report presents the findings of the geomorphic assessment and is intended to support the overall PNNL project by evaluating the following: 􀂃 The effects of historical and current land use practices on erosion and sedimentation within the channel network 􀂃 The ways in which these effects have influenced the sediment budget of the upper watershed 􀂃 The resulting responses in the main stem Grays River upstream of State Highway 4 􀂃 The past and future implications for salmon habi

  6. Walker Branch Watershed Ecosystems Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    These projects have all contributed to a more complete understanding of how forest watersheds function and have provided insights into the solution of energy-related problems associated with air pollution, contaminant transport, and forest nutrient dynamics. This is one of a few sites in the world characterized by long-term, intensive environmental studies. The Walker Branch Watershed website at http://walkerbranch.ornl.gov/ provides maps, photographs, and data on climate, precipitation, atmospheric deposition, stream discharge and runoff, stream chemistry, and vegetation. [Taken from http://walkerbranch.ornl.gov/ABOUTAAA.HTM

  7. Montana Watershed Protection Section Contacts Webpage | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    contact information for the Watershed Protection Section of the Water Quality Planning Bureau. Author Montana Water Quality Planning Bureau Published State of Montana, Date Not...

  8. Environmental Protection Agency: Handbook for Developing Watershed...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Environmental Protection Agency: Handbook for Developing Watershed Plans to Restore and Protect Our Waters Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  9. Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation, Watershed Management...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Strategy Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation, Watershed Management Division Surface Water...

  10. Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation, Watershed Management...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Strategy Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation, Watershed Management Division...

  11. Vermont Watershed Management Rivers Program Website | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vermont Watershed Management Rivers Program Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Vermont Watershed Management Rivers Program Website...

  12. The watershed-scale optimized and rearranged landscape design...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The watershed-scale optimized and rearranged landscape design (WORLD) model and local ... Title: The watershed-scale optimized and rearranged landscape design (WORLD) model and ...

  13. Fisheries Enhancement on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation; Hangman Creek, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, Ronald; Kinkead, Bruce; Stanger, Mark

    2003-07-01

    Historically, Hangman Creek produced Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the Upper Columbia Basin Tribes. One weir, located at the mouth of Hangman Creek was reported to catch 1,000 salmon a day for a period of 30 days a year (Scholz et al. 1985). The current town of Tekoa, Washington, near the state border with Idaho, was the location of one of the principle anadromous fisheries for the Coeur d'Alene Tribe (Scholz et al. 1985). The construction, in 1909, of Little Falls Dam, which was not equipped with a fish passage system, blocked anadromous fish access to the Hangman Watershed. The fisheries were further removed with the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. As a result, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe was forced to rely more heavily on native fish stocks such as Redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri), Westslope Cutthroat trout (O. clarki lewisii), Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and other terrestrial wildlife. Historically, Redband and Cutthroat trout comprised a great deal of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's diet (Power 1997).

  14. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program : Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur dAlene Reservation : 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firehammer, Jon A.; Vitale, Angelo J.; Hallock, Stephanie A.

    2009-09-08

    Historically, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe depended on runs of anadromous salmon and steelhead along the Spokane River and Hangman Creek, as well as resident and adfluvial forms of trout and char in Coeur d'Alene Lake, for survival. Dams constructed in the early 1900s on the Spokane River in the City of Spokane and at Little Falls (further downstream) were the first dams that initially cut-off the anadromous fish runs from the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. These fisheries were further removed following the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams on the Columbia River. Together, these actions forced the Tribe to rely solely on the resident fish resources of Coeur d'Alene Lake for their subsistence needs. The Coeur d'Alene Tribe is estimated to have historically harvested around 42,000 westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) per year (Scholz et al. 1985). In 1967, Mallet (1969) reported that 3,329 cutthroat trout were harvested from the St. Joe River, and a catch of 887 was reported from Coeur d'Alene Lake. This catch is far less than the 42,000 fish per year the tribe harvested historically. Today, only limited opportunities exist to harvest cutthroat trout in the Coeur d'Alene Basin. It appears that a suite of factors have contributed to the decline of cutthroat trout stocks within Coeur d'Alene Lake and its tributaries (Mallet 1969; Scholz et al. 1985; Lillengreen et al. 1993). These factors included the construction of Post Falls Dam in 1906, major changes in land cover types, impacts from agricultural activities, and introduction of exotic fish species. The decline in native cutthroat trout populations in the Coeur d'Alene basin has been a primary focus of study by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Fisheries and Water Resources programs since 1990. The overarching goals for recovery have been to restore the cutthroat trout populations to levels that allow for subsistence harvest, maintain genetic diversity, and increase the probability of persistence in the face of anthropogenic influences and prospective climate change. This included recovering the lacustrine-adfluvial life history form that was historically prevalent and had served to provide both resilience and resistance to the structure of cutthroat trout populations in the Coeur d'Alene basin. To this end, the Coeur d'Alene Tribe closed Lake Creek and Benewah Creek to fishing in 1993 to initiate recovery of westslope cutthroat trout to historical levels. However, achieving sustainable cutthroat trout populations also required addressing biotic factors and habitat features in the basin that were limiting recovery. Early in the 1990s, BPA-funded surveys and inventories identified limiting factors in Tribal watersheds that would need to be remedied to restore westslope cutthroat trout populations. The limiting factors included: low-quality, low-complexity mainstem stream habitat and riparian zones; high stream temperatures in mainstem habitats; negative interactions with nonnative brook trout in tributaries; and potential survival bottlenecks in Coeur d'Alene Lake. In 1994, the Northwest Power Planning Council adopted the recommendations set forth by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe to improve the Reservation fishery (NWPPC Program Measures 10.8B.20). These recommended actions included: (1) Implement habitat restoration and enhancement measures in Alder, Benewah, Evans, and Lake Creeks; (2) Purchase critical watershed areas for protection of fisheries habitat; (3) Conduct an educational/outreach program for the general public within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation to facilitate a 'holistic' watershed protection process; (4) Develop an interim fishery for tribal and non-tribal members of the reservation through construction, operation and maintenance of five trout ponds; (5) Design, construct, operate and maintain a trout production facility; and (6) Implement a monitoring program to evaluate the effectiveness of the hatchery and habitat improvement projects. These activities provide partial mitigation for the extirpation of anadromous fish resources from usual and

  15. Watersheds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and canyons on LANL property or falls in the Santa Fe National Forest and runs down the slopes and canyons. LANL protects surface runoff through sediment and stormwater controls....

  16. Watersheds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and canyons on LANL property or falls in the Santa Fe National Forest and runs down the slopes and canyons. LANL protects surface runoff through sediment and stormwater controls.

  17. Kalispel Resident Fish Project Annual Report, 2003.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, Jason; Andersen, Todd

    2004-04-01

    In 2003 the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) continued monitoring enhancement projects (implemented from 1996 to 1998) for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), westslope cutthroat (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Additional baseline fish population and habitat assessments were conducted, in 2003, in tributaries to the Pend Oreille River. Further habitat and fish population enhancement projects were also implemented.

  18. Kalispel Resident Fish Project : Annual Report, 2002.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersen, Todd; Olson, Jason

    2003-03-01

    In 2002 the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) continued monitoring enhancement projects (implemented from 1996 to 1998) for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), westslope cutthroat (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Additional baseline fish population and habitat assessments were conducted, in 2002, in tributaries to the Pend Oreille River. Further habitat and fish population enhancement projects were also implemented in 2002.

  19. Kalispel Resident Fish Project, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, Jason; Andersen, Todd

    2006-07-01

    In 2005 the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) monitored its current enhancement projects for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi). Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) enhancement projects were also monitored. Additional baseline fish population and habitat assessments were conducted, in East River and several of its tributaries.

  20. Kalispel Resident Fish Project, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, Jason; Andersen, Todd

    2005-06-01

    In 2004 the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) implemented a new enhancement monitoring project for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi). Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) enhancement projects were also monitored. Additional baseline fish population and habitat assessments were conducted, in tributaries to the Pend Oreille River.

  1. Draft framework for watershed-based trading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-30

    Effluent trading is an innovative way for water quality agencies and community stakeholders to develop common-sense, cost-effective solutions for water quality problems in their watersheds. Trading can allow communities to grow and prosper while retaining their commitment to water quality. The bulk of this framework discusses effluent trading in watersheds. Remaining sections discuss transactions that, while not technically fulfilling the definition of `effluent` trade, do involve the exchange of valued water quality or other ecological improvements between partners responding to market initiatives. This document therefore includes activities such as trades within a facility (intra-plant trading) and wetland mitigation banking, effluent trading/watersheds/watershed management/water quality protection/water quality management.

  2. Watershed Scale Optimization to Meet Sustainable Cellulosic Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Calibrated SWAT Model Sustainability Metrics of Alternative Watershed Landscape Scenarios Future Climate Scenarios Calibrated SWAT Model Sustainability Metrics of Baseline ...

  3. Wind River Watershed Restoration: 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2001-09-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its first year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey--Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Following categories given in the FY1999 Statement of Work, the broad categories, the related objectives, and the entities associated with each objective (lead entity in boldface) were as follows: Coordination--Objective 1: Coordinate the Wind River watershed Action Committee (AC) and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) to develop a prioritized list of watershed enhancement projects. Monitoring--Objective 2: Monitor natural production of juvenile, smolt, and adult steelhead in the Wind River subbasin. Objective 3: Evaluate physical habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Assessment--Objective 4: Assess watershed health using an ecosystem-based diagnostic model that will provide the technical basis to prioritize out-year restoration projects. Restoration--Objective 5: Reduce road related sediment sources by reducing road densities to less than 2 miles per square mile. Objective 6: Rehabilitate riparian corridors, flood plains, and channel morphology to reduce maximum water temperatures to less than 61 F, to increase bank stability to greater than 90%, to reduce bankfull width to depth ratios to less than 30, and to provide natural levels of pools and cover for fish. Objective 7: Maintain and evaluate passage for adult and juvenile steelhead at artificial barriers. Education--Objective 8: Promote watershed stewardship among students, the community, private landowners, and local governments. Progress towards six of eight of these objectives is described within nine separate reports included in a four-volume document.

  4. Watershed modeling at the Savannah River Site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vache, Kellie

    2015-04-29

    The overall goal of the work was the development of a watershed scale model of hydrological function for application to the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The primary outcomes is a grid based hydrological modeling system that captures near surface runoff as well as groundwater recharge and contributions of groundwater to streams. The model includes a physically-based algorithm to capture both evaporation and transpiration from forestland.

  5. FSM 2500 Watershed and Air Management | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FSM 2500 Watershed and Air ManagementLegal Abstract Forest Service manual setting forth policy for protection and development of soil and water resources shall be components...

  6. Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment: Watershed...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment: Watershed 319 Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Colorado Department of...

  7. Montana Watershed Restoration Plans Wiki | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Plans Wiki Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Watershed Restoration Plans Wiki Abstract Provides an overview of...

  8. Idaho Watershed Advisory Groups Webpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Groups Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Idaho Watershed Advisory Groups Webpage Abstract This webpage provides an...

  9. Project Reports for Yukon River Inter-Tribal Watershed Council

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Yukon River Inter-Tribal Watershed Council (YRITWC) is an international organization with 501(c)(3) nonprofit status in the United States and Societal Status in Canada.

  10. Rehabilitate Newsome Creek Watershed, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bransford, Stephanie

    2009-05-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridgetop approach. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Newsome Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1997. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through road decommissioning and culvert replacement. Starting in FY 2001 and continuing into the present, a major stream restoration effort on the mainstem of Newsome Creek has been pursued. From completing a watershed assessment to a feasibility study of 4 miles of mainstem rehabilitation to carrying that forward into NEPA and a final design, we will begin the effort of restoring the mainstem channel of Newsome Creek to provide spawning and rearing habitat for anadromous and resident fish species. Roads have been surveyed and prioritized for removal or improvement as well as culverts being prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed.

  11. AmeriFlux US-Wlr Walnut River Watershed (Smileyburg)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, David; Coulter, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wlr Walnut River Watershed (Smileyburg). Site Description - The Walnut River Watershed site rests on a C3/C4 mixed grassland, tallgrass prairie grazed by cattle. The land is owned by a local farmer and the land is leased on a year-to-year basis.

  12. Sources and transport of nitrogen in arid urban watersheds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hale, Rebecca L.; Turnbull, Laura; Earl, Stevan; Grimm, Nancy B.; Riha, Krystin M.; Michalski, Greg; Lohse, Kathleen; Childers, Daniel L.

    2014-06-03

    Urban watersheds are often sources of nitrogen (N) to downstream systems, contributing to poor water quality. However, it is unknown which components (e.g., land cover and stormwater infrastructure type) of urban watersheds contribute to N export and which may be sites of retention. In this study we investigated which watershed characteristics control N sourcing, biogeochemical processing of nitrate (NO3–) during storms, and the amount of rainfall N that is retained within urban watersheds. We used triple isotopes of NO3– (δ15N, δ18O, and Δ17O) to identify sources and transformations of NO3– during storms from 10 nested arid urban watersheds that varied in stormwater infrastructure type and drainage area. Stormwater infrastructure and land cover—retention basins, pipes, and grass cover—dictated the sourcing of NO3– in runoff. Urban watersheds can be strong sinks or sources of N to stormwater depending on the proportion of rainfall that leaves the watershed as runoff, but we found no evidence that denitrification occurred during storms. Our results suggest that watershed characteristics control the sources and transport of inorganic N in urban stormwater but that retention of inorganic N at the timescale of individual runoff events is controlled by hydrologic, rather than biogeochemical, mechanisms.

  13. Secure & Restore Critical Fisheries Habitat, Flathead Subbasin, FY2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DuCharme, Lynn; Tohtz, Joel

    2008-11-12

    The construction of Hungry Horse Dam inundated 125 km of adfluvial trout habitat in the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries, impacting natural fish reproduction and rearing. Rapid residential and commercial growth in the Flathead Watershed now threaten the best remaining habitats and restrict our opportunities to offset natural resource losses. Hydropower development and other land disturbances caused severe declines in the range and abundance of our focal resident fish species, bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout. Bull trout were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act and westslope cutthroat were petitioned for listing under ESA. Westslope cutthroat are a species of special concern in Montana and a species of special consideration by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes. The Secure & Protect Fisheries Habitat project follows the logical progression towards habitat restoration outlined in the Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation Implementation Plan approved by the NWPPC in 1993. This project is also consistent with the 2000 Fish and Wildlife Program and the Flathead River Subbasin Plan that identifies the protection of habitats for these populations as one of the most critical needs in the subbasin and directs actions to offset habitat losses. The Flathead basin is one of the fastest growing human population centers in Montana. Riparian habitats are being rapidly developed and subdivided, causing habitat degradation and altering ecosystem functions. Remaining critical habitats in the Flathead Watershed need to be purchased or protected with conservation easements if westslope cutthroat and bull trout are to persist and expand within the subbasin. In addition, habitats degraded by past land uses need to be restored to maximize the value of remaining habitats and offset losses caused by the construction of Hungry Horse Dam. Securing and restoring remaining riparian habitat will benefit fish by shading and moderating water temperatures, stabilizing banks and protecting the integrity of channel dimension, improving woody debris recruitment for in-channel habitat features, producing terrestrial insects and leaf litter for recruitment to the stream, and helping to accommodate and attenuate flood flows. The purpose of this project is to work with willing landowners to protect the best remaining habitats in the Flathead subbasin as identified in the Flathead River Subbasin Plan. The target areas for land protection activities follow the priorities established in the Flathead subbasin plan and include: (1) Class 1 waters as identified in the Flathead River Subbasin Plan; (2) Class 2 watersheds as identified in the Flathead River Subbasin Plan; and (3) 'Offsite mitigation' defined as those Class 1 and Class 2 watersheds that lack connectivity to the mainstem Flathead River or Flathead Lake. This program focuses on conserving the highest quality or most important riparian or fisheries habitat areas consistent with program criteria. The success of our efforts is subject to a property's actual availability and individual landowner negotiations. The program is guided using biological and project-based criteria that reflect not only the priority needs established in the Flathead subbasin plan, but also such factors as cost, credits, threats, and partners. The implementation of this project requires both an expense and a capital budget to allow work to be completed. This report addresses accomplishments under both budgets during FY08 as the two budgets are interrelated. The expense budget provided pre-acquisition funding to conduct activities such as surveys, appraisals, staff support, etc. The capital budget was used to purchase the interest in each parcel including closing costs. Both the pre-acquisition contract funds and the capital funds used to purchase fee title or conservation easements were spent in accordance with the terms negotiated within the FY08 through FY09 MOA between the Tribes, State, and BPA. In FY08, the focus of this project was to pursue all possible properties targeted by the Tribes and Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Although we were not be able to acquire an interest in all properties targeted this fiscal year due to limited time, BPA staff constraints, and negotiation constraints, we expended approximately $4.2M providing BPA with 4.2 km of credit. The Siderius and Gardner parcels were protected with conservation easements. The Siderius conservation easement is held by the Flathead Land Trust and the Gardner conservation easement is held by the Tribes. Fee title was acquired for three parcels with the Tribes holding title to the Cole and Firestone parcels and MFWP holding title to the parcels acquired from Plum Creek Timber Company. All stream kilometers credited to BPA offset construction and inundation impacts (not operations related impacts) associated with Hungry Horse Dam as defined in the 1991 Hungry Horse Loss Assessment.

  14. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment Final Report 2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Christopher W.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Geist, David R.; Abbe, Timothy; Barton, Chase

    2008-02-04

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic habitat conditions, and biological integrity. In addition, human land-use impacts are factored into the conceptual model because they can alter habitat quality and can disrupt natural habitat-forming processes. In this model (Figure S.1), aquatic habitat--both instream and riparian--is viewed as the link between watershed conditions and biologic responses. Based on this conceptual model, assessment of habitat loss and the resultant declines in salmonid populations can be conducted by relating current and historical (e.g., natural) habitat conditions to salmonid utilization, diversity, and abundance. In addition, assessing disrupted ecosystem functions and processes within the watershed can aid in identifying the causes of habitat change and the associated decline in biological integrity. In this same way, restoration, enhancement, and conservation projects can be identified and prioritized. A watershed assessment is primarily a landscape-scale evaluation of current watershed conditions and the associated hydrogeomorphic riverine processes. The watershed assessment conducted for this project focused on watershed processes that form and maintain salmonid habitat. Landscape metrics describing the level of human alteration of natural ecosystem attributes were used as indicators of water quality, hydrology, channel geomorphology, instream habitat, and biotic integrity. Ecological (watershed) processes are related to and can be predicted based on specific aspects of spatial pattern. This study evaluated the hydrologic regime, sediment delivery regime, and riparian condition of the sub-watersheds that comprise the upper Grays River watershed relative to their natural range of conditions. Analyses relied primarily on available geographic information system (GIS) data describing landscape characteristics such as climate, vegetation type and maturity, geology and soils, topography, land use, and road density. In addition to watershed-scale landscape characteristics, the study area was also evaluated on the riparian scale, with appropriate landscape variables analyzed within

  15. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munson, Bob; Munson, Vicki; Rogers, Rox

    2003-10-01

    The Kootenai River Network Inc. (KRN) was incorporated in Montana in early 1995 with a mission ''to involve stakeholders in the protection and restoration of the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the Kootenai River Basin waters''. The KRN operates with funding from donations, membership dues, private, state and federal grants, and with funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a Focus Watershed Coordinator Program. The Focus Watershed Program is administered to KRN as of October 2001, through a Memorandum of Understanding. Katie Randall resigned her position as Watershed Coordinator in late January 2003 and Munson Consulting was contracted to fill that position through the BPA contract period ending May 30, 2003. To improve communications with in the Kootenai River watershed, the board and staff engaged watershed stakeholders in a full day KRN watershed conference on May 15 and 16 in Bonners Ferry, Idaho. This Annual General Meeting was a tremendous success with over 75 participants representing over 40 citizen groups, tribes and state/provincial/federal agencies from throughout northern Montana and Idaho as well as British Columbia and Alberta. Membership in the KRN increased during the course of the BPA 02/03 grant period. The board of directors grew in numbers during this same time frame and an Advisory Council was formed to assist in transboundary efforts while developing two reorganized KRN committees (Habitat/Restoration/Monitoring (HRM) and Communication/Education/Outreach (CEO)). These committees will serve pivotal roles in communications, outreach, and education about watershed issues, as well as habitat restoration work being accomplished throughout the entire watershed. During this BPA grant period, the KRN has capitalized on the transboundary interest in the Kootenai River watershed. Jim and Laura Duncan of Kimberley, British Columbia, have been instrumental volunteers who have acted as Canadian liaisons to the KRN. As a result, restoration work is in the planning stages for Canadian tributaries that flow into the Moyie River in northern Idaho and the Yaak River in northwest Montana.

  16. Trout Creek, Oregon Watershed Assessment; Findings, Condition Evaluation and Action Opportunities, 2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Runyon, John

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of the assessment is to characterize historical and current watershed conditions in the Trout Creek Watershed. Information from the assessment is used to evaluate opportunities for improvements in watershed conditions, with particular reference to improvements in the aquatic environment. Existing information was used, to the extent practicable, to complete this work. The assessment will aid the Trout Creek Watershed Council in identifying opportunities and priorities for watershed restoration projects.

  17. Using a watershed-based approach to manage and protect water resources in the Bear Canyon Watershed, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roth, F.J.

    1995-12-31

    Depending upon how people use land in a watershed, whether it be farming, livestock grazing, timber harvesting, mining, urbanization, or even recreation, all have significant impacts on the water moving through that watershed. This paper will focus on the urban watershed and how stormwater runoff from urbanization affects erosion, sedimentation, and water quality. It also will explore the potential of a watershed as the basis for managing and protecting water resources. Watershed-based management offers a clear look at how land-use changes affect not only water quality but also erosion and sedimentation; in addition, this approach develops preventive strategies to restore those affected water and land resources. The preventive strategies the author uses for this watershed can be applied to other New Mexico urban watersheds. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part shows how past and present land-use activities affect erosion, sedimentation, and water quality in the Bear Canyon arroyo system. The second part provides solutions to the problems of soil erosion and stormwater pollution in the urban areas through government intervention. The third part discusses how Best Management Practices (BMPs) can be used to limit or reduce stormwater pollution in residential and industrial areas.

  18. Kalispel Resident Fish Project : Annual Report, 2001.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersen, Todd

    2002-01-01

    In 2001 the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) continued assessing habitat and population enhancement projects for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), westslope cutthroat (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Habitat enhancement measures, as outlined in recommendations from the 1996, 1997, and 1998 annual reports, were monitored during field season 1999, 2000, and 2001. Post assessments were used to evaluate habitat quality, stream morphology and fish populations where enhancement projects were implemented.

  19. EPA Catalog of Federal Funding Sources for Watershed Protection...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Catalog of Federal Funding Sources for Watershed Protection Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: EPA Catalog of Federal Funding Sources for...

  20. Genetic and Phenotypic Catalog of Native Resident Trout of the interior Columbia River Basin : FY-2001 Report : Populations in the Wenatchee, Entiat, Lake Chelan and Methow River Drainages.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trotter, Patrick C.

    2001-10-01

    The 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council specifies the recovery and preservation of population health of native resident fishes of the Columbia River Basin. Among the native resident species of concern are interior rainbow trout of the Columbia River redband subspecies Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri 1 and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi. The westslope cutthroat trout has been petitioned for listing under the U. S. Endangered Species Act (American Wildlands et al. 1997). Before at-risk populations can be protected, their presence and status must be established. Where introgression from introduced species is a concern, as in the case of both westslope cutthroat trout and redband rainbow trout, genetic issues must be addressed as well. As is true with native trout elsewhere in the western United States (Behnke 1992), most of the remaining pure populations of these species in the Columbia River Basin are in relatively remote headwater reaches. The objective of this project was to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique. FY-2001 was year three (and final year) of a project in which we conducted field visits to remote locations to seek out and catalog these populations. In FY-2001 we worked in collaboration with the Wenatchee National Forest to catalog populations in the Wenatchee, Entiat, Lake Chelan, and Methow River drainages of Washington State.

  1. Genetic and Phenotype [Phenotypic] Catalog of Native Resident Trout of the interior Columbia River Basin : FY-99 Report : Populations of the Pend Oreille, Kettle, and Sanpoil River Basins of Colville National Forest.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trotter, Patrick C.

    2001-05-01

    The 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council specifies the recovery and preservation of population health of native resident fishes of the Columbia River Basin. Among the native resident species of concern are interior rainbow trout of the Columbia River redband subspecies Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri 1 and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi. The westslope cutthroat trout has been petitioned for listing under the U. S. Endangered Species Act (American Wildlands et al. 1997). Before at-risk populations can be protected, their presence and status must be established. Where introgression from introduced species is a concern, as in the case of both westslope cutthroat trout and redband rainbow trout, genetic issues must be addressed as well. As is true with native trout elsewhere in the western United States (Behnke 1992), most of the remaining pure populations of these species in the Columbia River Basin are in relatively remote headwater reaches. The objective of this project is to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique. FY-99 was year two of a five-year project in which we conducted field visits to remote locations to seek out and catalog these populations. In FY-99 we worked in collaboration with the Colville National Forest and Kalispel Indian Tribe to catalog populations in the northeastern corner of Washington State.

  2. Hydrologic calibration of paired watersheds using a MOSUM approach

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ssegane, H.; Amatya, D. M.; Muwamba, A.; Chescheir, G. M.; Appelboom, T.; Tollner, E. W.; Nettles, J. E.; Youssef, M. A.; Birgand, F.; Skaggs, R. W.

    2015-01-09

    Paired watershed studies have historically been used to quantify hydrologic effects of land use and management practices by concurrently monitoring two neighboring watersheds (a control and a treatment) during the calibration (pre-treatment) and post-treatment periods. This study characterizes seasonal water table and flow response to rainfall during the calibration period and tests a change detection technique of moving sums of recursive residuals (MOSUM) to select calibration periods for each control-treatment watershed pair when the regression coefficients for daily water table elevation (WTE) were most stable to reduce regression model uncertainty. The control and treatment watersheds included 1–3 year intensively managedmore » loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) with natural understory, same age loblolly pine intercropped with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), 14–15 year thinned loblolly pine with natural understory (control), and switchgrass only. Although monitoring during the calibration period spanned 2009 to 2012, silvicultural operational practices that occurred during this period such as harvesting of existing stand and site preparation for pine and switchgrass establishment may have acted as external factors, potentially shifting hydrologic calibration relationships between control and treatment watersheds. Results indicated that MOSUM was able to detect significant changes in regression parameters for WTE due to silvicultural operations. This approach also minimized uncertainty of calibration relationships which could otherwise mask marginal treatment effects. All calibration relationships developed using this MOSUM method were quantifiable, strong, and consistent with Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) greater than 0.97 for WTE and NSE greater than 0.92 for daily flow, indicating its applicability for choosing calibration periods of paired watershed studies.« less

  3. Hydrologic calibration of paired watersheds using a MOSUM approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ssegane, H.; Amatya, D. M.; Muwamba, A.; Chescheir, G. M.; Appelboom, T.; Tollner, E. W.; Nettles, J. E.; Youssef, M. A.; Birgand, F.; Skaggs, R. W.

    2015-01-09

    Paired watershed studies have historically been used to quantify hydrologic effects of land use and management practices by concurrently monitoring two neighboring watersheds (a control and a treatment) during the calibration (pre-treatment) and post-treatment periods. This study characterizes seasonal water table and flow response to rainfall during the calibration period and tests a change detection technique of moving sums of recursive residuals (MOSUM) to select calibration periods for each control-treatment watershed pair when the regression coefficients for daily water table elevation (WTE) were most stable to reduce regression model uncertainty. The control and treatment watersheds included 1–3 year intensively managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) with natural understory, same age loblolly pine intercropped with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), 14–15 year thinned loblolly pine with natural understory (control), and switchgrass only. Although monitoring during the calibration period spanned 2009 to 2012, silvicultural operational practices that occurred during this period such as harvesting of existing stand and site preparation for pine and switchgrass establishment may have acted as external factors, potentially shifting hydrologic calibration relationships between control and treatment watersheds. Results indicated that MOSUM was able to detect significant changes in regression parameters for WTE due to silvicultural operations. This approach also minimized uncertainty of calibration relationships which could otherwise mask marginal treatment effects. All calibration relationships developed using this MOSUM method were quantifiable, strong, and consistent with Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) greater than 0.97 for WTE and NSE greater than 0.92 for daily flow, indicating its applicability for choosing calibration periods of paired watershed studies.

  4. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS - John Day Watershed Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2004-08-04

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the John Day Watershed Restoration Program, which includes projects to improve watershed conditions, resulting in improved fish and wildlife habitat. The project was planned and coordinated by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs through the John Day Basin Office in Prairie City, Oregon. A variety of activities will be implemented, described below. The project will involve the installation of four permanent lay flat diversions (structures) to replace temporary diversions. Two structures would be constructed in Beech Creek, one in Little Beech Creek and one in the John Day River. The structures will replace temporary pushup dams, which were constructed annually of various materials. Installation of the permanent diversion structures eliminates the stream-disturbing activities associated with annual installation of temporary structures. They also will enable fish passage in all flow conditions, an improvement over the temporary structures which can obstruct fish passage under some conditions. Five scour chains will be installed in six sites within the John Day River. The chains will be 3 feet long and consist of 1/4 inch chain. They will be buried within the streambed to monitor the movement of material in the streambed. Other activities that will be implemented include: Installation of off-site water systems in areas where fencing and revegetation projects are implemented, in order to restrict livestock access to waterways; construction of facilities to return irrigation flows to the Johns Day River, including the installation of pipe to replace failing drains or return ditches; installation of pumps to replace temporary diversions; and removal of junipers from approximately 500 acres per year by hand felling.

  5. Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek Watershed Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon; Smith, J.G.

    1999-03-01

    Biological monitoring of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, which border the Paducah Site, has been conducted since 1987. Biological monitoring was conducted by University of Kentucky from 1987 to 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 through March 1999. In March 1998, renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permits were issued to the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Enrichment Corporation. The renewed DOE permit requires that a watershed monitoring program be developed for the Paducah Site within 90 days of the effective date of the renewed permit. This plan outlines the sampling and analysis that will be conducted for the watershed monitoring program. The objectives of the watershed monitoring are to (1) determine whether discharges from the Paducah Site and the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) associated with the Paducah Site are adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assess the ecological health of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, (3) assess the degree to which abatement actions ecologically benefit Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, (4) provide guidance for remediation, (5) provide an evaluation of changes in potential human health concerns, and (6) provide data which could be used to assess the impact of inadvertent spills or fish kill. According to the cleanup will result in these watersheds [Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks] achieving compliance with the applicable water quality criteria.

  6. Towards Sustainable Watershed Dvelopment: A Geographic Information Systems based Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2006-01-01

    With an unprecedented projection of population and urban growth in the coming decades, assessment of the long-term hydrologic impacts of land use change is crucial for optimizing management practices to control runoff and non-point source (NPS) pollution associated with sustainable watershed development. Land use change, dominated by an increase in urban/impervious areas, can have a significant impact on water resources. Non-point source (NPS) pollution is the leading cause of degraded water quality in the US and urban areas are an important source of NPS pollution. Most planners, government agencies, and consultants lack access to simple impact-assessment tools despite widespread concern over the environmental impacts of watershed development. Before investing in complex analyses and customized data collection, it is often useful to utilize simple screening analyses using data that are already available. In this paper, we discuss such a technique for long-term hydrologic impact assessment (L-THIA) that makes use of basic land use, soils and long-term rainfall data to compare the hydrologic impacts of past, present and any future land use change. Long-term daily rainfall records are used in combination with soils and land use information to calculate average annual runoff and NPS pollution at a watershed scale. Because of the geospatial nature of land use and soils data, and the increasingly widespread use of GIS by planners, government agencies and consultants, the model is integrated with a Geographic Information System (GIS) that allows convenient generation and management of model input and output data, and provides advanced visualization of the model results. An application of the L-THIA/NPS model on the Little Eagle Creek (LEC) watershed near Indianapolis, Indiana is illustrated in this paper. Three historical land use scenarios for 1973, 1984, and 1991 were analyzed to track land use change in the watershed and to assess the impacts of land use change on annual average runoff and NPS pollution from the watershed and its five sub-basins. Results highlight the effectiveness of the L-THIA approach in assessing the long-term hydrologic impact of urban sprawl. The L-THIA/NPS GIS model is a powerful tool for identifying environmentally sensitive areas in terms of NPS pollution potential and for evaluating alternative land use scenarios to enhance NPS pollution management. Access to the model via the INTERNET enhances the usability and effectiveness of the technique significantly. Recommendations can be made to community decision makers, based on this analysis, concerning how development can be controlled within the watershed to minimize the long-term impacts of increased stormwater runoff and NPS pollution for better management of water resources.

  7. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan: Asotin County, Washington, 1995.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Browne, Dave

    1995-04-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council completed its ``Strategy for Salmon'' in 1992. This is a plan, composed of four specific elements,designed to double the present production of 2.5 million salmon in the Columbia River watershed. These elements have been called the ``four H's'': (1) improve harvest management; (2) improve hatcheries and their production practices; (3) improve survival at hydroelectric dams; and (4) improve and protect fish habitat. The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon''. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity.

  8. McKenzie River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thrailkil, Jim

    2003-12-01

    BPA funding, in conjunction with contributions from numerous partners organizations, supports the McKenzie Watershed Council's efforts to coordinate restoration and monitoring programs of federal, state, local government, and residents within the watershed. A primary goal of the Council's program is to improve resource stewardship and conserve fish, wildlife, and water quality resources. The MWC will always have a baseline program centered on relationship building and information sharing. This watershed program is strengthened by the completion of the BPA funded Sub-basin Assessment, Conservation Strategy and the establishment of a Benchmarks system, thus, providing the MWC a prioritized framework for restoration efforts. Objectives for FY03 included: (1) Continued coordination of McKenzie Watershed activities among diverse groups that restore fish and wildlife habitat in the watershed, with a focus on the lower McKenzie, including private lands and the McKenzie-Willamette confluence area; (2) Influence behavior of watershed residents to benefit watershed function though a strategic and comprehensive outreach and education program, utilizing Assessment and Conservation Strategy information to provide a context for prioritized action; (3) Continue to maintain and sustain a highly functional watershed council; (4) Maintain and improve water quality concerns through the continuation of Council-sponsored monitoring and evaluation programs; and (5) Continue to secure other funding for watershed restoration and protection projects and council operations.

  9. EIS-0265: Watershed Management Program in Oregon, Idaho, Washington and Montana

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes BPA's proposal to adopt a set of prescriptions (goals, strategies, and procedural requirements) that apply to future BPA-funded watershed management projects.

  10. Appalachian Rivers II Conference: Technology for Monitoring, Assessing, and Restoring Streams, Rivers, and Watersheds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None available

    1999-07-29

    On July 28-29, 1999, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and the WMAC Foundation co-sponsored the Appalachian Rivers II Conference in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting brought together over 100 manufacturers, researchers, academicians, government agency representatives, watershed stewards, and administrators to examine technologies related to watershed assessment, monitoring, and restoration. Sessions included presentations and panel discussions concerning watershed analysis and modeling, decision-making considerations, and emerging technologies. The final session examined remediation and mitigation technologies to expedite the preservation of watershed ecosystems.

  11. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir : Summary of the Skookumchuck Creek Bull Trout Enumeration Project, Annual Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, James S.; Baxter, Jeremy

    2001-02-01

    An enumeration fence and traps were installed on Skookumchuck Creek from September 7 th to October 16 th to enable the capture of post-spawning bull trout emigrating out of the watershed. During the study period, a total of 252 bull trout were sampled through the enumeration fence. Length, weight, and sex were determined for all but one of the 252 bull trout captured. In total, one fish of undetermined sex, 63 males and 188 females were processed through the fence. A total of 67 bull trout were observed on a snorkel survey prior to the fence being removed on October 16 th . Coupled with the fence count, the total bull trout count during this project was 319 fish. Several other species of fish were captured at the enumeration fence including westslope cutthroat trout, Rocky Mountain whitefish, kokanee, sucker, and Eastern brook trout. Redds were observed during ground surveys in three different locations (river km 27.5- 28.5, km 29-30, and km 24-25). The largest concentration of redds were noted in the upper two sections which have served as the index sections over the past four years. A total of 197 bull trout redds were enumerated on the ground on October 4 th . The majority of redds (n=189) were observed in the 3.0 km index section (river km 27.5-30.5) that has been surveyed over the past four years. The additional 8 redds were observed in a 1.5 km section (river km 24.0-25.5). Summary plots of water temperature for Bradford Creek, Sandown Creek, Skookumchuck Creek at km 39.5, and Skookumchuck Creek at the fence site suggested that water temperatures were within the range preferred by bull trout for spawning, egg incubation, and rearing.

  12. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir : Summary of the Skookumchuck Creek Bull Trout Enumeration Project, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, James S.; Baxter, Jeremy

    2002-03-01

    This report summarizes the second year of a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on Skookumchuck Creek in southeastern British Columbia. An enumeration fence and traps were installed on the creek from September 6th to October 12th 2001 to enable the capture of post-spawning bull trout emigrating out of the watershed. During the study period, a total of 273 bull trout were sampled through the enumeration fence. Length and weight were determined for all bull trout captured. In total, 39 fish of undetermined sex, 61 males and 173 females were processed through the fence. An additional 19 bull trout were observed on a snorkel survey prior to the fence being removed on October 12th. Coupled with the fence count, the total bull trout enumerated during this project was 292 fish. Several other species of fish were captured at the enumeration fence including westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi), Rocky Mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), and kokanee (O. nerka). A total of 143 bull trout redds were enumerated on the ground in two different locations (river km 27.5-30.5, and km 24.0-25.5) on October 3rd. The majority of redds (n=132) were observed in the 3.0 km index section (river km 27.5-30.5) that has been surveyed over the past five years. The additional 11 redds were observed in a 1.5 km section (river km 24.0-25.5). Summary plots of water temperature for Bradford Creek, Sandown Creek, Buhl Creek, and Skookumchuck Creek at three locations suggested that water temperatures were within the temperature range preferred by bull trout for spawning, egg incubation, and rearing.

  13. Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitale, Angelo, Lamb, Dave; Scott, Jason

    2003-12-01

    Historically, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe depended on runs of anadromous salmon and steelhead along the Spokane River and Hangman Creek, as well as resident and adfluvial forms of trout and char in Coeur d'Alene Lake, for survival. Dams constructed in the early 1900s on the Spokane River in the City of Spokane and at Little Falls (further downstream) were the first dams that initially cut-off the anadromous fish runs from the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. These fisheries were further removed by the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams on the Columbia River. Together, these actions forced the Tribe to rely solely on the resident fish resources of Coeur d'Alene Lake (Staff Communication). The Coeur d'Alene Tribe is estimated to have historically harvested around 42,000 westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) per year (Scholz et al. 1985). In 1967, Mallet (1969) reported that 3,329 cutthroat were harvested from the St. Joe River, and a catch of 887 was reported from Coeur d'Alene Lake. This catch is far less than the 42,000 fish per year the tribe harvested historically. Today, only limited opportunities exist to harvest cutthroat trout in the Coeur d'Alene Basin. The declines in native salmonid fish populations, particularly cutthroat and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), in the Coeur d'Alene basin have been the focus of study by the Coeur d' Alene Tribe's Fisheries and Water Resources programs since 1990. It appears that there are a number of factors contributing to the decline of resident salmonid stocks within Coeur d'Alene Lake and its tributaries (Ellis 1932; Oien 1957; Mallet 1969; Scholz et. al. 1985, Lillengreen et. al. 1993). These factors include: construction of Post Falls Dam in 1906; major changes in land cover types, agricultural activities and introduction of exotic fish species. Over 100 years of mining activities in the Coeur d'Alene River drainage have had devastating effects on the quality of the water in the Coeur d'Alene River and Coeur d'Alene Lake. Effluents from tailings and mining waste have contributed vast quantities of trace heavy metals to the system. Poor agricultural and forest practices have also contributed to the degradation of water quality and habitat suitability for resident salmonids. Increased sediment loads from agricultural runoff and recent and recovering clearcuts, and increases in water temperature due to riparian canopy removal may be two of the most important problems currently affecting westslope cutthroat trout. Increases in water temperature have reduced the range of resident salmonids to a fraction of its historic extent. Within this new range, sediment has reduced the quality of both spawning and rearing habitats. Historically, municipal waste contributed large quantities of phosphates and nitrogen that accelerated the eutrophication process in Coeur d'Alene Lake. However, over the last 25 years work has been completed to reduce the annual load of these materials. Wastewater treatment facilities have been established near all major municipalities in and around the basin. Species interactions with introduced exotics as well as native species are also acting to limit cutthroat trout populations. Two mechanisms are at work: interspecific competition, and species replacement. Competition occurs when two species utilize common resources, the supply of which is short; or if the resources are not in short supply, they harm each other in the process of seeking these resources. Replacement occurs when some environmental or anthropogenic change (e.g., habitat degradation, fishing pressure, etc.) causes the decline or elimination of one species and another species, either native or introduced, fills the void left by the other. In 1994, the Northwest Power Planning Council adopted the recommendations set forth by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe to improve the Reservation fishery. These recommended actions included: (1) Implement habitat restoration and enhancement measures in Alder, Benewah, Evans, and Lake Creeks; (2) Purchase critical watershed areas for protection of fis

  14. Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation; Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish, Water, and Wildlife Program, REVISED 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitale, Angelo; Lamb, Dave; Scott, Jason

    2004-04-01

    Historically, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe depended on runs of anadromous salmon and steelhead along the Spokane River and Hangman Creek, as well as resident and adfluvial forms of trout and char in Coeur d'Alene Lake, for survival. Dams constructed in the early 1900s on the Spokane River in the City of Spokane and at Little Falls (further downstream) were the first dams that initially cut-off the anadromous fish runs from the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. These fisheries were further removed by the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams on the Columbia River. Together, these actions forced the Tribe to rely solely on the resident fish resources of Coeur d'Alene Lake (Staff Communication). The Coeur d'Alene Tribe is estimated to have historically harvested around 42,000 westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) per year (Scholz et al. 1985). In 1967, Mallet (1969) reported that 3,329 cutthroat were harvested from the St. Joe River, and a catch of 887 was reported from Coeur d'Alene Lake. This catch is far less than the 42,000 fish per year the tribe harvested historically. Today, only limited opportunities exist to harvest cutthroat trout in the Coeur d'Alene Basin. The declines in native salmonid fish populations, particularly cutthroat and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), in the Coeur d'Alene basin have been the focus of study by the Coeur d' Alene Tribe's Fisheries and Water Resources programs since 1990. It appears that there are a number of factors contributing to the decline of resident salmonid stocks within Coeur d'Alene Lake and its tributaries (Ellis 1932; Oien 1957; Mallet 1969; Scholz et. al. 1985, Lillengreen et. al. 1993). These factors include: construction of Post Falls Dam in 1906; major changes in land cover types, agricultural activities and introduction of exotic fish species. Over 100 years of mining activities in the Coeur d'Alene River drainage have had devastating effects on the quality of the water in the Coeur d'Alene River and Coeur d'Alene Lake. Effluents from tailings and mining waste have contributed vast quantities of trace heavy metals to the system. Poor agricultural and forest practices have also contributed to the degradation of water quality and habitat suitability for resident salmonids. Increased sediment loads from agricultural runoff and recent and recovering clearcuts, and increases in water temperature due to riparian canopy removal may be two of the most important problems currently affecting westslope cutthroat trout. Increases in water temperature have reduced the range of resident salmonids to a fraction of its historic extent. Within this new range, sediment has reduced the quality of both spawning and rearing habitats. Historically, municipal waste contributed large quantities of phosphates and nitrogen that accelerated the eutrophication process in Coeur d'Alene Lake. However, over the last 25 years work has been completed to reduce the annual load of these materials. Wastewater treatment facilities have been established near all major municipalities in and around the basin. Species interactions with introduced exotics as well as native species are also acting to limit cutthroat trout populations. Two mechanisms are at work: interspecific competition, and species replacement. Competition occurs when two species utilize common resources, the supply of which is short; or if the resources are not in short supply, they harm each other in the process of seeking these resources. Replacement occurs when some environmental or anthropogenic change (e.g., habitat degradation, fishing pressure, etc.) causes the decline or elimination of one species and another species, either native or introduced, fills the void left by the other. In 1994, the Northwest Power Planning Council adopted the recommendations set forth by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe to improve the Reservation fishery. These recommended actions included: (1) Implement habitat restoration and enhancement measures in Alder, Benewah, Evans, and Lake Creeks; (2) Purchase critical watershed areas for protection of fis

  15. Restore McComas Meadows; Meadow Creek Watershed, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed are coordinated and cost shared with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, planting trees in riparian areas within the meadow and its tributaries, prioritizing culverts for replacement to accommodate fish passage, and decommissioning roads to reduce sediment input. During this contract period work was completed on two culvert replacement projects; Doe Creek and a tributary to Meadow Creek. Additionally construction was also completed for the ditch restoration project within McComas Meadows. Monitoring for project effectiveness and trends in watershed conditions was also completed. Road decommissioning monitoring, as well as stream temperature, sediment, and discharge were completed.

  16. Protect and Restore Red River Watershed, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bransford, Stephanie

    2009-05-04

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Red River Watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2001. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through road decommissioning and culvert replacement. From completing a watershed assessment to two NEPA efforts and a final stream restoration design, we will begin the effort of restoring the mainstem channel of Red River to provide spawning and rearing habitat for anadromous and resident fish species. Roads have been surveyed and prioritized for removal or improvement as well as culverts being prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Another major, and extremely, important component of this project is the Red River Meadow Conservation Easement. We have begun the process of pursuing a conservation easement on approximately 270 acres of prime meadow habitat (Red River runs through this meadow and is prime spawning and rearing habitat).

  17. Baseline for Climate Change: Modeling Watershed Aquatic Biodiversity Relative to Environmental and Anthropogenic Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maurakis, Eugene G

    2010-10-01

    Objectives of the two-year study were to (1) establish baselines for fish and macroinvertebrate community structures in two mid-Atlantic lower Piedmont watersheds (Quantico Creek, a pristine forest watershed; and Cameron Run, an urban watershed, Virginia) that can be used to monitor changes relative to the impacts related to climate change in the future; (2) create mathematical expressions to model fish species richness and diversity, and macroinvertebrate taxa and macroinvertebrate functional feeding group taxa richness and diversity that can serve as a baseline for future comparisons in these and other watersheds in the mid-Atlantic region; and (3) heighten peoples awareness, knowledge and understanding of climate change and impacts on watersheds in a laboratory experience and interactive exhibits, through internship opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students, a week-long teacher workshop, and a website about climate change and watersheds. Mathematical expressions modeled fish and macroinvertebrate richness and diversity accurately well during most of the six thermal seasons where sample sizes were robust. Additionally, hydrologic models provide the basis for estimating flows under varying meteorological conditions and landscape changes. Continuations of long-term studies are requisite for accurately teasing local human influences (e.g. urbanization and watershed alteration) from global anthropogenic impacts (e.g. climate change) on watersheds. Effective and skillful translations (e.g. annual potential exposure of 750,000 people to our inquiry-based laboratory activities and interactive exhibits in Virginia) of results of scientific investigations are valuable ways of communicating information to the general public to enhance their understanding of climate change and its effects in watersheds.

  18. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruse, Gretchen

    2002-07-01

    The 2001-2002 Kootenai River Network Annual Report reflects the organization's defined set of goals and objectives, and how by accomplishing these goals, we continue to meet the needs of communities and landowners throughout the Kootenai River Basin by protecting the resource. Our completed and ongoing projects throughout the watershed reflect the cooperation and support received and needed to accomplish the rehabilitation and restoration of critical habitat. They show that our mission of facilitation through collaboration with public and private interests can lead to improved resource management, the restoration of water quality and the preservation of pristine aquatic resources. Our vision to empower local citizens and groups from two states, one province, two countries and affected tribal nations to collaborate in natural resource management within the basin is largely successful due to the engagement of the basin's residents--the landowners, town government, local interest groups, businesses and agency representatives who live and work here. We are proof that forging these types of cooperative relationships, such as those exhibited by the Kootenai River subbasin planning process, leads to a sense of entitlement--that the quality of the river and its resources enriches our quality of life. Communication is essential in maintaining these relationships. Allowing ourselves to network and receive ideas and information, as well as to produce quality, accessible research data such as KRIS, shared with like organizations and individuals, is the hallmark of this facilitative organization. We are fortunate in the ability to contribute such information, and continue to strive to meet the standards and the needs of those who seek us out as a model for watershed rehabilitative planning and restoration. Sharing includes maintaining active, ongoing lines of communication with the public we serve--through our web site, quarterly newsletter, public presentations and stream table education--at every opportunity. We continue to seek ideas to guide us as we grow. We want to enlarge that sense of ownership that the river does indeed run through it, and belongs to us all. Through a continued and common effort, we hope to carry forward the good work and the momentum that underscores our intent. We are proud to report our accomplishments of this past year because they reflect our renewed sense of purpose. In alliance with diverse citizen groups, individuals, business, industry and tribal and government water resource management agencies, we strive to continue to protect and restore the beauty and integrity that is the Kootenai River watershed.

  19. Watershed Protection at the Fernald Preserve in Ohio | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Watershed Protection at the Fernald Preserve in Ohio Watershed Protection at the Fernald Preserve in Ohio April 19, 2016 - 4:41pm Addthis What does this project do? Goal 4: Optimize the use of land and assets. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) are working with a local land trust organization to acquire conservation easements within the Paddys Run watershed. Funds for this effort are provided from a

  20. White Oak Creek Watershed topographic map and related materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrow, N.D.

    1981-04-01

    On March 22, 1978 a contract was let to Accu-Air Surveys, Inc., of Seymour, Indiana, to produce a topographic map of the White Oak Creek Watershed. Working from photography and ground control surveys, Accu-Air produced a map to ORNL's specifications. The map is in four sections (N.W., N.E., S.W., S.E.) at a scale of 1:2400. Contour intervals are 5 ft (1.5 m) with accented delineations every 25 ft (7.6 m). The scribe method was used for the finished map. Planimetric features, roads, major fence lines, drainage features, and tree lines are included. The ORNL grid is the primary coordinate system which is superimposed on the state plain coordinates.

  1. The watershed-scale optimized and rearranged landscape design (WORLD) model

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and local biomass processing depots for sustainable biofuel production: Integrated life cycle assessments (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The watershed-scale optimized and rearranged landscape design (WORLD) model and local biomass processing depots for sustainable biofuel production: Integrated life cycle assessments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The watershed-scale optimized and rearranged landscape design (WORLD) model and local biomass processing depots for sustainable

  2. Habitat Projects Completed within the Asotin Creek Watershed, 1999 Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Bradley J.

    2000-01-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Program (ACMWP) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The Asotin Creek watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington in WRIA 35. According to WDFW's Priority WRIA's by At-Risk Stock Significance Map, it is the highest priority in southeastern WA. Snake River spring chinook salmon, summer steelhead and bull trout, which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. The ACMWP began coordinating habitat projects in 1995. Approximately two hundred seventy-six projects have been implemented through the ACMWP as of 1999. Twenty of these projects were funded in part through Bonneville Power Administration's 1999 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. These projects used a variety of methods to enhance and protect watershed conditions. In-stream work for fish habitat included construction of hard structures (e.g. vortex rock weirs), meander reconstruction, placement of large woody debris (LWD) and whole trees and improvements to off-channel rearing habitat; thirty-eight were created with these structures. Three miles of stream benefited from riparian improvements such as vegetative plantings (17,000 trees and shrubs) and noxious weed control. Two sediment basin constructions, 67 acres of grass seeding, and seven hundred forty-five acres of minimum till were implemented to reduce sediment production and delivery to streams in the watershed.

  3. Habitat Projects Completed within the Asotin Creek Watershed, 1998 Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Bradley J.

    1999-11-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Program (ACMWP) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The Asotin Creek watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington. Snake River spring chinook salmon, summer steelhead and bull trout, which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. The ACMWP began coordinating habitat projects in 1995. Approximately two hundred forty-six projects have been implemented through the ACMWP as of 1998. Fifty-nine of these projects were funded in part through Bonneville Power Administration's 1998 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. These projects used a variety of methods to enhance and protect watershed conditions. In-stream work for fish habitat included construction of hard structures (e.g. vortex rock weirs), meander reconstruction, placement of large woody debris (LWD) and whole trees and improvements to off-channel rearing habitat; one hundred thirty-nine pools were created with these structures. Three miles of stream benefited from riparian improvements such as fencing, vegetative plantings, and noxious weed control. Two alternative water developments were completed, providing off-stream-watering sources for livestock. 20,500 ft of upland terrace construction, seven sediment basin construction, one hundred eighty-seven acres of grass seeding, eight hundred fifty acres of direct seeding and eighteen sediment basin cleanouts were implemented to reduce sediment production and delivery to streams in the watershed.

  4. Wigwam River McNeil Substrate Sampling Program : 1998-2002 Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tepper, Herb

    2003-01-01

    The Wigwam River is an important fisheries stream in the East Kootenay region of British Columbia that supports healthy populations of both bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi). The river has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning steam in the Kootenay Region (Baxter and Westover 2000), and thus has been the focus of numerous studies in the last ten years (Cope 1998; Cope and Morris 2001; Cope, Morris and Bisset 2002; Kohn Crippen Consultants Ltd. 1998; Westover 1999a; Westover 1999b; Westover and Conroy 1997). Although bull trout populations in the East Kootenay region remain healthy, bull trout populations in other parts of British Columbia and within their traditional range in northwestern United States have declined. Thus, bull trout were blue listed as vulnerable in British Columbia by the B.C. Conservation Data Centre (Cannings 1993) and remain a species of special concern. Bull trout in the north-western United States, within the Columbia River watershed, were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. In 1999, the Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection applied and received funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to assess and monitor the status of wild, native stocks of bull trout in tributaries to Lake Koocanusa (Libby Reservoir) and the upper Kootenay River. The purpose of this report is to summarize one of the many studies undertaken to ''Monitor and Protect Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir'' (BPA Project Number 2000-04-00). Three permanent sampling sites were established on the Wigwam River in April 1998. At each site, substrate samples were obtained using a McNeil Core sampler in April of each year from 1998 to 2002. The objectives of this study were to assess the quality of stream-bed substrates used by bull trout for spawning prior to major resource development in the Wigwam watershed, thus providing one potential measure of future impact to bull trout spawning habitat.

  5. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project, Segment II, 2000-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bair, Brian; Olegario, Anthony; Powers, Paul

    2002-06-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its second year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey - Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW).

  6. An Analysis of Microbial Pollution in the Sinclair-Dyes Inlet Watershed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Christopher W.; Cullinan, Valerie I.

    2005-09-21

    This assessment of fecal coliform sources and pathways in Sinclair and Dyes Inlets is part of the Project ENVironmental InVESTment (ENVVEST) being conducted by the Navy's Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and Intermediate Maintenance Facility in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington State Department of Ecology, the Suquamish Tribe, Kitsap County, the City of Bremerton, the City of Port Orchard, and other local stakeholders. The goal of this study was to identify microbial pollution problems within the Sinclair-Dyes Inlet watershed and to provide a comprehensive assessment of fecal coliform (FC) contamination from all identifiable sources in the watershed. This study quantifies levels of contamination and estimated loadings from known sources within the watersheds and describes pollutant transport mechanisms found in the study area. In addition, the effectiveness of pollution prevention and mitigation measures currently in place within the Sinclair-Dyes Inlet watershed are discussed. This comprehensive study relies on historical data collected by several cooperating agencies, in addition to data collected during the study period from spring 2001 through summer 2005. This report is intended to provide the technical information needed to continue current water quality cleanup efforts and to help implement future efforts.

  7. Clearwater Focus Watershed; Nez Perce Tribe, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Ira; McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-12-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division, approaches watershed restoration with a goal to protect, restore, and enhance a connected network of functioning habitat types capable of supporting all fish life stages. The key objective of the Nez Perce Tribe Focus Coordinator position is to overcome fragmentation within the basin by managing communications with the subbasin, providing an overall framework and process for coordinated fisheries restoration and managing the planning, assessment, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation process. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Clearwater River Subbasin in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the sub-basin by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, stabilizing stream banks, decommissioning roads, restoring fish passage, as well as other watershed restoration projects. Coordination of these projects is critical to the success of the restoration of the sub-basin. Coordination activities also includes: inter and intra-department coordination, sub-basin assessment and planning, involving government and private organizations, and treaty area coordination.

  8. McKenzie River Focus Watershed Coordination: Year-End Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thrailkil, Jim

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes accomplishments of the McKenzie River Focus Watershed Council (MWC) in the areas of coordination and administration during Fiscal Year 2000. Coordination and administration consist of prioritization and planning for projects; project management and implementation; procurement of funding for long-term support of the Council; and watershed education/outreach program for residents and local schools. Key accomplishments in the area of project planning include coordinating: monthly Council and executive committee meetings; staffing the Upper Willamette Spring Chinook Working Group; staffing the water quality technical committee; and guiding education and stewardship projects. Key accomplishments in the area of project management include the completion of the McKenzie-Willamette Confluence Assessment; securing funds for project planning in the confluence area; near completion of the BPA funded McKenzie sub-basin assessment; development of a framework for a McKenzie Watershed Conservation Strategy; an evaluation of Council's monitoring programs - ambient water quality, storm-event water quality, Tier III water quality, and macroinvertebrate monitoring. The Council, in cooperation with the McKenzie River Cooperative, completed habitat enhancements in the Gate Creek and Deer Creek sub-watersheds. This partnership recently submitted Bring Back the Natives grant for initiation of projects in other McKenzie tributaries. The Council will also be working with a local business to develop a river-side riparian enhancement and native landscaping project on the lodge grounds. This will serve as a demonstration project for blending fish and wildlife habitat concerns with maintaining grounds for business opportunities. Accomplishments in the area of procurement of funding included developing the FY2000 Scope of Work and budget for approval by the Council and BPA; providing quarterly budget and work program progress reports to the Council; and securing additional funding from Council partner organizations and foundations. Highlights in the area of watershed education/outreach include the MWC's lead role in convening the Watershed Education Network for teachers as part of its educational mission; production of newsletters and brochures; and coordination of media coverage of watershed-related issues.

  9. South Fork Salmon River Watershed Restoration, 2008-2009 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaney, Mark D.

    2009-04-15

    The watershed restoration work elements within the project area, the South Fork Salmon River Watershed, follow the watershed restoration approach adopted by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management (DFRM) - Watershed Division. The vision of the Nez Perce Tribe DFRM-Watershed Division focuses on protecting, restoring, and enhancing watersheds and treaty resources within the ceded territory of the Nez Perce Tribe under the Treaty of 1855 with the United States Federal Government. The program uses a holistic approach, which encompasses entire watersheds, ridge top to ridge top, emphasizing all cultural aspects and strategies that rely on natural fish production and healthy river ecosystems. The Nez Perce Tribe DFRM-Watershed Division strives towards maximizing historic ecosystem productivity and health for the restoration of anadromous and resident fish populations and the habitat on which all depend on for future generations Originally, this project was funded to create a step/pool stream channel that was appropriate to restore fish passage where the 'Glory Hole Cascade' is currently located at the Stibnite Mine. Due to unforeseen circumstances at the time, the project is unable to move forward as planned and a request for a change in scope of the project and an expansion of the geographic area in which to complete project work was submitted. No additional funds were being requested. The ultimate goal of this project is to work with the holistic, ridge top to ridge top approach to protect and restore the ecological and biological functions of the South Fork Salmon River Watershed to assist in the recovery of threatened and endangered anadromous and resident fish species. FY 2008 Work Elements included two aquatic organism passage (AOP) projects to restore habitat connectivity to two fish-bearing tributaries to the East Fork South Fork Salmon River, Salt and Profile Creeks. The Work Elements also included road survey and assessment activities that move toward road decommissioning to reduce sediment delivery to spawning gravels and rearing habitats by reducing sedimentation from road related, man-made sources. For FY08, the project included the design and implementation of two fish barrier replacement structures mentioned above, the Salt and Profile Creek Bridges. These work elements were to be implemented on Valley County easements within the Payette National Forest. The existing culverts are full or partial barriers to most aquatic life species and all juvenile anadromous and resident fish species. Implementation will reconnect 9.34 miles of habitat, and provide natural stream channels to facilitate complete passage for all aquatic life forms. All designs were completed and a construction subcontract was awarded to construct free span, pre-cast concrete bridges. For 2008, the project statement of work also included all the necessary work elements to manage, coordinate, plan, and develop continuing strategies for restoration and protection activities.

  10. Identification of sediment sources in forested watersheds with surface coal mining disturbance using carbon and nitrogen isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, J.F.

    2009-10-15

    Sediments and soils were analyzed using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratio mass spectrometry and carbon and nitrogen elemental analyses to evaluate the their ability to indicate land-use and land management disturbance and pinpoint loading from sediment transport sources in forested watersheds disturbed by surface coal mining. Samples of transported sediment particulate organic matter were collected from four watersheds in the Southern Appalachian forest in Kentucky. The four watersheds had different surface coal mining history that were classified as undisturbed, active mining, and reclaimed conditions. Soil samples were analyzed including reclaimed grassland soils, undisturbed forest soils, geogenic organic matter associated with coal fragments in mining spoil, and soil organic matter from un-mined grassland soils. Statistically significant differences were found for all biogeochemical signatures when comparing transported sediments from undisturbed watersheds and surface coal mining disturbed watersheds and the results were attributed to differences in erosion sources and the presence of geogenic organic matter. Sediment transport sources in the surface coal mining watersheds analyzed using Monte Carlo mass balance un-mixing found that: {delta}{sup 15}N showed the ability to differentiate streambank erosion and surface soil erosion; and {delta} {sup 13}C showed the ability to differentiate soil organic matter and geogenic organic matter. This suggests that streambank erosion downstream of surface coal mining sites is a significant source of sediment in coal mining disturbed watersheds. The results suggest that the sediment transport processes governing streambank erosion loads are taking longer to reach geomorphologic equilibrium in the watershed as compared with the surface erosion processes.

  11. AmeriFlux US-ICs Imnavait Creek Watershed Wet Sedge Tundra

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Bret-Harte, Syndonia [University of Alaska Fairbanks; Euskirchen, Eugenie [University of Alaska Fairbanks; Shaver, Gaius [Marine Biological Laboratory

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-ICs Imnavait Creek Watershed Wet Sedge Tundra. Site Description - The Imnavait Creek Watershed Wet Sedge Tundra (Fen Station) is located near Imnavait Creek in Alaska, north of the Brooks Range in the Kuparuk basin near Lake Toolik and the Toolik Field Station. The Kuparuk River has its headwaters in the Brooks Range and drains through northern Alaska into the Arctic Ocean. Within these headwaters lies the Imnavait basin at an average elevation of 930 m. Water tracks run down the hill in parallel zones with a spacing of approximately 10 m. The Fen Station was deployed at the end of Summer 2007.

  12. AmeriFlux US-ICh Imnavait Creek Watershed Heath Tundra

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Bret-Harte, Syndonia [University of Alaska Fairbanks; Euskirchen, Eugenie [University of Alaska Fairbanks; Shaver, Gaius [Marine Biological Laboratory

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-ICh Imnavait Creek Watershed Heath Tundra. Site Description - The Imnavait Creek Watershed Heath Tundra (Ridge Station) is located near Imnavait Creek in Alaska, north of the Brooks Range in the Kuparuk basin near Lake Toolik and the Toolik Field Station. The Kuparuk River has its headwaters in the Brooks Range and drains through northern Alaska into the Arctic Ocean. Within these headwaters lies the Imnavait basin at an average elevation of 930 m. Water tracks run down the hill in parallel zones with a spacing of approximately 10 m. The Ridge Station was deployed at the end of Summer 2007.

  13. AmeriFlux US-ICt Imnavait Creek Watershed Tussock Tundra

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Bret-Harte, Syndonia [University of Alaska Fairbanks; Euskirchen, Eugenie [University of Alaska Fairbanks; Shaver, Gaius [Marine Biological Laboratory

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-ICt Imnavait Creek Watershed Tussock Tundra. Site Description - The Imnavait Creek Watershed Tussock Tundra (Biocomplexity Station) is located near Imnavait Creek in Alaska, north of the Brooks Range in the Kuparuk basin near Lake Toolik and the Toolik Field Station. The Kuparuk River has its headwaters in the Brooks Range and drains through northern Alaska into the Arctic Ocean. Within these headwaters lies the Imnavait basin at an average elevation of 930 m. Water tracks run down the hill in parallel zones with a spacing of approximately 10 m. The Biocomplexity Station was deployed in 2004, and it has been in operation during the melt seasons ever since.

