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  1. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  2. Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    If you want an energy-efficient way to heat your swimming pool, consider using a heat pump pool heater in mild climates.

  3. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A diagram of a heat pump water heater. A diagram of a heat pump water heater. What does this mean for me? Heat pump water heaters can be two to three times more energy efficient...

  4. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters B. Sparn, L. Earle, D. Christensen, J. ... 2013 Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters B. Sparn, L. Earle, D. ...

  5. Promising Technology: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A heat pump water heater uses electricity to transfer heat from the ambient air to stored water, as opposed to an electric resistance water heater, which uses electricity to generate the heat directly. This enables the heat pump water heater to be 2 to 3 times as efficient as an electric resistance water heater.

  6. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters A diagram of a heat pump water heater. A diagram of a heat pump water heater. Most homeowners who have heat pumps use them to heat and cool their homes. But a heat pump also can be used to heat water -- either as stand-alone water heating system, or as combination water heating and space conditioning system. How They Work Heat pump water heaters use electricity to move heat from one place to another instead of generating heat directly. Therefore,

  7. Residential CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Residential CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Residential CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Prototype
    Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater ...

  8. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CO 2 Heat Pump Water Heater 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Evaporator Kyle ... MarketAudience: Residential electric water heating Key Partners: GE Appliances CRADA ...

  9. Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Patrick ... The target market is the hospital, hotel and full service restaurant gas hot water heating ...

  10. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards. Heat Pump Water Heaters -- v1.7 (350.5 KB) More Documents &

  11. The Market - Who Needs Heat Pump Water Heaters? (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: The Market - Who Needs Heat Pump Water Heaters? Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Market - Who Needs Heat Pump Water Heaters? Heat pump water heaters ...

  12. Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and Federal ...

  13. Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heater Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heater Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN DOE Funding: 500,000 Project Term: Oct. 2013 - ...

  14. Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - 2013 Peer Review | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - 2013 Peer Review Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's ...

  15. Heat Pump Water Heater Using Solid-State Energy Converters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Water Heater Using Solid-State Energy Converters 2015 Building Technologies ... Home Water Heaters with Affordable, Reliable Solid-State Heat Pumps Key Partners: ...

  16. Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heater Kyle Gluesenkamp Building Equipment Group, ETSD gluesenkampk@ornl.gov 865-241-2952 April 3, 2013 CRADA - GE Development of High Performance Residential Gas Water ...

  17. Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Pump Swimming Pool Heaters Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heaters How a heat pump works. How a heat pump works. How They Work Heat pumps use electricity to capture heat and move it from ...

  18. Heat Pump Water Heaters: Controlled Field Research of Impact...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water Heaters: Controlled Field Research of Impact on Space Conditioning and Demand Response Characteristics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Heat Pump Water Heaters: ...

  19. Heat Pump Water Heater Using Solid-State Energy Converters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Water Heater Using Solid-State Energy Converters 2016 Building Technologies ... Project Goal: Demonstrate a home water heater product with affordable and reliable ...

  20. Cryostat including heater to heat a target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pehl, Richard H.; Madden, Norman W.; Malone, Donald F.

    1990-01-01

    A cryostat is provided which comprises a vacuum vessel; a target disposed within the vacuum vessel; a heat sink disposed within the vacuum vesssel for absorbing heat from the detector; a cooling mechanism for cooling the heat sink; a cryoabsorption mechanism for cryoabsorbing residual gas within the vacuum vessel; and a heater for maintaining the target above a temperature at which the residual gas is cryoabsorbed in the course of cryoabsorption of the residual gas by the cryoabsorption mechanism.

  1. Cryostat including heater to heat a target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pehl, R.H.; Madden, N.W.; Malone, D.F.

    1990-09-11

    A cryostat is provided which comprises a vacuum vessel; a target disposed within the vacuum vessel; a heat sink disposed within the vacuum vessel for absorbing heat from the detector; a cooling mechanism for cooling the heat sink; a cryoabsorption mechanism for cryoabsorbing residual gas within the vacuum vessel; and a heater for maintaining the target above a temperature at which the residual gas is cryoabsorbed in the course of cryoabsorption of the residual gas by the cryoabsorption mechanism. 2 figs.

  2. NREL Evaluates Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones.

  3. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance of Water Heating Systems Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, ...

  4. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  5. Technology Solutions Case Study: Heat Pump Water Heater Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-08-01

    In this project, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory studied heat pump water heaters, an efficient, cost-effective alternative to traditional electric resistance water heaters that can improve energy efficiency by up to 62%.

  6. Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Sheetak will work on developing a full scale prototype of its low cost ...

  7. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CO 2 Heat Pump Water Heater 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Kyle Gluesenkamp, gluesenkampk@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory Evaporator 2 Project Summary Timeline: Start date: Oct 1, 2009 Planned end date: Sep 30, 2016 Key Milestones 1. Go/No-Go: Price premium <$750 compared to baseline HFC HPWH; FY15Q2 (MET) 2. Go/No-Go: EF>2.0 and FHR>50 gallon to meet ENERGY STAR qualification criteria; FY14Q4 (MET) Budget: Total DOE to Date: $2,367k Total Project: $2,435k Key

  8. Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partner: A.O. Smith Inc. - Milwaukee, WI DOE Funding: $2,000,000 Cost Share: Provided by CRADA partners Project Term: October 1, 2013 - September 30, 2016 Project Objective The objective of this project is to develop a gas-fired absorption heat pump water heater for the commercial

  9. NREL Develops Heat Pump Water Heater Simulation Model (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudon, K.

    2012-05-01

    A new simulation model helps researchers evaluate real-world impacts of heat pump water heaters in U.S. homes.

  10. NREL Evaluates Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based on Laboratory Research and Energy Simulation Models. 2012 ASHRAE Winter Conference, Chicago, IL, January 21-25, 2012. NREL Report ...

  11. NREL Develops Heat Pump Water Heater Simulation Model (Fact Sheet...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based on Laboratory Research and Energy Simulation Models. ASHRAE Transactions 2012, Vol. 118, Part 1. www.nrel.govdocsfy12osti...

  12. Residential Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing and promoting the market introduction of a residential absorption heat pump water heater that would use 40% less energy annually ...

  13. Rock Hill Utilities- Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Through the SmartChoice program, Rock Hill Utilities offers rebates for water heater and heat pump replacements. Information on financing for heat pumps can also be found on the web site listed...

  14. Heat Pump Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating » Heat Pump Water Heater Basics Heat Pump Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 2:59pm Addthis Illustration of a heat pump water heater, which looks like a tall cylinder with a small chamber on top and a larger one on the bottom. In the top chamber are a fan, a cylindrical compressor, and an evaporator that runs along the inside of the chamber. Jutting out from the exterior of the bottom chamber is a temperature and pressure relief valve. This valve has a tube called a hot water

  15. Max Tech Electric Heat Pump Water Heater with Lower GWP Halogenated...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Max Tech Electric Heat Pump Water Heater with Lower GWP Halogenated Refrigerant Max Tech Electric Heat Pump Water Heater with Lower GWP Halogenated Refrigerant Information flow ...

  16. Utilization of Heat Pump Water Heaters for Load Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boudreaux, Philip R; Jackson, Roderick K; Munk, Jeffrey D; Gehl, Anthony C; Lyne, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    The Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters require residential electric storage water heaters with volumes larger than 55 gallons to have an energy factor greater than 2.0 after April 2015. While this standard will significantly increase the energy efficiency of water heaters, large electric storage water heaters that do not use heat pump technologies may no longer be available. Since utilities utilize conventional large-volume electric storage water heaters for thermal storage in demand response programs, there is a concern that the amended standard will significantly limit demand response capacity. To this end, Oak Ridge National Laboratory partnered with the Tennessee Valley Authority to investigate the load management capability of heat pump water heaters that meet or exceed the forthcoming water heater standard. Energy consumption reduction during peak periods was successfully demonstrated, while still meeting other performance criteria. However, to minimize energy consumption, it is important to design load management strategies that consider the home s hourly hot water demand so that the homeowner has sufficient hot water.

  17. Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase WYE configuration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Sandberg, Chester Ledlie

    2010-11-09

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes a first heater, a second heater, and a third heater placed in an opening in the subsurface formation. Each heater includes: an electrical conductor; an insulation layer at least partially surrounding the electrical conductor; and an electrically conductive sheath at least partially surrounding the insulation layer. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the sheath at a lower end portion of the heater. The lower end portion is the portion of the heater distal from a surface of the opening. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are electrically coupled at the lower end portions of the heaters. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are configured to be electrically coupled in a three-phase wye configuration.

  18. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2011-09-01

    This report discusses how a significant opportunity for energy savings is domestic hot water heating, where an emerging technology has recently arrived in the U.S. market: the residential integrated heat pump water heater. A laboratory evaluation is presented of the five integrated HPWHs available in the U.S. today.

  19. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of U.S. climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt™ whole-house building simulations.

  20. Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including residential heat pump water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  1. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

  2. Residential Gas-Fired Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Gas-Fired Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heater Residential Gas-Fired Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heater Gas-fired adsorption heat pump water heater prototype. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Gas-fired adsorption heat pump water heater prototype. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN DOE Funding: $310,000 Project Term: October 1, 2013 - September 30, 2016 Funding Type: Annual Operating Plan (AOP) PROJECT

  3. Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-07-01

    This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

  4. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Steve; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-05-14

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are over twice as energy-efficient as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's recently-concluded rulemaking on amended standards for water heaters, this paper evaluates key issues that will determine how well, and to what extent, this technology will fit in American homes. The key issues include: 1) equipment cost of HPWHs; 2) cooling of the indoor environment by HPWHs; 3) size and air flow requirements of HPWHs; 4) performance of HPWH under different climate conditions and varying hot water use patterns; and 5) operating cost savings under different electricity prices and hot water use. The paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPWHs in a representative sample of American homes, as well as national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. Assuming equipment costs that would result from high production volume, the results show that HPWHs can be cost effective in all regions for most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most manufactured home and multi-family installations, due to lower average hot water use and the water heater in the majority of cases being installed in conditioned space, where cooling of the indoor environment and size and air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs.

  5. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-08-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  6. Induction heaters used to heat subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh; Bass, Ronald M.

    2012-04-24

    A heating system for a subsurface formation includes an elongated electrical conductor located in the subsurface formation. The electrical conductor extends between at least a first electrical contact and a second electrical contact. A ferromagnetic conductor at least partially surrounds and at least partially extends lengthwise around the electrical conductor. The electrical conductor, when energized with time-varying electrical current, induces sufficient electrical current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor such that the ferromagnetic conductor resistively heats to a temperature of at least about 300.degree. C.

  7. High Efficiency R-744 Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elbel, Dr. Stefan W.; Petersen, Michael

    2013-04-25

    The project investigated the development and improvement process of a R744 (CO2) commercial heat pump water heater (HPWH) package of approximately 35 kW. The improvement process covered all main components of the system. More specific the heat exchangers (Internal heat exchanger, Evaporator, Gas cooler) as well as the expansion device and the compressor were investigated. In addition, a comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint was made in order to compare performance as well as package size reduction potential.

  8. Technical Highlight: NREL Tests Integrated Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in Different Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, Bethany

    2012-01-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL tests to capture information about heat pump performance across a wide range of ambient conditions for five heat pump water heaters.

  9. Electrically heated particulate filter embedded heater design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Chapman, Mark R.

