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1

Trace water vapor determination in nitrogen and corrosive gases using infrared spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The generation of particles in gas handling systems as a result of corrosion is a major concern in the microelectronics industry. The corrosion can be caused by the presence of trace quantities of water in corrosive gases such as HCl or HBr. FTIR spectroscopy has been shown to be a method that can be made compatible with corrosive gases and is capable of detecting low ppb levels of water vapor. In this report, the application of FTIR spectroscopy combined with classical least squares multivariate calibration to detect trace H{sub 2}O in N{sub 2}, HCl and HBr is discussed. Chapter 2 discusses the gas handling system and instrumentation required to handle corrosive gases. A method of generating a background spectrum useful to the measurements discussed in this report, as well as in other application areas such as gas phase environmental monitoring, is discussed in Chapter 3. Experimental results obtained with the first system are presented in Chapter 4. Those results made it possible to optimize the design options for the construction of a dedicate system for low ppb water vapor determination. These designs options are discussed in Chapter 5. An FTIR prototype accessory was built. In addition, a commercially available evacuable FTIR system was obtained for evaluation. Test results obtained with both systems are discussed in Chapter 6. Experiments dealing with the interaction between H{sub 2}O-HCl and potential improvements to the detection system are discussed in Chapter 7.

Espinoza, L.H.; Niemczyk, T.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Stallard, B.R.; Garcia, M.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

ARM - Water Vapor  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmr DocumentationProductsaodsasheniraodAlaskaVisiting theWater Vapor

3

ARM Water Vapor IOP  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)Productssondeadjustsondeadjust DocumentationARM Participation in SuomiNet The ARM62ARM Water Vapor IOP

4

Water Vapor Experiment Concludes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and Materials Disposition3 Water Vapor Experiment Concludes The

5

Hydrogen Cars and Water Vapor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

misidentified as "zero-emissions vehicles." Fuel cell vehicles emit water vapor. A global fleet could have, with discernible effects on people and ecosystems. The broad environmental effects of fuel cell vehicles. This cycle is currently under way with hydrogen fuel cells. As fuel cell cars are suggested as a solution

Colorado at Boulder, University of

6

ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

Cadeddu, Maria

7

Tropospheric water vapor and climate sensitivity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estimates are made of the effect of changes in tropospheric water vapor on the climate sensitivity to doubled carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) using a coarse resolution atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab mixed layer ocean. The sensitivity of the model to doubled CO{sub 2} is found as the difference between the equilibrium responses for control and doubled CO{sub 2} cases. Clouds are specified to isolate the water vapor feedback. Experiments in which the water vapor distribution is specified rather than internally calculated are used to find the contribution of water vapor in various layers and latitude belts to the sensitivity. The contribution of water vapor in layers of equal mass to the climate sensitivity varies by about a factor of 2 with height, with the largest contribution coming from layers between 450 and 750 mb, and the smallest from layers above 230 mb. The positive feedback on the global mean surface temperature response to doubled CO{sub 2} from water vapor above 750 mb is about 2.6 times as large as that from water vapor below 750 mb. The feedback on global mean surface temperature due to water vapor in the extratropical free troposphere is about 50% larger than the feedback due to the lower-latitude free troposphere water vapor. Several important sources of nonlinearity of the radiative heating rates were identified in the process of constructing the specified cloud and water vapor fields. These are (1) the interaction of clouds and solar radiation, which produces much more reflection of solar radiation for time mean clouds than for the instantaneous clouds; (2) the correlation of clouds and water vapor, which produces less downward longwave radiation at the ground for correlated clouds and water vapor than when these fields are independent; and (3) the interaction of water vapor with long wave radiation, which produces less downward longwave radiation at the ground of the average over instantaneous water vapor distributions than of the time mean water vapor distribution.

Schneider, E.K.; Kirtman, B.P.; Lindzen, R.S. [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States)] [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States)

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Optical monitor for water vapor concentration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma.

Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Phase effects for electrons in liquid water and water vapor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of these studies is to compare transport, energy loss, and other phenomena for electrons in water in the liquid and vapor phases. Understanding the differences and similarities is an interesting physics problem in its own right. It is also important for applying the relatively large body of experimental data available for the vapor to the liquid, which is of greater relevance in radiobiology. This paper presents a summary of results from a series of collaborative studies carried out by the authors at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung (GSF). 14 figs.

Turner, J.E.; Paretzke, H.G.; Wright, H.A.; Hamm, R.N.; Ritchie, R.H.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Isotopic composition of stratospheric water vapor: Measurements and photochemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of magnitude between the surface and the tropopause, and isotopically heavy water is pref- erentially removedIsotopic composition of stratospheric water vapor: Measurements and photochemistry David G. Johnson composition of stratospheric water vapor that result from methane oxidation and reactions with O( ¢¡ ). We

11

Looking For Traces of Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Looking For Traces of Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water By Daniel D. Snow, Ph.D. Director traces of drugs in the public drinking water supplies of 24 major U.S. metropolitan areas. This has in drinking water supplies is not new, but the classes of contaminants being tested for are. Pharmaceuticals

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

12

Cloud and Aerosol Properties, Precipitable Water, and Profiles of Temperature and Water Vapor from MODIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cloud and Aerosol Properties, Precipitable Water, and Profiles of Temperature and Water Vapor from such as cloud mask, atmos- pheric profiles, aerosol properties, total precipitable water, and cloud properties vapor amount, aerosol particles, and the subsequently formed clouds [9]. Barnes et al. [2] provide

Sheridan, Jennifer

13

VAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE FROM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(for water: the SPC-, SPC/E-, and TIP4P-potential models; for carbon dioxide: the EPM2 potential model dioxide are calculated. For water, the SPC- and TIP4P-models give superior results for the vapor pressure when compared to the SPC/E-model. The vapor liquid equilibrium of the binary mixture carbon dioxide

14

Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for methanol + ethanol + water, methanol + water, and ethanol + water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria were measured for the ternary system methanol + ethanol + water and its constituent binary systems of methanol + water and ethanol + water at 323.15, 328.15, and 333.15 K. The apparatus that was used made it possible to control the measured temperature and total pressure by computer. The experimental binary data were correlated by the NRTL equation. The ternary system was predicted using the binary NRTL parameters with good accuracy.

Kurihara, Kiyofumi; Takeda, Kouichi; Kojima, Kazuo [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry; Minoura, Tsuyoshi [Mitui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Experimental Study of Water Vapor Adsorption on Geothermal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Geothermal Program under Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG07-90IDI2934,and by the Department of PetroleumSGP-TR-148 Experimental Study of Water Vapor Adsorption on Geothermal Reservoir Rocks Shubo Shang Engineering, Stanford University Stanford Geothermal Program Interdisciplinary Research in Engineering

Stanford University

16

Fatigue Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures Affected by Water Vapor Movement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation has two key objectives: the first objective is to develop a method of predicting and quantifying the amount of water that can enter into a pavement system by vapor transport; the second objective is to identify to which extent...

Tong, Yunwei

2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

17

High-resolution terahertz atmospheric water vapor continuum measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-resolution terahertz atmospheric water vapor continuum measurements David M. Slocum,* Thomas M such as pollution monitoring and the detection of energetic chemicals using remote sensing over long path lengths through the atmosphere. Although there has been much attention to atmospheric effects over narrow

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

18

Balance of atmospheric water vapor over the Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/ / / / I / o. i + B CAP C BBJ V S TPA PZA EHA Fig. 5. Vertical distribution of the average water-vapor flux normal to the perimeter of the Gulf of Nexico during Oct-Kov-Dec 1959. Plus values are inflow in kgm/sec-mb-. m. -o-I Pi C4 I / ~-o, i...BALANCE OF ATMOSPHERIC HATER VAPOR OVER THE GULF OF MEXICO A Thesis By RALPH MORGAN HUGHES Captain, USAF Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulf-'llment of the rec;uirements for the degree of MASTER...

Hughes, Ralph Morgan

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

E-Print Network 3.0 - airs water vapor Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

water vapor Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: airs water vapor Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 A laboratory experiment from the Little...

20

Correlation for the Vapor Pressure of Heavy Water From the Triple Point to the Critical Point  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Correlation for the Vapor Pressure of Heavy Water From the Triple Point to the Critical Point Allan the vapor pressure of heavy water (D2O) from its triple point to its critical point. This work takes Institute of Physics. Key words: D2O; heavy water; ITS-90; vapor pressure. Contents 1. Introduction

Magee, Joseph W.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor trace" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

ARM - Field Campaign - Water Vapor IOP  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD) by Microtops Atmospheric OpticalExperiment (VORTEX) govCampaignsVerification ofgovCampaignsWater

22

ESA DUE GlobVapour water vapor products: Validation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objective of the European Space Agency (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) GlobVapour project was the development of multi-annual global water vapor data sets. Since water vapour is a key climate variable it is important to have a good understanding of its behavior in the climate system. The ESA DUE GlobVapour project provides water vapor data, including error estimates, based on carefully calibrated and inter-calibrated satellite radiances in response to user requirements for long time series satellite observations. ESA DUE GlobVapour total columnar water vapor (TCWV) products derived from GOME/SCIA/GOME-2 (1996-2008) and SSM/I+MERIS (2003-2008) have been validated for the mentioned period, using satellite-based (AIRS, ATOVS) and ground-based measurements (radiosondes and microwave radiometer). The validation results are discussed in the following. The technical specifications on bias (1 kg/m{sup 2} for SSMI+MERIS and 2 kg/m{sup 2} for GOME/SCIA/GOME-2) are generally met. For more information, documents and data download follow the link: www.globvapour.info.

Schneider, Nadine; Schroeder, Marc; Stengel, Martin [Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD), KU22, Frankfurter Str. 135, 63067 Offenbach a. M (Germany); Lindstrot, Ramus; Preusker, Rene [Freie Universitaet Berlin (FUB), Carl-Heinrich-Becker-Weg 6-10, 12165 Berlin (Germany); Collaboration: ESA DUE GlobVapour Consortium

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

23

Water vapor and the dynamics of climate changes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water vapor is not only Earth's dominant greenhouse gas. Through the release of latent heat when it condenses, it also plays an active role in dynamic processes that shape the global circulation of the atmosphere and thus climate. Here we present an overview of how latent heat release affects atmosphere dynamics in a broad range of climates, ranging from extremely cold to extremely warm. Contrary to widely held beliefs, atmospheric circulation statistics can change non-monotonically with global-mean surface temperature, in part because of dynamic effects of water vapor. For example, the strengths of the tropical Hadley circulation and of zonally asymmetric tropical circulations, as well as the kinetic energy of extratropical baroclinic eddies, can be lower than they presently are both in much warmer climates and in much colder climates. We discuss how latent heat release is implicated in such circulation changes, particularly through its effect on the atmospheric static stability, and we illustrate the circul...