  14. Restoration in the Anacostia river watershed: An ecosystem management case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, L.R.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses various aspects of an ecosystem approach to watershed restoration as illustrated by the Anacostia River Watershed Restoration initiative. This information was derived from a case study conducted as part of the Interagency Ecosystem Management Initiative (IEMI), an outgrowth of a recommendation in the National Performance Review. The purpose of this study was to identify components of the ecosystem approach used in the Anacostia initiative that may be useful to other ecosystem restoration and management initiatives in the future. Water quality and ecological conditions within the Anacostia River watershed have become degraded due to urban and suburban development and other activities in the watershed over the last two centuries. An intergovernmental partnership has been formed to cooperatively assess the specific problems in the basin and to direct and implement restoration efforts. The Anacostia initiative includes a number of cooperative efforts that cross political boundaries, and involves numerous states, local agencies, civic groups, and private individuals in addition to the Federal players. In contrast with some of the other case studies in the IEMI, the Anacostia restoration effort is primarily driven by state and local governments. There has, however, been Federal involvement in the restoration and use of Federal grants. In addition, the establishment of a forum for setting goals, priorities and resolving differences was viewed as essential. Closer relationships between planning and regulatory functions can help advance the restoration goals. Public participation, including education, outreach and involvement, is essential to viable ecosystem initiatives. Comprehensive planning and modeling must be balanced with continuous visible results in order to sustain administrative and public support for the initiative.

  15. Subtask 1.18 - A Decision Tool for Watershed-Based Effluent Trading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xixi Wang; Bethany A. Kurz; Marc D. Kurz

    2006-11-30

    Handling produced water in an economical and environmentally sound manner is vital to coalbed methane (CBM) development, which is expected to increase up to 60% in the next 10-15 years as the demand for natural gas increases. Current produced water-handling methods (e.g., shallow reinjection and infiltration impoundments) are too costly when implemented on a well-by-well basis. A watershed-based effluent credit trading approach may be a means of managing produced water at reduced cost while meeting or surpassing water quality regulations. This market-based approach allows for improved water quality management by enabling industrial, agricultural, and municipal discharge facilities to meet water quality permit requirements by purchasing pollutant reduction credits from other entities within the same watershed. An evaluation of this concept was conducted for the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Montana and Wyoming by the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). To conduct this assessment, the EERC collected and evaluated existing water quality information and developed the appropriate tools needed to assess the environmental and economic feasibility of specific trading scenarios. The accomplishments of this study include (1) an exploration of the available PRB water quantity and quality data using advanced statistical techniques, (2) development of an integrated water quality model that predicts the impacts of CBM produced water on stream salinity and sodicity, (3) development of an economic model that estimates costs and benefits from implementing potential trading options, (4) evaluation of hypothetical trading scenarios between select watersheds of the PRB, and (5) communication of the project concept and results to key state and federal agencies, industry representatives, and stakeholders of the PRB. The preliminary results of a basinwide assessment indicate that up to $684 million could be saved basinwide without compromising water quality as a result of implementing a watershed-based credit-trading approach.

  16. Field studies of streamflow generation using natural and injected tracers on Bickford and Walker Branch Watersheds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genereux, D.; Hemond, H. . Dept. of Civil Engineering); Mulholland, P. )

    1992-05-01

    Field studies of streamflow generation were undertaken on two forested watersheds, the West Road subcatchment of Bickford Watershed in central Massachusetts and the West Fork of Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee. A major component of the research was development of a two-stage methodology for the use of naturally-occurring {sup 222}Rn as a tracer. The first of the two stages was solving a mass-balance equation for {sup 222}Rn around a stream reach of interest in order to calculate Rn{sub q}, the {sup 222}Rn content of the lateral inflow to the reach; a conservative tracer (chloride) and a volatile tracer (propane) were injected into the study stream to account for lateral inflow to, and volatilization from, the study reach. The second stage involved quantitative comparison of Rn{sub q} to the measured {sup 222}Rn concentrations of different subsurface waters in order to assess how important these waters were in contributing lateral inflow to the stream reach.

  17. Dual nitrate isotopes clarify the role of biological processing and hydrologic flow paths on nitrogen cycling in subtropical low-gradient watersheds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Griffiths, Natalie A.; Jackson, C. Rhett; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Klaus, Julian; Du, Enhao; Bitew, Menberu M.

    2016-02-08

    Nitrogen (N) is an important nutrient as it often limits productivity but in excess can impair water quality. Most studies on watershed N cycling have occurred in upland forested catchments where snowmelt dominates N export; fewer studies have focused on low-relief watersheds that lack snow. We examined watershed N cycling in three adjacent, low-relief watersheds in the Upper Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States to better understand the role of hydrological flow paths and biological transformations of N at the watershed scale. Groundwater was the dominant source of nitrified N to stream water in two of the three watersheds,more » while atmospheric deposition comprised 28% of stream water nitrate in one watershed. The greater atmospheric contribution may have been due to the larger stream channel area relative to total watershed area or the dominance of shallow subsurface flow paths contributing to stream flow in this watershed. There was a positive relationship between temperature and stream water ammonium concentrations and a negative relationship between temperature and stream water nitrate concentrations in each watershed suggesting that N cycling processes (i.e., nitrification and denitrification) varied seasonally. However, there were no clear patterns in the importance of denitrification in different water pools possibly because a variety of factors (i.e., assimilatory uptake, dissimilatory uptake, and mixing) affected nitrate concentrations. In conclusion, together, these results highlight the hydrological and biological controls on N cycling in low-gradient watersheds and variability in N delivery flow paths among adjacent watersheds with similar physical characteristics.« less

  18. Hangman Restoration Project : Annual Report, August 1, 2001 - July 31, 2002.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Gerald I.; Coeur D'Alene Tribe.

    2002-06-01

    The construction of hydroelectric facilities in the Columbia Basin resulted in the extirpation of anadromous fish stocks in Hangman Creek and its tributaries within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation. Thus, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe was forced to rely more heavily on native fish stocks such as redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss garideini), westslope cutthroat trout (O. clarki lewisii) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) as well as local wildlife populations. Additionally, the Tribe was forced to convert prime riparian habitat into agricultural lands to supply sustenance for their changed needs. Wildlife habitats within the portion of the Hangman Creek Watershed that lies within the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation have been degraded from a century of land management practices that include widespread conversion of native habitats to agricultural production and intensive silvicultural practices. Currently, wildlife and fish populations have been marginalized and water quality is significantly impaired. In the fall of 2000 the Coeur d'Alene Tribe Wildlife Program, in coordination with the Tribal Fisheries Program, submitted a proposal to begin addressing the degradations to functioning habitats within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation in the Hangman Watershed. That proposal led to the implementation of this project during BPA's FY2001 through FY2003 funding cycle. The project is intended to protect, restore and/or enhance priority riparian, wetland and upland areas within the headwaters of Hangman Creek and its tributaries in order to promote healthy self-sustaining fish and wildlife populations. A key goal of this project is the implementation of wildlife habitat protection efforts in a manner that also secures areas with the potential to provide stream and wetland habitats essential to native salmonid populations. This goal is critical in our efforts to address both resident fish and wildlife habitat needs in the Hangman Watershed. All proposed implementation activities are conducted in the headwaters of the system and are expected to prove beneficial to the natural functions of the entire Hangman Watershed. The following is the FY2001 annual report of Project activities and is submitted as partial fulfillment of Operation and Maintenance Task 2.a. The Objectives and Tasks for this first year were designed to position this Project for a long-term habitat restoration effort. As such, efforts were largely directed at information gathering and project orientation. The major task for this first year was development of a Habitat Prioritization Plan (attached) to guide implementation efforts by selecting areas that will be of greatest benefit to the native ecology. Completion of the first year tasks has positioned the project to move forward with implementing restoration activities using the latest information to accomplish the greatest possible results. The Project will be looking to implement on-the-ground protection and restoration efforts in the coming fiscal year using the data and information gathered in the last fiscal year. Continually refining our understanding of the natural watershed functions and fish and wildlife habitats within the Project Area will result in an increase in the efficiency of project implementation. Research and data gathering efforts will remain a strong emphasis in the coming fiscal year, as it will throughout the life of this Project.

  19. Development of An Empirical Water Quality Model for Stormwater Based on Watershed Land Use in Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cullinan, Valerie I.; May, Christopher W.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Judd, Chaeli; Johnston, Robert K.

    2007-03-29

    The Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed is located on the west side of Puget Sound in Kitsap County, Washington, U.S.A. (Figure 1). The Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (PSNS), U.S Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the Washington State Department of Ecology (WA-DOE), Kitsap County, City of Bremerton, City of Bainbridge Island, City of Port Orchard, and the Suquamish Tribe have joined in a cooperative effort to evaluate water-quality conditions in the Sinclair-Dyes Inlet watershed and correct identified problems. A major focus of this project, known as Project ENVVEST, is to develop Water Clean-up (TMDL) Plans for constituents listed on the 303(d) list within the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed. Segments within the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed were listed on the State of Washington’s 1998 303(d) because of fecal coliform contamination in marine water, metals in sediment and fish tissue, and organics in sediment and fish tissue (WA-DOE 2003). Stormwater loading was identified by ENVVEST as one potential source of sediment contamination, which lacked sufficient data for a contaminant mass balance calculation for the watershed. This paper summarizes the development of an empirical model for estimating contaminant concentrations in all streams discharging into Sinclair and Dyes Inlets based on watershed land use, 18 storm events, and wet/dry season baseflow conditions between November 2002 and May 2005. Stream pollutant concentrations along with estimates for outfalls and surface runoff will be used in estimating the loading and ultimately in establishing a Water Cleanup Plan (TMDL) for the Sinclair-Dyes Inlet watershed.

  20. Environmental planning as a tool for economic development: The black brook watershed experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryner, P.C.; Heller, G.B.

    1995-12-01

    The Keene, New Hampshire Planning Department has attempted to use environmental planning as a tool to facilitate industrial development of the Black Brook Watershed. The City has established detailed modeling of drainage, floodplains and groundwater, and has placed that information on accurate computer-based maps. When provided to developers at the beginning of the development process, this environmental information expidites design and permitting while also improving the likelihood of protecting sensitive environmental areas. Starting in 1987 as part of a Master Plan revision process, the Planning Department decided to concentrate on the Black Brook Watershed in northwestern Keene as a target area for a new approach to economic development and environmental protection. The entire watershed was chosen as the boundary for this study area and detailed studies were conducted. During this effort the City formulated a new Economic Development Master Plan which called for the creation of approximately 300 acres of new industrial development within the next ten years. The Black Brook basin was identified as the preferred site. Because of pro-active environmental planning, the City is now able to work in active, cooperative partnership with the private sector in the development of this area. It is clear from this first specific development project that the project development and permitting process will be shortened by at least 60 days, and a minimum of $5,000 to $10,000 in preliminary site information costs will be saved. The availability of good information on wetlands and floodplains has already had a dramatic impact upon proposed site design and has achieved the desired objective of avoiding these sensitive areas whenever possible. The City is now working on the design of an Industrial Design and Permitting System which will be applied to the entire City, based upon what has been learned from this effort.

  1. Where does streamwater come from in low-relief forested watersheds? A dual-isotope approach

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Klaus, J.; McDonnell, J. J.; Jackson, C. R.; Du, E.; Griffiths, N. A.

    2015-01-08

    The time and geographic sources of streamwater in low-relief watersheds are poorly understood. This is partly due to the difficult combination of low runoff coefficients and often damped streamwater isotopic signals precluding traditional hydrograph separation and convolution integral approaches. Here we present a dual-isotope approach involving 18O and 2H of water in a low-angle forested watershed to determine streamwater source components and then build a conceptual model of streamflow generation. We focus on three headwater lowland sub-catchments draining the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, USA. Our results for a 3-year sampling period show that the slopes of the meteoricmore » water lines/evaporation water lines (MWLs/EWLs) of the catchment water sources can be used to extract information on runoff sources in ways not considered before. Our dual-isotope approach was able to identify unique hillslope, riparian and deep groundwater, and streamflow compositions. Thus, the streams showed strong evaporative enrichment compared to the local meteoric water line (δ2H = 7.15 · δ18O +9.28‰) with slopes of 2.52, 2.84, and 2.86. Based on the unique and unambiguous slopes of the EWLs of the different water cycle components and the isotopic time series of the individual components, we were able to show how the riparian zone controls baseflow in this system and how the riparian zone "resets" the stable isotope composition of the observed streams in our low-angle, forested watersheds. Although this approach is limited in terms of quantifying mixing percentages between different end-members, our dual-isotope approach enabled the extraction of hydrologically useful information in a region with little change in individual isotope time series.« less

  2. EVALUATION OF LAND USE/LAND COVER DATASETS FOR URBAN WATERSHED MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.J. BURIAN; M.J. BROWN; T.N. MCPHERSON

    2001-08-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) data are a vital component for nonpoint source pollution modeling. Most watershed hydrology and pollutant loading models use, in some capacity, LULC information to generate runoff and pollutant loading estimates. Simple equation methods predict runoff and pollutant loads using runoff coefficients or pollutant export coefficients that are often correlated to LULC type. Complex models use input variables and parameters to represent watershed characteristics and pollutant buildup and washoff rates as a function of LULC type. Whether using simple or complex models an accurate LULC dataset with an appropriate spatial resolution and level of detail is paramount for reliable predictions. The study presented in this paper compared and evaluated several LULC dataset sources for application in urban environmental modeling. The commonly used USGS LULC datasets have coarser spatial resolution and lower levels of classification than other LULC datasets. In addition, the USGS datasets do not accurately represent the land use in areas that have undergone significant land use change during the past two decades. We performed a watershed modeling analysis of three urban catchments in Los Angeles, California, USA to investigate the relative difference in average annual runoff volumes and total suspended solids (TSS) loads when using the USGS LULC dataset versus using a more detailed and current LULC dataset. When the two LULC datasets were aggregated to the same land use categories, the relative differences in predicted average annual runoff volumes and TSS loads from the three catchments were 8 to 14% and 13 to 40%, respectively. The relative differences did not have a predictable relationship with catchment size.

  3. Impervious cover mapping and runoff predictions in a Dallas watershed using Landsat TM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singletary, K.L.; Morgan, K.M.; Busbey, A.B.; Newland, L.W. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-02-01

    As urban development increases in metropolitan areas, the amount of impervious cover also increases and directly affects stormwater runoff volume. Techniques are needed by planning agencies to monitor urban changes and update flood maps. In this study, the six 30 meter resolution bands of Landsat TM were analyzed to determine which wavelength(s) could be used to map impervious cover in a watershed near Dallas. The resulting information was utilized in a runoff equation and compared to actual stormwater flow recorded at a U.S.G.S. gauge station. Accuracies of the image mapping and predicted runoff are presented.

  4. Land Use and Watersheds: Human Influence on Hydrology and Geomorphology in Urban and Forest Areas. Water Science and Application Series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigmosta, Mark S.; Burges, S J.

    2001-10-01

    What is the effect of urbanization and forest use on hydrologic and geomorphic processes? How can we develop land use policies that minimize adverse impacts on ecosystems while sustaining biodiversity? Land Use and Watersheds: Human Influence on Hydrology and Geomorphology in Urban and Forest Areas addresses these issues and more. By featuring watersheds principally in the American Pacific Northwest, and the effects of timber harvesting and road construction on stream flow, sediment yield and landslide occurrence, scientists can advance their understanding of what constitutes appropriate management of environments with similar hydro-climatic-geomorphic settings worldwide.

  5. Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in the Lapwai Creek Watershed, Technical Report 2003-2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasmussen, Lynn

    2007-02-01

    The Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in the Lapwai Creek Watershed is a multi-phase project to enhance steelhead trout in the Lapwai Creek watershed by improving salmonid spawning and rearing habitat. Habitat is limited by extreme high runoff events, low summer flows, high water temperatures, poor instream cover, spawning gravel siltation, and sediment, nutrient and bacteria loading. Funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, the project assists in mitigating damage to steelhead runs caused by the Columbia River hydroelectric dams. The project is sponsored by the Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District). Target fish species include steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Steelhead trout within the Snake River Basin were listed in 1997 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Accomplishments for the contract period December 1, 2003 through February 28, 2004 include; seven grade stabilization structures, 0.67 acres of wetland plantings, ten acres tree planting, 500 linear feet streambank erosion control, two acres grass seeding, and 120 acres weed control.

  6. Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in Big Canyon Creek Watershed, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasmussen, Lynn

    2006-07-01

    The ''Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in the Big Canyon Creek Watershed'' is a multi-phase project to enhance steelhead trout in the Big Canyon Creek watershed by improving salmonid spawning and rearing habitat. Habitat is limited by extreme high runoff events, low summer flows, high water temperatures, poor instream cover, spawning gravel siltation, and sediment, nutrient and bacteria loading. Funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, the project assists in mitigating damage to steelhead runs caused by the Columbia River hydroelectric dams. The project is sponsored by the Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District. Target fish species include steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Steelhead trout within the Snake River Basin were listed in 1997 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Accomplishments for the contract period September 1, 2004 through October 31, 2005 include; 2.7 riparian miles treated, 3.0 wetland acres treated, 5,263.3 upland acres treated, 106.5 riparian acres treated, 76,285 general public reached, 3,000 students reached, 40 teachers reached, 18 maintenance plans completed, temperature data collected at 6 sites, 8 landowner applications received and processed, 14 land inventories completed, 58 habitat improvement project designs completed, 5 newsletters published, 6 habitat plans completed, 34 projects installed, 2 educational workshops, 6 displays, 1 television segment, 2 public service announcements, a noxious weed GIS coverage, and completion of NEPA, ESA, and cultural resources requirements.

  7. Influence of hydraulic and geomorphologic components of a semi-arid watershed on depleted-uranium transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    Investigations were undertaken to determine the fate and transport of depleted uranium away from high explosive firing sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory in north-central New Mexico. Investigations concentrated on a small, semi-arid watershed which drains 5 firing sites. Sampling for uranium in spring/summer/fall runoff, snowmelt runoff, in fallout, and in soil and in sediments revealed that surface water is the main transport mechanism. Although the watershed is less than 8 km{sup 2}, flow discontinuity was observed between the divide and the outlet; flow discontinuity occurs in semi-arid and arid watersheds, but was unexpected at this scale. This region, termed a discharge sink, is an area where all flow infiltrates and all sediment, including uranium, deposits during nearly all flow events; it is estimated that the discharge sink has provided the locale for uranium detention during the last 23 years. Mass balance calculations indicate that over 90% of uranium expended still remains at or nearby the firing sites. Leaching experiments determined that uranium can rapidly dissolve from the solid phase. It is postulated that precipitation and runoff which percolate vertically through uranium-contaminated soil and sediment are capable of transporting uranium in the dissolved phase to deeper strata. This may be the key transport mechanism which moves uranium out of the watershed.

  8. The Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (Apex) Model: An Emerging Tool for Landscape and Watershed Environmental Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gassman, Philip W.; Williams, Jimmy R.; Wang, Xiuying; Saleh, Ali; Osei, Edward; Hauck, Larry; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Flowers, Joan

    2010-06-01

    The Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) model was developed by the Blacklands Research and Extension Center in Temple, Texas. APEX is a flexible and dynamic tool that is capable of simulating a wide array of management practices, cropping systems, and other land uses across a broad range of agricultural landscapes, including whole farms and small watersheds.

  9. Evaluation of CALPUFF nitrogen deposition modeling in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Area using NADP data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, M.; Mayes, P.; Sherwell, J.

    1998-12-31

    The CALMET/CALPUFF modeling system has been used to estimate nitrogen deposition in an area surrounding Baltimore and the northern portion of the Chesapeake Bay. Comprehensive NO{sub x} emissions inventories and meteorological data bases have been developed to conduct the modeling. This paper discusses the results of an evaluation of predicted nitrogen wet deposition rates compared to measured rates at two NADP/NTN sites in Maryland, Wye and White Rock. Underprediction of wet deposition rates is investigated through the use of sensitivity and diagnostic evaluations of model performance. A suggested change to the calculation of NO{sub x} transformation rates involving an alternative specification of minimum NO{sub x} concentrations was made to CALPUFF and the performance evaluation was re-done. Results of the new evaluation show significantly improved model performance, and therefore the modification is tentatively proposed for use in further applications of CALPUFF to the assessment of nitrogen deposition in the Chesapeake Bay watershed.

  10. Point-nonpoint effluent trading in watersheds: A review and critique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarvie, M.; Solomon, B.

    1998-03-01

    The 1990s have been characterized as the decade of market incentives in US environmental policy-making. Not only is their use expanding for air pollution control, but the US Environmental Protection Agency is now also encouraging the use of market instruments for control of effluents within watersheds. After reviewing general guidelines and principles for effluent trading, this study considers the special problems of point-nonpoint (p-n) sources, the most common focus of effluent trading to date. Four case studies of p-n trading are discussed, which illustrate the promise of the policy. Although only two of these four case study programs have involved actual effluent trades thus far, they all have resulted in more cost-effective reductions of water pollution. Overall use of effluent trading to date has been modest, and suggestions are made for improvement of this innovative policy.

  11. Inorganic Carbon Isotopes and Chemical Characterization of Watershed Drainages, Barrow, Alaska, 2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Throckmorton, Heather M.; Heikoop, Jeffrey H.; Newman, Brent D.; Wilson, Cathy J.

    Arctic soils contain a large pool of terrestrial C and are of interest due to their potential for releasing significant carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. Due to substantial landscape heterogeneity, predicting ecosystem-scale CH4 and CO2 production is challenging. This study assessed dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC = Sigma (total) dissolved CO2) and CH4 in watershed drainages in Barrow, Alaska as critical convergent zones of regional geochemistry, substrates, and nutrients. In July and September of 2013, surface waters and saturated subsurface pore waters were collected from 17 drainages. Based on simultaneous DIC and CH4 cycling, we synthesized isotopic and geochemical methods to develop a subsurface CH4 and DIC balance by estimating mechanisms of CH4 and DIC production and transport pathways and oxidation of subsurface CH4. We observed a shift from acetoclastic (July) towards hydrogenotropic (September) methanogenesis at sites located towards the end of major freshwater drainages, adjacent to salty estuarine waters, suggesting an interesting landscape-scale effect on CH4 production mechanism. The majority of subsurface CH4 was transported upward by plant-mediated transport and ebullition, predominantly bypassing the potential for CH4 oxidation. Thus, surprisingly CH4 oxidation only consumed approximately 2.51 +/- 0.82% (July) and 0.79 +/- 0.79% (September) of CH4 produced at the frost table, contributing to less than 0.1% of DIC production. DIC was primarily produced from respiration, with iron and organic matter serving as likely e- acceptors. This work highlights the importance of spatial and temporal variability of CH4 production at the watershed scale, and suggests broad scale investigations are required to build better regional or pan-Arctic representations of CH4 and CO2 production.

  12. Remedial investigation report on the Melton Valley watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 3: Appendix C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The Melton Valley watershed presents a multifaceted management and decision-making challenge because of the very heterogeneous conditions that exist with respect to contaminant type, disposal unit age, mode of disposal, release mechanism, and potential risk-producing pathways. The investigation presented here has assembled relevant site data in the geographic context with the intent of enabling program managers and decision-makers to understand site conditions and evaluate the necessity, relative priority, and scope of potential remedial actions. The industrial and recreational exposure scenarios are used to provide a risk assessment reference context to evaluate levels of contamination in surface water, groundwater, soil, and sediment within each subbasin of the Melton Valley watershed. All available analytical results for the media of interest that could be qualified for use in the risk assessment were screened to determine carcinogenic risk values and noncarcinogenic hazard indexes and to identify the chemicals of concern (COCs) for each evaluated media in each subbasin.

  13. Project Summary (2012-2015) – Carbon Dynamics of the Greater Everglades Watershed and Implications of Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinkle, Ross; Benscoter, Brian; Comas, Xavier; Sumner, David; DeAngelis, Donald

    2015-04-07

    Carbon Dynamics of the Greater Everglades Watershed and Implications of Climate Change The objectives of this project are to: 1) quantify above- and below-ground carbon stocks of terrestrial ecosystems along a seasonal hydrologic gradient in the headwaters region of the Greater Everglades watershed; 2) develop budgets of ecosystem gaseous carbon exchange (carbon dioxide and methane) across the seasonal hydrologic gradient; 3) assess the impact of climate drivers on ecosystem carbon exchange in the Greater Everglades headwater region; and 4) integrate research findings with climate-driven terrestrial ecosystem carbon models to examine the potential influence of projected future climate change on regional carbon cycling. Note: this project receives a one-year extension past the original performance period - David Sumner (USGS) is not included in this extension.

  14. Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, October 1990--December 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borders, D.M.; Gregory, S.M.; Clapp, R.B.; Frederick, B.J.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-06-01

    This report summarizes for the 15-month period of October 1990-- December 1991 the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, along with information collected on the surface flow systems that affect the quality or quantity of surface water. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to: (1) characterize the quantity and quality of water in the flow systems; (2) assist with the planning and assessment of remedial action activities; and, (3) provide long-term availability of data and quality assurance. Characterization of the hydrology of the WOC watershed is critical for understanding the processes that drive contaminant transport in the watershed. Identification of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. In addition, hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping (WAG) boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. For these reasons, it is of paramount importance to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) to collect and report hydrologic data activities that contribute to the Site Investigations component of the ERP. (White Oak Creek is also referred to as ``Whiteoak`` Creek).

  15. Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, October 1990--December 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borders, D.M.; Gregory, S.M.; Clapp, R.B.; Frederick, B.J.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-06-01

    This report summarizes for the 15-month period of October 1990-- December 1991 the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, along with information collected on the surface flow systems that affect the quality or quantity of surface water. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to: (1) characterize the quantity and quality of water in the flow systems; (2) assist with the planning and assessment of remedial action activities; and, (3) provide long-term availability of data and quality assurance. Characterization of the hydrology of the WOC watershed is critical for understanding the processes that drive contaminant transport in the watershed. Identification of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. In addition, hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping (WAG) boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. For these reasons, it is of paramount importance to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) to collect and report hydrologic data activities that contribute to the Site Investigations component of the ERP. (White Oak Creek is also referred to as Whiteoak'' Creek).

  16. Impact of Resolution on Simulation of Closed Mesoscale Cellular Convection Identified by Dynamically Guided Watershed Segmentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martini, Matus; Gustafson, William I.; Yang, Qing; Xiao, Heng

    2014-11-27

    Organized mesoscale cellular convection (MCC) is a common feature of marine stratocumulus that forms in response to a balance between mesoscale dynamics and smaller scale processes such as cloud radiative cooling and microphysics. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) and fully coupled cloud-aerosol interactions to simulate marine low clouds during the VOCALS-REx campaign over the southeast Pacific. A suite of experiments with 3- and 9-km grid spacing indicates resolution-dependent behavior. The simulations with finer grid spacing have smaller liquid water paths and cloud fractions, while cloud tops are higher. The observed diurnal cycle is reasonably well simulated. To isolate organized MCC characteristics we develop a new automated method, which uses a variation of the watershed segmentation technique that combines the detection of cloud boundaries with a test for coincident vertical velocity characteristics. This ensures that the detected cloud fields are dynamically consistent for closed MCC, the most common MCC type over the VOCALS-REx region. We demonstrate that the 3-km simulation is able to reproduce the scaling between horizontal cell size and boundary layer height seen in satellite observations. However, the 9-km simulation is unable to resolve smaller circulations corresponding to shallower boundary layers, instead producing invariant MCC horizontal scale for all simulated boundary layers depths. The results imply that climate models with grid spacing of roughly 3 km or smaller may be needed to properly simulate the MCC structure in the marine stratocumulus regions.

  17. Wind River Watershed Project; Volume II of III Reports F and G, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    1999-11-01

    The authors report here their on-ground restoration actions. Part 1 describes work conducted by the Underwood Conservation District (UCD) on private lands. This work involves the Stabler Cut-Bank project. Part 2 describes work conducted by the U.S. Forest Service. The Stabler Cut-Bank Project is a cooperative stream restoration effort between Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the UCD, private landowners, the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The Stabler site was identified by UCD during stream surveys conducted in 1996 as part of a USFWS funded project aimed at initiating water quality and habitat restoration efforts on private lands in the basin. In 1997 the Wind River Watershed Council selected the project as a top priority demonstration project. The landowners were approached by the UCD and a partnership developed. Due to their expertise in channel rehabilitation, the Forest Service was consulted for the design and assisted with the implementation of the project. A portion of the initial phase of the project was funded by USFWS. However, the majority of funding (approximately 80%) has been provided by BPA and it is anticipated that additional work that is planned for the site will be conducted with BPA funds.

  18. Kalispel Resident Fish Project : Annual Report, 1995.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maroney, Joseph; Donley, Christopher; Scott, Jason; Lockwood, Jr., Neil

    1997-06-01

    In 1995 the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) in conjunction with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) initiated the implementation of a habitat and population enhancement project for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Habitat and population assessments were conducted in seven tributaries of the Box Canyon reach of the Pend Oreille River. Assessments were used to determine the types and quality of habitat that were limiting to native bull trout and cutthroat trout populations. Assessments were also used to determine the effects of interspecific competition within these streams. A bull trout and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) hybridization assessment was conducted to determine the degree of hybridization between these two species. Analysis of the habitat data indicated high rates of sediment and lack of wintering habitat. The factors that contribute to these conditions have the greatest impact on habitat quality for the tributaries of concern. Population data suggested that brook trout have less stringent habitat requirements; therefore, they have the potential to outcompete the native salmonids in areas of lower quality habitat. No hybrids were found among the samples, which is most likely attributable to the limited number of bull trout. Data collected from these assessments were compiled to develop recommendations for enhancement measures. Recommendations for restoration include riparian planting and fencing, instream structures, as well as, removal of non-native brook trout to reduce interspecific competition with native salmonids in an isolated reach of Cee Cee Ah Creek.

  19. Cumulative Effects of Micro-Hydro Development on the Fisheries of the Swan River Drainage, Montana, First Annual Progress Report (Covering Field Season July-November 1982).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leathe, Stephen A.; Graham, Patrick J.

    1984-03-01

    This fisheries study is to determine the potential cumulative biological and economic effects of 20 small or micro-hydro-electric facilities (less than 5 megawatts) proposed to be constructed on tributaries to the Swan River, a 1738 square kilometer (671 square mile) drainage located in northwestern Montana. The study addresses portions of measure 1204 (b) (2) of the Norwthwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Aerial pre-surveys conducted during 1982 identified 102 stream reaches that may support fish populations in the Swan drainage between Swan and Lindbergh lakes. These reaches were located in 49 tributary streams and constituted 416 kilometers (258 miles) of potential fish habitat. Construction of all proposed small hydro projects would divert water from 54 kilometers (34 miles) or about 13 percent of the tributary system. Only two of the 20 proposed hydro sites did not support trout populations and most were populated by migratory bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout. Potential cumulative habitat losses that could result from dewatering of all proposed project areas were predicted using a stream reach classification scheme involving stream gradient, drainage ara, and fish population data. Preliminary results of this worst case analysis indicate that 23, 19 and 6 percent of the high quality rearing habitat for cutthroat, bull, and brook trout respectively would be lost.

  20. EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON WATERSHED RUNOFF FLOW - UPPER COOSA RIVER BASIN UPSTREAM FROM PLANT HAMMOND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, K.

    2011-10-24

    The ability of water managers to maintain adequate supplies in the coming decades depends on future weather conditions, as climate change has the potential to reduce stream flows from their current values due to potentially less precipitation and higher temperatures, and possibly rendering them unable to meet demand. The upper Coosa River basin, located in northwest Georgia, plays an important role in supplying water for industry and domestic use in northern Georgia, and has been involved in water disputes in recent times. The seven-day ten-year low flow (7Q10 flow) is the lowest average flow for seven consecutive days that has an average recurrence interval of 10 years. The 7Q10 flow is statistically derived from the observed historical flow data, and represents the low flow (drought) condition for a basin. The upper Coosa River basin also supplies cooling water for the 935MW coal-fired Hammond plant, which draws about 65% of the 7Q10 flow of the upper Coosa River to dissipate waste heat. The water is drawn through once and returned to the river directly from the generator (i.e., no cooling tower is used). Record low flows in 2007 led to use of portable cooling towers to meet temperature limits. Disruption of the Plant Hammond operation may trigger closure of area industrial facilities (e.g. paper mill). The population in Georgia is expected to double from 9 million to 18 million residents in the next 25 years, mostly in the metropolitan Atlanta area. Therefore, there will be an even greater demand for potable water and for waste assimilation. Climate change in the form of persistent droughts (causing low flows) and high ambient temperatures create regulatory compliance challenges for Plant Hammond operating with a once-through cooling system. Therefore, the Upper Coosa River basin was selected to study the effect of potential future weather change on the watershed runoff flow.

  1. Natural Recharge to the Unconfined Aquifer System on the Hanford Site from the Greater Cold Creek Watershed: Progress Report 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waichler, Scott R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2004-09-14

    Movement of contaminants in groundwater at the Hanford Site is heavily dependent on recharge to the unconfined aquifer. As the effects of past artificial discharges dissipate, the water table is expected to return to more natural conditions, and natural recharge will become the driving force when evaluating future groundwater flow conditions and related contaminant transport. Previous work on the relationship of natural recharge to groundwater movement at the Hanford Site has focused on direct recharge from infiltrating rainfall and snowmelt within the area represented by the Sitewide Groundwater Model (SGM) domain. However, part of the groundwater recharge at Hanford is provided by flow from Greater Cold Creek watershed (GCC), a large drainage area on the western boundary of the Hanford Site that includes Cold Creek Valley, Dry Creek Valley, and the Hanford side of Rattlesnake Mountain. This study was undertaken to estimate the recharge from GCC, which is believed to enter the unconfined aquifer as both infiltrating streamflow and shallow subsurface flow. To estimate recharge, the Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) was used to simulate a detailed water balance of GCC from 1956 to 2001 at a spatial resolution of 200~m and a temporal resolution of one hour. For estimating natural recharge to Hanford from watersheds along its western and southwestern boundaries, the most important aspects that need to be considered are 1)~distribution and relative magnitude of precipitation and evapotranspiration over the watershed, 2)~streamflow generation at upper elevations and infiltration at lower elevations during rare runoff events, and 3)~permeability of the basalt bedrock surface underlying the soil mantle.

  2. Annual hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Creek Watershed: Water Year 1990 (October 1989--September 1990)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borders, D.M.; Gregory, S.M.; Clapp, R.B.; Frederick, B.J.; Moore, G.K.; Watts, J.A.; Broders, C.C.; Bednarek, A.T.

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes, for the Water Year 1990 (October 1989-- September 1990), the dynamic hydrologic data collected on the Whiteoak Creek (WOC) Watershed's surface and subsurface flow systems. These systems affect the quality or quantity of surface water and groundwater. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to 1. characterize the quantity and quality of water in the flow system, 2. plan and assess remedial action activities, and 3. provide long-term availability of data and assure quality. Characterizing the hydrology of the WOC watershed provides a better understanding of the processes which drive contaminant transport in the watershed. Identifying of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. Hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. The majority of the data summarized in this report are available from the Remedial Action Programs Data and Information Management System data base. Surface water data available within the WOC flow system include discharge and runoff, surface water quality, radiological and chemical contamination of sediments, and descriptions of the outfalls to the WOC flow system. Climatological data available for the Oak Ridge area include precipitation, temperature, humidity, wind speed, and wind direction. Information on groundwater levels, aquifer characteristics, and groundwater quality are presented. Anomalies in the data and problems with monitoring and accuracy are discussed. 58 refs., 54 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. CTUIR Grande Ronde River Watershed Restoration Program McCoy Creek/McIntyre Creek Road Crossing, 1995-1999 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, Allen B.

    2000-08-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) entered into a contract agreement beginning in 1996 to fund watershed restoration and enhancement actions and contribute to recovery of fish and wildlife resources and water quality in the Grande Ronde River Basin. The CTUIR's habitat program is closely coordinated with the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Program and multiple agencies and organizations within the basin. The CTUIR has focused during the past 4 years in the upper portions of the Grande Ronde Subbasin (upstream of LaGrande, Oregon) on several major project areas in the Meadow, McCoy, and McIntyre Creek watersheds and along the mainstem Grande Ronde River. This Annual Report provides an overview of individual projects and accomplishments.

  4. Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Creek watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, January--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borders, D.M.; Ziegler, K.S.; Reece, D.K.; Watts, J.A.; Frederick, B.J.; McCalla, W.L.; Pridmore, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    This report summarizes, for the 12-month period January through December 1994, the available dynamic hydrologic data collected on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed as well as information collected on surface flow systems in the surrounding vicinity that may affect the quality or quantity of surface water in the watershed. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to characterize the quantity and quality of water in the surface flow system, assist with the planning and assessment of remedial action activities, provide long-term availability of data and quality assurance of these data, and support long-term measures of contaminant fluxes at a spatial scale to provide a comprehensive picture of watershed performance that is commensurate with future remedial actions.

  5. Surface mining and reclamation effects on flood response of watersheds in the central Appalachian Plateau region - article no. W04407

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrari, J.R.; Lookingbill, T.R.; McCormick, B.; Townsend, P.A.; Eshleman, K.N.

    2009-04-15

    Surface mining of coal and subsequent reclamation represent the dominant land use change in the central Appalachian Plateau (CAP) region of the United States. Hydrologic impacts of surface mining have been studied at the plot scale, but effects at broader scales have not been explored adequately. Broad-scale classification of reclaimed sites is difficult because standing vegetation makes them nearly indistinguishable from alternate land uses. We used a land cover data set that accurately maps surface mines for a 187-km{sup 2} watershed within the CAP. These land cover data, as well as plot-level data from within the watershed, are used with HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran) to estimate changes in flood response as a function of increased mining. Results show that the rate at which flood magnitude increases due to increased mining is linear, with greater rates observed for less frequent return intervals. These findings indicate that mine reclamation leaves the landscape in a condition more similar to urban areas rather than does simple deforestation, and call into question the effectiveness of reclamation in terms of returning mined areas to the hydrological state that existed before mining.

  6. A spatially distributed model for the assessment of land use impacts on stream temperature in small urban watersheds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Ning; Yearsley, John; Voisin, Nathalie; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2015-05-15

    Stream temperatures in urban watersheds are influenced to a high degree by anthropogenic impacts related to changes in landscape, stream channel morphology, and climate. These impacts can occur at small time and length scales, hence require analytical tools that consider the influence of the hydrologic regime, energy fluxes, topography, channel morphology, and near-stream vegetation distribution. Here we describe a modeling system that integrates the Distributed Hydrologic Soil Vegetation Model, DHSVM, with the semi-Lagrangian stream temperature model RBM, which has the capability to simulate the hydrology and water temperature of urban streams at high time and space resolutions, as well as a representation of the effects of riparian shading on stream energetics. We demonstrate the modeling system through application to the Mercer Creek watershed, a small urban catchment near Bellevue, Washington. The results suggest that the model is able both to produce realistic streamflow predictions at fine temporal and spatial scales, and to provide spatially distributed water temperature predictions that are consistent with observations throughout a complex stream network. We use the modeling construct to characterize impacts of land use change and near-stream vegetation change on stream temperature throughout the Mercer Creek system. We then explore the sensitivity of stream temperature to land use changes and modifications in vegetation along the riparian corridor.

  7. The development of an aquatic spill model for the White Oak Creek watershed, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R.O.

    1996-05-01

    This study develops an aquatic spill model applicable to the White Oak Creek watershed draining the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hazardous, toxic, and radioactive chemicals are handled and stored on the laboratory reservation. An accidental spill into the White Oak Creek watershed could contaminate downstream water supplies if insufficient dilution did not occur. White Oak Creek empties into the Clinch River, which flows into the Tennessee River. Both rivers serve as municipal water supplies. The aquatic spill model provides estimates of the dilution at sequential downstream locations along White Oak creek and the Clinch River after an accidental spill of a liquid containing a radioactively decaying constituent. The location of the spill on the laboratory is arbitrary, while hydrologic conditions range from drought to extreme flood are simulated. The aquatic spill model provides quantitative estimates with which to assess water quality downstream from the site of the accidental spill, allowing an informed decision to be made whether to perform mitigating measures so that the integrity of affected water supplies is not jeopardized.

  8. Analysis Of Leakage In Carbon Sequestration Projects In Forestry:A Case Study Of Upper Magat Watershed, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lasco, Rodel D.; Pulhin, Florencia B.; Sales, Renezita F.

    2007-06-01

    The role of forestry projects in carbon conservation andsequestration is receiving much attention because of their role in themitigation of climate change. The main objective of the study is toanalyze the potential of the Upper Magat Watershed for a carbonsequestration project. The three main development components of theproject are forest conservation, tree plantations, and agroforestry farmdevelopment. At Year 30, the watershed can attain a net carbon benefit of19.5 M tC at a cost of US$ 34.5 M. The potential leakage of the projectis estimated using historical experience in technology adoption inwatershed areas in the Philippines and a high adoption rate. Two leakagescenarios were used: baseline and project leakage scenarios. Most of theleakage occurs in the first 10 years of the project as displacement oflivelihood occurs during this time. The carbon lost via leakage isestimated to be 3.7 M tC in the historical adoption scenario, and 8.1 MtC under the enhanced adoption scenario.

  9. White Oak Creek Watershed: Melton Valley Area Remedial Investigation Report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 3 Appendix C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    This report provides details on the baseline ecological risk assessment conducted in support of the Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for the Melton Valley areas of the White Oak Creek watershed (WOCW). The RI presents an analysis meant to enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to pursue a series of remedial actions resulting in site cleanup and stabilization. The ecological risk assessment builds off of the WOCW screening ecological risk assessment. All information available for contaminated sites under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy`s Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Federal Facilities Agreement within the White Oak Creek (WOC) RI area has been used to identify areas of potential concern with respect to the presence of contamination posing a potential risk to ecological receptors within the Melton Valley area of the White Oak Creek watershed. The risk assessment report evaluates the potential risks to receptors within each subbasin of the watershed as well as at a watershed-wide scale. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminant releases from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent waste area groupings.

  10. Feasibility Study of Carbon Sequestration Through Reforestation in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed of Virginia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andy Lacatell; David Shoch; Bill Stanley; Zoe Kant

    2007-03-01

    The Chesapeake Rivers conservation area encompasses approximately 2,000 square miles of agricultural and forest lands in four Virginia watersheds that drain to the Chesapeake Bay. Consulting a time series of classified Landsat imagery for the Chesapeake Rivers conservation area, the project team developed a GIS-based protocol for identifying agricultural lands that could be reforested, specifically agricultural lands that had been without forest since 1990. Subsequent filters were applied to the initial candidate reforestation sites, including individual sites > 100 acres and sites falling within TNC priority conservation areas. The same data were also used to produce an analysis of baseline changes in forest cover within the study period. The Nature Conservancy and the Virginia Department of Forestry identified three reforestation/management models: (1) hardwood planting to establish old-growth forest, (2) loblolly pine planting to establish working forest buffer with hardwood planting to establish an old-growth core, and (3) loblolly pine planting to establish a working forest. To assess the relative carbon sequestration potential of these different strategies, an accounting of carbon and total project costs was completed for each model. Reforestation/management models produced from 151 to 171 tons carbon dioxide equivalent per acre over 100 years, with present value costs of from $2.61 to $13.28 per ton carbon dioxide equivalent. The outcome of the financial analysis was especially sensitive to the land acquisition/conservation easement cost, which represented the most significant, and also most highly variable, single cost involved. The reforestation/management models explored all require a substantial upfront investment prior to the generation of carbon benefits. Specifically, high land values represent a significant barrier to reforestation projects in the study area, and it is precisely these economic constraints that demonstrate the economic additionality of any carbon benefits produced via reforestation--these are outcomes over and above what is currently possible given existing market opportunities. This is reflected and further substantiated in the results of the forest cover change analysis, which demonstrated a decline in area of land in forest use in the study area for the 1987/88-2001 period. The project team collected data necessary to identify sites for reforestation in the study area, environmental data for the determining site suitability for a range of reforestation alternatives and has identified and addressed potential leakage and additionality issues associated with implementing a carbon sequestration project in the Chesapeake Rivers Conservation Area. Furthermore, carbon emissions reductions generated would have strong potential for recognition in existing reporting systems such as the U.S. Department of Energy 1605(b) voluntary reporting requirements and the Chicago Climate Exchange. The study identified 384,398 acres on which reforestation activities could potentially be sited. Of these candidate sites, sites totaling 26,105 acres are an appropriate size for management (> 100 acres) and located in priority conservation areas identified by The Nature Conservancy. Total carbon sequestration potential of reforestation in the study area, realized over a 100 year timeframe, ranges from 58 to 66 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent, and on the priority sites alone, potential for carbon sequestration approaches or exceeds 4 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. In the absence of concerted reforestation efforts, coupled with policy strategies, the region will likely face continued declines in forest land.

  11. Grande Ronde Model Watershed Program Administration and Habitat Projects, Annual Progress Report, Project Period: Program Administration: January 1, 1997 - December 31, 1997 Habitat Projects: January 1, 1997 - March 31, 1998.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noyes, Cecilia; Kuchenbecker, Lyle; Perry, Patty

    1998-10-28

    This agreement provided funding for operation and administration of the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Program including staffing of an Executive Director, Program Planner, and clerical personnel. The contract covers maintaining program services, project planning, subwatershed plans (CRMP's), public involvement and education, interagency coordination/clearing house, monitoring, and technical support activities that have taken place in the Grande Ronde basin. Cost-share has been received from the Bureau of Reclamation and the Governor's Watershed Enhancement Board.

  12. Remedial investigation report on the Melton Valley Watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Evaluation, interpretation, and data summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Melton Valley watershed presents a multifaceted management and decision-making challenge because of the very heterogeneous conditions that exist with respect to contaminant type, disposal unit age, mode of disposal, release mechanism, and potential risk-producing pathways. The investigation presented here has assembled relevant site data in the geographic context with the intent of enabling program managers and decision-makers to understand site conditions and evaluate the necessity, relative priority, and scope of potential remedial actions.

  13. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish, Water and Wildlife Program : Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility Master Plan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, Ronald L.; Woodward-Lilengreen, Kelly L.; Vitale, Angelo J.

    1999-09-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) receives and reviews proposals to mitigate for fish and wildlife losses and refers approved measures to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for funding. The Northwest Power Act (Act) calls on the Council to include measures in its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses. The Act further states that the Council may include in its Program measures that provide off-site mitigation--mitigation physically removed from the hydro project(s) that caused the need to mitigate. The Program includes a goal ''to recover and preserve the health of native resident fish injured by the hydropower system, where feasible, and, where appropriate, to use resident fish to mitigate for anadromous fish losses in the system.'' Among those recommended measures are off-site mitigation for losses of anadromous fisheries including the measure under analysis in this Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility Master Plan, proposed by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. To meet the need for off-site mitigation for anadromous fish losses in the Columbia River Basin in a manner consistent with the objectives of the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, the Coeur d'Alene Tribe is proposing that the BPA fund the design, construction, operations and maintenance of a trout production facility on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation. Measures for establishing a Coeur d'Alene fish production facility have been a part of the Council's Program since 1987. The Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility is intended to rear and release westslope cutthroat trout into rivers and streams with the express purpose of increasing the numbers of fish spawning, incubating and rearing in the natural environment. It will use the modern technology that hatcheries offer to overcome the mortality resulting from habitat degradation in lakes, rivers, and streams after eggs are laid in the gravel. Supplementation of native fish stocks in conjunction with effective habitat restoration will be the primary means of achieving these biological goals. Overarching goals for the program include: (1) Protection, mitigation, and enhancement of Columbia River Basin native resident fish resources. (2) Develop, increase, and/or reintroduce natural spawning populations of westslope cutthroat trout into reservation waters. (3) Provide both short and long-term harvest opportunities for the reservation community. (4) Sustain long-term fitness and genetic integrity of targeted fish populations. (5) Keep ecological and genetic impacts to non-targeted fish populations to a minimum.

  14. A Multiple Watershed Approach to Assessing the Effects of Habitat Restoration Actions on Anadromous and Resident Fish Populations, Technical Report 2003-2004.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marmorek, David

    2004-03-01

    Habitat protection and restoration is a cornerstone of current strategies to restore ecosystems, recover endangered fish species, and rebuild fish stocks within the Columbia River Basin. Strategies featuring habitat restoration include the 2000 Biological Opinion on operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS BiOp) developed by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the 2000 Biological Opinion on Bull Trout developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Sub-Basin Plans developed under the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NWPCC). There is however little quantitative information about the effectiveness of different habitat restoration techniques. Such information is crucial for helping scientists and program managers allocate limited funds towards the greatest benefits for fish populations. Therefore, it is critical to systematically test the hypotheses underlying habitat restoration actions for both anadromous and resident fish populations. This pilot project was developed through a proposal to the Innovative Projects fund of the NWPCC (ESSA 2002). It was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) following reviews by the Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP 2002), the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority (CBFWA 2002), the NWPCC and BPA. The study was designed to respond directly to the above described needs for information on the effectiveness of habitat restoration actions, including legal measures specified in the 2000 FCRPS BiOp (RPA 183, pg. 9-133, NMFS 2000). Due to the urgency of addressing these measures, the timeline of the project was accelerated from a duration of 18 months to 14 months. The purpose of this pilot project was to explore methods for evaluating past habitat restoration actions and their effects on fish populations. By doing so, the project will provide a foundation of retrospective analyses, on which to build prospective, multi-watershed designs for future habitat restoration actions. Such designs are being developed concurrently with this project by several other groups in the Columbia Basin (RME Workgroup 2003, NMFS 2003, Hillman and Paulsen 2002, Hillman 2003). By addressing questions about habitat restoration and monitoring (in coordination with other related efforts), we hope that this project will catalyze a shift in the Basin's paradigm of habitat restoration, moving from implementation of individual watershed projects towards rigorously designed and monitored, multiwatershed, adaptive management experiments. The project involved three phases of work, which were closely integrated with various related and ongoing efforts in the region: (1) Scoping - We met with a Core Group of habitat experts and managers to scope out a set of testable habitat restoration hypotheses, identify candidate watersheds and recommend participants for a data evaluation workshop. (2) Data Assembly - We contacted over 80 scientists and managers to help evaluate the suitability of each candidate watershed's historical data for assessing the effectiveness of past restoration actions. We eventually settled on the Yakima, Wenatchee, Clearwater, and Salmon subbasins, and began gathering relevant data for these watersheds at a workshop with habitat experts and managers. Data assembly continued for several months after the workshop. (3) Data Analysis and Synthesis - We explored statistical approaches towards retrospectively analyzing the effects of restoration 'treatments' at nested spatial scales across multiple watersheds (Chapters 2-5 of this report). These analyses provided a foundation for identifying existing constraints to testing restoration hypotheses, and opportunities to overcome these constraints through improved experimental designs, monitoring protocols and project selection strategies (Chapters 6 and 7 of this report). Finally, we developed a set of recommendations to improve the design, implementation, and monitoring of prospective habitat restoration programs in the Columbia River Basin (Chapter 8).

  15. The President`s Floodplan Management Action Plan: Formulating a watershed and ecosystem approach to flood hazard mitigation and resource protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McShane, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Great Midwest Flood of 1993 focused the attention of the Nation on the human and environmental costs associated with decades of efforts to control flooding, unwise land-use decisions, and the loss and degradation of the natural resources and functions of floodplains. The disaster can also be attributed to the single purpose decision-making process and fragmented planning at all levels of government, inconsistent statutory madates, and conflicting jurisdictional responsibilities. The Executive Office of the President established a Floodplain Management Review Committee to determine the major causes and consequences of the flood and to evaluate the performance of existing floodplain management and related watershed programs. The report, Sharing the Challenge: Floodplain Management into the 21st Century, included 90 recommendations to improve floodplain management and water resources planning including the need for a more comprehensive, coordinated approach to floodplain and watershed management. Preparation of the 1994 document A Unified National Program for Floodplain Management commenced prior to the Midwest Flood of 1993 and was completed, coincidentally, concurrently with the Review Committee`s report Sharing the Challenge. Both reports urge the formulation of a more comprehensive, watershed approach to managing human activities and protecting natural systems to ensure the long term viability of riparian ecosystems and the sustainable development of riverine communities. Both reports recognize that effective floodplain management will reduce the financial burdens placed upon all levels of government to compensate property owners and governments for flood losses caused by unwise land use decisions by individuals, as well as governments. This paper focuses on the fundamental changes in Federal floodplain management policies and programs that are emerging that will affect how as a Nation manage and use our floodplain resources into the 21st Century.

  16. Fourth report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loar, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    In response to a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC) and selected tributaries. BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake. The ecological characterization of the WOC watershed will provide baseline data that can be used to document the ecological effects of the water pollution control program and the remedial action program. The long-term nature of BMAP ensures that the effectiveness of remedial measures will be properly evaluated.

  17. The watershed-scale optimized and rearranged landscape design (WORLD) model and local biomass processing depots for sustainable biofuel production: Integrated life cycle assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eranki, Pragnya L.; Manowitz, David H.; Bals, Bryan D.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E.

    2013-07-23

    An array of feedstock is being evaluated as potential raw material for cellulosic biofuel production. Thorough assessments are required in regional landscape settings before these feedstocks can be cultivated and sustainable management practices can be implemented. On the processing side, a potential solution to the logistical challenges of large biorefi neries is provided by a network of distributed processing facilities called local biomass processing depots. A large-scale cellulosic ethanol industry is likely to emerge soon in the United States. We have the opportunity to influence the sustainability of this emerging industry. The watershed-scale optimized and rearranged landscape design (WORLD) model estimates land allocations for different cellulosic feedstocks at biorefinery scale without displacing current animal nutrition requirements. This model also incorporates a network of the aforementioned depots. An integrated life cycle assessment is then conducted over the unified system of optimized feedstock production, processing, and associated transport operations to evaluate net energy yields (NEYs) and environmental impacts.

  18. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish and Wildlife Program Habitat Protection Plan; Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation, 1997-2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitale, Angelo; Roberts, Frank; Peters, Ronald

    2002-06-01

    Throughout the last century, the cumulative effects of anthropogenic disturbances have caused drastic watershed level landscape changes throughout the Reservation and surrounding areas (Coeur d'Alene Tribe 1998). Changes include stream channelization, wetland draining, forest and palouse prairie conversion for agricultural use, high road density, elimination of old growth timber stands, and denuding riparian communities. The significance of these changes is manifested in the degradation of habitats supporting native flora and fauna. Consequently, populations of native fish, wildlife, and plants, which the Tribe relies on as subsistence resources, have declined or in some instances been extirpated (Apperson et al. 1988; Coeur d'Alene Tribe 1998; Lillengreen et al. 1996; Lillengreen et al. 1993; Gerry Green Coeur d'Alene Tribe wildlife Biologist, personal communication 2002). For example, bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) are not present at detectable levels in Reservation tributaries, westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) are not present in numbers commensurate with maintaining harvestable fisheries (Lillengreen et al. 1993, 1996), and the Sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus) are not present at detectable levels on the Reservation (Gerry Green, Coeur d'Alene Tribe wildlife biologist, personal communication). The Coeur d'Alene Tribe added Fisheries and Wildlife Programs to their Natural Resources Department to address these losses and protect important cultural, and subsistence resources for future generations. The Tribal Council adopted by Resolution 89(94), the following mission statement for the Fisheries Program: 'restore, protect, expand and re-establish fish populations to sustainable levels to provide harvest opportunities'. This mission statement, focused on fisheries restoration and rehabilitation, is a response to native fish population declines throughout the Tribe's aboriginal territory, including the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation (Coeur d'Alene Tribe 1998). Implicit in this statement is a commitment to provide native subsistence resources in the present and near future as well as the long-term by employing all the mitigation and conservation measures available to them. The development of this Habitat Protection Plan is intended to provide additional planning level guidance as the implementation of conservation measures moves forward. The purpose of this plan is to develop a systematic approach to habitat restoration that will ultimately lead to self-perpetuating, harvestable populations of native fish, wildlife and botanical species. Specifically, it is our intention to apply the principles and analyses presented in this plan to prioritize future restoration efforts that receive funding under the Northwest Power Planning Council's Resident Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Programs. Using an ecosystem restoration approach based on landscape ecology concepts (Primack 1993), the basic premise of the plan is to (1) protect functioning habitat conditions and (2) restore degraded habitat conditions. This plan focuses on habitat conditions at the watershed scale (macrohabitat) rather than on the needs of single species and/or species guilds. By focusing restoration efforts at a macrohabitat level, restoration efforts target all native species inhabiting that area. This approach marks a paradigm shift that emphasizes ecological based restoration rather than species-specific restoration. Traditionally, fish managers and wildlife managers have approached restoration independently, often dedicating resources to a single species by focusing on specific habitat types on a small spatial scale (microhabitat) (Robinson and Bolen 1989, Marcot et al. 2002). This management technique has done little to curb declines despite large budgets (Pianka 1994). Restoration on a landscape level has shown promising results (Holling 1992) and many riparian and wetland restoration projects throughout the northwest have inadvertently improved habitats for non-targeted species. Landscape level restoration addresses the overall habitat condition of the regional area (macrohabitat), restoring the native species composition, density, and diversity by restoring the native ecosystem function. In the context of the development and implementation of this Habitat Protection Plan, it is important to understand that this is primarily a conservation tool, and is not intended to displace efforts that mitigate for lost resources. This plan is intended to primarily address long-term conservation needs and may not accommodate immediate short-term needs that address lost resources. Therefore, areas selected to address short-term mitigation needs may not be located in the high priority areas identified in this Plan. It needs to be clear that these projects and areas are no less important than those identified in this Plan.

  19. Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in Big Canyon Creek Watershed; Anadromous Fish Habitat Restoration in the Nichols Canyon Subwatershed, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koziol, Deb

    2002-02-01

    Big Canyon Creek historically provided quality spawning and rearing habitat for A-run wild summer steelhead in the Clearwater River subbasin (Fuller, 1986). However, high stream temperatures, excessive sediment and nutrient loads, low summer stream flows, and little instream cover caused anadromous fish habitat constraints in the creek. The primary sources of these nonpoint source pollution and habitat degradations are attributed to agricultural, livestock, and forestry practices (NPSWCD, 1995). Addressing these problems is made more complex due to the large percentage of privately owned lands in the watershed. Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (NPSWCD) seeks to assist private, tribal, county, and state landowners in implementing Best Management Practices (BMPs) to reduce nonpoint source pollutants, repair poorly functioning riparian zones, and increase water retention in the Nichols Canyon subwatershed. The project funds coordination, planning, technical assistance, BMP design and installation, monitoring, and educational outreach to identify and correct problems associated with agricultural and livestock activities impacting water quality and salmonid survival. The project accelerates implementation of the Idaho agricultural water quality management program within the subwatershed.

  20. Watershed scale fungal community characterization along a pH gradient in a subsurface environment co-contaminated with uranium and nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasrotia, Puja; Green, Stefan; Canion, Andy; Overholt, Will; Prakash, Om; Wafula, Dennis; Hubbard, Daniela; Watson, David B; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Brooks, Scott C; Kostka,

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize fungal communities in a subsurface environment co-contaminated with uranium and nitrate at the watershed scale, and to determine the potential contribution of fungi to contaminant transformation (nitrate attenuation). The abundance, distribution and diversity of fungi in subsurface groundwater samples were determined using quantitative and semi-quantitative molecular techniques, including quantitative PCR of eukaryotic SSU rRNA genes and pyrosequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Potential bacterial and fungal denitrification was assessed in sediment-groundwater slurries amended with antimicrobial compounds and in fungal pure cultures isolated from subsurface. Our results demonstrate that subsurface fungal communities are dominated by members of the phylum Ascomycota, and a pronounced shift in fungal community composition occurs across the groundwater pH gradient at the field site, with lower diversity observed under acidic (pH < 4.5) conditions. Fungal isolates recovered from subsurface sediments were shown to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide, including cultures of the genus Coniochaeta that were detected in abundance in pyrosequence libraries of site groundwater samples. Denitrifying fungal isolates recovered from the site were classified, and found to be distributed broadly within the phylum Ascomycota, and within a single genus within the Basidiomycota. Potential denitrification rate assays with sediment-groundwater slurries showed the potential for subsurface fungi to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide under in situ acidic pH conditions.

  1. Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Creek watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (January--December 1993)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borders, D.M.; Frederick, B.J.; Reece, D.K.; McCalla, W.L.; Watts, J.A.; Ziegler, K.S.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarizes, for the 12-month period (January through December 1993), the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily, on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed along with information collected on the surface flow systems which affect the quality or quantity of surface water. Identification of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. In addition, hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping (WAG) boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. For these reasons, it is of paramount importance to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) to collect and report hydrologic data, an activity that contributes to the Site Investigations (SI) component of the ERP. This report provides and describes sources of hydrologic data for Environmental Restoration activities that use monitoring data to quantify and assess the impact from releases of contaminants from ORNL WAGs.

  2. White Oak Creek Watershed: Melton Valley Area Remedial Investigation Report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 1 Main Text

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this Remedial Investigation (RI) report is to present an analysis of the Melton Valley portion of the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, which will enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to pursue a series of cost-effective remedial actions resulting in site cleanup and stabilization. In this RI existing levels of contamination and radiological exposure are compared to levels acceptable for future industrial and potential recreational use levels at the site. This comparison provides a perspective for the magnitude of remedial actions required to achieve a site condition compatible with relaxed access restrictions over existing conditions. Ecological risk will be assessed to evaluate measures required for ecological receptor protection. For each subbasin, this report will provide site-specific analyses of the physical setting including identification of contaminant source areas, description of contaminant transport pathways, identification of release mechanisms, analysis of contaminant source interactions with groundwater, identification of secondary contaminated media associated with the source and seepage pathways, assessment of potential human health and ecological risks from exposure to contaminants, ranking of each source area within the subwatershed, and outline the conditions that remedial technologies must address to stop present and future contaminant releases, prevent the spread of contamination and achieve the goal of limiting environmental contamination to be consistent with a potential recreational use of the site.

  3. Mapping intra-field yield variation using high resolution satellite imagery to integrate bioenergy and environmental stewardship in an agricultural watershed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamada, Yuki; Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, Maria Cristina

    2015-07-31

    Biofuels are important alternatives for meeting our future energy needs. Successful bioenergy crop production requires maintaining environmental sustainability and minimum impacts on current net annual food, feed, and fiber production. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine under-productive areas within an agricultural field in a watershed using a single date; high resolution remote sensing and (2) examine impacts of growing bioenergy crops in the under-productive areas using hydrologic modeling in order to facilitate sustainable landscape design. Normalized difference indices (NDIs) were computed based on the ratio of all possible two-band combinations using the RapidEye and the National Agricultural Imagery Program images collected in summer 2011. A multiple regression analysis was performed using 10 NDIs and five RapidEye spectral bands. The regression analysis suggested that the red and near infrared bands and NDI using red-edge and near infrared that is known as the red-edge normalized difference vegetation index (RENDVI) had the highest correlation (R2 = 0.524) with the reference yield. Although predictive yield map showed striking similarity to the reference yield map, the model had modest correlation; thus, further research is needed to improve predictive capability for absolute yields. Forecasted impact using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool model of growing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) on under-productive areas based on corn yield thresholds of 3.1, 4.7, and 6.3 Mg·ha-1 showed reduction of tile NO3-N and sediment exports by 15.9%–25.9% and 25%–39%, respectively. Corresponding reductions in water yields ranged from 0.9% to 2.5%. While further research is warranted, the study demonstrated the integration of remote sensing and hydrologic modeling to quantify the multifunctional value of projected future landscape patterns in a context of sustainable bioenergy crop production.