    2014-07-01

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine and wherein an upstream surface of the particulate filter includes machined grooves. A grid of electrically resistive material is inserted into the machined grooves of the exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

  10. Energy Factor Analysis for Gas Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R

    2016-01-01

    Gas heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) can improve water heating efficiency with zero GWP and zero ODP working fluids. The energy factor (EF) of a gas HPWH is sensitive to several factors. In this work, expressions are derived for EF of gas HPWHs, as a function of heat pump cycle COP, tank heat losses, burner efficiency, electrical draw, and effectiveness of supplemental heat exchangers. The expressions are used to investigate the sensitivity of EF to each parameter. EF is evaluated on a site energy basis (as used by the US DOE for rating water heater EF), and a primary energy-basis energy factor (PEF) is also defined and included. Typical ranges of values for the six parameters are given. For gas HPWHs, using typical ranges for component performance, EF will be 59 80% of the heat pump cycle thermal COP (for example, a COP of 1.60 may result in an EF of 0.94 1.28). Most of the reduction in COP is due to burner efficiency and tank heat losses. Gas-fired HPWHs are theoretically be capable of an EF of up to 1.7 (PEF of 1.6); while an EF of 1.1 1.3 (PEF of 1.0 1.1) is expected from an early market entry.

  11. Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Sheetak will work on developing a full scale prototype of its low cost heat pump water heater. These solid state heat pumping elements can be implemented in low cost manner which have the potential to dramatically change the way in which he heat water.<BR />Image: Sheetak Sheetak will work on developing a full scale prototype of its low cost heat pump water heater. These

  12. Three-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2012-02-14

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes three substantially u-shaped heaters with first end portions of the heaters being electrically coupled to a single, three-phase wye transformer and second end portions of the heaters being electrically coupled to each other and/or to ground. The three heaters may enter the formation through a first common wellbore and exit the formation through a second common wellbore so that the magnetic fields of the three heaters at least partially cancel out in the common wellbores.

  13. DOE Publishes Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heater Test Procedures

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has published a notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for direct heating equipment and pool heaters.

  14. Heat pump water heater and method of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C.; Tomlinson, John J.; Chen, Fang C.

    2001-01-01

    An improved heat pump water heater wherein the condenser assembly of the heat pump is inserted into the water tank through an existing opening in the top of the tank, the assembly comprising a tube-in-a-tube construction with an elongated cylindrical outer body heat exchanger having a closed bottom with the superheated refrigerant that exits the compressor of the heat pump entering the top of the outer body. As the refrigerant condenses along the interior surface of the outer body, the heat from the refrigerant is transferred to the water through the outer body. The refrigerant then enters the bottom of an inner body coaxially disposed within the outer body and exits the top of the inner body into the refrigerant conduit leading into the expansion device of the heat pump. The outer body, in a second embodiment of the invention, acts not only as a heat exchanger but also as the sacrificial anode in the water tank by being constructed of a metal which is more likely to corrode than the metal of the tank.

  15. Max Tech Electric Heat Pump Water Heater with Lower GWP Halogenated

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refrigerant | Department of Energy Max Tech Electric Heat Pump Water Heater with Lower GWP Halogenated Refrigerant Max Tech Electric Heat Pump Water Heater with Lower GWP Halogenated Refrigerant Information flow schematic for an integrated heat pump design model and wrapped tank model. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Information flow schematic for an integrated heat pump design model and wrapped tank model. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Information flow schematic

  16. Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heaters, Request for Information

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heaters, Request for Information

  17. Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dieckmann, John T.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Teagan, W. Peter; Zogg, Robert

    1999-09-07

    A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

  18. Commercial CO2 Electric Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CO2 Electric Heat Pump Water Heater Commercial CO2 Electric Heat Pump Water Heater Planned enhanced modeling approach to facilitate analyses of wrapped-tank options for the project. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Planned enhanced modeling approach to facilitate analyses of wrapped-tank options for the project. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN FY16 DOE Funding: $150,000 Project Term: October 1, 2015 - TBD

  19. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  20. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, Jeff; Burch, Jay; Merrigan, Tim; Ong, Sean

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  1. Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    How a heat pump works. How a heat pump works. How They Work Heat pumps use electricity to capture heat and move it from one place to another. They don't generate heat. As the pool...

  2. Method and apparatus for enhanced heat recovery from steam generators and water heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knight, Richard A.; Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Wang, Dexin

    2006-06-27

    A heating system having a steam generator or water heater, at least one economizer, at least one condenser and at least one oxidant heater arranged in a manner so as to reduce the temperature and humidity of the exhaust gas (flue gas) stream and recover a major portion of the associated sensible and latent heat. The recovered heat is returned to the steam generator or water heater so as to increase the quantity of steam generated or water heated per quantity of fuel consumed. In addition, a portion of the water vapor produced by combustion of fuel is reclaimed for use as feed water, thereby reducing the make-up water requirement for the system.

  3. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2014-06-24

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

  4. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2016-07-05

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, and methods of managing refrigerant charge. Various embodiments remove idle refrigerant from a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat by opening a refrigerant recovery valve and delivering the idle refrigerant from the heat exchanger to an inlet port on the compressor. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled by controlling how much refrigerant is drawn from the heat exchanger, by letting some refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and various components can be interconnected with refrigerant conduit. Some embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to the heat exchanger and drive liquid refrigerant out prior to isolating the heat exchanger.

  5. Impact on Water Heater Performance of Heating Methods that Promote Tank Temperature Stratification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R; BushPE, John D

    2016-01-01

    During heating of a water heater tank, the vertical temperature stratification of the water can be increased or decreased, depending on the method of heating. Methods that increase stratification during heating include (1) removing cold water from the tank bottom, heating it, and re-introducing it to the tank top at relatively low flow rate, (2) using a heat exchanger wrapped around the tank, through which heating fluid (with finite specific heat) flows from top to bottom, and (3) using an immersed heat element that is relatively high in the tank. Using such methods allows for improved heat pump water heater (HPWH) cycle efficiencies when the heat pump can take advantage of the lower temperatures that exist lower in the tank, and accommodate the resulting glide. Transcritical cycles are especially well-suited to capitalize on this opportunity, and other HPWH configurations (that have been proposed elsewhere) may benefit as well. This work provides several stratification categories of heat pump water heater tank configurations relevant to their stratification potential. To illustrate key differences among categories, it also compiles available experimental data for (a) single pass pumped flow, (b) multi-pass pumped flow, and (c) top-down wrapped tank with transcritical refrigerant.

  6. Selecting a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat & Cool Water Heating Selecting a New Water Heater Selecting a New Water Heater Water heater testing facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Water heater testing ...

  7. Development of High Efficiency Carbon Dioxide Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael PETERSEN; Chad D. BOWERS; Stefan ELBEL; Pega HRNJAK

    2012-07-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in both Japan and Europe, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such products in the US has been limited. While this trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but acceptance remains low in the commercial sector. The objective of the presented work is the development of a high efficiency R744 heat pump water heater for commercial applications with effective utilization of the cooling capability for air conditioning and/or refrigeration. The ultimate goal is to achieve total system COP of up to 8. This unit will be targeted at commercial use where some cooling load is typically needed year round, such as restaurants, hotels, nursing homes, and hospitals. This paper presents the performance results from the development of four R744 commercial heat pump water heater packages of approximately 35 kW and comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, the influences of an internal heat exchanger and an enhanced evaporator on the system performance are described and recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system.

  8. NREL Tests Integrated Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in Different Climates (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL tests to capture information about heat pump performance across a wide range of ambient conditions for five heat pump water heaters (HPWH). These water heaters have the potential to significantly reduce water heater energy use relative to traditional electric resistance water heaters. These tests have provided detailed performance data for these appliances, which have been used to evaluate the cost of saved energy as a function of climate. The performance of HPWHs is dependent on ambient air temperature and humidity and the logic controlling the heat pump and the backup resistance heaters. The laboratory tests were designed to measure each unit's performance across a range of air conditions and determine the specific logic controlling the two heat sources, which has a large effect on the comfort of the users and the energy efficiency of the system. Unlike other types of water heaters, HPWHs are both influenced by and have an effect on their surroundings. Since these effects are complex and different for virtually every house and climate region, creating an accurate HPWH model from the data gathered during the laboratory tests was a main goal of the project. Using the results from NREL's laboratory tests, such as the Coefficient of Performance (COP) curves for different air conditions as shown in Figure 1, an existing HPWH model is being modified to produce more accurate whole-house simulations. This will allow the interactions between the HPWH and the home's heating and cooling system to be evaluated in detail, for any climate region. Once these modeling capabilities are in place, a realistic cost-benefit analysis can be performed for a HPWH installation anywhere in the country. An accurate HPWH model will help to quantify the savings associated with installing a HPWH in the place of a standard electric water heater. In most locations, HPWHs are not yet a cost-effective alternative to natural gas water heaters. The detailed

  9. NEXT GENERATION COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMPWATER HEATER USING CARBON DIOXIDE USING DIFFERENT IMPROVEMENT APPROACHES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad Bowers; Michael Petersen; Stefan Elbel; Pega Hrnjak

    2012-04-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82?ºC, as required by sanitary codes in the U.S. (Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35 kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20 %.

  10. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS IN COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS USING CARBON DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOWERS C.D.; ELBEL S.; PETERSEN M.; HRNJAK P.S.

    2011-07-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82?ºC (180?ºF), as required by sanitary codes in the U.S.(Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20%.

  11. Measure Guideline. Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, Carl; Puttagunta, Srikanth; Owens, Douglas

    2012-02-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs

  12. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    other refrigerants), CO2 also has greater potential for use in residentialcommercial demand response units, as well as for high-temperature commercial water heating applications. ...

  13. ISSUANCE 2014-12-23: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heaters, Final Rule

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heaters, Final Rule

  14. Enhanced heat transfer tubes for film absorbers of absorption chiller/heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasaki, Naoe; Nosetani, Tadashi; Furukawa, Masahiro; Kaneko, Toshiyuki

    1995-12-31

    Absorption chiller/heaters using non-CFC refrigerants are attracting attention as environmentally friendly energy systems. As the refrigerant/absorbent pair, the water/lithium bromide aqueous solution pair is preferably used for most absorption chiller/heaters in Japan. Absorption chiller/heaters, mainly used as water chillers and air-conditioners, are commercially available at least for unit cooling capacities above 60 kW. In absorption chiller/heaters, the absorber must be made compact, because the absorber has the largest heat transfer area of the four primary heat exchangers in the system: the evaporator, absorber, regenerator and condenser. Although a great amount of information is available on the evaporator and condenser, the same type of information concerning the absorber is lacking. This paper introduces two kinds of double fluted tubes called Arm tubs and Floral tubes for film absorbers. Arm tubes are manufactured using a two-pass drawbench process, while Floral tubes are made using a single pass drawbench process. The experiments using a lithium bromide aqueous solution with the addition of 250 ppm n-octyl alcohol as the surfactant showed that Arm tubes and Floral tubes had about 40% higher heat transfer performance than plain tubes. Therefore, Floral tubes are expected to realize a high performance at low cost. Furthermore, the optimization of the number of grooves on the outside of the tubes is also described here.