Schneider, Tapio; Levine, Xavier

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Final Report for ARM Project Measuring 4-D Water Vapor Fields with GPS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water vapor is a primary element in the Earths climate system. Atmospheric water vapor is central to cloud processes, radiation transfer, and the hydrological cycle. Using funding from Department of Energy (DOE) grant DE-FG03-02ER63327, the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) developed new observational techniques to measure atmospheric water vapor and applied these techniques to measure four dimensional water vapor fields throughout the United States Southern Great Plains region. This report summarizes the development of a new observation from ground based Global Positioning System (GPS) stations called Slant Water Vapor (SW) and its utilization in retrieving four dimensional water vapor fields. The SW observation represents the integrated amount of water vapor between a GPS station and a transmitting satellite. SW observations provide improved temporal and spatial sampling of the atmosphere when compared to column-integrated quantities such as preciptitable water vapor (PW). Under funding from the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, GPS networks in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) region were deployed to retrieve SW to improve the characterization of water vapor throughout the region. These observations were used to estimate four dimensional water vapor fields using tomographic approaches and through assimilation into the MM5 numerical weather model.

Braun, John

2006-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

25

An optical water vapor sensor for unmanned aerial vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The water vapor sensor developed by Aerodyne Research, based on the optical absorption of light at {approximately}935 nm, has been successfully demonstrated on board the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Gulfstream-1 research aircraft during the Department of Energy's ARM Intensive Operations Period in August 1998. Data taken during this field campaign show excellent agreement with a chilled mirror and Lyman-alpha hygrometers and measurements confirm the ability to measure rapid, absolute water vapor fluctuations with a high degree of instrument stability and accuracy, with a noise level as low 10 ppmv (1 Hz measurement bandwidth). The construction of this small, lightweight sensor contains several unique elements which result in several significant advantages when compared to other techniques. First, the low power consumption Argon discharge lamp provides an optical beam at a fixed wavelength without a need for temperature or precision current control. The multi-pass absorption cell developed for this instrument provides a compact, low cost method that can survive deployment in the field. Fiber-optic cables, which are used to convey to light between the absorption cell, light source, and detection modules enable remote placement of the absorption cell from the opto-electronics module. Finally, the sensor does not use any moving parts which removes a significant source of potential malfunction. The result is an instrument which maintained its calibration throughout the field measurement campaign, and was not affected by high vibration and large uncontrolled temperature excursions. We believe that the development of an accurate, fast response water vapor monitor described in this report will open up new avenues of aerial-vehicle-based atmospheric research which have been relatively unexplored due to the lack of suitable low-cost, light-weight instrumentation.

Timothy A. Berkoff; Paul L. Kebabian; Robert A. McClatchy; Charles E. Kolb; Andrew Freedman

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Moisture burst structure in satellite water vapor imagery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The moisture burst is a tropical synoptic-scale weather event that typically originates along the ITCZ and has been defined previously in window-channel infrared imagery. This research uses 6. 7-micrometer water vapor absorption band imagery to composite 35... moisture burst events during the North Pacific cool season of 1983-1984. Composite maps are constructed at four times, each 24 h apart, during the life cycle of the moisture burst. A comparative baseline is provided by an additional composite of 35 dates...

Ulsh, David Joel

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

enhanced) in water vapor. The distribution of water ice throughout the solar nebula may  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

enhanced) in water vapor. The distribution of water ice throughout the solar nebula may have varied Solar System (Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ, 1988), p. 348. The time scale for settling of solids that are a few hundred times greater than that of the canonical solar nebula (14). Turbulent

Utrecht, Universiteit

28

The Water Vapor Abundance in Orion KL Outflows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the detection and modeling of more than 70 far-IR pure rotational lines of water vapor, including the 18O and 17O isotopologues, towards Orion KL. Observations were performed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer Fabry-Perot (LWS/FP; R~6800-9700) on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) between ~43 and ~197 um. The water line profiles evolve from P-Cygni type profiles (even for the H2O18 lines) to pure emission at wavelengths above ~100 um. We find that most of the water emission/absorption arises from an extended flow of gas expanding at 25+-5 kms^-1. Non-local radiative transfer models show that much of the water excitation and line profile formation is driven by the dust continuum emission. The derived beam averaged water abundance is 2-3x10^-5. The inferred gas temperature Tk=80-100 K suggests that: (i) water could have been formed in the "plateau" by gas phase neutral-neutral reactions with activation barriers if the gas was previously heated (e.g. by shocks) to >500 K and/or (ii) H2O formation in the outflow is dominated by in-situ evaporation of grain water-ice mantles and/or (iii) H2O was formed in the innermost and warmer regions (e.g. the hot core) and was swept up in ~1000 yr, the dynamical timescale of the outflow.

J. Cernicharo; J. R. Goicoechea; F. Daniel; M. R. Lerate; M. J. Barlow; B. M. Swinyard; E. van Dishoeck; T. L. Lim; S. Viti; J. Yates

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

29

Cold Water Vapor in the Barnard 5 Molecular Cloud  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

After more than 30 years of investigations, the nature of gas-grain interactions at low temperatures remains an unresolved issue in astrochemistry. Water ice is the dominant ice found in cold molecular clouds, however, there is only one region where cold (~10 K) water vapor has been detected - L1544. This study aims to shed light on ice desorption mechanisms under cold cloud conditions by expanding the sample. The clumpy distribution of methanol in dark clouds testifies to transient desorption processes at work -- likely to also disrupt water ice mantles. Therefore, the Herschel HIFI instrument was used to search for cold water in a small sample of prominent methanol emission peaks. We report detections of the ground-state transition of o-H2O (J = 1_10 - 1_01) at 556.9360 GHz toward two positions in the cold molecular cloud Barnard 5. The relative abundances of methanol and water gas support a desorption mechanism which disrupts the outer ice mantle layers, rather than causing complete mantle removal.

Wirstrm, E S; Persson, C M; Buckle, J V; Cordiner, M A; Takakuwa, S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Water, Vapor, and Salt Dynamics in a Hot Repository  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a new model study examining the high temperature nuclear waste disposal concept at Yucca Mountain using MULTIFLUX, an integrated in-drift- and mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic model. The results show that a large amount of vapor flow into the drift is expected during the period of above-boiling temperatures. This phenomenon makes the emplacement drift a water/moisture attractor during the above-boiling temperature operation. The evaporation of the percolation water into the drift gives rise to salt accumulation in the rock wall, especially in the crown of the drift for about 1500 years in the example. The deposited salts over the drift footprint, almost entirely present in the fractures, may enter the drift either by rock fall or by water drippage. During the high temperature operation mode, the barometric pressure variation creates fluctuating relative humidity in the emplacement drift with a time period of approximately 10 days. Potentially wet and dry conditions and condensation on salt-laden drift wall sections may adversely affect the storage environment. Salt accumulations during the above-boiling temperature operation must be sufficiently addressed to fully understand the waste package environment during the thermal period. Until the questions are resolved, a below-boiling repository design is favored where the Alloy-22 will be less susceptible to localized corrosion. (authors)

Bahrami, Davood; Danko, George [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, 1664 N. Virginia St., Reno, NV, 89557 (United States); Walton, John [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University, El Paso, TX, 79968 (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Chem. Mater. 1995, 7, 2269-2272 2269 Water Vapor Adsorption on Chemically Treated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chem. Mater. 1995, 7, 2269-2272 2269 Water Vapor Adsorption on Chemically Treated Activated Carbon August 25, 1995@ Water vapor adsorption on activated carbon cloth (ACCBO)which has been oxidized% Cl), and ACCBO (4% N), exhibits sigmoidal isotherms with hysteresis loops of varying magnitudes

Cal, Mark P.

32

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria for methanol + ethanol + water and the three constituent binary systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for methanol + ethanol + water and its three constituent binary systems methanol + ethanol, ethanol + water, and methanol + water were measured at 101.3 kPa using a liquid-vapor ebullition-type equilibrium still. The experimental binary data were correlated by the NRTL equation. The ternary system methanol + ethanol + water was predicted by means of the binary NRTL parameters with good accuracy.

Kurihara, Kiyofumi; Nakamichi, Mikiyoshi; Kojima, Kazuo (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry)

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Millimeter-wave Radiometer for High Sensitivity Water Vapor Profiling in Arid Regions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract - ProSensing Inc. has developed a G-band (183 GHz) water Vapor Radiometer (GVR) for long-term, unattended measurements of low concentrations of atmospheric water vapor and liquid water. Precipitable water vapor and liquid water path are estimated from zenith brightness temperatures measured from four double-sideband receiver channels, centered at 183.31 1, 3 and 7, and 14 GHz. A prototype ground-based version of the instrument was deployed at the DOE ARM program?s North Slope of Alaska site near Barrow AK in April 2005, where it collected data continuously for one year. A compact, airborne version of this instrument, packaged to operate from a standard 2-D PMS probe canister, has been tested on the ground and is scheduled for test flights in the summer of 2006. This paper presents design details, laboratory test results and examples of retrieved precipitable water vapor and liquid water path from measured brightness temperature data.

Pazmany, Andrew

2006-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

34

Measurements of water vapor adsorption on the Geysers rocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ORNL high temperature isopiestic apparatus was adapted for adsorption measurements. The quantity of water retained by rock samples taken from three different wells of The Geysers was measured at 150 C and at 200 C as a function of pressure in the range 0.00 ? p/p0 ? 0.98, where p0 is the saturated water vapor pressure. The rocks were crushed and sieved into three fractions of different grain sizes (with different specific surface areas). Both adsorption (increasing pressure) and desorption (decreasing pressure) runs were made in order to investigate the nature and extent of the hysteresis. Additionally, BET surface area analyses were performed by Porous Materials Inc. on the same rock samples using nitrogen or krypton adsorption measurements at 77 K. Specific surface areas and pore volumes were determined. These parameters are important in estimating water retention capability of a porous material. The same laboratory also determined the densities of the samples by helium pycnometry. Their results were then compared with our own density values obtained by measuring the effect of buoyancy in compressed argon. One of the goals of this project is to determine the dependence of the water retention capacity of the rocks as a function of temperature. The results show a significant dependence of the adsorption and desorption isotherms on the grain size of the sample. The increase in the amount of water retained with temperature observed previously (Shang et al., 1994a, 1994b, 1995) between 90 and 130C for various reservoir rocks from The Geysers may be due to the contribution of slow chemical adsorption and may be dependent on the time allowed for equilibration. In contrast with the results of Shang et al. (1994a, 1994b, 1995), some closed and nearly closed hysteresis loops on the water adsorption/desorption isotherms (with closing points at p/p0 ? 0.6) were obtained in this study. In these cases the effects of activated processes were not present, and no increase in water adsorption with temperature was observed

Gruszkiewicz, Miroslaw S.; Horita, Juske; Simonson, John M.; Mesmer, Robert E.