  4. Mapping intra-field yield variation using high resolution satellite imagery to integrate bioenergy and environmental stewardship in an agricultural watershed

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hamada, Yuki; Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, Maria Cristina

    2015-07-31

    Biofuels are important alternatives for meeting our future energy needs. Successful bioenergy crop production requires maintaining environmental sustainability and minimum impacts on current net annual food, feed, and fiber production. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine under-productive areas within an agricultural field in a watershed using a single date; high resolution remote sensing and (2) examine impacts of growing bioenergy crops in the under-productive areas using hydrologic modeling in order to facilitate sustainable landscape design. Normalized difference indices (NDIs) were computed based on the ratio of all possible two-band combinations using the RapidEye and the National Agriculturalmore » Imagery Program images collected in summer 2011. A multiple regression analysis was performed using 10 NDIs and five RapidEye spectral bands. The regression analysis suggested that the red and near infrared bands and NDI using red-edge and near infrared that is known as the red-edge normalized difference vegetation index (RENDVI) had the highest correlation (R2 = 0.524) with the reference yield. Although predictive yield map showed striking similarity to the reference yield map, the model had modest correlation; thus, further research is needed to improve predictive capability for absolute yields. Forecasted impact using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool model of growing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) on under-productive areas based on corn yield thresholds of 3.1, 4.7, and 6.3 Mg·ha-1 showed reduction of tile NO3-N and sediment exports by 15.9%–25.9% and 25%–39%, respectively. Corresponding reductions in water yields ranged from 0.9% to 2.5%. While further research is warranted, the study demonstrated the integration of remote sensing and hydrologic modeling to quantify the multifunctional value of projected future landscape patterns in a context of sustainable bioenergy crop production.« less

  5. Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation Creston National Fish Hatchery, FY 2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooley, Sharon

    2009-03-20

    A total of 350,000, M012 strain, westslope cutthroat trout (WCT) eggs were received from Montana Fish Wildlife & Parks (MFWP), Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in June of 2005 to accomplish this fishery management objective. These eggs were incubated, hatched and reared entirely inside the hatchery nursery building using a protected well water supply. Fish grew according to schedule and survival was excellent. The hatchery achieved a 0.78 feed fed to pounds gained conversion ratio for this group of WCT. Not all of the progenies from this fish lot were used for Hungry Horse Dam Fishery Mitigation Implementation. Some were used for other regional fishery management projects. Westslope cutthroat trout were reared using approved fish culture techniques as recommended in the USFWS Fish Hatchery Management Handbook and also utilizing a regimen adapted for hatchery specific site conditions. The fish health for these WCT was very good. Survival from first feeding fry stage to stocking was 79%. The hatchery had an annual fish health inspection performed by the USFWS Bozeman Fish Health Center in mid March of 2006. This inspection found all fish lots at Creston to be disease free. The Montana State Fish Health Board has placed the hatchery under a limited quarantine since May of 2005 due to an epizootic of Furunculosis. This classification has allowed the Creston NFH to stock disease free fish in locations approved by regional fish managers. The hatchery has been working with the State Fish Pathologist to remove the limited quarantine classification from the facility. Although fish health for all station fish lots remains disease free, MFWP has asserted it will not remove the limited quarantine until the new influent water treatment system, including the ultraviolet disinfection unit, is running full time, year round. The USFWS is working to secure the additional funding necessary to operate the treatment building year round. Distribution of the WCT took place from March through June. The stocking locations on the Flathead Reservation and State managed waters were identified by Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT) and MFWP fishery biologists. Post release survival and angler success is monitored routinely by CSKT and MFWP fishery technicians. Stocking numbers and locations vary annually based on the results of biological monitoring, creel evaluations and adaptive management decisions. A total of 99,126 WCT were stocked during nine distribution trips in management approved waters (see Table 1). The average size of WCT at stocking was 3.91-inches. A total of 101,600, Arlee strain, rainbow trout (RBT) eggs were received from the Ennis National Fish Hatchery, Ennis, Montana, in December of 2005 and 35,000 Kamloops strain eggs were received from Murray Springs SFH, Eureka, Montana, in March of 2006 to accomplish this fishery management objective. The RBT were reared using approved fish culture techniques as recommended in the USFWS Fish Hatchery Management Handbook. There was no fish health related problems associated with this lot of fish. Survival from swim up fry stage to stocking was 93% for the Arlee's and 79% for the Kamloops. The hatchery achieved a 0.68 feed fed to pounds gained conversion ratio for the Arlee and 0.97 for the Kamloops RBT. The excellent feed conversion ratio can be attributed to refined feeding techniques and the use of an extruded high performance fry feed made with premium fish meal and marine fish oil. The Arlee strain of rainbow trout is requested for this fishery mitigation objective because the chosen stocking locations are terminal basin reservoirs or lakes, habitat conditions prevent natural spawning runs and returns to the creel are more favorable then for native westslope cutthroat trout. MFWP also requested a fall plant of Kamloops strain RBT and they will be evaluated for performance and future fall stockings in Echo Lake. Post release survival and angler success is monitored routinely by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT) and Montana Fish Wildlife & Parks (MFWP) fishery technicians. Stocking numbers and locations vary annually based on the results of biological monitoring, creel evaluations and habitat conditions. The RBT were stocked in six distribution trips from June through September. The number of fish stocked and the receiving waters are identified below (see Table 2).

  6. Melton Valley Watershed | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Events » Meetings and Workshops Meetings and Workshops The U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) staff regularly participate in industry meetings and events. Additionally, the Office participates in the biennial Peer Review process, an evaluation mandated by EERE. The Peer Review process entails a formal, documented evaluation from independent reviewers using objective criteria. The corresponding meetings are used to produce a formal report that assists the Office in

  7. Watershed Academy Webcast on Climate Resilience

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "Climate Resilience: What to Expect, How to Prepare, and  What you can Learn from Others." This webcast will share findings from the most recent National Climate Assessment report concerning...

  8. Bear Creek Valley Watershed | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Technology | Department of Energy Beacon Power - Challenges and Opportunities for an Innovative and Crucial Technology Beacon Power - Challenges and Opportunities for an Innovative and Crucial Technology October 31, 2011 - 10:46am Addthis Dan Leistikow Dan Leistikow Former Director, Office of Public Affairs Blackouts, brownouts and other power disruptions cost Americans an estimated $150 billion a year. Unless we move quickly to modernize our electricity infrastructure, these problems are

  9. Watershed Scale Evaluation of the Sustainability and Productivity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    23, 2015 Sustainability and Strategic Analysis George Chescheir N. C. State University ... plantation forests in the southeast Quad Chart Overview Timeline * Start date - Sept. 30, ...

  10. Shallow infiltration processes in arid watersheds at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L. Hevesi, J.A. [Geological Survey, Mercury, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A conceptual model of shallow infiltration processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was developed for use in hydrologic flow models to characterize net infiltration (the penetration of the wetting front below the zone influenced by evapotranspiration). The model categorizes the surface of the site into four infiltration zones. These zones were identified as ridgetops, sideslopes, terraces, and active channels on the basis of water-content changes with depth and time. The maximum depth of measured water-content change at a specific site is a function of surface storage capacity, the timing and magnitude of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and the degree of saturation of surficial materials overlying fractured bedrock. Measured water-content profiles for the four zones indicated that the potential for net infiltration is higher when evapotranspiration is low (i.e winter, cloudy periods), where surface concentration of water is likely to occur (i.e. depressions, channels), where surface storage capacity is low, and where fractured bedrock is close to the surface.

  11. Urban lake sediment chemistry: Lake design, runoff, and watershed impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amalfi, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    Sediments of twenty-two urban lakes and stormwater discharge into five of the impoundments were analyzed for the presence of selected metallic priority pollutants, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and volatile and extractable organic compounds. The concentration (mg/kg dry weight) ranges of metals in lake sediments were: arsenic 7-29, cadmium < 0.5-0.5, chromium 14-55, lead <1-138, selenium <0.01-1.1, silver 0.2-2.1, copper 25-2760, nickel 5-40, and zinc 33.9-239. Concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from 30 to 4400 mg/kg (wet weight). Organic priority pollutants detected in the urban lake impoundments included tetrachlorethylene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, trichlorofluoromethane, phthalate esters, chloroform, and dichlorobromomethane. Stormwater runoff contained measurable quantities of arsenic, chromium, lead, selenium, copper, nickel, zinc, and petroleum hydrocarbons; whereas organic priority pollutants were not detected. Stormwater runoff pollutant loads indicated that runoff provides a significant contribution of metals and petroleum hydrocarbons to lake sediments.

  12. Establishment of the Northeast Coastal Watershed Geospatial Data Network (NECWGDN)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hannigan, Robyn

    2014-02-17

    The goals of NECWGDN were to establish integrated geospatial databases that interfaced with existing open-source (water.html) environmental data server technologies (e.g., HydroDesktop) and included ecological and human data to enable evaluation, prediction, and adaptation in coastal environments to climate- and human-induced threats to the coastal marine resources within the Gulf of Maine. We have completed the development and testing of a "test bed" architecture that is compatible with HydroDesktop and have identified key metadata structures that will enable seamless integration and delivery of environmental, ecological, and human data as well as models to predict threats to end-users. Uniquely this database integrates point as well as model data and so offers capacities to end-users that are unique among databases. Future efforts will focus on the development of integrated environmental-human dimension models that can serve, in near real time, visualizations of threats to coastal resources and habitats.

  13. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A.

    2004-08-01

    Despite the substantial declines in distribution and abundance that the Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri has experienced over the past century, quantitative evaluations of existing population sizes over broad portions of its historical range have not been made. In this study, we estimate trout abundance throughout the Upper Snake River basin in Idaho (and portions of adjacent states), based on stratified sample extrapolations of electrofishing surveys conducted at 961 study sites, the vast majority of which (84%) were selected randomly. Yellowstone cutthroat trout were the most widely distributed species of trout (caught at 457 study sites), followed by brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis (242 sites), rainbow trout O. mykiss and rainbow x cutthroat hybrids (136 sites), and brown trout Salmo trutta (70 sites). Of the sites that contained cutthroat trout, more than half did not contain any other species of trout. Where nonnative trout were sympatric with cutthroat trout, brook trout were most commonly present. In the 11 Geographic Management Units (GMUs) where sample size permitted abundance estimates, there were about 2.2 million trout {ge}100 mm, and of these, about one-half were cutthroat trout. Similarly, we estimated that about 2.0 million trout <100 mm were present, of which about 1.2 million were cutthroat trout. The latter estimate is biased low because our inability to estimate abundance of trout <100 mm in larger-order rivers negated our ability to account for them at all. Cutthroat trout were divided into approximately 70 subpopulations but estimates could be made for only 55 subpopulations; of these, 44 subpopulations contained more than 1,000 cutthroat trout and 28 contained more than 2,500 cutthroat trout. Using a logistic regression model to predict the number of spawning cutthroat trout at a given study site, we estimate that an average of about 30% of the cutthroat trout {ge}100 mm are spawners. We compared visually-based phenotypic assessments of hybridization with subsequent genetic analyses from 55 of the study sites and found that: (1) genetic analysis corroborated our visual determination that hybridization was absent at 37 of 55 sites; (2) at the seven sites where we visually failed to discern genetically-detected hybridization, the percent of rainbow trout alleles in the population was low (<1 %) at all but two locations; and (3) where we detected hybridization both visually and genetically (11 sites), levels of introgression were positively correlated between methods (r{sub 2} = 0.65). Based on this strong agreement, we phenotypically classified cutthroat trout as ''pure'' and ''{ge}90% pure'' at 81% and 90%, respectively, of the study sites within these GMUs. Our results suggest that, despite the presence of nonnative threats (genetic and competitive) in much of their current range in Idaho, Yellowstone cutthroat trout populations remain widely distributed and appear healthy in several river drainages in the Upper Snake River basin. Nevertheless, ongoing efforts to secure core cutthroat trout populations, protect areas from further nonnative invasions, and restore disturbed habitat are recommended for further protection of Yellowstone cutthroat trout in Idaho.

  14. EIS-0265-SA-165: Supplement Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Watershed Management Program - Idaho Model Watershed Habitat Projects – Welp Riparian Enhancement Fence

  15. Yukon River Inter-Tribal Watershed Council - 2011 Project | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report describes the results of scientific and engineering studies of the Yucca Mountain site, the waste forms to be disposed, the repository and waste package designs, and the results of the most recent assessments of the long-term performance of the potential repository. The scientific investigations include site characterization studies of the geologic,

  16. Watershed response and land energy feedbacks under climate change depend upon groundwater.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, R M; Kollet, S J

    2008-06-10

    Human induced climate change will have a significant impact on the hydrologic cycle, creating changes in fresh water resources, land cover, and feedbacks that are difficult to characterize, which makes it an issue of global importance. Previous studies have not included subsurface storage in climate change simulations and feedbacks. A variably-saturated groundwater flow model with integrated overland flow and land surface model processes is used to examine the interplay between coupled water and energy processes under climate change conditions. A case study from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) USA, an important agricultural region that is susceptible to drought, is used as the basis for three scenarios simulations using a modified atmospheric forcing dataset to reflect predicted effects due to human-induced climate change. These scenarios include an increase in the atmospheric temperature and variations in rainfall amount and are compared to the present-day climate case. Changes in shallow soil saturation and groundwater levels are quantified as well as the corresponding energy fluxes at the land surface. Here we show that groundwater and subsurface lateral flow processes are critical in understanding hydrologic response and energy feedbacks to climate change and that certain regions are more susceptible to changes in temperature, while others to changes in precipitation. This groundwater control is critical for understanding recharge and drought processes, possible under future climate conditions.

  17. STRUCTURE IN THE 3D GALAXY DISTRIBUTION. II. VOIDS AND WATERSHEDS OF LOCAL MAXIMA AND MINIMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Way, M. J.; Gazis, P. R.; Scargle, Jeffrey D. E-mail: PGazis@sbcglobal.net

    2015-01-20

    The major uncertainties in studies of the multi-scale structure of the universe arise not from observational errors but from the variety of legitimate definitions and detection methods for individual structures. To facilitate the study of these methodological dependencies, we have carried out 12 different analyses defining structures in various ways. This has been done in a purely geometrical way by utilizing the HOP algorithm as a unique parameter-free method of assigning groups of galaxies to local density maxima or minima. From three density estimation techniques (smoothing kernels, Bayesian blocks, and self-organizing maps) applied to three data sets (the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, the Millennium simulation, and randomly distributed points) we tabulate information that can be used to construct catalogs of structures connected to local density maxima and minima. We also introduce a void finder that utilizes a method to assemble Delaunay tetrahedra into connected structures and characterizes regions empty of galaxies in the source catalog.

  18. Inorganic Carbon Isotopes and Chemical Characterization of Watershed Drainages, Barrow, Alaska, 2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Heikoop, Jeffrey H.; Wilson, Cathy J.; Newman, Brent D.; Throckmorton, Heather M.

    2015-09-25

    Data include results from geochemical and isotopic analyses for samples collected in Barrow, Alaska during July and September 2013. Samples were soil pore waters from 17 drainages that could be interlake (basins with polygonal terrain), different-aged drain thaw lake basins (young, medium, old, or ancient), or a combination of different aged basins. Samples taken in different drainage flow types at three different depths at each location in and around the Barrow Environmental Observatory. This dataset used in Throckmorton, et.al. 2015.

  19. The transport of contaminants during storms in the White Oak Creek and Melton Branch Watersheds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, D.K.; Marsh, J.D.; Wickliff, D.S.; Larsen, I.L.; Clapp, R.B.

    1989-03-01

    This report documents are transport of contaminants from SWSA 5 along two principle pathways: the saturated groundwater system and the intermittently saturated stormflow system. The results of a baseflow sampling effort and a dye tracer study, indicated that much of the transport through the saturated groundwater system occurs along discrete geologic features. These features appear to be related to the contact between the Maryville and Nolichucky members of the Conasauga shale. Three discrete sources of tritium to Melton Branch Stream (MBS) were identified and traced to SWSA 5 by measuring soil moisture and evapotranspiration along transects between MBS and SWSA 5.

  20. Inorganic Carbon Isotopes and Chemical Characterization of Watershed Drainages, Barrow, Alaska, 2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilson, Cathy J.; Newman, Brent D.; Heikoop, Jeffrey H.; Throckmorton, Heather M.

    2015-09-25

    Data include results from geochemical and isotopic analyses for samples collected in Barrow, Alaska during July and September 2013. Samples were soil pore waters from 17 drainages that could be interlake (basins with polygonal terrain), different-aged drain thaw lake basins (young, medium, old, or ancient), or a combination of the two. Samples taken in different drainage flow types at three different depths at each location in and around the Barrow Environmental Observatory. This dataset used in Throckmorton, et.al. 2015.

  1. EIS-0500: Crystal Springs Hatchery Program; Bingham, Custer, and Lemhi Counties, Idaho

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE’s Bonneville Power Administration is preparing an EIS that will assess potential environmental impacts of funding a proposal of the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes of the Fort Hall Reservation of Idaho to construct and operate a hatchery for spring/summer Chinook salmon in the Salmon River subbasin and Yellowstone cutthroat trout in the Upper Snake River subbasin on Fort Hall Reservation.

  2. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Application of a watershed computer model to assess reclaimed landform stability in support of reclamation liability release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, M.R.; Zevenbergen, L.W.; Cochran, J.

    1995-09-01

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) instituted specific requirements for surface coal mine reclamation that included reclamation bonding and tied release of liability to achieving acceptable reclamation standards. Generally, such reclamation standards include successfully revegetating the site, achieving the approved postmine land use and minimizing disturbances to the prevailing hydrologic balance. For western surface coal mines the period of liability continues for a minimum of 10 years commencing with the last year of augmented seeding, fertilizing, irrigation or other work. This paper describes the methods and procedures conducted to evaluate the runoff and sediment yield response from approximately 2,700 acres of reclaimed lands at Peabody Western Coal Company`s (PWCC) Black Mesa Mine located near Kayenta, Arizona. These analyses were conducted in support of an application for liability release submitted to the Office of Surface Mining (OSM) for reclaimed interim land parcels within the 2,700 acres evaluated.

  4. Potential Release Sites

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    head of Los AlamosPueblo watershed, and then continued on to the Mortandad and WaterCanon de Valle watersheds. Work will progress to the remaining watersheds until sites in all...

  5. EIS-0265-SA-92: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supplement Analysis Watershed Management Program BPA proposes to fund a no-tilldirect seed farming program to reduce erosion into the Asotin Creek Watershed. Objectives...

  6. EIS-0265-SA-164: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4: Supplement Analysis EIS-0265-SA-164: Supplement Analysis Watershed Management Program - Idaho Model Watershed Habitat Projects - L-9 Irrigation Diversion Modification The...

  7. EIS-0265: Record of Decision | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    strategies, and procedural requirements) that apply to future BPA-funded watershed management projects. PDF icon Watershed Management Program Record of Decision, DOE...

  8. Persistence of Hydrologic Variables and Reactive Stream Solute...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Watershed Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Persistence of Hydrologic Variables and Reactive Stream Solute Concentrations in an East Tennessee Watershed Time and ...

  9. Final Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Task Force Strategic Plan...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    watershed to reduce the flow of excess nutrients into the Gulf by supporting state nutrient reduction frameworks, new nutrient reduction approaches, and targeted watershed work ...

  10. EIS-0265-SA-57: Supplement Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Watershed Management Program - Idaho Fish Screening Improvement (Champion, Iron, Fourth of July, Goat Creeks)

  11. Third report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.

    1994-03-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. The BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs at ORNL. These are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL). The investigation of contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system was originally a task of the BMAP but, in 1988, was incorporated into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation for the Clinch River, a separate study to assess offsite contamination from all three Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge.

  12. Second report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Cox, D.K.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Loar, J.M.; Olsen, C.R.; Ryon, M.G.; Shugart, L.R.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Talmage, S.S.; Murphy, J.B.; Valentine, C.K.; Appellanis, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Huq, M.V.; Meyers-Schone, L.J.; Mohrbacher, D.A.; Olsen, C.R.; Stout, J.G.

    1992-12-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the second of a series of annual reports, described the results of BMAP studies conducted in 1987.

  13. EIS-0265-SA-72: Supplement Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Watershed Management Program - Yakima Basin Side Channels Project, Scatter Creek/Plum Creek Land Acquisition Phase II

  14. Waters LANL Protects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Waters LANL Protects Waters LANL Protects LANL watersheds source in the Jemez Mountains and end at the Rio Grande.

  15. Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Management and Prevention Division Montpelier, Vermont United States Vermont Watershed Management Division United States Montpelier, Vermont Vermont Wetland Program Montpelier,...

  16. EIS-0265-SA-70: Supplement Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Watershed Management Program - Yakima Basin Side Channels Project, Scatter Creek/Plum Creek Land Acquisition Phase I

  17. EIS-0265-SA-67: Supplement Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Watershed Management Program - Install Fish Screens to Protect ESA Listed Steelhead and Bull Trout in the Walla Walla Basin

  18. Environmental Stewardship Fact Sheets | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Services » Program Management » Environmental Stewardship » Environmental Stewardship Fact Sheets Environmental Stewardship Fact Sheets Fact Sheets Bear Creek Valley Watershed Bethel Valley Watershed East Tennessee Technology Park Zones 1 and 2 Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Lower Watts Bar Reservoir Clinch River/Poplar Creek Melton Valley Watershed ORAU South Campus Facility Union Valley Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Site Cleanup Waste Management Program Management Budget & Performance

  19. CHARACTERIZING SUBDAILY FLOW REGIMES: IMPLICATIONS OF HYDROLOGIC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... with watershed characteris- tics such as drainage area, slope and land use. ... Daily flow statis- tics of natural streams showed considerably more variation than those ...

  20. EIS-0265-SA-83: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3: Supplement Analysis EIS-0265-SA-83: Supplement Analysis Watershed Management Program Proposed Action: Bear Creek Irrigation Siphon Project (0265-SA-83) (June 2002) PDF icon...

  1. EIS-0265-SA-102: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Tributary Access and Habitat Program - Ellensburg Water Company Cooke Creek Diversion Project (January 2003) Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program Environmental...

  2. Groundwater Periodic Monitoring Reports | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Groundwater Periodic Monitoring Reports Groundwater Periodic Monitoring Reports Topic: David Rhodes DOE, Provided Information on the Watersheds at LANL and the Monitoring Schedule ...

  3. Energy Efficiency for the Nunamiut People

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency for the Nunamiut People Yukon River Inter Tribal Watershed Council ... Objectives The goal of this project is to upgrade existing building facilities owned by ...

  4. Pathways Toward Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathways Toward Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production in the Mississippi River Watershed March 24, 2015 Analysis and Sustainability Review Jason Hill University of Minnesota ...

  5. What waters does LANL protect?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    does LANL protect? Google Earth Tour: Waters around LANL Jemez Mountains Headwaters Watersheds The Rio Grande Buckman Direct Diversion Project Groundwater in the Regional Aquifer...

  6. June_2013_Public_Meeting_Metals_Bkg

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... (NMED). In 2012, a report describing the distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in precipitation and storm water within the upper Rio Grande watershed was published. ...

  7. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    REFUGE AUGUSTA STUTTGART HELENA WHITE RIVER NATIONAL0 WILDLIFE REFUGE GREERS FERRY RESERVOIR N Little Rock District, Southwestern Division * Watershed Comprises -...

  8. Microsoft PowerPoint - SWL HPConf2009 (final).ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    REFUGE AUGUSTA STUTTGART HELENA WHITE RIVER NATIONAL0 WILDLIFE REFUGE GREERS FERRY RESERVOIR N Little Rock District, Southwestern Division *Watershed Comprises -...

  9. EIS-0265-SA-100: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0: Supplement Analysis EIS-0265-SA-100: Supplement Analysis Oregon Fish Screening Project, Screen Replacements PDF icon Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program...

  10. EIS-0265-SA-166: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Watershed Management Program The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to fund a fish passage improvement project on Coleman Creek in Kittitas County, Washington with the...

  11. EIS-0397: EPA Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EPA Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement Lyle Falls Fish Passage Project To Improve Fish Passage to Habitat in the Upper Part of the Watershed,...

  12. EIS-0265-SA-91: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis EIS-0265-SA-91: Supplement Analysis Watershed Management Program - Hood River Fish Habitat (Evans Creek Culvert Replacement) Bonneville Power Administration and the...

  13. EIS-0265-SA-163: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program, which includes projects to improve watershed conditions, resulting in improved fish and wildlife habitat. PDF icon DOEEIS-0265-SA-163: Supplement Analysis for the...

  14. Genomics Division Home

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to the most primitive soil microbe represent a watershed opportunity for biology. The Genomics Division is taking advantage of this wealth of new information. While it is well...

  15. RAPID/Roadmap/14-MT-a | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    through the voluntary implementation of best management practices identified in science-based, community-supported watershed plans. 14MTANonpointSourcePollution (1).pdf...

  16. Assessing Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation: The Case of Pantabangan-Carranglan Watershed Jump to: navigation, search Name Assessing Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability...

  17. SOUTHWESTERN

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TULSA, OK - Significantly lower inflow than normal into the Lake Texoma (Denison Dam) watershed has caused Southwestern Power Administration, a not-for-profit administration ...

  18. ORNUTM-13249 DRAFT AN ECOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF A VANADIUM

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... greater proportions of natural communities of willows, ... Verdure Creek and Montezuma Creek watersheds was land use. ... samples were counted on a gas proportional counter for 4 h. ...

  19. Microsoft Word - fy09_annualtarget_climatemodeling1_Q1 _2_.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... This includes multiple domains in Africa, Europe, Asia, North America, Central and South America, Australia and New Zealand, Polar regions, and small islands. Large watersheds will ...

  20. Proposed Southline Transmission Line Project - Volume 4 of 4...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    These resources include recreation, rangelands, timber, minerals, watershed, fish and wildlife habitat, wilderness, air, and scenic quality, as well as scientific and...

  1. Promoting Sustainability on a Global Scale

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... basket Access to land, water and other natural ... while maintaining ecosystem services (soil and watershed ... Research Components Life cycle energy and GHG assessment ...

  2. EIS-0265-SA-90: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis EIS-0265-SA-90: Supplement Analysis Watershed Management Program Naches River Water Treatment Plant Intake Screening Project (September 2002) PDF icon Supplement...

  3. Jefferson Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program for 5th, 6th...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    science. Topics will include matter, atomic structure, energy transfer, force and motion, magnetism and electricity, waves and sound, simple machines, optics and the watershed...

  4. Jefferson Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program for 5th, 6th...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    science. Topics will include matter, atomic structure, energy transfer, force and motion, magnetism and electricity, waves and sound, simple machines, watershed cycle and optics....

  5. Idaho Section 319 Grant Application | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to library Form: Idaho Section 319 Grant Application Abstract This page provides access to an online form Section 319 Project Application for grants for watershed and aquifer...

  6. A Year of Radiation Measurements at the North Slope of Alaska...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    For CCPP, the second quarter metrics are reported in Evaluation of Simulated Precipitation in CCSM3: Annual Cycle Performance Metrics at Watershed Scales. For ARM, the metrics will ...

  7. Vermont Agency of Natural Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Environmental Conservation Montpelier, Vermont United States Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife Montpelier, Vermont United States Vermont Watershed Management Division...

  8. EIS-0265-SA-99: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    partnership among the CTUIR, Grand Rhonda Model Watershed Program, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Natural Resource Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture,...

  9. BPA-2010-00225-C Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and monitoring and documentation regarding stream conditions, range conditions, or fish activities within the Pahsimeroi River watershed since July 21, 2008, the U.S....

  10. Vermont Notice of Intent to Discharge Stormwater Pursuant to...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    fees and all other application information required, to the Vermont Watershed Management Division for a Operational Stormwater Permit. Author Vermont Department of...

  11. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The principal form of nitrogen for this production based upon 15N studies was urea, believed to be from anthropogenic origin (fertilizer) from the MRP watershed. Intermediate plume ...

  12. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... and human health, including food supply, watershed cleanliness, soil quality, and ... by replacement scale to generate an aggregate 'energy crop air quality score' (ECAQS) ...

  13. Category:Programs | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Authority in Sri Lanka Asian Institute of Technology Assessing Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation: The Case of Pantabangan-Carranglan Watershed...

  14. Laboratory, Valles Caldera sponsor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to teach students about watershed hydrology, water quality, wildlife radio telemetry, plant ecology, aquatic and terrestrial invertebrate biology, fish sampling, and Jemez...

  15. Laboratory, Valles Caldera sponsor environmental science event

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to teach students about watershed hydrology, water quality, wildlife radio telemetry, plant ecology, aquatic and terrestrial invertebrate biology, fish sampling, and Jemez...

  16. Revealing the Role of Microbes in Controlling Contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Kenneth Hurst

    2015-04-02

    In Rifle, Colorado, Berkeley Lab earth scientist, Kenneth Hurst Williams, highlights the role subsurface microbial communities can play in controlling the flow of contaminants in groundwater. The DOE Joint Genome Institute is a key collaborator in the research. Williams is Component Lead of Watershed Structure and Controls within Berkeley Lab's Genomes-to-Watershed Scientific Focus Area.

  17. Comprehensive stormwater management study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, T. ); Alter, M. ); Wassum, R.H. )

    1994-02-01

    This article examines Tucson, Arizona's approach to stormwater management. The topics of the article include the quantity and quality of stormwater, developing the stormwater master plan, meeting environmental and regulatory constraints. Tucson's comprehensive, watershed by watershed approach to public works planning and stormwater program development is described.

  18. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A.

    2002-11-01

    We investigated factors affecting the distribution and abundance of Yellowstone cutthroat trout (YCT), the abundance of all trout, and species richness in several drainages in the upper Snake River basin in Idaho. A total of 326 randomly selected sites were visited within the four study drainages, and of these, there was sufficient water to inventory fish and habitat in 56 of the sites in the Goose Creek drainage, 64 in the Raft River drainage, 54 in the Blackfoot River drainage, and 27 in the Willow Creek drainage. Fish were captured in 36, 55, 49, and 22 of the sites, respectively, and YCT were present at 17, 37, 32, and 13 of the sites, respectively. There was little consistency or strength in the models developed to predict YCT presence/absence and density, trout density, or species richness. Typically, the strongest models had the lowest sample sizes. In the Goose Creek drainage, sites with YCT were higher in elevation and lower in conductivity. In the Raft River drainage, trout cover was more abundant at sites with YCT than without YCT. In the Blackfoot River drainage, there was less fine substrate and more gravel substrate at sites with YCT than at sites without YCT. In the Willow Creek drainage, 70% of the sites located on public land contained YCT, but only 35% of private land contained YCT. The differences in variable importance between drainages suggests that factors that influence the distribution of YCT vary between drainages, and that for the most part the variables we measured had little influence on YCT distribution. n sites containing YCT, average cutthroat trout density was 0.11/m{sup 2}, 0.08/m{sup 2}, 0.10/m{sup 2}, and 0.08/m{sup 2} in the Goose Creek, Raft River, Blackfoot River, and Willow Creek drainages, respectively. In sites containing trout in general, average total trout density in these same drainages was 0.16/m{sup 2}, 0.15/m{sup 2}, 0.10/m{sup 2}, and 0.10/m{sup 2}. Models to predict YCT density, total trout density, and species richness were either weak (i.e., explained little variation) or contained small sample sizes. Based on our results, it appears that factors other than those we measured are affecting fish populations in these drainages.

  19. Coeur d'Alene Tribal Production Facility, Volume I of III, 2002-2003 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Paul

    2003-01-01

    In fulfillment of the NWPPC's 3-Step Process for the implementation of new hatcheries in the Columbia Basin, this Step 1 submission package to the Council includes four items: (1) Cover letter from the Coeur d'Alene Tribe, Interdisciplinary Team Chair, and the USFWS; (2) References to key information (Attachments 1-4); (3) The updated Master Plan for the Tribe's native cutthroat restoration project; and (4) Appendices. In support of the Master Plan submitted by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe the reference chart (Item 2) was developed to allow reviewers to quickly access information necessary for accurate peer review. The Northwest Power Planning Council identified pertinent issues to be addressed in the master planning process for new artificial production facilities. References to this key information are provided in three attachments: (1) NWPPC Program language regarding the Master Planning Process, (2) Questions Identified in the September 1997 Council Policy, and (3) Program language identified by the Council's Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP). To meet the need for off-site mitigation for fish losses on the mainstem Columbia River, in a manner consistent with the objectives of the Council's Program, the Coeur d'Alene Tribe is proposing that the BPA fund the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of a trout production facility located adjacent to Coeur d'Alene Lake on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation. The updated Master Plan (Item 3) represents the needs associated with the re-evaluation of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Trout Production Facility (No.199004402). This plan addresses issues and concerns expressed by the NWPPC as part of the issue summary for the Mountain Columbia provincial review, and the 3-step hatchery review process. Finally, item 4 (Appendices) documents the 3-Step process correspondence to date between the Coeur d'Alene Tribe and additional relevant entities. Item 4 provides a chronological account of previous ISRP reviews, official Coeur d'Alene fisheries program responses to a series of ISRP reviews, master planning documentation, and annual reports dating back to 1990. Collectively, the materials provided by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe in this Step-1 submission package comprehensively assesses key research, habitat improvement activities, and hatchery production issues to best protect and enhance native cutthroat trout populations and the historically and culturally important tribal fisheries they support.

  20. Spotlights Archive | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    April 19, 2016 Watershed Protection at the Fernald Preserve in Ohio The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Ohio Environmental Protection ...

  1. Lessons Learned Quarterly Report, December 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Welcome to the 85th quarterly report on lessons learned in the NEPA process. This issue features Administration changes in environmental policy to better account for climate change and improve watershed- and landscape-scale planning.

  2. EIS-0265-SA-101: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis Watershed Management Program BPA proposes to fund a project to enhance fish habitat on Hawley Creek, tributary to the Lemhi River in Idaho, by leasing 7 cubic feet...

  3. Northwest Power Act | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in the Columbia River watershed. Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 1980 Legal Citation 16 USC 839 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online...

  4. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    E. P. Odum Wetland Set-Aside Tinker Creek Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) is a relatively non-impacted, fifth order stream with the largest watershed of any SRS stream; UTRC is the...

  5. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ruth Patrick - Myers Branch Set-Aside Meyers Branch is a second order stream whose watershed encompasses 12,565 acres (5,085 ha), approximately one half of the Steel Creek...

  6. Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    de Valle June 30, 2014, Results of 2013 Sediment Monitoring in the Water Canyon and Canon de Valle Watershed (pdf) Submittal Letter (pdf) Appendix A (xls) AnchoChaquehui...

  7. Fayetteville Shale Decision Support and Information System FINAL...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for the study period. A Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) flow model of the Little Red River watershed simulated from 2000 to 2009 showed a 10% increase in storm water...

  8. Closing in on a Short-Hard Burst Progenitor: Constraints From...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The localization of the short-duration, hard-spectrum gamma-ray burst GRB050509b by the Swift satellite was a watershed event. Never before had a member of this mysterious subclass ...

  9. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... We deduce the existence of a highly asymmetric, pressure-driven potential hump which acts as a controlling"watershed" between the ion return flux and the expanding plasma. Full ...

  10. Water Cycle Pilot Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Water Cycle Pilot Study To learn more about Earth's water cycle, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established a multi-laboratory science team representing five DOE national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge. The science team will conduct a three- year Water Cycle Pilot Study within the ARM SGP CART site, primarily in the Walnut River Watershed east of Wichita, Kansas. The host facility in the Walnut River Watershed is the Atmospheric

  11. Sustaining a Vision: DOE Funding Boosts Building Energy Efficiency in Yukon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    River Basin | Department of Energy Sustaining a Vision: DOE Funding Boosts Building Energy Efficiency in Yukon River Basin Sustaining a Vision: DOE Funding Boosts Building Energy Efficiency in Yukon River Basin February 12, 2016 - 6:46pm Addthis The Yukon River Inter-tribal Watershed Council replaced the village store's existing forced-air furnace with high-efficiency boilers and retrofitted the lighting. The Yukon River Inter-tribal Watershed Council replaced the village store's existing

  12. AmeriFlux US-Wkg Walnut Gulch Kendall Grasslands

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Scott, Russell [United States Department of Agriculture

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wkg Walnut Gulch Kendall Grasslands. Site Description - This site is located in a small, intensively-studied, experimental watershed within USDA-ARS's Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed. Eddy covariance measurements of energy, water and CO2 fluxes began in the spring of 2004, though meteorological (including Bowen ratio) and hydrological measurements are available much further back.

  13. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    April 30, 2006 [Facility News] HydroKansas Follows Water Flowing Through Space and Time Bookmark and Share Sets of rain and stream gauges like this one will provide information about water level and flow rates from 14 different sites throughout the Whitewater River watershed during the HydroKansas field campaign. Beginning in May, the Whitewater River watershed in south-central Kansas is the setting for a 3-year field campaign hosted by the ARM's Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Called

  14. Assessment of the Fishery Improvement Opportunities on the Pend Oreille River, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, Michael R.; Willms, Roger A.; Scholz, Allan T.

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the fishery improvement opportunities on the Box Canyon portion of the Pend Oreille River. This report contains the findings of the first year of the study. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum)) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Richardson)) were present in the Pend Oreille River prior to the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The river also contained native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki (Richardson)), bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus (Walbaum)) and mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni (Girard)). Rainbow trout were planted in the river and some grew to lengths in excess of 30 inches. With the construction of Box Canyon Dam, in 1955, the most productive section of the river was inundated. Following the construction of the dam the trout fishery declined and the populations of spiny ray fish and rough fish increased. The objectives of the first year of the study were to determine the relative abundance of each species in the river and sloughs; the population levels in fish in the river and four selected tributaries; fish growth rates; the feeding habits and abundance of preferred prey; the migration patterns; and the total fishing pressure, catch per unit effort, and total harvest by conducting a year-round creel survey. 132 refs.

  15. Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, 1986 Interim Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, William H.; DosSantos, Joseph M.; Darling, James M.

    1986-08-01

    We believe our results have clearly shown Kerr hydroelectric operations and operational constraints have negatively affected Flathead River trout and northern pike populations and the aquatic habitat which support them. Even so, it is possible to mitigate many of these impacts and develop a very important fishery. Trout abundance in the lower Flathead averaged only 19 fish per kilometer, the lowest abundance of trout for a river of this size in Montana. Little main channel spawning by trout was observed and most spawning probably occurs in tributaries. Lower river tributaries support resident populations of brook, rainbow, brown, and cutthroat trout; and a small resident population of bull trout is present in the South Fork of the Jocko River. Using weirs, spawning runs of rainbow and brown trout from the main river were monitored entering the Jocko River and the Post/Mission Creek system. Utilization of Crow Creek by main river trout stocks of trout was limited to the 6 km segment below Crow Dam. Evaluations of tributary spawning gravels showed high levels of silt which would suggest poor survival of trout eggs. Excessive harvest in the tributaries was indicated by analysis of age class structure and abundance of trout greater than 200 mm.

  16. Cumulative Effects of Micro-Hydro Development on the Fisheries of the Swan River Drainage, Montana, Volume I, Summary, 1983-1984 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leathe, Stephen A.; Enk, Michael D.

    1985-04-01

    This study was designed to develop and apply methods to evaluate the cumulative effects of 20 proposed small hydro projects on the fisheries resources of the Swan River drainage located in northwestern Montana. Fish population and reach classification information was used to estimate total populations of 107,000 brook trout, 65,000 cut-throat trout and 31,000 juvenile bull trout within the tributary system. Distribution, abundance, and life history of fish species in the drainage and their contribution to the sport fishery were considered in the cumulative impact analysis. Bull trout were chosen as the primary species of concern because of their extensive use of project areas, sensitivity to streambed sedimentation, and their importance to the lake and river sport fisheries. Dewatering of hydroelectric diversion zones and streambed sedimentation (resulting from forest and small hydro development) were the major impacts considered. The developer proposed to divert up to the entire streamflow during low flow months because maintenance of recommended minimum bypass flows would not allow profitable project operation. Dewatering was assumed to result in a total loss of fish production in these areas. 105 refs., 19 figs., 38 tabs.

  17. Federal Facility Agreement Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 1999 Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations (DOE-ORO) EM Program adopted a watershed approach for performing Remedial Investigations (RIs) and characterizations for ORR because it is an effective system for determining the best methods for protecting and restoring aquatic ecosystems and protecting human health. The basic concept is that water quality and ecosystem problems are best solved at the watershed level rather than at the individual water-body or discharger level. The watershed approach requires consideration of all environmental concerns, including needs to protect public health, critical habitats such as wetlands, biological integrity, and surface and ground waters. The watershed approach provides an improved basis for management decisions concerning contaminant sources and containment. It allows more direct focus by stakeholders on achieving ecological goals and water quality standards rather than a measurement of program activities based on numbers of permits or samples. The watershed approach allows better management strategies for investigations, therefore maximizing the utilization of scarce resources. Feasibility studies (FSs) evaluate various alternatives in terms of environmental standards, the protection of human health and the environment, and the costs of implementation to find the optimum solution among them. Society has to decide how much it is willing to spend to meet the standards and to be protective. Conducting FSs is the process of trading off those criteria to pick that optimum point that society wants to achieve. Performing this analysis at the watershed scale allows those trade-offs to be made meaningfully. In addition, a Land Use Control Assurance Plan for the ORR was prepared to identify the strategy for assuring the long-term effectiveness of land use controls. These land use controls will be relied upon to protect human health and the environment at areas of the ORR undergoing remediation pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act and/or the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This plan will be implemented by means of a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) incorporating its terms with the United States EPA and TDEC. The majority of projects described in this report are grouped into five watersheds. They are the East Tennessee Technical Park (ETTP) Watershed (formerly the K-25 Site), the Melton Valley (MV) and Bethel Valley (BV) Watersheds at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) and Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Watersheds at the Y-12 Plant.

  18. Seeking to calm troubled waters: The Missisquoi River Keepers Project and the development of a community-based river protection program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, D.M.; Delaney, M.; Dickens, S.P.

    1995-12-01

    The Missisquoi River, in northwestern Vermont and southern Quebec, has become the focus of efforts to develop local community-based means to address environmental and cultural concerns affecting the region`s Native and non-Native peoples. The River flows through historical Abenaki territory, and is relied upon by tribal members for subsistence, cultural, and spiritual purposes. The River has been in a controversy involving aboriginal fishing and sovereignty rights, hydroelectric development, transboundary pollution problems, protection of Native cultural and historical sites, state resource management practices, and formal federal/state recognition of the Abenaki nation. The Missisquoi River Keepers Project is a cooperative program initiated by the Abenaki in 1993 to protect the River and its watershed by uniting often adversarial Native and non-Native communities in the region. This paper discusses how ecological monitoring, environmental and cultural education, community organizing, and outreach to federal, state and local officials are being utilized to identify the watershed`s problems and to resolve conflicts. The Project is working with different interest groups to develop consensus and to find creative means to reverse the degradation of the watershed. The Project has also provided legal and technical support in reviewing environmental permits, rule-making, and enforcement of federal, state and local statutes and regulations. The Project may serve as a useful model forlocal management of watershed protection programs.

  19. Contaminant Concentrations in Storm Water Entering the Sinclair/Dyes Inlet Subasin of the Puget Sound, USA, During Storm Event and Baseflow Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; May, Christopher W.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Johnston, Robert K.; Leisle, D. E.; Beckwith, B.; Sherrell, Gerald; Mettallo, David; Pingree, Ryan

    2007-03-29

    The Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed is located on the west side of Puget Sound in Kitsap County, Washington, U.S.A. (Figure 1). Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (PSNS), U.S Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the Washington State Department of Ecology (WA-DOE), Kitsap County, City of Bremerton, City of Bainbridge Island, City of Port Orchard, and the Suquamish Tribe have joined in a cooperative effort to evaluate water-quality conditions the Sinclair-Dyes Inlet watershed and correct identified problems. A major focus of this project, known as Project ENVVEST, is to develop Water Clean-up (TMDL) Plans for constituents listed on the 303(d) list within the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed. Segments within the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed were listed on the State of Washington’s 1998 303(d) due to fecal coliform contamination in marine water, metals in sediment and fish tissue, and organics in sediment and fish tissue (WA-DOE 2003). Stormwater loading was identified by ENVVEST as one potential source of sediment contamination, which lacked sufficient data for the contaminant mass balance calculations conducted for the watershed. This paper summarizes the contaminant concentrations in representative streams and outfalls discharging into Sinclair and Dyes Inlets during 18 storm events and wet/dry season baseflow conditions between November 2002 and May 2005. This paper serves as a portion of the report titled, “Surface and Stormwater Quality Assessment for Sinclair and Dyes Inlet, Washington” (Brandenberger et al. 2007).

  20. Systems Dynamic ToolBox for Water Resource Planning

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-08-01

    The Fully Integrated System Dynamics Tookbox for Water Resources Planning (Toolbox) is a library of generic modules intended to assist in water management planning and decision making in watersheds around the world. The modules - built in a commercially available modeling environment called Powersim Studio Expert, represent the different sub-systems ina watershed, including population, agriculture, economics, climate, reservoirs, stream flows, and fish populations, and provides generic building blocks with which complex models of complex modelsmore » of complex watersheds can be assembled. The resulting models provide a tool for observing how research management decision made in one sector of a basin can affect other sectors. Improved water resource management contributes to improved public health, economic development, ecological sustainability, and overall security and stability.« less

  1. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy-water challenge emerges in Colorado River flows March 22, 2016 'Critical Watersheds Project' to quantify climate-driven impacts, develop strategies for responding LOS ALAMOS, N.M., March 22, 2016-As noted in today's White House Water Summit, climate-driven heat-stress and forest mortality on the Colorado River watershed are expected to reduce river flows basin-wide out to the year 2100, based on the impact of multiple climate and climate-driven disturbance scenarios. Los Alamos National

  2. Shale Gas Development in the Susquehanna River Basin

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Water Resource Challenges From Energy Production Major Types of Power Generation in SRB - Total 15,300 Megawatts - 37.5% 4.0% 12.0% 15.5% 31.0% Nuclear Coal Natural Gas Hydroelectric Other Marcellus Shale Gas Development in the Susquehanna River Basin The Basin: * 27,510-square-mile watershed * Comprises 43 percent of the Chesapeake Bay watershed * 4.2 million population * 60 percent forested * 32,000+ miles of waterways The Susquehanna River: * 444 miles, largest tributary to the Chesapeake Bay

  3. Energy-water challenge emerges in Colorado River flows

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy-water challenge emerges in Colorado River flows At the Bradbury Latest Issue:May 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Energy-water challenge emerges in Colorado River flows Climate-driven heat-stress and forest mortality on the Colorado River watershed are expected to reduce river flows basin-wide out to the year 2100. May 1, 2016 Research at Los Alamos National Laboratory indicates that the combination of climate-driven heat-stress and forest mortality on the Colorado River watershed are

  4. A Geographic Information System approach to modeling nutrient and sediment transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, D.A.; Hunsaker, C.T.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Timmins, S.P.

    1993-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a water quality model to quantify nonpoint-source (NPS) pollution that uses a geographic information system (GIS) to link statistical modeling of nutrient and sediment delivery with the spatial arrangement of the parameters that drive the model. The model predicts annual nutrient and sediment loading and was developed, calibrated, and tested on 12 watersheds within the Lake Ray Roberts drainage basin in north Texas. Three physiographic regions are represented by these watersheds, and model success, as measured by the accuracy of load estimates, was compared within and across these regions.

  5. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    May 11, 2012 [Education, Facility News] Fairbanks Middle Schoolers Enjoy Field Trip to Barrow Bookmark and Share Watershed School's bundled-up 8th grade class and their chaperones stop for a quick photo in front of the U.S. flag near the Arctic sea ice. With its consistently chilly temperatures, student visits to the ARM site in Barrow are somewhat rare, but always welcome! In April, the 8th grade class from Watershed School in Fairbanks, Alaska, made the long trek to the North Slope for a

  6. Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation, 1992-1993 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DosSantos, Joe; Vashro, Jim; Lockard, Larry

    1994-06-01

    In February of 1900, over forty agency representatives and interested citizens began development of the 1991 Mitigation Plan. This effort culminated in the 1993 Implementation Plan for mitigation of fish losses attributable to the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. The primary purpose of this biennial report is to inform the public of the status of ongoing mitigation activities resulting from those planning efforts. A habitat improvement project is underway to benefit bull trout in Big Creek in the North Fork drainage of the Flathead River and work is planned in Hay Creek, another North Fork tributary. Bull trout redd counts have been expanded and experimental programs involving genetic evaluation, outmigrant monitoring, and hatchery studies have been initiated, Cutthroat mitigation efforts have focused on habitat improvements in Elliott Creek and Taylor`s Outflow and improvements have been followed by imprint plants of hatchery fish and/or eyed eggs in those streams. Rogers Lake west of Kalispell and Lion Lake, near Hungry Horse, were chemically rehabilitated. Cool and warm water fish habitat has been improved in Halfmoon Lake and Echo Lake. Public education and public interest is important to the future success of mitigation activities. As part of the mitigation team`s public awareness responsibility we have worked with numerous volunteer groups, public agencies, and private landowners to stimulate interest and awareness of mitigation activities and the aquatic ecosystem. The purpose of this biennial report is to foster public awareness of, and support for, mitigation activities as we move forward in implementing the Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation Implementation Plan.

  7. Biological and Physical Inventory of Clear Creek, Orofino Creek, and the Potlatch River, Tributary Streams of the Clearwater River, Idaho, 1984 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, David B.

    1985-05-01

    Clear Creek, Orofino Creek, and Potlatch Creek, three of the largest tributaries of the lower Clearwater River Basin, were inventoried during 1984. The purpose of the inventory was to identify where anadromous salmonid production occurs and to recommend enhancement alternatives to increase anadromous salmonid habitat in these streams. Anadromous and fluvial salmonids were found in all three drainages. The lower reach of Clear Creek supported a low population of rainbow-steelhead, while the middle reach supported a much greater population of rainbow-steelhead. Substantial populations of cutthroat trout were also found in the headwaters of Clear Creek. Rainbow-steelhead and brook trout were found throughout Orofino Creek. A predominant population of brook trout was found in the headwaters while a predominant population of rainbow-steelhead was found in the mainstem and lower tributaries of Orofino Creek. Rainbow-steelhead and brook trout were also found in the Potlatch River. Generally, the greatest anadromous salmonid populations in the Potlatch River were found within the middle reach of this system. Several problems were identified which would limit anadromous salmonid production within each drainage. Problems affecting Clear Creek were extreme flows, high summer water temperature, lack of riparian habitat, and high sediment load. Gradient barriers prevented anadromous salmonid passage into Orofino Creek and they are the main deterrent to salmonid production in this system. Potlatch River has extreme flows, high summer water temperature, a lack of riparian habitat and high sediment loads. Providing passage over Orofino Falls is recommended and should be considered a priority for improving salmonid production in the lower Clearwater River Basin. Augmenting flows in the Potlatch River is also recommended as an enhancement measure for increasing salmonid production in the lower Clearwater River Basin. 18 refs., 5 figs., 85 tabs.

  8. Big Canyon Creek Ecological Restoration Strategy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasmussen, Lynn; Richardson, Shannon

    2007-10-01

    He-yey, Nez Perce for steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), are a culturally and ecologically significant resource within the Big Canyon Creek watershed; they are also part of the federally listed Snake River Basin Steelhead DPS. The majority of the Big Canyon Creek drainage is considered critical habitat for that DPS as well as for the federally listed Snake River fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ESU. The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District) and the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management-Watershed (Tribe), in an effort to support the continued existence of these and other aquatic species, have developed this document to direct funding toward priority restoration projects in priority areas for the Big Canyon Creek watershed. In order to achieve this, the District and the Tribe: (1) Developed a working group and technical team composed of managers from a variety of stakeholders within the basin; (2) Established geographically distinct sub-watershed areas called Assessment Units (AUs); (3) Created a prioritization framework for the AUs and prioritized them; and (4) Developed treatment strategies to utilize within the prioritized AUs. Assessment Units were delineated by significant shifts in sampled juvenile O. mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) densities, which were found to fall at fish passage barriers. The prioritization framework considered four aspects critical to determining the relative importance of performing restoration in a certain area: density of critical fish species, physical condition of the AU, water quantity, and water quality. It was established, through vigorous data analysis within these four areas, that the geographic priority areas for restoration within the Big Canyon Creek watershed are Big Canyon Creek from stream km 45.5 to the headwaters, Little Canyon from km 15 to 30, the mainstem corridors of Big Canyon (mouth to 7km) and Little Canyon (mouth to 7km). The District and the Tribe then used data collected from the District's stream assessment and inventory, utilizing the Stream Visual Assessment Protocol (SVAP), to determine treatment necessary to bring 90% of reaches ranked Poor or Fair through the SVAP up to good or excellent. In 10 year's time, all reaches that were previously evaluated with SVAP will be reevaluated to determine progress and to adapt methods for continued success. Over 400 miles of stream need treatment in order to meet identified restoration goals. Treatments include practices which result in riparian habitat improvements, nutrient reductions, channel condition improvements, fish habitat improvements, invasive species control, water withdrawal reductions, improved hydrologic alterations, upland sediment reductions, and passage barrier removal. The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District) and the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management Watershed Division (Tribe) developed this document to guide restoration activities within the Big Canyon Creek watershed for the period of 2008-2018. This plan was created to demonstrate the ongoing need and potential for anadromous fish habitat restoration within the watershed and to ensure continued implementation of restoration actions and activities. It was developed not only to guide the District and the Tribe, but also to encourage cooperation among all stakeholders, including landowners, government agencies, private organizations, tribal governments, and elected officials. Through sharing information, skills, and resources in an active, cooperative relationships, all concerned parties will have the opportunity to join together to strengthen and maintain a sustainable natural resource base for present and future generations within the watershed. The primary goal of the strategy is to address aquatic habitat restoration needs on a watershed level for resident and anadromous fish species, promoting quality habitat within a self-sustaining watershed. Seven objectives have been developed to support this goal: (1) Identify factors limiting quality

  9. Statement by Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz on the IPCC Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    I believe that the report is a watershed; we have clear evidence from our climate scientists that global warming is happening and that we as humans are playing a critical role, which is the underpinning of the President's Climate Action Plan.

  10. Opal Creek Forest Preserve Act of 1994. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session, August 8, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The legislative text proposes to provide for the establishment and management of the Opal Creek Forest Reserve in Oregon. The purpose of the Act is to protect and preserve the forests and watersheds in the Reserve. And to promote and conduct research regarding old-growth forests and for educators to provide scientifically credible information to the public.

  11. ORAU South Campus Facility | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ORAU South Campus Facility ORAU South Campus Facility This document discusses the ORAU South Campus Facility. Topics include: * The area's safety * Any use limitations for the area * History and cleanup background for this area * How DOE's cleanup program addressed the problem PDF icon ORAU South Campus Facility More Documents & Publications Bethel Valley Watershed Cleanup Progress Report - 2011 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Cleanup

  12. EA-1998: Upper Columbia Spring Chinook and Steelhead Acclimation Project, Chelan County, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    BPA is preparing an EA that will analyze the potential impacts of a proposal to fund the Yakama Nation to improve, develop, and use fish rearing acclimation ponds for hatchery raised steelhead and Chinook salmon in the Methow and Wenatchee watersheds. Additional information is available at http://efw.bpa.gov/environmental_services/Document_Library/ChinookSteelh....

  13. May Wu | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    May Wu Team Leader - Water Assessment News Argonne model analyzes water footprint of biofuels E-mail mwu@anl.gov Website Water Analysis Tool for Energy Resources (WATER) Projects Biofuels Biorefinery Grey Water Analysis Electricity Petroleum Oil Water Footprint Water Impacts Analysis Water Use and Quality Assessment Watershed Modeling for Biofuels

  14. CX-004860: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Watershed Scale Optimization to Meet Sustainable Cellulosic Energy Crop DemandCX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1Date: 12/30/2010Location(s): Purdue University, IndianaOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

  15. Engineering approaches to ecosystem restoration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, D.F.

    1998-07-01

    This proceedings CD ROM contains 127 papers on developing and evaluating engineering approaches to wetlands and river restoration. The latest engineering developments are discussed, providing valuable insights to successful approaches for river restoration, wetlands restoration, watershed management, and constructed wetlands for stormwater and wastewater treatment. Potential solutions to a wide variety of ecosystem concerns in urban, suburban, and coastal environments are presented.

  16. CX-004340: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Center of Excellence in Watershed Applications and Technology-Based Economic Revitalization (WATER)CX(s) Applied: B1.6, B1.15, B5.1Date: 10/05/2010Location(s): IllinoisOffice(s): Science, Chicago Office

  17. Cumulative hydrologic impact assessments on surface-water in northeastern Wyoming using HEC-1; a pilot study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, A.J.; Eastwood, D.C.; Anderson, M.E.

    1997-12-31

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 requires that areas in which multiple mines will affect one watershed be analyzed and the cumulative impacts of all mining on the watershed be assessed. The purpose of the subject study was to conduct a cumulative hydrologic impact assessment (CHIA) for surface-water on a watershed in northeastern Wyoming that is currently being impacted by three mines. An assessment of the mining impact`s affect on the total discharge of the watershed is required to determine whether or not material damage to downstream water rights is likely to occur as a result of surface mining and reclamation. The surface-water model HEC-1 was used to model four separate rainfall-runoff events that occurred in the study basin over three years (1978-1980). Although these storms were used to represent pre-mining conditions, they occurred during the early stages of mining and the models were adjusted accordingly. The events were selected for completeness of record and antecedent moisture conditions (AMC). Models were calibrated to the study events and model inputs were altered to reflect post-mining conditions. The same events were then analyzed with the new model inputs. The results were compared with the pre-mining calibration. Peak flow, total discharge and timing of flows were compared for pre-mining and post-mining models. Data were turned over to the State of Wyoming for assessment of whether material damage to downstream water rights is likely to occur.

  18. Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

    1982-03-01

    This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

  19. Regulatory approaches for addressing dissolved oxygen concerns at hydropower facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Mark J.; Cada, Glenn F.; Sale, Michael J.; Eddlemon, Gerald K.

    2003-03-01

    Low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are a common water quality problem downstream of hydropower facilities. At some facilities, structural improvements (e.g. installation of weir dams or aerating turbines) or operational changes (e.g., spilling water over the dam) can be made to improve DO levels. In other cases, structural and operational approaches are too costly for the project to implement or are likely to be of limited effectiveness. Despite improvements in overall water quality below dams in recent years, many hydropower projects are unable to meet state water quality standards for DO. Regulatory agencies in the U.S. are considering or implementing dramatic changes in their approach to protecting the quality of the Nations waters. New policies and initiatives have emphasized flexibility, increased collaboration and shared responsibility among all parties, and market-based, economic incentives. The use of new regulatory approaches may now be a viable option for addressing the DO problem at some hydropower facilities. This report summarizes some of the regulatory-related options available to hydropower projects, including negotiation of site-specific water quality criteria, use of biological monitoring, watershed-based strategies for the management of water quality, and watershed-based trading. Key decision points center on the health of the local biological communities and whether there are contributing impacts (i.e., other sources of low DO effluents) in the watershed. If the biological communities downstream of the hydropower project are healthy, negotiation for site-specific water quality standards or biocriteria (discharge performance criteria based on characteristics of the aquatic biota) might be pursued. If there are other effluent dischargers in the watershed that contribute to low DO problems, watershed-scale strategies and effluent trading may be effective. This report examines the value of regulatory approaches by reviewing their use in other

  20. Waste Area Grouping 2 Remedial Investigation Phase 1 Seep Task data report: Contaminant source area assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hicks, D.S.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2, Phase 1 Remedial Investigation (RI) Seep Task efforts during 1993 and 1994 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results presented here follow results form the first year of sampling, 1992, which are contained in the Phase 1 RI report for WAG 2 (DOE 1995a). The WAG 2 Seep Task efforts focused on contaminants in seeps, tributaries, and main streams within the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed. This report is designed primarily as a reference for contaminants and a resource for guiding remedial decisions. Additional in-depth assessments of the Seep Task data may provide clearer understandings of contaminant transport from the different source areas in the WOC watershed. WAG 2 consists of WOC and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake, the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, and the associated flood plains and subsurface environment. The WOC watershed encompasses ORNL and associated WAGs. WAG 2 acts as an integrator for contaminant releases from the contaminated sites at ORNL and as the conduit transporting contaminants to the Clinch River. The main objectives of the Seep Task were to identify and characterize seeps, tributaries and source areas that are responsible for the contaminant releases to the main streams in WAG 2 and to quantify their input to the total contaminant release from the watershed at White Oak Dam (WOD). Efforts focused on {sup 90}Sr, {sup 3}H, and {sup 137}Cs because these contaminants pose the greatest potential human health risk from water ingestion at WOD. Bimonthly sampling was conducted throughout the WOC watershed beginning in March 1993 and ending in August 1994. Samples were also collected for metals, anions, alkalinity, organics, and other radionuclides.

  1. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arteburn, John; Christensen, David

    2003-03-01

    Federal hydropower projects as well as private power utility systems have had a devastating impact upon anadromous fish resources that once flourished in the Columbia River and it's tributaries. Several areas were completely blocked to anadromous fish by dams, causing the native people who's number one food resource was salmon to rely entirely upon resident fish to replace lost fisheries resources. The Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery is an artificial production program to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses in the ''Blocked Area'' above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams pursuant to Resident Fish Substitution Policy of the Northwest Power Planning Councils Fish and Wildlife Program. The hatchery was accepted into the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program in 1984 as a resident fish substitution measure and the hatchery was completed in 1990. The minimum production quota for this facility is 22,679 kg (50,000 lbs.) of trout. To achieve this quota the Colville Tribal Hatchery was scheduled to produce 174,000 fingerling rainbow trout (5 grams/fish), 330,000 sub-yearling rainbow trout (15 grams/fish), 80,000 legal size rainbow trout (90 grams/fish), 196,000 fingerling brook trout (5 grams/fish), 330,000 subyearling brook trout (15 grams/fish) and 60,000 lahontan cutthroat trout (15 grams/fish) in 2001. All fish produced are released into reservation waters, including boundary waters in an effort to provide a successful subsistence /recreational fishery for Colville Tribal members as well as a successful non-member sport fishery. The majority of the fish distributed from the facility are intended to provide a ''carry-over'' fishery. Fish produced at the facility are intended to be capable of contributing to the natural production component of the reservation fish populations. Contribution to the natural production component will be achieved by producing and releasing fish of sufficient quality and quantity for fish to survive to spawning maturity, to spawn naturally in existing and future available habitat (i.e. natural supplementation), while meeting other program objectives. In addition to the hatchery specific goals detailed above, hatchery personnel will actively participate in the Northwest Power Planning Council program, participate in the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Foundation, Resident Fish Committee, and other associated committees and Ad Hoc groups that may be formed to address resident fish issues in the blocked area above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams.

  2. Assessment of the Fishery Improvement Opportunities on the Pend Oreille River: Recommendations for Fisheries Enhancement: Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashe, Becky L.; Scholz, Allan T.

    1992-03-01

    This report recommends resident fish substitution projects to partially replace anadromous fish losses caused by construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams. These recommendations involve enhancing the resident fishery in the Pend Oreille River as a substitute for anadromous fish losses. In developing these recommendations we have intentionally attempted to minimize the impact upon the hydroelectric system and anadromous fish recovery plans. In this report we are recommending that the Northwest Power Planning Council direct Bonneville Power Administration to fund the proposed enhancement measures as resident fish substitution projects under the NPPC's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The Pend Oreille River, located in northeast Washington, was historically a free flowing river which supported anadromous steelhead trout and chinook salmon, and large resident cutthroat trout and bull trout. In 1939, Grand Coulee Dam eliminated the anadromous species from the river. In 1955, Box Canyon Dam was constructed, inundating resident trout habitat in the river and creating many back water and slough areas. By the late 1950's the fishery in the reservoir had changed from a quality trout fishery to a warm water fishery, supporting largemouth bass, yellow perch and rough fish (tenth, suckers, squawfish). The object of this study was to examine the existing fishery, identify fishery improvement opportunities and recommend fishery enhancement projects. Three years of baseline data were collected from the Box Canyon portion of the Pend Oreille River to assess population dynamics, growth rates, feeding habits, behavior patterns and factors limiting the fishery. Fishery improvement opportunities were identified based on the results of these data. Relative abundance surveys in the reservoir resulted in the capture of 47,415 fish during the study. The most abundant species in the reservoir were yellow perch, composing 44% of the fish captured. The perch population in the river is stunted and therefore not popular with anglers. Pumpkinseed composed 16% of the total catch, followed by tenth (9%), largemouth bass (8%), mountain whitefish (6%), largescale sucker (5%), northern squawfish (4%) and longnose sucker (3%).

  3. Evaluation of the Biological Effects of the Northwest Power Conservation Council's Mainstem Amendment on the Fisheries Upstream and Downstream of Libby Dam, Montana, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sylvester, Ryan; Stephens, Brian; Tohtz, Joel

    2009-04-03

    A new project began in 2005 to monitor the biological and physical effects of improved operations of Hungry Horse and Libby Dams, Montana, called for by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC) Mainstem Amendment. This operating strategy was designed to benefit resident fish impacted by hydropower and flood control operations. Under the new operating guidelines, July through September reservoir drafts will be limited to 10 feet from full pool during the highest 80% of water supply years and 20 feet from full pool during the lowest 20% of water supply (drought) years. Limits were also established on how rapidly discharge from the dams can be increased or decreased depending on the season. The NPCC also directed the federal agencies that operate Libby and Hungry Horse Dams to implement a new flood control strategy (VARQ) and directed Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks to evaluate biological responses to this operating strategy. The Mainstem Amendment operating strategy has not been fully implemented at the Montana dams as of June 2008 but the strategy will be implemented in 2009. This report highlights the monitoring methods used to monitor the effects of the Mainstem Amendment operations on fishes, habitat, and aquatic invertebrates upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. We also present initial assessments of data and the effects of various operating strategies on physical and biological components of the systems upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. Annual electrofishing surveys in the Kootenai River and selected tributaries, along with gill net surveys in the reservoir, are being used to quantify the impacts of dam operations on fish populations upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. Scales and otoliths are being used to determine the age structure and growth of focal species. Annual population estimates and tagging experiments provide estimates of survival and growth in the mainstem Kootenai River and selected tributaries. Radio telemetry will be used to validate an existing Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) model developed for the Kootenai River and will also be used to assess the effect of changes in discharge on fish movements and habitat use downstream of Libby Dam. Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags will be injected into rainbow, bull, and cutthroat trout throughout the mainstem Kootenai River and selected tributaries to provide information on growth, survival, and migration patterns in relation to abiotic and biotic variables. Model simulations (RIVBIO) are used to calculate the effects of dam operations on the wetted perimeter and benthic biomass in the Kootenai River below Libby Dam. Additional models (IFIM) will also be used to evaluate the impacts of dam operations on the amount of available habitat for different life stages of rainbow and bull trout in the Kootenai River.

  4. Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.1 Buildings Sector Water Consumption

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities by Treatment Level and Population Served (Millions) (1) Pop. Pop. Pop. Pop. Pop. 1996 17.2 81.9 82.9 7.7 - 2000 6.4 88.2 100.9 12.3 - 2004 3.3 96.5 108.5 14.6 - 2008 3.8 92.7 112.9 16.9 - Note(s): Source(s): EPA, Clean Watersheds Needs Survey 2008 Report to Congress, 2010; EPA, Clean Watersheds Needs Survey 2004 Report to Congress, 2008. 30 7302 5071 2251 115 1) The level of treatment indicates the amount of processing involved before water is released

  5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protective Actions Actions to Protect Workers, Public and the Environment The February 14 radioactivity release was a watershed event for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). It was the first accident of its kind in the 15-year operating history of the transuranic nuclear waste repository. No workers were underground when the release occurred. There were 11 workers on the night shift at the time of the release and two additional employees entered the site in response to the accident. These 13

  6. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    local businesses to receive Venture Acceleration Fund awards June 26, 2014 Modeling software packages, watershed mapping companies among recipients LOS ALAMOS, N.M., June 26, 2014-Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS) and its partners recently awarded more than $400,000 to 10 local businesses to help them grow and develop in Northern New Mexico. "Since the VAF was initiated in 2006, Los Alamos National Security has invested approximately $3 million in 49 New Mexico businesses," said

  7. Dealing with the Clean Water Act pending reauthorization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathews, S.