  15. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast, Massachusetts and Rhode Island (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-12-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring, A.O. Smith Voltex, and Stiebel Eltron Accelera 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  16. Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

    2013-01-21

    For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

  17. Energy Saving Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Security Administration | (NNSA) Energy Saving "Cool Roofs" Installed at Y-12 October 17, 2012 The Y-12 National Security Complex has taken additional steps to reduce its energy costs by installing almost 100,000 square feet of new heat reflective "cool" roofs at the Oak Ridge, Tennessee facility. File 2012-10-17 NPO Y-12 Cool Roofs.docx

    Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Energy Saving Absorption Heat Pump Water

  18. Measure Guideline: Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Owens, D.

    2012-02-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) promise to significantly reduce energy consumption for domestic hot water (DHW) over standard electric resistance water heaters (ERWHs). While ERWHs perform with energy factors (EFs) around 0.9, new HPWHs boast EFs upwards of 2.0. High energy factors in HPWHs are achieved by combining a vapor compression system, which extracts heat from the surrounding air at high efficiencies, with electric resistance element(s), which are better suited to meet large hot water demands. Swapping ERWHs with HPWHs could result in roughly 50% reduction in water heating energy consumption for 35.6% of all U.S. households. This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. While HPWHs promise to significantly reduce energy use for DHW, proper installation, selection, and maintenance of HPWHs is required to ensure high operating efficiency and reliability. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding HPWHs to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Section 1 of this guideline provides a brief description of HPWHs and their operation. Section 2 highlights the cost and energy savings of HPWHs as well as the variables that affect HPWH performance, reliability, and efficiency. Section 3 gives guidelines for proper installation and maintenance of HPWHs, selection criteria for locating HPWHs, and highlights of important differences between ERWH and HPWH installations. Throughout this document, CARB has included results from the evaluation of 14 heat pump water heaters (including three recently released HPWH

  19. Selecting a new water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    This fact sheet describes the types of water heaters available (storage water heaters, demand water heaters, heat pump water heaters, tankless coil and indirect water heaters, and solar water heaters). The criteria for selection are discussed. These are capacity, efficiency rating, and cost. A resource list is provided for further information.

  20. Heat Pump Water Heaters: Controlled Field Research of Impact on Space Conditioning and Demand Response Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Graham B.; Widder, Sarah H.; Eklund, Ken; Petersen, Joseph M.; Sullivan, Greg

    2015-10-05

    A new generation of heat pump water heaters (HPWH) has been introduced into the U.S. market that promises to provide significant energy savings for water heating. Many electric utilities are promoting their widespread adoption as a key technology for meeting energy conservation goals and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. There is, however, considerable uncertainty regarding the space conditioning impact of an HPWH installed in a conditioned space. There is also uncertainty regarding the potential for deployment of HPWHs in demand response (DR) programs to help manage and balance peak utility loads in a similar manner as conventional electric resistance water heaters (ERWH). To help answer these uncertainties, controlled experiments have been undertaken over 30 months in a matched pair of unoccupied Lab Homes located on the campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington.

  1. Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

    2012-07-01

    The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

  2. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged on the U.S. market. These units have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine what actual in use energy consumption of a HPWH may be in different regions of the U.S., annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the U.S. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  3. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, Jeff; Burch, Jay; Merrigan, Tim; Ong, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged on the U.S. market, and they have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine the actual energy consumption of a HPWH in different U.S. regions, annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the United States. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  4. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based on Laboratory Research and Energy Simulation Models: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudon, K.; Sparn, B.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.

    2012-02-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. Laboratory results demonstrate the efficiency of this technology under most of the conditions tested and show that differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the individual units. These results were used to understand current model limitations, and then to bracket the energy savings potential for HPWH technology in various US climate regions. Simulation results show that HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in many climate zones when compared to other types of water heaters (up to 64%, including impact on HVAC systems).

  5. Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2014-07-21

    Increasing penetration of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the residential sector will offer an important opportunity for energy savings, with a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% per water heater and up to 11% of residential energy use (EIA 2009). However, significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption in the Pacific Northwest region and nationwide. One significant barrier noted by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is the possible interaction with the homes’ space conditioning system for units installed in conditioned spaces. Such complex interactions may decrease the magnitude of whole-house savings available from HPWH installed in the conditioned space in cold climates and could lead to comfort concerns (Larson et al. 2011; Kresta 2012). Modeling studies indicate that the installation location of HPWHs can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Larson et al. 2012; Maguire et al. 2013). However, field data are not currently available to validate these results. This field evaluation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in the PNNL Lab Homes is designed to measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of a GE GeoSpring HPWH configured with exhaust ducting compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods; and measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of the GeoSpring HPWH with both supply and exhaust air ducting as compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods. Important metrics evaluated in these experiments include water heater energy use, HVAC energy use, whole house energy use, interior temperatures (as a proxy for thermal comfort), and cost impacts. This technical report presents results from the PNNL Lab Homes experiment.

  6. Portable solar heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilar, L.J.

    1981-08-18

    A portable solar heater combines a self-contained hot air and heat storage system having a collector area with adjustable reflectors in a unit that can be moved from room to room as needed. The heater has fans for circulation of the solar heater air and provides both direct and indirect heat transfer to the ambient room air.

  7. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost-effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads and found that the tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system, among other key findings.

  8. Solar Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Swimming Pool Heaters Solar Swimming Pool Heaters An example of a solar pool heater. An example of a solar pool heater. You can significantly reduce swimming pool heating costs by...

  9. Packaged die heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  10. Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Williamson, J.

    2013-11-01

    Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more readily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a GE Geospring HPWH in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

  11. Technology Solutions Case Study: Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-11-01

    Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more readily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a GE Geospring HPWH in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

  12. Convective heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorogood, Robert M.

    1986-01-01

    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.

  13. Convective heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorogood, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.

  14. Convective heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorogood, R.M.

    1983-12-27

    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation. 14 figs.

  15. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To evaluate the performance of central heat pump water heaters for multifamily applications, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California, for 16 months.

  16. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 1: Transmittal documents; Executive summary; Project summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described.

  17. Electric Storage Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  18. Residential Absorption Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Absorption Water Heater 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Kyle ... Target MarketAudience: Residential gas water heating Key Partners: GE CRADA partner SRA ...

  19. Effects on carbon monoxide levels in mobile homes using unvented kerosene heaters for residential heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, R.; Walsh, D.; White, J.; Jackson, M.; Mumford, J.

    1992-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels were continuously monitored in 8 mobile trailer homes less than 10 years old. These homes were monitored in an US EPA study on indoor air quality as affected by unvented portable kerosene heaters. Respondents were asked to operate their heaters in a normal fashion. CO, air exchange and temperature values were measured during the study in each home. Results indicate that consumers using unvented kerosene heaters may be unknowingly exposed to high CO levels without taking proper precautions.

  20. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Calculating the efficiency and operating cost of your water heater can help you decide which model is right for your household.

  1. West Village Community: Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. The project when complete will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community's impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  2. West Village Community. Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. When complete, the project will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community’s impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  3. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads with the following key findings: 1) The tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system. 2) The tankless combo system consistently achieved better daily efficiencies (i.e. 84%-93%) than the storage combo system (i.e. 81%- 91%) when the air handler was sized adequately and adjusted properly to achieve significant condensing operation. When condensing operation was not achieved, both systems performed with lower (i.e. 75%-88%), but similar efficiencies. 3) Air handlers currently packaged with combo systems are not designed to optimize condensing operation. More research is needed to develop air handlers specifically designed for condensing water heaters. 4) System efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved only on days where continual and steady space heating loads were required with significant condensing operation. For days where heating was more intermittent, the system efficiencies fell below 90%.

  4. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology: Experiences of Residential Consumers and Utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashdown, BG

    2004-08-04

    This paper presents a case study of the residential heat pump water heater (HPWH) market. Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which the HPWH will penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to compare readiness and to factor attributes of market demand back into product design. This study is a rapid prototype analysis rather than a detailed case analysis. For this reason, primary data collection was limited and reliance on secondary sources was extensive. Despite having met its technical goals and having been on the market for twenty years, the HPWH has had virtually no impact on contributing to the nation's water heating. In some cases, HPWH reliability and quality control are well below market expectations, and early units developed a reputation for unreliability, especially when measured against conventional water heaters. In addition to reliability problems, first costs of HPWH units can be three to five times higher than conventional units. Without a solid, well-managed business plan, most consumers will not be drawn to this product. This is unfortunate. Despite its higher first costs, efficiency of an HPWH is double that of a conventional water heater. The HPWH also offers an attractive payback period of two to five years, depending on hot water usage. On a strict life-cycle basis it supplies hot water very cost effectively. Water heating accounts for 17% of the nation's residential consumption of electricity (see chart at left)--water heating is second only to space heating in total residential energy use. Simple arithmetic suggests that this figure could be reduced to the extent HPWH technology displaces conventional water heating. In addition, the HPWH offers other benefits. Because it

  5. Sizing a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    systems: Tankless or demand-type water heaters Solar water heating system Storage and heat pump (with tank) water heaters. For sizing combination water and space heating systems --...

  6. Building America Expert Meeting: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

  7. Solar Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heating Solar Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 3:01pm Addthis Illustration of an active, closed loop solar water heater. A large, flat panel ...

  8. Gas Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Gas Swimming Pool Heaters Gas-fired pool heaters remain the most popular system for heating swimming pools. Today you can find new gas-fired heater models with much higher...

  9. Portable solar heater structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holley, D.; Holley, D.E.

    1981-09-08

    Portable solar heater structure is described. A substantially rectangular frame has a back with openings therethrough for permitting air to be drawn into the solar heater. A layer of insulating materials is in contact with the back. A plurality of cupshaped solar collectors open toward the front of the solar heater structure are positioned adjacent the insulating material. A cover is over the front of the solar heater having openings therein adjacent the top thereof through which air heated by the solar heater is passed. A passage is between the openings in the back and cover of the solar heater through which relatively cool air is drawn through the openings in the back over the collectors to be heated for subsequent withdrawal through the openings in the cover.

  10. Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    John, Randy Carl; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-12-10

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a heater having an elongated ferromagnetic metal heater section. The heater is located in an opening in a formation. The heater section is configured to heat the hydrocarbon containing formation. The exposed ferromagnetic metal has a sulfidation rate that goes down with increasing temperature of the heater, when the heater is in a selected temperature range.

  11. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Coit, William George; Griffin, Peter Terry; Hamilton, Paul Taylor; Hsu, Chia-Fu; Mason, Stanley Leroy; Samuel, Allan James; Watkins, Ronnie Wade

    2012-07-31

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  12. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Coit, William George; Griffin, Peter Terry; Hamilton, Paul Taylor; Hsu, Chia-Fu; Mason, Stanley Leroy; Samuel, Allan James; Watkins, Ronnie Wade

    2010-11-09

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  13. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1995-01-01

    An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  14. Twenty-year progress report on the Copper Development Association do-it-yourself solar swimming pool heating manual and on the associated prototype heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Winter, F. )

    1994-07-01

    A prototype do-it-yourself solar swimming pool heater was built of copper parts in 1973, combining the solar collector and a copper roof of the flat seam type. It has now heated a pool in Pasadena, California successfully for over 20 years. During those years the associated do-it-yourself manual has been distributed to about 100,000 readers, who have used to make an unknown number of heaters. Some have used the manual as the basis for a business, building repeated customer heater installations. The present paper represents a progress report.

  15. ISSUANCE 2015-04-29: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heaters Notice of petition to extend test procedure compliance date and request for comment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heaters; Notice of petition to extend test procedure compliance date and request for comment.

  16. Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    An indirect water heater. An indirect water heater. How does it work? Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use your home's heating system to heat water. Tankless coil and...