1996-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

35

ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, VOL. 24, NO. 3, 2007, 509526 Variational Assimilation of GPS Precipitable Water Vapor and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Precipitable Water Vapor and Hourly Rainfall Observations for a Meso- Scale Heavy Precipitation Event During Atmospheric water vapor plays a significant role in numerical weather predictions (NWP) of heavy rain- fall of the precipitable water vapor (PWV) from delayed signals transmitted by GPS satellites, which can be assimilated

36

Final Scientific/Technical Report. A closed path methane and water vapor gas analyzer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Robust, economical, low-power and reliable closed-path methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor (H2O) analyzers suitable for long-term measurements are not readily available commercially. Such analyzers are essential for quantifying the amount of CH4 and CO2 released from various ecosystems (wetlands, rice paddies, forests, etc.) and other surface contexts (e.g. landfills, animal husbandry lots, etc.), and for understanding the dynamics of the atmospheric CH4 and CO2 budget and their impact on climate change and global warming. The purpose of this project is to develop a closed-path methane, carbon dioxide gas and water vapor analyzer capable of long-term measurements in remote areas for global climate change and environmental research. The analyzer will be capable of being deployed over a wide range of ecosystems to understand methane and carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and the surface. Measurements of methane and carbon dioxide exchange need to be made all year-round with limited maintenance requirements. During this Phase II effort, we successfully completed the design of the electronics, optical bench, trace gas detection method and mechanical infrastructure. We are using the technologies of two vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, a multiple-pass Herriott optical cell, wavelength modulation spectroscopy and direct absorption to measure methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. We also have designed the instrument application software, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), along with partial completion of the embedded software. The optical bench has been tested in a lab setting with very good results. Major sources of optical noise have been identified and through design, the optical noise floor is approaching -60dB. Both laser modules can be temperature controlled to help maximize the stability of the analyzer. Additionally, a piezo electric transducer has been utilized to randomize the noise introduced from potential etalons. It is expected that all original specifications contained within the initial proposal will be met. We are currently in the beginning stages of assembling the first generation prototypes and finalizing the remaining design elements. The first prototypes will initially be tested in our environmental calibration chamber in which specific gas concentrations, temperature and humidity levels can be controlled. Once operation in this controlled setting is verified, the prototypes will be deployed at LI-COR?¢????s Experimental Research Station (LERS). Deployment at the LERS site will test the instrument?¢????s robustness in a real-world situation.

Liukang, Xu; Dayle, McDermitt; Tyler, Anderson; Brad, Riensche; Anatoly, Komissarov; Julie, Howe

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Latitudinal survey of middle atmospheric water vapor revealed by shipboard microwave spectroscopy. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water vapor is one of the most important greenhouse gases and is an important tracer of atmospheric motions in the middle atmosphere. It also plays an important role in the chemistry of the middle atmosphere and through its photodissociation by solar radiation, it is the major source of hydrogen escaping to space. Ground-based microwave measurements conducted in the 1980s have provided a fair understanding of the seasonal variation of mesospheric water vapor in the northern hemisphere mid-latitudes, but the global distribution of water vapor in the middle atmosphere is only beginning to be revealed by space-based measurements.

Schrader, M.L.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Liquid-phase and vapor-phase dehydration of organic/water solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Processes for dehydrating an organic/water solution by pervaporation or vapor separation using fluorinated membranes. The processes are particularly useful for treating mixtures containing light organic components, such as ethanol, isopropanol or acetic acid.

Huang, Yu (Palo Alto, CA); Ly, Jennifer (San Jose, CA); Aldajani, Tiem (San Jose, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

39

Temperature and water vapor pressure effects on the friction coefficient of hydrogenated diamondlike carbon films.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microtribological measurements of a hydrogenated diamondlike carbon film in controlled gaseous environments show that water vapor plays a significant role in the friction coefficient. These experiments reveal an initial high friction transient behavior that does not reoccur even after extended periods of exposure to low partial pressures of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2}. Experiments varying both water vapor pressure and sample temperature show trends of a decreasing friction coefficient as a function of both the decreasing water vapor pressure and the increasing substrate temperature. Theses trends are examined with regard to first order gas-surface interactions. Model fits give activation energies on the order of 40 kJ/mol, which is consistent with water vapor desorption.

Dickrell, P. L.; Sawyer, W. G.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Erdemir, A.; Energy Technology; Univ. of Florida

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

An Analysis of Cloud Cover and Water Vapor for the ALMA Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Chile), Chalviri (Bolivia) and Five Sites in Argentina using Satellite Data and a Verification and water vapor at Chajnantor (Chile), Chalviri (Bolivia) and four sites in Argentina. Since time

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor trace" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Models of the atmospheric water vapor budget for the Texas HIPLEX area: by Steven Francis Williams.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

co:erage cf. convective activ' ty, Thus, the em&unt of convection seems to be more important than the type oz pr"se. . ce of convective activi!y. An increased tran:port of water vapor near ti e surface is -hown to be an important factor... of watc-. z vapor tnrough each later, l boundary shown in Fig. 1 can be comput d by substituting Eqs. (16) ? (19), reaper tively, into Eq. (14) . Th ' net transport of water vapor 'nt the volume through la+eral oouccdaries or t?:e net horizontal tran:;port...

Williams, Steven Francis

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Effect of atmospheric water vapor on modification of stable isotopes in near-surface snow on ice sheets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperature and the abundance of heavy isotopes of water found in water vapor and precipitation as functionsEffect of atmospheric water vapor on modification of stable isotopes in near-surface snow on ice fractionation model is developed to investigate postdepositional modification of stable isotopes of water

Walden, Von P.

43

GEOSTAR-II: A PROTOTYPE WATER VAPOR IMAGER/SOUNDER FOR THE PATH Todd Gaier1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GEOSTAR-II: A PROTOTYPE WATER VAPOR IMAGER/SOUNDER FOR THE PATH MISSION Todd Gaier1 , Bjorn Lambrigtsen1 , Pekka Kangaslahti1 , Boon Lim1 , Alan Tanner1 , Dennis Harding1 , Heather Owen1 , Mary Soria1 GHz water line. The preferred concept to meet this requirement is an interferometric imager

Ruf, Christopher

44

Raman lidar profiling of water vapor and aerosols over the ARM SGP Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have developed and implemented automated algorithms to retrieve profiles of water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol backscattering, and aerosol extinction from Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman Lidar data acquired during both daytime and nighttime operations. The Raman lidar sytem is unique in that it is turnkey, automated system designed for unattended, around-the-clock profiling of water vapor and aerosols. These Raman lidar profiles are important for determining the clear-sky radiative flux, as well as for validating the retrieval algorithms associated with satellite sensors. Accurate, high spatial and temporal resolution profiles of water vapor are also required for assimilation into mesoscale models to improve weather forecasts. The authors have also developed and implemented routines to simultaneously retrieve profiles of relative humidity. These routines utilize the water vapor mixing ratio profiles derived from the Raman lidar measurements together with temperature profiles derived from a physical retrieval algorithm that uses data from a collocated Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). These aerosol and water vapor profiles (Raman lidar) and temperature profiles (AERI+GOES) have been combined into a single product that takes advantage of both active and passive remote sensors to characterize the clear sky atmospheric state above the CART site.

Ferrare, R.A.

2000-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

45

RAMAN LIDAR PROFILING OF WATER VAPOR AND AEROSOLS OVER THE ARM SGP SITE.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed and implemented automated algorithms to retrieve profiles of water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol backscattering, and aerosol extinction from Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman Lidar data acquired during both daytime and nighttime operations. This Raman lidar system is unique in that it is turnkey, automated system designed for unattended, around-the-clock profiling of water vapor and aerosols (Goldsmith et al., 1998). These Raman lidar profiles are important for determining the clear-sky radiative flux, as well as for validating the retrieval algorithms associated with satellite sensors. Accurate, high spatial and temporal resolution profiles of water vapor are also required for assimilation into mesoscale models to improve weather forecasts. We have also developed and implemented routines to simultaneously retrieve profiles of relative humidity. These routines utilize the water vapor mixing ratio profiles derived from the Raman lidar measurements together with temperature profiles derived from a physical retrieval algorithm that uses data from a collocated Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) (Feltz et al., 1998; Turner et al., 1999). These aerosol and water vapor profiles (Raman lidar) and temperature profiles (AERI+GOES) have been combined into a single product that takes advantage of both active and passive remote sensors to characterize the clear sky atmospheric state above the CART site.

FERRARE,R.A.

2000-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

46

The Impact of Thermal Conductivity and Diffusion Rates on Water Vapor Transport through Gas Diffusion Layers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water management in a hydrogen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is critical for performance. The impact of thermal conductivity and water vapor diffusion coefficients in a gas diffusion layer (GDL) has been studied by a mathematical model. The fraction of product water that is removed in the vapour phase through the GDL as a function of GDL properties and operating conditions has been calculated and discussed. Furthermore, the current model enables identification of conditions when condensation occurs in each GDL component and calculation of temperature gradient across the interface between different layers, providing insight into the overall mechanism of water transport in a given cell design. Water transport mode and condensation conditions in the GDL components depend on the combination of water vapor diffusion coefficients and thermal conductivities of the GDL components. Different types of GDL and water removal scenarios have been identified and related to experimentally-determined GDL proper...

Burlatsky, S F; Gummallaa, M; Condita, D; Liua, F

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Materials, methods and devices to detect and quantify water vapor concentrations in an atmosphere  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

We have demonstrated that a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor coated with a nanoporous framework material (NFM) film can perform ultrasensitive water vapor detection at concentrations in air from 0.05 to 12,000 ppmv at 1 atmosphere pressure. The method is extendable to other MEMS-based sensors, such as microcantilevers, or to quartz crystal microbalance sensors. We identify a specific NFM that provides high sensitivity and selectivity to water vapor. However, our approach is generalizable to detection of other species using NFM to provide sensitivity and selectivity.