    1994-09-01

    This report addresses probable changes in the Clean Water Act that may affect federal facilities such as those under the DOE. These changes will be included in a reauthorization of the act. The author draws upon the 1992 National Water Quality Inventory Report to Congress as a source to identify changes in the focus of the reauthorized act on non-point source issues, watershed management, new enforcement mechanisms and an assortment of smaller issues that will have indirect effects on federal facilities.

  8. Water Summit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advisory: White House to host Water Summit March 21, 2016 Los Alamos watershed research among featured projects LOS ALAMOS, N.M., March 21, 2016-On Tuesday, March 22, 2016-World Water Day-the Administration will host a White House Water Summit to raise awareness of the national importance of water and to highlight new commitments and announcements that the Administration and non-Federal institutions are making to build a sustainable water future. A project from Los Alamos National Laboratory

  9. CORRECTED: DOE Issues 85th Lessons Learned Quarterly Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy CORRECTED: DOE Issues 85th Lessons Learned Quarterly Report CORRECTED: DOE Issues 85th Lessons Learned Quarterly Report December 2, 2015 - 8:22am Addthis The 85th Lessons Learned Quarterly Report features Administration changes in environmental policy to better account for climate change and improve watershed- and landscape-scale planning. Addthis Related Articles DOE Issues 85th Lessons Learned Quarterly Report 77th Lessons Learned Quarterly Report Issued DOE Issues 82nd Lessons

  10. Upper East Fork Poplar Creek | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Upper East Fork Poplar Creek This document discusses the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek. Topics include: * The area's safety * Any use limitations for the area * History and cleanup background for this area * How DOE's cleanup program addressed the problem PDF icon Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Watershed fact sheet More Documents & Publications Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Recommendation 229: Recommendation on the Preferred Alternative for the Proposed Plan for

  11. LLNL-TR-411568 Evaluation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    568 Evaluation of Simulated Precipitation in CCSM3: Annual Cycle Performance Metrics at Watershed Scales Peter J. Gleckler, David C. Bader March 26, 2009 Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, nor any of their employees makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy,

  12. DOE Issues 85th Lessons Learned Quarterly Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5th Lessons Learned Quarterly Report DOE Issues 85th Lessons Learned Quarterly Report December 1, 2015 - 4:22pm Addthis The 85th Lessons Learned Quarterly Report features Administration changes in environmental policy to better account for climate change and improve watershed- and landscape-scale planning. Addthis Related Articles CORRECTED: DOE Issues 85th Lessons Learned Quarterly Report DOE Issues 82nd Lessons Learned Quarterly Report DOE Announces Webinars on Geography of Alternative Fuels,

  13. Characterization of Flow Paths, Residence Time and Media Chemistry in Complex Landscapes to Integrate Surface, Groundwater and Stream Processes and Inform Models of Hydrologic and Water Quality Response to Land Use Activities; Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitew, Menberu; Jackson, Rhett

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this report is to document the methodology used to calculate the three hydro-geomorphic indices: C Index, Nhot spot, and Interflow Contributing Area (IFC Area). These indices were applied in the Upper Four Mile Creek Watershed in order to better understand the potential mechanisms controlling retention time, path lengths, and potential for nutrient and solute metabolism and exchange associated with the geomorphic configurations of the upland contributing areas, groundwater, the riparian zone, and stream channels.

  14. Program Updates | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Updates Program Updates April 13, 2016 Program Update: 1st Quarter 2016 Inside this Update: Deputy Under Secretary Klaus Visits the Fernald Preserve in Ohio; Preservationists Tour Historic Log Cabin at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Office; Applied Studies and Technology: Training Course in Groundwater Geochemistry and Reaction Modeling; Watershed Protection at the Fernald Preserve in Ohio; African Americans and the Manhattan Project; LM Updates Stakeholders on the Recent Closure of

  15. Water resources review: Ocoee reservoirs, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, J.P.

    1990-08-01

    Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is preparing a series of reports to make technical information on individual TVA reservoirs readily accessible. These reports provide a summary of reservoir purpose and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and watershed; water quality conditions; aquatic biological conditions; and designated, actual and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those use. This reservoir status report addressed the three Ocoee Reservoirs in Polk County, Tennessee.

  16. 01240_NStransportation | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alaska North Slope Oil and Gas Transportation Support System Last Reviewed 6/3/2014 DE-FE0001240 Goal The primary objectives of this project are to develop analysis and management tools related to Arctic transportation networks (e.g., ice and snow road networks) that are critical to North Slope, Alaska oil and gas development. Performers Geo-Watersheds Scientific, Fairbanks, AK 99708 University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 Background

  17. Restoration of abandoned mine lands through cooperative coal resource evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoskins, D.M.; Smith, M.

    1996-12-31

    The public reclamation cost of reclaiming all of Pennsylvania`s abandoned mine lands is estimated at $15 billion. Drainage from abandoned mines poses another $5 billion water pollution clean-up problem. Although it is unlikely that public reclamation alone could ever tackle these problems, much can be done to alleviate the nuisances through the remining of previously mined areas to recover remaining reserves, restore the land and improve water quality in the same process. Remining of priority areas is encouraged through a new Pennsylvania policy which provides incentives to mining companies. One incentive, initiated under Pennsylvania`s comprehensive mine reclamation strategy, is to identify and geologically map reminable coal resources in selected watersheds, and then to expedite mine permitting in these watersheds. At present, two such priority watersheds, Little Toby Creek in Elk County and Tangascootak Creek in Clinton County, are the focus of geologic map compilation based on recent quadrangle mapping, or new, directed, geologic mapping, including new research core drilling to establish the geologic stratigraphic framework. In order to maximize environmental benefits the comprehensive mine reclamation strategy identifies watersheds which are affected by acid mine drainage (AMD), but that are reasonably capable of restoration, if sufficient coal reserves remain. Pennsylvania`s geochemical quality database of rock overburden, in combination with detailed coal resource mapping by the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, and the cooperation of coal companies and leaseholders, is being used by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to identify and design remining projects which will not only allow the recovery of coal resources, but will also improve the water quality through a variety of innovative mining techniques.

  18. Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program Update: 1st Quarter 2016 Program Update: 1st Quarter 2016 Inside this Update: Deputy Under Secretary Klaus Visits the Fernald Preserve in Ohio; Preservationists Tour Historic Log Cabin at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Office; Applied Studies and Technology: Training Course in Groundwater Geochemistry and Reaction Modeling; Watershed Protection at the Fernald Preserve in Ohio; African Americans and the Manhattan Project; LM Updates Stakeholders on the Recent Closure of Central Nevada Test

  19. Tulalip Tribes- 2003 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Tulalip Tribes of Washington, a federally recognized Indian tribe, will assess the feasibility of developing biogas generation facilities to convert manure and other biomass resources into electricity to help meet the tribe's energy needs from a renewable energy source. Tulalip will research and report on how this type of development can improve water quality in Snohomish Watershed streams and rivers through improved treatment of manure and other biowaste products and possible water reuse from the facility.

  20. ORAU Team

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ORAU South Campus Facility ORAU South Campus Facility This document discusses the ORAU South Campus Facility. Topics include: * The area's safety * Any use limitations for the area * History and cleanup background for this area * How DOE's cleanup program addressed the problem PDF icon ORAU South Campus Facility More Documents & Publications Bethel Valley Watershed Cleanup Progress Report - 2011 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Cleanup

    ORAU Supports DOE Footprint Reduction Efforts ORAU

  1. Aircraft

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SGP Central Facility - surrounded by wheat felds, the heavily instrumented Central Facility served as the primary source of information about cloud and carbon feedbacks. * Little Washita Watershed - located in a mix of pasture land and winter wheat, three carbon fux towers and associ ated instruments were added at this site. Two additional fux towers were located at Fort Cobb, in nearby croplands, to supplement the data set from this area. * Okmulgee - amid oak forests, the existing fux tower

  2. Southwestern Power Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12, 2014 Southwestern Operates for Drought at Texoma Significantly lower inflow than normal into the Lake Texoma (Denison Dam) watershed has caused Southwestern Power Administration, a not-for-profit administration within the U.S. Department of Energy (Southwestern), to severely limit power generation at Denison to conserve water storage. "From May 2012 through February 2014, Southwestern generated only about 20% of average, which works out to about 1.8 hours a day," explains Fritha

  3. Southwestern Power Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    May 22, 2014 Lake Texoma Hydropower Generation to Remain Low for Near Future TULSA, OK - Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) announced today that in response to continuing drought conditions in the Lake Texoma watershed, Southwestern is working with its customers which receive electricity from Denison Dam at Lake Texoma to keep hydropower generation levels low in the summer of 2014, so that storage can be preserved for times when electricity demand is at its highest. "Our

  4. Project Reports for Tulalip Tribes- 2003 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Tulalip Tribes of Washington, a federally recognized Indian tribe, will assess the feasibility of developing biogas generation facilities to convert manure and other biomass resources into electricity to help meet the tribe's energy needs from a renewable energy source. Tulalip will research and report on how this type of development can improve water quality in Snohomish Watershed streams and rivers through improved treatment of manure and other biowaste products and possible water reuse from the facility.

  5. LAN-09-0051

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    LAN-09-0051 1. DESCRIPTION OF PROPOSED ACTION: Low-level PCB contamination is widely distributed in the sediment deposits of the Pueblo and DP Canyon watersheds. In order to reduce the potential for transport of these contaminated sediments from within DP and Pueblo Canyons, grade-control structures would be installed. The grade-control structures would result in reduced flow velocities and peak discharge during flood events and should reduce erosion of contaminated deposits downstream of the

  6. Effect of Biogeochemical Redox Processes on the Fate and Transport of As and U at an Abandoned Uranium Mine Site: an X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troyer, Lyndsay D.; Stone, James J.; Borch, Thomas

    2014-01-28

    Although As can occur in U ore at concentrations up to 10 wt-%, the fate and transport of both U and As at U mine tailings have not been previously investigated at a watershed scale. The major objective of this study was to determine primary chemical and physical processes contributing to transport of both U and As to a down gradient watershed at an abandoned U mine site in South Dakota. Uranium is primarily transported by erosion at the site, based on decreasing concentrations in sediment with distance from the tailings. equential extractions and U X-ray absorption near-edge fine structure (XANES) fitting indicate that U is immobilised in a near-source sedimentation pond both by prevention of sediment transport and by reduction of UVI to UIV. In contrast to U, subsequent release of As to the watershed takes place from the pond partially due to reductive dissolution of Fe oxy(hydr)oxides. However, As is immobilised by adsorption to clays and Fe oxy(hydr)oxides in oxic zones and by formation of Assulfide mineral phases in anoxic zones down gradient, indicated by sequential extractions and As XANES fitting. This study indicates that As should be considered during restoration of uranium mine sites in order to prevent transport.

  7. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2003-12-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the second year of at least a three-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  8. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2003-01-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1914. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for future genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the first year of a three-year study, this report is restricted to describing our work on the first two objectives only.

  9. Simulating Potential Switchgrass Production in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, Allison M.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; West, T. O.; Parrish, David J.; Tyler, Donald D.; Williams, Jimmy R.

    2009-12-31

    Using results from field trials of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) in the United States, the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) process-level agroecosystem model was calibrated, validated, and applied to simulate potential productivity of switchgrass for use as a biofuel feedstock. The model was calibrated with a regional study of 10-yr switchgrass field trials and subsequently tested against a separate compiled dataset of field trials from across the eastern half of the country. An application of the model in a national database using 8-digit watersheds as the primary modeling unit produces 30-yr average switchgrass yield estimates that can be aggregated to 18 major watersheds. The model projects average annual switchgrass productivity of greater than 7 Mg ha-1 in the Upper Mississippi, Lower Mississippi, and Ohio watersheds. The major factors limiting simulated production vary by region; low precipitation is the primary limiting factor across the western half of the country, while moderately acidic soils limit yields on lands east of the Mississippi River. Average projected switchgrass production on all crop land in the continental US is 5.6 Mg ha-1. At this level of productivity, 28.6 million hectares of crop land would be required to produce the 16 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol called for by 2022 in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. The model described here can be applied as a tool to inform the land-use and environmental consequences of switchgrass production.

  10. Soils Activity Mobility Study: Methodology and Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvas, Alissa; Yucel, Vefa

    2014-09-29

    This report presents a three-level approach for estimation of sediment transport to provide an assessment of potential erosion risk for sites at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) that are posted for radiological purposes and where migration is suspected or known to occur due to storm runoff. Based on the assessed risk, the appropriate level of effort can be determined for analysis of radiological surveys, field experiments to quantify erosion and transport rates, and long-term monitoring. The method is demonstrated at contaminated sites, including Plutonium Valley, Shasta, Smoky, and T-1. The Pacific Southwest Interagency Committee (PSIAC) procedure is selected as the Level 1 analysis tool. The PSIAC method provides an estimation of the total annual sediment yield based on factors derived from the climatic and physical characteristics of a watershed. If the results indicate low risk, then further analysis is not warranted. If the Level 1 analysis indicates high risk or is deemed uncertain, a Level 2 analysis using the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE) is proposed. In addition, if a sediment yield for a storm event rather than an annual sediment yield is needed, then the proposed Level 2 analysis should be performed. MUSLE only provides sheet and rill erosion estimates. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center-Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) provides storm peak runoff rate and storm volumes, the inputs necessary for MUSLE. Channel Sediment Transport (CHAN-SED) I and II models are proposed for estimating sediment deposition or erosion in a channel reach from a storm event. These models require storm hydrograph associated sediment concentration and bed load particle size distribution data. When the Level 2 analysis indicates high risk for sediment yield and associated contaminant migration or when there is high uncertainty in the Level 2 results, the sites can be further evaluated with a Level 3 analysis using more complex and labor- and data-intensive methods. For the watersheds analyzed in this report using the Level 1 PSIAC method, the risk of erosion is low. The field reconnaissance surveys of these watersheds confirm the conclusion that the sediment yield of undisturbed areas at the NNSS would be low. The climate, geology, soils, ground cover, land use, and runoff potential are similar among these watersheds. There are no well-defined ephemeral channels except at the Smoky and Plutonium Valley sites. Topography seems to have the strongest influence on sediment yields, as sediment yields are higher on the steeper hill slopes. Lack of measured sediment yield data at the NNSS does not allow for a direct evaluation of the yield estimates by the PSIAC method. Level 2 MUSLE estimates in all the analyzed watersheds except Shasta are a small percentage of the estimates from PSIAC because MUSLE is not inclusive of channel erosion. This indicates that channel erosion dominates the total sediment yield in these watersheds. Annual sediment yields for these watersheds are estimated using the CHAN-SEDI and CHAN-SEDII channel sediment transport models. Both transport models give similar results and exceed the estimates obtained from PSIAC and MUSLE. It is recommended that the total watershed sediment yield of watersheds at the NNSS with flow channels be obtained by adding the washload estimate (rill and inter-rill erosion) from MUSLE to that obtained from channel transport models (bed load and suspended sediment). PSIAC will give comparable results if factor scores for channel erosion are revised towards the high erosion level. Application of the Level 3 process-based models to estimate sediment yields at the NNSS cannot be recommended at this time. Increased model complexity alone will not improve the certainty of the sediment yield estimates. Models must be calibrated against measured data before model results are accepted as certain. Because no measurements of sediment yields at the NNSS are available, model validation cannot be performed. This is also true for the models used in the Level 2 analyses presented in this study. The need to calibrate MUSLE to local conditions has been discussed. Likewise, the transport equations of CHAN-SEDI and CHAN-SEDII need to be calibrated against local data to assess their applicability under semi-arid conditions and for the ephemeral channels at the NNSS. Before these validations and calibration exercises can be undertaken, a long-term measured sediment yield data set must be developed. Development of long-term measured sediment yield data cannot be overemphasized. Long-term monitoring is essential for accurate characterization of watershed processes. It is recommended that a long-term monitoring program be set up to measure watershed erosion rates and channel sediment transport rates.

  11. Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fsh Habitat Enhancement Project : 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, R. Todd

    2001-12-31

    The Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project continued to identify impacted stream reaches throughout the Umatilla River Basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach efforts, biological and physical monitoring, and continued development of a Umatilla River Basin Watershed Assessment assisted the project in fostering public cooperation, targeting habitat deficiencies and determining habitat recovery measures. Habitat enhancement projects continued to be maintained on 44 private properties, four riparian easements and one in-stream enhancement agreement were secured, two new projects implemented and two existing projects improved to enhance anadromous fish habitat and natural fisheries production capabilities in the Umatilla River Basin. New project locations included sites on the mid Umatilla River and Buckaroo Creek. Improvements were implemented at existing project sites on the upper Umatilla River and Wildhorse Creek. A stream bank stabilization project was implemented at approximately River Mile 37.4 Umatilla River to stabilize 760 feet of eroding stream bank and improve in-stream habitat diversity. Habitat enhancements at this site included construction of six rock barbs with one large conifer root wad incorporated into each barb, stinging approximately 10,000 native willow cuttings, planting 195 tubling willows and 1,800 basin wildrye grass plugs, and seeding 40 pounds of native grass seed. Staff time to assist in development of a subcontract and fence materials were provided to establish eight spring sites for off-stream watering and to protect wetlands within the Buckaroo Creek Watershed. A gravel bar was moved and incorporated into an adjacent point bar to reduce stream energy and stream channel confinement within the existing project area at River Mile 85 Umatilla River. Approximately 10,000 native willow cuttings were stung and trenched into the stream channel margins and stream banks, and 360 basin wildrye grass plugs planted and 190 pounds of native grass seed broadcast on terraces between River Mile 10 and 12.5 within the existing Wildhorse Creek Project Area. Approximately 70 pounds of native grasses were seeded in the existing McKay Creek Project Area at approximately River Mile 21.5. Financial and in-kind cost share assistance was provided by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Fish and Wildlife Federation and the Umatilla National Forest for the enhancements at River Mile 37.4 Umatilla River and within the Buckaroo Creek Watershed. Monitoring continued to quantify effects of habitat enhancements in the upper basin. Maximum, minimum and average daily stream temperatures were collected from June through September at 22 sites. Suspended sediment samples were obtained at three gage stations to arrive at daily sediment load estimates. Photographs were taken at 94 existing and two newly established photo points to document habitat recovery. Umatilla Basin Watershed Assessment efforts were continued under a subcontract with Washington State University. This endeavor involves compiling existing information, identifying data gaps, determining habitat-limiting factors and recommending actions to improve anadromous fisheries habitat. This watershed assessment document and working databases will be completed in fiscal year 2002 and made available to assist project personnel with sub-watershed prioritization of habitat needs.

  12. Hydrology of modern and late Holocene lakes, Death Valley, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grasso, D.N.

    1996-07-01

    Above-normal precipitation and surface-water runoff, which have been generally related to the cyclic recurrence of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, have produced modern ephemeral lakes in the closed-basin Death Valley watershed. This study evaluates the regional hydroclimatic relations between precipitation, runoff, and lake transgressions in the Death Valley watershed. Recorded precipitation, runoff, and spring discharge data for the region are used in conjunction with a closed-basin, lake-water-budget equation to assess the relative contributions of water from these sources to modern lakes in Death Valley and to identify the requisite hydroclimatic changes for a late Holocene perennial lake in the valley. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program, an evaluation of the Quaternary regional paleoflood hydrology of the potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was planned. The objectives of the evaluation were (1) to identify the locations and investigate the hydraulic characteristics of paleofloods and compare these with the locations and characteristics of modern floods, and (2) to evaluate the character and severity of past floods and debris flows to ascertain the potential future hazards to the potential repository during the pre-closure period (US Department of Energy, 1988). This study addresses the first of these objectives, and the second in part, by assessing and comparing the sizes, locations, and recurrence rates of modern, recorded (1962--83) floods and late Holocene paleofloods for the 8,533-mi{sup 2}, closed-basin, Death Valley watershed with its contributing drainage basins in the Yucca Mountain site area.

  13. Simulating and evaluating best management practices for integrated landscape management scenarios in biofuel feedstock production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ha, Miae; Wu, May

    2015-09-08

    Sound crop and land management strategies can maintain land productivity and improve the environmental sustainability of agricultural crop and feedstock production. With this study, it evaluates a strategy of incorporating landscape design and management concepts into bioenergy feedstock production. It examines the effect of land conversion and agricultural best management practices (BMPs) on water quality (nutrients and suspended sediments) and hydrology. The strategy was applied to the watershed of the South Fork Iowa River in Iowa, where the focus was on converting low-productivity land to provide cellulosic biomass and implementing riparian buffers. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was employed to simulate the impact at watershed and sub-basin scales. The study compared the representation of buffers by using trapping efficiency and area ratio methods in SWAT. Landscape design and management scenarios were developed to quantify water quality under (i) current land use, (ii) partial land conversion to switchgrass, and (iii) riparian buffer implementation. Results show that implementation of vegetative barriers and riparian buffer can trap the loss of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and sediment significantly. The effect increases with the increase of buffer area coverage. Implementing riparian buffer at 30 m width is able to produce 4 million liters of biofuels. When low-productivity land (15.2% of total watershed land area) is converted to grow switchgrass, suspended sediment, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and nitrate loadings are reduced by 69.3%, 55.5%, 46.1%, and 13.4%, respectively. The results highlight the significant role of lower-productivity land and buffers in cellulosic biomass and provide insights into the design of an integrated landscape with a conservation buffer for future bioenergy feedstock production.

  14. September 2013 Storm and Flood Assessment Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walterscheid, J. C.

    2015-12-21

    Between September 10 and 17, 2013, New Mexico and Colorado received a historically large amount of precipitation (Figure 1). This report assesses the damage caused by flooding along with estimated costs to repair the damage at Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) on the Pajarito Plateau. Los Alamos County, New Mexico, received between 200% and 600% of the normal precipitation for this time period (Figure 2), and the Laboratory received approximately 450% percent of its average precipitation for September (Figure 3). As a result, the Laboratory was inundated with rain, including the extremely large, greater-than-1000-yr return period event that occurred between September 12 and 13 (Table 1). With saturated antecedent soil conditions from the September 10 storm, when the September 12 to September 13 storm hit, the flooding was disastrous to the Laboratory’s environmental infrastructure, including access roads, gage stations, watershed controls, control measures installed under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit (hereafter, the Individual Permit), and groundwater monitoring wells (Figures 4 through 21). From September 16 to October 1, 2013, the Laboratory completed field assessments of environmental infrastructure and generated descriptions and estimates of the damage, which are presented in spreadsheets in Attachments 1 to 4 of this report. Section 2 of this report contains damage assessments by watershed, including access roads, gage stations, watershed controls, and control measures installed under the Individual Permit. Section 3 contains damage assessments of monitoring wells by the groundwater monitoring groups as established in the Interim Facility-Wide Groundwater Monitoring Plan for Monitoring Year 2014. Section 4 addresses damage and loss of automated samplers. Section 5 addresses sediment sampling needs, and Section 6 is the summary of estimated recovery costs from the significant rain and flooding during September 2013.

  15. Decision Support for Water Planning: the ZeroNet Water-Energy Initiative.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich, P. M.; Weintraub, Laura H. Z.; Ewers, Mary E.; Riggs, T. L.; Wilson, C. J.

    2005-01-01

    Rapid population growth and severe drought are impacting water availability for all sectors (agriculture, energy, municipal, industry...), particularly in arid regions. New generation decision support tools, incorporating recent advances in informatics and geographic information systems (GIS), are essential for responsible water planning at the basin scale. The ZeroNet water-energy initiative is developing a decision support system (DSS) for the San Juan River Basin, with a focus on drought planning and economic analysis. The ZeroNet DSS provides a computing environment (cyberinfrastructure) with three major components: Watershed Tools, a Quick Scenario Tool, and a Knowledge Base. The Watershed Tools, based in the Watershed Analysis Risk Management Framework (WARMF), provides capabilities (1) to model surface flows, both the natural and controlled, as well as water withdrawals, via an engineering module, and (2) to analyze and visualize results via a stakeholder module. A new ZeroNet module for WARMF enables iterative modeling and production of 'what if' scenario libraries to examine consequences of changes in climate, landuse, and water allocation. The Quick Scenario Tool uses system dynamics modeling for rapid analysis and visualization for a variety of uses, including drought planning, economic analysis, evaluation of management alternatives, and risk assessment. The Knowledge Base serves simultaneously as the 'faithful scribe' to organize and archive data in easily accessible digital libraries, and as the 'universal translator' to share data from diverse sources and for diverse uses. All of the decision tools depend upon GIS capabilities for data/model integration, map-based analysis, and advanced visualization. The ZeroNet DSS offers stakeholders an effective means to address complex water problems.

  16. Simulating and evaluating best management practices for integrated landscape management scenarios in biofuel feedstock production

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ha, Miae; Wu, May

    2015-09-08

    Sound crop and land management strategies can maintain land productivity and improve the environmental sustainability of agricultural crop and feedstock production. With this study, it evaluates a strategy of incorporating landscape design and management concepts into bioenergy feedstock production. It examines the effect of land conversion and agricultural best management practices (BMPs) on water quality (nutrients and suspended sediments) and hydrology. The strategy was applied to the watershed of the South Fork Iowa River in Iowa, where the focus was on converting low-productivity land to provide cellulosic biomass and implementing riparian buffers. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) wasmore » employed to simulate the impact at watershed and sub-basin scales. The study compared the representation of buffers by using trapping efficiency and area ratio methods in SWAT. Landscape design and management scenarios were developed to quantify water quality under (i) current land use, (ii) partial land conversion to switchgrass, and (iii) riparian buffer implementation. Results show that implementation of vegetative barriers and riparian buffer can trap the loss of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and sediment significantly. The effect increases with the increase of buffer area coverage. Implementing riparian buffer at 30 m width is able to produce 4 million liters of biofuels. When low-productivity land (15.2% of total watershed land area) is converted to grow switchgrass, suspended sediment, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and nitrate loadings are reduced by 69.3%, 55.5%, 46.1%, and 13.4%, respectively. The results highlight the significant role of lower-productivity land and buffers in cellulosic biomass and provide insights into the design of an integrated landscape with a conservation buffer for future bioenergy feedstock production.« less

  17. Probing the deep critical zone beneath the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, Heather; Brantley, S. L.; Scatena, Fred; Bazilevskaya, Ekaterina; Blum, Alex; Schulz, M; Jimenez, M; White, Art; Rother, Gernot; Cole, David

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has suggested that weathering processes occurring in the subsurface produce the majority of silicate weathering products discharged to the world s oceans, thereby exerting a primary control on global temperature via the well-known positive feedback between silicate weathering and CO2. In addition, chemical and physical weathering processes deep within the critical zone create aquifers and control groundwater chemistry, watershed geometry and regolith formation rates. Despite this, most weathering studies are restricted to the shallow critical zone (e.g., soils, outcrops). Here we investigate the chemical weathering, fracturing and geomorphology of the deep critical zone in the Bisley watershed in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico, from two boreholes drilled to 37.2 and 27.0 m depth, from which continuous core samples were taken. Corestones exposed aboveground were also sampled. Weathered rinds developed on exposed corestones and along fracture surfaces on subsurface rocks slough off of exposed corestones once rinds attain a thickness up to ~1 cm, preventing the corestones from rounding due to diffusion limitation. Such corestones at the land surface are assumed to be what remains after exhumation of similar, fractured bedrock pieces that were observed in the drilled cores between thick layers of regolith. Some of these subsurface corestones are massive and others are highly fractured, whereas aboveground corestones are generally massive with little to no apparent fracturing. Subsurface corestones are larger and less fractured in the borehole drilled on a road where it crosses a ridge compared to the borehole drilled where the road crosses the stream channel. Both borehole profiles indicate that the weathering zone extends to well below the stream channel in this upland catchment; hence weathering depth is not controlled by the stream level within the catchment and not all of the water in the watershed is discharged to the stream.

  18. Quantification of uranium transport away from firing sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory: A mass balance approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    Investigations were conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory to quantify the extent of migration of depleted uranium away from firing sites. Extensive sampling of air particles, soil, sediment, and water was conducted to establish the magnitude of uranium contamination throughout one watershed. The uranium source term was estimated, and mass balance calculations were performed to compare the percentage of migrated uranium with original expenditures. Mass balance calculations can be powerful in identification of the extent of waste migration and used as an aid in planning future waste investigations.

  19. Quantification of uranium transport away from firing sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory: A mass balance approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, N.M.

    1992-02-01

    Investigations were conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory to quantify the extent of migration of depleted uranium away from firing sites. Extensive sampling of air particles, soil, sediment, and water was conducted to establish the magnitude of uranium contamination throughout one watershed. The uranium source term was estimated, and mass balance calculations were performed to compare the percentage of migrated uranium with original expenditures. Mass balance calculations can be powerful in identification of the extent of waste migration and used as an aid in planning future waste investigations.

  20. Ion acceleration and cooling in gasless self-sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horwat, David; Anders, Andre

    2010-10-31

    Copper plasma with hyperthermal directed velocity (8.8 eV) but very low temperature (0.6 eV) has been obtained using self-sputtering far above the runaway threshold. Ion energy distribution functions (IEDFs) were simultaneously measured at 34 locations. The IEDFs show the tail of the Thompson distribution near the magnetron target. They transform to shifted Maxwellians with the ions being accelerated and cooled. We deduce the existence of a highly asymmetric, pressure-driven potential hump which acts as a controlling"watershed" between the ion return flux and the expanding plasma.

  1. Microsoft PowerPoint - MTL DO Working Group 2015.ppt [Read-Only]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reservoir Releases, Downstream Water Quality, and Fisheries at Mark Twain Lake/Cannon Dam USACE St. Louis District 18 June 2015 BUILDING STRONG ® Project Purposes  54,000 Acre Project with Multiple Project Purposes: ►Hydropower ►Recreation ►Fish and Wildlife ►Water Supply ►Incidental Navigation ►Flood Risk Management BUILDING STRONG ® Salt River Watershed BUILDING STRONG ® BUILDING STRONG ® Cannon Dam Reregulation Dam BUILDING STRONG ® Cannon Dam TW WQ Monitoring Turbine Bay

  2. Systematic vegetation change analysis of mangrove dieoff in Florida Bay and southern Everglades National Park

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colby, M.M.; Sargent, F.J.; Sargent, W.B.

    1997-06-01

    A very brief summary is provided of a project to link hydrological and ecological relationships of the Florida Everglades watershed and the Florida Bay estuary. The creation of vegetation maps and systematic spatial analysis of vegetation and hydrological features will provide information about the interaction between these two ecosystems. The distribution of mangroves, salt marshes, and related vegetative communities are being mapped using existing aerial photography. Historical photographic records are being used to create geographic information system data layers. Changes in the composition of wetlands and vegetative patterns will be compared over a 45-year period.

  3. Status of Cherokee Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This is the first in a series of reports prepared by Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overviews of Cherokee Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports, publications, and data available, and interviews with water resource professionals in various Federal, state, and local agencies and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Integrated Modeling and Decision-Support System for Water Management in the Puget Sound Basin: Snow Caps to White Caps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copping, Andrea E.; Yang, Zhaoqing; Voisin, Nathalie; Richey, Jeff; Wang, Taiping; Taira, Randal Y.; Constans, Michael; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Van Cleve, Frances B.; Tesfa, Teklu K.

    2013-12-31

    Final Report for the EPA-sponsored project Snow Caps to White Caps that provides data products and insight for water resource managers to support their predictions and management actions to address future changes in water resources (fresh and marine) in the Puget Sound basin. This report details the efforts of a team of scientists and engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington (UW) to examine the movement of water in the Snohomish Basin, within the watershed and the estuary, under present and future conditions, using a set of linked numerical models.

  5. Status of Wheeler Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of status reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Wheeler Reservoir summarizes reservoir purposes and operation, reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, and water quality and aquatic biological conditions. The information presented here is from the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. If no recent data were available, historical data were summarized. If data were completely lacking, environmental professionals with special knowledge of the resource were interviewed. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Status of Norris Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Norris Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses, conditions that impair reservoir uses, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most up-to-date publications and data available, and from interviews with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies, and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  7. EA-1895: Lolo Creek Permanent Weir Construction near town of Weippe, Clearwater County, Idaho

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE’s Bonneville Power Administration was preparing this EA to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of replacing an existing seasonal fish weir with a permanent weir, which would have been used to monitor federally-listed Snake River steelhead and collect spring Chinook salmon adults to support ongoing supplementation programs in the watershed. The Bureau of Land Management, a cooperating agency, preliminarily determined Lolo Creek to be suitable for Congressional designation into the Wild and Scenic River System. The EA included a Wild and Scenic River Section 7 analysis. This project was canceled.

  8. Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, 1984 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darling, James E.; Pajak, Paul; Wunderlich, Mary P.

    1984-12-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effects of Kerr Dam operations on the fisheries of the Lower Flathead System. Supported by Bonneville Power Administration funding, and conducted by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, the study began in December of 1982 and is scheduled for completion in December of 1987. This report covers the 1983-84 field season and includes the status of target fish species populations in the Flathead River and tributaries, and initial work in South Bay of Flathead Lake. Additionally it addresses how Kerr operations may effect the reproduction of salmonids and northern pike. Combined trout population estimates for rainbow, brown, brook, and bull trout, averaged 13 fish/km of the lower Flathead River. The number of bull trout and cutthroat trout captured was so low that estimation of their individual populations was not possible. An interim closure to trout harvest on the lower Flathead River was recommended and approved by the Tribal Council until study results can be further analyzed and management options reviewed. Population estimates for northern pike ranged from six/kilometer in poorer habitat, to one hundred three/km in the best habitat in the main Flathead River. Seven pike were radio tagged and their movements monitored. Movements of over 89 km were recorded. One fish left the Flathead River and moved down the Clark Fork to the Plains area. Fish weirs were constructed on the Jocko River and Mission Creek to assess spawning runs of trout from the main river. Thirty-two adult rainbow passed the Jocko weir and twenty-eight passed the Mission weir during the spring spawning season. Twenty adult brown trout were captured at the Jocko weir and five at Mission weir in the fall. The Jocko weir suffered minor damage due to bed load movement during high flows of spring runoff. The structure of trout populations in the lower Flathead River points to spawning and recruitment problems caused by hydroelectric operations and sedimentation. Among the consequences of the present operational regime are constant, rapid changes in river discharge during spawning and Incubation seasons of trout species present in the lower river. Hamilton and Buell (1976) reported that similar fluctuation might exceed tolerance limits of adults and inhibit spawning behavior, dewater redds, strand fry, and displace juveniles to habitats less suitable for survival. Similar problems are felt to exist on the lower river. Constant fluctuations over backwater vegetation have been linked to major problems in successful northern pike spawning and recruitment by preventing access to spawning sites, and dewatering eggs and attached fry. Phase I of the South Bay investigation was completed this year resulting in a detailed study program for the next three years. Dominant habitat types were mapped, and physical habitat and biological monitoring methods were evaluated and selected. Permanent habitat transects, water quality stations, fish sampling, gillnetting, seining, and trapping sites were established.

  9. Kootenai River Biological Baseline Status Report : Annual Report, 1996.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, Diana

    1997-02-01

    The Kootenai River ecosystem in Idaho, Montana and British Columbia (B.C.) Canada has been severely degraded during the past 50 years. This aquatic ecosystem has changed from one that was culturally eutrophic, to one that is oligotrophic due to channelization, diking, impoundment (construction and operation of Libby Dam), and pollution abatement measures in the watershed. As a result of these influences, flow regimes, temperature patterns, and water quality were altered, resulting in changes in primary production and aquatic insect and fish populations. Construction of Libby Dam (creation of Lake Koocanusa) and closure of Cominco`s fertilizer plant resulted in decreased phosphorus load to the Kootenai River to below historical levels. Dissolved orthophosphorus concentrations averaged 0.383 mg/L in 1970 as compared to 0.039 mg/L in 1979. Total phosphorus concentrations followed a similar pattern. Both total phosphorus and soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations remained below 0.05 mg/L from 1976 to 1994, characterizing the river as oligotrophic. Post Libby Dam primary productivity levels in the river represent an ultra-oligotrophic to mesotrophic system. Since the construction and operation of Libby Dam, invertebrate densities immediately downstream from the dam increased, but species diversity decreased. Insect diversity increased with increasing distance from the dam, but overall species diversity was lower than would be expected in a free-flowing river. Fish species composition and abundance has also changed as a result of the changes in the river and its watershed.

  10. An ecosystem approach to fish and wildlife conservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roeper, N.

    1995-12-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife (Service) has embraced an ecosystem approach as a more effective way to protect and conserve the nation`s wildlife and the habitat upon which it depends. This does not represent a sharp reversal in our past policies. Rather, it formalizes, builds upon, and expands past efforts that were already moving away from short-term fixes and toward long-term solutions; away from artificially mimicking natural processes and towards restoration of natural processes. The Service reorganized nationwide and established cross-program watershed-based teams to overcome internal barriers and to better incorporate input from our partners. Although watershed are an important way to delineate boundaries, boundaries are actually issue-dependent and therefore quite fluid. Two examples of an ecosystem approach demonstrate the Service`s commitment to policies, decisions, and actions that are based on ecological principles, stress prevention over restoration, support long-term solutions based on natural time scales and over large geographic areas, and consider input from our partners.

  11. Report on the remedial investigation of Bear Creek Valley at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 6: Appendix G -- Baseline ecological risk assessment report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Report characterizes the nature and extent of contamination, evaluates the fate and transport of contaminants, and assesses risk to human health and the environment resulting from waste disposal and other US Department of Energy (DOE) operations in Bear Creek Valley (BCV). BCV, which is located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes arising from operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary waste units discussed in this RI Report are the S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm (OLF), Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), Sanitary Landfill 1 (SL 1), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). These waste units, plus the contaminated media resulting from environmental transport of the wastes from these units, are the subject of this RI. This BCV RI Report represents the first major step in the decision-making process for the BCV watershed. The RI results, in concert with the follow-on FS will form the basis for the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision for all BCV sites. This comprehensive decision document process will meet the objectives of the watershed approach for BCV. Appendix G contains ecological risks for fish, benthic invertebrates, soil invertebrates, plants, small mammals, deer, and predator/scavengers (hawks and fox). This risk assessment identified significant ecological risks from chemicals in water, sediment, soil, and shallow ground water. Metals and PCBs are the primary contaminants of concern.

  12. Holocene Paleohydrology of the tropical andes from lake records

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbott, M. B., LLNL

    1997-03-03

    Two century-scale time series in northern Bolivia constrain the ages of abrupt changes in the physical, geochemical, and biological characteristics of sediments obtained from lakes that formed during deglaciation from the late Pleistocene glacial maximum. The watersheds of Laguna Viscachani (16{degrees}12`S, 68{degrees}07`W, 3780m) and Lago Taypi Chaka Kkota (16{degrees}13`S, 68{degrees}21`W, 4300m), located on the eastern and western slopes of the Cordillera Real, respectively, contain small cirque glaciers. A high-resolution chronology of the lake sediments is provided by 23 AMS {sup 14}C dates of discrete macro-fossils. Late Pleistocene glaciers retreated rapidly, exposing the lake basins between 10,700 and 9700 {sup 14}C yr B.P. The sedimentary facies suggest that after 8900 {sup 14}C B.P. glaciers were absent from the watersheds and remained so during the middle Holocene. An increase in the precipitation-evaporation balance is indicated above unconformities dated to about 2300 {sup 14}C yr B.P. in both Lago Taypi Chaka Kkota and Laguna Viscachani. An abrupt increase in sediment accumulation rated after 1400 {sup 14}C yr B.P. signals the onset of Neoglaciation. A possible link exists between the observed millennial-scale shifts in the regional precipitation- evaporation balance and seasonal shifts in tropical insolation.

  13. Survival and distribution of Vibrio cholerae in a tropical rain forest stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Rosas, N.; Hazen, T.C.

    1988-12-31

    For 12 months Vibrio cholerae and fecal coliforms were monitored along with 9 other water quality parameters at 12 sites in a rain forest watershed in Puerto Rico. Densities of V. cholerae and fecal coliforms were not significantly correlated even though the highest densities of both bacteria were found at a sewage outfall. High densities of V. cholerae were also found at pristine sites high in the watershed. V. cholerae and Escherichia coli were inoculated into membrane diffusion chambers, placed at two sites and monitored for 5 days on two different occasions. Two different direct count methods indicated that the density of E. coli and V. cholerae did not change significantly during the course of either study. Physiological activity, as measured by INT-reduction and relative nucleic acid composition declined for E. coli during the first 12 h then increased and remained variable during the remainder of the study. V. cholerae activity, as measured by relative nucleic acid concentrations, remained high and unchanged for the entire study. INT-reduction in V. cholerae declined initially but regained nearly all of it`s original activity within 48 h. This study suggests that V. cholerae is an indigenous organism in tropical freshwaters and that assays other than fecal coliforms or E. coli must be used for assessing public health risk in tropical waters.

  14. The effects of a stannous chloride-based remediation system in a mercury contaminated stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathews, Teresa J; Looney, Brian; BryanJr., Larry; Smith, John G; Miller, Carrie L; Peterson, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Remediation of mercury (Hg)-contaminated watersheds is often challenging because of the complex nature of Hg biogeochemistry. Stream ecosystems have been shown to be particularly susceptible to Hg contamination and bioaccumulation in fish. Decreasing total Hg loading to stream systems, however, has shown variable performance in decreasing Hg concentrations in fish tissues. In this study, we assess the impacts of an innovative treatment system in reducing releases of Hg to a small stream system in the southeastern United States. The treatment system, installed in 2007, removes Hg from water using tin (Sn) (II) chloride followed by air stripping. Mercury concentrations in the receiving stream, Tims Branch, decreased from > 100 to ~10 ng/L in the four years following treatment, and Hg body burdens in redfin pickerel (Esox americanus) decreased by 70 % at the most contaminated site. Tin concentrations in water and fish increased significantly in the tributary leading to Tims Branch, but concentrations remain below levels of concern for human health or ecological risks. While other studies have shown that Sn may be environmentally methylated and methyltin can transfer its methyl group to Hg, results from our field studies and sediment incubation experiments suggest that the added Sn to the Tims Branch watershed is not contributing to MeHg production and bioaccumulation. The stannous chloride treatment system installed at Tims Branch was effective at removing Hg inputs and reducing Hg bioaccumulation in the stream with minimal impacts on the environment due to the increased Sn in the system.

  15. Ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch, 1991--1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryon, M.G.

    1996-09-01

    The 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) required assessment of all current and former solid waste management units. Following guidelines under RCRA and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a remedial investigation (RI) was required of the Y-12 Plant for their filled coal ash pond (FCAP) and associated areas on McCoy Branch. The RI process was initiated and assessments were presented. Because the disposal of coal ash in the ash pond, McCoy Branch, and Rogers Quarry was not consistent with the Tennessee Water Quality Act, several remediation steps were implemented between 1986 and 1994 for McCoy Branch to address disposal problems. The required ecological risk assessments of McCoy Branch watershed included provisions for biological monitoring of the watershed. The objectives of the biological monitoring were to (1) document changes in biological quality of McCoy Branch after completion of a pipeline bypassing upper McCoy Branch and further, after termination of all discharges to Rogers Quarry, (2) provide guidance on the need for additional remediation, and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of implemented remedial actions. The data from the biological monitoring program may also determine whether the goals of protection of human health and the environment of McCoy Branch are being accomplished.

  16. Water Data Report: An Annotated Bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Melody, Moya

    2007-05-01

    This report and its accompanying Microsoft Excel workbooksummarize water data we found to support efforts of the EnvironmentalProtection Agency s WaterSense program. WaterSense aims to extend theoperating life of water and wastewater treatment facilities and prolongthe availability of water resourcesby reducing residential andcommercial water consumption through the voluntary replacement ofinefficient water-using products with more efficient ones. WaterSense hasan immediate need for water consumption data categorized by sector and,for the residential sector, per capita data available by region. Thisinformation will assist policy makers, water and wastewater utilityplanners, and others in defining and refining program possibilities.Future data needs concern water supply, wastewater flow volumes, waterquality, and watersheds. This report focuses primarily on the immediateneed for data regarding water consumption and product end-use. We found avariety of data on water consumption at the national, state, andmunicipal levels. We also found several databases related towater-consuming products. Most of the data are available in electronicform on the Web pages of the data-collecting organizations. In addition,we found national, state, and local data on water supply, wastewater,water quality, and watersheds.

  17. Water use and supply concerns for utility-scale solar projects in the Southwestern United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Reno, Marissa Devan; Moreland, Barbara D.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Macknick, Jordan

    2013-07-01

    As large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are currently being built and planned for locations in the U.S. with the greatest solar resource potential, an understanding of water use for construction and operations is needed as siting tends to target locations with low natural rainfall and where most existing freshwater is already appropriated. Using methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine water used in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance, an estimate of water used over the lifetime at the solar power plant is determined and applied to each watershed in six Southwestern states. Results indicate that that PV systems overall use little water, though construction usage is high compared to O&M water use over the lifetime of the facility. Also noted is a transition being made from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities that will significantly reduce operational water use at these facilities. Using these water use factors, estimates of future water demand for current and planned solar development was made. In efforts to determine where water could be a limiting factor in solar energy development, water availability, cost, and projected future competing demands were mapped for the six Southwestern states. Ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability.

  18. Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachel Henderson

    2007-09-30

    The project is titled 'Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations'. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is the principal investigator and the IOGCC has partnered with ALL Consulting, Inc., headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in this project. State agencies that also have partnered in the project are the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, the Montana Board of Oil and Gas Conservation, the Kansas Oil and Gas Conservation Division, the Oklahoma Oil and Gas Conservation Division and the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. The objective is to characterize produced water quality and management practices for the handling, treating, and disposing of produced water from conventional oil and gas operations throughout the industry nationwide. Water produced from these operations varies greatly in quality and quantity and is often the single largest barrier to the economic viability of wells. The lack of data, coupled with renewed emphasis on domestic oil and gas development, has prompted many experts to speculate that the number of wells drilled over the next 20 years will approach 3 million, or near the number of current wells. This level of exploration and development undoubtedly will draw the attention of environmental communities, focusing their concerns on produced water management based on perceived potential impacts to fresh water resources. Therefore, it is imperative that produced water management practices be performed in a manner that best minimizes environmental impacts. This is being accomplished by compiling current best management practices for produced water from conventional oil and gas operations and to develop an analysis tool based on a geographic information system (GIS) to assist in the understanding of watershed-issued permits. That would allow management costs to be kept in line with the specific projects and regions, which increases the productive life of wells and increases the ultimate recoverable reserves in the ground. A case study was conducted in Wyoming to validate the applicability of the GIS analysis tool for watershed evaluations under real world conditions. Results of the partnered research will continue to be shared utilizing proven methods, such as on the IGOCC Web site, preparing hard copies of the results, distribution of documented case studies, and development of reference and handbook components to accompany the interactive internet-based GIS watershed analysis tool. Additionally, there have been several technology transfer seminars and presentations. The goal is to maximize the recovery of our nation's energy reserves and to promote water conservation.

  19. Identifying and Mitigating Potential Nutrient and Sediment Hot Spots under a Future Scenario in the Missouri River Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, May; Zhang, Zhonglong

    2015-09-01

    Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for large-scale watershed modeling could be useful for evaluating the quality of the water in regions that are dominated by nonpoint sources in order to identify potential “hot spots” for which mitigating strategies could be further developed. An analysis of water quality under future scenarios in which changes in land use would be made to accommodate increased biofuel production was developed for the Missouri River Basin (MoRB) based on a SWAT model application. The analysis covered major agricultural crops and biofuel feedstock in the MoRB, including pasture land, hay, corn, soybeans, wheat, and switchgrass. The analysis examined, at multiple temporal and spatial scales, how nitrate, organic nitrogen, and total nitrogen; phosphorus, organic phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus, and total phosphorus; suspended sediments; and water flow (water yield) would respond to the shifts in land use that would occur under proposed future scenarios. The analysis was conducted at three geospatial scales: (1) large tributary basin scale (two: Upper MoRB and Lower MoRB); (2) regional watershed scale (seven: Upper Missouri River, Middle Missouri River, Middle Lower Missouri River, Lower Missouri River, Yellowstone River, Platte River, and Kansas River); and (3) eight-digit hydrologic unit (HUC-8) subbasin scale (307 subbasins). Results showed that subbasin-level variations were substantial. Nitrogen loadings decreased across the entire Upper MoRB, and they increased in several subbasins in the Lower MoRB. Most nitrate reductions occurred in lateral flow. Also at the subbasin level, phosphorus in organic, sediment, and soluble forms was reduced by 35%, 45%, and 65%, respectively. Suspended sediments increased in 68% of the subbasins. The water yield decreased in 62% of the subbasins. In the Kansas River watershed, the water quality improved significantly with regard to every nitrogen and phosphorus compound. The improvement was clearly attributable to the conversion of a large amount of land to switchgrass. The Middle Lower Missouri River and Lower Missouri River were identified as hot regions. Further analysis identified four subbasins (10240002, 10230007, 10290402, and 10300200) as being the most vulnerable in terms of sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus loadings. Overall, results suggest that increasing the amount of switchgrass acreage in the hot spots should be considered to mitigate the nutrient loads. The study provides an analytical method to support stakeholders in making informed decisions that balance biofuel production and water sustainability.

  20. Analysis of Flood Hazards for the Materials and Fuels Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skaggs, Richard; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Waichler, Scott R.; Kim, Taeyun; Ward, Duane L.

    2010-11-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a flood hazard analysis for the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) site located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site in southeastern Idaho. The general approach for the analysis was to determine the maximum water elevation levels associated with the design-basis flood (DBFL) and compare them to the floor elevations at critical building locations. Two DBFLs for the MFC site were developed using different precipitation inputs: probable maximum precipitation (PMP) and 10,000 year recurrence interval precipitation. Both precipitation inputs were used to drive a watershed runoff model for the surrounding upland basins and the MFC site. Outflows modeled with the Hydrologic Engineering Centers Hydrologic Modeling System were input to the Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System hydrodynamic flood routing model.

  1. Attainment of the spirit of NEPA: A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergstrom, D.J. ); Kott, F.J. )

    1993-01-01

    Great Lakes Gas Transmission Company recently undertook a major expansion of their interstate natural gas pipeline system. The environmental permitting process for this large (460 mile), multi-state construction project exemplified the pervasiveness of the spirit of NEPA in dozens of federal, state, and local jurisdictional agencies, as well as associated organizations which lacked permitting authority but which took an active interest in the permitting process. Additionally, approvals from watershed districts, county zoning offices, and military preserves were obtained. Permit applications and agency consultations were complex and extremely labor-intensive. Overlapping jurisdictional authority turned permit acquisition into a labyrinth for which progress needed to be tracked weekly, and interagency logjams proved to be problematic. One specific example involved an archaeological site at the edge of a wetland under an eagle's nest. While the efficiency of multiple agencies administering NEPA is questionable, there seems little doubt as to the efficacy of the spirit of NEPA in this geographic region.

  2. Contaminant signature at Los Alamos firing sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, N.; Irvine, J.

    1996-01-01

    During a dynamic weapons test, a weapons component is either explosively detonated or impacted against a target in the open air environment. This results in both the production of a wide size range of depleted uranium particles as well as particle scattering over a considerable distance away from the firing pad. The explosive detonation process which creates aerial distribution over a watershed distinguishes this contaminant transport problem from others where the source term is spatially discrete. Investigations of this contamination began in 1983 with collection of onsite soils, sediments, and rock samples to establish uranium concentrations. The samples were analyzed for total uranium to evaluate the magnitude of transport of uranium away from firing sites by airborne and surface water runoff mechanisms. This data was then used to define a firing site.

  3. Hydrologic transport of depleted uranium associated with open air dynamic range testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, N.M.; Vanta, E.B.

    1995-05-01

    Hydrologic investigations on depleted uranium fate and transport associated with dynamic testing activities were instituted in the 1980`s at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base. At Los Alamos, extensive field watershed investigations of soil, sediment, and especially runoff water were conducted. Eglin conducted field investigations and runoff studies similar to those at Los Alamos at former and active test ranges. Laboratory experiments complemented the field investigations at both installations. Mass balance calculations were performed to quantify the mass of expended uranium which had transported away from firing sites. At Los Alamos, it is estimated that more than 90 percent of the uranium still remains in close proximity to firing sites, which has been corroborated by independent calculations. At Eglin, we estimate that 90 to 95 percent of the uranium remains at test ranges. These data demonstrate that uranium moves slowly via surface water, in both semi-arid (Los Alamos) and humid (Eglin) environments.

  4. Supplement Analysis for the Wildlife Mitigation Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0246/SA-39)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2004-02-02

    BPA funds the Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Program, which is tasked with the acquisition and restoration of key habitats within the Pend Oreille Watershed. This mitigation program purchases private land to be owned and managed by program participants for the protection, mitigation, and enhancement of wildlife affected by the construction and operation of the Federal hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River. BPA is currently working with the Kalispel Tribe of Indians to acquire and manage three parcels that total approximately 890 acres of land within Pend Oreille County, Washington. The properties proposed for acquisition contain habitats or potential habitats that will provide BPA with credits for partial mitigation of wildlife habitat losses due to the construction of Albeni Falls Dam. The current proposal includes only the fee title acquisition of these parcels; habitat enhancement activities will likely be carried out by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in the future following the development of a management plan(s) for the lands.

  5. QER- Comment of Jennifer Markens 6

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hello, I am writing in concern about efforts by Kinder Morgan to locate in conservation lands along the Northern area of Massachusetts. These lands are the watershed for our whole state, and this infiltration by two gas investment companies: Northeast Utilities and Kinder Morgan is dangerous to our state's water, and violate the rights of our small state to a clean, safe environment. Further, these lands, and the donations that support them are our state heritage. And there are further concerns. Massachusetts is about to find out what the term "resource curse" means. At the moment, Massachusetts has abundant water. The Marcellus shale is our near neighbor. Our watersheds are now under assault. This is happening right now, in all of Massachusetts' watersheds. Northeast Utilities, now a Connecticut gas investment company, appears to be working aggressively with investment company, Texas –based, Kinder Morgan to gain control of water in Massachusetts. The proposed gas pipeline is using monopoly owned electrical grids to snake through protected aquifers and watersheds, with pipelines known to carry radioactive gas from the Marcellus, along with benzene, neurotoxins, and endocrine disrupting chemicals. Pipelines leak. They also explode. Blast zones created by high pressure, high volume gas pipelines, running adjacent to high voltage, direct current ,electrical cables, are deliberately planned to run right through populated areas. This will gut rural community economies, reducing property values, making sure there is less public oversight of these regions, while placing these areas under the control of privately owned gas investment entities. The gas industry is exempt from clean air, clean water, and clean drinking water legislation. If gas is so clean and safe, why is that necessary? . The idea of "cheap gas" is a falsehood. Gas extraction comes at an exorbitant price: billions of gallons of drinking water, necessary for human life, are destroyed for each well head created. In order to keep up with current demand, thousands of new wells must be drilled each year, as older wells decline in production. And that's for U.S. demand: worldwide demand is immanent. Disposal of ruined drinking water is also a problem, and significant amounts of this chemically poisoned, ruined water are dumped into public waterways, even across state borders, or are pumped and dumped back into the ground. Fifty percent of our nation is currently experiencing severe drought. Gas pipelines proposed for the state are as much a grab for Massachusetts' water and water regions, as it is to set up a shipping route for gas investment interests abroad. Our urban legislators and officials may be vulnerable to gas investment lobbying: hence the limp legislative response on fixing existing gas leaks that have bilked over 1 billion dollars from ratepayers, and flouted DPU authority. Water treatment plants cannot address the toxicity of ruined water, and unless Massachusetts citizens don't want to be used as human filters by gas industry investment greed, this had better be stopped. Please stop this. It makes a mockery of every environmental effort of our state a region, and is completely unnecessary. Sincerely, Jennie Markens Best regards, Jennie Markens

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Pelosinus sp. Strain UFO1 Assembled Using Single-Molecule Real-Time DNA Sequencing Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven D. Brown; Sagar M. Utturkar; Timothy S. Magnuson; Allison E. Ray; Farris L. Poole; W. Andrew Lancaster; Michael P. Thorgersen; Michael W. W. Adams; Dwayne A. Elias

    2014-09-01

    Pelosinus fermentans strain R7 was isolated from Russian kaolin clays as the type strain and it can reduce Fe(III) during fermentative growth (1). Draft genome sequences for P. fermentans R7 and four strains from Hanford, Washington, USA, have been published (24). The P. fermentans 16S rRNA sequence dominated the lactate-based enrichment cultures from three geochemically contrasting soils from the Melton Branch Watershed, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA (5) and also at another stimulated, uraniumcontaminated field site near Oak Ridge (6). For the current work, strain UFO1 was isolated from pristine sediments at a background field site in Oak Ridge and characterized as facilitating U(VI) reduction and precipitation with phosphate (7).

  7. Comparison of ground-derived and satellite-derived surface energy fluxes from a shrub-steppe site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkham, R.R.; Gee, G.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Fritschen, L.J. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Efforts to measure evapotranspiration (ET) remotely are common in agriculture, and the application of such data to irrigation scheduling is readily apparent. Extending this methodology to arid environments is primarily of use as a mechanism for validation of ET algorithms used in large-scale watershed and global climate change modeling efforts. To facilitate testing of the remote sensing method for ET, measurements of sensible and latent heat flux were made at four sites located on the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site using a combination of lysimeter and Bowen Ratio Energy Balance (BREB) stations. The objective was to calibrate an aerodynamic transport equation that relates sensible heat flux to radiant surface temperature, and to map sensible heat flux using Landsat data.

  8. Vegetation regulation on streamflow intra-annual variability through adaption to climate variations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Sheng; Li, Hongyi; Li, Shuai; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Demissie, Yonas; Ran, Qihua; Blschl, Gnter

    2015-12-16

    This study aims to provide a mechanistic explanation of the empirical patterns of streamflow intra-annual variability revealed by watershed-scale hydrological data across the contiguous United States. A mathematical extension of the Budyko formula with explicit account for the soil moisture storage change is used to show that, in catchments with a strong seasonal coupling between precipitation and potential evaporation, climate aridity has a dominant control on intra-annual streamflow variability, but in other catchments, additional factors related to soil water storage change also have important controls on how precipitation seasonality propagates to streamflow. More importantly, use of leaf area index as a direct and indirect indicator of the above ground biomass and plant root system, respectively, reveals the vital role of vegetation in regulating soil moisture storage and hence streamflow intra-annual variability under different climate conditions.

  9. Mapping the Energy-Water Nexus around the Pacific Rim

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent C.; Moreland, Barbara Denise

    2016-01-01

    The energy-water nexus has been mapped for almost 12,000 watersheds distributed across the 21-economies comprising the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Water consumption for energy production was estimated for 9 different sectors including thermoelectric and hydroelectric power; energy extraction including coal, oil, natural gas, uranium and unconventional oil/gas; and, energy processing including oil and biofuels. Conversely, the energy consumed providing water services was mapped for three sectors, drinking water, waste water and seawater desalination. These measures of resource use were put in context by drawing comparison with published measures of water risk. The objective of the mapping was to quantify the energy-water nexus and its variability at the subnational level, pinpoint potential vulnerabilities, and identify opportunities for international collaboration.

  10. Complete genome sequence of Pelosinus sp. strain UFO1 assembled using single-molecule real-time DNA sequencing technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Steven D.; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Magnuson, Timothy S.; Ray, Allison E.; Poole, Farris L.; Lancaster, W. Andrew; Thorgersen, Michael P.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2014-09-04

    Pelosinus fermentans strain R7 was isolated from Russian kaolin clays as the type strain and it can reduce Fe(III) during fermentative growth (1). Draft genome sequences for P. fermentans R7 and four strains from Hanford, Washington, USA, have been published (24). The P. fermentans 16S rRNA sequence dominated the lactate-based enrichment cultures from three geochemically contrasting soils from the Melton Branch Watershed, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA (5) and also at another stimulated, uraniumcontaminated field site near Oak Ridge (6). For the current work, strain UFO1 was isolated from pristine sediments at a background field site in Oak Ridge and characterized as facilitating U(VI) reduction and precipitation with phosphate (7).

  11. Complete genome sequence of Pelosinus sp. strain UFO1 assembled using single-molecule real-time DNA sequencing technology

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brown, Steven D.; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Magnuson, Timothy S.; Ray, Allison E.; Poole, Farris L.; Lancaster, W. Andrew; Thorgersen, Michael P.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2014-09-04

    Pelosinus fermentans strain R7 was isolated from Russian kaolin clays as the type strain and it can reduce Fe(III) during fermentative growth (1). Draft genome sequences for P. fermentans R7 and four strains from Hanford, Washington, USA, have been published (2–4). The P. fermentans 16S rRNA sequence dominated the lactate-based enrichment cultures from three geochemically contrasting soils from the Melton Branch Watershed, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA (5) and also at another stimulated, uraniumcontaminated field site near Oak Ridge (6). For the current work, strain UFO1 was isolated from pristine sediments at a background field site in Oak Ridge and characterizedmore » as facilitating U(VI) reduction and precipitation with phosphate (7).« less

  12. Hangman Restoration Project Year-End Report FY2008.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coeur d'Alene Tribe Department of Natural Resources.

    2008-11-12

    This report covers the main goals of FY2008 from which the Work Elements were derived. The goals and products are listed by heading and the associated work elements are referenced in the text. A list of the FY2008 Work Elements is included as Appendix A. FY2008 witnessed the completion of the hntkwipn Management Plan and the first substantive efforts to restore the important habitats encompassed by the mitigation properties in the Upper Hangman Watershed. Native grasses were planted and germination was evaluated. Also, drain tiles that greatly altered the hydrologic function of the Sheep and Hangman Creek Flood Plains were removed and/or disrupted. Preparation for future restoration efforts were also made in FY2008. Designs were produced for the realignment of Sheep Creek and the decommissioning of seven drainage ditches within hntkwipn. A prioritization plan was drafted that greatly expands the area of focus for restoring native fish population in Hangman Creek.

  13. MTV Utility Library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-02-29

    The MSV Java Utility Library contains software developed over many years for many sponsors. (This work is not a derivative of CB-EMIS), but rather support to the CB-EMIS software). Projects that have used and contributed to code in this library: CB-EMIS (PROTECT), BWIC, Fort Future, Teva, Integrated Oceans, ENKIMDU, RCW, JEMS, JWACS, EPA watershed, and many others. This library will continue to be used in other non-CB-EMIS related projects. The components include: Spatial components: Multi-coordinatemore » system spatial objects. 2D spatial indexing system, and polygon griding system. Data translation: Allows import and export of file based data to and from object oriented systems. Multi-platform data streams: Allows platform specific data streams to operate on any support platform. Other items include printing, custom GUI components, support for NIMA Raster Product Format, program logging utilities and others.« less

  14. H. R. 4804: A bill to amend titles I, II, IV and V of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, and to add a new title X, to encourage the remining and reclamation of abandoned mined lands by active mining operations, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, June 14, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Surface coal mining operations can be effective in the reclamation of abandoned mined lands and are being encouraged by the amendments to the existing Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. The new section X - Remining spells out the authority of the Secretary of the Interior to enter into agreements with mining companies to use excess spoil from an active surface mine to reclaim an abandoned site, to develop a bond guarantee program whereby the operators may be compensated with reclamation bond credits for up to 80% of the reclamation costs incurred, and to make funds available on a matching basis to states or tribes to collect certain geologic and hydrologic data for watersheds or regions adversely affected by past coal mining abuses for the use of regulatory authorities to assist applicants for surface mining permits within such areas.

  15. Ecological and Cultural Importance of a Species at Risk of Extinction, Pacific Lamprey, 1964-2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Close, David A.

    2002-07-01

    The cultural and ecological values of Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) have not been understood by Euro-Americans and thus their great decline has almost gone unnoticed except by Native Americans, who elevated the issue and initiated research to restore its populations, at least in the Columbia Basin. They regard Pacific lamprey as a highly valued resource and as a result ksuyas (lamprey) has become one of their cultural icons. Ksuyas are harvested to this day as a subsistence food by various tribes along the Pacific coast and are highly regarded for their cultural value. Interestingly, our review suggests that the Pacific lamprey plays an important role in the food web, may have acted as a buffer for salmon from predators, and may have been an important source of marine nutrients to oligotrophic watersheds. This is very different from the Euro-American perception that lampreys are pests. We suggest that cultural biases affected management policies.