  17. Sizing a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat & Cool Water Heating Sizing a New Water Heater Sizing a New Water Heater Is your water heater the right size for you house? | Photo credit ENERGY STAR Is your water ...

  18. Promising Technology: Tankless Gas Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A tankless gas water heater does not have a storage tank, as a conventional water heater does. Instead, a tankless water heater instantaneously heats water flowing over the heat exchanger coils when there is hot water demand. Because there is no tank, tankless water heaters have no standby energy losses that are associated with storage units. Another non-energy saving benefit is that a tankless water heater is much more compact.

  19. Promising Technology: Condensing Gas Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Condensing water heaters achieve higher efficiencies than conventional water heaters by capturing the latent heat from water vapor contained in the flue gases. Combustion gases are exhausted through a secondary heat exchanger where the latent heat of water vapor in the exhaust gas is transferred to the stored water. This technology enables the water heater to achieve thermal efficiencies up to 99%.

  20. Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics | Department of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Homes & Buildings Water Heating Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 3:03pm Addthis Illustration of ...

  1. Advanced Hybrid Water-Heater Using Electrochemical Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bamdad Bahar bamdad.bahar@xergyinc.com Xergy, Inc. Advanced Hybrid Water-Heater Using ... Project Goal: Develop a heat pump water heater utilizing electrochemical ...

  2. Advanced Hybrid Water-Heater Using Electrochemical Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hybrid Water-Heater Using Electrochemical Compression (ECC) 2016 Building Technologies ... Key Partners: Project Goal: Develop a heat pump water heater utilizing electrochemical ...

  3. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  4. Selecting a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    or demand-type water heaters heat water directly without the use of a storage tank Heat pump water heaters move heat from one place to another instead of generating heat...

  5. Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heating Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 2:57pm Addthis Illustration of an electric demand water heater. At the ...

  6. Gas Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and pool use, they may not be the most energy-efficient option when compared to heat pump and solar pool heaters. How They Work Gas pool heaters use either natural gas or...

  7. Consumer Water Heater, UEF - v1.0 | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Water Heater, UEF - v1.0 Consumer Water Heater, UEF - v1.0 Consumer Water Heater, UEF - v1.0 (502.56 KB) More Documents & Publications Tankless Gas Water Heaters Heat Pump Water ...

  8. Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Xie, Xueying; Miller, David Scott; Ginestra, Jean Charles

    2011-07-26

    A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes an elongated heater in an opening in the formation. The elongated heater includes two or more portions along the length of the heater that have different power outputs. At least one portion of the elongated heater includes at least one temperature limited portion with at least one selected temperature at which the portion provides a reduced heat output. The heater is configured to provide heat to the formation with the different power outputs. The heater is configured so that the heater heats one or more portions of the formation at one or more selected heating rates.

  9. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-07-11

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

  10. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  11. Solar Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool » Water Heating » Solar Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Solar panels heat water that is delivered to a storage tank.| Photo courtesy of David Springer, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar panels heat water that is delivered to a storage tank.| Photo courtesy of David Springer, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar water heaters -- also called solar domestic hot water systems -- can be a cost-effective way to generate hot water for your home. They can be used in

  12. Bounding Limitations in the Practical Design of Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Sharma, Vishaldeep; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R

    2016-01-01

    The boundary temperatures for any sorption-based technology can be estimated on the basis of Trouton s hypothesis that isosteres, extrapolated to infinite pressure (or analogously to infinite temperature) meet at a single point. In this paper we discuss the consequences of this hypothesis for many sorption devices that are thermally operated, suitable for exploiting renewable energy resources, or making better use of high or low level thermal energy. Trouton s hypothesis is independent of the working fluids making it particularly useful to both liquid-vapor and solid-vapor systems. We exemplify the use of the derived boundary temperatures derived from Trouton s hypothesis to important processes such as ice making, space cooling in hot climates, deep freezing, and residential hot water production. The boundary temperatures help determine which sorption or solar heating technology may be better suited to serve the given application, or whether it is beyond the scope of sorption systems.

  13. Consumer Water Heater, UEF - v1.0 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heater, UEF - v1.0 Consumer Water Heater, UEF - v1.0 Consumer Water Heater, UEF - v1.0 (502.56 KB) More Documents & Publications Tankless Gas Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Storage Gas Water Heaters

  14. Portable Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Space heater capacities generally range between 10,000 Btu and 40,000 Btu per hour, and commonly run on electricity, propane, natural gas, and kerosene (see wood and pellet heating ...

  15. Solar water heaters | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar water heaters Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from the United States Department of Energy's description of Solar Water Heating technology.)1...

  16. Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY STAR Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY STAR Solar water heating systems usually cost more to purchase and install than conventional water heating systems. However, a solar water heater can usually save you

  17. Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate Windermere, Florida Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more read- ily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. A key feature of an HPWH unit is that it is a hybrid system. When conditions are favorable, the unit will operate in heat pump mode (using a vapor compression system that extracts heat from the surrounding air) to effciently provide domestic hot water (DHW). Homeowners need not

  18. Chaudagaz condensation water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nocturne, P.

    1982-01-01

    The Chaudagaz water heater offers (1) a high heating capacity (40 kW) through the use of a ventilator-equipped burner, (2) quick warmup (less than 20 min), and (3) high heating efficiency (85% upper calorific value) obtained by a unique heat-recovery system. The combustion products rise through a central cylinder, then flow downward along stainless-steel spiral tubing, warming the water and exiting from the bottom of the tank. This natural flow allows easy discharge of condensates and prevents cold air from sweeping through the stack when the burner is off.

  19. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's energy ...

  20. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's ...

  1. Water Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Basics Water Heating Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:15am Addthis A variety of systems are available for water heating in homes and buildings. Learn about: Conventional Storage Water Heaters Demand (Tankless or Instantaneous) Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Addthis Related Articles Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics Heat Pump Water Heater Basics Energy Basics Home Renewable Energy Homes &

  2. Regional Climate Zone Modeling of a Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Hot Water Heater Part 1: Southern and South Central Climate Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geoghegan, Patrick J; Shen, Bo; Keinath, Christopher M.; Garrabrant, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Commercial hot water heating accounts for approximately 0.78 Quads of primary energy use with 0.44 Quads of this amount from natural gas fired heaters. An ammonia-water based commercial absorption system, if fully deployed, could achieve a high level of savings, much higher than would be possible by conversion to the high efficiency nonheat-pump gas fired alternatives. In comparison with air source electric heat pumps, the absorption system is able to maintain higher coefficients of performance in colder climates. The ammonia-water system also has the advantage of zero Ozone Depletion Potential and low Global Warming Potential. A thermodynamic model of a single effect ammonia-water absorption system for commercial space and water heating was developed, and its performance was investigated for a range of ambient and return water temperatures. This allowed for the development of a performance map which was then used in a building energy modeling software. Modeling of two commercial water heating systems was performed; one using an absorption heat pump and another using a condensing gas storage system. The energy and financial savings were investigated for a range of locations and climate zones in the southern and south central United States. A follow up paper will analyze northern and north/central regions. Results showed that the system using an absorption heat pump offers significant savings.

  3. Temperature limited heaters using phase transformation of ferromagnetic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vitek, John Michael [Oak Ridge, TN; Brady, Michael Patrick [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-10-06

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Systems and methods for making heaters are described herein. At least one heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The heater provides a first amount of heat at a lower temperature. The heater may provide a second reduced amount of heat when the heater reaches a selected temperature, or enters a selected temperature range, at which the ferromagnetic conductor undergoes a phase transformation.

  4. Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Bass, Ronald Marshall; Kim, Dong Sub; Mason, Stanley Leroy; Stegemeier, George Leo; Keltner, Thomas Joseph; Carl, Jr., Frederick Gordon

    2010-12-28

    A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a first elongated heater in a first opening in the formation. The first elongated heater includes an exposed metal section in a portion of the first opening. The portion is below a layer of the formation to be heated. The exposed metal section is exposed to the formation. A second elongated heater is in a second opening in the formation. The second opening connects to the first opening at or near the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated. At least a portion of an exposed metal section of the second elongated heater is electrically coupled to at least a portion of the exposed metal section of the first elongated heater in the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated.

  5. Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of forced circulation solar water heater system fitted with helical twisted tapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaisankar, S.; Radhakrishnan, T.K.; Sheeba, K.N.

    2009-11-15

    Experimental investigation of heat transfer, friction factor and thermal performance of twisted tape solar water heater with various twist ratios has been conducted and the results are compared with plain tube collector for the same operating conditions with Reynolds number varied from 3000 to 23,000. Experimental data from plain tube collector is validated with the fundamental equations and found that the discrepancy is less than {+-}5.35% and {+-}8.80% for Nusselt number and friction factor, respectively. Correlations have been developed for Nusselt number and friction factor with various twist ratios (Y = 3, 4, 5, 6) and are compared with the experimental values. Results conclude that, heat transfer and pressure drop are higher in twisted tape collector compared to the plain one. Among the various twist ratios, the minimum twist ratio 3 is found to enhance the heat transfer and pressure drop due to swirl generation. As the twist ratio increases, the swirl generation decreases and minimizes the heat transfer and friction factor. (author)

  6. Parallel heater system for subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)

    2011-10-25

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

  7. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Public Services Homes Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water...

  8. Portable solar water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borodulin, G.; Baron, R.; Shkolnik, A.

    1985-11-12

    A combined table and portable solar water heater comprises a suitcase-like rigid casing molded from a rigid plastic material which contains a pair of solar collector panels and connected in series. The panels can be exposed to solar radiation when the casing is opened. Each collector panel or is formed by a copper plate with the solar radiation absorbing surface and copper pipe coil or in heat-transferring relationship with said copper plate. The casing is provided with compartments for accessories, such as adjustable legs for supporting the casing, adjusting its angle to incident sunlight, and for converting the casing into a table; containers for feeding cold water to the solar collector and for receiving hot water from the collector; and a tripod stand for supporting the feeding container at the level above the collector and for arranging a shower set. Temperature-insulating layers of the collectors are formed by separate pieces of rigid material which can be removed from the casing and assembled into a box-shaped container which can be utilized for maintaining water heated by means of the solar water heater at an elevated temperature.

  9. Water Heaters | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Heaters Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Water Heaters Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWaterHeaters&oldid267202"...

  10. Multi-step heater deployment in a subsurface formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mason, Stanley Leroy

    2012-04-03

    A method for installing a horizontal or inclined subsurface heater includes placing a heating section of a heater in a horizontal or inclined section of a wellbore with an installation tool. The tool is uncoupled from the heating section. A lead in section is mechanically and electrically coupled to the heating section of the heater. The lead-in section is located in an angled or vertical section of the wellbore.

  11. Water Heating Products and Services | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Find ENERGY STAR Gas Tankless Water Heaters ENERGY STAR Find ENERGY STAR Heat Pump Water Heaters ENERGY STAR Find ENERGY STAR Solar Water Heaters ENERGY STAR Find Product ...

  12. A small self-powered space heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menchen, W.R.; McAlonan, M.

    1995-12-31

    The work described combines the use of thermoelectric energy conversion with diesel burner technology, yielding a forced convection heater that does not require the use of external electric power. A heater of this type has both commercial and military application if, at reasonable cost, it is safe, portable and easy to operate. Self-powered refers to a design approach where part of the heat generated by a burner is used to produce all of the electrical power required to run system components. A successful self-powered heater requires careful attention to heat transfer and pressure drop so that power requirements and hence cost can be minimized.