Allendorf, Mark D; Robinson, Alex L

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

48

A NORMETEX MODEL 15 M3/HR WATER VAPOR PUMPING TEST  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tests were performed using a Model 15 m{sup 3}/hr Normetex vacuum pump to determine if pump performance degraded after pumping a humid gas stream. An air feed stream containing 30% water vapor was introduced into the pump for 365 hours with the outlet pressure of the pump near the condensation conditions of the water. Performance of the pump was tested before and after the water vapor pumping test and indicated no loss in performance of the pump. The pump also appeared to tolerate small amounts of condensed water of short duration without increased noise, vibration, or other adverse indications. The Normetex pump was backed by a dual-head diaphragm pump which was affected by the condensation of water and produced some drift in operating conditions during the test.

Klein, J.; Fowley, M.; Steeper, T.

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

49

FIRST DETECTION OF WATER VAPOR IN A PRE-STELLAR CORE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water is a crucial molecule in molecular astrophysics as it controls much of the gas/grain chemistry, including the formation and evolution of more complex organic molecules in ices. Pre-stellar cores provide the original reservoir of material from which future planetary systems are built, but few observational constraints exist on the formation of water and its partitioning between gas and ice in the densest cores. Thanks to the high sensitivity of the Herschel Space Observatory, we report on the first detection of water vapor at high spectral resolution toward a dense cloud on the verge of star formation, the pre-stellar core L1544. The line shows an inverse P-Cygni profile, characteristic of gravitational contraction. To reproduce the observations, water vapor has to be present in the cold and dense central few thousand AU of L1544, where species heavier than helium are expected to freeze out onto dust grains, and the ortho:para H{sub 2} ratio has to be around 1:1 or larger. The observed amount of water vapor within the core (about 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M{sub Sun }) can be maintained by far-UV photons locally produced by the impact of galactic cosmic rays with H{sub 2} molecules. Such FUV photons irradiate the icy mantles, liberating water vapor in the core center. Our Herschel data, combined with radiative transfer and chemical/dynamical models, shed light on the interplay between gas and solids in dense interstellar clouds and provide the first measurement of the water vapor abundance profile across the parent cloud of a future solar-type star and its potential planetary system.

Caselli, Paola; Douglas, Thomas [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Keto, Eric [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bergin, Edwin A. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Tafalla, Mario [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional (IGN), Calle Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Aikawa, Yuri [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kobe University, Nada, 657-8501 Kobe (Japan); Pagani, Laurent [LERMA and UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Av. de l'Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Yildiz, Umut A.; Kristensen, Lars E.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Van der Tak, Floris F. S. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV, Groningen (Netherlands); Walmsley, C. Malcolm; Codella, Claudio [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Nisini, Brunella, E-mail: p.caselli@leeds.ac.uk [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy)

2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

50

Time domain measurement of the THz refractivity of water vapor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

region," Metrologia 18(2), 49­52 (1982). 7. R. J. Hill and R. S. Lawrence, "Refractive index of water

Oklahoma State University

51

IUPAC critical evaluation of the rotationalvibrational spectra of water vapor. Part I--Energy levels and transition wavenumbers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Keywords: Water vapor Transition wavenumbers Atmospheric physics Energy levels MARVEL Information systemIUPAC critical evaluation of the rotationalvibrational spectra of water vapor. Part I--Energy levels and transition wavenumbers for H2 17 O and H2 18 O Jonathan Tennyson a,, Peter F. Bernath b

Chance, Kelly

52

Orbital apocenter is not a sufficient condition for HST/STIS detection of Europa's water vapor aurora  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aurora Lorenz Rotha,b,1 , Kurt D. Retherforda , Joachim Saurc , Darrell F. Strobeld,e , Paul D. Feldmane that the discovery of a water vapor aurora in Decem- ber 2012 by local hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) emissions by our 2014 STIS observations. Europa | Hubble Space Telescope | aurora | water vapor plumes | Jupiter

Nimmo, Francis

53

The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured at Armagh, 18812000  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured in atmospheric circulation, are discussed. Citation: Stanhill, G. (2011), The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured at Armagh, 1881­2000, J. Geophys. Res., 116

54

Water vapor on supergiants. The 12 micron TEXES spectra of mu Cephei  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Several recent papers have argued for warm, semi-detached, molecular layers surrounding red giant and supergiant stars, a concept known as a MOLsphere. Spectroscopic and interferometric analyses have often corroborated this general picture. Here, we present high-resolution spectroscopic data of pure rotational lines of water vapor at 12 microns for the supergiant mu Cephei. This star has often been used to test the concept of molecular layers around supergiants. Given the prediction of an isothermal, optically thick water-vapor layer in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium around the star (MOLsphere), we expected the 12 micron lines to be in emission or at least in absorption but filled in by emission from the molecular layer around the star. Our data, however, show the contrary; we find definite absorption. Thus, our data do not easily fit into the suggested isothermal MOLsphere scenario. The 12 micron lines, therefore, put new, strong constraints on the MOLsphere concept and on the nature of water seen in signatures across the spectra of early M supergiants. We also find that the absorption is even stronger than that calculated from a standard, spherically symmetric model photosphere without any surrounding layers. A cool model photosphere, representing cool outer layers is, however, able to reproduce the lines, but this model does not account for water vapor emission at 6 microns. Thus, a unified model for water vapor on mu Cephei appears to be lacking. It does seem necessary to model the underlying photospheres of these supergiants in their whole complexity. The strong water vapor lines clearly reveal inadequacies of classical model atmospheres.

N. Ryde; M. J. Richter; G. M. Harper; K. Eriksson; D. L. Lambert

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

55

investigating the source, transport, and isotope fractionation of water vapor in the atmospheric boundary layer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

investigating the source, transport, and isotope fractionation of water vapor in the atmospheric-portable mixing ratio generator and Rayleigh distillation device, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 150, 1607 ratio generator. Incom- ing dry air passes through a molecular sieve and then a stainless steel frit (a

Minnesota, University of

56

Water Vapor and Mechanical Work: A Comparison of Carnot and Steam Cycles OLIVIER PAULUIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by the corresponding Carnot cycle. The Carnot and steam cycles can be combined into a mixed cycle that is forcedWater Vapor and Mechanical Work: A Comparison of Carnot and Steam Cycles OLIVIER PAULUIS Center in the atmosphere is discussed here by comparing two idealized heat engines: the Carnot cycle and the steam cycle

Pauluis, Olivier M.

57

Water Vapor Radiometry : Outline of Goals and Tasks for the Spring Semester 2001  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that can accu­ rately measure the spectrum of the water vapor emis­ sion. The current receivers follow, as in a conventional re­ ceiver, the correlation receiver splits the rf signal into two with a splitter that follows the feed horn. Both branches are mixed with a carefully controlled ther­ mal load. A 180 ffi phase shift

Backer, Don

58

Summary Weusedthreemethodstomeasureboundarylayer conductance to heat transfer (gbH) and water vapor transfer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Summary Weusedthreemethodstomeasureboundarylayer conductance to heat transfer (gbH) and water vapor of transpiration). The boundary layer conductance to heat transfer is small enough that leaf temperature can become diffusion, the boundary layer around a leaf also provides resistance to the transfer of heat between a leaf

Martin, Timothy

59

2.1 RAMAN LIDAR PROFILING OF WATER VAPOR AND AEROSOLS OVER THE ARM SGP SITE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with satellite sensors. Accurate, high spatial and temporal resolution profiles of water vapor are also required+GOES) have been combined into a single product that takes advantage of both active and passive remote sensors with the use of narrowband (~0.4 nm bandpass) filters, reduces the background skylight and, therefore

60

IUPAC critical evaluation of the rotationalvibrational spectra of water vapor, Part III: Energy levels and transition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rotational vibrational line positions, transition intensities, and energy levels, with associated critically. These transitions give rise to 18 486 validated energy levels, of which 10 446 and 8040 belong to o-H2 16 O and p-H2IUPAC critical evaluation of the rotationalvibrational spectra of water vapor, Part III: Energy

Chance, Kelly

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor trace" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 'Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds' project focused extensively on the analysis and utilization of water vapor and aerosol profiles derived from the ARM Raman lidar at the Southern Great Plains ARM site. A wide range of different tasks were performed during this project, all of which improved quality of the data products derived from the lidar or advanced the understanding of atmospheric processes over the site. These activities included: upgrading the Raman lidar to improve its sensitivity; participating in field experiments to validate the lidar aerosol and water vapor retrievals; using the lidar aerosol profiles to evaluate the accuracy of the vertical distribution of aerosols in global aerosol model simulations; examining the correlation between relative humidity and aerosol extinction, and how these change, due to horizontal distance away from cumulus clouds; inferring boundary layer turbulence structure in convective boundary layers from the high-time-resolution lidar water vapor measurements; retrieving cumulus entrainment rates in boundary layer cumulus clouds; and participating in a field experiment that provided data to help validate both the entrainment rate retrievals and the turbulent profiles derived from lidar observations.

Turner, David, D.; Ferrare, Richard, A.

2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

62

Forced Dispersion of Liquefied Natural Gas Vapor Clouds with Water Spray Curtain Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.............................................................................................................................. 211 xv LIST OF FIGURES Page Fig. 1. Densities of methane (vapor) and air at different temperatures. .......................... 2 Fig. 2. Temperature and specific gravity of methane, air and methane-air mixture at atmospheric... on methane concentration downwind of the LNG pool ..................................................................................................... 37 Fig. 10. Methane concentrations downwind of the LNG pool, with and without water spray...

Rana, Morshed A.

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

63

Water vapor variability in the tropics and its links to dynamics and precipitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dioxide doubling [e.g., Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2001]. This uncertainty stems P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia Richard P. Allan to understanding feedbacks and processes operating within the climate system. Column-integrated water vapor (CWV

Allan, Richard P.

64

Measurement of Water Vapor Concentration using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tunable diode laser spectroscopy and the Beer-Lambert relation has been used to measure the absorption of water vapor both in an absorption cell and in a shock tube. The purpose of this thesis is to develop a laser diagnostic capable of determining...

Barrett, Alexander B.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

65

Trace metal contamination of waters, sediments, and organisms of the Swan Lake area of Galveston Bay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

facility (Gulf Coast Waste Disposal Authority) is located north of the Wah Chang Ditch. Consequently there have been concerns about possible metal contamination in this area. I determined trace metal concentrations in water, sediments, and organisms (oyster...