  16. Pine Creek Ranch, FY 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, Mark E.

    2001-11-01

    Pine Creek Ranch was purchased in 1999 by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs using Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation funds. The 25,000 acre property will be managed in perpetuity for the benefit of fish and wildlife habitat. Major issues include: (1) Restoring quality spawning and rearing habitat for stealhead. Streams are incised and fish passage barriers exist from culverts and possibly beaver dams. In addition to stealhead habitat, the Tribes are interested in overall riparian recovery in the John Day River system for wildlife habitat, watershed values and other values such as recreation. (2) Future grazing for specific management purposes. Past grazing practices undoubtedly contributed to current unacceptable conditions. The main stem of Pine Creek has already been enrolled in the CREP program administered by the USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service in part because of the cost-share for vegetation restoration in a buffer portion of old fields and in part because of rental fees that will help the Tribes to pay the property taxes. Grazing is not allowed in the riparian buffer for the term of the contract. (3) Noxious weeds are a major concern. (4) Encroachment by western juniper throughout the watershed is a potential concern for the hydrology of the creek. Mark Berry, Habitat Manager, for the Pine Creek Ranch requested the Team to address the following objectives: (1) Introduce some of the field staff and others to Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) assessments and concepts. (2) Do a PFC assessment on approximately 10 miles of Pine Creek. (3) Offer management recommendations. (4) Provide guidelines for monitoring.

  17. Report on the remedial investigation of Bear Creek Valley at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendix A -- Waste sites, source terms, and waste inventory report; Appendix B -- Description of the field activities and report database; Appendix C -- Characterization of hydrogeologic setting report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Report characterizes the nature and extent of contamination, evaluates the fate and transport of contaminants, and assesses risk to human health and the environment resulting from waste disposal and other US Department of Energy (DOE) operations in Bear Creek Valley (BCV). BCV, which is located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes arising from operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary waste units discussed in this RI Report are the S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm (OLF), Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), Sanitary Landfill 1 (SL 1), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). These waste units, plus the contaminated media resulting from environmental transport of the wastes from these units, are the subject of this RI. This BCV RI Report represents the first major step in the decision-making process for the BCV watershed. The RI results, in concert with the follow-on FS will form the basis for the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision for all BCV sites. This comprehensive decision document process will meet the objectives of the watershed approach for BCV. Appendix A includes descriptions of waste areas and estimates of the current compositions of the wastes. Appendix B contains an extensive database of environmental data for the Bear Creek Valley Characterization Area. Information is also presented about the number and location of samples collected, the analytes examined, and the extent of data validation. Appendix C describes the hydrogeologic conceptual model for Bear Creek Valley. This model is one of the principal components of the conceptual site models for contaminant transport in BCV.

  18. Field sampling and analysis plan for the removal action at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-03-01

    The former YS-860 Firing Ranges are located at the eastern end of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant outside the primary facility fence line and west of Scarboro Road within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek watershed in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. A decision has been made by the US Department of Energy to conduct a removal action of lead-contaminated soils at this site as part of early source actions within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek watershed. This non-time critical removal action of bullets and lead-contaminated soil from the YS-860 Firing Ranges is being conducted as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 action. These actions are consistent with the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Restoration Program. The removal action will focus on the excavation of bullets and lead-contaminated soil from the shooting range berms, transportation of the material to a permitted treatment facility for disposal, demolition and land filling of a concrete trench and asphalt pathways at the site, and grading and revegetating of the entire site. This report is the field sampling and analysis plan for the removal action at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges. The field sampling and analysis plan addresses environmental sampling for lead after the removal of lead-contaminated soil from the target berm area. The objective of this sampling plan is to obtain sufficient analytical data to confirm that the removal action excavation has successfully reduced lead levels in soil to below the action level of 1,400 micrograms/g.

  19. Dispersal Limitations on Fish Community Recovery Following Long-term Water Quality Remediation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Jett, Robert T.; Ryon, Michael G.; Gregory, Scott M.; Stratton, Sally H.; Peterson, Mark J.

    2016-02-22

    Holistic restoration approaches, such as water quality remediation, are likely to meet conservation objectives because they are typically implemented at watershed scales, as opposed to individual stream reaches. However, habitat fragmentation may impose constraints on the ecological effectiveness of holistic restoration strategies by limiting colonization following remediation. We questioned the importance of dispersal limitations to fish community recovery following long-term water quality remediation and species reintroductions across the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed near Oak Ridge, Tennessee (USA). Long-term (26 years) responses in fish species richness and biomass to water quality remediation were evaluated in light of habitat fragmentation andmore » population isolation from instream barriers, which varied in their passage potential. In addition, ordination techniques were used to determine the relative importance of habitat connectivity and water quality, in explaining variation fish communities relative to environmental fluctuations, i.e. streamflow. Ecological recovery (changes in richness) at each site was negatively related to barrier index, a measure of community isolation by barriers relative to stream distance. Following species reintroductions, dispersal by fish species was consistently in the downstream direction and upstream passage above barriers was non-existent. The importance of barrier index in explaining variation in fish communities was stronger during higher flow conditions, but decreased over time an indication of increasing community stability and loss of seasonal migrants. Compared to habitat fragmentation, existing water quality concerns (i.e., outfalls, point source discharges) were unrelated to ecological recovery, but explained relatively high variation in community dynamics. Our results suggest that habitat fragmentation limited the ecological effectiveness of intensive water quality remediation efforts and fish reintroduction efforts by impeding recolonization at isolated stream reaches.« less

  20. 2011 Los Alamos National Laboratory Riparian Inventory Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, Elizabeth J.; Hansen, Leslie A.; Hathcock, Charles D.; Keller, David C.; Zemlick, Catherine M.

    2012-03-29

    A total length of 36.7 kilometers of riparian habitat were inventoried within LANL boundaries between 2007 and 2011. The following canyons and lengths of riparian habitat were surveyed and inventoried between 2007 and 2011. Water Canyon (9,669 m), Los Alamos Canyon (7,131 m), Pajarito Canyon (6,009 m), Mortandad Canyon (3,110 m), Two-Mile Canyon (2,680 m), Sandia Canyon (2,181 m), Three-Mile Canyon (1,883 m), Canyon de Valle (1,835 m), Ancho Canyon (1,143 m), Canada del Buey (700 m), Sandia Canyon (221 m), DP Canyon (159 m) and Chaquehui Canyon (50 m). Effluent Canyon, Fence Canyon and Potrillo Canyon were surveyed but no areas of riparian habitat were found. Stretches of inventoried riparian habitat were classified for prioritization of treatment, if any was recommended. High priority sites included stretches of Mortandad Canyon, LA Canyon, Pajarito Canyon, Two-Mile Canyon, Sandia Canyon and Water Canyon. Recommended treatment for high priority sites includes placement of objects into the stream channel to encourage sediment deposition, elimination of channel incision, and to expand and slow water flow across the floodplain. Additional stretches were classified as lower priority, and, for other sites it was recommended that feral cattle and exotic plants be removed to aid in riparian habitat recovery. In June 2011 the Las Conchas Wildfire burned over 150,000 acres of land in the Jemez Mountains and surrounding areas. The watersheds above LA Canyon, Water Canyon and Pajarito Canyon were burned in the Las Conchas Wildfire and flooding and habitat alteration were observed in these canyon bottoms (Wright 2011). Post fire status of lower priority areas may change to higher priority for some of the sites surveyed prior to the Las Conchas Wildfire, due to changes in vegetation cover in the adjacent upland watershed.

  1. The effects of a stannous chloride-based remediation system in a mercury contaminated stream

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mathews, Teresa J; Looney, Brian; BryanJr., Larry; Smith, John G; Miller, Carrie L; Peterson, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Remediation of mercury (Hg)-contaminated watersheds is often challenging because of the complex nature of Hg biogeochemistry. Stream ecosystems have been shown to be particularly susceptible to Hg contamination and bioaccumulation in fish. Decreasing total Hg loading to stream systems, however, has shown variable performance in decreasing Hg concentrations in fish tissues. In this study, we assess the impacts of an innovative treatment system in reducing releases of Hg to a small stream system in the southeastern United States. The treatment system, installed in 2007, removes Hg from water using tin (Sn) (II) chloride followed by air stripping. Mercury concentrations inmore » the receiving stream, Tims Branch, decreased from > 100 to ~10 ng/L in the four years following treatment, and Hg body burdens in redfin pickerel (Esox americanus) decreased by 70 % at the most contaminated site. Tin concentrations in water and fish increased significantly in the tributary leading to Tims Branch, but concentrations remain below levels of concern for human health or ecological risks. While other studies have shown that Sn may be environmentally methylated and methyltin can transfer its methyl group to Hg, results from our field studies and sediment incubation experiments suggest that the added Sn to the Tims Branch watershed is not contributing to MeHg production and bioaccumulation. The stannous chloride treatment system installed at Tims Branch was effective at removing Hg inputs and reducing Hg bioaccumulation in the stream with minimal impacts on the environment due to the increased Sn in the system.« less

  2. A multifactor analysis of fungal and bacterial community structure of the root microbiome of mature Populus deltoides trees

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shakya, Migun; Gottel, Neil R; Castro Gonzalez, Hector F; Yang, Zamin; Gunter, Lee E; Labbe, Jessy L; Muchero, Wellington; Bonito, Gregory; Vilgalys, Rytas; Tuskan, Gerald A; Podar, Mircea; Schadt, Christopher Warren

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal communities associated with plant roots are central to the host- health, survival and growth. However, a robust understanding of root-microbiome and the factors that drive host associated microbial community structure have remained elusive, especially in mature perennial plants from natural settings. Here, we investigated relationships of bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere and root endosphere of the riparian tree species Populus deltoides, and the influence of soil parameters, environmental properties (host phenotype and aboveground environmental settings), host plant genotype (Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers), season (Spring vs. Fall) and geographic setting (at scales from regional watersheds to local riparian zones) on microbial community structure. Each of the trees sampled displayed unique aspects to it s associated community structure with high numbers of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) specific to an individual trees (bacteria >90%, fungi >60%). Over the diverse conditions surveyed only a small number of OTUs were common to all samples within rhizosphere (35 bacterial and 4 fungal) and endosphere (1 bacterial and 1 fungal) microbiomes. As expected, Proteobacteria and Ascomycota were dominant in root communities (>50%) while other higher-level phylogenetic groups (Chytridiomycota, Acidobacteria) displayed greatly reduced abundance in endosphere compared to the rhizosphere. Variance partitioning partially explained differences in microbiome composition between all sampled roots on the basis of seasonal and soil properties (4% to 23%). While most variation remains unattributed, we observed significant differences in the microbiota between watersheds (Tennessee vs. North Carolina) and seasons (Spring vs. Fall). SSR markers clearly delineated two host populations associated with the samples taken in TN vs. NC, but overall genotypic distances did not have a significant effect on corresponding communities that could be separated from other measured effects.

  3. Bio-energy feedstock yields and their water quality benefits in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parajuli, Prem B.

    2011-08-10

    Cellulosic and agricultural bio-energy crops can, under careful management, be harvested as feedstock for bio-fuels production and provide environmental benefits. However, it is required to quantify their relative advantages in feedstock production and water quality. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate potential feedstock yield and water quality benefit scenarios of bioenergy crops: Miscanthus (Miscanthus-giganteus), Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), Soybean {Glycine max (L.) Merr.}, and Corn (Lea mays) in the Upper Pearl River watershed (UPRW), Mississippi using a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The SWAT model was calibrated (January 1981 to December 1994) and validated (January 1995 to September 2008) using monthly measured stream flow data. The calibrated and validated model determined good to very good performance for stream flow prediction (R2 and E from 0.60 to 0.86). The RMSE values (from 14 m3 s-1 to 37 m3 s-1) were estimated at similar levels of errors during model calibration and validation. The long-term average annual potential feedstock yield as an alternative energy source was determined the greatest when growing Miscanthus grass (373,849 Mg) as followed by Alfalfa (206,077 Mg), Switchgrass (132,077 Mg), Johnsongrass (47,576 Mg), Soybean (37,814 Mg), and Corn (22,069 Mg) in the pastureland and cropland of the watershed. Model results determined that average annual sediment yield from the Miscanthus grass scenario determined the least (1.16 Mg/ha) and corn scenario the greatest (12.04 Mg/ha). The SWAT model simulated results suggested that growing Miscanthus grass in the UPRW would have the greatest potential feedstock yield and water quality benefits.

  4. Addressing trend-related changes within cumulative effects studies in water resources planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canter, L.W.; Chawla, M.K.; Swor, C.T.

    2014-01-15

    Summarized herein are 28 case studies wherein trend-related causative physical, social, or institutional changes were connected to consequential changes in runoff, water quality, and riparian and aquatic ecological features. The reviewed cases were systematically evaluated relative to their identified environmental effects; usage of analytical frameworks, and appropriate models, methods, and technologies; and the attention given to mitigation and/or management of the resultant causative and consequential changes. These changes also represent important considerations in project design and operation, and in cumulative effects studies associated therewith. The cases were grouped into five categories: institutional changes associated with legislation and policies (seven cases); physical changes from land use changes in urbanizing watersheds (eight cases); physical changes from land use changes and development projects in watersheds (four cases); physical, institutional, and social changes from land use and related policy changes in river basins (three cases); and multiple changes within a comprehensive study of land use and policy changes in the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (six cases). A tabulation of 110 models, methods and technologies used in the studies is also presented. General observations from this review were that the features were unique for each case; the consequential changes were logically based on the causative changes; the analytical frameworks provided relevant structures for the studies, and the identified methods and technologies were pertinent for addressing both the causative and consequential changes. One key lesson was that the cases provide useful, “real-world” illustrations of the importance of addressing trend-related changes in cumulative effects studies within water resources planning. Accordingly, they could be used as an “initial tool kit” for addressing trend-related changes.

  5. Relative importance of multiple factors on terrestrial loading of DOC to Arctic river networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kicklighter, David W.; Hayes, Daniel J; Mcclelland, James W; Peterson, Bruce; Mcguire, David; Melillo, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial carbon dynamics influence the contribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to river networks in addition to controlling carbon fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere. In this study, we use a biogeochemical process model to simulate the lateral transfer of DOC from land to the Arctic Ocean via riverine transport. We estimate that the pan-arctic watershed has contributed, on average, 32 Tg C/yr of DOC to the Arctic Ocean over the 20th century with most coming from the extensive area of boreal deciduous needle-leaved forests and forested wetlands in Eurasian watersheds. We also estimate that the rate of terrestrial DOC loading has been increasing by 0.037 Tg C/yr2 over the 20th century primarily as a result of increases in air temperatures and precipitation. These increases have been partially compensated by decreases in terrestrial DOC loading caused by wildfires. Other environmental factors (CO2 fertilization, ozone pollution, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, timber harvest, agriculture) are estimated to have relatively small effects on terrestrial DOC loading to arctic rivers. The effects of the various environmental factors on terrestrial carbon dynamics have both compensated and enhanced concurrent effects on hydrology to influence terrestrial DOC loading. Future increases in riverine DOC concentrations and export may occur from warming-induced increases in terrestrial DOC production associated with enhanced microbial metabolism and the exposure of additional organic matter from permafrost degradation along with decreases in water yield associated with warming-induced increases in evapotranspiration. Improvements in simulating terrestrial DOC loading to pan-arctic rivers in the future will require better information on the spatial distribution of precipitation and its temporal trends, carbon dynamics of larch-dominated ecosystems in eastern Siberia, and the role of industrial organic effluents on carbon budgets of rivers in western Russia.

  6. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in macroinvertebrates living in stormwater wetlands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karouna, N.K.; Sparling, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    The design of stormwater wetlands and ponds as wildlife habitats has prompted concern over the potential uptake of runoff contaminants by aquatic fauna. Stormwater wetlands provide a diverse array of habitat for aquatic macroinvertebrates. The importance of macroinvertebrates in aquatic communities has been well documented. Aquatic macroinvertebrates also serve as a major food source of many aquatic vertebrates, including fish and birds. The objectives of the study were to: (1) examine the responses of the macroinvertebrate community to water and sediment concentrations of heavy metals, and other water quality parameters; (2) determine whether macroinvertebrates living in stormwater wetlands bioaccumulate significant concentrations of heavy metals; (3) relate the concentrations of heavy metals in sediment, water and macroinvertebrates to land use in the surrounding watershed; (4) determine sediment and water toxicity to macroinvertebrates. Twenty stormwater wetlands, representing four land uses commercial, residential, highway and control, were monitored in this study. Water quality parameters, including pH, DO, turbidity, conductivity, hardness and metal concentrations were monitored bi-weekly for six months. Sediment samples were collected three times during the same period. Macroinvertebrate communities were sampled during alternate weeks after water collections. Ten-day sediment bioassays were conducted using the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Preliminary data analyses have indicated no significant difference in sediment and water metal concentrations between land uses. However, Zn concentrations in macroinvertebrates were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in wetlands serving commercial watersheds than in those serving the remaining three land uses. No differences have been detected in composition of invertebrate communities due to land use category.

  7. An Analysis of Stream Culvert Fish Passage on the Navy Railroad Line between Bremerton and Shelton, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Christopher W.; Miller, Martin C.; Southard, John A.

    2004-10-25

    The Navy railroad service line runs between Shelton, Bremerton, and Silverdale, and is used by the Navy to transfer freight to its facilities. It is also used by commercial clients to ship service items and bulk cargo for municipalities along portions of the route. Culverts of various size and construction convey streams and stormwater runoff under the railroad line. These allow transfer of water and, in some cases allow for passage of juvenile and adult salmon into waters upstream of the culverts. As part of this project, 21 culverts along a 34-mile reach (Shelton to Bremerton) of this railroad were surveyed to evaluate their function and ability to allow salmon to utilize the streams. The culverts and attached watersheds were evaluated using criteria developed by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife to assign a Priority Index (PI) to barriers present on each fish-bearing stream. The PI is a relative numeric rating indicator, assigned using consistent criteria related to the degree of potential habitat gained by removing barriers and improving the function of the watershed. Of the 21 culverts evaluated, five were found to be complete fish-passage barriers and six were found to be partial barriers, primarily to juvenile salmon. Three of these culverts had PI ratings above 10 and five others had ratings between 7 and 10. Corrective action can be taken based on any PI rating, but the WDFW normally assigns lower priority to projects with PI scores lower than 15. Several of the stream and culverts had previously been evaluated for structural integrity and function and have been scheduled for repair. A narrative indicating the condition of the culvert has been prepared as well as a table indicating the PI scores and a summary of recommendations for action for each culvert.

  8. An Integrated Modeling and Data Management Strategy for Cellulosic Biomass Production Decisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David J. Muth Jr.; K. Mark Bryden; Joshua B. Koch

    2012-07-01

    Emerging cellulosic bioenergy markets can provide land managers with additional options for crop production decisions. Integrating dedicated bioenergy crops such as perennial grasses and short rotation woody species within the agricultural landscape can have positive impacts on several environmental processes including increased soil organic matter in degraded soils, reduced sediment loading in watersheds, lower green house gas (GHG) fluxes, and reduced nutrient loading in watersheds. Implementing this type of diverse bioenergy production system in a way that maximizes potential environmental benefits requires a dynamic integrated modeling and data management strategy. This paper presents a strategy for designing diverse bioenergy cropping systems within the existing row crop production landscape in the midwestern United States. The integrated model developed quantifies a wide range environmental processes including soil erosion from wind and water, soil organic matter changes, and soil GHG fluxes within a geospatial data management framework. This framework assembles and formats information from multiple spatial and temporal scales. The data assembled includes yield and productivity data from harvesting equipment at the 1m scale, surface topography data from LiDAR mapping at the less than 1m scale, soil data from US soil survey databases at the 10m to 100m scale, and climate data at the county scale. These models and data tools are assembled into an integrated computational environment that is used to determine sustainable removal rates for agricultural residues for bioenergy production at the sub-field scale under a wide range of land management practices. Using this integrated model, innovative management practices including cover cropping are then introduced and evaluated for their impact on bioenergy production and important environmental processes. The impacts of introducing dedicated energy crops onto high-risk landscape positions currently being manage in row crop production are also investigated.

  9. Hydrologic review services. Final project report, May 24--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoopes, J.A.

    1995-10-01

    Research on the runoff, sediment, and contaminant transport in Big Buck Canyon at the Los Alamos National Laboratory began in 1993. The final research goal is to estimate how fast and how much contaminated sediment is moving in the canyon. Due to equation of state experiments involving high explosives, soils in the vicinity of the three test sites have been contaminated with heavy metals such as uranium and cadmium. There are three main parts to the research that will eventually be combined to address the final goal of estimating total contaminant movement. The first part involves the collection and interpretation of experimental field data, such as rainfall and runoff amounts. The second part involves numerical modeling the watershed response to rainfall inputs. The third part involves experimental chemistry work to evaluate the concentration of contaminants in a representative sample of sediment. The details about the model development and testing are presented. The simulation of a large flood in 1991 did not compare well with observations of the event. The model seriously underpredicted the flow out of the watershed because the value of the hydraulic conductivity in the channel was too large. The infiltration of water into the channel bed, known as transmission losses, is a direct function of hydraulic conductivity. Field measurements of hydraulic conductivity yielded values that are much larger than those found in the literature. Consequently, the high input values of hydraulic conductivity produced model results that underestimated the flow. Future research on the process of transmission losses is recommended to resolve this issue and improve the accuracy of the model results.

  10. Brigham City Hydro Generation Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammons, Tom B.

    2015-10-31

    Brigham City owns and operates its own municipal power system which currently includes several hydroelectric facilities. This project was to update the efficiency and capacity of current hydro production due to increased water flow demands that could pass through existing generation facilities. During 2006-2012, this project completed efficiency evaluation as it related to its main objective by completing a feasibility study, undergoing necessary City Council approvals and required federal environmental reviews. As a result of Phase 1 of the project, a feasibility study was conducted to determine feasibility of hydro and solar portions of the original proposal. The results indicated that the existing Hydro plant which was constructed in the 1960’s was running at approximately 77% efficiency or less. Brigham City proposes that the efficiency calculations be refined to determine the economic feasibility of improving or replacing the existing equipment with new high efficiency equipment design specifically for the site. Brigham City completed the Feasibility Assessment of this project, and determined that the Upper Hydro that supplies the main culinary water to the city was feasible to continue with. Brigham City Council provided their approval of feasibility assessment’s results. The Upper Hydro Project include removal of the existing powerhouse equipment and controls and demolition of a section of concrete encased penstock, replacement of penstock just upstream of the turbine inlet, turbine bypass, turbine shut-off and bypass valves, turbine and generator package, control equipment, assembly, start-up, commissioning, Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA), and the replacement of a section of conductors to the step-up transformer. Brigham City increased the existing 575 KW turbine and generator with an 825 KW turbine and generator. Following the results of the feasibility assessment Brigham City pursued required environmental reviews with the DOE and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services (USFWS) concurring with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) It was determined that Brigham City’s Upper Hydroelectric Power Plant upgrade would have no effect to federally listed or candidate species. However Brigham City has contributed a onetime lump sum towards Bonneville cutthroat trout conservation in the Northern Bonneville Geographic Management Unit with the intention to offset any impacts from the Upper Hydro Project needed to move forward with design and construction and is sufficient for NEPA compliance. No work was done in the river or river bank. During construction, the penstock was disconnected and water was diverted through and existing system around the powerhouse and back into the water system. The penstock, which is currently a 30-inch steel pipe, would be removed and replaced with a new section of 30-inch pipe. Brigham City worked with the DOE and was awarded a new modification and the permission to proceed with Phase III of our Hydro Project in Dec. 2013; with the exception to the modification of the award for the construction phase. Brigham City developed and issued a Request for Proposal for Engineer and Design vendor. Sunrise Engineering was selected for the Design and throughout the Construction Phase of the Upper Hydroelectric Power Plant. Brigham City conducted a Kickoff Meeting with Sunrise June 28, 2013 and received a Scope of Work Brigham City along with engineering firm sent out a RFP for Turbine, Generator and Equipment for Upper Hydro. We select Turbine/Generator Equipment from Canyon Industries located in Deming, WA. DOE awarded Brigham City a new modification and the permission to proceed with Phase III Construction of our Hydro Project. Brigham City Crews removed existing turbine/generator and old equipment alone with feeder wires coming into the building basically giving Caribou Construction an empty shell to begin demolition. Brigham City contracted with Caribou Construction from Jerome, Idaho for the Upper Power Plant construction. A kickoff meeting was June 24, 2014 and demolition was immediately started on building. Because of a delivery delay of Turbine, Generator and Equipment from Canyon Brigham City had to request another extension for the final date of completion. DOE awarded modification (.007) to Brigham City with a new completion date of August 1, 2015. The Turbine has had a few adjustments to help with efficiency; but the Generator had a slight vibration when generator got hot so Canyon Industries had U S Motor’s that manufactured the generator come to check out the issue. The other Equipment seems to be running normal. Brigham City, Sunrise Engineering and Canyon Industries met to determine what the vibration in the generator was and how to solve the issue Us Motor’s found some welds that failed: they have been repaired. U S Motor’s delivered the repaired generator Feb. 17, 2015. Canyon Industries arranged for a crane to installed generator in Power Plant. U S Motor’s balanced and wired generator. Plant Operators put the generator back on line. Canyon Industries returned and gave their approval to keep Hydro online. After Hydro was put back into operations it kept going off line because of overheating issues. Canyon Industries returned and replaced sensors and adjusted them to the proper settings for normal operations. Brigham City added additional steel screens to windows to increase air flow in Power Plant Building. After construction phase of the Upper Hydro Plant some landscaping has been restored around the building additional gravel brought in and leveled out and the road that was cut through for conduits to run wires. A retaining wall was installed to protect penstock. The Upper Hydro Plant is complete and in full operations. The final reimbursement was submitted.

  11. The DOE water cycle pilot study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N. L.; King, A. W.; Miller, M. A.; Springer, E. P.; Wesely, M. L.; Bashford, K. E.; Conrad, M. E.; Costigan, K.; Foster, P. N.; Gibbs, H. K.; Jin, J.; Klazura, J.; Lesht, B. M.; Machavaram, M. V.; Pan, F.; Song, J.; Troyan, D.; Washngton-Allen, R. A.; Environmental Research; LBNL; ORNL; BNL; LANL

    2005-03-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) formed a Water Cycle Study Group (Hornberger et al. 2001) to organize research efforts in regional hydrologic variability, the extent to which this variability is caused by human activity, and the influence of ecosystems. The USGCRP Water Cycle Study Group was followed by a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Water Cycle Research Plan (Department of Energy 2002) that outlined an approach toward improving seasonal-to-interannual hydroclimate predictability and closing a regional water budget. The DOE Water Cycle Research Plan identified key research areas, including a comprehensive long-term observational database to support model development, and to develop a better understanding of the relationship between the components of local water budgets and large scale processes. In response to this plan, a multilaboratory DOE Water Cycle Pilot Study (WCPS) demonstration project began with a focus on studying the water budget and its variability at multiple spatial scales. Previous studies have highlighted the need for continued efforts to observationally close a local water budget, develop a numerical model closure scheme, and further quantify the scales in which predictive accuracy are optimal. A concerted effort within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-funded Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-scale International Project (GCIP) put forth a strategy to understand various hydrometeorological processes and phenomena with an aim toward closing the water and energy budgets of regional watersheds (Lawford 1999, 2001). The GCIP focus on such regional budgets includes the measurement of all components and reduction of the error in the budgets to near zero. To approach this goal, quantification of the uncertainties in both measurements and modeling is required. Model uncertainties within regional climate models continue to be evaluated within the Program to Intercompare Regional Climate Simulations (Takle et al. 1999), and model uncertainties within land surface models are being evaluated within the Program to Intercompare Land Surface Schemes (e.g., Henderson-Sellers 1993; Wood et al. 1998; Lohmann et al. 1998). In the context of understanding the water budget at watershed scales, the following two research questions that highlight DOE's unique water isotope analysis and high-performance modeling capabilities were posed as the foci of this pilot study: (1) Can the predictability of the regional water budget be improved using high-resolution model simulations that are constrained and validated with new hydrospheric water measurements? (2) Can water isotopic tracers be used to segregate different pathways through the water cycle and predict a change in regional climate patterns? To address these questions, numerical studies using regional atmospheric-land surface models and multiscale land surface hydrologic models were generated and, to the extent possible, the results were evaluated with observations. While the number of potential processes that may be important in the local water budget is large, several key processes were examined in detail. Most importantly, a concerted effort was made to understand water cycle processes and feedbacks at the land surface-atmosphere interface at spatial scales ranging from 30 m to hundreds of kilometers. A simple expression for the land surface water budget at the watershed scale is expressed as {Delta}S = P + G{sub in} - ET - Q - G{sub out}, where {Delta}S is the change in water storage, P is precipitation, ET is evapotranspiration, Q is streamflow, G{sub in} is groundwater entering the watershed, and G{sub out} is groundwater leaving the watershed, per unit time. The WCPS project identified data gaps and necessary model improvements that will lead to a more accurate representation of the terms in Eq. (1). Table 1 summarizes the components of this water cycle pilot study and the respective participants. The following section provides a description of the surface observation and modeling sites. This is followed by a section on model analyses, and then the summary and concluding remarks.

  12. Lake Whitney Comprehensive Water Quality Assessment, Phase 1B- Physical and Biological Assessment (USDOE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, Robert D; Byars, Bruce W

    2009-11-24

    Baylor University Center for Reservoir and Aquatic Systems Research (CRASR) has conducted a phased, comprehensive evaluation of Lake Whitney to determine its suitability for use as a regional water supply reservoir. The area along the Interstate 35 corridor between Dallas / Fort Worth Metroplex and the Waco / Temple Centroplex represents one of the fastest growth areas in the State of Texas and reliable water supplies are critical to sustainable growth. Lake Whitney is situated midway between these two metropolitan areas. Currently, the City of Whitney as well as all of Bosque and Hill counties obtain their potable water from the Trinity Sands aquifer. Additionally, parts of the adjoining McLennan and Burleson counties utilize the Trinity sands aquifer system as a supplement to their surface water supplies. Population growth coupled with increasing demands on this aquifer system in both the Metroplex and Centroplex have resulted in a rapid depletion of groundwater in these rural areas. The Lake Whitney reservoir represents both a potentially local and regional solution for an area experiencing high levels of growth. Because of the large scope of this project as well as the local, regional and national implications, we have designed a multifaceted approach that will lead to the solution of numerous issues related to the feasibility of using Lake Whitney as a water resource to the region. Phase IA (USEPA, QAPP Study Elements 1-4) of this research focused on the physical limnology of the reservoir (bathymetry and fine scale salinity determination) and develops hydrodynamic watershed and reservoir models to evaluate how salinity would be expected to change with varying hydrologic and climatic factors. To this end, we implemented a basic water quality modeling program in collaboration with the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality to add to the developing long-term database on Lake Whitney. Finally, we conducted an initial assessment of knowledge of watershed and water quality related issues by local residents and stakeholders of Lake Whitney and design an intervention educational program to address any deficiencies discovered. Phase IA was funded primarily from EPA Cooperative Agreement X7-9769 8901-0. Phase IC (USEPA, QAPP Study Element 5) of this research focused on the ambient toxicity of the reservoir with respect to periodic blooms of golden algae. Phase IC was funded primarily from Cooperative Agreement EM-96638001. Phase 1B (USDOE, Study Elements 6-11) complemented work being done via EPA funding on study elements 1-5 and added five new study elements: 6) Salinity Transport in the Brazos Watershed to Lake Whitney; 7) Bacterial Assessment; 8) Organic Contaminant Analysis on Lake Whitney; 9) Plankton Photosynthesis; 10) Lake Whitney Resident Knowledge Assessment; and 11) Engineering Scoping Perspective: Recommendations for Use.

  13. Potential Release Site Sediment Concentrations Correlated to Storm Water Station Runoff through GIS Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.T. McLean

    2005-06-01

    This research examined the relationship between sediment sample data taken at Potential Release Sites (PRSs) and storm water samples taken at selected sites in and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The PRSs had been evaluated for erosion potential and a matrix scoring system implemented. It was assumed that there would be a stronger relationship between the high erosion PRSs and the storm water samples. To establish the relationship, the research was broken into two areas. The first area was raster-based modeling, and the second area was data analysis utilizing the raster based modeling results and the sediment and storm water sample results. Two geodatabases were created utilizing raster modeling functions and the Arc Hydro program. The geodatabase created using only Arc Hydro functions contains very fine catchment drainage areas in association with the geometric network and can be used for future contaminant tracking. The second geodatabase contains sub-watersheds for all storm water stations used in the study along with a geometric network. The second area of the study focused on data analysis. The analytical sediment data table was joined to the PRSs spatial data in ArcMap. All PRSs and PRSs with high erosion potential were joined separately to create two datasets for each of 14 analytes. Only the PRSs above the background value were retained. The storm water station spatial data were joined to the table of analyte values that were either greater than the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Multi-Sector General Permit (MSGP) benchmark value, or the Department of Energy (DOE) Drinking Water Defined Contribution Guideline (DWDCG). Only the storm water stations were retained that had sample values greater than the NPDES MSGP benchmark value or the DOE DWDCG. Separate maps were created for each analyte showing the sub-watersheds, the PRSs over background, and the storm water stations greater than the NPDES MSGP benchmark value or the DOE DWDCG. Tables were then created for each analyte that listed the PRSs average value by storm water station allowing a tabular view of the mapped data. The final table that was created listed the number of high erosion PRSs and regular PRSs over background values that were contained in each watershed. An overall relationship between the high erosion PRSs or the regular PRSs and the storm water stations was not identified through the methods used in this research. However, the Arc Hydro data models created for this analysis were used to track possible sources of contamination found through sampling at the storm water gaging stations. This geometric network tracing was used to identify possible relationships between the storm water stations and the PRSs. The methods outlined for the geometric network tracing could be used to find other relationships between the sites. A cursory statistical analysis was performed which could be expanded and applied to the data sets generated during this research to establish a broader relationship between the PRSs and storm water stations.

  14. Aquatic Natural Areas Analysis and Evaluation: Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baranski, Dr. Michael J.

    2011-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of the natural area value of eight Aquatic Natural Areas (ANAs) and seven Aquatic Reference Areas (ARAs) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Anderson and Roane Counties in east Tennessee. It follows a previous study in 2009 that analyzed and evaluated terrestrial natural areas on the Reservation. The purpose of both studies was to evaluate and rank those specially designated areas on the Reservation that contain sensitive species, special habitats, and natural area value. Natural areas receive special protections through established statutes, regulations, and policies. The ORR contains 33,542 acres (13,574 ha) administered by the Department of Energy. The surface waters of the Reservation range from 1st-order to 5th-order streams, but the majority of the streams recognized as ANAs and ARAs are 1st- and 2nd-order streams. East Fork Poplar Creek is a 4th-order stream and the largest watershed that drains Reservation lands. All the waters of the Reservation eventually reach the Clinch River on the southern and western boundaries of the ORR. All available information was collected, synthesized, and evaluated. Field observations were made to support and supplement the available information. Geographic information system mapping techniques were used to develop several quantitative attributes about the study areas. Narrative descriptions of each ANA and ARA and tables of numerical data were prepared. Criteria for assessment and evaluation were developed, and eight categories of factors were devised to produce a ranking system. The evaluation factors used in the ranking system were: (A) size of area, (B) percentage of watershed protected, (C) taxa present with protected status, (D) overall biotic diversity, (E) stream features, (F) water quality and use support ratings, (G) disturbance regime, and (H) other factors. Each factor was evaluated on a 5-point ranking scale (0-4), and each area received a composite score, where 32 was the maximum score possible. A highly ranked ANA or ARA is one that is large in size compared to other areas, includes a greater proportion of the watershed within Reservation boundaries, contains a number of status taxa at high densities, exhibits a high overall biodiversity, has very good or excellent habitat and water quality, is well protected and isolated from disturbances, and shows several other characteristics that contribute to natural area value. In this report, the term 'natural area' is loosely defined as a terrestrial or aquatic system that exhibits, or is thought to exhibit, high natural integrity and other significant natural values. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate and rank the currently recognized Aquatic Natural Areas (ANAs) and Aquatic Reference Areas (ARAs) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for their natural area value. A previous study (Baranski 2009) analyzed, evaluated, and ranked terrestrial areas (Natural Areas [NAs], Reference Areas [RAs], and Cooperative Management Areas [CMAs]) on the ORR for natural area value, and a precise methodology for natural area evaluation was developed. The present study is intended to be a complement and companion to the terrestrial area study and attempts to employ a similar methodology for aquatic areas so that aquatic and terrestrial areas can be compared on a similar scale. This study specifically develops criteria for assessing the ecological, biodiversity, and natural area importance and significance of aquatic systems on the Reservation in a relevant and consistent manner. The information can be integrated into the Tennessee Natural Heritage Program (http://tn.gov/environment/na/nhp.shtml) system and applied to potential new aquatic areas. Further, the information will be useful in planning, management, and protection efforts on the ORR.

  15. Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGowan, Vance

    2003-08-01

    On July 1, 1984 the Bonneville Power Administration and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife entered into an agreement to initiate fish habitat enhancement work in the Joseph Creek subbasin of the Grande Ronde River Basin in northeast Oregon. In July of 1985 the Upper and Middle Grande Ronde River, and Catherine Creek subbasins were included in the intergovernmental contract, and on March 1, 1996 the Wallowa River subbasin was added. The primary goal of 'The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project' is to create, protect, and restore riparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing opportunities for natural fish production within the basin. This project provided for implementation of Program Measure 703 (C)(1), Action Item 4.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC, 1987), and continues to be implemented as offsite mitigation for mainstem fishery losses caused by the Columbia River hydro-electric system. All work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife is on private lands and therefore requires that considerable time be spent developing rapport with landowners to gain acceptance of, and continued cooperation with this program throughout 10-15 year lease periods. This project calls for passive regeneration of habitat, using riparian exclosure fencing as the primary method to restore degraded streams to a normative condition. Active remediation techniques using plantings, off-site water developments, site-specific instream structures, or whole channel alterations are also utilized where applicable. Individual projects contribute to and complement ecosystem and basin-wide watershed restoration efforts that are underway by state, federal, and tribal agencies, and local watershed councils. Work undertaken during 2002 included: (1) Implementing 1 new fencing project in the Wallowa subbasin that will protect an additional 0.95 miles of stream and 22.9 acres of habitat; (2) Conducting instream work activities in 3 streams to enhance habitat and/or restore natural channel dimensions, patterns or profiles; (3) Planting 31,733 plants along 3.7 stream miles, (4) Establishing 71 new photopoints and retaking 254 existing photopoint pictures; (5) Monitoring stream temperatures at 12 locations on 6 streams; (6) Completing riparian fence, water gap and other maintenance on 100.5 miles of project fences. Since initiation of the project in 1984 over 68.7 miles of anadromous fish bearing streams and 1,933 acres of habitat have been protected, enhanced and maintained.

  16. Evaluating mine reclamation habitats at the landscape level following mountain-top removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmonds, S.N.

    1998-12-31

    Present-day regulations of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act were based largely on the technologies and mining methods of the late 1970`s. Thus reclamation management practices today may not fully address the landscape changes that are possible now from mountain-top removal and associated contour mining operations. This study has sought to evaluate the changes in human and natural resource systems associated with large-scale mining in the Coal River Valley region of south-central West Virginia. The Coal River Valley region was studied at a local to a landscape-scale using ground-level sampling, aerial photomaps and constructed GIS maps, starting from a site-specific-scale of natural and restored habitat types. Six watershed-drainage areas were selected for study. Three of these represented contour mining primarily and three other drainage areas encompassed mountain-top removal mining. Landscape components were characterized by overlaying slope, elevation and contour data from maps onto aerial photomaps. On-the-ground sampling was used to distinguish restoration habitat types. The site-specific measurements were obtained using transects placed across the man-made landforms (i.e., backfill, valleyfill, field, pond and drainage ditch) of the reclamation sites in each of the six watershed drainage areas. All of the measured sites had been revegetated with a seed mixture for a wildlife management plan and ranged in age from 2 to 12 years of vegetative growth at the time of the study. Percentage cover by herbaceous and woody species was determined in two-meter square quadrats placed mechanically along all transect lines to quantify the various site-specific vegetation types. Based on the site-specific evaluation, distinguishable habitats were found on each of the man-made landforms. The percentage of mountaintop removal habitats with non-native species has increased over the last decade. Percentages of total area mined in the region over thirty years were calculated, yielding a determination of changes in traditional land-uses.

  17. An Adaptive Landscape Classification Procedure using Geoinformatics and Artificial Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, Andre M.

    2008-08-01

    The Adaptive Landscape Classification Procedure (ALCP), which links the advanced geospatial analysis capabilities of Geographic Information Systems (GISs) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and particularly Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs), is proposed as a method for establishing and reducing complex data relationships. Its adaptive and evolutionary capability is evaluated for situations where varying types of data can be combined to address different prediction and/or management needs such as hydrologic response, water quality, aquatic habitat, groundwater recharge, land use, instrumentation placement, and forecast scenarios. The research presented here documents and presents favorable results of a procedure that aims to be a powerful and flexible spatial data classifier that fuses the strengths of geoinformatics and the intelligence of SOMs to provide data patterns and spatial information for environmental managers and researchers. This research shows how evaluation and analysis of spatial and/or temporal patterns in the landscape can provide insight into complex ecological, hydrological, climatic, and other natural and anthropogenic-influenced processes. Certainly, environmental management and research within heterogeneous watersheds provide challenges for consistent evaluation and understanding of system functions. For instance, watersheds over a range of scales are likely to exhibit varying levels of diversity in their characteristics of climate, hydrology, physiography, ecology, and anthropogenic influence. Furthermore, it has become evident that understanding and analyzing these diverse systems can be difficult not only because of varying natural characteristics, but also because of the availability, quality, and variability of spatial and temporal data. Developments in geospatial technologies, however, are providing a wide range of relevant data, and in many cases, at a high temporal and spatial resolution. Such data resources can take the form of high-dimensional data arrays, which can difficult to fully use. Establishing relationships among high-dimensional datasets through neurocomputing based patterning methods can help 1) resolve large volumes of data into a meaningful form; 2) provide an approach for inferring landscape processes in areas that have limited data available but that exhibit similar landscape characteristics; and 3) discover the value of individual variables or groups of variables that contribute to specific processes in the landscape.

  18. Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Water Resources Restoration Program for Fiscal Year 2009, Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ketelle R.H.

    2008-09-25

    The Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Water Resources Restoration Program (WRRP) was established by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 1996 to implement a consistent approach to long-term environmental monitoring across the ORR. The WRRP has four principal objectives: (1) to provide the data and technical analysis necessary to assess the performance of completed Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) actions on the ORR; (2) to perform monitoring to establish a baseline against which the performance of future actions will be gauged and to support watershed management decisions; (3) to perform interim-status and post-closure permit monitoring and reporting to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) requirements; and (4) to support ongoing waste management activities associated with WRRP activities. Water quality projects were established for each of the major facilities on the ORR: East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP); Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), including Bethel Valley and Melton Valley; and the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex or Y-12), including Bear Creek Valley (BCV), Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC), and Chestnut Ridge. Off-site (i.e., located beyond the ORR boundary) sampling requirements are also managed as part of the Y-12 Water Quality Project (YWQP). Offsite locations include those at Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC), the Clinch River/Poplar Creek (CR/PC), and Lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR). The Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) South Campus Facility (SCF) is also included as an 'off-site' location, although it is actually situated on property owned by DOE. The administrative watersheds are shown in Fig. A.l (Appendix A). The WRRP provides a central administrative and reporting function that integrates and coordinates the activities of the water quality projects, including preparation and administration of the WRRP Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP). A brief summary is given of the organization of the SAP appendices, which provide the monitoring specifics and details of sampling and analytical requirements for each of the water quality programs on the ORR. Section 2 of this SAP provides a brief overview and monitoring strategy for the ETTP. Section 3 discusses monitoring strategy for Bethel Valley, and Melton Valley background information and monitoring strategy is provided in Section 4. BCV and UEFPC monitoring strategies are presented in Sect. 5 and 6, respectively. Section 7 provides background information and monitoring strategy for all off-site locations.

  19. American press coverage of US-Soviet relations, the Soviet Union, nuclear weapons, arms control, and national security: A bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorman, W.A.; Manoff, R.K.; Weeks, J.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography covers work that addresses coverage of nuclear and arms control issues, defense, the Soviet Union, and Soviet-American relations by the American news media between 1965 and 1988. Material selected for inclusion either discusses press performance or addresses conditions -- such as classification of information -- that directly impact on media coverage of such issues. Bodies of literature on media coverage of conflict elsewhere in the world lie outside the Center's current mandate (which has shaped the parameters of this bibliography) except insofar as such conflicts are presented by the news media specifically in the context of US-Soviet relations. Much the same is true of such issues as the North-South flow of information and the debate over calls for a New World Information Order. However, the authors have decided to include assessments of American media coverage of the Vietnam War as a case study of a watershed conflict that raised many of the issues discussed throughout this literature in a particularly compelling way.

  20. Impacts of antropogenic contaminants on vegetation and groundwater chemistry in a fen complex (IL)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nuzzo, V.A.; Hensel, B.; Panno, S.; Cartwright, K.; Krapac, I. Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign )

    1993-06-01

    Residential development within the watershed of a fen complex has resulted in encroachment of ground-water borne anthropogenic contaminants into 3 high quality fens. Groundwater samples were collected from peat and marl and analyzed for inorganic constituents. Height and density of Typha angustifolia L. and Scirpus acutus Muhl. were recorded in belt transects coincident with ground-water samples. Contaminant plumes from septic systems of houses near the fens had higher Na, Cl, NO[sub 3], and TDS levels than uncontaminated areas of the fens. Typha density increased significantly as Na, Cl, CL/SO[sub 4], and TDS levels increased; Scirpus occurred only where pH [ge] 7.1 (X[sub 2]=11.656, sl=.02). Scirpus density was generally independent of other water chemistry levels. In one fen Scirpus density declined significantly as Typha density increased (r[sub 2]=25.86). Contamination appears to favor Tvpha invasion, which subsequently leads to displacement of Scirpus.

  1. Overview of the federal interagency ecosystem management initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huke, S.

    1995-12-01

    In early 1994, the White House established a Federal Interagency Ecosystem Management Task Force and Working Group to implement the ecosystem management recommendation in the Vice President`s National Performance Review. The Task Force identified seven ecosystems where mature interagency ecosystem-based activities are mature and ongoing and may provide valuable lessons for broader application. Case studies of each of the seven ecosystems were prepared by interagency teams conducting interviews with representatives of federal, state, and local governments and private interests. The seven ecosystems are: the Southern Appalachian Highlands, Anacostia River Watershed, Prince William Sound, Pacific Northwest Forests, Coastal Louisiana, South Florida, and Great Lakes ecosystems. A final synthesis report, scheduled for completion in the Spring of 1995, will provide an overview of constraints, opportunities, and recommendations in five issue areas: legal, budgetary, science, institutional, policy, and public involvement. A second phase of this initiative will entail the development of ecosystem management strategies for three {open_quotes}new initiatives{close_quotes} laboratories.

  2. The potential for effluent trading in the energy industries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Assessment

    1998-01-01

    In January 1996, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a policy statement endorsing wastewater effluent trading in watersheds, hoping to promote additional interest in the subject. The policy describes five types of effluent trades: point source/point source, point source/nonpoint source, pretreatment, intraplant and nonpoint source/nonpoint source. This paper evaluates the feasibility of implementing these types of effluent trading for facilities in the oil and gas, electric power and coal industries. This paper finds that the potential for effluent trading in these industries is limited because trades would generally need to involve toxic pollutants, which can only be traded under a narrow range of circumstances. However, good potential exists for other types of water-related trades that do not directly involve effluents (e.g. wetlands mitigation banking and voluntary environmental projects). The potential for effluent trading in the energy industries and in other sectors would be enhanced if Congress amended the Clean Water Act (CWA) to formally authorize such trading.

  3. Further evaluations of the CALMET/CALPUFF modeling system for the estimation of the fate of atmospheric nitrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, M.; Gill, S.; Sherwell, J.

    1999-07-01

    The CALMET/CALPUFF modeling system has been used to estimate nitrogen deposition in an area surrounding Baltimore and the northern portion of the Chesapeake Bay. Comprehensive NO{sub x} emissions inventories and meteorological data bases have been developed to conduct the modeling. A previous study reported on an evaluation of predicted non-ammonia, inorganic nitrogen wet deposition rates compared to measured rates at two NADP/NTN sites in Maryland. This paper presents the results of an expanded evaluation of the performance of the modeling system. Data collected at a total of 38 monitoring stations located in or near the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, including NADP/NTN, CASTNET, and AIRS sites, have been used to conduct evaluations of the model's ability to predict concentrations of nitric acid, particulate nitrate, and NO{sub x} in addition to wet nitrate deposition. This expanded evaluation has allowed for the testing of additional model technical options in an attempt to improve the performance when compared to measured data. Results of this evaluation are expected to allow for better estimates of the impacts of nitrogen species formed from utility and other anthropogenic sources of NO{sub x} on the environment in Maryland.

  4. On approaches to analyze the sensitivity of simulated hydrologic fluxes to model parameters in the community land model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bao, Jie; Hou, Zhangshuan; Huang, Maoyi; Liu, Ying

    2015-12-04

    Here, effective sensitivity analysis approaches are needed to identify important parameters or factors and their uncertainties in complex Earth system models composed of multi-phase multi-component phenomena and multiple biogeophysical-biogeochemical processes. In this study, the impacts of 10 hydrologic parameters in the Community Land Model on simulations of runoff and latent heat flux are evaluated using data from a watershed. Different metrics, including residual statistics, the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient, and log mean square error, are used as alternative measures of the deviations between the simulated and field observed values. Four sensitivity analysis (SA) approaches, including analysis of variance based on the generalizedmore » linear model, generalized cross validation based on the multivariate adaptive regression splines model, standardized regression coefficients based on a linear regression model, and analysis of variance based on support vector machine, are investigated. Results suggest that these approaches show consistent measurement of the impacts of major hydrologic parameters on response variables, but with differences in the relative contributions, particularly for the secondary parameters. The convergence behaviors of the SA with respect to the number of sampling points are also examined with different combinations of input parameter sets and output response variables and their alternative metrics. This study helps identify the optimal SA approach, provides guidance for the calibration of the Community Land Model parameters to improve the model simulations of land surface fluxes, and approximates the magnitudes to be adjusted in the parameter values during parametric model optimization.« less

  5. Uncertainty Analysis of Runoff Simulations and Parameter Identifiability in the Community Land Model Evidence from MOPEX Basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Maoyi; Hou, Zhangshuan; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ke, Yinghai; Liu, Ying; Fang, Zhufeng; Sun, Yu

    2013-12-01

    With the emergence of earth system models as important tools for understanding and predicting climate change and implications to mitigation and adaptation, it has become increasingly important to assess the fidelity of the land component within earth system models to capture realistic hydrological processes and their response to the changing climate and quantify the associated uncertainties. This study investigates the sensitivity of runoff simulations to major hydrologic parameters in version 4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4) by integrating CLM4 with a stochastic exploratory sensitivity analysis framework at 20 selected watersheds from the Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX) spanning a wide range of climate and site conditions. We found that for runoff simulations, the most significant parameters are those related to the subsurface runoff parameterizations. Soil texture related parameters and surface runoff parameters are of secondary significance. Moreover, climate and soil conditions play important roles in the parameter sensitivity. In general, site conditions within water-limited hydrologic regimes and with finer soil texture result in stronger sensitivity of output variables, such as runoff and its surface and subsurface components, to the input parameters in CLM4. This study demonstrated the feasibility of parameter inversion for CLM4 using streamflow observations to improve runoff simulations. By ranking the significance of the input parameters, we showed that the parameter set dimensionality could be reduced for CLM4 parameter calibration under different hydrologic and climatic regimes so that the inverse problem is less ill posed.

  6. Sampling and analysis plan for the Bear Creek Valley Boneyard/Burnyard Accelerated Action Project, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the Bear Creek Valley Watershed Remedial Investigation, the Boneyard/Burnyard was identified as the source of the largest releases of uranium into groundwater and surface water in Bear Creek Valley. The proposed action for remediation of this site is selective excavation and removal of source material and capping of the remainder of the site. The schedule for this action has been accelerated so that this is the first remedial action planned to be implemented in the Bear Creek Valley Record of Decision. Additional data needs to support design of the remedial action were identified at a data quality objectives meeting held for this project. Sampling at the Boneyard/Burnyard will be conducted through the use of a phased approach. Initial or primary samples will be used to make in-the-field decisions about where to locate follow-up or secondary samples. On the basis of the results of surface water, soil, and groundwater analysis, up to six test pits will be dug. The test pits will be used to provide detailed descriptions of source materials and bulk samples. This document sets forth the requirements and procedures to protect the personnel involved in this project. This document also contains the health and safety plan, quality assurance project plan, waste management plan, data management plan, implementation plan, and best management practices plan for this project as appendices.

  7. The feasibility of effluent trading in the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    In January 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a policy statement endorsing wastewater effluent trading in watersheds, hoping to promote additional interest in the subject. The policy describes five types of effluent trades - point source/point source, point source/nonpoint source, pretreatment, intraplant, and nonpoint source/nonpoint source. This paper evaluates the feasibility of effluent trading for facilities in the oil and gas industry. The evaluation leads to the conclusion that potential for effluent trading is very low in the exploration and production and distribution and marketing sectors; trading potential is moderate for the refining sector except for intraplant trades, for which the potential is high. Good potential also exists for other types of water-related trades that do not directly involve effluents (e.g., wetlands mitigation banking). The potential for effluent trading in the energy industries and in other sectors would be enhanced if Congress amended the Clean Water Act (CWA) to formally authorize such trading.

  8. The feasibility of effluent trading in the energy industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    In January 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a policy statement endorsing effluent trading in watersheds, hoping to spur additional interest in the subject. The policy describes five types of effluent trades - point source/point source, point source/nonpoint source, pretreatment, intraplant, and nonpoint source/nonpoint source. This report evaluates the feasibility of effluent trading for facilities in the oil and gas industry (exploration and production, refining, and distribution and marketing segments), electric power industry, and the coal industry (mines and preparation plants). Nonpoint source/nonpoint source trades are not considered since the energy industry facilities evaluated here are all point sources. EPA has administered emission trading programs in its air quality program for many years. Programs for offsets, bubbles, banking, and netting are supported by federal regulations, and the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments provide a statutory basis for trading programs to control ozone and acid rain. Different programs have had varying degrees of success, but few have come close to meeting their expectations. Few trading programs have been established under the Clean Water Act (CWA). One intraplant trading program was established by EPA in its effluent limitation guidelines (ELGs) for the iron and steel industry. The other existing effluent trading programs were established by state or local governments and have had minimal success.

  9. Trace metal levels and partitioning in Wisconsin rivers: Results of background trace metals study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, M.M.; Overdier, J.T.; Armstrong, D.E.; Hurley, J.P.; Webb, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    Levels of total and filtrable Ag, Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in 41 Wisconsin rivers draining watersheds of distinct homogeneous characteristics (land use/cover, soil type, surficial geology) were quantified. Levels, fluxes, and yields of trace metals are interpreted in terms of principal geochemical controls. The study samples were also used to evaluate the capability of modern ICP-MS techniques for ``background`` level quantification of metals. Order-of-magnitude variations in levels of a given metal between sites was measured. This large natural variance reflects influences of soil type, dissolved organic matter (DOC), ionic strength, and suspended particulate matter (SPM) on metal levels. Significant positive correlations between DOC levels and filtrable metal concentrations were observed, demonstrating the important role that DOC plays in metal speciation and behavior. Systematic, chemically consistent, differences in behavior between the metals is evident with partition coefficients (K,) and fraction in particulate forms ranking in the order: Al > Pb > Zn > Cr >Cd > Cu. Total metal yields correlate well with SPM yields, especially for highly partitioned elements, whereas filtrable metal yields reflect the interplay of partitioning and water yield. The State of Wisconsin will use these data in a re-evaluation of regulatory limits and in the development of water effects ratio criteria.

  10. Total and methyl mercury in selected Great Lakes tributaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurley, J.P.; Cowell, S.E.; Shafer, M.M.

    1995-12-31

    Eleven Lake Michigan tributaries were chosen to investigate the effects of chemical and physical conditions in rivers on mercury partitioning and transport. Preliminary results from 1994 indicate that mean unfiltered Hg{sub T} ranged from about 1-2 ng L{sup -1} in the Manistique and Muskegon R. to 10-30 ng L{sup -1} in the St. Joseph and Fox R. Highest Hg{sub T} fluxes were generally associated with increased particle loads. Preliminary estimates from a subset of Lake Michigan tributaries also suggest that methylmercury loading from riverine inputs may be important. Additional work on 19 Lake Superior tributaries in Spring 1993 reveal that MeHg and DOC are correlated. Results from these tributaries are consistent with our {open_quotes}Background Trace Metals in Wisconsin Rivers{close_quotes} study, where greater yields of Hg{sub T} were observed with increased particle loading and elevated MeHg yields were observed from watersheds with significant forest and wetland regions.

  11. The Era of Kilometer-Scale Neutrino Detectors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Halzen, Francis; Katz, Uli

    2013-01-01

    Neutrino astronomy beyond the Sun was first imagined in the late 1950s; by the 1970s, it was realized that kilometer-scale neutrino detectors were required. The first such instrument, IceCube, transforms a cubic kilometer of deep and ultra-transparent Antarctic ice into a particle detector. KM3NeT, an instrument that aims to exploit several cubic kilometers of the deep Mediterranean sea as its detector medium, is in its final design stages. The scientific missions of these instruments include searching for sources of cosmic rays and for dark matter, observing Galactic supernova explosions, and studying the neutrinos themselves. Identifying the accelerators that produce Galacticmore » and extragalactic cosmic rays has been a priority mission of several generations of high-energy gamma-ray and neutrino telescopes; success has been elusive so far. Detecting the gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes associated with cosmic rays reaches a new watershed with the completion of IceCube, the first neutrino detector with sensitivity to the anticipated fluxes. In this paper, we will first revisit the rationale for constructing kilometer-scale neutrino detectors. We will subsequently recall the methods for determining the arrival direction, energy and flavor of neutrinos, and will subsequently describe the architecture of the IceCube and KM3NeT detectors.« less

  12. Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2001.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macy, Tom L.; James, Gary A.

    2003-03-01

    The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach was emphasized during this first year of the project. During the past year we concentrated on satisfying landowner needs, providing cost share alternatives, providing joint projects and starting implementation. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and offstream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements have been signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Some landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and others chose OWEB as a funding source. The exact amount of stream protection due to other funding sources probably exceeds that by BPA, however most would not have entered any program without initial Tribal outreach. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin.

  13. Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2000.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macy, Tom L.; James, Gary A.

    2003-03-01

    The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public out reach was emphasized during this first year of the project. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and off-stream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements were signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Two landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and one chose OWEB as a funding source. Two landowners implemented there own enhancement measures protecting 3 miles of stream. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin. We provided input to the John Day Summary prepared for the NWPPC by ODFW. The Tribe worked with the Umatilla National Forest on the Clear Creek Dredgetailings Rehabilitation project and coordinated regularly with USFS Fisheries, Hydrology and Range staff.

  14. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the DOE office of energy research: Part 2, Environmental sciences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1987. Research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of processes controlling the long-term fate and biological effects of fugitive chemicals and other stressors resulting from energy development. The research, focused on terrestrial, subsurface, and coastal marine systems, forms the basis for defining and quantifying processes that affect humans and the environment at the regional and global levels. Research is multidisciplinary and multitiered, providing integrated system-level insights into critical environmental processes. Research initiatives in subsurface microbiology and transport, global change, radon, and molecular sciences are building on PNL technical strengths in biogeochemistry, hydrodynamics, molecular biology, and theoretical ecology. Unique PNL facilities are used to probe multiple phenomena complex relationships at increasing levels of complexity. Intermediate-scale experimental systems are used to examine arid land watershed dynamics, aerosol behavior and effects, and multidimensional subsurface transport. In addition, field laboratories (the National Environmental Research Park and Marine Research Laboratory) are used in conjunction with advanced measurement techniques to validate concepts and models, and to extrapolate the results to the system and global levels. Strong university liaisons now in existence are being markedly expanded so that PNL resources and the specialized technical capabilities in the university community can be more efficiently integrated.

  15. On approaches to analyze the sensitivity of simulated hydrologic fluxes to model parameters in the community land model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bao, Jie; Hou, Zhangshuan; Huang, Maoyi; Liu, Ying

    2015-12-04

    Here, effective sensitivity analysis approaches are needed to identify important parameters or factors and their uncertainties in complex Earth system models composed of multi-phase multi-component phenomena and multiple biogeophysical-biogeochemical processes. In this study, the impacts of 10 hydrologic parameters in the Community Land Model on simulations of runoff and latent heat flux are evaluated using data from a watershed. Different metrics, including residual statistics, the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient, and log mean square error, are used as alternative measures of the deviations between the simulated and field observed values. Four sensitivity analysis (SA) approaches, including analysis of variance based on the generalized linear model, generalized cross validation based on the multivariate adaptive regression splines model, standardized regression coefficients based on a linear regression model, and analysis of variance based on support vector machine, are investigated. Results suggest that these approaches show consistent measurement of the impacts of major hydrologic parameters on response variables, but with differences in the relative contributions, particularly for the secondary parameters. The convergence behaviors of the SA with respect to the number of sampling points are also examined with different combinations of input parameter sets and output response variables and their alternative metrics. This study helps identify the optimal SA approach, provides guidance for the calibration of the Community Land Model parameters to improve the model simulations of land surface fluxes, and approximates the magnitudes to be adjusted in the parameter values during parametric model optimization.

  16. Annual Report: 2010-2011 Storm Season Sampling For NON-DRY DOCK STORMWATER MONITORING FOR PUGET SOUND NAVAL SHIPYARD, BREMERTON, WA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Metallo, David; Johnston, Robert K.; Gebhardt, Christine; Hsu, Larry

    2012-09-01

    This interim report summarizes the stormwater monitoring conducted for non-dry dock outfalls in both the confined industrial area and the residential areas of Naval Base Kitsap within the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (referred to as the Shipyard). This includes the collection, analyses, and descriptive statistics for stormwater sampling conducted from November 2010 through April 2011. Seven stormwater basins within the Shipyard were sampled during at least three storm events to characterize non-dry dock stormwater discharges at selected stormwater drains located within the facility. This serves as the Phase I component of the project and Phase II is planned for the 2011-2012 storm season. These data will assist the Navy, USEPA, Ecology and other stakeholders in understanding the nature and condition of stormwater discharges from the Shipyard and inform the permitting process for new outfall discharges. The data from Phase I was compiled with current stormwater data available from the Shipyard, Sinclair/Dyes Inlet watershed, and Puget Sound in order to support technical investigations for the Draft NPDES permit. The permit would require storm event sampling at selected stormwater drains located within the Shipyard. However, the data must be considered on multiple scales to truly understand potential impairments to beneficial uses within Sinclair and Dyes Inlets.

  17. Source and Fate of Inorganic Soil Contamination Around the Abandoned Phillips Sulfide Mine Hudson Highlands New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S Gilchrist; A Gates; E Elzinga; M Gorring; z Szabo

    2011-12-31

    The abandoned Phillips sulfide mine in the critical Highlands watershed in New York has been shown to produce strongly acidic mine drainage (AMD) with anomalous metal contaminants in first-order streams that exceeded local water standards by up to several orders of magnitude (Gilchrist et al., 2009). The metal-sulfide-rich tailings also produce contaminated soils with pH < 4, organic matter < 2.5% and trace metals sequestered in soil oxides. A geochemical transect to test worst-case soil contamination showed that Cr, Co and Ni correlated positively with Mn, (r = 0.72, r = 0.89, r = 0.80, respectively), suggesting Mn-oxide sequestration and that Cu and Pb correlated with Fe (r = 0.76, r = 0.83, respectively), suggesting sequestration in goethite. Ubiquitous, yellow coating on the mine wastes, including jarosite and goethite, is a carrier of the metals. Geochemical and {mu}-SXRF analyses determined Cu to be the major soil contaminant, {mu}-SXRF also demonstrated that the heterogeneous nature of the soil chemistry at the micro-meter scale is self-similar to those in the bulk soil samples. Generally metals decreased, with some fluctuations, rapidly downslope through suspension of fines and dissolution in AMD leaving the area of substantial contamination << 0.5 km from the source.

  18. A Coupled Modeling System to Simulate Water Resources in the Rio Grande Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bossert, J.E.; Breshears, D.D.; Campbell, K.; Costigan, K.R.; Greene, R.K.; Keating, E.H.; Kleifgen, L.M.; Langley, D.L.; Martens, S.N.; Sanderson, J.G.; Springer, E.P.; Stalker, J.R.; Tartakovsky, D.M.; Winter, C.L.; Zyvoloski, G.A.

    1999-01-11

    Limited availability of fresh water in arid and semi-arid regions of the world requires prudent management strategies from accurate, science-based assessments. These assessments demand a thorough understanding of the hydrologic cycle over long time periods within the individual water-sheds that comprise large river basins. Measurement and simulation of the hydrologic cycle is a tremendous challenge, involving a coupling between global to regional-scale atmospheric precipitation processes with regional to local-scale land surface and subsurface water transport. Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing a detailed modeling system of the hydrologic cycle and applying this tool at high resolution to assess the water balance within the upper Rio Grande river basin. The Rio Grande is a prime example of a river system in a semiarid environment, with a high demand from agricultural, industrial, recreational, and municipal interests for its water supply. Within this river basin, groundwater supplies often augment surface water. With increasing growth projected throughout the river basin, however, these multiple water users have the potential to significantly deplete groundwater resources, thereby increasing the dependence on surface water resources.