  13. Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems A. Rudd, K. Ueno, D. Bergey, R. Osser Building Science Corporation June 2012 i ...

  14. Performance characterization of a hydrogen catalytic heater.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2010-04-01

    This report describes the performance of a high efficiency, compact heater that uses the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen to provide heat to the GM Hydrogen Storage Demonstration System. The heater was designed to transfer up to 30 kW of heat from the catalytic reaction to a circulating heat transfer fluid. The fluid then transfers the heat to one or more of the four hydrogen storage modules that make up the Demonstration System to drive off the chemically bound hydrogen. The heater consists of three main parts: (1) the reactor, (2) the gas heat recuperator, and (3) oil and gas flow distribution manifolds. The reactor and recuperator are integrated, compact, finned-plate heat exchangers to maximize heat transfer efficiency and minimize mass and volume. Detailed, three-dimensional, multi-physics computational models were used to design and optimize the system. At full power the heater was able to catalytically combust a 10% hydrogen/air mixture flowing at over 80 cubic feet per minute and transfer 30 kW of heat to a 30 gallon per minute flow of oil over a temperature range from 100 C to 220 C. The total efficiency of the catalytic heater, defined as the heat transferred to the oil divided by the inlet hydrogen chemical energy, was characterized and methods for improvement were investigated.

  15. Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James D.; Biermayer, Peter; King, Derek

    2008-10-27

    Energy required for water heating accounts for approximately 40percent of national residential natural gas consumption in California. With water heating contributing such a substantial portion of natural gas consumption, it is important to pay attention to water heater efficiencies. This paper reports on an investigation of a patented, buoyancy-operated flue damper. It is an add-on design to a standard atmospherically vented natural-draft gas-fired storage water heater. The flue damper was expected to reduce off-cycle standby losses, which would lead to improvements in the efficiency of the water heater. The test results showed that the Energy Factor of the baseline water heater was 0.576. The recovery efficiency was 0.768. The standby heat loss coefficient was 10.619 (BTU/hr-oF). After the damper was installed, the test results show an Energy Factor for the baseline water heater of 0.605. The recovery efficiency was 0.786. The standby heat loss coefficient was 9.135 (BTU/hr-oF). The recovery efficiency increased 2.3percent and the standby heat loss coefficient decreased 14percent. When the burner was on, the baseline water heater caused 28.0 CFM of air to flow from the room. During standby, the flow was 12.4 CFM. The addition of the damper reduced the flow when the burner was on to 23.5 CFM. During standby, flow with the damper was reduced to 11.1 CFM. The flue damper reduced off-cycle standby losses, and improved the efficiency of the water heater. The flue damper also improved the recovery efficiency of the water heater by restricting on-cycle air flows through the flue.With or without the flue damper, off-cycle air flow upthe stack is nearly half the air flow rate as when the burner is firing.

  16. Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a hot water heater measuring device mounted on the outside of a building wall. As improved thermal enclosures dramatically reduce heating and cooling loads, the water heating load continues to grow in importance. This Top Innovations profile describes Building America field testing by IBACOS that shed light on

  17. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.; Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  18. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  19. Substrate heater for thin film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foltyn, Steve R. (111 Beryl St., Los Alamos, NM 87544)

    1996-01-01

    A substrate heater for thin film deposition of metallic oxides upon a target substrate configured as a disk including means for supporting in a predetermined location a target substrate configured as a disk, means for rotating the target substrate within the support means, means for heating the target substrate within the support means, the heating means about the support means and including a pair of heating elements with one heater element situated on each side of the predetermined location for the target substrate, with one heater element defining an opening through which desired coating material can enter for thin film deposition and with the heating means including an opening slot through which the target substrate can be entered into the support means, and, optionally a means for thermal shielding of the heating means from surrounding environment is disclosed.

  20. Device for collecting emissions from kerosene heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilloti, N.J.

    1984-09-04

    An apparatus for both improving the heat distribution throughout a room from a portable kerosene heater and for collecting undesirable emissions resulting from the burning of the kerosene, includes a base adapted to be mounted on the top of the heater, the base supporting a vertically extending shaft on which is mounted a heat-driven fan formed of either paper or metal, and a disposable disk mounted a spaced distance above the fan on the same shaft, the disk serving as a collector for the undesirable emissions. When the device is placed on an operating kerosene heater, the rising hot air and gases from the heater cause the fan to rotate, which in turn causes emissions from the burning fuel to move upwardly in a more or less cylindrical path. As the products of combustion move upwardly, certain emissions therein such as soot, oily vapors, etc. deposit or condense onto the surface of the spinner and disposable disk.

  1. Electric Resistance Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Resistance Heating Electric Resistance Heating Baseboard heaters are one type of electric resistance heaters. | Photo courtesy of iStockphotodrewhadley...

  2. Molded polymer solar water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.

    2004-11-09

    A solar water heater has a rotationally-molded water box and a glazing subassembly disposed over the water box that enhances solar gain and provides an insulating air space between the outside environment and the water box. When used with a pressurized water system, an internal heat exchanger is integrally molded within the water box. Mounting and connection hardware is included to provide a rapid and secure method of installation.

  3. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water heating costs. Read more Selecting a New Water Heater Selecting a New Water Heater Tankless? Storage? Solar? Save money on your water heating bill by choosing the right type of energy-efficient water heater for your needs. Read more Sizing a New Water Heater Sizing a New Water Heater When buying a new water heater, bigger is not always better. Learn

  4. Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Illustration of a solar water heater. Illustration of a solar water heater. Heat-transfer fluids carry heat through solar collectors and a heat exchanger to the heat storage tanks...

  5. Predictive Control of Hot Water Heaters - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publication Full Report on Heat Pump Water Heaters (15,810 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Water heating in residential homes can account for as much as 15% of total energy use. ...

  6. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ying, David H. S.

    1984-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is constructed with a heat transfer tube having U-bends at regular intervals along the length thereof to increase the slug frequency of the multi-phase mixture flowing therethrough to thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency.

  7. How Do You Use a Space Heater Efficiently? | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    explored the question of space heaters and found that there are many factors to consider when deciding whether to use a space heater or central heating system. How do you use a...

  8. Electric Resistance Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Resistance Heating Basics Electric Resistance Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:10pm Addthis Electric resistance heat can be supplied by centralized forced-air electric furnaces or by heaters in each room. Electric resistance heating converts nearly all of the energy in the electricity to heat. Types of Electric Resistance Heaters Electric resistance heat can be provided by electric baseboard heaters, electric wall heaters, electric radiant heat, electric space heaters, electric

  9. Efficient Residential Water Heaters Webinar | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pilot Projects » Efficient Residential Water Heaters Webinar Efficient Residential Water Heaters Webinar On Feb. 22, 2011, Jerone Gagliano, director of Energy Engineering Performance Systems Development, presented a Webinar about residential water heating technology and how to choose the right water heater. It's one of the presentations in a series of Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Webinars sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program. View the

  10. Water Heater Enforcement Policy Statement | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heater Enforcement Policy Statement Water Heater Enforcement Policy Statement October 2, 2015 This enforcement policy statement explains DOE's policy with respect to the enforcement of certification requirements and compliance with standards with respect to consumer water heaters and residential-duty commercial water heating equipment during the interim period between July 13, 2015, and the publication of a conversion factor final rule. Enforcement Policy Statement - WH.pdf (74.46 KB) More

  11. Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Provides and overview of ...

  12. Illustrative Calculation of Economics for Heat Pump and "Grid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Illustrative Calculation of Economics for Heat Pump and "Grid-Enabled" Water Heaters Illustrative Calculation of Economics for Heat Pump and "Grid-Enabled" Water Heaters PDF icon ...

  13. Portable kerosene heater controversy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Decker, M.O.

    1982-04-01

    The National Kerosene Heater Association reports sales of slightly fewer than two million heaters in the United States between 1975 and 1979. More than one million were sold in 1980 and they project sales of eight to ten million by 1985. Kerosene heater dealers are urged to post warnings to customers specifying the grade of kerosene to be used. 1-K kerosene has a maximum sulfur content of .04% and is generally suitable for use in nonflue-connected burners. 2-K kerosene, with a sulfur content of as much as .30% should be used only in flue-connected burner applications. (JMT)

  14. Performance Study of Swimming Pool Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to perform a controlled laboratory study on the efficiency and emissions of swimming pool heaters based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected variations in operational parameters. Swimming pool heater sales trends have indicated a significant decline in the number of conventional natural gas-fired swimming pool heaters (NGPH). On Long Island the decline has been quite sharp, on the order of 50%, in new installations since 2001. The major portion of the decline has been offset by a significant increase in the sales of electric powered heat pump pool heaters (HPPH) that have been gaining market favor. National Grid contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to measure performance factors in order to compare the relative energy, environmental and economic consequences of using one technology versus the other. A field study was deemed inappropriate because of the wide range of differences in actual load variations (pool size), geographic orientations, ground plantings and shading variations, number of hours of use, seasonal use variations, occupancy patterns, hour of the day use patterns, temperature selection, etc. A decision was made to perform a controlled laboratory study based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected operational variations in parameters. Critical to this are the frequency of use, temperature selection, and sizing of the heater to the associated pool heating loads. This would be accomplished by installing a limited amount of relatively simple compact field data acquisition units on selected pool installations. This data included gas usage when available and alternately heater power or gas consumption rates were inferred from the manufacturer's specifications when direct metering was not available in the field. Figure 1 illustrates a typical pool heater installation layout.

  15. Electric heater for nuclear fuel rod simulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCulloch, Reginald W.; Morgan, Jr., Chester S.; Dial, Ralph E.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an electric cartridge-type heater for use as a simulator for a nuclear fuel pin in reactor studies. The heater comprises an elongated cylindrical housing containing a longitudinally extending helically wound heating element with the heating element radially inwardly separated from the housing. Crushed cold-pressed preforms of boron nitride electrically insulate the heating element from the housing while providing good thermal conductivity. Crushed cold-pressed preforms of magnesia or a magnesia-15 percent boron nitride mixture are disposed in the cavity of the helical heating element. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the magnesia or the magnesia-boron nitride mixture is higher than that of the boron nitride disposed about the heating element for urging the boron nitride radially outwardly against the housing during elevated temperatures to assure adequate thermal contact between the housing and the boron nitride.

  16. Explosives tester with heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Del Eckels, Joel; Nunes, Peter J.; Simpson, Randall L.; Whipple, Richard E.; Carter, J. Chance; Reynolds, John G.

    2010-08-10

    An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

  17. Phase change material storage heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goswami, D. Yogi; Hsieh, Chung K.; Jotshi, Chand K.; Klausner, James F.

    1997-01-01

    A storage heater for storing heat and for heating a fluid, such as water, has an enclosure defining a chamber therein. The chamber has a lower portion and an upper portion with a heating element being disposed within the enclosure. A tube through which the fluid flows has an inlet and an outlet, both being disposed outside of the enclosure, and has a portion interconnecting the inlet and the outlet that passes through the enclosure. A densely packed bed of phase change material pellets is disposed within the enclosure and is surrounded by a viscous liquid, such as propylene glycol. The viscous liquid is in thermal communication with the heating element, the phase change material pellets, and the tube and transfers heat from the heating element to the pellets and from the pellets to the tube. The viscous fluid has a viscosity so that the frictional pressure drop of the fluid in contact with the phase change material pellets substantially reduces vertical thermal convection in the fluid. As the fluid flows through the tube heat is transferred from the viscous liquid to the fluid flowing through the tube, thereby heating the fluid.