Park, Junesoo

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Distribution of trace elements in waters and sediments of the Seversky Donets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are affected by the extensive multiple water uses (iron ore-mining processes, heavy and light manufacturing, power, industrial and drinking water supply infrastructures, agriculture, aquaculture) and urban inputsDistribution of trace elements in waters and sediments of the Seversky Donets transboundary

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

67

Modeling Harry's Brook Watershed Alexandra Konings, REU 2006 Tracing the Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Undergraduates, 2006 #12;Modeling Harry's Brook Watershed Alexandra Konings, REU 2006 Urban Hydrology Water's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) Solves differential and algebraic equations involved in calculatingModeling Harry's Brook Watershed Alexandra Konings, REU 2006 Tracing the Water: Detailed Modeling

Petta, Jason

68

Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of this contract, we participated in another ARM-sponsored experiment at the NSA during February-March 2007. This experiment is called the Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC) and the GSR was operated successfully for the duration of the campaign. One of the principal goals of the experiment was to provide retrievals of water vapor during PWV amounts less than 2 mm and to compare GSR data with ARM radiometers and radiosondes. A secondary goal was to compare the radiometric response of the microwave and millimeter wavelength radiometers to water and ice clouds. In this final report, we will include the separate progress reports for each of the three years of the project and follow with a section on major accomplishments of the project.

Westwater, Edgeworth

2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

69

Energy and water vapor transport across a simplified cloud-clear air interface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider a simplified physics of the could interface where condensation, evaporation and radiation are neglected and momentum, thermal energy and water vapor transport is represented in terms of the Boussinesq model coupled to a passive scalar transport equation for the vapor. The interface is modeled as a layer separating two isotropic turbulent regions with different kinetic energy and vapor concentration. In particular, we focus on the small scale part of the inertial range as well as on the dissipative range of scales which are important to the micro-physics of warm clouds. We have numerically investigated stably stratified interfaces by locally perturbing at an initial instant the standard temperature lapse rate at the cloud interface and then observing the temporal evolution of the system. When the buoyancy term becomes of the same order of the inertial one, we observe a spatial redistribution of the kinetic energy which produce a concomitant pit of kinetic energy within the mixing layer. In this sit...

Gallana, Luca; De Santi, Francesca; Iovieno, Michele; Tordella, Daniela

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Vapor-liquid equilibria of the water + 1,3-propanediol and water + 1,3-propanediol + lithium bromide systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vapor-liquid equilibrium data of the water + 1,3-propanediol and water + 1,3-propanediol + lithium bromide systems were measured at 60, 160, 300, and 760 mmHg at temperatures ranging from 315 to 488 K. The apparatus used in this work is a modified still especially designed for the measurement of low-pressure VLE, in which both liquid and vapor are continuously recirculated. For the analysis of salt-containing solutions, a method incorporating refractometry and gravimetry was used. From the experimental measurements, the effect of lithium bromide on the VLE behavior of water + 1,3-propanediol was investigated. The experimental data of the salt-free system were successfully correlated using the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC models. In addition, the extended UNIQUAC model of Sander et al. was applied to the VLE calculation of salt-containing mixtures.

Mun, S.Y.; Lee, H.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Remote sensing of total integrated water vapor, wind speed, and cloud liquid water over the ocean using the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A modified D-matrix retrieval method is the basis of the refined total integrated water vapor (TIWV), total integrated cloud liquid water (CLW), and surface wind speed (WS) retrieval methods that are developed. The 85 GHZ polarization difference...

Manning, Norman Willis William

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

72

Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

The Effects of Water Vapor and Hydrogen on the High-Temperature Oxidation of Alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Essentially all alloys and coatings that are resistant to corrosion at high temperature require the formation of a protective (slowly-growing and adherent) oxide layer by a process known as selective oxidation. The fundamental understanding of this process has been developed over the years for exposure in pure oxygen or air. However, the atmospheres in most applications contain significant amounts of water vapor which can greatly modify the behavior of protective oxides. The development of oxy-fuel combustion systems in which fossil fuels are burned in a mixture of recirculated flue gas and oxygen, rather than in air, has caused renewed interest in the effects of water vapor and steam on alloy oxidation. The focus of this paper is on the ways the presence of water vapor can directly alter the selective oxidation process. The paper begins with a brief review of the fundamentals of selective oxidation followed by a description of recent experimental results regarding the effect of water vapor on the oxidation of a variety of chromia-forming alloys (Fe- and Ni-base) in the temperature range 600 to 700 C. The atmospheres include air, air-H{sub 2}O, Ar-H{sub 2}O and Ar-H{sub 2}O-O{sub 2}. Then the behavior of alumina-forming alloys in H{sub 2}O-containing atmospheres is briefly described. As hydrogen is produced during oxidation of alloys in H{sub 2}O, it can be released back into the gas phase or injected into the metal (where it can diffuse through to the other side). Experiments in which hydrogen concentrations have been measured on both sides of thin specimens during oxidation by H{sub 2}O on only one side are described. Finally, it is attempted to catalogue the various experimental observations under a few general principles.

Mu, N.; Jung, K.; Yanar, N. M.; Pettit, F. S; Holcomb, G. R.; Howard, B. H.; Meier, G. H.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Short-range precipitation forecasts using assimilation of simulated satellite water vapor profiles and column cloud liquid water amounts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These observing system simulation experiments investigate the assimilation of satellite-observed water vapor and cloud liquid water data in the initialization of a limited-area primitive equations model with the goal of improving short-range precipitation forecasts. The assimilation procedure presented includes two aspects: specification of an initial cloud liquid water vertical distribution and diabatic initialization. The satellite data is simulated for the next generation of polar-orbiting satellite instruments, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the High-Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS), which are scheduled to be launched on the NOAA-K satellite in the mid-1990s. Based on cloud-top height and total column cloud liquid water amounts simulated for satellite data a diagnostic method is used to specify an initial cloud water vertical distribution and to modify the initial moisture distribution in cloudy areas. Using a diabatic initialization procedure, the associated latent heating profiles are directly assimilated into the numerical model. The initial heating is estimated by time averaging the latent heat release from convective and large-scale condensation during the early forecast stage after insertion of satellite-observed temperature, water vapor, and cloud water formation.

Wu, X.; Diak, G.R.; Hayden, C.M.; Young, J.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Response of water vapor to interannual variations of SST: Results from NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM2)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper very briefly documents the response of water vapor to interannual changes in sea surface temperature (SST) in two of the most frequently used climate models: the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) community climate model (CCM2) and the GFDL spectral model (R30). The corresponding results from radiosonde data are also presented for reference. A simple linear regression model is used to quantify the response of water vapor to changes in SST in the two simulations. Except for the negative response of water vapor over Australia, CCM2 simulates the major characteristics in the horizontal structure of the water vapor response shown in the radiosonde data. The negative response of water over Australia is also not well simulated by GFDL R30. In addition, GFDL R30 significantly underestimates the positive response over the Indian Ocean. The horizontal contrasts between the negative response over the western Pacific and the positive response over the central and eastern Pacific in the model simulations are larger than in the radiosonde data. The negative response in the subtropical region in CCM2 is more pronounced than in R30. Averaged over the tropics, CCM2 has a larger water vapor response in both the boundary layer and the upper troposphere than R30. The correlations between variations of water vapor in the upper troposphere and those at the surface level are also stronger in CCM2 than in R30. 2 refs., 5 figs.

Sun, De-Zheng [National Center For Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Orographic Precipitation and Water Vapor Fractionation over the Southern Andes RONALD B. SMITH AND JASON P. EVANS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Orographic Precipitation and Water Vapor Fractionation over the Southern Andes RONALD B. SMITH (Smith and Barstad 2004) to predict the patterns of orographic pre- Corresponding author address: Ronald B. Smith, Depa

Evans, Jason

77

Calculation of the Dimer Equilibrium Constant of Heavy Water Saturated Vapor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water is the most common substance on Earth.The discovery of heavy water and its further study have shown that the change of hydrogen for deuterium leads to the significant differences in their properties.The triple point temperature of heavy water is higher,at the same time the critical temperature is lower.Experimental values of the second virial coefficient of the EOS for the vapor of normal and heavy water differ at all temperatures.This fact can influence the values of the dimerization constant for the heavy water vapor.The equilibrium properties of the dimerization process are described with the methods of chemical thermodynamics.The chemical potentials for monomers (m) and dimers (d)are the functions of their concentrations.The interactions of monomer-dimer and dimer-dimer types are taken into account within the solution of equation for chemical potentials.The obtained expression for the dimerization constant contains the contributions of these types.The averaged potentials are modeled by the Sutherlan...

Bulavin, L A; Makhlaichuk, V N

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Effect of calcium nitrate on the vapor-liquid equilibria of ethanol + water and 2-propanol + water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of calcium nitrate on the vapor-liquid equilibria of ethanol + water and 2-propanol + water was studied using a Swietoslawski ebulliometer. The measurements were performed for two constant salt molalities (1 and 2 mol[center dot]kg[sup [minus]1]) under isobaric conditions at 50.66 kPa. Strong salting-out of the alcohol was observed in all cases, leading to a complete elimination of the azeotropic point at relatively low salt concentrations. The results were correlated using an extension of the NRTL equation for mixed solvent electrolyte systems proposed by Mock, Evans, and Chen.

Polka, H.M.; Gmehling, J. (Univ. of Oldenburg (Germany). Chair of Industrial Chemistry)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Trace metals in tap water from Tehran, Iran  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A total of 272 tap water samples were collected from 68 homes throughout the city of Tehran. Analysis for cadmium, zinc, lead, copper, arsenic, iron and manganese showed some accumulation of these metals in household piping overnight. However, the concentration of all metals was in the parts per billion (ug/l) range and well below international standards. Heavy metals in Tehran's drinking water therefore, do not pose a significant acute health hazard. 19 references, 2 tables.

Shariatpanahi, M.; Anderson, A.C.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

A New Approach to Tracing Particulates from Produced Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in comparison with three suggest that the heavy metals in produced water may be more toxic than originally of buoyant particles com- prised of heavy metal precipitates sequestered onto oil droplets that were is diluted with seawater. These precipitates are more toxic than the dissolved fraction, can flocculate

Taggart, Christopher

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor trace" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Oxidation of zirconium alloys in 2.5 kPa water vapor for tritium readiness.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A more reactive liner material is needed for use as liner and cruciform material in tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBAR) in commercial light water nuclear reactors (CLWR). The function of these components is to convert any water that is released from the Li-6 enriched lithium aluminate breeder material to oxide and hydrogen that can be gettered, thus minimizing the permeation of tritium into the reactor coolant. Fourteen zirconium alloys were exposed to 2.5 kPa water vapor in a helium stream at 300 C over a period of up to 35 days. Experimental alloys with aluminum, yttrium, vanadium, titanium, and scandium, some of which also included ternaries with nickel, were included along with a high nitrogen impurity alloy and the commercial alloy Zircaloy-2. They displayed a reactivity range of almost 500, with Zircaloy-2 being the least reactive.