  19. Equifinality of formal (DREAM) and informal (GLUE) bayesian approaches in hydrologic modeling?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrugt, Jasper A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Robinson, Bruce A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ter Braak, Cajo J F [NON LANL; Gupta, Hoshin V [NON LANL

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, a strong debate has emerged in the hydrologic literature regarding what constitutes an appropriate framework for uncertainty estimation. Particularly, there is strong disagreement whether an uncertainty framework should have its roots within a proper statistical (Bayesian) context, or whether such a framework should be based on a different philosophy and implement informal measures and weaker inference to summarize parameter and predictive distributions. In this paper, we compare a formal Bayesian approach using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) with generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) for assessing uncertainty in conceptual watershed modeling. Our formal Bayesian approach is implemented using the recently developed differential evolution adaptive metropolis (DREAM) MCMC scheme with a likelihood function that explicitly considers model structural, input and parameter uncertainty. Our results demonstrate that DREAM and GLUE can generate very similar estimates of total streamflow uncertainty. This suggests that formal and informal Bayesian approaches have more common ground than the hydrologic literature and ongoing debate might suggest. The main advantage of formal approaches is, however, that they attempt to disentangle the effect of forcing, parameter and model structural error on total predictive uncertainty. This is key to improving hydrologic theory and to better understand and predict the flow of water through catchments.

  20. Decision support for integrated water-energy planning.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Castillo, Cesar; Hart, William Eugene; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2009-10-01

    Currently, electrical power generation uses about 140 billion gallons of water per day accounting for over 39% of all freshwater withdrawals thus competing with irrigated agriculture as the leading user of water. Coupled to this water use is the required pumping, conveyance, treatment, storage and distribution of the water which requires on average 3% of all electric power generated. While water and energy use are tightly coupled, planning and management of these fundamental resources are rarely treated in an integrated fashion. Toward this need, a decision support framework has been developed that targets the shared needs of energy and water producers, resource managers, regulators, and decision makers at the federal, state and local levels. The framework integrates analysis and optimization capabilities to identify trade-offs, and 'best' alternatives among a broad list of energy/water options and objectives. The decision support framework is formulated in a modular architecture, facilitating tailored analyses over different geographical regions and scales (e.g., national, state, county, watershed, NERC region). An interactive interface allows direct control of the model and access to real-time results displayed as charts, graphs and maps. Ultimately, this open and interactive modeling framework provides a tool for evaluating competing policy and technical options relevant to the energy-water nexus.

  1. Integration of Water Resource Models with Fayetteville Shale Decision Support and Information System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cothren, Jackson; Thoma, Greg; DiLuzio, Mauro; Limp, Fred

    2013-06-30

    Significant issues can arise with the timing, location, and volume of surface water withdrawals associated with hydraulic fracturing of gas shale reservoirs as impacted watersheds may be sensitive, especially in drought years, during low flow periods, or during periods of the year when activities such as irrigation place additional demands on the surface supply of water. Significant energy production and associated water withdrawals may have a cumulative impact to watersheds over the short-term. Hence, hydraulic fracturing based on water withdrawal could potentially create shifts in the timing and magnitude of low or high flow events or change the magnitude of river flow at daily, monthly, seasonal, or yearly time scales. These changes in flow regimes can result in dramatically altered river systems. Currently little is known about the impact of fracturing on stream flow behavior. Within this context the objective of this study is to assess the impact of the hydraulic fracturing on the water balance of the Fayetteville Shale play area and examine the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on river flow regime at subbasin scale. This project addressed that need with four unique but integrated research and development efforts: 1) Evaluate the predictive reliability of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model based at a variety of scales (Task/Section 3.5). The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to simulate the across-scale water balance and the respective impact of hydraulic fracturing. A second hypothetical scenario was designed to assess the current and future impacts of water withdrawals for hydraulic fracturing on the flow regime and on the environmental flow components (EFCs) of the river. The shifting of these components, which present critical elements to water supply and water quality, could influence the ecological dynamics of river systems. For this purpose, we combined the use of SWAT model and Richter et al.’s (1996) methodology to assess the shifting and alteration of the flow regime within the river and streams of the study area. 2) Evaluate the effect of measurable land use changes related to gas development (well-pad placement, access road completion, etc.) on surface water flow in the region (Task/Section 3.7). Results showed that since the upsurge in shale-gas related activities in the Fayetteville Shale Play (between 2006 and 2010), shale-gas related infrastructure in the region have increase by 78%. This change in land-cover in comparison with other land-cover classes such as forest, urban, pasture, agricultural and water indicates the highest rate of change in any land-cover category for the study period. A Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) flow model of the Little Red River watershed simulated from 2000 to 2009 showed a 10% increase in storm water runoff. A forecast scenario based on the assumption that 2010 land-cover does not see any significant change over the forecast period (2010 to 2020) also showed a 10% increase in storm water runoff. Further analyses showed that this change in the stream-flow regime for the forecast period is attributable to the increase in land-cover as introduced by the shale-gas infrastructure. 3) Upgrade the Fayetteville Shale Information System to include information on watershed status. (Tasks/Sections 2.1 and 2.2). This development occurred early in the project period, and technological improvements in web-map API’s have made it possible to further improve the map. The current sites (http://lingo.cast.uark.edu) is available but is currently being upgraded to a more modern interface and robust mapping engine using funds outside this project. 4) Incorporate the methodologies developed in Tasks/Sections 3.5 and 3.7 into a Spatial Decision Support System for use by regulatory agencies and producers in the play. The resulting system is available at http://fayshale.cast.uark.edu and is under review the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission.

  2. Selection of clc, cba, and fcb chlorobenzoate-catabolic genotypes from groundwater and surface waters adjacent to the Hyde Park, Niagara Falls, chemical landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peel, M.C.; Wyndham, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    The frequency of isolation of three nonhomologous chlorobenzoate catabolic genotypes (clc, cba, and fbc) was determined for 464 isolates from freshwater sediments and groundwater in the vicinity of the Hyde Park industrial landfill site in the Niagara watershed. Samples were collected from both contaminated and noncontaminated sites during spring, summer, and fall and enriched at 4, 22, or 32 C with micromolar to millimolar concentrations of chlorobenzoates and 3-chlorobiphenyl. Hybridization at moderate stringency to restriction-digested genomic DNA with DNA probes revealed the chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase operon (clcABD), the 3-chlorobenzoate 3,4-(4,5)-dioxygenase operon (cbaABC), and the 4-chlorobenzoate dehalogenase (fcbB) gene in isolates enriched from all contaminated sites in the vicinity of the industrial landfill. Nevertheless, the known genes were found in less than 10% of the isolates from the contaminated sites, indicating a high level of genetic diversity in the microbial community. The known genotypes were not enriched from the noncontaminated control sites nearby. The clc, cba, and fcb isolates were distributed across five phenotypically distinct groups based on Biolog carbon source utilization, with the breadth of the host range decreasing in the order clc > cba > fcb. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns showed that the cba genes were conserved in all isolates whereas the clc and fcb genes exhibited variation in RFLP patterns.

  3. SUBTASK 7.2 GLOBAL WARMING AND GREEHOUSE GASES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaroslav Solc; Kurt Eylands; Jaroslav Solc Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of current climatic trends and reconstruction of paleoclimatic conditions for Devils Lake have been conducted based on diatom-inferred salinity for the last 2000 years. The 3-year cross-disciplinary research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) was carried out by the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and St. Croix Watershed Research Station (SCWRS) at the Science Museum of Minnesota. The results indicate that frequent climatic fluctuations resulting in alternating periods of drought and wet conditions are typical for the northern Great Plains and suggest that the severity and length of extremes exceeded those on modern record. Devils Lake has experienced five fresh periods and two minor freshening periods in the last 2000 years. Transitions between fresh and saline periods have been relatively fast, representing lake level changes that have been similar to those observed in the last 150 years. From 0 to 1070 A.D., Devils Lake showed more variable behavior, with fresh phases centered at 200, 500, 700, and 1000 A.D. From 1070 A.D. to present, Devils Lake was generally saline, experiencing two minor freshening periods at 1305-1315 and 1800-1820 A.D and the major current freshening from 1960 A.D. to present.

  4. Ecotoxicology of tropical marine ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, E.C.; Gassman, N.J.; Firman, J.C.; Richmond, R.H.; Power, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    The negative effects of chemical contaminants on tropical marine ecosystems are of increasing concern as human populations expand adjacent to these communities. Watershed streams and ground water carry a variety of chemicals from agricultural, industrial, and domestic activities, while winds and currents transport pollutants from atmospheric and oceanic sources to these coastal ecosystems. The implications of the limited information available on impacts of chemical stressors on mangrove forests, seagrass meadows, and coral reefs are discussed in the context of ecosystem management and ecological risk assessment. Three classes of pollutants have received attention: heavy metals, petroleum, and synthetic organics. Heavy metals have been detected in all three ecosystems, causing physiological stress, reduced reproductive success, and outright mortality in associated invertebrates and fishes. Oil spills have been responsible for the destruction of entire coastal shallow-water communities, with recovery requiring years. Herbicides are particularly detrimental to mangroves and seagrasses and adversely affect the animal-algal symbioses in corals. Pesticides interfere with chemical cues responsible for key biological processes, including reproduction and recruitment of a variety of organisms. Information is lacking with regard to long-term recovery, indicator species, and biomarkers for tropical communities. Critical areas that are beginning to be addressed include the development of appropriate benchmarks for risk assessment, baseline monitoring criteria, and effective management strategies to protect tropical marine ecosystems in the face of mounting anthropogenic disturbance.

  5. Seasonally-managed wetland footprint delineation using Landsat ETM+ satellite imagery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Epshtein, O.

    2013-12-15

    One major challenge in water resource management is the estimation of evapotranspiration losses from seasonally managed wetlands. Quantifying these losses is complicated by the dynamic nature of the wetlands areal footprint during the periods of flood-up and drawdown. In this study we present a data-lean solution to this problem using an example application in the San Joaquin River Basin of California, USA. Through analysis of high-resolution (30 meter) Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) satellite imagery, we develop a metric for more fully capturing the extent of total flooded wetland area. The procedure is validated using year-long, continuously-logged field datasets at two separate wetlands within the study area. Based on this record, the proposed classification using a Landsat ETM+ Band 5 (mid-IR wavelength) to Band 2 (visible green wavelength) ratio improves estimates by 30-50% relative to previous attempts at wetland delineation. Requiring modest ancillary data, the results of our study provide a practical and efficient option for wetland management in data-sparse regions or un-gauged watersheds.

  6. Final report on "Modeling Diurnal Variations of California Land Biosphere CO2 Fluxes"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fung, Inez

    2014-07-28

    In Mediterranean climates, the season of water availability (winter) is out of phase with the season of light availability and atmospheric demand for moisture (summer). Multi-year half-hourly observations of sap flow velocities in 26 evergreen trees in a small watershed in Northern California show that different species of evergreen trees have different seasonalities of transpiration: Douglas-firs respond immediately to the first winter rain, while Pacific madrones have peak transpiration in the dry summer. Using these observations, we have derived species-specific parameterization of normalized sap flow velocities in terms of insolation, vapor pressure deficit and near-surface soil moisture. A simple 1-D boundary layer model showed that afternoon temperatures may be higher by 1 degree Celsius in an area with Douglas-firs than with Pacific madrones. The results point to the need to develop a new representation of subsurface moisture, in particular pools beneath the organic soil mantle and the vadose zone. Our ongoing and future work includes coupling our new parameterization of transpiration with new representation of sub-surface moisture in saprolite and weathered bedrock. The results will be implemented in a regional climate model to explore vegetation-climate feedbacks, especially in the dry season.

  7. Floodplain Assessment for the Proposed Engineered Erosion Controls at TA-72 in Lower Sandia Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hathcock, Charles D.

    2012-08-27

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is preparing to implement engineering controls in Sandia Canyon at Technical Area (TA) 72. Los Alamos National Security (LANS) biologists conducted a floodplain determination and this project is located within a 100-year floodplain. The proposed project is to rehabilitate the degraded channel in lower Sandia Canyon where it crosses through the outdoor firing range at TA-72 to limit the loss of sediment and dissipate floodwater leaving LANL property (Figure 1). The proposed construction of these engineered controls is part of the New Mexico Environment Department's (NMED) approved LANL Individual Storm Water Permit. The purpose of this project is to install storm water controls at Sandia Watershed Site Monitoring Area 6 (S-SMA-6). Storm water controls will be designed and installed to meet the requirements of NPDES Permit No. NM0030759, commonly referred to as the LANL Individual Storm Water Permit (IP). The storm water control measures address storm water mitigation for the area within the boundary of Area of Concern (AOC) 72-001. This action meets the requirements of the IP for S-SMA-6 for storm water controls by a combination of: preventing exposure of upstream storm water and storm water generated within the channel to the AOC and totally retaining storm water falling outside the channel but within the AOC.

  8. Mapping water availability, projected use and cost in the western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vincent C. Tidwell; Barbara D. Moreland; Katie M. Zemlick; Barry L. Roberts; Howard D. Passell; Daniel Jensen; Christopher Forsgren; Gerald Sehlke; Margaret A. Cook; Carey W. King

    2014-06-01

    New demands for water can be satisfied through a variety of source options. In some basins surface and/or groundwater may be available through permitting with the state water management agency (termed unappropriated water), alternatively water might be purchased and transferred out of its current use to another (termed appropriated water), or non-traditional water sources can be captured and treated (e.g., wastewater). The relative availability and cost of each source are key factors in the development decision. Unfortunately, these measures are location dependent with no consistent or comparable set of data available for evaluating competing water sources. With the help of western water managers, water availability was mapped for over 1200 watersheds throughout the western US. Five water sources were individually examined, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water, municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped was projected change in consumptive water use from 2010 to 2030. Associated costs to acquire, convey and treat the water, as necessary, for each of the five sources were estimated. These metrics were developed to support regional water planning and policy analysis with initial application to electric transmission planning in the western US.

  9. Improving the representation of hydrologic processes in Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Martyn P.; Fan, Ying; Lawrence, David M.; Adam, J. C.; Bolster, Diogo; Gochis, David; Hooper, Richard P.; Kumar, Mukesh; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Mackay, D. Scott; Maxwell, Reed M.; Shen, Chaopeng; Swenson, Sean C.; Zeng, Xubin

    2015-08-21

    Many of the scientific and societal challenges in understanding and preparing for global environmental change rest upon our ability to understand and predict the water cycle change at large river basin, continent, and global scales. However, current large-scale models, such as the land components of Earth System Models (ESMs), do not yet represent the terrestrial water cycle in a fully integrated manner or resolve the finer-scale processes that can dominate large-scale water budgets. This paper reviews the current representation of hydrologic processes in ESMs and identifies the key opportunities for improvement. This review suggests that (1) the development of ESMs has not kept pace with modeling advances in hydrology, both through neglecting key processes (e.g., groundwater) and neglecting key aspects of spatial variability and hydrologic connectivity; and (2) many modeling advances in hydrology can readily be incorporated into ESMs and substantially improve predictions of the water cycle. Accelerating modeling advances in ESMs requires comprehensive hydrologic benchmarking activities, in order to systematically evaluate competing modeling alternatives, understand model weaknesses, and prioritize model development needs. This demands stronger collaboration, both through greater engagement of hydrologists in ESM development and through more detailed evaluation of ESM processes in research watersheds. Advances in the representation of hydrologic process in ESMs can substantially improve energy, carbon and nutrient cycle prediction capabilities through the fundamental role the water cycle plays in regulating these cycles.

  10. Trace metals in urban streams and detention ponds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Licsko, Z.J.; Struger, J.

    1995-12-31

    Trace metal levels were monitored over a nine month period in two urban creeks in the Hamilton Harbour watershed and in two urban stormwater retention ponds in Guelph, Ontario. Samples were collected both during dry or non-event periods and immediately after wet weather events. Both water and surficial sediment samples were collected and tested for cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc. In almost all cases during wet weather conditions, Canadian Water Quality Guidelines for the protection of freshwater aquatic life were exceeded in water for lead (>7 mg/L), copper (>4 mg/L), and zinc (>30 mg/L) . Both stormwater ponds accumulated trace metals in sediment to levels above the lowest effect level guideline for the protection and management of aquatic sediment in Ontario, and, in the case of zinc (> 820 ug/g), above the severe effect level guideline. These levels of contamination raise serious concerns about the use of these and similar facilities as habitat for biota.

  11. Development of baseline water quality stormwater detention pond model for Chesapeake Bay catchments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musico, W.J.; Yoon, J.

    1999-07-01

    An environmental impact assessment is required for every proposed development in the Commonwealth of Virginia to help identify areas of potential concerns. The purpose of the Chesapeake Bay Local Assistance Department (CBLAD), Guidance Calculation Procedures is to ensure that development of previously constructed areas do not further exacerbate current problems of stormwater-induced eutrophication and downstream flooding. The methodology is based on the post development conditions that will not generate greater peak flows and will result in a 10% overall reduction of total phosphorus. Currently, several well-known models can develop hydrographs and pollutographs that accurately model the real response of a given watershed to any given rainfall event. However, conventional method of achieving the desired peak flow reduction and pollutant removal is not a deterministic procedure, and is inherently a trail and error process. A method of quickly and accurately determining the required size of stormwater easements was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative stormwater collection and treatment systems. In this method, predevelopment conditions were modeled first to estimate the peak flows and subsequent pollutants generation that can be used as a baseline for post development plan. Resulting stormwater easement estimates facilitate decision-making processes during the planning and development phase of a project. The design can be optimized for the minimum cost or the smallest-possible pond size required for peak flow reduction and detention time given the most basic data such as: inflow hydrograph and maximum allowable pond depth.

  12. Application of TIEs in studies of urban stormwater impacts on marine organisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jirik, A.W.; Bay, S.M.; Greenstein, D.J.; Zellers, A.; Lau, S.L.

    1998-12-31

    Urban stormwater runoff is a significant, yet poorly understood, source of contaminants to the marine environment. One of the largest sources of stormwater inputs to Santa Monica Bay (California) is the Ballona Creek watershed. Receiving water and runoff water samples were collected during several storms in both the 1995--96 and 1996--97 wet seasons. Sea urchin fertilization tests indicated toxicity in most Ballona Creek stormwater samples; EC{sub 50} values were about 12--20%. Receiving water samples were also toxic, with the magnitude of effects generally corresponding to the concentration of runoff present. Selected Phase 1 TIE (toxicity identification evaluation) manipulations were applied to samples showing toxicity. Ballona Creek samples had a consistent response pattern; EDTA addition removed virtually all toxicity, implicating divalent trace metals as the probable toxic constituents. Santa Monica Bay surface water samples showed a similar response pattern but other manipulations also removed some toxicity. Toxicity of receiving water samples tended to degrade with storage, while runoff sample toxicity was more stable. Chemical analysis of runoff and comparison to spiking studies showed that concentrations of zinc and occasionally copper were sufficient to produce toxicity. Evaluation of the relative effectiveness of EDTA versus sodium thiosulfate in toxicity removal also suggested zinc as a likely cause of toxicity.

  13. 2015 DOE Final UF Report. Effects of Warming the Deep Soil and Permafrost on Ecosystem Carbon Balance in Alaskan Tundra. A Coupled Measurement and Modeling Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuur, Edward

    2015-06-11

    The major research goal of this project was to understand and quantify the fate of carbon stored in permafrost ecosystems using a combination of field and laboratory experiments to measure isotope ratios and C fluxes in a tundra ecosystem exposed to experimental warming. Field measurements centered on the establishment of a two-factor experimental warming using a snow fence and open top chambers to increase winter and summer temperatures alone, and in combination, at a tundra field site at the Eight Mile Lake watershed near Healy, Alaska. The objective of this experimental warming was to significantly raise air and deep soil temperatures and increase the depth of thaw beyond that of previous warming experiments. Detecting the loss and fate of the old permafrost C pool remains a major challenge. Because soil C has been accumulating in these ecosystems over the past 10,000 years, there is a strong difference between the radiocarbon isotopic composition of C deep in the soil profile and permafrost compared to that near the soil surface. This large range of isotopic variability is unique to radiocarbon and provides a valuable and sensitive fingerprint for detecting the loss of old soil C as permafrost thaws.

  14. Life Cycle Assessment of Switchgrass Cellulosic Ethanol Production in the Wisconsin and Michigan Agricultural Contexts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinistore, Julie C.; Reinemann, D. J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Cronin, Keith R.; Meier, Paul J.; Runge, Troy M.; Zhang, Xuesong

    2015-04-25

    Spatial variability in yields and greenhouse gas emissions from soils has been identified as a key source of variability in life cycle assessments (LCAs) of agricultural products such as cellulosic ethanol. This study aims to conduct an LCA of cellulosic ethanol production from switchgrass in a way that captures this spatial variability and tests results for sensitivity to using spatially averaged results. The Environment Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was used to calculate switchgrass yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from crop production in southern Wisconsin and Michigan at the watershed scale. These data were combined with cellulosic ethanol production data via ammonia fiber expansion and dilute acid pretreatment methods and region-specific electricity production data into an LCA model of eight ethanol production scenarios. Standard deviations from the spatial mean yields and soil emissions were used to test the sensitivity of net energy ratio, global warming potential intensity, and eutrophication and acidification potential metrics to spatial variability. Substantial variation in the eutrophication potential was also observed when nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from soils were varied. This work illustrates the need for spatially explicit agricultural production data in the LCA of biofuels and other agricultural products.

  15. The Heat Output of the Waimangu, Waiotapu-Waikite and Reporoa Geothermal Systems (NZ): Do Chloride Fluxes Provide an Accurate Measure?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibby, H.M.; Glover, R.B.; Whiteford, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal waters from the Waimangu, Waiotapu-Waikite and Reporoa geothermal systems find their way into three separate watersheds. The heat flow data from each of these drainage areas have been assessed making it possible to compare the heat outputs from two independent methods: direct heat measurements and the chloride flux method. For both the Waiotapu/Reporoa Valley drainage and the Waikite drainage a discrepancy exists between the two assessments, with the heat output observed at the surface (Waiotapu-540 {+-} 110 MW; Waikite-80 MW) nearly double of that calculated from the chloride flux (300 MW; 36 MW respectively). It appears that much of the throughput of chloride does not reach the surface within the area which was monitored and the basic assumption on which the method is based has been violated. For Waimangu the direct heat output is assessed as 510 {+-} 60 MW. However the ratio of enthalpy to chloride concentration of the source fluid is not well determined. Depending on the ratio chosen the heat output could lie between 360 and 800 MW. Although the chloride flux is accurately known, the heat output cannot be measured accurately without well determined data on the source fluid at depth.

  16. Energy Savings from Industrial Water Reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Prakash; McKane, Aimee; de Fontaine, Andre

    2015-08-03

    Although it is widely recognized that reducing freshwater consumption is of critical importance, generating interest in industrial water reduction programs can be hindered for a variety of reasons. These include the low cost of water, greater focus on water use in other sectors such as the agriculture and residential sectors, high levels of unbilled and/or unregulated self-supplied water use in industry, and lack of water metering and tracking capabilities at industrial facilities. However, there are many additional components to the resource savings associated with reducing site water use beyond the water savings alone, such as reductions in energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, treatment chemicals, and impact on the local watershed. Understanding and quantifying these additional resource savings can expand the community of businesses, NGOs, government agencies, and researchers with a vested interest in water reduction. This paper will develop a methodology for evaluating the embedded energy consumption associated with water use at an industrial facility. The methodology developed will use available data and references to evaluate the energy consumption associated with water supply and wastewater treatment outside of a facility’s fence line for various water sources. It will also include a framework for evaluating the energy consumption associated with water use within a facility’s fence line. The methodology will develop a more complete picture of the total resource savings associated with water reduction efforts and allow industrial water reduction programs to assess the energy and CO2 savings associated with their efforts.

  17. Paleo-channel deposits of natural uranium at a Former Air Force Landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, C.; Weismann, PGJ.; Nelson, CHPK. [Cabrera Services, Inc., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The US Air Force has sought to understand the provenance of radionuclides that were detected in monitor wells surrounding a closed solid-waste landfill at the former Lowry Air Force Base in Denver, Colorado. Groundwater concentrations of gross alpha, gross beta, and total uranium were thought to exceed regulatory standards. Down-gradient concentrations of these parameters exceeded up-gradient concentrations, suggesting that the landfill is leaching uranium to groundwater. Alternate hypotheses for the occurrence of the uranium included that either equipment containing refined uranium had been discarded or that uranium ore may have been disposed in the landfill, or that the uranium is naturally-occurring. Our study has concluded that the elevated radionuclide concentrations stem from naturally-occurring uranium in the regional watershed which has been preferentially deposited in paleo-channel sediments beneath the site. This study shows that a simple comparison of up-gradient versus down-gradient groundwater samples can be an inadequate method for determining whether heterogeneous geo-systems have been contaminated. It is important to understand the geologic depositional system, plus local geochemistry and how these factors impact contaminant transport. (authors)

  18. Intermittent turbulence events observed with a sonic anemometer and minisodar during CASES99.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coulter, R. L.; Doran, J. C.

    2000-05-12

    The Cooperative Air Surface Exchange Study 1999 (CASES99), designed to investigate in detail the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) of the atmosphere with particular emphasis on turbulence and turbulence events, took place during October 1999, within the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiments (ABLE) region east of Wichita KS. The principal measurement site was a heavily instrumented 2-km square located near Leon (LE), KS, but additional sites at Smileyberg (SM) and Beaumont (BE) were also used. The authors augmented the normal ABLE measurements at Beaumont (radar wind profiler, minisodar, 10-m meteorological tower, precipitation gauge) with a sonic anemometer mounted on the tower, 7 m above the surface. For this campaign, the minisodar data were saved in single-pulse mode with no averaging. The Beaumont site is within gently rolling rangeland used primarily for grazing. The site is on a flat plain rising gradually to the east.The Flint Hills escarpment, located approximately 2 km to the east, marks the highest point in, and the eastern boundary of, the Walnut River watershed. Although most terrain features are subtle, terrain effects on atmospheric flows are still possible, particularly in stable conditions. The intent was to observe turbulence and, hopefully, turbulence events with the sonic anemometer and minisodar. The horizontal extent of these occurrences can be studied by including the Beaumont data with those obtained at the Leon site. In this report the authors are concerned with the occurrence of intermittent turbulence.

  19. Compilation and Presentation of Existing Data on Oil and Gas Leasing Development in a Manner Useful to the NEPA Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amy Childers; Dave Cornue

    2008-11-30

    In recognition of our nation's increasing energy needs, the George W. Bush Administration's National Energy Policy Development Group report (May 2001) suggested that one way to increase domestic on-shore production of oil and gas is to increase access to undiscovered resources on federal lands. Also recognized is the need to protect and conserve natural resources, which often are located on and around federal lands. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was designed to create and maintain conditions under which man and nature can exist in productive harmony. NEPA requires that federal agencies prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) prior to the approval of any development activities. The NEPA scope is broad, with the process applicable to many situations from the building of highways, barge facilities and water outtake facilities, bridges, and watersheds to other less significant projects. The process often involves cooperation among multiple federal agencies, industry, scientists and consultants, and the surrounding community. The objective of the project, titled Compilation and Presentation of Existing Data on Oil and Gas Leasing and Development in a Manner Useful to the NEPA Process, is to facilitate faster and more comprehensive access to current oil and gas data by land management agencies and operators. This will enable key stakeholders in the NEPA process to make decisions that support access to federal resources while at the same time achieving a legitimate balance between environmental protection and appropriate levels of development.

  20. Water resources review: Wheeler Reservoir, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallus, R.; Cox, J.P.

    1990-09-01

    Protection and enhancement of water quality is essential for attaining the full complement of beneficial uses of TVA reservoirs. The responsibility for improving and protecting TVA reservoir water quality is shared by various federal, state, and local agencies, as well as the thousands of corporations and property owners whose individual decisions affect water quality. TVA's role in this shared responsibility includes collecting and evaluating water resources data, disseminating water resources information, and acting as a catalyst to bring together agencies and individuals that have a responsibility or vested interest in correcting problems that have been identified. This report is one in a series of status reports that will be prepared for each of TVA's reservoirs. The purpose of this status report is to provide an up-to-date overview of the characteristics and conditions of Wheeler Reservoir, including: reservoir purposes and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and the watershed; water quality conditions: aquatic biological conditions: designated, actual, and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those uses; ongoing or planned reservoir management activities. Information and data presented here are form the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. 21 refs., 8 figs., 29 tabs.

  1. Contaminant Mass Balance for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Puget Sound, WA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crecelius, Eric A.; Johnston, Robert K.; Leather, Jim; Guerrero, Joel; Miller, Martin C.; Brandenberger, Jill M.

    2003-04-03

    Sinclair Inlet and Dyes Inlets have historically received contaminates from military installations, industrial activities, municipal outfalls, and other nonpoint sources. For the purpose of determining a ?total maximum daily load? (TMDL) of contaminants for the Inlets, a contaminant mass balance for the sediments is being developed. Sediment cores and traps were collected from depositional areas of the Inlets and surface sediment grabs were collected from fluvial deposits associated with major drainage areas into the Inlets. All sediment samples were screened using X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) for metals, UV fluorescence for organics (PAHs), and immunoassay for PCBs. A subset of split-samples was analyzed using ICP/MS for metals and GC/MS for phthalates, PAHs, and PCBs. Sediment cores were age-dated using radionuclides to determine the sedimentation rate and the history of sediment contamination. Streams and storm water outfalls were sampled in both the wet and dry seasons to assess loading from the watershed. Seawater samples collected from the marine waters of the Inlets and boundary passages to central Puget Sound were used to estimate the exchange of contaminates with central Puget Sound. The historical trends from the cores indicate that contamination was at a maximum in the middle of the 1900s and decreased significantly by the late 1900s. The thickness of the contaminated sediment is in the range of 30 to 50 cm.

  2. Subtask 7.3 - The Socioeconomic Impact of Climate Shifts in the Northern Great Plains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaroslav Solc; Tera Buckley; Troy Simonsen

    2007-12-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) evaluated the water demand response/vulnerability to climate change factors of regional economic sectors in the northern Great Plains. Regardless of the cause of climatic trends currently observed, the research focused on practical evaluation of climate change impact, using water availability as a primary factor controlling long-term regional economic sustainability. Project results suggest that the Upper Missouri, Red River, and Upper Mississippi Watersheds exhibit analogous response to climate change, i.e., extended drought influences water availability in the entire region. The modified trend suggests that the next period for which the Red River Basin can expect a high probability of below normal precipitation will occur before 2050. Agriculture is the most sensitive economic sector in the region; however, analyses confirmed relative adaptability to changing conditions. The price of agricultural commodities is not a good indicator of the economic impact of climate change because production and price do not correlate and are subject to frequent and irregular government intervention. Project results confirm that high water demand in the primary economic sectors makes the regional economy extremely vulnerable to climatic extremes, with a similar response over the entire region. Without conservation-based water management policies, long-term periods of drought will limit socioeconomic development in the region and may threaten even the sustainability of current conditions.

  3. QER- Comment of Beth Markens 1

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    I'm writing to state that New England does not need to draw energy from "natural" gas out of the Marcellus Shale. This so called "natural" gas is increasingly unconventional gas. It is well known that gas from the Marcellus Shale is exponentially higher in radioactivity. This poses a severe health risk to Massachusetts residents in a number of ways. Pipelines leak. And proposed pipelines will run through all of our aquifers and watersheds. There is a disproportionately high level of environmental damage, ruining of drinking water, difficulties of disposing of ruined drinking water, and an obscenely high emission from both wellheads and pipelines. As a Master's level nursing professional, I feel this is incredibly dangerous and a foolhardy method for a small number of individuals to gain an obscene amount of private wealth while the rest of us face enormous consequences. Massachusetts does not need to become the shipping grid for the Marcellus Shale. And this seems like a ploy by two big investment companies to exploit eminent domain for private profit. I have great concern for the health and well-being of citizens of Massachusetts. It certainly seems like a plan to euthanize citizens. --Beth Ashley Markens, RN

  4. Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGowan, Vance R.; Morton, Winston H.

    2008-12-30

    On July 1, 1984 the Bonneville Power Administration and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife entered into an intergovernmental contract to initiate fish habitat enhancement work in the Joseph Creek subbasin of the Grande Ronde River Basin in northeast Oregon. In 1985 the Upper and Middle Grande Ronde River, and Catherine Creek subbasins were included in the contract, and in 1996 the Wallowa River subbasin was added. The primary goal of 'The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project' is to create, protect, and restore riparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing opportunities for natural fish production within the basin. This project provided for implementation of Program Measure 703 (C)(1), Action Item 4.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC, 1987), and continues to be implemented as offsite mitigation for mainstem fishery losses caused by the Columbia River hydro-electric system. All work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and partners is on private lands and therefore requires that considerable time be spent developing rapport with landowners to gain acceptance of, and continued cooperation with this program throughout 10-15 year lease periods. Both passive and active restoration treatment techniques are used. Passive regeneration of habitat, using riparian exclosure fencing and alternate water sources are the primary method to restore degraded streams when restoration can be achieved primarily through changes in management. Active restoration techniques using plantings, bioengineering, site-specific instream structures, or whole stream channel alterations are utilized when streams are more severely degraded and not likely to recover in a reasonable timeframe. Individual projects contribute to and complement ecosystem and basin-wide watershed restoration efforts that are underway by state, federal, and tribal agencies, and coordinated by the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Program (Project. No.199202601). Work undertaken during 2007 included: (1) Starting 1 new fencing project in the NFJD subbasin that will protect an additional 1.82 miles of stream and 216.2 acres of habitat; (2) Constructing 0.47 miles of new channel on the Wallowa River to enhance habitat, restore natural channel dimensions, pattern and profile and reconnect approximately 18 acres of floodplain and wetland habitat; (3) Planting 22,100 plants along 3 streams totaling 3.6 stream miles; (4) Establishing 34 new photopoints on 5 projects and retaking 295 existing photopoint pictures; (5) Monitoring stream temperatures at 10 locations on 5 streams and conducting other monitoring activities; (6) Completing riparian fence, water gap and other maintenance on 116.8 miles of project fences; (7) Initiated writing of a comprehensive project summary report that will present a summary of conclusions of the benefits to focal species and management recommendations for the future. Since initiation of this program 56 individual projects have been implemented, monitored and maintained along 84.8 miles of anadromous fish bearing streams that protect and enhance 3,501 acres of riparian and instream habitat.

  5. What is the importance of climate model bias when projecting the impacts of climate change on land surface processes?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, M. L.; Rajagopalan, K.; Chung, S. H.; Jiang, X.; Harrison, J. H.; Nergui, T.; Guenther, Alex B.; Miller, C.; Reyes, J.; Tague, C. L.; Choate, J. S.; Salathe, E.; Stockle, Claudio O.; Adam, J. C.

    2014-05-16

    Regional climate change impact (CCI) studies have widely involved downscaling and bias-correcting (BC) Global Climate Model (GCM)-projected climate for driving land surface models. However, BC may cause uncertainties in projecting hydrologic and biogeochemical responses to future climate due to the impaired spatiotemporal covariance of climate variables and a breakdown of physical conservation principles. Here we quantify the impact of BC on simulated climate-driven changes in water variables(evapotranspiration, ET; runoff; snow water equivalent, SWE; and water demand for irrigation), crop yield, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC), nitric oxide (NO) emissions, and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export over the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Region. We also quantify the impacts on net primary production (NPP) over a small watershed in the region (HJ Andrews). Simulation results from the coupled ECHAM5/MPI-OM model with A1B emission scenario were firstly dynamically downscaled to 12 km resolutions with WRF model. Then a quantile mapping based statistical downscaling model was used to downscale them into 1/16th degree resolution daily climate data over historical and future periods. Two series climate data were generated according to the option of bias-correction (i.e. with bias-correction (BC) and without bias-correction, NBC). Impact models were then applied to estimate hydrologic and biogeochemical responses to both BC and NBC meteorological datasets. These im20 pact models include a macro-scale hydrologic model (VIC), a coupled cropping system model (VIC-CropSyst), an ecohydrologic model (RHESSys), a biogenic emissions model (MEGAN), and a nutrient export model (Global-NEWS). Results demonstrate that the BC and NBC climate data provide consistent estimates of the climate-driven changes in water fluxes (ET, runoff, and water demand), VOCs (isoprene and monoterpenes) and NO emissions, mean crop yield, and river DIN export over the PNW domain. However, significant differences rise from projected SWE, crop yield from dry lands, and HJ Andrews’s ET between BC and NBC data. Even though BC post-processing has no significant impacts on most of the studied variables when taking PNW as a whole, their effects have large spatial variations and some local areas are substantially influenced. In addition, there are months during which BC and NBC post-processing produces significant differences in projected changes, such as summer runoff. Factor-controlled simulations indicate that BC post-processing of precipitation and temperature both substantially contribute to these differences at region scales. We conclude that there are trade-offs between using BC climate data for offline CCI studies vs. direct modeled climate data. These trade-offs should be considered when designing integrated modeling frameworks for specific applications; e.g., BC may be more important when considering impacts on reservoir operations in mountainous watersheds than when investigating impacts on biogenic emissions and air quality (where VOCs are a primary indicator).

  6. Reintroduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hillson, Todd D.

    2009-06-12

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River (LCR) chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March, 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to the reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than one-half million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 present-day spawners. Harvest, habitat degradation, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for this decline. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of this species. This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam, where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. Prior to 1997, only two chum salmon populations were recognized as genetically distinct in the Columbia River, although spawning had been documented in many Lower Columbia River tributaries. The first population was in the Grays River (RKm 34), a tributary of the Columbia River, and the second was a group of spawners utilizing the mainstem Columbia River just below Bonneville Dam (RKm 235) adjacent to Ives Island and in Hardy and Hamilton creeks. Using additional DNA samples, Small et al. (2006) grouped chum salmon spawning in the mainstem Columbia River and the Washington State tributaries into three groups: the Coastal, the Cascade and the Gorge. The Coastal group comprises those spawning in the Grays River, Skamokawa Creek and the broodstock used at the Sea Resources facility on the Chinook River. The Cascade group comprises those spawning in the Cowlitz (both summer and fall stocks), Kalama, Lewis, and East Fork Lewis rivers, with most supporting unique populations. The Gorge group comprises those spawning in the mainstem Columbia River from the I-205 Bridge up to Bonneville Dam and those spawning in Hamilton and Hardy creeks. Response to the federal ESA listing has been primarily through direct-recovery actions: reducing harvest, hatchery supplementation using local broodstock for populations at catastrophic risk, habitat restoration (including construction of spawning channels) and flow agreements to protect spawning and rearing areas. Both state and federal agencies have built controlled spawning areas. In 1998, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) began a chum salmon supplementation program using native stock on the Grays River. This program was expanded during 1999 - 2001 to include reintroduction into the Chinook River using eggs from the Grays River Supplementation Program. These eggs are incubated at the Grays River Hatchery, reared to release size at the Sea Resources Hatchery on the Chinook River, and the fry are released at the mouth of the Chinook River. Native steelhead, chum, and coho salmon are present in Duncan Creek, and are recognized as subpopulations of the Lower Gorge population, and are focal species in the Lower Columbia Fish Recovery Board (LCFRB) plan. Steelhead, chum and coho salmon that spawn in Duncan Creek are listed as Threatened under the ESA. Duncan Creek is classified by the LCFRB plan as a watershed for intensive monitoring (LCFRB 2004). This project was identified in the 2004 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) revised Biological Opinion (revised BiOp) to increase survival of chum salmon, 'BPA will continue to fund the program to re-introduce Columbia River chum salmon into Duncan Creek as long as NOAA Fisheries determines it to be an essential and effective contribution to reducing the risk of extinction for this ESU'. (USACE et al. 2004, page 85-86). The Governors Forum on Monitoring and Salmon Recovery and Watershed Health recommends one major population from each ESU have adult and juvenile monitoring. Duncan Creek chum salmon are identified in this plan to be intensively monitored. Planners recommended that a combination of natural and hatchery production

  7. Determination of the origin of elevated uranium at a Former Air Force Landfill using non-parametric statistics analysis and uranium isotope ratio analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weismann, J.; Young, C.; Masciulli, S.; Caputo, D.

    2007-07-01

    Lowry Air Force Base (Lowry) was closed in September 1994 as part of the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) program and the base was transferred to the Lowry Redevelopment Authority in 1995. As part of the due diligence activities conducted by the Air Force, a series of remedial investigations were conducted across the base. A closed waste landfill, designated Operable Unit 2 (OU 2), was initially assessed in a 1990 Remedial Investigation (RI; [1]). A Supplemental Remedial Investigation was conducted in 1995 [2] and additional studies were conducted in a 1998 Focused Feasibility Study. [3] The three studies indicated that gross alpha, gross beta, and uranium concentrations were consistently above regulatory standards and that there were detections of low concentrations other radionuclides. Results from previous investigations at OU 2 have shown elevated gross alpha, gross beta, and uranium concentrations in groundwater, surface water, and sediments. The US Air Force has sought to understand the provenance of these radionuclides in order to determine if they could be due to leachates from buried radioactive materials within the landfill or whether they are naturally-occurring. The Air Force and regulators agreed to use a one-year monitoring and sampling program to seek to explain the origins of the radionuclides. Over the course of the one-year program, dissolved uranium levels greater than the 30 {mu}g/L Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) were consistently found in both up-gradient and down-gradient wells at OU 2. Elevated Gross Alpha and Gross Beta measurements that were observed during prior investigations and confirmed during the LTM were found to correlate with high dissolved uranium content in groundwater. If Gross Alpha values are corrected to exclude uranium and radon contributions in accordance with US EPA guidance, then the 15 pCi/L gross alpha level is not exceeded. The large dataset also allowed development of gross alpha to total uranium correlation factors so that gross alpha action levels can be applied to future long-term landfill monitoring to track radiological conditions at lower cost. Ratios of isotopic uranium results were calculated to test whether the elevated uranium displayed signatures indicative of military use. Results of all ratio testing strongly supports the conclusion that the uranium found in groundwater, surface water, and sediment at OU 2 is naturally-occurring and has not undergone anthropogenic enrichment or processing. U-234:U-238 ratios also show that a disequilibrium state, i.e., ratio greater than 1, exists throughout OU 2 which is indicative of long-term aqueous transport in aged aquifers. These results all support the conclusion that the elevated uranium observed at OU 2 is due to the high concentrations in the regional watershed. Based on the results of this monitoring program, we concluded that the elevated uranium concentrations measured in OU 2 groundwater, surface water, and sediment are due to the naturally-occurring uranium content of the regional watershed and are not the result of waste burials in the former landfill. Several lines of evidence indicate that natural uranium has been naturally concentrated beneath OU 2 in the geologic past and the higher of uranium concentrations in down-gradient wells is the result of geochemical processes and not the result of a uranium ore disposal. These results therefore provide the data necessary to support radiological closure of OU 2. (authors)

  8. Ground-water chemistry of a fen-wetland complex in northeastern Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panno, S.V.; Hensel, B.R.; Cartwright, K.; Krapac, I.G. ); Nuzzo, V. )

    1992-01-01

    Construction of homes within the watershed of a fen-wetland complex has resulted in encroachment of ground water-borne anthropogenic contaminants into 3 high-quality fens. The study area is located in northeastern Illinois and is situated at the base of a Wisconsinan moraine. The upper 15 to 45 m of glacial drift consists of permeable sand and gravel, overlain by 3 to 6 m of peat and marl. Ground-water samples were collected quarterly for 1.25 years from sand and gravel aquifers, and peat and marl of the fens, and analyzed for inorganic constituents. Density, cover and vigor data on threatened, endangered and selected common plant species in the fens were collected in conjunction with ground-water sampling. Ground water of the complex is of the Ca-HCO[sub 3] to Ca-Mg-HCO[sub 3] type which is typical of ground water of glacial deposits of North America. Contaminant plumes at this site are enriched in Ca, Mg, Na, Cl, NO[sub 3], SO[sub 4], with higher specific conductance and alkalinity. Some recharge areas within the complex yield ground-water samples containing 200--500 mg/L SO[sub 4]. Although this ground water is entering the fens, ground water from peat and marl in the fens contains an order of magnitude lower concentration of SO[sub 4] due to reducing conditions therein. Progressive enrichment of Cl and NO[sub 3], and decrease in Eh is occurring in recharge areas nearest housing developments, suggesting progressive degradation of ground-water quality. Mineral content of ground water appears to have the most significant affect on plant diversity within the fens. A specific conductance of greater than 100 [mu]s/cm in shallow fen ground water correlates well with the encroachment and proliferation of Typha angustifolia L. (narrow-leaf cattail) into areas of highly diverse flora.

  9. Evaluation of Water Quality Conditions Near Proposed Fish Production Sites Associated with the Yakima Fisheries Project, 1991-1993 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dauble, Dennis D.

    1994-05-01

    In 1991, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) began studying water quality at several sites in the Yakima River Basin for the Bonneville Power Administration. These sites were being proposed as locations for fish culture facilities as part of the Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP). Surface water quality parameters near the proposed fish culture facilities are currently suitable for fish production. Water quality conditions in the mainstream Yakima River and its tributaries are generally excellent in the upper part of the watershed (i.e., near Cle Elum), but they are only fair to poor for the river downstream of Union Gap (river mile 107). Water quality of the Naches River near Oak Flats is also suitable for fish production. Groundwater supplies near the proposed fish production facilities typically have elevated concentrations of metals and dissolved gases. These conditions can be mitigated using best engineering practices such as precipitation and degasification. Additionally, mixing with surface water may improve these conditions. Depending on the location and depth of the well, groundwater temperatures may be warmer than optimum for acclimating and holding juvenile and adult fish. Water quality parameters measured in the Yakima River and tributaries sometimes exceed the range of values described as acceptable for culture of salmonids and for the protection of other aquatic life. However, constituent concentrations are within ranges that exist in many northwest fish hatcheries. Additionally, site-specific tests conducted by PNL (i.e., live box exposures and egg incubation studies) indicate that fish can be successfully reared in surface and well water near the proposed facility sites. Thus, there appear to be no constraints to artificial production for the YFP.

  10. The EMAP: Ecological indicators of condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austin, H.K.

    1995-12-01

    In 1988, the Science Advisory Board to the EPA recommended a program to monitor ecological status and trends, as well as the development of innovative methods, for anticipating emerging environmental problems before a crisis. The multi-agency Environmental Monitoring And Assessment Program (EMAP) evolved with the following program elements: (1) a focus on environmental values and policy-relevant questions; (2) an activity that monitors indicators of ecological condition rather than individual stressors or pollutants; (3) an assessment-driven approach that provides probability-based, scientific results with known certainty; and (4) an activity that translates results into information useful to environmental policy makers and managers. Establishing baseline environmental conditions has received increasing attention with the growing awareness of impacts on human health and environmental integrity from global atmospheric change, acidic deposition, the loss of wetland habitats, and decreasing biodiversity. Monitoring programs can provide critical, quantitative results for scientific assessments of the complex effects of pollutants and natural changes on ecosystems. The goal of the EPA component of EMAP is to conduct research to develop place-based (e.g., large and small geographic scales) ecological monitoring and assessment. EPA/EMAP conducts research to develop and evaluate indicators of ecological condition and to detect in the long-term changes and trends in indicators and associated stresses and develops monitoring strategies to identify conditions of ecological resources in larger, high priority regions or in smaller, regional studies, such as watersheds. With its focus on long-term monitoring and assessment research and research on indicators of ecological condition, the EPA/EMAP can better determine where environmental programs are working to protect, improve, and maintain the quality of our nation`s ecological resources.

  11. Cerro Grande Fire Impact to Water Quality and Stream Flow near Los Alamos National Laboratory: Results of Four Years of Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.M. Gallaher; R.J. Koch

    2004-09-15

    In May 2000, the Cerro Grande fire burned about 7400 acres of mixed conifer forest on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and much of the 10,000 acres of mountainside draining onto LANL was severely burned. The resulting burned landscapes raised concerns of increased storm runoff and transport of contaminants by runoff in the canyons traversing LANL. The first storms after the fire produced runoff peaks that were more than 200 times greater than prefire levels. Total runoff volume for the year 2000 increased 50% over prefire years, despite a decline in total precipitation of 13% below normal and a general decrease in the number of monsoonal thunderstorms. The majority of runoff in 2000 occurred in the canyons at LANL south of Pueblo Canyon (70%), where the highest runoff volume occurred in Water Canyon and the peak discharge occurred in Pajarito Canyon. This report describes the observed effects of the Cerro Grande fire and related environmental impacts to watersheds at and near Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the first four runoff seasons after the fire, from 2000 through 2003. Spatial and temporal trends in radiological and chemical constituents that were identified as being associated with the Cerro Grande fire and those that were identified as being associated with historic LANL discharges are evaluated with regard to impacts to the Rio Grande and area reservoirs downstream of LANL. The results of environmental sampling performed by LANL, the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) after the Cerro Grande fire are included in the evaluation. Effects are described for storm runoff, baseflow, stream sediments, and area regional reservoir sediment.

  12. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Roegner, G. C.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Dawley, Earl; Skalski, John R.; Vavrinec, John; Ebberts, Blaine D.

    2006-12-20

    This report is the second annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration projects in the Columbia River Estuary, conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Marine Sciences Laboratory, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service Pt. Adams Biological Field Station, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce for the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 2005, baseline data were collected on two restoration sites and two associated reference sites in the Columbia River estuary. The sites represent two habitat types of the estuary--brackish marsh and freshwater swamp--that have sustained substantial losses in area and that may play important roles for salmonids. Baseline data collected included vegetation and elevation surveys, above and below-ground biomass, water depth and temperature, nutrient flux, fish species composition, and channel geometry. Following baseline data collection, three kinds of restoration actions for hydrological reconnection were implemented in several locations on the sites: tidegate replacements (2) at Vera Slough, near the city of Astoria in Oregon State, and culvert replacements (2) and dike breaches (3) at Kandoll Farm in the Grays River watershed in Washington State. Limited post-restoration data were collected: photo points, nutrient flux, water depth and temperature, and channel cross-sections. In subsequent work, this and additional post-restoration data will be used in conjunction with data from other sites to estimate net effects of hydrological reconnection restoration projects throughout the estuary. This project is establishing methods for evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects and a framework for assessing estuary-wide cumulative effects including a protocol manual for monitoring restoration and reference sites.

  13. Techniques to Access Databases and Integrate Data for Hydrologic Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whelan, Gene; Tenney, Nathan D.; Pelton, Mitchell A.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ward, Duane L.; Droppo, James G.; Meyer, Philip D.; Dorow, Kevin E.; Taira, Randal Y.

    2009-06-17

    This document addresses techniques to access and integrate data for defining site-specific conditions and behaviors associated with ground-water and surface-water radionuclide transport applicable to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission reviews. Environmental models typically require input data from multiple internal and external sources that may include, but are not limited to, stream and rainfall gage data, meteorological data, hydrogeological data, habitat data, and biological data. These data may be retrieved from a variety of organizations (e.g., federal, state, and regional) and source types (e.g., HTTP, FTP, and databases). Available data sources relevant to hydrologic analyses for reactor licensing are identified and reviewed. The data sources described can be useful to define model inputs and parameters, including site features (e.g., watershed boundaries, stream locations, reservoirs, site topography), site properties (e.g., surface conditions, subsurface hydraulic properties, water quality), and site boundary conditions, input forcings, and extreme events (e.g., stream discharge, lake levels, precipitation, recharge, flood and drought characteristics). Available software tools for accessing established databases, retrieving the data, and integrating it with models were identified and reviewed. The emphasis in this review was on existing software products with minimal required modifications to enable their use with the FRAMES modeling framework. The ability of four of these tools to access and retrieve the identified data sources was reviewed. These four software tools were the Hydrologic Data Acquisition and Processing System (HDAPS), Integrated Water Resources Modeling System (IWRMS) External Data Harvester, Data for Environmental Modeling Environmental Data Download Tool (D4EM EDDT), and the FRAMES Internet Database Tools. The IWRMS External Data Harvester and the D4EM EDDT were identified as the most promising tools based on their ability to access and retrieve the required data, and their ability to integrate the data into environmental models using the FRAMES environment.

  14. Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation; 1998-2002 Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contor, Craig R.

    2004-07-01

    The Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (WWNPME) was funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as directed by section 4(h) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P. L. 96-501). This project is in accordance with and pursuant to measures 4.2A, 4.3C.1, 7.1A.2, 7.1C.3, 7.1C.4 and 7.1D.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Work was conducted by the Fisheries Program of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) under the Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (UBNPME). Chapter One provides an overview of the entire report and shows how the objectives of each statement of work from 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002 contract years are organized and reported. This chapter also provides background information relevant to the aquatic resources of the Umatilla River Basin. (Figure 1-1, Tables 1-1 and 1-2). Data and reports from this and previous efforts are available on the CTUIR website http://www.umatilla.nsn.us. This project was one of several subprojects of the Umatilla River Basin Fisheries Restoration Master Plan (CTUIR 1984, ODFW 1986) orchestrated to rehabilitate salmon and steelhead runs in the Umatilla River Basin. Subprojects in additions to this project include: Watershed Enhancement and Rehabilitation; Hatchery Construction and Operation; Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation; Satellite Facility Construction and Operations for Juvenile Acclimation and Adult Holding and Spawning; Fish Passage Construction and Operation; Juvenile and Adult Passage Facility Evaluations; Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, and Flow Augmentation to Increase Stream Flows below Irrigation Diversions.

  15. Toward a new parameterization of hydraulic conductivity in climate models: Simulation of rapid groundwater fluctuations in Northern California: HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY IN CLIMATE MODELS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vrettas, Michail D.; Fung, Inez Y.

    2015-12-01

    Preferential flow through weathered bedrock leads to rapid rise of the water table after the first rainstorms and significant water storage (also known as ‘‘rock moisture’’) in the fractures. We present a new parameterization of hydraulic conductivity that captures the preferential flow and is easy to implement in global climate models. To mimic the naturally varying heterogeneity with depth in the subsurface, the model represents the hydraulic conductivity as a product of the effective saturation and a background hydraulic conductivity Kbkg, drawn from a lognormal distribution. The mean of the background Kbkg decreases monotonically with depth, while its variance reducesmore » with the effective saturation. Model parameters are derived by assimilating into Richards’ equation 6 years of 30 min observations of precipitation (mm) and water table depths (m), from seven wells along a steep hillslope in the Eel River watershed in Northern California. The results show that the observed rapid penetration of precipitation and the fast rise of the water table from the well locations, after the first winter rains, are well captured with the new stochastic approach in contrast to the standard van Genuchten model of hydraulic conductivity, which requires significantly higher levels of saturated soils to produce the same results. ‘‘Rock moisture,’’ the moisture between the soil mantle and the water table, comprises 30% of the moisture because of the great depth of the weathered bedrock layer and could be a potential source of moisture to sustain trees through extended dry periods. Furthermore, storage of moisture in the soil mantle is smaller, implying less surface runoff and less evaporation, with the proposed new model.« less

  16. Ambient Monitoring for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Puget Sound, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2010 Regional Mussel Watch (AMB02)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Suslick, Carolynn R.; Johnston, Robert K.

    2010-10-20

    The Puget Sound Naval Shipyard & Intermediate Maintenance Facility (PSNS&IMF) and Naval Base Kitsap-Bremerton (Shipyard) located in Bremerton, WA are committed to a culture of continuous process improvement for all aspects of Shipyard operations, including reducing the releases of hazardous materials and waste in discharges from the Shipyard. Under the Project ENVVEST Final Project Agreement, a cooperative project among PSNS&IMF, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and local stakeholders (US Navy, EPA and Ecology 2002) has been helping to improve the environmental quality of the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet Watershed (ENVVEST 2006). An ambient monitoring program for sediment, water, and indigenous mussels began in 2009 to assess the status and trend of ecological resources, assess the effectiveness of cleanup and pollution control measures, and determine if discharges from all sources are protective of beneficial uses including aquatic life. This document presents the 2010 chemical residue data and stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) for the regional mussel watch stations located in Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, Rich Passage, Agate Passage, Liberty Bay, and Keyport Lagoon. Indigenous bivalves were collected from a small boat and/or from along the shoreline, measured, composited, and analyzed for a suite of trace metals and organic contaminants. The trace metals included silver, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, and zinc. The organic contaminants included the list of NOAA Status and Trends 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners and suite of parent and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These chemical residue data provide the first year of the biota ambient monitoring.

  17. Generation and distribution of PAHs in the process of medical waste incineration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ying; Zhao, Rongzhi; Xue, Jun; Li, Jinhui

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? PAHs generation and distribution features of medical waste incineration are studied. ? More PAHs were found in fly ash than that in bottom ash. ? The highest proportion of PAHs consisted of the seven most carcinogenic ones. ? Increase of free oxygen molecule and burning temperature promote PAHs degradation. ? There is a moderate positive correlation between total PCDD/Fs and total PAHs. - Abstract: After the deadly earthquake on May 12, 2008 in Wenchuan county of China, several different incineration approaches were used for medical waste disposal. This paper investigates the generation properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the incineration. Samples were collected from the bottom ash in an open burning slash site, surface soil at the open burning site, bottom ash from a simple incinerator, bottom ash generated from the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator used for medical waste disposal, and bottom ash and fly ash from an incinerator exclusively used for medical waste. The species of PAHs were analyzed, and the toxicity equivalency quantities (TEQs) of samples calculated. Analysis results indicate that the content of total PAHs in fly ash was 1.8 10{sup 3} times higher than that in bottom ash, and that the strongly carcinogenic PAHs with four or more rings accumulated sensitively in fly ash. The test results of samples gathered from open burning site demonstrate that Acenaphthylene (ACY), Acenaphthene (ACE), Fluorene (FLU), Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (ANT) and other PAHs were inclined to migrate into surrounding environment along air and surface watershed corridors, while 4- to 6-ring PAHs accumulated more likely in soil. Being consistent with other studies, it has also been confirmed that increases in both free oxygen molecules and combustion temperatures could promote the decomposition of polycyclic PAHs. In addition, without the influence of combustion conditions, there is a positive correlation between total PCDD/Fs and total PAHs, although no such relationship has been found for TEQ.

  18. Okanogan Basin Spring Spawner Report for 2007.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colville Tribes, Department of Fish & Wildlife

    2007-09-01

    The Okanogan Basin Monitoring and Evaluation Program collected data related to spring spawning anadromous salmonid stocks across the entire Okanogan River basin. Data were collected using redd surveys, traps, underwater video, and PIT-tag technology then summarized and analyzed using simple estimate models. From these efforts we estimated that 1,266 summer steelhead spawned in the Okanogan River basin and constructed 552 redds;152 of these fish where of natural origin. Of these, 121 summer steelhead, including 29 of natural origin, created an estimated 70 redds in the Canadian portion of the Okanagan basin. We estimated summer steelhead spawner escapement into each sub-watershed along with the number from natural origin and the number and density of redds. We documented redd desiccation in Loup Loup Creek, habitat utilization in Salmon Creek as a result of a new water lease program, and 10 spring Chinook returning to Omak Creek. High water through most of the redd survey period resulted in development of new modeling techniques and allowed us to survey additional tributaries including the observation of summer steelhead spawning in Wanacut Creek. These 2007 data provide additional support that redd surveys conducted within the United States are well founded and provide essential information for tracking the recovery of listed summer steelhead. Conversely, redd surveys do not appear to be the best approach for enumerating steelhead spawners or there distribution within Canada. We also identified that spawning distributions within the Okanogan River basin vary widely and stocking location may play an over riding roll in this variability.

  19. Fifty Years of THERP and Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-06-01

    In 1962 at a Human Factors Society symposium, Alan Swain presented a paper introducing a Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP). This was followed in 1963 by a Sandia Laboratories monograph outlining basic human error quantification using THERP and, in 1964, by a special journal edition of Human Factors on quantification of human performance. Throughout the 1960s, Swain and his colleagues focused on collecting human performance data for the Sandia Human Error Rate Bank (SHERB), primarily in connection with supporting the reliability of nuclear weapons assembly in the US. In 1969, Swain met with Jens Rasmussen of Risø National Laboratory and discussed the applicability of THERP to nuclear power applications. By 1975, in WASH-1400, Swain had articulated the use of THERP for nuclear power applications, and the approach was finalized in the watershed publication of the NUREG/CR-1278 in 1983. THERP is now 50 years old, and remains the most well known and most widely used HRA method. In this paper, the author discusses the history of THERP, based on published reports and personal communication and interviews with Swain. The author also outlines the significance of THERP. The foundations of human reliability analysis are found in THERP: human failure events, task analysis, performance shaping factors, human error probabilities, dependence, event trees, recovery, and pre- and post-initiating events were all introduced in THERP. While THERP is not without its detractors, and it is showing signs of its age in the face of newer technological applications, the longevity of THERP is a testament of its tremendous significance. THERP started the field of human reliability analysis. This paper concludes with a discussion of THERP in the context of newer methods, which can be seen as extensions of or departures from Swain’s pioneering work.

  20. Automated matching and segmentation of lymphoma on serial CT examinations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan Jiayong; Zhao Binsheng; Curran, Sean; Zelenetz, Andrew; Schwartz, Lawrence H.

    2007-01-15

    In patients with lymphoma, identification and quantification of the tumor extent on serial CT examinations is critical for assessing tumor response to therapy. In this paper, we present a computer method to automatically match and segment lymphomas in follow-up CT images. The method requires that target lymph nodes in baseline CT images be known. A fast, approximate alignment technique along the x, y, and axial directions is developed to provide a good initial condition for the subsequent fast free form deformation (FFD) registration of the baseline and the follow-up images. As a result of the registration, the deformed lymph node contours from the baseline images are used to automatically determine internal and external markers for the marker-controlled watershed segmentation performed in the follow-up images. We applied this automated registration and segmentation method retrospectively to 29 lymph nodes in 9 lymphoma patients treated in a clinical trial at our cancer center. A radiologist independently delineated all lymph nodes on all slices in the follow-up images and his manual contours served as the ''gold standard'' for evaluation of the method. Preliminary results showed that 26/29 (89.7%) lymph nodes were correctly matched; i.e., there was a geometrical overlap between the deformed lymph node from the baseline and its corresponding mass in the follow-up images. Of the matched 26 lymph nodes, 22 (84.6%) were successfully segmented; for these 22 lymph nodes, several metrics were calculated to quantify the method's performance. Among them, the average distance and the Hausdorff distance between the contours generated by the computer and those generated by the radiologist were 0.9 mm (stdev. 0.4 mm) and 3.9 mm (stdev. 2.1 mm), respectively.

  1. FY08 LDRD Final Report Regional Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bader, D C; Chin, H; Caldwell, P M

    2009-05-19

    An integrated, multi-model capability for regional climate change simulation is needed to perform original analyses to understand and prepare for the impacts of climate change on the time and space scales that are critical to California's future environmental quality and economic prosperity. Our intent was to develop a very high resolution regional simulation capability to address consequences of climate change in California to complement the global modeling capability that is supported by DOE at LLNL and other institutions to inform national and international energy policies. The California state government, through the California Energy Commission (CEC), institutionalized the State's climate change assessment process through its biennial climate change reports. The bases for these reports, however, are global climate change simulations for future scenarios designed to inform international policy negotiations, and are primarily focused on the global to continental scale impacts of increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. These simulations do not meet the needs of California public and private officials who will make major decisions in the next decade that require an understanding of climate change in California for the next thirty to fifty years and its effects on energy use, water utilization, air quality, agriculture and natural ecosystems. With the additional development of regional dynamical climate modeling capability, LLNL will be able to design and execute global simulations specifically for scenarios important to the state, then use those results to drive regional simulations of the impacts of the simulated climate change for regions as small as individual cities or watersheds. Through this project, we systematically studied the strengths and weaknesses of downscaling global model results with a regional mesoscale model to guide others, particularly university researchers, who are using the technique based on models with less complete parameterizations or coarser spatial resolution. Further, LLNL has now built a capability in state-of-the-science mesoscale climate modeling that complements that which it has in global climate simulation, providing potential sponsors with an end-to-end simulation and analysis program.

  2. Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyles, Brad; McCurdy, Greg; Chapman, Jenny; Miller, Julianne

    2012-01-01

    A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in fiscal year 2011.

  3. Energy and water in the Great Lakes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2011-11-01

    The nexus between thermoelectric power production and water use is not uniform across the U.S., but rather differs according to regional physiography, demography, power plant fleet composition, and the transmission network. That is, in some regions water demand for thermoelectric production is relatively small while in other regions it represents the dominate use. The later is the case for the Great Lakes region, which has important implications for the water resources and aquatic ecology of the Great Lakes watershed. This is today, but what about the future? Projected demographic trends, shifting lifestyles, and economic growth coupled with the threat of global climate change and mounting pressure for greater U.S. energy security could have profound effects on the region's energy future. Planning for such an uncertain future is further complicated by the fact that energy and environmental planning and regulatory decisionmaking is largely bifurcated in the region, with environmental and water resource concerns generally taken into account after new energy facilities and technologies have been proposed, or practices are already in place. Based on these confounding needs, the objective of this effort is to develop Great Lakes-specific methods and tools to integrate energy and water resource planning and thereby support the dual goals of smarter energy planning and development, and protection of Great Lakes water resources. Guiding policies for this planning are the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The desired outcome of integrated energy-water-aquatic resource planning is a more sustainable regional energy mix for the Great Lakes basin ecosystem.