  18. End Calorimeter Warm Tube Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Primdahl, K.; /Fermilab

    1991-08-06

    The Tevatron accelerator beam tube must pass through the End Calorimeter cryostats of the D-Zero Collider Detector. Furthermore, the End Calorimeter cryostats must be allowed to roll back forty inches without interruption of the vacuum system; hence, the Tev tube must slide through the End Calorimeter cryostat as it is rolled back. The Tev pass through the End Calorimeter can actually be thought of as a cluster of concentric tubes: Tev tube, warm (vacuum vessel) tube, IS layers of superinsulation, cold tube (argon vessel), and Inner Hadronic center support tube. M. Foley generated an ANSYS model to study the heat load. to the cryostat. during collider physics studies; that is, without operation of the heater. A sketch of the model is included in the appendix. The vacuum space and superinsulation was modeled as a thermal solid, with conductivity derived from tests performed at Fermilab. An additional estimate was done. by this author, using data supplied by NR-2. a superinsulation manufacturer. The ANSYS result and hand calculation are in close agreement. The ANSYS model was modified. by this author. to incorporate the effect of the heater. Whereas the earlier model studied steady state operation only. the revised model considers the heater-off steady state mode as the initial condition. then performs a transient analysis with a final load step for time tending towards infinity. Results show the thermal gradient as a function of time and applied voltage. It should be noted that M. Foley's model was generated for one half the warm tube. implying the tube to be symmetric. In reality. the downstream connection (relative to the collision point) attachment to the vacuum shell is via several convolutions of a 0.020-inch wall bellows; hence. a nearly adiabatic boundary condition. Accordingly. the results reported in the table reflect extrapolation of the curves to the downstream end of the tube. Using results from the ANSYS analysis, that is, tube temperature and

  19. ISSUANCE 2015-10-15: Energy Conservation Standards for Pool Heaters, Notice

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Data Availability | Department of Energy Standards for Pool Heaters, Notice of Data Availability ISSUANCE 2015-10-15: Energy Conservation Standards for Pool Heaters, Notice of Data Availability This document is the Energy Conservation Standards for Pool Heaters, Notice of Data Availability. Electric_Pool_Heaters_NODA.pdf (210.63 KB) More Documents & Publications Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool

  20. Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters An indirect water heater. An indirect water heater. Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use a home's...

  1. Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters An indirect water heater. An indirect water heater. Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use a home's ...

  2. Enforcement Policy Statement Consumer Water Heaters and Certain...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Consumer Water Heaters and Certain Commercial Water Heating Equipment Issued: October 2, 2015 As required by 42 U.S.C. 6295(e)(5)(B), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ...

  3. A Combined Water Heater Dehumidifier and Cooler (WHDC)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Water Heater Dehumidifier and Cooler (WHDC) 2016 Building Technologies Office ... Project Outcome: - Develop a low-cost gas-fired water heat pump to meet the DOE MYPP 2020 ...

  4. Marshall Municipal Utilities- Solar Thermal Water Heater Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    To invest in a renewable resource, consider an ENERGY STAR Solar Thermal Water Heater and use free energy from the sun to heat your water. Marshall Municipal Utilities (MMU) offers rebates of $20...

  5. DOE Science Showcase - Heat Pump Research | OSTI, US Dept of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    HEATING PERFORMANCE GEOTHERMAL HEATING WATER SOURCE HEAT PUMPS EVALUATION DOCUMENT ... Geothermal Heat Pumps - Heating Mode Cooling Mode Animations Heat Pump Water Heaters ...

  6. SINGLE HEATER TEST FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.B. Cho

    1999-05-01

    The Single Heater Test is the first of the in-situ thermal tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its program of characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site for a proposed deep geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) contained an extensive plan of in-situ thermal tests aimed at understanding specific aspects of the response of the local rock-mass around the potential repository to the heat from the radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. With the refocusing of the Site Characterization Plan by the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan'' (DOE 1994), a consolidated thermal testing program emerged by 1995 as documented in the reports ''In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (DOE 1995) and ''Updated In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (CRWMS M&O 1997a). The concept of the Single Heater Test took shape in the summer of 1995 and detailed planning and design of the test started with the beginning fiscal year 1996. The overall objective of the Single Heater Test was to gain an understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are anticipated to occur in the local rock-mass in the potential repository as a result of heat from radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. This included making a priori predictions of the test results using existing models and subsequently refining or modifying the models, on the basis of comparative and interpretive analyses of the measurements and predictions. A second, no less important, objective was to try out, in a full-scale field setting, the various instruments and equipment to be employed in the future on a much larger, more complex, thermal test of longer duration, such as the Drift Scale Test. This ''shake down'' or trial aspect of the Single Heater Test applied not just to the hardware, but also to the teamwork and cooperation between

  7. Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Storage Water Heaters Storage Water Heaters Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over its lifetime. | Photo courtesy ...

  8. Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Xergy is using its Electro Chemical Compression (ECC) technology to operate a heat pump cycle using water as the working fluid<br /> Image: Xergy Xergy is using its Electro Chemical Compression (ECC) technology to operate a heat pump cycle using water as the working fluid Image: Xergy Xergy's technology has the potential to move away from vapor compression

  9. Consolidated Electric Cooperative- Heat Pump and Water Heating Rebates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Consolidated Electric Cooperative provides rebates to residential customers who install electric water heaters, dual-fuel heating system or geothermal heat pumps. A dual-fuel heating systems...

  10. Hot gas engine heater head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berntell, John O.

    1983-01-01

    A heater head for a multi-cylinder double acting hot gas engine in which each cylinder is surrounded by an annular regenerator unit, and in which the tops of each cylinder and its surrounding regenerator are interconnected by a multiplicity of heater tubes. A manifold for the heater tubes has a centrally disposed duct connected to the top of the cylinder and surrounded by a wider duct connecting the other ends of the heater tubes with the regenerator unit.

  11. In the OSTI Collections: Heat Pumps | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Heat Pumps Heat-Pump Water Heaters Heat Pumps in Heating, Ventilation, and Air ... Two common uses of heat pumps are in water heaters and in heating and air-conditioning ...

  12. Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heaters | Department of Energy Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Provides and overview of field testing of 18 pre-production prototype residential heat pump water heaters heat_pump_water_heater_testing.pdf (565.45 KB) More Documents & Publications Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid

  13. Summary of AEP`s experience with retubing feedwater heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cashner, B.

    1995-12-01

    American Electric Power (AEP) oversees the design, operation and maintenance of 500+ low pressure (LP) and high pressure (HP) feedwater heaters on subcritical and supercritical pressure fossil generating units. Approximately 150 of these U-tubed heaters have been successfully retubed since the 1970`s, with a majority of the retubings performed in the field by qualified heat exchanger companies. Due to the large number of retubed heaters, AEP has gone through the {open_quotes}learning curve{close_quotes} and refined its technical specifications for retubing heaters. In comparison to the 150 retubed heaters, over 70 LP and HP heaters have been replaced. Examples will be presented comparing the engineering and cost benefits for retubing versus replacement. A total of 24 bar charts are attached which summarize operating experience with the original heater tube materials and replacement tube materials. The tube materials consist of arsenical copper, copper-nickels, admiralty, monel, carbon steel and stainless steels. A brief discussion of AEP`s recommended tube materials for various applications will be presented, taking into account long term operation and heat rate impacts.

  14. Electric Resistance Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool » Home Heating Systems » Electric Resistance Heating Electric Resistance Heating Baseboard heaters are one type of electric resistance heaters. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/drewhadley Baseboard heaters are one type of electric resistance heaters. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/drewhadley Electric resistance heating is 100% energy efficient in the sense that all the incoming electric energy is converted to heat. However, most electricity is produced from coal, gas, or

  15. Comparative performance indices for solar batch water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.L.; Aaboe, E.H.

    1981-01-01

    A simple method is developed to allow direct comparison of various solar batch water heaters. Certain system variables must be determined by calculation or measurement which may vary with season. These include Thermal Efficiency of Collection, Tank R value, Collector Surface to Tank Volume Ratio, Clear Day Collection Period in Hours, System Cost, and Installed Solar Heatings Fraction (optional). These variables are used to compute any one of four performance indices. This method allows a valid comparison not only between various solar batch water heaters but between other types of solar water heaters as well. This system may be used by consumers or designers to choose the most cost and performance effective options.

  16. Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating » Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics July 30, 2013 - 3:39pm Addthis Illustration showing the components of a storage water heater. On top of the tank are two thin pipes; one pipe is the hot water outlet, and the other is the cold water inlet. A large pipe in the middle is called a vent pipe. A pressure/temperature relief valve is also on top of the tank and is connected to an open pipe that runs down the side of the tank. Another

  17. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ying, David H. S.; McDermott, Wayne T.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1985-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is operated under conditions to maximize the slurry slug frequency and thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency. The operating conditions controlled are (1) the pipe diameter and pipe arrangement, (2) the minimum coal/solvent slurry velocity, (3) the maximum gas superficial velocity, and (4) the range of the volumetric flow velocity ratio of gas to coal/solvent slurry.

  18. Kerosene vs. electric portable heaters: the question of risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leff, H.S.

    1984-03-01

    As home heating costs have risen, more and more people have turned to portable electric and kerosene space heaters. Kerosene heaters are cheaper to run than electric, but there are numerous health and safety issues - many of them unanswered - associated with their use. Among the issues discussed are indoor air pollution by sulfur dioxide, the life-cycle costs, the deposition of pollution on furniture, and the fire hazards.

  19. Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Water Heaters » Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems Illustration of a solar water heater. Illustration of a solar water heater. Heat-transfer fluids carry heat through solar collectors and a heat exchanger to the heat storage tanks in solar water heating systems. When selecting a heat-transfer fluid, you and your solar heating contractor should consider the following criteria: Coefficient of expansion - the fractional

  20. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, Alan L.; Anderson, David M.; Winiarski, David W.; Carmichael, Robert T.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Fisher, Andrew R.

    2015-03-17

    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  1. Feedback regulated induction heater for a flowing fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Migliori, A.; Swift, G.W.

    1984-06-13

    A regulated induction heater for heating a stream of flowing fluid to a predetermined desired temperature. The heater includes a radiofrequency induction coil which surrounds a glass tube through which the fluid flows. A heating element consisting of a bundle of approximately 200 stainless steel capillary tubes located within the glass tube couples the output of the induction coil to the fluid. The temperature of the fluid downstream from the heating element is sensed with a platinum resistance thermometer, the output of which is applied to an adjustable porportional and integral feedback control circuit which regulates the power applied to the induction coil. The heater regulates the fluid temperature to within 0.005/sup 0/C at a flow rate of 50 cm/sup 3//sec with a response time of less than 0.1 second, and can accommodate changes in heat load up to 1500 watts.

  2. Feedback regulated induction heater for a flowing fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Migliori, Albert; Swift, Gregory W.

    1985-01-01

    A regulated induction heater for heating a stream of flowing fluid to a predetermined desired temperature. The heater includes a radiofrequency induction coil which surrounds a glass tube through which the fluid flows. A heating element consisting of a bundle of approximately 200 stainless steel capillary tubes located within the glass tube couples the output of the induction coil to the fluid. The temperature of the fluid downstream from the heating element is sensed with a platinum resistance thermometer, the output of which is applied to an adjustable proportional and integral feedback control circuit which regulates the power applied to the induction coil. The heater regulates the fluid temperature to within 0.005.degree. C. at a flow rate of 50 cm.sup.3 /second with a response time of less than 0.1 second, and can accommodate changes in heat load up to 1500 watts.