Mills, Bernice E.

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Near-infrared diode laser absorption diagnostic for temperature and water vapor in a scramjet combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tunable diode laser absorption measurements of gas temperature and water concentration were made at the exit of a model scramjet combustor fueled on JP-7. Multiplexed, fiber-coupled, near-infrared distributed feedback lasers were used to probe three water vapor absorption features in the 1.34-1.47 {mu}m spectral region (2v1and v1+ v3overtone bands). Ratio thermometry was performed using direct-absorption wavelength scans of isolated features at a 4-kHz repetition rate, as well as 2f wavelength modulation scans at a 2-kHz scan rate. Large signal-to-noise ratios demonstrate the ability of the optimally engineered optical hardware to reject beam steering and vibration noise. Successful measurements were made at full combustion conditions for a variety of fuel/air equivalence ratios and at eight vertical positions in the duct to investigate spatial uniformity. The use of three water vapor absorption features allowed for preliminary estimates of temperature distributions along the line of sight. The improved signal quality afforded by 2f measurements, in the case of weak absorption, demonstrates the utility of a scanned wavelength modulation strategy in such situations.

Liu, Jonathan T.C.; Rieker, Gregory B.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Gruber, Mark R.; Carter, Campbell D.; Mathur, Tarun; Hanson, Ronald K

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Role of oxygen vacancies in water vapor chemisorption and CO oxidation on titania  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Titanium dioxide is widely used as support for various important catalysts. Although nonstoichiometric titania behaves as an n-type semiconductor, the nature of the defect sites is not yet fully understood. In the present investigation the water vapor adsorption and carbon monoxide oxidation on TiO[sub 2] is explained considering oxygen vacancies as the major defect. It is also shown that incorporation of an Al[sup 3+] ion in TiO[sub 2] reduces the concentration of oxygen ion vacancies and inhibits the transformation of anatase to rutile.

Sengupta, G.; Chatterjee, R.N.; Maity, G.C. (Project and Development India Ltd. Sindri, Dhanbad, Bihar (India)); Satyanarayna, C.V.V. (RSIC, Bombay (India). Indian Inst. of Tech. Powai)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project goals: (1) Use the routine surface and airborne measurements at the ARM SGP site, and the routine surface measurements at the NSA site, to continue our evaluations of model aerosol simulations; (2) Determine the degree to which the Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol scattering and extinction can be used to remotely characterize the aerosol humidification factor; (3) Use the high temporal resolution CARL data to examine how aerosol properties vary near clouds; and (4) Use the high temporal resolution CARL and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to quantify entrainment in optically thin continental cumulus clouds.

Richard A. Ferrare; David D. Turner

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

In-reactor oxidation of zircaloy-4 under low water vapor pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Complementary in- and ex-reactor oxidation tests have been performed to evaluate the oxidation and hydrogen absorption performance of Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) under relatively low partial pressures (300 and 1000 Pa) of water vapor at specified test temperatures (330 and 370 C). Data from these tests will be used to support the fabrication of components intended for isotope-producing targets and provide information regarding the temperature and pressure dependence of oxidation and hydrogen absorption of Zr- 4 over the specified range of test conditions. Comparisons between in- and ex-reactor test results were performed to evaluate the influence of irradiation.

Walter G. Luscher; David J. Senor; Keven K. Clayton; Glen R. Longhurst

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Method of condensing vaporized water in situ to treat tar sands formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. Heat may be allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a first portion of the formation. Conditions may be controlled in the formation so that water vaporized by the heaters in the first portion is selectively condensed in a second portion of the formation. At least some of the fluids may be produced from the formation.

Hsu, Chia-Fu (Rijswijk, NL)

2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

87

Development of a Water Based, Critical Flow, Non-Vapor Compression cooling Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Expansion of a high-pressure liquid refrigerant through the use of a thermostatic expansion valve or other device is commonplace in vapor-compression cycles to regulate the quality and flow rate of the refrigerant entering the evaporator. In vapor-compression systems, as the condensed refrigerant undergoes this expansion, its pressure and temperature drop, and part of the liquid evaporates. We (researchers at Kansas State University) are developing a cooling cycle that instead pumps a high-pressure refrigerant through a supersonic converging-diverging nozzle. As the liquid refrigerant passes through the nozzle, its velocity reaches supersonic (or critical-flow) conditions, substantially decreasing the refrigerants pressure. This sharp pressure change vaporizes some of the refrigerant and absorbs heat from the surrounding conditions during this phase change. Due to the design of the nozzle, a shockwave trips the supersonic two-phase refrigerant back to the starting conditions, condensing the remaining vapor. The critical-flow refrigeration cycle would provide space cooling, similar to a chiller, by running a secondary fluid such as water or glycol over one or more nozzles. Rather than utilizing a compressor to raise the pressure of the refrigerant, as in a vapor-cycle system, the critical-flow cycle utilizes a high-pressure pump to drive refrigerant liquid through the cooling cycle. Additionally, the design of the nozzle can be tailored for a given refrigerant, such that environmentally benign substances can act as the working fluid. This refrigeration cycle is still in early-stage development with prototype development several years away. The complex multi-phase flow at supersonic conditions presents numerous challenges to fully understanding and modeling the cycle. With the support of DOE and venture-capital investors, initial research was conducted at PAX Streamline, and later, at Caitin. We (researchers at Kansas State University) have continued development of the cycle and have gained an in-depth understanding of the governing fundamental knowledge, based on the laws of physics and thermodynamics and verified with our testing results. Through this research, we are identifying optimal working fluid and operating conditions to eventually demonstrate the core technology for space cooling or other applications.

Hosni, Mohammad H.

2014-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

88

Electrical, optical, and material characterizations of blue InGaN light emitting diodes submitted to reverse-bias stress in water vapor condition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we investigate degradation of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) under reverse-bias operations in water vapor and dry air. To examine failure origins, electrical characterizations including current-voltage, breakdown current profiles, optical measurement, and multiple material analyses were performed. Our findings indicate that the diffusion of indium atoms in water vapor can expedite degradation. Investigation of reverse-bias stress can help provide insight into the effects of water vapor on LEDs.

Chen, Hsiang, E-mail: hchen@ncnu.edu.tw; Chu, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Yun-Ti; Chen, Chian-You [Department of Applied Materials and Optoelectronic Engineering, National Chi Nan University, No. 1, University Road, Puli, Nantou County 54561, Taiwan (China); Shei, Shih-Chang [Department of Electrical Engineering, National University of Tainan, No.33, Sec. 2, Shulin St., West Central Dist., Tainan City 70005, Taiwan (China)

2014-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

89

Comparison of Atmospheric Water Vapor in Observational and Model Data Sets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The global water vapor distribution for five observational based data sets and three GCM integrations are compared. The variables considered are the mean and standard deviation values of the precipitable water for the entire atmospheric column and the 500 to 300 hPa layer for January and July. The observationally based sets are the radiosonde data of Ross and Elliott, the ERA and NCEP reanalyses, and the NVAP blend of sonde and satellite data. The three GCM simulations all use the NCAR CCM3 as the atmospheric model. They include: a AMIP type simulation using observed SSTs for the period 1979 to 1993, the NCAR CSM 300 year coupled ocean--atmosphere integration, and a CSM integration with a 1% CO2 increase per year. The observational data exhibit some serious inconsistencies. There are geographical patterns of differences related to interannual variations and national instrument biases. It is clear that the proper characterization of water vapor is somewhat uncertain. Some conclusions about these data appear to be robust even given the discrepancies. The ERA data are too dry especially in the upper levels. The observational data evince much better agreement in the data rich Northern Hemisphere compared to the Southern. Distinct biases are quite pronounced over the Southern Ocean. The mean values and particularly the standard deviations of the three reanalyses are very dependent upon the GCM used as the assimilation vehicle for the analyses. This is made clear by the much enhanced tropical variability in the NCEP/DOE/ AMIP reanalyses compared the initial NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis. The NCAR CCM3 shows consistent evidence of a dry bias. The 1% CO2 experiment shows a very similar pattern of disagreement with the sonde data as the other integrations, once account is taken of the warming trend. No new modes of difference are evident in the 1% CO2 experiment. All the CCM3 runs indicated too much Tropical variability especially in the western Tropical Pacific and Southeast Asia. A EOF analysis of the interannual variations of the zonally averaged precipitable water and the 500 to 300 hPa layer reveals fundamental differences in the structure of the variations. The impact of ENSO and variations of the ITCZ have only a low level of correspondence between the observed data, much less the simulations. It is apparent that an adequate characterization of the climatology of the global water vapor distribution is not yet at hand.

Boyle, J.S.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

A model of vapor-liquid equilibria for acid gas-alkanolamine-water systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A physico-chemical model was developed for representing liquid phase chemical equilibria and vapor-liquid (phase) equilibria of H{sub 2}SCO{sub 2}-alkanolamine-water systems. The equilibrium composition of the liquid phase is determined by minimization of the Gibbs free energy. Activity coefficients are represented with the Electrolyte-NRTL equation treating both long-range electrostatic interactions and short-range binary interactions between liquid phase species. Vapor phase fugacity coefficients are calculated using the Redlich-Kwong-Soave Equation of State. Adjustable parameters of the model, binary interaction parameters and carbamate stability constants, were fitted on published binary system alkanolamine-water and ternary system (H{sub 2}S-alkanolamine-water, CO{sub 2}-alkanolamine-water) VLE data. The Data Regression System of ASPEN PLUS, based upon the Maximum Likelihood Principle, was used to estimate adjustable parameters. Ternary system measurements used in parameter estimation ranged in temperature from 25 to 120{degree}C in alkanolamine concentration from 1 to 5 M, in acid gas loading from 0 to 1.5 moles per mole alkanolamine, and in acid gas partial pressure from 0.1 to 1,000 kPa. Maximum likelihood estimates of ternary system H{sub 2} or CO{sub 2} equilibrium partial pressures and liquid phase concentrations were found to be in good agreement with measurements for aqueous solutions of monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), diglycolamine (DGA), and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) indicating that the model successfully represents ternary system data. The model was extended to represent CO{sub 2} solubility in aqueous mixtures of MDEA with MEA or DEA. The solubility was measured at 40 and 80{degree}C over a wide range of CO{sub 2} partial pressures. These measurements were used to estimate additional binary parameters of the mixed solvent systems.