  4. Calendar Year 2002 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-03-31

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2002 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2002 monitoring data were obtained from groundwater and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12. The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of Y-12. The sections of this report provide details regarding the CY 2002 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities in the Bear Creek, East Fork, and Chestnut Ridge Regimes. Section 2 describes the monitoring programs implemented by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC during CY 2002. Section 3 identifies the sampling locations in each hydrogeologic regime and the corresponding sampling frequency during CY 2002, along with the associated quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) sampling. Section 4 describes groundwater and surface water sample collection and Section 5 identifies the field measurements and laboratory analytes for each sampling location. Section 6 outlines the data management protocols and data quality objectives (DQOs). Section 7 describes the groundwater elevation monitoring in each regime during CY 2002 and Section 8 lists the documents cited for more detailed operational, regulatory, and technical information.

  5. Estuarine Response to River Flow and Sea-Level Rise under Future Climate Change and Human Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Voisin, Nathalie; Copping, Andrea E.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the response of river flow and estuarine hydrodynamics to climate change, land-use/land-cover change (LULC), and sea-level rise is essential to managing water resources and stress on living organisms under these changing conditions. This paper presents a modeling study using a watershed hydrology model and an estuarine hydrodynamic model, in a one-way coupling, to investigate the estuarine hydrodynamic response to sea-level rise and change in river flow due to the effect of future climate and LULC changes in the Snohomish River estuary, Washington, USA. A set of hydrodynamic variables, including salinity intrusion points, average water depth, and salinity of the inundated area, were used to quantify the estuarine response to river flow and sea-level rise. Model results suggest that salinity intrusion points in the Snohomish River estuary and the average salinity of the inundated areas are a nonlinear function of river flow, although the average water depth in the inundated area is approximately linear with river flow. Future climate changes will shift salinity intrusion points further upstream under low flow conditions and further downstream under high flow conditions. In contrast, under the future LULC change scenario, the salinity intrusion point will shift downstream under both low and high flow conditions, compared to present conditions. The model results also suggest that the average water depth in the inundated areas increases linearly with sea-level rise but at a slower rate, and the average salinity in the inundated areas increases linearly with sea-level rise; however, the response of salinity intrusion points in the river to sea-level rise is strongly nonlinear.

  6. [A data collection program focused on hydrologic and meteorologic parameters in an Arctic ecosystem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, D.

    1992-12-31

    The hydrologic cycle of an arctic watershed is dominated by such physical elements as snow, ice, permafrost, seasonally frozen soils, wide fluctuations in surface energy balance and phase change of snow and ice to water. At Imnavait basin, snow accumulation begins in September or early October and maximum snowpack water equivalent is reached just prior to the onset of ablation in mid May. No significant mid winter melt occurs in this basin. Considerable snowfall redistribution by wind to depressions and valley bottom is evident. Spring snowmelt on the North Slope of Alaska is the dominant hydrologic event of the year.This event provides most of the moisture for use by vegetation in the spring and early summer period. The mechanisms and timing of snowmelt are important factors in predicting runoff, the migrations of birds and large mammals and the diversity of plant communities. It is important globally due to the radical and abrupt change in the surface energy balance over vast areas. We were able to explore the trends and differences in the snowmelt process along a transect from the Brooks Range to the Arctic Coastal plain. Snowpack ablation was monitored at three sites. These data were analyzed along with meteorologic data at each site. The initiation of ablation was site specific being largely controlled by the complementary addition of energy from radiation and sensible heat flux. Although the research sites were only 115 km apart, the rates and mechanisms of snowmelt varied greatly. Usually, snowmelt begins at the mid-elevations in the foothills and progresses northerly toward the coast and southerly to the mountains. In the more southerly areas snowmelt progressed much faster and was more influenced by sensible heat advected from areas south of the Brooks Range. In contrast snowmelt in the more northerly areas was slower and the controlled by net radiation.

  7. [A data collection program focused on hydrologic and meteorologic parameters in an Arctic ecosystem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, D.

    1992-01-01

    The hydrologic cycle of an arctic watershed is dominated by such physical elements as snow, ice, permafrost, seasonally frozen soils, wide fluctuations in surface energy balance and phase change of snow and ice to water. At Imnavait basin, snow accumulation begins in September or early October and maximum snowpack water equivalent is reached just prior to the onset of ablation in mid May. No significant mid winter melt occurs in this basin. Considerable snowfall redistribution by wind to depressions and valley bottom is evident. Spring snowmelt on the North Slope of Alaska is the dominant hydrologic event of the year.This event provides most of the moisture for use by vegetation in the spring and early summer period. The mechanisms and timing of snowmelt are important factors in predicting runoff, the migrations of birds and large mammals and the diversity of plant communities. It is important globally due to the radical and abrupt change in the surface energy balance over vast areas. We were able to explore the trends and differences in the snowmelt process along a transect from the Brooks Range to the Arctic Coastal plain. Snowpack ablation was monitored at three sites. These data were analyzed along with meteorologic data at each site. The initiation of ablation was site specific being largely controlled by the complementary addition of energy from radiation and sensible heat flux. Although the research sites were only 115 km apart, the rates and mechanisms of snowmelt varied greatly. Usually, snowmelt begins at the mid-elevations in the foothills and progresses northerly toward the coast and southerly to the mountains. In the more southerly areas snowmelt progressed much faster and was more influenced by sensible heat advected from areas south of the Brooks Range. In contrast snowmelt in the more northerly areas was slower and the controlled by net radiation.

  8. Downstream effects of mountaintop coal mining: comparing biological conditions using family- and genus-level macroinvertebrate bioassessment tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pond, G.J.; Passmore, M.E.; Borsuk, F.A.; Reynolds, L.; Rose, C.J.

    2008-09-15

    Surface coal mining with valley fills has impaired the aquatic life in numerous streams in the Central Appalachian Mountains. We characterized macroinvertebrate communities from riffles in 37 small West Virginia streams (10 unmined and 27 mined sites with valley fills) sampled in the spring index period (March-May) and compared the assessment results using family- and genus-level taxonomic data. Specific conductance was used to categorize levels of mining disturbance in mined watersheds as low (<500 {mu} S/cm), medium (500-1000 {mu} S/cm), or high (>1000 {mu} S/cm). Four lines of evidence indicate that mining activities impair biological condition of streams: shift in species assemblages, loss of Epherneroptera taxa, changes in individual metrics and indices, and differences in water chemistry. Results were consistent whether family- or genus-level data were used. In both family- and genus-level nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) ordinations, mined sites were significantly separated from unmined sites, indicating that shifts in community structure were caused by mining. Several Epherneroptera genera (e.g., Ephemerella, Epeorus, Drunella) and their families (Ephemerellidae, Heptageniidae) were correlated most strongly with the primary NMS axis. These same Ephemeroptera were absent and, thus, eliminated from most of the mined sites. Total Ephemeroptera richness and relative abundance both declined with increasing mining disturbance. Several other metrics, such as richness, composition, tolerance, and diversity, clearly discriminated unmined vs mined sites. The results show that mining activity has had subtle to severe impacts on benthic macroinvertebrate communities and that the biological condition most strongly correlates with a gradient of ionic strength.

  9. Historical trends and extremes in boreal Alaska river basins

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bennett, Katrina E.; Cannon, Alex J.; Hinzman, Larry

    2015-05-12

    Climate change will shift the frequency, intensity, duration and persistence of extreme hydroclimate events and have particularly disastrous consequences in vulnerable systems such as the warm permafrost-dominated Interior region of boreal Alaska. This work focuses on recent research results from nonparametric trends and nonstationary generalized extreme value (GEV) analyses at eight Interior Alaskan river basins for the past 50/60 years (1954/64–2013). Trends analysis of maximum and minimum streamflow indicates a strong (>+50%) and statistically significant increase in 11-day flow events during the late fall/winter and during the snowmelt period (late April/mid-May), followed by a significant decrease in the 11-day flowmore » events during the post-snowmelt period (late May and into the summer). The April–May–June seasonal trends show significant decreases in maximum streamflow for snowmelt dominated systems (<–50%) and glacially influenced basins (–24% to –33%). Annual maximum streamflow trends indicate that most systems are experiencing declines, while minimum flow trends are largely increasing. Nonstationary GEV analysis identifies time-dependent changes in the distribution of spring extremes for snowmelt dominated and glacially dominated systems. Temperature in spring influences the glacial and high elevation snowmelt systems and winter precipitation drives changes in the snowmelt dominated basins. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation was associated with changes occurring in snowmelt dominated systems, and the Arctic Oscillation was linked to one lake dominated basin, with half of the basins exhibiting no change in response to climate variability. The paper indicates that broad scale studies examining trend and direction of change should employ multiple methods across various scales and consider regime dependent shifts to identify and understand changes in extreme streamflow within boreal forested watersheds of Alaska.« less

  10. Toward a new parameterization of hydraulic conductivity in climate models: Simulation of rapid groundwater fluctuations in Northern California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrettas, Michail D.; Fung, Inez Y.

    2015-12-31

    Preferential flow through weathered bedrock leads to rapid rise of the water table after the first rainstorms and significant water storage (also known as ‘‘rock moisture’’) in the fractures. We present a new parameterization of hydraulic conductivity that captures the preferential flow and is easy to implement in global climate models. To mimic the naturally varying heterogeneity with depth in the subsurface, the model represents the hydraulic conductivity as a product of the effective saturation and a background hydraulic conductivity Kbkg, drawn from a lognormal distribution. The mean of the background Kbkg decreases monotonically with depth, while its variance reduces with the effective saturation. Model parameters are derived by assimilating into Richards’ equation 6 years of 30 min observations of precipitation (mm) and water table depths (m), from seven wells along a steep hillslope in the Eel River watershed in Northern California. The results show that the observed rapid penetration of precipitation and the fast rise of the water table from the well locations, after the first winter rains, are well captured with the new stochastic approach in contrast to the standard van Genuchten model of hydraulic conductivity, which requires significantly higher levels of saturated soils to produce the same results. ‘‘Rock moisture,’’ the moisture between the soil mantle and the water table, comprises 30% of the moisture because of the great depth of the weathered bedrock layer and could be a potential source of moisture to sustain trees through extended dry periods. Moreover, storage of moisture in the soil mantle is smaller, implying less surface runoff and less evaporation, with the proposed new model.

  11. Stormwater impacts on a coldwater resource

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, K.

    1995-12-31

    The Kinnickinnic River in west-central Wisconsin is classified as a state outstanding resource water, and is a premiere Midwest trout stream, with a self-sustaining brown trout population. River Falls, Wisconsin (population 10,000), located in the heart of the Kinnickinnic River watershed, is developing rapidly because of its proximity to the Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN metropolis. With increasing residential, commercial, and industrial development, concerns about urban stormwater impacts on the Kinnickinnic River are also increasing. These impacts include higher stream flows, thermal pollution, and sedimentation, all of which pose threats to trout and aquatic habitat. In response to the concern about thermal pollution, the Kiap-TU-Wish Chapter of Trout Unlimited established a temperature monitoring network in 1992, at four Kinnickinnic River locations throughout River Falls. Data-logging thermometers continuously record stream temperatures at 10-minute intervals, clearly demonstrating stormwater-induced thermal changes. Rapidly-increasing stream temperatures are often evident at locations downstream from stormwater outfalls during summer rainfalls, and stormwater temperatures may exceed 80 F. The thermal impacts of two small municipal hydropower impoundments have also been documented. Storm event-based composite sampling of residential, commercial, and industrial areas of River Falls (1992) suggests that these areas are highly susceptible to soil erosion, with sediment concentrations greater than the NURP average. Concentrations of some sediment-associated metals are also high. In 1994, River Falls developed a stormwater management plan for the Kinnickinnic River. Plan recommendations include a limitation of 12% impervious area within the city, proper detention pond design to mitigate thermal impacts, stringent erosion control ordinances, additional stormwater BMP`S, and increased public awareness and involvement.

  12. Mathematical modeling of stormwater pollution in a tidal embayment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najjar, K.F.

    1989-01-01

    It has been recognized for many years that stormwater runoff provides a transport mechanism for non-point pollutants into the nation's waterways. As more watershed areas continue to urbanize, greater increases in pollutant loadings will continue to impact the water quality of the receiving water bodies. In many instances, the pollutant impact exceeds the assimilative capacity of the receiving water. To estimate the potential impacts of stormwater pollution, mathematical models are constructed. In this dissertation, mathematical models have been constructed to estimate the non-point pollutant loadings from an urbanizing area as well as to model the assimilative capacity of the receiving tidal embayment system. The models are capable of simulating the hydrologic aspects as well as the water quality cycles of the system as a function of urbanization. In determining the response of the receiving water system to stormwater loadings, the change in receiving water quality is modeled spatially as well as temporally. The overall model is composed of three subsystem models: a stormwater model, a hydrodynamic tidal model, and a receiving water quality model. Construction of the stormwater model is based on STORM (Storage, Treatment, Overflow, Runoff Model) by the US Army Corps of Engineers. A ground water component to the model has been added to adjust the model for application to the study area, Lakes Bay, New Jersey. The tidal model is developed from a pseudo two-dimensional approach. The methodology utilizes the link-node concept to simulate the embayment system. Solutions to equations of motion and continuity are solved using a finite difference method. The receiving water quality model is a two-dimensional time variable water quality model which is based in a finite segment approach.

  13. The design of an alum stormwater treatment system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herr, J.L.; Harper, H.H.

    1998-07-01

    This paper summarizes the evaluation and design of an alum stormwater treatment system which was designed to improve water quality in Lake Maggiore in St. Petersburg, Florida. Lake Maggiore is a 156-hectare hyperutrophic lake located adjacent to Tampa Bay in the City of St. Petersburg, Florida which receives untreated stormwater runoff from a 927-hectare urban watershed area. Documentation of water quality problems such as algal blooms, fish kills, nuisance macrophyte growth, and high bacteria levels date back as far as the early 1950s. An environmental assessment was conducted from 1989--1991 which concluded that an acceptable improvement in the tropic status could be achieved by an 90% reduction in annual loadings of total phosphorus from stormwater runoff and baseflow. The study recommended that alum treatment of stormwater and baseflow be implemented due to the low cost and high removal efficiencies. In 1993 and 1994, a Preliminary Design Report was prepared which included the development of hydrologic and nutrient budgets for the lake, laboratory testing to determine the effectiveness of alum for removal of pollutants contained in the stormwater and baseflow, and the preparation of preliminary designs, construction cost estimates, and annual operation and maintenance costs for six separate alum treatment systems. Upon acceptance of the Preliminary Design Report, five separate alum stormwater treatment systems were designed during 1995, including both an in-line system with direct flow input into the lake and off-line systems incorporated into the water management system of an adjacent golf course. Construction was completed in January 1998 and the system was in full operation by March 1998.

  14. Toward a new parameterization of hydraulic conductivity in climate models: Simulation of rapid groundwater fluctuations in Northern California

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vrettas, Michail D.; Fung, Inez Y.

    2015-12-31

    Preferential flow through weathered bedrock leads to rapid rise of the water table after the first rainstorms and significant water storage (also known as ‘‘rock moisture’’) in the fractures. We present a new parameterization of hydraulic conductivity that captures the preferential flow and is easy to implement in global climate models. To mimic the naturally varying heterogeneity with depth in the subsurface, the model represents the hydraulic conductivity as a product of the effective saturation and a background hydraulic conductivity Kbkg, drawn from a lognormal distribution. The mean of the background Kbkg decreases monotonically with depth, while its variance reducesmore » with the effective saturation. Model parameters are derived by assimilating into Richards’ equation 6 years of 30 min observations of precipitation (mm) and water table depths (m), from seven wells along a steep hillslope in the Eel River watershed in Northern California. The results show that the observed rapid penetration of precipitation and the fast rise of the water table from the well locations, after the first winter rains, are well captured with the new stochastic approach in contrast to the standard van Genuchten model of hydraulic conductivity, which requires significantly higher levels of saturated soils to produce the same results. ‘‘Rock moisture,’’ the moisture between the soil mantle and the water table, comprises 30% of the moisture because of the great depth of the weathered bedrock layer and could be a potential source of moisture to sustain trees through extended dry periods. Moreover, storage of moisture in the soil mantle is smaller, implying less surface runoff and less evaporation, with the proposed new model.« less

  15. Paleo-channel deposition of natural uranium at a US Air Force landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Carl; Weismann, Joseph; Caputo, Daniel [Cabrera Services, Inc., East Hartford, Connecticut (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The US Air Force sought to identify the source of radionuclides that were detected in groundwater surrounding a closed solid waste landfill at the former Lowry Air Force Base in Denver, Colorado, USA. Gross alpha, gross beta, and uranium levels in groundwater were thought to exceed US drinking water standards and down-gradient concentrations exceeded up-gradient concentrations. Our study has concluded that the elevated radionuclide concentrations are due to naturally-occurring uranium in the regional watershed and that the uranium is being released from paleo-channel sediments beneath the site. Groundwater samples were collected from monitor wells, surface water and sediments over four consecutive quarters. A list of 23 radionuclides was developed for analysis based on historical landfill records. Concentrations of major ions and metals and standard geochemical parameters were analyzed. The only radionuclide found to be above regulatory standards was uranium. A search of regional records shows that uranium is abundant in the upstream drainage basin. Analysis of uranium isotopic ratios shows that the uranium has not been processed for enrichment nor is it depleted uranium. There is however slight enrichment in the U-234:U- 238 activity ratio, which is consistent with uranium that has undergone aqueous transport. Comparison of up-gradient versus down-gradient uranium concentrations in groundwater confirms that higher uranium concentrations are found in the down-gradient wells. The US drinking water standard of 30 {mu}g/L for uranium was exceeded in some of the up-gradient wells and in most of the down-gradient wells. Several lines of evidence indicate that natural uranium occurring in streams has been preferentially deposited in paleo-channel sediments beneath the site, and that the paleo-channel deposits are causing the increased uranium concentrations in down-gradient groundwater compared to up-gradient groundwater. (authors)

  16. Long-term successional forest dynamics: species and community responses to climatic variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kardol, Paul; Todd Jr, Donald E; Hanson, Paul J; Mulholland, Patrick J

    2010-01-01

    Question: Are tree dynamics sensitive to climatic variability, and do tree species differ in their responses to climatic variability? Hence, is vulnerability of forest communities to climatic variability depending on stand composition? Location: Mixed young forest at Walker Branch Watershed near Oak Ridge, East-Tennessee, USA. Methods: Using a long-term data set (1967-2006), we analyzed temporal forest dynamics at the tree and species level, and we analyzed community dynamics for forest stands that different in their initial species composition (i.e., Chestnut Oak, Oak-Hickory, Pine, and Yellow poplar stands). Using summer drought and growing season temperature as defined climate drivers, we evaluated relationships between forest dynamics and climate across levels of organization. Results: Over the 4-decade studied period, forest communities underwent successional change and substantially increased their biomass. Variation in summer drought and growing season temperature contributed to temporal biomass dynamics for some tree species, but not for others. Stand-level responses to climatic variability were shown to be related to responses of specific component species; however, not for Pine stands. Pinus echinata, the dominant species in stands initially identified as Pine stands, decreased over time due to periodical outbreaks of the pine bark beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis). The outbreaks on Walker Branch could not be directly related to climatic conditions. Conclusions: Our results imply that vulnerability of developing forests to predicted climate conditions is stand-type dependent, and hence, is a function of species composition. Autogenic successional processes (or insect outbreaks) were found to prevail over climatic variability in determining long-term forest dynamics for stands dominated by sensitive species, emphasizing the importance of studying interactions between forest succession and climate change.

  17. Historical trends and extremes in boreal Alaska river basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, Katrina E.; Cannon, Alex J.; Hinzman, Larry

    2015-05-12

    Climate change will shift the frequency, intensity, duration and persistence of extreme hydroclimate events and have particularly disastrous consequences in vulnerable systems such as the warm permafrost-dominated Interior region of boreal Alaska. This work focuses on recent research results from nonparametric trends and nonstationary generalized extreme value (GEV) analyses at eight Interior Alaskan river basins for the past 50/60 years (1954/64–2013). Trends analysis of maximum and minimum streamflow indicates a strong (>+50%) and statistically significant increase in 11-day flow events during the late fall/winter and during the snowmelt period (late April/mid-May), followed by a significant decrease in the 11-day flow events during the post-snowmelt period (late May and into the summer). The April–May–June seasonal trends show significant decreases in maximum streamflow for snowmelt dominated systems (<–50%) and glacially influenced basins (–24% to –33%). Annual maximum streamflow trends indicate that most systems are experiencing declines, while minimum flow trends are largely increasing. Nonstationary GEV analysis identifies time-dependent changes in the distribution of spring extremes for snowmelt dominated and glacially dominated systems. Temperature in spring influences the glacial and high elevation snowmelt systems and winter precipitation drives changes in the snowmelt dominated basins. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation was associated with changes occurring in snowmelt dominated systems, and the Arctic Oscillation was linked to one lake dominated basin, with half of the basins exhibiting no change in response to climate variability. The paper indicates that broad scale studies examining trend and direction of change should employ multiple methods across various scales and consider regime dependent shifts to identify and understand changes in extreme streamflow within boreal forested watersheds of Alaska.

  18. Metals Verification Study for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets,Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohn, Nancy P.; Miller, Martin C.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Johnston, Robert K.

    2004-09-29

    Sinclair and Dyes Inlets near Bremerton, Washington, are on the State of Washington's 1998 303(d) list of impaired waters because of fecal coliform contamination in marine water, metals in sediment and fish tissue, and organics in sediment and fish tissue. This Metals Verification Study was conducted to address the 303(d) segments that are listed for metal contaminants in marine sediment, because significant cleanup and source control activities have been conducted in the Inlets since the data supporting the 1998 303(d) listings were collected. The study was designed to obtain present-day sediment metals concentrations throughout Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, and Rich Passage, with stations spatially distributed to support 303(d) listing updates and also watershed-level water quality and contaminant transport modeling efforts. A total of 160 surface sediment samples from Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, and Rich Passage were screened for copper, lead, and zinc using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). 40 samples (25%) were selected for confirmatory metals analysis by ICP-MS for cadmium, silver, and arsenic in addition to copper, lead, and zinc. Regression relationships between the ICP-MS and XRF datasets were developed to estimate copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in all samples. The XRF results for copper, lead, and zinc correlated well with ICP-MS results, and predicted concentrations were calculated for all samples. The results of the Metals Verification Study show that sediment quality in Sinclair Inlet has improved markedly since implementation of cleanup and source control actions, and that the distribution of residual contaminants is limited to nearshore areas already within the actively managed Puget Sound Naval Shipyard Superfund Site where further source control actions and monitoring are under way. Outside of Sinclair Inlet, the target metals met state sediment quality standards.

  19. Evaluation of an Unsuccessful Brook Trout Electrofishing Removal Project in a Small Rocky Mountain Stream.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2006-01-26

    In the western United States, exotic brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis frequently have a deleterious effect on native salmonids, and biologists often attempt to remove brook trout from streams by means of electrofishing. Although the success of such projects typically is low, few studies have assessed the underlying mechanisms of failure, especially in terms of compensatory responses. A multiagency watershed advisory group (WAG) conducted a 3-year removal project to reduce brook trout and enhance native salmonids in 7.8 km of a southwestern Idaho stream. We evaluated the costs and success of their project in suppressing brook trout and looked for brook trout compensatory responses, such as decreased natural mortality, increased growth, increased fecundity at length, and earlier maturation. The total number of brook trout removed was 1,401 in 1998, 1,241 in 1999, and 890 in 2000; removal constituted an estimated 88% of the total number of brook trout in the stream in 1999 and 79% in 2000. Although abundance of age-1 and older brook trout declined slightly during and after the removals, abundance of age-0 brook trout increased 789% in the entire stream 2 years after the removals ceased. Total annual survival rate for age-2 and older brook trout did not decrease during the removals, and the removals failed to produce an increase in the abundance of native redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri. Lack of a meaningful decline and unchanged total mortality for older brook trout during the removals suggest that a compensatory response occurred in the brook trout population via reduced natural mortality, which offset the removal of large numbers of brook trout. Although we applaud WAG personnel for their goal of enhancing native salmonids by suppressing brook trout via electrofishing removal, we conclude that their efforts were unsuccessful and suggest that similar future projects elsewhere over such large stream lengths would be costly, quixotic enterprises.

  20. Detailed Hydrographic Feature Extraction from High-Resolution LiDAR Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danny L. Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Detailed hydrographic feature extraction from high-resolution light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data is investigated. Methods for quantitatively evaluating and comparing such extractions are presented, including the use of sinuosity and longitudinal root-mean-square-error (LRMSE). These metrics are then used to quantitatively compare stream networks in two studies. The first study examines the effect of raster cell size on watershed boundaries and stream networks delineated from LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs). The study confirmed that, with the greatly increased resolution of LiDAR data, smaller cell sizes generally yielded better stream network delineations, based on sinuosity and LRMSE. The second study demonstrates a new method of delineating a stream directly from LiDAR point clouds, without the intermediate step of deriving a DEM. Direct use of LiDAR point clouds could improve efficiency and accuracy of hydrographic feature extractions. The direct delineation method developed herein and termed “mDn”, is an extension of the D8 method that has been used for several decades with gridded raster data. The method divides the region around a starting point into sectors, using the LiDAR data points within each sector to determine an average slope, and selecting the sector with the greatest downward slope to determine the direction of flow. An mDn delineation was compared with a traditional grid-based delineation, using TauDEM, and other readily available, common stream data sets. Although, the TauDEM delineation yielded a sinuosity that more closely matches the reference, the mDn delineation yielded a sinuosity that was higher than either the TauDEM method or the existing published stream delineations. Furthermore, stream delineation using the mDn method yielded the smallest LRMSE.

  1. Predictive Engineering Tools for Injection-molded Long-Carbon-Fiber Thermoplastic Composites - FY 2014 Third Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Sanborn, Scott E.; Mathur, Raj N.; Sharma, Bhisham; Sangid, Michael D.; Wang, Jin; Jin, Xiaoshi; Costa, Franco; Gandhi, Umesh N.; Mori, Steven; Tucker III, Charles L.

    2014-08-15

    This report describes the technical progresses made during the third quarter of FY 2014: 1) Autodesk introduced the options for fiber inlet condition to the 3D solver. These options are already available in the mid-plane/dual domain solver. 2) Autodesk improved the accuracy of 3D fiber orientation calculation around the gate. 3) Autodesk received consultant services from Prof. C.L. Tucker at the University of Illinois on the implementation of the reduced order model for fiber length, and discussed with Prof. Tucker the methods to reduce memory usage. 4) PlastiComp delivered to PNNL center-gated and edge-fan-gated 20-wt% to 30-wt% LCF/PP and LCF/PA66 (7”x7”x1/8”) plaques molded by the in-line direct injection molding (D-LFT) process. 5) PlastiComp molded ASTM tensile, flexural and impact bars under the same D-LFT processing conditions used for plaques for Certification of Assessment and ascertaining the resultant mechanical properties. 6) Purdue developed a new polishing routine, utilizing the automated polishing machine, to reduce fiber damage during surface preparation. 7) Purdue used a marker-based watershed segmentation routine, in conjunction with a hysteresis thresholding technique, for fiber segmentation during fiber orientation measurement. 8) Purdue validated Purdue’s fiber orientation measurement method using the previous fiber orientation data obtained from the Leeds machine and manually measured data by the University of Illinois. 9) PNNL conducted ASMI mid-plane analyses for a 30wt% LCF/PP plaque and compared the predicted fiber orientations with the measured data provided by Purdue University at the selected locations on this plaque. 10) PNNL put together the DOE 2014 Annual Merit Review (AMR) presentation with the team and presented it at the AMR meetings on June 17, 2014. 11) PNNL built ASMI dual domain models for the Toyota complex part and commenced mold filling analyses of the complex part with different wall thicknesses in order to support part molding. 12) Toyota and Magna discussed with PNNL on tool modification for molding the complex part. Toyota sent the CAD files of the complex part to PNNL to build ASMI models of the part for mold filling analysis to provide guidance to tooling and part molding.

  2. Small Mammal Sampling in Mortandad and Los Alamos Canyons, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, Kathy; Sherwood, Sherri; Robinson, Rhonda

    2006-08-15

    As part of an ongoing ecological field investigation at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a study was conducted that compared measured contaminant concentrations in sediment to population parameters for small mammals in the Mortandad Canyon watershed. Mortandad Canyon and its tributary canyons have received contaminants from multiple solid waste management units and areas of concern since establishment of the Laboratory in the 1940s. The study included three reaches within Effluent and Mortandad canyons (E-1W, M-2W, and M-3) that had a spread in the concentrations of metals and radionuclides and included locations where polychlorinated biphenyls and perchlorate had been detected. A reference location, reach LA-BKG in upper Los Alamos Canyon, was also included in the study for comparison purposes. A small mammal study was initiated to assess whether potential adverse effects were evident in Mortandad Canyon due to the presence of contaminants, designated as contaminants of potential ecological concern, in the terrestrial media. Study sites, including the reference site, were sampled in late July/early August. Species diversity and the mean daily capture rate were the highest for E-1W reach and the lowest for the reference site. Species composition among the three reaches in Mortandad was similar with very little overlap with the reference canyon. Differences in species composition and diversity were most likely due to differences in habitat. Sex ratios, body weights, and reproductive status of small mammals were also evaluated. However, small sample sizes of some species within some sites affected the analysis. Ratios of males to females by species of each site (n = 5) were tested using a Chi-square analysis. No differences were detected. Where there was sufficient sample size, body weights of adult small mammals were compared between sites. No differences in body weights were found. Reproductive status of species appears to be similar across sites. However, sample size prevents a detailed examination of reproduction composition. Because of small sample size of some species and differences that might occur on a seasonal basis, additional sampling would need to be conducted to further evaluate sex ratios, body weights, and reproductive characteristics.

  3. In Situ Grouting of Liquid Waste Disposal Trenches and Experimental Reactor Fuel Disposal Wells at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Ch.; Cange, J.; Lambert, R. [Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trujillo, E. [BWXT Pantex, LLC, Amarillo, TX (United States); Julius, J. [U.S. DOE, Oak Ridge Operations Office, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2008-07-01

    In the early to mid-1960's, liquid low-level wastes (LLLW) generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were disposed of in specially-constructed, gravel-filled trenches within the Melton Valley watershed at the lab. The initial selected remedy for Trenches 5 and 7 was in situ vitrification; however, an amendment to the record of decision changed the remedy to in situ grouting of the trenches. The work was accomplished by filling the void space within the crushed stone section of each trench with cementitious grout. The contaminated soil surrounding the trenches (1-m perimeter) was then grouted with acrylamide grout. At the HRE fuel wells, a 1-m ring of soil surrounding the fuel wells was grouted with acrylamide. The results of the hydraulic conductivity tests ranged from 4.74 x 10{sup -6} to 3.60 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec, values that were well below the 1 x 10{sup -5} cm/sec design criterion. In summary: The ISG Project was conducted to decrease hydraulic conductivity and thereby decrease water flow and contaminate migration from the area of the trenches. The initial remedy for Trenches 5 and 7 in the Melton Valley ROD was for in situ vitrification of the trench matrix. The remedy was changed to in situ grouting of the trenches and HRE fuel wells through an amendment to the ROD after moisture was found in the trenches. The grouting of the trenches was accomplished by filling the void space within the crushed stone section of each trench with cementitious grout. The contaminated soil surrounding the trenches (1-m perimeter) was then grouted with acrylamide grout to further reduce water infiltration. Soil backfill above each of the seven HRE fuel wells was removed to a depth of approximately 1 m by augering, and the soils were replaced with a cement plug to prevent water infiltration from migrating down the original borehole. Soil surrounding the fuel wells was then grouted with acrylamide to ensure water infiltration through the HRE fuel wells is prevented. A summary of the quantities used is shown. After completion of grouting, in-situ hydraulic conductivities of the grouted materials were measured to verify attainment of the design objective. The areas were then covered with multi-layer caps as part of the MV hydrologic isolation project. (authors)

  4. Use of Produced Water in Recirculated Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. McGowin; M. DiFilippo; L. Weintraub

    2006-06-30

    Tree ring studies indicate that, for the greater part of the last three decades, New Mexico has been relatively 'wet' compared to the long-term historical norm. However, during the last several years, New Mexico has experienced a severe drought. Some researchers are predicting a return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters to supplement current fresh water supplies for power plant operation and cooling and other uses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored three related assessments of water supplies in the San Juan Basin area of the four-corner intersection of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. These were (1) an assessment of using water produced with oil and gas as a supplemental supply for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS); (2) a field evaluation of the wet-surface air cooling (WSAC) system at SJGS; and (3) the development of a ZeroNet systems analysis module and an application of the Watershed Risk Management Framework (WARMF) to evaluate a range of water shortage management plans. The study of the possible use of produced water at SJGS showed that produce water must be treated to justify its use in any reasonable quantity at SJGS. The study identified produced water volume and quality, the infrastructure needed to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements, and delivery and treatment economics. A number of produced water treatment alternatives that use off-the-shelf technology were evaluated along with the equipment needed for water treatment at SJGS. Wet surface air-cooling (WSAC) technology was tested at the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) to determine its capacity to cool power plant circulating water using degraded water. WSAC is a commercial cooling technology and has been used for many years to cool and/or condense process fluids. The purpose of the pilot test was to determine if WSAC technology could cool process water at cycles of concentration considered highly scale forming for mechanical draft cooling towers. At the completion of testing, there was no visible scale on the heat transfer surfaces and cooling was sustained throughout the test period. The application of the WARMF decision framework to the San Juan Basis showed that drought and increased temperature impact water availability for all sectors (agriculture, energy, municipal, industry) and lead to critical shortages. WARMF-ZeroNet, as part of the integrated ZeroNet decision support system, offers stakeholders an integrated approach to long-term water management that balances competing needs of existing water users and economic growth under the constraints of limited supply and potential climate change.

  5. 2010 Remediation Effectiveness Report for the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee - Data and Evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2010-09-01

    Under the requirements of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) established between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in 1992, all environmental restoration activities on the ORR are performed in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Since the 1990s, the environmental restoration activities have experienced a gradual shift from characterization to remediation. As this has occurred, it has been determined that the assessment of the individual and cumulative performance of all ORR CERCLA remedial actions (RAs) is most effectively tracked in a single document. The Remediation Effectiveness Report (RER) is an FFA document intended to collate all ORR CERCLA decision requirements, compare pre- and post-remediation conditions at CERCLA sites, and present the results of any required post-decision remediation effectiveness monitoring. First issued in 1997, the RER has been reissued annually to update the performance histories of completed actions and to add descriptions of new CERCLA actions. Monitoring information used in the 2010 RER to assess remedy performance was collected and/or compiled by DOE's Water Resources Restoration Program (WRRP). Only data used to assess performance of completed actions are provided. In addition to collecting CERCLA performance assessment data, the WRRP also collects baseline data to be used to gauge the effectiveness of future actions once implemented. These baseline data are maintained in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System and will be reported in future RERs, as necessary, once the respective actions are completed. However, when insufficient data exist to assess the impact of the RAs, e.g., when the RA was only recently completed, a preliminary evaluation is made of early indicators of effectiveness at the watershed scale, such as contaminant trends at surface water integration points (IPs). Long-term stewardship (LTS) information used in this report is collected, compiled, and tracked by the WRRP in conjunction with the Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) program, the BJC Radiation Protection Organization at East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), and the ETTP Environmental Compliance Program. Additionally, documentation verifying the implementation of administrative land use controls (LUCs) [i.e., property record restrictions, property record notices, zoning notices, and excavation/penetration permit (EPP) program] is also obtained from many sources throughout the fiscal year (FY), including County Register of Deeds offices for property record restrictions and property record notices, City Planning Commission for zoning notices, and BJC project engineers for EPP program verification. Copies of this documentation are obtained by the WRRP and maintained with the project RER files.

  6. Water resources development in Santa Clara Valley, California: insights into the human-hydrologic relationship

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, Jesse L.; Narasimhan, T.N.

    2000-06-01

    Groundwater irrigation is critical to food production and, in turn, to humankind's relationship with its environment. The development of groundwater in Santa Clara Valley, California during the early twentieth century is instructive because (1) responses to unsustainable resource use were largely successful; (2) the proposals for the physical management of the water, although not entirely novel, incorporated new approaches which reveal an evolving relationship between humans and the hydrologic cycle; and (3) the valley serves as a natural laboratory where natural (groundwater basin, surface watershed) and human (county, water district) boundaries generally coincide. Here, I investigate how water resources development and management in Santa Clara Valley was influenced by, and reflective of, a broad understanding of water as a natural resource, including scientific and technological innovations, new management approaches, and changing perceptions of the hydrologic cycle. Market demands and technological advances engendered reliance on groundwater. This, coupled with a series of dry years and laissez faire government policies, led to overdraft. Faith in centralized management and objective engineering offered a solution to concerns over resource depletion, and a group dominated by orchardists soon organized, fought for a water conservation district, and funded an investigation to halt the decline of well levels. Engineer Fred Tibbetts authored an elaborate water salvage and recharge plan that optimized the local water resources by integrating multiple components of the hydrologic cycle. Informed by government investigations, groundwater development in Southern California, and local water law cases, it recognized the limited surface storage possibilities, the spatial and temporal variability, the relatively closed local hydrology, the interconnection of surface and subsurface waters, and the value of the groundwater basin for its storage, transportation, and treatment abilities. The proposal was typically described as complementing an already generous nature, not simply subduing it. Its implementation was limited by political tensions, and fifteen years later, a scaled-down version was constructed. Well levels recovered, but within a decade were declining due to increasing withdrawals. I assert that the approach in Santa Clara Valley was a forerunner to more recent innovations in natural resource management in California and beyond.

  7. Energy-water analysis of the 10-year WECC transmission planning study cases.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Passell, Howard David; Castillo, Cesar; Moreland, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    In 2011 the Department of Energy's Office of Electricity embarked on a comprehensive program to assist our Nation's three primary electric interconnections with long term transmission planning. Given the growing concern over water resources in the western U.S. the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) requested assistance with integrating water resource considerations into their broader electric transmission planning. The result is a project with three overarching objectives: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western Interconnection to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), Western Governors Association (WGA), the Western States Water Council (WSWC) and their associated stakeholder teams. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water stress implications of the transmission planning scenarios put forward by WECC, WGA, and WSWC. The foundation for the Energy-Water DSS is Sandia National Laboratories Energy-Power-Water Simulation (EPWSim) model (Tidwell et al. 2009). The modeling framework targets the shared needs of energy and water producers, resource managers, regulators, and decision makers at the federal, state and local levels. This framework provides an interactive environment to explore trade-offs, and 'best' alternatives among a broad list of energy/water options and objectives. The decision support framework is formulated in a modular architecture, facilitating tailored analyses over different geographical regions and scales (e.g., state, county, watershed, interconnection). An interactive interface allows direct control of the model and access to real-time results displayed as charts, graphs and maps. The framework currently supports modules for calculating water withdrawal and consumption for current and planned electric power generation; projected water demand from competing use sectors; and, surface and groundwater availability. WECC's long range planning is organized according to two target planning horizons, a 10-year and a 20-year. This study supports WECC in the 10-year planning endeavor. In this case the water implications associated with four of WECC's alternative future study cases (described below) are calculated and reported. In future phases of planning we will work with WECC to craft study cases that aim to reduce the thermoelectric footprint of the interconnection and/or limit production in the most water stressed regions of the West.

  8. A Framework for Risk Analysis for Ecological Restoration Projects in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Hofseth, Keith

    2005-01-03

    This report provides a framework for incorporating risk analysis into the six-step planning process for ecosystem restoration projects. This report is part of a larger research and development effort to develop procedures and guidelines for risk analysis in USACE ecosystem restoration planning. The focus is on risk analysis: identifying the range of possible outcomes from alternative ecosystem restoration actions, assessing the potential for achieving the desired outcome, characterizing the likelihood of adverse consequences, and communicating these findings to stakeholders and decision makers. This framework document makes simplifying assumptions to allow a focus on incorporating risk information in the planning and decision-making process. A conceptual model of the site and landscape is advocated as a central organizing structure within the six-step process for ecosystem restoration project planning. This is responsive to USACE directives that restoration projects be conceived in a systems context using an ecosystem and/or watershed approach. The conceptual model delineates the empirical quantities to be addressed in risk analysis and modeling. Although the planning process is described in six distinct steps, in practice these steps are iterative and often carried out simultaneously. Risk analysis within this context has the same character. The approach for incorporating risk analysis into the planning process provides direction intended to help the planner: Identify the levels of uncertainty that are acceptable, at the start of the planning process. Use conceptual and numerical models to communicate the planning teams understanding of the ecosystem to others, and reduce the risk of mis-specifying the system. Consider the uncertainty associated with the variables chosen to measure project effects. Use alternative designs to manage identified uncertainty. Use risk information to eliminate alternatives with unacceptable risk from consideration. Incorporate risk analysis into the USACE four criteria of effectiveness, efficiency, completeness, and acceptability. Use an alternatives irreducible uncertainty as an attribute to be considered along with other attributes in the comparison of alternative plans. Use risk information in the final plan selection process. There are three other efforts associated with this framework document, which offer information and guidance for incorporating risk analysis into cost-estimation, and biological and hydrologic modeling.

  9. THE WEATHERING OF A SULFIDE OREBODY: SPECIATION AND FATE OF SOME POTENTIAL CONTAMINANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Courtin-Nomade, Alexandra; Grosbois, Cecile; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Beny, Jean Michel; Foster, Andrea L.

    2010-07-16

    Various potentially toxic trace elements such as As, Cu, Pb and Zn have been remobilized by the weathering of a sulfide orebody that was only partially mined at Leona Heights, California. As a result, this body has both natural and anthropogenically modified weathering profiles only 500 m apart. The orebody is located in a heavily urbanized area in suburban Oakland, and directly affects water quality in at least one stream by producing acidic conditions and relatively high concentrations of dissolved elements (e.g., {approx}500 mg/L Cu, {approx}3700 mg/L Zn). Micrometric-scale mineralogical investigations were performed on the authigenic metal-bearing phases (less than 10 {mu}m in size) using electron-probe micro-analysis (EPMA), micro-Raman, micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy (mXAS), scanning X-ray diffraction (mSXRD) and scanning X-ray fluorescence (mSXRF) mapping techniques. Those measurements were coupled with classical mineralogical laboratory techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Authigenic metal-bearing phases identified are mainly sulfates (jarosite, epsomite, schwertmannite), Fe (oxy-)hydroxides (goethite, hematite and poorly crystalline Fe products) and poorly crystalline Mn (hydr-)oxides. Sulfates and Fe (oxy-)hydroxides are the two main secondary products at both sites, whereas Mn (hydr-) oxides were only observed in the samples from the non-mining site. In these samples, the various trace elements show different affinities for Fe or Mn compounds. Lead is preferentially associated with Mn (hydr-)oxides and As with Fe (oxy-)hydroxides or sulfates. Copper association with Mn and Fe phases is questionable, and the results obtained rather indicate that Cu is present as individual Cu-rich grains (Cu hydroxides). Some ochreous precipitates were found at both sites and correspond to a mixture of schwertmannite, goethite and jarosite containing some potentially toxic trace elements such as Cu, Pb and Zn. According to the trace element distribution and relative abundance of the unweathered sulfides, this orebody still represents a significant reservoir of potential contaminants for the watershed, especially in the non-mining site, as a much greater proportion of sulfides is left to react and because of the lower porosity in this site.

  10. Kootenai River Floodplain Ecosystem Operational Loss Assessment, Protection, Mitigation and Rehabilitation, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merz, Norm

    2009-02-18

    The overarching goals of the 'Kootenai River Floodplain Ecosystem Operational Loss Assessment, Protection, Mitigation and Rehabilitation' Project (BPA Project No.2002-011-00) are to: (1) assess abiotic and biotic factors (i.e., geomorphologic, hydrological, aquatic and riparian/floodplain communities) in determining a definitive composition of ecological integrity, (2) develop strategies to assess and mitigate losses of ecosystem functions, and (3) produce a regional operational loss assessment framework. To produce a scientifically defensible, repeatable, and complete assessment tool, KTOI assembled a team of top scientists in the fields of hydrology, hydraulics, ornithology, entomology, statistics, and river ecology, among other expertise. This advisory team is known as the Research Design and Review Team (RDRT). The RDRT scientists drive the review, selection, and adaptive management of the research designs to evaluate the ecologic functions lost due to the operation of federal hydropower facilities. The unique nature of this project (scientific team, newest/best science, adaptive management, assessment of ecological functions, etc.) has been to work in a dynamic RDRT process. In addition to being multidisciplinary, this model KTOI project provides a stark contrast to the sometimes inflexible process (review, re-review, budgets, etc.) of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The project RDRT is assembled annually, with subgroups meeting as needed throughout the year to address project issues, analyses, review, and interpretation. Activities of RDRT coordinated and directed the selection of research and assessment methodologies appropriate for the Kootenai River Watershed and potential for regional application in the Columbia River Basin. The entire RDRT continues to meet annually to update and discuss project progress. RDRT Subcontractors work in smaller groups throughout the year to meet project objectives. Determining the extent to which ecological systems are experiencing anthropogenic disturbance and change in structure and function is critical for long term conservation of biotic diversity in the face of changing landscapes and land use. KTOI and the RDRT propose a concept based on incorporating hydrologic, aquatic, and terrestrial components into an operations-based assessment framework to assess ecological losses as shown in Figure E-1.

  11. Influence of metal(loid) bioaccumulation and maternal transfer on embryo-larval development in fish exposed to a major coal ash spill

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Greeley, Jr., Mark Stephen; Adams, S. Marshall; Elmore, Logan R.; McCracken, Mary Kitty

    2016-01-03

    In December 2008, an earthen retaining wall at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Fuel Plant failed and released 4.1 million m3 of coal ash to rivers flowing into Watts Bar Reservoir in east Tennessee, United States (U.S.). As part of a comprehensive effort to evaluate the risks to aquatic resources from this spill – the largest in U.S. history – we compared bioaccumulation and maternal transfer of selenium (Se), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg) in adult redear sunfish (Lepomis macrolophus), collected two years after the spill from both coal-ash exposed and non-exposed areas of the Emory and Clinchmore » Rivers, with the success of embryo-larval development in their offspring. Whole body and ovary concentrations of Se in female sunfish at three study sites downstream of the spill were significantly elevated (site means = 4.9–5.3 and 6.7–9.0 mg/kg d.w. whole body and ovary concentrations, respectively) compared with concentrations in fish from reference sites upstream of the spill site (2.2–3.2 mg/kg d.w. for whole bodies and 3.6–4.8 mg/kg d.w. for ovaries). However, Se concentrations in coal ash-exposed areas remain below proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Site-to-site variation in fish concentrations of As and Hg were not well-correlated with ash-exposure, reflecting the multiple sources of these metal(loid)s in the affected watersheds. In 7-day laboratory tests of embryos and larvae derived from in vitro crosses of eggs and sperm from these field-collected sunfish, fertilization success, hatching success, embryo-larval survival, and incidences of developmental abnormalities did not differ significantly between ash-exposed and non-exposed fish. Furthermore, these developmental endpoints were not correlated with whole body or ovary concentrations of Se, As, or Hg in the maternal fish, or with fish size, ovary weight, or gonadal-somatic indices. Furthermore, results from this and related studies associated with the Kingston coal ash spill are consistent with proposed USEPA fish-based water quality criteria for Se, and to date continue to suggest that long-term exposures to sediment containing residual ash may not present a significant chronic risk to fish populations exposed to this major coal ash release.« less

  12. Calendar Year 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2009-12-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2008 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2008 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. Section 2 of this report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2008 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC (B&W Y-12) and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC (i.e., coordinating sample collection and sharing data) ensures that the CY 2008 monitoring results fulfill requirements of all the applicable monitoring drivers with no duplication of sampling and analysis efforts. Section 3 of this report contains a summary of information regarding the groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 GWPP including sampling locations and frequency; quality assurance (QA)/quality control (QC) sampling; sample collection and handling; field measurements and laboratory analytes; data management and data quality objective (DQO) evaluation; and groundwater elevation monitoring. However, this report does not include equivalent QA/QC or DQO evaluation information regarding the groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis activities associated with the monitoring programs implemented by BJC. Such details are deferred to the respective programmatic plans and reports issued by BJC (see Section 3.0).

  13. Hydrogeophysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, S.S.; Linde, N.

    2010-04-01

    Developing a predictive understanding of subsurface flow and transport is complicated by the disparity of scales across which controlling hydrological properties and processes span. Conventional techniques for characterizing hydrogeological properties (such as pumping, slug, and flowmeter tests) typically rely on borehole access to the subsurface. Because their spatial extent is commonly limited to the vicinity near the wellbores, these methods often can not provide sufficient information to describe key controls on subsurface flow and transport. The field of hydrogeophysics has evolved in recent years to explore the potential that geophysical methods hold for improving the quantification of subsurface properties and processes relevant for hydrological investigations. This chapter is intended to familiarize hydrogeologists and water resource professionals with the state-of-the-art as well as existing challenges associated with hydrogeophysics. We provide a review of the key components of hydrogeophysical studies, which include: geophysical methods commonly used for shallow subsurface characterization; petrophysical relationships used to link the geophysical properties to hydrological properties and state variables; and estimation or inversion methods used to integrate hydrological and geophysical measurements in a consistent manner. We demonstrate the use of these different geophysical methods, petrophysical relationships, and estimation approaches through several field-scale case studies. Among other applications, the case studies illustrate the use of hydrogeophysical approaches to: quantify subsurface architecture that influence flow (such as hydrostratigraphy and preferential pathways); delineate anomalous subsurface fluid bodies (such as contaminant plumes); monitor hydrological processes (such as infiltration, freshwater-seawater interface dynamics, and flow through fractures); and estimate hydrological properties (such as hydraulic conductivity) and state variables (such as water content). The case studies have been chosen to illustrate how hydrogeophysical approaches can yield insights about complex subsurface hydrological processes, provide input that improves flow and transport predictions, and provide quantitative information over field-relevant spatial scales. The chapter concludes by describing existing hydrogeophysical challenges and associated research needs. In particular, we identify the area of quantitative watershed hydrogeophysics as a frontier area, where significant effort is required to advance the estimation of hydrological properties and processes (and their uncertainties) over spatial scales relevant to the management of water resources and contaminants.

  14. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A.

    2005-08-01

    In the western United States, exotic brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis frequently have a deleterious effect on native salmonids, and biologists often attempt to remove brook trout in streams using electrofishing. Although the success of electrofishing removal projects typically is low, few studies have assessed the underlying mechanisms of failure, especially in terms of compensatory responses. We evaluated the effectiveness of a three-year removal project in reducing brook trout and enhancing native salmonids in 7.8 km of an Idaho stream and looked for brook trout compensatory responses such as decreased natural mortality, increased growth, increased fecundity at length, or earlier maturation. Due to underestimates of the distribution of brook trout in the first year and personnel shortages in the third year, the multiagency watershed advisory group that performed the project fully treated the stream (i.e. multipass removals over the entire stream) in only one year. In 1998, 1999, and 2000, a total of 1,401, 1,241, and 890 brook trout were removed, respectively. For 1999 and 2000, an estimated 88 and 79% of the total number of brook trout in the stream were removed. For the section of stream that was treated in all years, the abundance of age-1 and older brook trout decreased by 85% from 1998 to 2003. In the same area, the abundance of age-0 brook trout decreased 86% from 1998 to 1999 but by 2003 had rebounded to near the original abundance. Abundance of native redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss decreased for age-1 and older fish but did not change significantly for age-0 fish. Despite high rates of removal, total annual survival rate for brook trout increased from 0.08 {+-} 0.02 in 1998 to 0.20 {+-} 0.04 in 1999 and 0.21 {+-} 0.04 in 2000. Growth of age-0 brook trout was significantly higher in 2000 (the year after their abundance was lowest) compared to other years, and growth of age-1 and age-2 brook trout was significantly lower following the initial removal years but recovered by 2003. Few other brook trout demographic parameters changed appreciably over the course of the project. Electrofishing removals required 210 person-days of effort. Despite experiencing slight changes in abundance, growth, and survival, brook trout in Pikes Fork appeared little affected by three years of intensive removal efforts, most likely because mortality within the population was high prior to initiation of the project such that the removal efforts merely replaced natural mortality with exploitation.

  15. Assessment of Nonnative Invasive Plants in the DOE Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drake, S.J.

    2002-11-05

    The Department of Energy (DOE) National Environmental Research Park at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is composed of second-growth forest stands characteristic of much of the eastern deciduous forest of the Ridge and Valley Province of Tennessee. Human use of natural ecosystems in this region has facilitated the establishment of at least 167 nonnative, invasive plant species on the Research Park. Our objective was to assess the distribution, abundance, impact, and potential for control of the 18 most abundant invasive species on the Research Park. In 2000, field surveys were conducted of 16 management areas on the Research Park (14 Natural Areas, 1 Reference Area, and Walker Branch Watershed) and the Research Park as a whole to acquire qualitative and quantitative data on the distribution and abundance of these taxa. Data from the surveys were used to rank the relative importance of these species using the ''Alien Plant Ranking System, Version 5.1'' developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Microstegium (Microstegium vimineum) was ranked highest, or most problematic, for the entire Research Park because of its potential impact on natural systems, its tendency to become a management problem, and how difficult it is to control. Microstegium was present in 12 of the 16 individual sites surveyed; when present, it consistently ranked as the most problematic invasive species, particularly in terms of its potential impact on natural systems. Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) and Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) were the second- and third-most problematic plant species on the Research Park; these two species were present in 12 and 9 of the 16 sites surveyed, respectively, and often ranked second- or third-most problematic. Other nonnative, invasive species, in decreasing rank order, included kudzu (Pueraria montma), multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora), Chinese lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneara), and other species representing a variety of life forms and growth forms. Results of this research can be used to prioritize management and research activities related to these invasive taxa on the Research Park as a whole and for specific Natural or Reference Areas. Additional research on the autecology and synecology of each species surveyed is suggested. In particular, research should focus on assessing the impacts of these species on the invaded plant and animal communities and ecosystems. Finally, this ranking system could be used to similarly rank the many other nonnative, invasive species present on the Research Park not included in this study.

  16. Final Report: Phase II Nevada Water Resources Data, Modeling, and Visualization (DMV) Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackman, Thomas; Minor, Timothy; Pohll, Gregory

    2013-07-22

    Water is unquestionably a critical resource throughout the United States. In the semi-arid west -- an area stressed by increase in human population and sprawl of the built environment -- water is the most important limiting resource. Crucially, science must understand factors that affect availability and distribution of water. To sustain growing consumptive demand, science needs to translate understanding into reliable and robust predictions of availability under weather conditions that could be average but might be extreme. These predictions are needed to support current and long-term planning. Similar to the role of weather forecast and climate prediction, water prediction over short and long temporal scales can contribute to resource strategy, governmental policy and municipal infrastructure decisions, which are arguably tied to the natural variability and unnatural change to climate. Change in seasonal and annual temperature, precipitation, snowmelt, and runoff affect the distribution of water over large temporal and spatial scales, which impact the risk of flooding and the groundwater recharge. Anthropogenic influences and impacts increase the complexity and urgency of the challenge. The goal of this project has been to develop a decision support framework of data acquisition, digital modeling, and 3D visualization. This integrated framework consists of tools for compiling, discovering and projecting our understanding of processes that control the availability and distribution of water. The framework is intended to support the analysis of the complex interactions between processes that affect water supply, from controlled availability to either scarcity or deluge. The developed framework enables DRI to promote excellence in water resource management, particularly within the Lake Tahoe basin. In principle, this framework could be replicated for other watersheds throughout the United States. Phase II of this project builds upon the research conducted during Phase I, in which the hydrologic framework was investigated and the development initiated. Phase II concentrates on practical implementation of the earlier work but emphasizes applications to the hydrology of the Lake Tahoe basin. Phase 1 efforts have been refined and extended by creating a toolset for geographic information systems (GIS) that is usable for disparate types of geospatial and geo-referenced data. The toolset is intended to serve multiple users for a variety of applications. The web portal for internet access to hydrologic and remotely sensed product data, prototyped in Phase I, has been significantly enhanced. The portal provides high performance access to LANDSAT-derived data using techniques developed during the course of the project. The portal is interactive, and supports the geo-referenced display of hydrologic information derived from remotely sensed data, such as various vegetative indices used to calculate water consumption. The platform can serve both internal and external constituencies using inter-operating infrastructure that spans both sides of the DRI firewall. The platform is intended grow its supported data assets and to serve as a template for replication to other geographic areas. An unanticipated development during the project was the use of ArcGIS software on a new computer system, called the IBM PureSytems, and the parallel use of the systems for faster, more efficient image processing. Additional data, independent of the portal, was collected within the Sagehen basin and provides detailed information regarding the processes that control hydrologic responses within mountain watersheds. The newly collected data include elevation, evapotranspiration, energy balance and remotely sensed snow-pack data. A Lake Tahoe basin hydrologic model has been developed, in part to help predict the hydrologic impacts of climate change. The model couples both the surface and subsurface hydrology, with the two components having been independently calibrated. Results from the coupled simulations involving both surface water and groundwater processes show that it is possible to fairly accurately simulate lake effects and water budget variables over a wide range of dry and wet cycles in the historical record. The Lake Tahoe basin is representative of the hydrology, topography and climate throughout the Sierra Nevada Range, and the entire model development is prototypical of the efforts required to replicate the decision support framework to other locales. The Lake Tahoe model in particular, could allow water managers to evaluate more accurately components of the water budget (ET, runoff, groundwater, etc) and to answer important questions regarding water resources in northern Nevada. This report discusses the geographic scale and the hydrologic complexity of the calibrated model developed as part of this project, as well as simulation results for historical and future climate projects To enable human-driven data exploration and discovery, de novo software for a globalized rendering module that extends the capability of our evolving custom visualization engine from Phase I (called SMEngine) has been developed. The new rendering component, called Horizon, supports terrain rendering capable of displaying and interrogating both remotely sensed and modeled data. The development of Horizon necessitated adaptation of the visualization engine to allow extensible integration of components such as the global rendering module and support for associated features. The resulting software is general in its GIS capability, but a specific Lake Tahoe visualization application suitable for immersive decision support in the DRIVE6 virtual reality facility has been developed. During the development, various features to enhance the value of the visualization experience were explored, including the use of hyperspectral image overlays. An over-arching goal of the visualization aspect of the project has been to develop and demonstrate the CAVE (CAVE Automatic Virtual Environment) as a practical tool for hydrologic research.

  17. Development and Design of Cost-Effective, Real-Time Implementable Sediment and Contaminant Release Controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hampson, Steve

    2007-08-01

    Alternative design options for integrated storm water and sediment control systems were developed and evaluated for Outfalls 008, 011 and 015 of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The remedial options were required to be cost effective and implementable in a relatively short timeframe. Additionally, construction activities were to minimize earth disturbance, especially with respect to excavation. The current database for storm water and effluent sediment oncentration was assessed for the three outfalls. It was concluded that there was a significant lack of data and recommendations for monitoring equipment were provided to initiate a comprehensive surface water and sediment data acquisition system. Modeling was completed for current conditions. Peak flow, runoff volume, peak sediment concentration and storm sediment load were modeled for storm events, ranging from 0.5 inches (12.7mm) to 3.0 inches (6.2mm). Predicted peak flows ranged from 2.5 cfs (0.071 m3/s) for Outfall 011 and a 0.5 inches (12.7mm) storm to 210 cfs (5.95 m3/s) for Outfall 008 and a 3.0 inches (76.2mm) storm. Additionally, the 100-yr 24-hr NRCS Type II storm was modeled. Storm sediment loads, for the corresponding outfalls and storm events, ranged from 0.1 to 9.0 tons (8.18 tonnes). Retention ponds were designed and evaluated for each of the three outfalls. The ponds had a dual function; 1) contain the storm runoff volume for smaller storm events and 2) passively treat and discharge runoff that was in excess of the ponds storage capacity. Stored runoff was transferred to alternative secondary treatment systems. The expected performance of these treatment systems was evaluated. The performance of the outfall ponds was evaluated for storm events ranging from 0.5 inches (12.7mm) to 4.0 inches (101.6mm). Outfall 011 has a watershed of 33.3 acres. Pond 011 (Outfall 011) has the largest storage capacity of the three outfalls, and therefore the highest potential for effective treatment. The predicted sediment trapping efficiency for a 4.0 in (101.6mm) 24-hour storm was 99.7% with an initial empty pond condition. Stored runoff is expected to be transferred to the treatment plant located near Outfall 010. A 4-in storm event accounts for approximately 97% of the average annual precipitation. Pond 015 is relatively small due to the non-excavation restriction. Ninety eight percent and 72.3% sediment trap efficiencies were predicted for a 1.5 in and 3.0 in 24-hour storm; based on the pond being empty at the start of the storm and retained runoff being transferred to one of the secondary treatment systems. A 3-in storm event accounts for approximately 92% of the average annual precipitation. The watershed area of Pond 008 is 113.6 acres and the storage capacity is only 0.92 ac-ft. Sediment trap efficiencies of 96.7%, 77.2% and 67.6% were predicted for storms of 1, 1.5 and 2 inches, respectively. Thus, nearly a 70+% sediment trap efficiency is predicted for storm events of 2 inches or less; accounting for 82% of the average annual precipitation.The approximate quantity of runoff that can be retained and pumped to a secondary treatment system was determined on a storm and annual basis. On an annual basis, Ponds 008, 011 and 015 are expected to retain 20.2%, 83.1% and 34.7% of the generated runoff, respectively. Retained runoff will be pumped to alternative treatment systems. The alternative treatment systems designed and evaluated are: 1) evapotranspiration-only, 2) evapotranspiration - infiltration and 3) a combination weep berm grass filter control system. The evapotranspiration-only method would result in complete treatment of the runoff transferred from the retention pond. The evapotranspiration - infiltration technique is expected to result in treatment through filtration and natural attenuation of soil and associated constituents. Both drip and micro-sprinklers were evaluated for the first two listed treatment systems. Outfall 015 was used to illustrate the evaporation only and evapotranspiration infiltration secondary treatment methods. Based on a

  18. Natural Reproductive Success and Demographic Effects of Hatchery-Origin Steelhead in Abernathy Creek, Washington : Annual Report 2008.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Abernathy Fish Technology Center

    2008-12-01

    Many hatchery programs for steelhead pose genetic or ecological risks to natural populations because those programs release or outplant fish from non-native stocks. The goal of many steelhead programs has been to simply provide 'fishing opportunities' with little consideration given to conservation concerns. For example, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has widely propagated and outplanted one stock of winter-run steelhead (Chambers Creek stock) and one stock of summer-run steelhead (Skamania stock) throughout western Washington. Biologists and managers now recognize potential negative effects can occur when non-native hatchery fish interact biologically with native populations. Not only do non-native stocks pose genetic and ecological risks to naturally spawning populations, but non-native fish stray as returning adults at a much higher rate than do native fish (Quinn 1993). Biologists and managers also recognize the need to (a) maintain the genetic resources associated with naturally spawning populations and (b) restore or recover natural populations wherever possible. As a consequence, the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the NOAA Fisheries have been recommending a general policy that discourages the use of non-native hatchery stocks and encourages development of native broodstocks. There are two primary motivations for these recommendations: (1) reduce or minimize potential negative biological effects resulting from genetic or ecological interactions between hatchery-origin and native-origin fish and (2) use native broodstocks as genetic repositories to potentially assist with recovery of naturally spawning populations. A major motivation for the captive-rearing work described in this report resulted from NOAA's 1998 Biological Opinion on Artificial Propagation in the Columbia River Basin. In that biological opinion (BO), NOAA concluded that non-native hatchery stocks of steelhead jeopardize the continued existence of U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed, naturally spawning populations in the Columbia River Basin. As a consequence of that BO, NOAA recommended - as a reasonable and prudent alternative (RPA) - that federal and state agencies phase out non-native broodstocks of steelhead and replace them with native broodstocks. However, NOAA provided no guidance on how to achieve that RPA. The development of native broodstocks of hatchery steelhead can potentially pose unacceptable biological risks to naturally spawning populations, particularly those that are already listed as threatened or endangered under the ESA. The traditional method of initiating new hatchery broodstocks of anadromous salmonid fishes is by trapping adults during their upstream, spawning migration. However, removing natural-origin adults from ESA listed populations may not be biologically acceptable because such activities may further depress those populations via 'broodstock mining'. In addition, trapping adult steelhead may be logistically unfeasible in many subbasins due to high water flows in the spring, when steelhead are moving upstream to spawn, that will often 'blow out' temporary weirs. Additional risks associated with trapping adults include genetic founder effects and difficulties meeting minimum, genetic effective number of breeders without 'mining' the wild population to potential extinction. As a result, alternative methods for developing native broodstocks are highly desired. One alternative for developing native broodstocks, particularly when the collection of adults is logistically unfeasible or biologically unacceptable, is captive rearing of natural-origin juveniles to sexual maturity. In this approach, pre-smolt juveniles are collected from the stream or watershed for which a native broodstock is desired, and those juveniles are raised to sexual maturity in a hatchery. Those hatchery-reared adults then become the broodstock source for gametes and initial progeny releases. Such a captive rearing program offers many genetic advantages over traditional adult-trapping programs for developing native broodstocks: (1) Large numbers of juveniles can be collected from the wild with only minimal impacts to naturally spawning populations because juvenile (age 0+parr)-to-adult survivals are typically very small (<1%) under natural conditions. (2) The genetic base of the broodstock (i.e. genetic effective population size) can be substantially larger for juveniles than adults because juveniles can theoretically represent the offspring of all adults that spawned successfully within a stream or watershed, as opposed to trapping only a small portion of returning adults for broodstock. (3) Collecting juveniles for broodstock can substantially reduce the risk of genetically 'swamping' naturally spawning populations with hatchery-origin fish (i.e. via a 'Ryman-Laikre effect') as occurs when hatchery-released fish represent the progeny of a relatively small number of trapped adults.