  3. Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; Thompson, Lisa; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-11-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently completed a rulemaking process in which it amended the existing energy efficiency standards for residential water heaters. A key factor in DOE?s consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers. Determining such impacts requires a comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. This paper describes the method used to conduct the life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period analysis for gas and electric storage water heaters. It presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment, including heat pump electric water heaters and condensing gas water heaters, for a representative sample of U.S. homes. The study included a detailed accounting of installation costs for the considered design options, with a focus on approaches for accommodating the larger dimensions of more efficient water heaters. For heat pump water heaters, the study also considered airflow requirements, venting issues, and the impact of these products on the indoor environment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design reduces the LCC in the majority of homes for both gas and electric storage water heaters, and heat pump electric water heaters and condensing gas water heaters provide a lower LCC for homes with large rated volume water heaters.

  4. Slurry fired heater cold-flow modelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moujaes, S.F.

    1983-07-01

    This report summarizes the experimental and theoretical work leading to the scale-up of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant slurry fired heater. The scale-up involved a theoretical model using empirical relations in the derivation, and employed variables such as flow conditions, liquid viscosity, and slug frequency. Such variables have been shown to affect the heat transfer characteristics ofthe system. The model assumes that, if all other variables remain constant, the heat transfer coefficient can be scaled up proportional to D/sup -2/3/ (D = inside diameter of the fired heater tube). All flow conditions, liquid viscosities, and pipe inclinations relevant to the demonstration plant have indicated a slug flow regime in the slurry fired heater. The annular and stratified flow regimes should be avoided to minimize the potential for excessive pipe erosion and to decrease temperature gradients along the pipe cross section leading to coking and thermal stresses, respectively. Cold-flow studies in 3- and 6.75-in.-inside-diameter (ID) pipes were conducted to determine the effect of scale-up on flow regime, slug frequency, and slug dimensions. The developed model assumes that conduction heat transfer occurs through the liquid film surrounding the gas slug and laminar convective heat transfer to the liquid slug. A weighted average of these two heat transfer mechanisms gives a value for the average pipe heat transfer coefficient. The cold-flow work showed a decrease in the observed slug frequency between the 3- and 6.75-ID pipes. Data on the ratio of gas to liquid slug length in the 6.75-in. pipe are not yet complete, but are expected to yield generally lower values than those obtained in the 3-in. pipe; this will probably affect the scale-up to demonstration plant conditions. 5 references, 15 figures, 7 tables.

  5. Water heater control module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammerstrom, Donald J

    2013-11-26

    An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

  6. Regenerative air heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, Paul B.; Baldner, Richard

    1982-01-01

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  7. Regenerative air heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, P.B.; Baldner, R.

    1980-11-26

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  8. Analysisi Benchmark of the Single Heater Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.M. Wade; H. Marr; M.J. Anderson

    2006-07-27

    The Single Heater Test (SHT) is the first of three in-situ thermal tests included in the site characterization program for the potential nuclear waste monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The heating phase of the SHT started in August 1996 and was concluded in May 1997 after 9 months of heating. Cooling continued until January 1998, at which time post-test characterization of the test block commenced. Numerous thermal, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical sensors monitored the coupled processes in the unsaturated fractured rock mass around the heater (CRWMS M&O 1999). The objective of this calculation is to benchmark a numerical simulation of the rock mass thermal behavior against the extensive data set that is available from the thermal test. The scope is limited to three-dimensional (3-D) numerical simulations of the computational domain of the Single Heater Test and surrounding rock mass. This calculation supports the waste package thermal design methodology, and is developed by Waste Package Department (WPD) under Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 3, BSCN 1, Calculations.

  9. Performance comparison of several passive solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.L.; Nagy, C.

    1980-01-01

    Three .076 m/sup 3/ (20 gal.) batch water heaters were constructed for the purpose of side by side testing. The test models included an Inverted Batch Water Heater, a Greenhouse Integrated Skylight Heater, and a typical Breadbox Batch Heater. These designs were chosen because of their low initial cost, simple construction, ease of freeze protection, uncomplicated operation and heating effectiveness. The results of our testing show that our test models produced 35 to 70/sup 0/C (95 to 158/sup 0/F) average water temperatures with average collection efficiencies of about 34%. Materials costs for each of these systems were $200 to $400. These systems were tested side by side during periods of both low and high thermal demand, both with and without a selective surface foil on the absorber surfaces.

  10. Water Heating Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    HVAC, Water Heating, & Appliances Water Heating Projects Water Heating Projects Figure 1: The system model for the combined Water heater, dehumidifier and cooler (WHDC). A ...

  11. Do You Have a Solar Water Heater?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Earlier this week, Ernie wrote about the economics of getting a solar water heater. As Ernie explained, a solar water heater is more expensive than a normal water heater, but depending on your area...

  12. Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage Water Heaters Storage Water Heaters June 15, 2012 - 6:00pm Addthis Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over...

  13. Tips: Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Tips: Water Heating Keep your energy bills out of hot water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even ...

  14. Process Heater for Stoichiometric Combustion Control | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heater for Stoichiometric Combustion Control Process Heater for Stoichiometric Combustion Control An Enhanced, CO-Based, Low Excess Air Control System Saves Energy While Reducing ...

  15. Water Heater Controller - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Water Heater Controller Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Contact PNNL About This Technology Water heaters can be retrofitted to ...

  16. DOE_Water_Heater_Meeting_111612.pdf

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters", the comments filed therein, and ... that Joint Commenters had done with water heater manufacturers to identify ...

  17. High Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission, Integrated Process Heater System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Howard; Boral, Anindya; Chhotray, San; Martin, Matthew

    2006-06-19

    The team of TIAX LLC, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, and Callidus Technologies, LLC conducted a six-year program to develop an ultra-low emission process heater burner and an advanced high efficiency heater design. This project addresses the critical need of process heater operators for reliable, economical emission reduction technologies to comply with stringent emission regulations, and for heater design alternatives that reduce process heater energy requirements without significant cost increase. The key project targets were NOx emissions of 10 ppm (@ 3% O2), and a heater thermal efficiency of 95 percent. The ultra low NOx burner was developed through a series of pilot-scale and field tests combined with computational fluid dynamic modeling to arrive at simultaneous low emissions and suitable flame shape and stability. Pilot scale tests were run at TIAX, at the 2 MMBtu/hr scale, and at Callidus at 8 MMBtu/hr. The full scale burner was installed on a 14 burner atmospheric pipestill furnace at an ExxonMobil refinery. A variety of burner configurations, gas tips and flame stabilizers were tested to determine the lowest emissions with acceptable flame shape and stability. The resulting NOx emissions were 22 ppm on average. Starting in 2001, Callidus commercialized the original ultra low NOx burner and made subsequent design improvements in a series of commercial burners evolving from the original concept and/or development. Emissions in the field with the ultra low-NOx burner over a broad spectrum of heater applications have varied from 5 ppm to 30 ppm depending on heater geometry, heater service, fuel and firing capacity. To date, 1550 of the original burners, and 2500 of subsequent generation burners have been sold by Callidus. The advanced heater design was developed by parametric evaluations of a variety of furnace and combustion air preheater configurations and technologies for enhancing convective and radiative heat transfer. The design evolution

  18. Heat

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Release date: April 2015 Revised date: May 2016 Heat pumps Furnaces Indiv- idual space heaters District heat Boilers Pack- aged heating units Other All buildings 87,093 80,078 11,846 8,654 20,766 5,925 22,443 49,188 1,574 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 8,041 6,699 868 1,091 1,747 Q 400 3,809 Q 5,001 to 10,000 8,900 7,590 1,038 1,416 2,025 Q 734 4,622 Q 10,001 to 25,000 14,105 12,744 1,477 2,233 3,115 Q 2,008 8,246 Q 25,001 to 50,000 11,917 10,911 1,642 1,439 3,021 213 2,707

  19. DPF heater attachment mechanisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-04-26

    An exhaust filter system includes a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream from an engine. The PF filters particulates within an exhaust from the engine. A heating element heats particulate matter in the PF. A fastener limits expansion movement of the heating element relative to the PF.

  20. In the OSTI Collections: Heat Pumps | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... types of water heaters, particularly solar water heaters. Mathematical comparison of these two types is made in the NREL report "Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and ...

  1. Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    or Demand-Type Water Heaters Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters Diagram of a tankless water heater. Diagram of a tankless water heater. Tankless water heaters, also known as ...

  2. Wood and Pellet Heating

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Looking for an efficient, renewable way to heat your home? Wood or pellets are renewable fuel sources, and modern wood and pellet stoves are efficient heaters.

  3. Ductless Heat Pumps

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  4. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Alison; McMahon, James; Masanet, Eric; Lutz, Jim

    2008-08-13

    Residential water heating is a large source of energy use in California homes. This project took a life cycle approach to comparing tank and tankless water heaters in Northern and Southern California. Information about the life cycle phases was calculated using the European Union's Methodology study for EcoDesign of Energy-using Products (MEEUP) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Life Cycle Inventory (NREL LCI) database. In a unit-to-unit comparison, it was found that tankless water heaters would lessen impacts of water heating by reducing annual energy use by 2800 MJ/year (16% compared to tank), and reducing global warming emissions by 175 kg CO2 eqv./year (18% reduction). Overall, the production and combustion of natural gas in the use phase had the largest impact. Total waste, VOCs, PAHs, particulate matter, and heavy-metals-to-air categories were also affected relatively strongly by manufacturing processes. It was estimated that tankless water heater users would have to use 10 more gallons of hot water a day (an increased usage of approximately 20%) to have the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results suggest that if a higher percentage of Californians used tankless water heaters, environmental impacts caused by water heating would be smaller.

  5. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 Water Heater Stock for Commercial Buildings, By Fuel Type Fuel Type Electric 41% Natural Gas 31% Fuel Oil 2% Propane/LPG 3% District Heat 1% No Water Heating 25% Note(s): Souce(s): Percent of Buildings in 2003 (1) (1) Percentages add to 103% because some buildings use more than one fuel for water heating. EIA, 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Buildings Characteristics, June 2006, Table B31, p. 175

  6. Methods for forming long subsurface heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Dong Sub

    2013-09-17

    A method for forming a longitudinal subsurface heater includes longitudinally welding an electrically conductive sheath of an insulated conductor heater along at least one longitudinal strip of metal. The longitudinal strip is formed into a tubular around the insulated conductor heater with the insulated conductor heater welded along the inside surface of the tubular.

  7. Residential Water Heaters Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ENERGY LABORATORY Technology Overview - Condensing Storage * Fuels: Natural Gas, Propane * Much greater surface area of flue pipe, more heat transfer and combustion gases...

  8. Heater head for stirling engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A.

    1985-07-09

    A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

  9. WHAM: Simplified tool for calculating water heater energy use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, J.D.; Whitehead, C.D.; Lekov, A.B.; Rosenquist, G.J.; Winiarski, D.W.

    1999-07-01

    Water heating comprises a significant portion of residential energy consumption--17% in the US, according to the residential energy consumption survey (RECS) (EIA 1995). For such a significant energy end use, energy analysts need a method to quickly and reliably assess current and future energy requirements for a variety of conservation policies and programs. To fill this need, the water heater analysis model (WHAM) was developed as a simple energy equation that accounts for different operating conditions and water heater characteristics when calculating energy consumption. The results of WHAM are compared to the results of detailed water heater simulation programs and show a high level of accuracy in estimating energy consumption. WHAM energy calculations are based on assumptions that account for a variety of field conditions and water heater types. By including seven parameters--recovery efficiency (RE), standby heat loss coefficient (UA), rated input power (Pon), average daily hot water draw volume, inlet water temperature, thermostat setting, and air temperature around the water heater--WHAM provides an accurate estimate of energy consumption in the majority of cases.