Austgen, D.M. Jr.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Moisture effects in low-slope roofs: Drying rates after water addition with various vapor retarders  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tests have been conducted in the Large Scale Climate Simulator (LSCS) of the US. Building Envelope Research Center at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to investigate downward drying rates of various unvented, low-slope roof systems. A secondary objective was to study heat flow patterns so as to understand how to control latent heat effects on impermeable heat flux transducers. Nine test sections were tested simultaneously. The sections had a p deck above fibrous-glass insulation and were examples of cold-deck systems. These five sections had various vapor retarder systems on a gypsum board ceiling below the insulation. The other four sections had a lightweight insulating concrete deck below expanded polystyrene insulation and the same vapor retarder systems, and were examples of warm-deck systems. The cold-deck systems had materials that were relatively permeable to water vapor, while the materials in the warm-deck systems were less permeable. All test sections were topped by an impermeable roofing membrane. The test sections were instrumented with thermocouples between all layers and with small heat flux transducers at the bottom and top of the fibrous-glass insulation and in the middle of the expanded polystyrene insulation. Two different kinds of moisture probes were used to qualitatively monitor the movement of the moisture. The heat flux measurements showed that heat conduction dominates the system using impermeable insulation materials, with only a slight increase due to increased thermal conductivity of wet expanded polystyrene. There was significant transfer of latent heat in the test sections with permeable insulation, causing the peak heat fluxes to increase by as much as a factor of two. With temperatures imposed that are typical of summer days, latent heat transfer associated with condensation and evaporation of moisture in the test sections was measured to be as important as the heat transfer by conduction.

Pedersen, C.R. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Petrie, T.W. [Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Courville, G.E.; Desjarlais, A.O.; Childs, P.W.; Wilkes, K.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

A comparison of water vapor quantities from model short-range forecasts and ARM observations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Model evolution and improvement is complicated by the lack of high quality observational data. To address a major limitation of these measurements the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program was formed. For the second quarter ARM metric we will make use of new water vapor data that has become available, and called the 'Merged-sounding' value added product (referred to as OBS, within the text) at three sites: the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Darwin Australia (DAR) and the Southern Great Plains (SGP) and compare these observations to model forecast data. Two time periods will be analyzed March 2000 for the SGP and October 2004 for both DAR and NSA. The merged-sounding data have been interpolated to 37 pressure levels (e.g., from 1000hPa to 100hPa at 25hPa increments) and time averaged to 3 hourly data for direct comparison to our model output.

Hnilo, J J

2006-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

93

The Effect of Water Vapor on Cr Depletion in Advanced Recuperator Alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Durable alloy foils are needed for gas turbine recuperators operating at 650--700 C. It has been established that water vapor in the exhaust gas causes more rapid consumption of Cr in austenitic stainless steels leading to a reduction in operating lifetime of these thin-walled components. Laboratory testing at 650--800 C of commercial and model alloys is being used to develop a better understanding of the long-term rate of Cr consumption in these environments. Results are presented for commercial alloys 709, 120 and 625. After 10,000h exposures at 650 C and 700 C in humid air, grain boundary Cr depletion was observed near the surface of all these materials. In the Fe-base alloys, 709 and 120, this depletion led to localized Fe-rich nodule formation. This information then can be used to develop low-cost alternatives to currently available candidate materials.

Pint, Bruce A [ORNL

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Tracing coalbed natural gas-coproduced water using stable isotopes of carbon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recovery of hydrocarbons commonly is associated with coproduction of water. This water may be put to beneficial use or may be reinjected into subsurface aquifers. In either case, it would be helpful to establish a fingerprint for that coproduced water so that it may be tracked following discharge on the surface or reintroduction to geologic reservoirs. This study explores the potential of using {delta}{sup 13}C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of coalbed natural gas (CBNG) - coproduced water as a fingerprint of its origin and to trace its fate once it is disposed on the surface. Our initial results for water samples coproduced with CBNG from the Powder River Basin show that this water has strongly positive {delta}{sup 13}C(DIC) (12 parts per thousand to 22 parts per thousand) that is readily distinguished from the negative {delta}{sup 13}C of most surface and ground water (-8 parts per thousand to -11 parts per thousand). Furthermore, the DIC concentrations in coproduced water samples are also high (more than 100 mg C/L) compared to the 20 to 50 mg C/L in ambient surface and ground water of the region. The distinctively high {delta}{sup 13}C and DIC concentrations allow us to identify surface and ground water that have incorporated CBNG-coproduced water. Accordingly, we suggest that the {delta}{sup 13}C(DIC) and DIC concentrations of water can be used for long-term monitoring of infiltration of CBNG-coproduced water into ground water and streams. Our results also show that the {delta} {sup 13}C (DIC) of CBNG-coproduced water from two different coal zones are distinct leading to the possibility of using {delta}{sup 13}C(DIC) to distinguish water produced from different coal zones.

Sharma, S.; Frost, C.D. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. for Renewable Resources

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

95

Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: A regional example in SW Florida coastal waters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: A regional example in SW Florida-time data from the MODIS satellite sensor was used to detect and trace a harmful algal bloom (HAB), or red to interferences of other water constituents. The red tide that formed from November to December 2004 off SW

96

Treatment of Produced Water Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. Produced waters typically contain a high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component as well as chemicals added during the oil-production process. It has been estimated that a total of 14 billion barrels of produced water were generated in 2002 from onshore operations (Veil, 2004). Although much of this produced water is disposed via reinjection, environmental and cost considerations can make surface discharge of this water a more practical means of disposal. In addition, reinjection is not always a feasible option because of geographic, economic, or regulatory considerations. In these situations, it may be desirable, and often necessary from a regulatory viewpoint, to treat produced water before discharge. It may also be feasible to treat waters that slightly exceed regulatory limits for re-use in arid or drought-prone areas, rather than losing them to reinjection. A previous project conducted under DOE Contract DE-AC26-99BC15221 demonstrated that surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) represents a potential treatment technology for produced water containing BTEX. Laboratory and field experiments suggest that: (1) sorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) to SMZ follows linear isotherms in which sorption increases with increasing solute hydrophobicity; (2) the presence of high salt concentrations substantially increases the capacity of the SMZ for BTEX; (3) competitive sorption among the BTEX compounds is negligible; and, (4) complete recovery of the SMZ sorption capacity for BTEX can be achieved by air sparging the SMZ. This report summarizes research for a follow on project to optimize the regeneration process for multiple sorption/regeneration cycles, and to develop and incorporate a vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) system for treatment of the off-gas generated during air sparging. To this end, we conducted batch and column laboratory SMZ and VPB experiments with synthetic and actual produced waters. Based on the results of the laboratory testing, a pilot scale study was designed and conducted to evaluate the combined SMZ/VPB process. An economic and regulatory feasibility analysis was also completed as part of the current study to assess the viability of the process for various water re-use options.

Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; Robert S. Bowman; Enid J. Sullivan; Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Craig R. Altare

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

97

Ten Years of Measurements of Tropical Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor by MOZAIC. Part I: Climatology, Variability, Transport, and Relation to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). 1. Introduction Water vapor is the key atmosphericTen Years of Measurements of Tropical Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor by MOZAIC. Part I: Climatology, Variability, Transport, and Relation to Deep Convection ZHENGZHAO LUO, DIETER KLEY,* AND RICHARD H. JOHNSON

Lombardi, John R.

98

The influence of midlatitude and tropical overturning circulation on the isotopic composition of atmospheric water vapor and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coordinates. In this depiction, poleward transport of air and water vapor is non-diffusive, in a way for an open distillation. Model experiments that simulate a wide range of circulation strengths show to the polar region exceeds the rate at which surface sources replenish the poleward moving air stream. Across

Noone, David

99

Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for water + 2-aminoethanol + dimethyl sulfoxide and its constituent three binary systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria were measured for the ternary system water + 2-aminoethanol + dimethyl sulfoxide and its three constituent binary mixtures at 363.15 K. The apparatus used was a modified Rogalski-Malanoski equilibrium still. The experimental binary data were correlated by the NRTL equation. The ternary system was predicted using the binary NRTL parameters with good accuracy.

Tochigi, Katsumi; Akimoto, Kentarou; Ochi, Kenji [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry] [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry; Liu, Fangyhi; Kawase, Yasuhito [Nippon Refine Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] [Nippon Refine Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS USING A SURFACTANT MODIFIED ZEOLITE/VAPOR PHASE BIOREATOR SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some of them must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. An efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed to remove these constituents. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. Our previous DOE research work (DE-AC26-99BC15221) demonstrated that SMZ could successfully remove BTEX compounds from the produced water. In addition, SMZ could be regenerated through a simple air sparging process. The primary goal of this project is to develop a robust SMZ/VPB treatment system to efficiently remove the organic constituents from produced water in a cost-effective manner. This report summarizes work of this project from March 2003 through September 2003. We have continued our investigation of SMZ regeneration from our previous DOE project. Ten saturation/stripping cycles have been completed for SMZ columns saturated with BTEX compounds. The results suggest that BTEX sorption capacity is not lost after ten saturation/regeneration cycles. The composition of produced water from a site operated by Crystal Solutions Ltd. in Wyoming has been characterized and was used to identify key semi-volatile components. Isotherms with selected semi-volatile components have been initiated and preliminary results have been obtained. The experimental vapor phase bioreactors for this project have been designed and assembled to treat the off-gas from the SMZ regeneration process. These columns will be used both in the laboratory and in the proposed field testing to be conducted next year. Innocula for the columns that degrade all of the BTEX columns have been developed.