  19. Collaborative Systemwide Monitoring and Evaluation Project (CSMEP) - Year 5 : Annual Report for FY 2008.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marmorek, David R.; Porter, Marc; Pickard, Darcy; Wieckowski, Katherine

    2008-11-19

    The Collaborative Systemwide Monitoring and Evaluation Project (CSMEP) is a coordinated effort to improve the quality, consistency, and focus of fish population and habitat data to answer key monitoring and evaluation questions relevant to major decisions in the Columbia River Basin. CSMEP was initiated by the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority (CBFWA) in October 2003. The project is funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) through the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's Fish and Wildlife Program (NPCC). CSMEP is a major effort of the federal state and Tribal fish and wildlife managers to develop regionally integrated monitoring and evaluation (M&E) across the Columbia River Basin. CSMEP has focused its work on five monitoring domains: status and trends monitoring of populations and action effectiveness monitoring of habitat, harvest, hatcheries, and the hydrosystem. CSMEP's specific goals are to: (1) interact with federal, state and tribal programmatic and technical entities responsible for M&E of fish and wildlife, to ensure that work plans developed and executed under this project are well integrated with ongoing work by these entities; (2) document, integrate, and make available existing monitoring data on listed salmon, steelhead, bull trout and other fish species of concern; (3) critically assess strengths and weaknesses of these data for answering key monitoring questions; and (4) collaboratively design, implement and evaluate improved M&E methods with other programmatic entities in the Pacific Northwest. During FY2008 CSMEP biologists continued their reviews of the strengths and weaknesses (S&W) of existing subbasin inventory data for addressing monitoring questions about population status and trends at different spatial and temporal scales. Work was focused on Lower Columbia Chinook and steelhead, Snake River fall Chinook, Upper Columbia Spring Chinook and steelhead, and Middle Columbia River Chinook and steelhead. These FY2008 data assessments and others assembled over the years of the CSMEP project can be accessed on the CBFWA public website. The CSMEP web database (http://csmep.streamnet.org/) houses metadata inventories from S&W assessments of Columbia River Basin watersheds that were completed prior to FY2008. These older S&W assessments are maintained by StreamNet, but budget cutbacks prevented us from adding the new FY2008 assessments into the database. Progress was made in FY2008 on CSMEP's goals of collaborative design of improved M&E methods. CSMEP convened two monitoring design workshops in Portland (December 5 and 6, 2007 and February 11 and 12, 2008) to continue exploration of how best to integrate the most robust features of existing M&E programs with new approaches. CSMEP continued to build on this information to develop improved designs and analytical tools for monitoring the status and trends of fish populations and the effectiveness of hatchery and hydrosystem recovery actions within the Columbia River Basin. CSMEP did not do any new work on habitat or harvest effectiveness monitoring designs in FY2008 due to budget cutbacks. CSMEP presented the results of the Snake Basin Pilot Study to the Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP) in Portland on December 7, 2008. This study is the finalization of CSMEP's pilot exercise of developing design alternatives across different M&E domains within the Snake River Basin spring/summer Chinook ESU. This work has been summarized in two linked reports (CSMEP 2007a and CSMEP 2007b). CSMEP participants presented many of the analyses developed for the Snake Basin Pilot work at the Western Division American Fisheries Society (AFS) conference in Portland on May 4 to 7, 2008. For the AFS conference CSMEP organized a symposium on regional monitoring and evaluation approaches. A presentation on CSMEP's Cost Integration Database Tool and Salmon Viability Monitoring Simulation Model developed for the Snake Basin Pilot Study was also given to the Pacific Northwest Aquatic monitoring Partnership (PNAMP) stee

  20. COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS TO PROJECT FUTURE BASELINE CARBON EMISSIONS IN TEMPERATE RAINFOREST, CURINANCO, CHILE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick Gonzalez; Antonio Lara; Jorge Gayoso; Eduardo Neira; Patricio Romero; Leonardo Sotomayor

    2005-07-14

    Deforestation of temperate rainforests in Chile has decreased the provision of ecosystem services, including watershed protection, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration. Forest conservation can restore those ecosystem services. Greenhouse gas policies that offer financing for the carbon emissions avoided by preventing deforestation require a projection of future baseline carbon emissions for an area if no forest conservation occurs. For a proposed 570 km{sup 2} conservation area in temperate rainforest around the rural community of Curinanco, Chile, we compared three methods to project future baseline carbon emissions: extrapolation from Landsat observations, Geomod, and Forest Restoration Carbon Analysis (FRCA). Analyses of forest inventory and Landsat remote sensing data show 1986-1999 net deforestation of 1900 ha in the analysis area, proceeding at a rate of 0.0003 y{sup -1}. The gross rate of loss of closed natural forest was 0.042 y{sup -1}. In the period 1986-1999, closed natural forest decreased from 20,000 ha to 11,000 ha, with timber companies clearing natural forest to establish plantations of non-native species. Analyses of previous field measurements of species-specific forest biomass, tree allometry, and the carbon content of vegetation show that the dominant native forest type, broadleaf evergreen (bosque siempreverde), contains 370 {+-} 170 t ha{sup -1} carbon, compared to the carbon density of non-native Pinus radiata plantations of 240 {+-} 60 t ha{sup -1}. The 1986-1999 conversion of closed broadleaf evergreen forest to open broadleaf evergreen forest, Pinus radiata plantations, shrublands, grasslands, urban areas, and bare ground decreased the carbon density from 370 {+-} 170 t ha{sup -1} carbon to an average of 100 t ha{sup -1} (maximum 160 t ha{sup -1}, minimum 50 t ha{sup -1}). Consequently, the conversion released 1.1 million t carbon. These analyses of forest inventory and Landsat remote sensing data provided the data to evaluate the three methods to project future baseline carbon emissions. Extrapolation from Landsat change detection uses the observed rate of change to estimate change in the near future. Geomod is a software program that models the geographic distribution of change using a defined rate of change. FRCA is an integrated spatial analysis of forest inventory, biodiversity, and remote sensing that produces estimates of forest biodiversity and forest carbon density, spatial data layers of future probabilities of reforestation and deforestation, and a projection of future baseline forest carbon sequestration and emissions for an ecologically-defined area of analysis. For the period 1999-2012, extrapolation from Landsat change detection estimated a loss of 5000 ha and 520,000 t carbon from closed natural forest; Geomod modeled a loss of 2500 ha and 250 000 t; FRCA projected a loss of 4700 {+-} 100 ha and 480,000 t (maximum 760,000 t, minimum 220,000 t). Concerning labor time, extrapolation for Landsat required 90 actual days or 120 days normalized to Bachelor degree level wages; Geomod required 240 actual days or 310 normalized days; FRCA required 110 actual days or 170 normalized days. Users experienced difficulties with an MS-DOS version of Geomod before turning to the Idrisi version. For organizations with limited time and financing, extrapolation from Landsat change provides a cost-effective method. Organizations with more time and financing could use FRCA, the only method where that calculates the deforestation rate as a dependent variable rather than assuming a deforestation rate as an independent variable. This research indicates that best practices for the projection of baseline carbon emissions include integration of forest inventory and remote sensing tasks from the beginning of the analysis, definition of an analysis area using ecological characteristics, use of standard and widely used geographic information systems (GIS) software applications, and the use of species-specific allometric equations and wood densities developed for local species.

  1. Yakima Tributary Access and Habitat Program, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myra, D.; Ready, C.

    2003-12-01

    The Yakima Tributary Access and Habitat Program (YTAHP) was organized to restore salmonid passage to Yakima tributaries that historically supported salmonids and to improve habitat in areas where access is restored. This program intends to (a) screen unscreened diversion structures to prevent fish entrainment into artificial waterways; (b) provide for fish passage at man-made barriers, such as diversion dams, culverts, siphons and bridges; and (c) provide information and assistance to landowners interested in to contributing to the improvement of water quality, water reliability and stream habitat. The YTAHP developed from a number of groups actively engaged in watershed management, and/or habitat restoration within the Yakima River Basin. These groups include the Washington State Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), Kittitas County Conservation District (KCCD), North Yakima Conservation District (NYCD), Kittitas County Water Purveyors (KCWP), and Ahtanum Irrigation District (AID). The US Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) and Yakama Nation (YN) both participated in the development of the objectives of YTAHP. Other entities that will be involved during permitting or project review may include the YN, the federal Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and US Army Corps of Engineers (COE). The objectives of YTAHP are listed below and also include subtasks detailed in the report: (1) Conduct Early Action Projects; (2) Review Strategic Plan; (3) Restore Access, including stream inventory, prioritization, implementation; and (4) Provide opportunities to improve habitat and conserve resources. The BPA YTAHP funding supported activities of the program which are described in this report. These activities are primarily related to objective 1 (conduct early action projects) and parts of objectives 2-4. The work supported by YTAHP funding will support a series of scheduled projects and be made larger by complementary funding through NRSC EQIP, Irrigation Efficiencies, WA State Salmon Recovery Funding Board and other local, state and federal programs. Projects completed FY-03: The Cooke Creek siphon and screen/bypass was completed on time and within budget. The Rosbach Farms project was completed in cooperation with the NRCS Environmental Quality Incentives Program and the KCCD's Irrigation Efficiencies Program. Tributary survey teams were trained and surveys of tributaries in Yakima and Kittitas counties commenced in December of 2002. By the end of September 2003 Cowiche Creek in Yakima County was completed as well as Coleman, Reecer, Currier, Dry, Cabin, Indian, and Jack Creeks in Kittitas County. A screen was installed on the Hernandez/Ringer diversion in cooperation with the NRCS office in Kittitas County. YTAHP submitted six applications to the Salmon Recovery Funding Board and three were selected and funded. Another Salmon Recovery Funding Board project awarded in 2000 to the Yakama Nation was transferred to the KCCD. Two miles of fencing of riparian zones on the north fork Ahtanum was completed by the North Yakima Conservation District in cooperation with the Department of Natural Resources and the Ahtanum Irrigation District and funded by US fish and Wildlife as part of YTAHP's outreach partnering. Completion of this year's effort has provided significant inroads to working on the private lands in two counties which will be vital to future efforts by YTAHP and others to protect and enhance Yakima River Basin habitat. 2003 saw the migration of the WEB site from MWH to the Kittitas County Conservation District and can be accessed at www.kccd.net.

  2. Time-resolved THz studies of carrier dynamics in semiconductors, superconductors, and strongly-correlated electron materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaindl, Robert A.; Averitt, Richard D.

    2006-11-14

    Perhaps the most important aspect of contemporary condensed matter physics involves understanding strong Coulomb interactions between the large number of electrons in a solid. Electronic correlations lead to the emergence of new system properties, such as metal-insulator transitions, superconductivity, magneto-resistance, Bose-Einstein condensation, the formation of excitonic gases, or the integer and fractional Quantum Hall effects. The discovery of high-Tc superconductivity in particular was a watershed event, leading to dramatic experimental and theoretical advances in the field of correlated-electron systems. Such materials often exhibit competition between the charge, lattice, spin, and orbital degrees of freedom, whose cause-effect relationships are difficult to ascertain. Experimental insight into the properties of solids is traditionally obtained by time-averaged probes, which measure e.g., linear optical spectra, electrical conduction properties, or the occupied band structure in thermal equilibrium. Many novel physical properties arise from excitations out of the ground state into energetically higher states by thermal, optical, or electrical means. This leads to fundamental interactions between the system's constituents, such as electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions, which occur on ultrafast timescales. While these interactions underlie the physical properties of solids, they are often only indirectly inferred from time-averaged measurements. Time-resolved spectroscopy, consequently, is playing an ever increasing role to provide insight into light-matter interaction, microscopic processes, or cause-effect relationships that determine the physics of complex materials. In the past, experiments using visible and near-infrared femtosecond pulses have been extensively employed, e.g. to follow relaxation and dephasing processes in metals and semiconductors. However, many basic excitations in strongly-correlated electron systems and nanoscale materials occur at lower energies. The terahertz (THz) regime is particularly rich in such fundamental resonances. This includes ubiquitous lattice vibrations and low-energy collective oscillations of conduction charges. In nanoscale materials, band structure quantization also yields novel infrared and THz transitions, including intersubband absorption in quantum wells. The formation of excitons in turn leads to low-energy excitations analogous to inter-level transitions in atoms. In transition-metal oxides, fundamental excitation gaps arise from charge pairing into superconducting condensates and other correlated states. This motivates the use of ultrafast THz spectroscopy as a powerful tool to study light-matter interactions and microscopic processes in nanoscale and correlated-electron materials.A distinct advantage of coherent THz pulses is that the amplitude and phase of the electric field can be measured directly, as the THz fields are coherent with the fs pulses from which they are generated. Using THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), both the real and imaginary parts of the response functions (such as the dielectric function) are obtained directly without the need for Kramers?Kronig transforms. The THz response can also be expressed in terms of absorption and refractive index, or as the optical conductivity. The optical conductivity describes the current response of a many-body system to an electric field, an ideal tool to study conducting systems. A second important advantage is the ultrafast time resolution that results from the short temporal duration of the THz time-domain sources. In particular, optical-pump THz-probe spectroscopy enables a delicate probe of the transient THz conductivity after optical photoexcitation. These experiments can provide insight into quasiparticle interactions, phase transitions, or nonequilibrium dynamics. In this chapter we will provide many such examples. Since THz spectroscopy of solids is a quickly expanding field

  3. DOE Annual Progress Report: Water Needs and Constraints for Hydrogen Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, A; Daily, W

    2009-07-02

    Water is a critical feedstock in the production of hydrogen. In fact, water and many of the energy transformations upon which society depends are inextricably linked. Approximately 39% of freshwater withdrawals are used for cooling of power plants, and another 8% are used in industry and mining (including oil and gas extraction and refining). Major changes in the energy infrastructure (as envisioned in a transformation to a hydrogen economy) will necessarily result in changes to the water infrastructure. Depending on the manner in which a hydrogen economy evolves, these changes could be large or small, detrimental or benign. Water is used as a chemical feedstock for hydrogen production and as a coolant for the production process. Process and cooling water must meet minimum quality specifications (limits on mineral and organic contaminants) at both the inlet to the process and at the point of discharge. If these specifications are not met, then the water must be treated, which involves extra expenditure on equipment and energy. There are multiple options for water treatment and cooling systems, each of which has a different profile of equipment cost and operational requirements. The engineering decisions that are made when building out the hydrogen infrastructure will play an important role in the cost of producing hydrogen, and those decisions will be influenced by the regional and national policies that help to manage water resources. In order to evaluate the impacts of water on hydrogen production and of a hydrogen economy on water resources, this project takes a narrowly-scoped lifecycle analysis approach. We begin with a process model of hydrogen production and calculate the process water, cooling, electricity and energy feedstock demands. We expand beyond the production process itself by analyzing the details of the cooling system and water treatment system. At a regional scale, we also consider the water use associated with the electricity and fuel that feed hydrogen production and distribution. The narrow scope of the lifecycle analysis enables economic optimization at the plant level with respect to cooling and water treatment technologies. As water withdrawal and disposal costs increase, more expensive, but more water-efficient technologies become more attractive. Some of the benefits of these technologies are offset by their increased energy usage. We use the H2A hydrogen production model to determine the overall cost of hydrogen under a range of water cost and technology scenarios. At the regional level, we are planning on following the hydrogen roll-out scenarios envisioned by Greene and Leiby (2008) to determine the impact of hydrogen market penetration on various watersheds. The economics of various water technologies will eventually be incorporated into the temporal and geographic Macro System Model via a water module that automates the spreadsheet models described. At the time of this progress report, the major achievement for FY2009 has been the completion of the framework and analytical results of the economic optimization of water technology for hydrogen production. This accomplishment required the collection of cost and performance data for multiple cooling and water treatment technologies, as well as the integration of a water and energy balance model with the H2A framework. 22 (twenty-two) different combinations of production method (SMR, electrolysis), scale (centralized, forecourt), cooling (evaporative tower, dry) and water treatment (reverse osmosis, ion exchange) were evaluated. The following data were collected: water withdrawal, water discharge, electricity consumption, equipment footprint, equipment cost, installation cost, annual equipment and material costs and annual labor costs. These data, when consolidated, fit into a small number of input cells in H2A. Items such as capital cost end up as line-items for which there is space in the existing H2A spreadsheets. Items such as electricity use are added to the values that already exist in H2A. Table 1 lists eight potential technology combina

  4. 2011 Remediation Effectiveness Report for the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee - Data and Evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2011-03-01

    Under the requirements of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) established between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in 1992, all environmental restoration activities on the ORR are performed in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Since the 1990s, the environmental restoration activities have experienced a gradual shift from characterization to remediation. As this has occurred, it has been determined that the assessment of the individual and cumulative performance of all ORR CERCLA remedial actions (RAs) is most effectively tracked in a single document. The Remediation Effectiveness Report (RER) is an FFA document intended to collate all ORR CERCLA decision requirements, compare pre- and post-remediation conditions at CERCLA sites, and present the results of any required post-decision remediation effectiveness monitoring. First issued in 1997, the RER has been reissued annually to update the performance histories of completed actions and to add descriptions of new CERCLA actions. Monitoring information used in the 2011 RER to assess remedy performance was collected and/or compiled by DOE's Water Resources Restoration Program (WRRP). Only data used to assess performance of completed actions are provided. In addition to collecting CERCLA performance assessment data, the WRRP also collects baseline data to be used to gauge the effectiveness of future actions once implemented. These baseline data are maintained in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System and will be reported in future RERs, as necessary, once the respective actions are completed. However, when insufficient data exist to assess the impact of the RAs, e.g., when the RA was only recently completed, a preliminary evaluation is made of early indicators of effectiveness at the watershed scale, such as contaminant trends at surface water integration points (IFs). Long-term stewardship (LTS) information used in this report is collected, compiled, and tracked by the WRRP in conjunction with the Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) program, the BJC Radiation Protection Organization at East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), ETTP Environmental Compliance Program, B&W Y-12 Liquid Waste Treatment Operations, and UT Battelle Facilities Management Division. Additionally, documentation verifying the implementation of administrative land use controls (LUCs) [i.e., property record restrictions, property record notices, zoning notices, and excavation/penetration permit (EPP) program] is also obtained from many sources throughout the fiscal year (FY), including County Register of Deeds offices for property record restrictions and property record notices, City Planning Commission for zoning notices, and BJC project engineers for EPP program verification. Copies of this documentation are obtained by the WRRP and maintained with the project RER files.

  5. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Spring Chinook Master Plan, Technical Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashe, Becky L.; Concannon, Kathleen; Johnson, David B.

    2000-04-01

    Spring chinook salmon populations in the Imnaha and Grande Ronde rivers are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and are at high risk of extirpation. The Nez Perce Tribe, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, are co-managers of conservation/restoration programs for Imnaha and Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon that use hatchery supplementation and conventional and captive broodstock techniques. The immediate goal of these programs is to prevent extirpation and provide the potential for restoration once factors limiting production are addressed. These programs redirect production occurring under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) from mitigation to conservation and restoration. Both the Imnaha and Grande Ronde conservation/restoration programs are described in ESA Section 10 permit applications and the co-managers refer to the fish production from these programs as the Currently Permitted Program (CPP). Recently, co-managers have determined that it is impossible to produce the CPP at Lookingglass Hatchery, the LSRCP facility intended for production, and that without additional facilities, production must be cut from these conservation programs. Development of new facilities for these programs through the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program is considered a new production initiative by the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) and requires a master plan. The master plan provides the NPPC, program proponents and others with the information they need to make sound decisions about whether the proposed facilities to restore salmon populations should move forward to design. This master plan describes alternatives considered to meet the facility needs of the CPP so the conservation program can be fully implemented. Co-managers considered three alternatives: modify Lookingglass Hatchery; use existing facilities elsewhere in the Basin; and use new facilities in conjunct ion with a modified Lookingglass Hatchery. Each alternative was evaluated based on criteria developed for rearing fish for a conservation program. After this review, the Nez Perce Tribe determined the only alternative that meets the needs of the program is the alternative to use new facilities in conjunction with a modified Lookingglass Hatchery. This is the Proposed Alternative. The Proposed Alternative would require: Construction of a new incubation and rearing facility in the Imnaha River and modifications of the existing Gumboot facility to accommodate the Imnaha component of the Lookingglass Hatchery production; Construction of a new incubation and rearing facility in the Lostine River to accommodate the Lostine component of the Lookingglass Hatchery production; and Modifications at Lookingglass Hatchery to accommodate the Upper Grande Ronde and Catherine Creek components of the Lookingglass Hatchery production. After an extensive screening process of potential sites, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes the Marks Ranch site on the Imnaha River and the Lundquist site on the Lostine River for new facilities. Conceptual design and cost estimates of the proposed facilities are contained in this master plan. The proposed facilities on the Imnaha and Lostine rivers would be managed in conjunction with the existing adult collection and juvenile acclimation/release facilities. Because this master plan has evolved into an endeavor undertaken primarily by the Nez Perce Tribe, the focus of the document is on actions within the Imnaha and Lostine watersheds where the Nez Perce Tribe have specific co-management responsibilities. Nevertheless, modifications at Lookingglass Hatchery could make it possible to provide a quality rearing environment for the remainder of the CPP. The Nez Perce Tribe will assist co-managers in further evaluating facility needs and providing other components of the NPPC master planning process to develop a solution for the entire CPP. Although the fish production for the conservation programs is already authorized and not at issue in this master pla

  6. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, Final Report For the Performance Period May 1, 2008 through April 30, 2009.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sampson, Melvin R.

    2009-07-30

    The Yakima-Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) is a joint project of the Yakama Nation (lead entity) and the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) and is sponsored in large part by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) with oversight and guidance from the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC). It is among the largest and most complex fisheries management projects in the Columbia Basin in terms of data collection and management, physical facilities, habitat enhancement and management, and experimental design and research on fisheries resources. Using principles of adaptive management, the YKFP is attempting to evaluate all stocks historically present in the Yakima subbasin and apply a combination of habitat restoration and hatchery supplementation or reintroduction, to restore the Yakima Subbasin ecosystem with sustainable and harvestable populations of salmon, steelhead and other at-risk species. The original impetus for the YKFP resulted from the landmark fishing disputes of the 1970s, the ensuing legal decisions in United States versus Washington and United States versus Oregon, and the region's realization that lost natural production needed to be mitigated in upriver areas where these losses primarily occurred. The YKFP was first identified in the NPCC's 1982 Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP) and supported in the U.S. v Oregon 1988 Columbia River Fish Management Plan (CRFMP). A draft Master Plan was presented to the NPCC in 1987 and the Preliminary Design Report was presented in 1990. In both circumstances, the NPCC instructed the Yakama Nation, WDFW and BPA to carry out planning functions that addressed uncertainties in regard to the adequacy of hatchery supplementation for meeting production objectives and limiting adverse ecological and genetic impacts. At the same time, the NPCC underscored the importance of using adaptive management principles to manage the direction of the Project. The 1994 FWP reiterated the importance of proceeding with the YKFP because of the added production and learning potential the project would provide. The YKFP is unique in having been designed to rigorously test the efficacy of hatchery supplementation. Given the current dire situation of many salmon and steelhead stocks, and the heavy reliance on artificial propagation as a recovery tool, YKFP monitoring results will have great region-wide significance. Supplementation is envisioned as a means to enhance and sustain the abundance of wild and naturally-spawning populations at levels exceeding the cumulative mortality burden imposed on those populations by habitat degradation and by natural cycles in environmental conditions. A supplementation hatchery is properly operated as an adjunct to the natural production system in a watershed. By fully integrating the hatchery with a naturally-producing population, high survival rates for the component of the population in the hatchery can raise the average abundance of the total population (hatchery component + naturally-producing component) to a level that compensates for the high mortalities imposed by human development activities and fully seeds the natural environment. The objectives of the YKFP are to: use Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) and other modeling tools to facilitate planning for project activities, enhance existing stocks, re-introduce extirpated stocks, protect and restore habitat in the Yakima Subbasin, and operate using a scientifically rigorous process that will foster application of the knowledge gained about hatchery supplementation and habitat restoration throughout the Columbia River Basin. The YKFP is still in the early stages of evaluation, and as such the data and findings presented in this report should be considered preliminary until results are published in the peer-reviewed literature. The following is a brief summary of current YKFP activities by species.

  7. Installation of the Monitoring Site at the Los Alamos Canyon Low-Head Weir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.J.Stone; D.L.Newell

    2002-08-01

    The Cerro Grande fire of 2000 had an enormously adverse impact on and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Immediately there were concerns about the potential for enhanced runoff/offsite transport of contaminant-laden sediments because of watershed damage. In response to this concern, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers installed a low-head weir in Los Alamos Canyon near the White Rock ''Y.'' However, the occurrence of fractured basalt at the surface and ponding of runoff behind the weir enhance the possibility of downward migration of contaminants. Therefore, three boreholes were drilled on the south bank of the channel by LANL to provide a means of monitoring the impact of the Cerro Grande fire and of the weir on water quality beneath the canyon. The boreholes and associated instrumentation are referred to as the Los Alamos Weir Site (LAWS). The three boreholes include a vertical hole and two angled holes (one at approximately 45{sup o} and one at approximately 30{sup o}). Since the basalt is highly fractured, the holes would not stay open. Plans called for inserting flexible liners into all holes. However, using liners in such unstable ground was problematic and, in the angled holes, required deployment through scalloped or perforated polyvinyl chloride (PVC) shield. The vertical hole (LAWS-01), drilled to a total depth of 281.5 ft below ground surface (bgs), was completed as a 278-ft deep monitoring well with four screens: one targeting shallow perched water encountered at 80 ft, two in what may correspond to the upper perched zone at regional groundwater characterization well R-9i (1/4 mi. to the west), and one in what may correspond to the lower perched zone at R-9i. A Water FLUTe{trademark} system deployed in the well isolates the screened intervals; associated transducers and sampling ports permit monitoring head and water quality in the screened intervals. The second hole (LAWS-02), drilled at an angle of 43{sup o} from horizontal, is 156 ft long and bottoms at a depth of 106 ft bgs. The shallow perched water seen at LAWS-01 (at 80 ft) was not encountered. A scalloped PVC shield was installed to keep the hole open while permitting flexible liners to contact the borehole wall. It was initially instrumented with a color-reactive liner to locate water-producing fractures. That was later replaced by an absorbent liner to collect water from the vadose zone. The third hole (LAWS-03), drilled at an angle of 34{sup o} from horizontal, initially had a length of 136 ft and bottomed at a depth of 76 ft bgs. However, the PVC shield rotated during installation such that scallops were at the top and rock debris repeatedly fell in, preventing liner insertion. While pulling the scalloped PVC to replace it with a perforated PVC shield that did not require orientation, the scalloped PVC broke and only 85 ft was recovered. The hole was blocked at that position and could not be drilled out with the equipment available. Thus, LAWS-03 was completed at a length of 85 ft and a depth of 40 ft bgs. An absorbent liner was installed at the outset in preparation for the 2002 summer monsoon season. The entire monitoring site is enclosed inside a locked, 8-ft-high chainlink fence for security. The liners used in the angled boreholes carry electrical wire pairs to detect soil-moisture changes. Surface-water data are provided by stream gages above and below the weir site. Depth of ponding behind the weir is provided by a gage installed just behind the structure.

  8. A Hydro-Economic Approach to Representing Water Resources Impacts in Integrated Assessment Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirshen, Paul H.; Strzepek, Kenneth, M.

    2004-01-14

    Grant Number DE-FG02-98ER62665 Office of Energy Research of the U.S. Department of Energy Abstract Many Integrated Assessment Models (IAM) divide the world into a small number of highly aggregated regions. Non-OECD countries are aggregated geographically into continental and multiple-continental regions or economically by development level. Current research suggests that these large scale aggregations cannot accurately represent potential water resources-related climate change impacts. In addition, IAMs do not explicitly model the flow regulation impacts of reservoir and ground water systems, the economics of water supply, or the demand for water in economic activities. Using the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT) model of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) as a case study, this research implemented a set of methodologies to provide accurate representation of water resource climate change impacts in Integrated Assessment Models. There were also detailed examinations of key issues related to aggregated modeling including: modeling water consumption versus water withdrawals; ground and surface water interactions; development of reservoir cost curves; modeling of surface areas of aggregated reservoirs for estimating evaporation losses; and evaluating the importance of spatial scale in river basin modeling. The major findings include: - Continental or national or even large scale river basin aggregation of water supplies and demands do not accurately capture the impacts of climate change in the water and agricultural sector in IAMs. - Fortunately, there now exist gridden approaches (0.5 X 0.5 degrees) to model streamflows in a global analysis. The gridded approach to hydrologic modeling allows flexibility in aligning basin boundaries with national boundaries. This combined with GIS tools, high speed computers, and the growing availability of socio-economic gridded data bases allows assignment of demands to river basins to create hydro-economic zones that respect as much as possible both political and hydrologic integrity in different models. - To minimize pre-processing of data and add increased flexibility to modeling water resources and uses, it is recommended that water withdrawal demands be modeled, not consumptive requirements even though this makes the IAM more complex. - IAMs must consider changes in water availability for irrigation under climate change; ignoring them is more inaccurate than ignoring yield changes in crops under climate change. - Determining water availability and cost in river basins must include modeling streamflows, reservoirs and their operations, and ground water and its interaction with surface water. - Scale issues are important. The results from condensing demands and supplies in a large complex river basin to one node can be misleading for all uses under low flow conditions and instream flow uses under all conditions. Monthly is generally the most accurate scale for modeling river flows and demands. Challenges remain in integrating hydrologic units with political boundaries but the gridded approach to hydrologic modeling allows flexibility in aligning basin boundaries with political boundaries. - Using minimal reservoir cost data, it is possible to use basin topography to estimate reservoir storage costs. - Reservoir evaporation must be considered when assessing the usable water in a watershed. Several methods are available to estimate the relationship between aggregated storage surface area and storage volume. - For existing or future IAMs that can not use the appropriate aggregation for water, a water preprocessor may be required due the finer scale of hydrologic impacts.

  9. Annual report of monitoring at Morrill, Kansas, in 2011.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2012-07-03

    Carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at Morrill, Kansas, was initially identified in 1985 during statewide testing of public water supply wells for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). High levels of nitrate were also present in the wells. The city of Morrill is located in Brown County in the northeastern corner of the state, about 7 mi east of Sabetha (Figure 1.1). The population of Morrill as of the 2010 Census was approximately 230 (down from 277 in 2000). All residents of Morrill now obtain their drinking water from the Sabetha municipal water system via a pipeline constructed in 1991. The findings of the April 2011 and October 2011 monitoring events at Morrill support the following conclusions: (1) Groundwater flow during the 2011 review period (as in prior years) was predominantly to the south, from the vicinity of the former CCC/USDA facility toward Terrapin Creek. Automatic water level monitoring data suggest that spring precipitation and recharge represent the predominant factors affecting the local groundwater level patterns. (2) No significant changes were observed in the concentration or distribution of carbon tetrachloride in groundwater during the spring and fall 2011 monitoring events versus the spring and fall 2010 monitoring events. In October 2011, a maximum carbon tetrachloride concentration of 49 {micro}g/L was identified in groundwater at well MW3S on the former CCC/USDA facility, with concentrations decreasing downgradient toward Terrapin Creek. (3) Since 2004, the accumulated results of 15 sampling events have demonstrated a significant decline in the maximum detected concentration of carbon tetrachloride in groundwater. In 1995, the contaminant was detected at the former CCC/USDA facility at 390 {micro}g/L, while the current maximum levels are < 50 {micro}g/L. The residual contaminant plume extending from the former CCC/USDA facility southward toward Terrapin Creek is well-defined and slowly declining in concentration naturally. (4) No carbon tetrachloride contamination was detected in 2011 in surface waters or shallow streambed sediments sampled at five locations along Terrapin Creek, downgradient from the former CCC/USDA facility. These results indicate that Terrapin Creek remains unaffected by the carbon tetrachloride plume. (5) Since 2007, the accumulated results of 10 monitoring events for surface water and sediment in Terrapin Creek have demonstrated no impact to the sediment and surface waters of the creek by carbon tetrachloride and no imminent risk for further degradation of the creek. (6) Terrapin Creek (tributary segment 308 to Walnut Creek) receives discharge from the Morrill wastewater treatment plant and several confined animal feeding operations regulated by the KDHE. The Walnut Creek watershed is designated by the KDHE as impaired by fecal coliform bacteria. Terrapin Creek is classified by the KDHE as not open to or accessible by the public for contact recreation and does not support the food procurement designated use (KDHE 2010b). (7) In July 2011, trace concentrations of carbon tetrachloride were detected in vegetation samples collected from trees at 2 of the 42 sampled locations south (downgradient) of the former CCC/USDA facility. (8) Sampling of indoor air in August 2010 to evaluate the potential for vapor intrusion into homes overlying and within 100 ft laterally of the identified carbon tetrachloride plume resulted in no detections of carbon tetrachloride. Low concentrations of chloroform, indicative of indoor air sources, were detected. Low radon levels were also detected. The results indicate no evidence of upward migration of vapors from the low-level carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater to indoor air.

  10. Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-04-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements their overall research effort by evaluating water availability at power plants under drought conditions. While there are a number of competing demands on water uses, particularly during drought conditions, this report focuses solely on impacts to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet. Included are both fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. One plant examined also uses biomass as a fuel. The purpose of this project is to estimate the impact on generation capacity of a drop in water level at U.S. steam electric power plants due to climatic or other conditions. While, as indicated above, the temperature of the water can impact decisions to halt or curtail power plant operations, this report specifically examines impacts as a result of a drop in water levels below power plant submerged cooling water intakes. Impacts due to the combined effects of excessive temperatures of the returned cooling water and elevated temperatures of receiving waters (due to high ambient temperatures associated with drought) may be examined in a subsequent study. For this study, the sources of cooling water used by the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet were examined. This effort entailed development of a database of power plants and cooling water intake locations and depths for those plants that use surface water as a source of cooling water. Development of the database and its general characteristics are described in Chapter 2 of this report. Examination of the database gives an indication of how low water levels can drop before cooling water intakes cease to function. Water level drops are evaluated against a number of different power plant characteristics, such as the nature of the water source (river vs. lake or reservoir) and type of plant (nuclear vs. fossil fuel). This is accomplished in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4, the nature of any compacts or agreements that give priority to users (i.e., which users must stop withdrawing water first) is examined. This is examined on a regional or watershed basis, specifically for western water rights, and also as a function of federal and state water management programs. Chapter 5 presents the findings and conclusions of this study. In addition to the above, a related intent of this study is to conduct preliminary modeling of how lowered surface water levels could affect generating capacity and other factors at different regional power plants. If utility managers are forced to take some units out of service or reduce plant outputs, the fuel mix at the remaining plants and the resulting carbon dioxide emissions may change. Electricity costs and other factors may also be impacted. Argonne has conducted some modeling based on the information presented in the database described in Chapter 2 of this report. A separate report of the modeling effort has been prepared (Poch et al. 2009). In addition to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet, this modeling also includes an evaluation of power production of hydroelectric facilities. The focus of this modeling is on those power plants located in the western United States.

  11. Evaluation of Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2006 Project Completion Summary.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faler, Michael P.; Mendel, Glen; Fulton, Carl

    2008-11-20

    The Columbia River Distinct Population Segment of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1998. One of the identified major threats to the species is fragmentation resulting from dams on over-wintering habitats of migratory subpopulations. A migratory subgroup in the Tucannon River appeared to utilize the Snake River reservoirs for adult rearing on a seasonal basis. As a result, a radio telemetry study was conducted on this subgroup from 2002-2006, to help meet Reasonable and Prudent Measures, and Conservation Recommendations associated with the lower Snake River dams in the FCRPS Biological Opinion, and to increase understanding of bull trout movements within the Tucannon River drainage. We sampled 1,109 bull trout in the Tucannon River; 124 of these were surgically implanted with radio tags and PIT tagged, and 681 were only PIT tagged. The remaining 304 fish were either recaptures, or released unmarked. Bull trout seasonal movements within the Tucannon River were similar to those described for other migratory bull trout populations. Bull trout migrated upstream in spring and early summer to the spawning areas in upper portions of the Tucannon River watershed. They quickly moved off the spawning areas in the fall, and either held or continued a slower migration downstream through the winter until early the following spring. During late fall and winter, bull trout were distributed in the lower half of the Tucannon River basin, down to and including the mainstem Snake River below Little Goose Dam. We were unable to adequately radio track bull trout in the Snake River and evaluate their movements or interactions with the federal hydroelectric dams for the following reasons: (1) none of our radio-tagged fish were detected attempting to pass a Snake River dam, (2) our radio tags had poor transmission capability at depths greater than 12.2 m, and (3) the sample size of fish that actually entered the Snake River was small (n=6). In spite of this project's shortcomings, bull trout continue to be observed in low numbers at Snake River dam fish facilities. It is highly possible that bull trout observed at the Snake River dam fish facilities are originating from sources other than the Tucannon River. We suggest that these fish might come from upstream sources like the Clearwater or Salmon rivers in Idaho, and are simply following the outmigration of juvenile anadromous fish (a food supply) as they emigrate toward the Pacific Ocean. Based on our study results, we recommend abandoning radio telemetry as a tool to monitor bull trout movements in the mainstem Snake River. We do recommend continuing PIT tagging and tag interrogation activities to help determine the origin of bull trout using the Snake River hydropower facilities. As a complementary approach, we also suggest the use of genetic assignment tests to help determine the origin of these fish. Lastly, several recommendations are included in the report to help manage and recover bull trout in the Tucannon subbasin.

  12. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2012-05-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE), to provide data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE's Willamette Valley Project. This study was conducted in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. We conducted a hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011. Findings from this 1 year of study should be applied carefully because annual variation can be expected due to variability in adult salmon escapement, egg-to-fry and fry-to-smolt survival rates, reservoir rearing and predation, dam operations, and weather. Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> {approx}90 mm and < 300 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. Passage peaks were also evident in early spring, early summer, and late fall. During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish {+-} 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt-size fish passed through turbine penstock intakes. Of this total, 84% passed during December-January. Run timing for small-size fish ({approx}65-90 mm) peaked (702 fish) on December 18. Diel periodicity of smolt-size fish showing crepuscular peaks was evident in fish passage into turbine penstock intakes. Relatively few fish passed into the Regulating Outlets (ROs) when they were open in summer (2 fish/d) and winter (8 fish/d). Overall, when the ROs were open, RO efficiency (RO passage divided by total project passage) was 0.004. In linear regression analyses, daily fish passage (turbines and ROs combined) for smolt-size fish was significantly related to project discharge (P<0.001). This relationship was positive, but there was no relationship between total project passage and forebay elevation (P=0.48) or forebay elevation delta, i.e., day-to-day change in forebay elevation (P=0.16). In multiple regression analyses, a relatively parsimonious model was selected that predicted the observed data well. The multiple regression model indicates a positive trend between expected daily fish passage and each of the three variables in the model-Julian day, log(discharge), and log(abs(forebay delta)); i.e., as any of the environmental variables increase, expected daily fish passage increases. For vertical distribution of fish at the face of the dam, fish were surface-oriented with 62%-80% occurring above 10 m deep. The highest percentage of fish (30%-60%) was found between 5-10-m-deep. During spring and summer, mean target strengths for the analysis periods ranged from -44.2 to -42.1 dB. These values are indicative of yearling-sized juvenile salmon. In contrast, mean target strengths in fall and winter were about -49.0 dB, which are representative of subyearling-sized fish. The high-resolution spatial and temporal data reported herein provide detailed information about vertical, horizontal, diel, daily, and seasonal fish passage rates and distributions at LOP from March 2010 through January 2011. This information will support management decisions on design and development of surface passage and collection devices to help restore Chinook salmon populations in the Middle Fork Willamette River watershed above LOP.

  13. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-07-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The goal of the study was to provide fish passage and distribution data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. During the year-long study period - February 1, 2010 to January 31, 2011the objectives of the hydroacoustic evaluation of fish passage and distribution at LOP were to: 1. Estimate passage rates, run timing, horizontal distribution, and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for smolt-size fish. 2. Estimate passage rates, run timing and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for small-size fish. 3. Estimate passage rates and run timing at the regulating outlets for smolt-size fish. 4. Estimate vertical distribution of smolt-size fish in the forebay near the upstream face of the dam. The fixed-location hydroacoustic technique was used to accomplish the objectives of this study. Transducers (420 kHz) were deployed in each penstock intake, above each RO entrance, and on the dam face; a total of nine transducers (2 single-beam and 7 split-beam) were used. We summarize the findings from the hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011 as follows. • Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> ~90 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. • During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish ± 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt-size fish passed through turbine penstock intakes. • Diel periodicity of smolt-size fish showing crepuscular peaks was evident in fish passage into turbine penstock intakes. • Run timing for small-size fish (~65-90 mm) peaked (702 fish) on December 18. Downstream passage of small-size juvenile fish was variable, occurring on two days in the spring, eight days in the summer, and at times throughout late fall and winter. A total of 7,017 ± 690 small-size fish passed through the turbine penstock intakes during the study period. • Relatively few fish passed into the ROs when they were open in summer (2 fish/d) and winter (8 fish/d). • Fish were surface-oriented with 62-80% above 10 m deep. The highest percentage of fish (30-60%) was in the 5-10 m depth bin. We draw the following conclusions from the study. • The non-obtrusive hydroacoustic data from this study are reliable because passage estimates and patterns were similar with those observed in the direct capture data from the tailrace screw trap and were consistent with distribution patterns observed in other studies of juvenile salmonid passage at dams. • Fish passage at LOP was apparently affected but not dominated by dam operations and reservoir elevation. • The surface-oriented vertical distribution of fish we observed supports development of surface passage or collector devices. In summary, the high-resolution spatially and temporally data reported herein provide detailed estimates of vertical, horizontal, diel, daily, and seasonal passage and distributions at LOP during March 2010 through January 2011. This information is applicable to management decisions on design and development of surface passage and collections devices to help restore Chinook salmon populations in the Middle Fork Willamette River watershed above Lookout Point Dam.

  14. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Detroit Dam, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Fenton; Royer, Ida M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Ham, Kenneth D.

    2012-11-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Detroit Dam (DET) on the North Santiam River, Oregon for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to provide data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at DET and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project. This study was conducted in response to regulatory requirements necessitated by the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. The goal of the study was to provide information of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at DET from February 2011 through February 2012. The results of the hydroacoustic study provide new and, in some cases, first-ever data on passage estimates, run timing, distributions, and relationships between fish passage and environmental variables at the dam. This information will inform management decisions on the design and development of surface passage and collection devices to help restore Chinook salmon populations in the North Santiam River watershed above DET. During the entire study period, an estimated total of 182,526 smolt-size fish (±4,660 fish, 95% CI) passed through turbine penstock intakes. Run timing peaked in winter and early spring months. Passage rates were highest during late fall, winter and early spring months and low during summer. Horizontal distribution for hours when both turbine units were operated simultaneously indicated Unit 2 passed almost twice as much fish as Unit 1. Diel distribution for smolt-size fish during the study period was fairly uniform, indicating fish were passing the turbines at all times of the day. A total of 5,083 smolt-size fish (± 312 fish, 95% CI) were estimated passed via the spillway when it was open between June 23 and September 27, 2011. Daily passage was low at the spillway during the June-August period, and increased somewhat in September 2011. When the spillway was operated simultaneously with the turbines, spillway efficiency (efficiency is estimated as spillway passage divided by total project passage) was 0.72 and effectiveness (fish:flow ratio—proportion fish passage at a route (e.g., spillway) divided by proportion water through that route out of the total project) was 2.69. That is, when the spillway was open, 72% of the fish passing the dam used the spillway and 28% passed into the turbine penstocks. Diel distribution for smolt-size fish at the spillway shows a distinct peak in passage between mid-morning and mid-afternoon and low passage at night. We estimated that 23,339 smolt-size fish (± 572 fish, 95% CI) passed via the Regulating Outlet (RO) when it was open from October 29 through November 12, 2011, January 2-6, and January 20 through February 3, 2012. During the October–November period, RO passage peaked at 1,086 fish on November 5, with a second peak on November 7 (1,075 fish). When the RO was operated simultaneously with the turbines, RO efficiency was 0.33 and effectiveness was 0.89. In multiple regression analyses, a relatively parsimonious model was selected that predicted the observed fish passage data well. The best model included forebay temperature at depth, forebay elevation, total discharge, hours of daylight, and the operation period. The vertical distribution of fish in the forebay near the face of the dam where the transducers sampled showed fish were generally distributed throughout the water column during all four operational periods. During the refill and full pool periods, vertical distribution was bi-modal with surface-layer and mid-water modes. Patterns for day and night distributions were variable. Fish were distributed above and below the thermocline when it was present (full pool and drawdown periods).

  15. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies, Annual Report 2000-2001.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Erik

    2009-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded the development of two master plans which outline the rationale, and general approach, for implementing a defined group of projects that are an integral part of a comprehensive watershed goal to 'Protect, enhance and restore wild and natural populations of anadromous and resident fish within the Hood River Subbasin'. The Hood River Production Master Plan and the Pelton Ladder Master Plan were completed in 1991 and subsequently approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1992. Action items identified in the two master plans, as well as in a later document entitled 'Hood River/Pelton Ladder Master Agreement' (ODFW and CTWSRO Undated), are designed to achieve two biological fish objectives: (1) to increase production of wild summer and winter steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to levels commensurate with the subbasins current carrying capacity and (2) re-establishing a self-sustaining population of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Numerical fish objectives for subbasin escapement, spawner escapement, and subbasin harvest are defined for each of these species in Coccoli (2000). Several projects are presently funded by the BPA to achieve the Hood River subbasin's numerical fish objectives for summer and winter steelhead and spring chinook salmon. They include BPA project numbers 1998-021-00 (Hood River Fish Habitat), 1998-053-03 (Hood River Production Program - CTWSRO: M&E), 1998-053-07 (Parkdale Fish Facility), 1998-053-08 (Powerdale/Oak Springs O&M), and 1998-053-12 (Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study). Collectively, they are implemented under the umbrella of what has come to be defined as the Hood River Production Program (HRPP). The HRPP is jointly implemented by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO). Strategies for achieving the HRPP's biological fish objectives for the Hood River subbasin were initially devised based on various assumptions about (1) subbasin carrying capacity, (2) survival rates for selected life history stages, and (3) historic and current escapements of wild, natural, and hatchery stocks of anadromous salmonids to the Hood River subbasin. The Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife began funding a monitoring and evaluation (M&E) project in December 1991 to collect the quantitative biological information needed to (1) more accurately assess the validity of these assumptions and (2) evaluate the proposed hatchery supplementation component of the HRPP. Bonneville Power Administration assumed funding of the M&E project in August 1992. The M&E project was initially confined to sampling anadromous salmonids escaping to an adult trapping facility operated at Powerdale Dam; which is located at River Mile (RM) 4.5 on the mainstem of the Hood River. Stock specific life history and biological data was collected to (1) monitor subbasin spawner escapements and (2) collect pre-implementation data critical to evaluating the newly proposed HRPP's potential biological impact on indigenous populations of resident fish. The scope of the M&E project was expanded in 1994 to collect the data needed to quantify (1) subbasin smolt production and carrying capacity, (2) smolt to adult survival rates, and (3) the spatial distribution of indigenous populations of summer and winter steelhead, spring and fall chinook salmon, and coho salmon. A creel was incorporated into the M&E project in December 1996 to evaluate the HRPP with respect to its defined subbasin and spawner escapement objectives for Hood River stocks of wild and hatchery summer and winter steelhead and for natural and Deschutes stock hatchery spring chinook salmon. In 1996, the M&E project also began monitoring streamflow at various locations in the Hood River subbasin. Streamflow data will be used to correlate subbasin smolt production with summer streamflows. Data collected from 1991-1999 is reported in the following annual progress reports: Olsen et al. (1994), Olsen et al

  16. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Rainwater Wildlife Area, 1998-2001 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, Allen

    2004-01-01

    The 8,768 acre Rainwater Wildlife Area was acquired in September 1998 by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) through an agreement with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to partially offset habitat losses associated with construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the mainstem Columbia River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to BPA for acquired lands. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grassland rover types are evaluated in this study. Targeted wildlife species include downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricopillus), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglects). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 65,300, 594m{sup 2} plots, and 112 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 153.3 and 7,187.46 acres were evaluated for each target wildlife mitigation species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total baseline habitat units credited to BPA for the Rainwater Wildlife Area and its seven target species is 5,185.3 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing, road de-commissioning/obliteration, reforestation and thinning, control of competing and unwanted vegetation (including noxious weeds), reestablishing displaced or reduced native vegetation species, allowance of normative processes such as fire occurrence, and facilitating development of natural stable stream channels and associated floodplains. Implementation of habitat enhancement and restoration activities could generate an additional 1,850 habitat units in 10 years. Baseline and estimated future habitat units total 7,035.3 for the Rainwater Wildlife Area. Habitat protection, enhancement and restoration will require long-term commitments from managers to increase probabilities of success and meet the goals and objectives of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Program. Longer-term benefits of protection and enhancement activities include increases in native species diversity and plant community resiliency in all cover types. Watershed conditions, including floodplain/riparian, and instream habitat quality should improve as well providing multiple benefits for terrestrial and aquatic resources. While such benefits are not necessarily recognized by HEP models and reflected in the number of habitat units generated, they are consistent with the NPPC Fish and Wildlife Program.

  17. Escapement and Productivity of Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the John Day River Basin, 2005-2006 Annual Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, Terra Lang; Wilson, Wayne H.; Ruzycki, James R.

    2009-04-10

    The objectives are: (1) Estimate number and distribution of spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha redds and spawners in the John Day River subbasin; and (2) Estimate smolt-to-adult survival rates (SAR) and out-migrant abundance for spring Chinook and summer steelhead O. mykiss and life history characteristics of summer steelhead. The John Day River subbasin supports one of the last remaining intact wild populations of spring Chinook salmon and summer steelhead in the Columbia River Basin. These populations, however, remain depressed relative to historic levels. Between the completion of the life history and natural escapement study in 1984 and the start of this project in 1998, spring Chinook spawning surveys did not provide adequate information to assess age structure, progeny-to-parent production values, smolt-to-adult survival (SAR), or natural spawning escapement. Further, only very limited information is available for steelhead life history, escapement, and productivity measures in the John Day subbasin. Numerous habitat protection and rehabilitation projects to improve salmonid freshwater production and survival have also been implemented in the basin and are in need of effectiveness monitoring. While our monitoring efforts outlined here will not specifically measure the effectiveness of any particular project, they will provide much needed background information for developing context for project-specific effectiveness monitoring efforts. To meet the data needs as index stocks, to assess the long-term effectiveness of habitat projects, and to differentiate freshwater and ocean survival, sufficient annual estimates of spawner escapement, age structure, SAR, egg-to-smolt survival, smolt-per-redd ratio, and freshwater habitat use are essential. We have begun to meet this need through spawning ground surveys initiated for spring Chinook salmon in 1998 and smolt PIT-tagging efforts initiated in 1999. Additional sampling and analyses to meet these goals include an estimate of smolt abundance and SAR rates, and an updated measure of the freshwater distribution of critical life stages. Because Columbia Basin managers have identified the John Day subbasin spring Chinook population as an index population for assessing the effects of alternative future management actions on salmon stocks in the Columbia Basin (Schaller et al. 1999) we continue our ongoing studies. This project is high priority based on the high level of emphasis the NWPPC Fish and Wildlife Program, Subbasin Summaries, NMFS, and the Oregon Plan for Salmon and Watersheds have placed on monitoring and evaluation to provide the real-time data to guide restoration and adaptive management in the region. By implementing the proposed program we have been able to address many of the goals for population status monitoring, such as defining areas currently used by spring Chinook for holding and spawning habitats and determining range expansion or contraction of summer rearing and spawning populations. The BiOp describes these goals as defining population growth rates (adult monitoring), detecting changes in those growth rates or relative abundance in a reasonable time (adult/juvenile monitoring), estimating juvenile abundance and survival rates (juvenile/smolt monitoring), and identifying stage-specific survival (adult-to-smolt, smolt-to-adult).

  18. Calendar Year 2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department Of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2011-12-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2010 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2010 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. Section 2 of this report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2010 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC (B&W Y-12) and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC (i.e., coordinating sample collection and sharing data) ensures that the CY 2010 monitoring results fulfill requirements of all the applicable monitoring drivers with no duplication of sampling and analysis efforts. Section 3 of this report contains a summary of information regarding the groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 GWPP including sampling locations and frequency; quality assurance (QA)/quality control (QC) sampling; sample collection and handling; field measurements and laboratory analytes; data management and data quality objective (DQO) evaluation; and groundwater elevation monitoring. However, this report does not include equivalent QA/QC or DQO evaluation information regarding the groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis activities associated with the monitoring programs implemented by BJC. Such details are deferred to the respective programmatic plans and reports issued by BJC (see Section 3.0). Collectively, the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during CY 2010 by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC address DOE Order 450.1A (Environmental Protection Program) requirements for monitoring groundwater and surface water quality in areas: (1) which are, or could be, affected by operations at Y-12 (surveillance monitoring); and (2) where contaminants from Y-12 are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the ORR (exit pathway/perimeter monitoring). Section 4 of this report presents a summary evaluation of the monitoring data with regard to the respective objectives of surveillance monitoring and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring, based on the analytical results for the principal groundwater contaminants at Y-12: nitrate, uranium, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gross alpha activity, and gross beta activity. Section 5 of this report summarizes the most pertinent findings regarding the principal contaminants, along with recommendations proposed for ongoing groundwater and surface water quality monitoring performed under the Y-12 GWPP.

  19. Calendar Year 2011 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elvado Environmental LLC,

    2012-12-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2011 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2011 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12. The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. This report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and known extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2011 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC (B&W Y-12) and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by the DOE Environmental Management (EM) contractor responsible for environmental cleanup on the ORR. In August 2011, URS | CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) replaced Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) as the DOE EM contractor. For this report, BJC/UCOR will be referenced as the managing contractor for CY 2011. Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC/UCOR (i.e., coordinating sample collection and sharing data) ensures that the CY 2011 monitoring results fulfill requirements of all the applicable monitoring drivers with no duplication of sampling and analysis efforts. This report contains a summary of information regarding the groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 GWPP including sampling locations and frequency; quality assurance (QA)/quality control (QC) sampling; sample collection and handling; field measurements and laboratory analytes; data management and data quality objective (DQO) evaluation; and groundwater elevation monitoring. However, this report does not include equivalent QA/QC or DQO evaluation information regarding the groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis activities associated with the monitoring programs implemented by BJC/UCOR. Such details are deferred to the respective programmatic plans and reports issued by BJC. Collectively, the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during CY 2011 by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC/UCOR address DOE Order 436.1 and DOE Order 458.1 requirements for monitoring groundwater and surface water quality in areas (1) which are, or could be, affected by operations at Y-12 (surveillance monitoring) and (2) where contaminants from Y-12 are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the ORR (exit pathway/perimeter monitoring). This report presents a summary evaluation of the monitoring data with regard to the respective objectives of surveillance monitoring and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring, based on the analytical results for the principal groundwater contaminants at Y-12: nitrate, uranium, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gross alpha activity, and gross beta activity. This report summarizes the most pertinent findings regarding the principal contaminants, along with recommendations proposed for ongoing groundwater and surface water quality monitoring performed under the Y-12 GWPP.

  20. Calendar Year 2004 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2005-09-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2004 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2004 monitoring data were obtained from groundwater and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of Y-12. The CY 2004 monitoring data were obtained under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (BWXT) and several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Data contained in this report meet applicable requirements of DOE Order 450.1 (Environmental Protection Program) regarding evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality in areas: (1) which are, or could be, affected by operations at Y-12 (surveillance monitoring); and (2) where contaminants from Y-12 are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the ORR (exit pathway/perimeter monitoring). However, detailed analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of the CY 2004 monitoring data is deferred to the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater Monitoring Data Compendium (BWXT 2005). For each monitoring well, spring, and surface water sampling station included in this report, the GWPP Compendium provides: (1) pertinent well installation and construction information; (2) a complete sampling history, including sampling methods and distinguishing sampling characteristics; (3) an evaluation of hydrologic characteristics, based on pre-sampling groundwater elevations, along with a compilation of available test results (e.g., hydraulic conductivity test data); (4) a discussion of geochemical characteristics based on evaluation of the analytical results for the primary anions and cations; and (5) a detailed analysis and interpretation of the available data for the principal groundwater contaminants at Y-12: nitrate, uranium, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gross alpha activity, and gross beta activity. The following sections of this report provide details regarding the CY 2004 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities in the Bear Creek, East Fork, and Chestnut Ridge Regime. Section 2 briefly describes the hydrogeologic system and generalized extent of groundwater contamination in each regime. Section 3 describes the monitoring programs implemented and associated sampling activities performed in each regime during CY 2004. Section 4 presents an a summary of the CY 2004 monitoring data with regard to the provisions of DOE Order 450.1 (surveillance and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring), including highlights of notable findings and time-series plots of data for CY 2004 sampling locations that provide representative examples of long-term contaminant concentration trends. Brief conclusions and proposed recommendations are provided in Section 5. Section 6 lists the documents cited for more detailed operational, regulatory, and technical information. The narrative sections of the report reference several appendices. Figures (maps and diagrams) and tables (excluding data summary tables presented in the narrative sections) are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. Monitoring well construction details are in Appendix C. Results of field measurements and laboratory analyses of the groundwater and surface water samples collected during CY 2004 are in Appendix D (Bear Creek Regime), Appendix E (East Fork Regime and surrounding areas), and Appendix F (Chestnut Ridge Regime). Appendix G contains data for quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) samples associated with monitoring performed in each regime by the Y-12 GWPP.

  1. Calendar Year 2005 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-09-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2005 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2005 monitoring data were obtained from groundwater and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of Y-12. The CY 2005 monitoring data were obtained under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (BWXT) and several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Data contained in this report meet applicable requirements of DOE Order 450.1 (Environmental Protection Program) regarding evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality in areas: (1) which are, or could be, affected by operations at Y-12 (surveillance monitoring); and (2) where contaminants from Y-12 are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the ORR (exit pathway/perimeter monitoring). However, detailed analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of the CY 2005 monitoring data is deferred to the ''Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater Monitoring Data Compendium'' (BWXT 2006). For each monitoring well, spring, and surface water sampling station included in this report, the GWPP Compendium provides: (1) pertinent well installation and construction information; (2) a complete sampling history, including sampling methods and distinguishing sampling characteristics; (3) an evaluation of hydrologic characteristics, based on pre-sampling groundwater elevations, along with a compilation of available test results (e.g., hydraulic conductivity test data); (4) a discussion of geochemical characteristics based on evaluation of the analytical results for the primary anions and cations; and (5) a detailed analysis and interpretation of the available data for the principal groundwater contaminants at Y-12: nitrate, uranium, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gross alpha activity, and gross beta activity. The following sections of this report provide details regarding the CY 2005 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities in the Bear Creek, East Fork, and Chestnut Ridge Regime. Section 2 briefly describes the hydrogeologic system and generalized extent of groundwater contamination in each regime. Section 3 describes the monitoring programs implemented and associated sampling activities performed in each regime during CY 2005. Section 4 presents an a summary of the CY 2005 monitoring data with regard to the provisions of DOE Order 450.1 (surveillance and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring), including highlights of notable findings and time-series plots of data for CY 2005 sampling locations that provide representative examples of long-term contaminant concentration trends. Brief conclusions and proposed recommendations are provided in Section 5. Section 6 lists the documents cited for more detailed operational, regulatory, and technical information. The narrative sections of the report reference several appendices. Figures (maps and diagrams) and tables (excluding data summary tables presented in the narrative sections) are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. Monitoring well construction details are in Appendix C. Results of field measurements and laboratory analyses of the groundwater and surface water samples collected during CY 2005 are in Appendix D (Bear Creek Regime), Appendix E (East Fork Regime and surrounding areas), and Appendix F (Chestnut Ridge Regime). Appendix G contains data for quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) samples associated with monitoring performed in each regime by the Y-12 GWPP.

  2. Calendar Year 2007 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2008-12-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2007 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2007 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. Section 2 of this report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2007 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (BWXT), and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). In December 2007, the BWXT corporate name was changed to Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC (B&W Y-12), which is applied to personnel and organizations throughout CY 2007 for this report. Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC (i.e., coordinating sample collection and sharing data) ensures that the CY 2007 monitoring results fulfill requirements of all the applicable monitoring drivers with no duplication of sampling and analysis efforts. Section 3 of this report contains a summary of information regarding the groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 GWPP including sampling locations and frequency; quality assurance (QA)/quality control (QC) sampling; sample collection and handling; field measurements and laboratory analytes; data management and data quality objective (DQO) evaluation; and groundwater elevation monitoring. However, this report does not include equivalent information regarding the groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis activities associated with the monitoring programs implemented by BJC. Such details are deferred to the respective programmatic plans and reports issued by BJC (see Section 3.0). Collectively, the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during CY 2007 by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC address DOE Order 450.1 (Environmental Protection Program) requirements for monitoring groundwater and surface water quality in areas: (1) which are, or could be, affected by operations at Y-12 (surveillance monitoring); and (2) where contaminants from Y-12 are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the ORR (exit pathway/perimeter monitoring). Section 4 of this report presents a summary evaluation of the monitoring data with regard to the respective objectives of surveillance monitoring and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring, based on the analytical results for the principal groundwater and surface water contaminants at Y-12: nitrate, uranium, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gross alpha activity, and gross beta activity. Section 5 of this report summarizes the most pertinent findings regarding the principal contaminants, along with recommendations proposed for ongoing groundwater and surface water quality monitoring performed under the Y-12 GWPP.

  3. Forest Restoration Carbon Analysis of Baseline Carbon Emissions and Removal in Tropical Rainforest at La Selva Central, Peru

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick Gonzalez; Benjamin Kroll; Carlos R. Vargas

    2006-01-10

    Conversion of tropical forest to agricultural land and pasture has reduced forest extent and the provision of ecosystem services, including watershed protection, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration. Forest conservation and reforestation can restore those ecosystem services. We have assessed forest species patterns, quantified deforestation and reforestation rates, and projected future baseline carbon emissions and removal in Amazon tropical rainforest at La Selva Central, Peru. The research area is a 4800 km{sup 2} buffer zone around the Parque Nacional Yanachaga-Chemillen, Bosque de Proteccion San Matias-San Carlos, and the Reserva Comunal Yanesha. A planned project for the period 2006-2035 would conserve 4000 ha of forest in a proposed 7000 ha Area de Conservacion Municipale de Chontabamba and establish 5600 ha of natural regeneration and 1400 ha of native species plantations, laid out in fajas de enriquecimiento (contour plantings), to reforest 7000 ha of agricultural land. Forest inventories of seven sites covering 22.6 ha in primary forest and 17 sites covering 16.5 ha in secondary forest measured 17,073 trees of diameter {ge} 10 cm. The 24 sites host trees of 512 species, 267 genera, and 69 families. We could not identify the family of 7% of the trees or the scientific species of 21% of the trees. Species richness is 346 in primary forest and 257 in the secondary forest. In primary forest, 90% of aboveground biomass resides in old-growth species. Conversely, in secondary forest, 66% of aboveground biomass rests in successional species. The density of trees of diameter {ge} 10 cm is 366 trees ha{sup -1} in primary forest and 533 trees ha{sup -1} in secondary forest, although the average diameter is 24 {+-} 15 cm in primary forest and 17 {+-} 8 cm in secondary forest. Using Amazon forest biomass equations and wood densities for 117 species, aboveground biomass is 240 {+-} 30 t ha{sup -1} in the primary sites and 90 {+-} 10 t ha{sup -1} in the secondary sites. Aboveground carbon density is 120 {+-} 15 t ha{sup -1} in primary forest and 40 {+-} 5 t ha{sup -1} in secondary forest. Forest stands in the secondary forest sites range in age from 10 to 42 y. Growth in biomass (t ha{sup -1}) as a function of time (y) follows the relation: biomass = 4.09-0.017 age{sup 2} (p < 0.001). Aboveground biomass and forest species richness are positively correlated (r{sup 2} = 0.59, p < 0.001). Analyses of Landsat data show that the land cover of the 3700 km{sup 2} of non-cloud areas in 1999 was: closed forest 78%; open forest 12%, low vegetation cover 4%, sparse vegetation cover 6%. Deforestation from 1987 to 1999 claimed a net 200 km{sup 2} of forest, proceeding at a rate of 0.005 y{sup -1}. Of those areas of closed forest in 1987, only 89% remained closed forest in 1999. Consequently, closed forests experienced disruption in the time period at double the rate of net deforestation. The three protected areas experienced negligible deforestation or slight reforestation. Based