  10. Biobriefcase aerosol collector heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Perry M.; Christian, Allen T.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Willis, Ladona; Masquelier, Donald A.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2009-03-17

    A system for sampling air and collecting particles potentially including bioagents entrained in the air for detection. The system comprises collecting a sample of the air with the particles entrained in the air, directing the sample to a receiving surface, directing a liquid to the receiving surface thereby producing a liquid surface, wherein the particles potentially including bioagents become captured in the liquid, and heating the liquid wherein the particles potentially including bioagents become heated to lysis the bioagents.

  11. Probe with integrated heater and thermocouple pack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCulloch, Reginald W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dial, Ralph E. (Concord, TN); Finnell, Wilber K. R. (Kingston, TN)

    1988-01-01

    A probe for measuring heat includes an elongate rod fitted within a sheath, and a plurality of annular recesses are formed on the surface of the rod in a spaced-apart relationship to form annular chambers that are resistant to heat flow. A longitudinal bore extends axially into the rod and within the cylinders defined by the annular chambers, and an integrated heater and thermocouple pack is dimensioned to fit within the bore. In construction, the integrated pack includes a plurality of wires disposed in electrical insulation within a sheath and a heater cable. These wires include one common wire and a plurality of thermocouple wires. The common wire is constructed of one type of conductive material while the thermocouple wires are each constructed of two types of materials so that at least one thermocouple junction is formed therein. All of the wires extend the length of the integrated pack and are connected together at their ends. The thermocouple wires are constructed to form thermocouple junctions proximate to each annular chamber for producing electromotive forces corresponding to the temperature of the rod within the annular chambers relative to outside the chambers. In the preferred embodiment, each thermocouple wire forms two thermocouple junctions, one junction being disposed within an annular chamber and the second junction being disposed outside of, but proximate to, the same annular chamber. In one embodiment two thermocouple wires are configured to double the sensitivity of the probe in one region.

  12. Probe with integrated heater and thermocouple pack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCulloch, Reg W.; Dial, Ralph E.; Finnell, Wilber K. R.

    1990-01-01

    A probe for measuring heat includes an elongate rod fitted within a sheath, and a plurality of annular recesses are formed on the surface of the rod in a spaced-apart relationship to form annular chambers that are resistant to heat flow. A longitudinal bore extends axially into the rod and within the cylinders defined by the annular chambers, and an integrated heater and thermocouple pack is dimensioned to fit within the bore. In construction, the integrated pack includes a plurality of wires disposed in electrical insulation within a sheath and a heater cable. These wires include one common wire and a plurality of thermocuple wires. The common wire is constructed of one type of conductive material while the thermocouple wires are each constructed of two types of materials so that at least one thermocouple junction is formed therein. All of the wires extend the length of the integrated pack and are connected together at their ends. The thermocouple wires are constructed to form thermocouple junctions proximate to each annular chamber for producing electromotive forces corresponding to the temperature of the rod within the annular chambers relative to outside the chambers. In the preferred embodiment, each thermocouple wire forms two thermocouple junctions, one junction being disposed within an annular chamber and the second junction being disposed outside of, but proximate to, the same annular chamber. In one embodiment two thermocouple wires are configured to double the sensitivity of the probe in one region.

  13. Heat's Role in the Madden-Julian Oscillation | U.S. DOE Office of Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Cool » Water Heating » Solar Water Heaters » Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems Illustration of a solar water heater. Illustration of a solar water heater. Heat-transfer fluids carry heat through solar collectors and a heat exchanger to the heat storage tanks in solar water heating systems. When selecting a heat-transfer fluid, you and your solar heating contractor should consider the following criteria: Coefficient

  14. Water inflow into boreholes during the Stripa heater experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, P.H.; Rachiele, R.; Remer, J.S.; Carlsson, H.

    1981-04-01

    During the operation of three in-situ heater experiments at Stripa, Sweden, groundwater flowed into many of the instrumentation and heater boreholes. These flows were recovered and measured routinely. The records of water inflow indicate two origins: inflow attributed to local hydrological pressure gradients, and water migration from cracks closing under the rapidly increasing, thermal-induced stress changes. The latter component appeared as a main pulse that occurred when the heaters were turned on, and lasted about 30 to 40 days, steadily declining over the next several months, and decreasing sharply when heater power was decreased or stopped. The magnitude of the total inflow per hole ranged over more than five decades, from 0.1 to over 10,000 liters over the 500 to 600 day time periods. When plotted against the logarithm of total volume, the frequency distribution displays a normal curve dependence with a mean of approximately 10 liters. Of this amount, 1 to 2 liters of flow into 38-mm-diam boreholes accompanied an increase in applied heat load. These amounts are compatible with rock porosities of a fraction of one percent. Inflow into the 3.6 and 5.0 kW heater holes peaked within 3 to 6 days after heater turn on, then declined to zero inflow, with no further inflow measured for the remainder of the experiments. In the heater holes of the time-scaled experiment, which operated at 1.125 kW or less, the initial pulse of inflow took much longer to decay, and 7 of 8 heater holes continued to flow throughout the experiment. The packing off and isolation of a borehole some 40 m distant in the ventilation drift dramatically increased the inflow into the heater holes in one of the three heater experiments. This demonstrated the existence of permeable flow paths among a number of boreholes. The records of water inflow demonstrate the need for a thorough understanding of the nature of fluid flow and storage in fractured crystalline rock.

  15. Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a hot water heater ...

  16. A Combined Water Heater, Dehumidifier, and Cooler (WHDC) | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Combined Water Heater, Dehumidifier, and Cooler (WHDC) A Combined Water Heater, Dehumidifier, and Cooler (WHDC) Figure 1: The system model for the combined Water heater, ...

  17. Selecting a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water heater testing facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Water heater testing facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When selecting a new water heater for your home, ...

  18. Kerosene space heaters--combustion technology and kerosene characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubayashi, k.; I Wasaki, N.

    1984-07-01

    This paper describes kerosene combustion technology. Unvented wick-type kerosene space heaters are very popular in Japan because of their economy and convenience. In recent years new vaporized kerosene burners having premixed combustion systems have been developed to solve some of the problems encountered in the older portable type. Some of the features of the new burners are instantaneous ignition, no vaporizing deposit on the burner and a wide range heating capacity. These new kerosene heaters have four major components: an air supply fan, a fuel supply assembly, a burner assembly and a control assembly. These heaters are designed to be highly reliable, have stable combustion characteristics, yield minimum carbon deposit. Finally, they are simple and inexpensive to operate.

  19. Design and performance of low-wattage electrical heater probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddle, R.; Wetzel, J.R.; Cech, R.

    1997-11-01

    A mound electrical calibration heater (MECH) has been used in several EG and G Mound developed calorimeters as a calibration tool. They are very useful over the wattage range of a few to 500 W. At the lower end of the range, a bias develops between the MECH probe and calibrated heat standards. A low-wattage electrical calibration heater (L WECH) probe is being developed by the Safeguards Science and Technology group (NIS-5) of Los Alamos National Laboratory based upon a concept proposed by EG and G Mound personnel. The probe combines electrical resistive heating and laser-light powered heating. The LWECH probe is being developed for use with power settings up to 2W. The electrical heater will be used at the high end of the range, and laser-light power will be used low end of the wattage range. The system consists of two components: the heater probe and a control unit. The probe is inserted into the measuring cavity through an opening in the insulating baffle, and a sleeve is required to adapt to the measuring chamber. The probe is powered and controlled using electronics modules located separately. This paper will report on the design of the LWECH probe, initial tests, and expected performance.

  20. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Do the following when selecting a qualified professional: Request cost estimates in writing Ask for references Check the company with your local Better Business Bureau See if the ...

  1. Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Technical Update meeting on April 29-30, 2013, in Denver, Colorado.

  2. Evaluation of a jet plate solar air heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhury, C.; Garg, H.P. )

    1991-01-01

    To achieve higher heat transfer from the absorber plate to the flowing air stream with an intention to increase the amount of the collected energy, and hence, to improve the efficiency of an air-based solar collector, a unique jet impingement concept has been advanced for evaluation in the present study. To investigate the effects of various geometrical parameters such as the hole or nozzle diameter on the jet plate, their interspacings, the nozzle height, the distance between the absorber and the jet plate and the operational parameter such as the velocity of air impinging out of the holes/nozzles on to the back side of the absorber surface on the performance parameters of the jet impingement concept air heater, a detailed theoretical parametric analysis has been made on the design for different mass flow rates of air and different lengths of air channel. A parallel study has also been carried out on a conventional parallel plate air heater in order to compare its air temperature increment and performance efficiency with those of the jet plate air heater. The gain in air temperature increment and performance efficiency of the jet-concept air heater over that of the parallel plate air heater with duct depth 10 cm and length 2 m is 15.5{degree}C to 2.5{degree}C and 26.5% to 19%, respectively, for air flow rates in the range 50 to 250 kg/hm{sup 2}.

  3. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  4. Circulating current battery heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N.; Stuart, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  5. WPN 08-4: Space Heater Policy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To update the policy relation to space heaters for the low-income Weatherization Assistance Program. This policy supersedes the previous space heater policy issued by memoranda on March 18, 1992.

  6. Efficient graphite ring heater suitable for diamond-anvil cells to 1300 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du Zhixue; Amulele, George; Lee, Kanani K. M.; Miyagi, Lowell

    2013-02-15

    In order to generate homogeneous high temperatures at high pressures, a ring-shaped graphite heater has been developed to resistively heat diamond-anvil cell (DAC) samples up to 1300 K. By putting the heater in direct contact with the diamond anvils, this graphite heater design features the following advantages: (1) efficient heating: sample can be heated to 1300 K while the DAC body temperature remains less than 800 K, eliminating the requirement of a special alloy for the DAC; (2) compact design: the sample can be analyzed with in situ measurements, e.g., x-ray, optical, and electrical probes are possible. In particular, the side access of the heater allows for radial x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements in addition to traditional axial XRD.

  7. Thermostatically controlled portable electric space heater with automatic temperature setback for energy saving

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, S.

    1994-01-11

    An electrically-powered portable space heater of the type having one or more vertically extending fin-tube heating elements disposed within an elongated housing has a selectively adjustable temperature controller responsive to a signal from an upwardly extending thermistor externally pivotally mounted on the rear of the heater housing for movement from a storage position behind the housing to an upraised operative position, thermistor also being used to supply a room temperature signal to an ambient temperature display device on the heater housing. Furthermore, the heater includes a selectively actuatable energy saving feature which, when actuated, automatically reduces by 5 degrees F. after a period of one hour the temperature to which the heater has been pre-set by the operator. 17 figs.

  8. Radiant Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Radiant heating systems supply heat directly to the floor or to ... of heat directly from the hot surface to the people and ... wood-fired boilers, solar water heaters, or a combination ...

  9. Convective heat flow probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, J.C.; Hardee, H.C.; Striker, R.P.

    1984-01-09

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packet-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  10. Convective heat flow probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, James C.; Hardee, Harry C.; Striker, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.