LYNN E. KATZ; KERRY A. KINNEY; R.S. BOWMAN; E.J. SULLIVAN

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor trace" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

The origins of water research at UA trace back to 1957 when the Institute of Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water centers on campus with the infusion of funds from the state Technology and Research Initiative

Fay, Noah

102

A three-beam water vapor sensor system for combustion diagnostics using a 1390 nm tunable diode laser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

H{sub 2}O(v) is an important species in combustion and hypersonic flow measurements because it is a primary combustion product. Measurements of water vapor can be used to determine performance parameters, such as extent and efficiency of combustion in propulsion and aerodynamics facilities. Water vapor concentration measurement in these high-temperature hypervelocity combustion conditions requires very high sensitivity and fast time response. A three-beam diode laser H{sub 2}O(v) measurement system for nonintrusive combustion diagnostics has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center and successfully tested and installed at GASL NASA HYPULSE facility for routine operation. The system was built using both direct laser absorption spectroscopy and frequency modulation laser spectroscopy. The output beam from a distributed feedback (DFB) InGaAsP diode laser (emitting around 1.39 {micro}m) is split into three equal-powered equal-distanced parallel beams with separation of 9 mm. With three beams, the authors are able to obtain water vapor number densities at three locations. Frequency modulation spectroscopy technique is used to achieve high detection sensitivity. The diode laser is modulated at radio frequency (RF), while the wavelength of the diode laser is tuned to scan over a strong water vapor absorption line. The detected RF signal is then demodulated at the fundamental frequency of the modulation (one-F demodulation). A working model and a computer software code have been developed for data process and data analysis. Water vapor number density measurements are achieved with consideration of temperature dependence. Experimental results and data analysis will be presented.

Wang, L.G. [Coll. of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Vay, S. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

103

Vapor deposition of water on graphitic surfaces: Formation of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbonaceous surfaces are a major source of atmospheric particles and could play an important role in the formation of ice. Here we investigate through molecular simulations the stability, metastability, and molecular pathways of deposition of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, and ice I from water vapor on graphitic and atomless Lennard-Jones surfaces as a function of temperature. We find that bilayer ice is the most stable ice polymorph for small cluster sizes, nevertheless it can grow metastable well above its region of thermodynamic stability. In agreement with experiments, the simulations predict that on increasing temperature the outcome of water deposition is amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water. The deposition nucleation of bilayer ice and ice I is preceded by the formation of small liquid clusters, which have two wetting states: bilayer pancake-like (wetting) at small cluster size and droplet-like (non-wetting) at larger cluster size. The wetting state of liquid clusters determines which ice polymorph is nucleated: bilayer ice nucleates from wetting bilayer liquid clusters and ice I from non-wetting liquid clusters. The maximum temperature for nucleation of bilayer ice on flat surfaces, T{sub B}{sup max} is given by the maximum temperature for which liquid water clusters reach the equilibrium melting line of bilayer ice as wetting bilayer clusters. Increasing water-surface attraction stabilizes the pancake-like wetting state of liquid clusters leading to larger T{sub B}{sup max} for the flat non-hydrogen bonding surfaces of this study. The findings of this study should be of relevance for the understanding of ice formation by deposition mode on carbonaceous atmospheric particles, including soot.

Lupi, Laura; Kastelowitz, Noah; Molinero, Valeria, E-mail: Valeria.Molinero@utah.edu [Department of Chemistry, The University of Utah, 315 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0850 (United States)

2014-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

104

Two Stage Vapor Compression Heat Pump with Solution Circuits: Catering to Simultaneous Chilling and Water Heating Needs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

results indicate that the two stage VCHSC can achiev~ cooling coefficient of performances as high as 1.04 while pumping heat through a lift of 194?F (10S0C). Comparison is made with a system consisting of a vapor compressor chiller and a gas fired... conditioning and hot water for various uses will be assessed. comparison is made with a system consisting of a vapor compressor chiller and a gas fired furnace (option 2). The basis for comparison being: a) the total primary energy usage, b) the cost...

Rane, M. V.; Radermacher, R.

105

Charge transfer effects of ions at the liquid water/vapor interface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Charge transfer (CT), the movement of small amounts of electron density between non-bonded pairs, has been suggested as a driving force for a variety of physical processes. Herein, we examine the effect of CT on ion adsorption to the water liquid-vapor interface. Using a CT force field for molecular dynamics, we construct a potential of mean force (PMF) for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cl{sup ?}, and I{sup ?}. The PMFs were produced with respect to an average interface and an instantaneous interface. An analysis of the PMF relative to the instantaneous surface reveals that the area in which the anions experience a free energy minimum is quite narrow, and the cations feel a steeply repulsive free energy near the interface. CT is seen to have only minor effects on the overall free energy profiles. However, the long-ranged effects of ions are highlighted by the CT model. Due to CT, the water molecules at the surface become charged, even when the ion is over 15 away from the surface.

Soniat, Marielle; Rick, Steven W., E-mail: srick@uno.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana 70148 (United States)

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

106

Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Renewable Energy, Office of Geothermal Technologies, of theTransport in Fractured Geothermal Reservoirs, Geothermics,Depletion of Vapor-Dominated Geothermal Reservoirs, Lawrence

Pruess, Karsten

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Corrosion of aluminum-uranium alloys in water vapor at 200 C  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Specimens of aluminum-uranium alloys at 10 and 18 wt.% uranium were exposed to a saturated water vapor condition at 200 C up to about 12 weeks and compared to previous results for aluminum 1100. The aluminum-uranium materials exhibited a range of initial corrosion rates and approached similar rates with the formation of a passive film of boehmite (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center{underscore}dot}H{sub 2}O). The initial corrosion rates of the aluminum-uranium materials were one to four times higher than that for aluminum 1100. It is postulated that a micro-galvanic coupling between the large UAl{sub 4} particles and the aluminum matrix has caused this difference. Sectioning the exposed specimens shows different characteristics of the oxide layers. In the oxide on the aluminum-10% uranium alloy (Al-10%U), small uranium aluminide particles can be seen in a boehmite matrix and do not seem to be corroded. The oxide film on the aluminum-18% uranium alloy (Al-18%U) appears to have two distinct oxide layers. The outer layer has mass aggregates in a boehmite matrix, while the inner layer contains UAl{sub 4} particles as in the case of Al-10%U.

Lam, P.S.; Sindelar, R.L.; Barrett, K.Y.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Corrosion of Aluminum-Uranium Alloys in Water Vapor at 200\\260C  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coupons of aluminum-uranium alloys at 10 and 18 weight percent were exposed to a saturated water vapor condition at 200 degrees C up to about 1500 hours and compared to previous results for aluminum 1100. The aluminum-uranium materials exhibited a range of initial corrosion rates and approached similar rates with the formation of a passive film of boehmite (Al2O3oH2O). The cast and extruded 10 percent uranium, having a primary aluminum-eutectic microstructure, was more corrosion resistant than the 18% cast and extruded. The initial corrosion rates of the aluminum-uranium materials were one to four times higher than that for aluminum 1100. It is postulated that a micro-galvanic coupling between the large UAl4 particles and the aluminum matrix has caused the variation. Sectioning the exposed specimens shows different characteristics of the oxide layers. In the case of the cast and extruded Al-10 percent U alloy, small uranium aluminide particles can be seen in the boehmite matrix and do not seem to be corroded. The oxide film of the Al-18 percent U alloy appears to have two distinct oxide layers. The outer layer has mass aggregates formed in the aluminum oxide matrix, while the inner layer contains UAl4 particles as in the case of Al-10 percent U

Lam, P.S.

1998-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

109

3708 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 47, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2009 Retrieval of Atmospheric Water Vapor Density With  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3708 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 47, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2009 Retrieval, remote sensing, water vapor. Manuscript received November 1, 2008; revised May 2, 2009 and August 8, 2009 the latent heat of vaporization is a principal mechanism for the transport of energy from the equatorial

Reising, Steven C.

110

Method and apparatus for simulating atomospheric absorption of solar energy due to water vapor and CO.sub.2  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth's surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO.sub.2 and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO.sub.2 and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO.sub.2 and moisture.

Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Method and apparatus for simulating atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to water vapor and CO{sub 2}  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth`s surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO{sub 2} and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO{sub 2} and moisture. 8 figs.

Sopori, B.L.

1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

112

Glass softening, crystallization, and vaporization of nano-aggregates of Amorphous Solid Water: Fast Scanning Calorimetry studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fast scanning calorimetry (FSC) was employed to investigate glass softening dynamics in amorphous solid water (ASW) nano-aggregates with thicknesses ranging from 2 to 20 nm. ASW nano-aggregates were prepared by vapor-deposition on the surface of a tungsten filament near 141 K and then heated at a rate of 100 kK/s. The resulting thermogram complex endo- and exothermal features were analyzed using a simple model. The results of the analysis show that glass softening of ASW nano-aggregates takes place at 160 K and vaporization of ASW nano-aggregates can take place at temperatures as low as 185 K. The results of these studies are discussed in conjunction with results of past studies of glass softening dynamics in water in various confining geometries.

Deepanjan Bhattacharya; Liam OReilly; Vlad Sadtchenko

2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

113

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria of the water + 1-propanol system at 30, 60, and 100 kPa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria for the water + 1-propanol system are reported at 30, 60, and 100 kPa. The results were found to be thermodynamically consistent according to Van Ness-Byer-Gibbs, Kojima, and Wisniak methods. The system shows a minimum boiling azeotrope, and the azeotropic composition is scarcely shifted with pressure. Results were compared with literature values. The data were correlated with Margules, Van Laar, Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC liquid-phase activity coefficient models.

Gabaldon, C.; Marzal, P.; Monton, J.B.; Rodrigo, M.A. [Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica] [Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

PROGRESS REPORT OF FY 2004 ACTIVITIES: IMPROVED WATER VAPOR AND CLOUD RETRIEVALS AT THE NSA/AAO  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The basic goals of the research are to develop and test algorithms and deploy instruments that improve measurements of water vapor, cloud liquid, and cloud coverage, with a focus on the Arctic conditions of cold temperatures and low concentrations of water vapor. The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. Although several technologies have been investigated to measure these column amounts, microwave radiometers (MWR) have been used operationally by the ARM program for passive retrievals of these quantities: precipitable water vapor (PWV) and integrated water liquid (IWL). The technology of PWV and IWL retrievals has advanced steadily since the basic 2-channel MWR was first deployed at ARM CART sites Important advances are the development and refinement of the tipcal calibration method [1,2], and improvement of forward model radiative transfer algorithms [3,4]. However, the concern still remains that current instruments deployed by ARM may be inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and IWL. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important because of the possibility of scaling and/or quality control of radiosondes by the water amount. Extremely dry conditions, with PWV less than 3 mm, commonly occur in Polar Regions during the winter months. Accurate measurements of the PWV during such dry conditions are needed to improve our understanding of the regional radiation energy budgets. The results of a 1999 experiment conducted at the ARM North Slope of Alaska/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site during March of 1999 [5] have shown that the strength associated with the 183 GHz water vapor absorption line makes radiometry in this frequency regime suitable for measuring low amounts of PWV. As a portion of our research, we conducted another millimeter wave radiometric experiment at the NSA/AAO in March-April 2004. This experiment relied heavily on our experiences of the 1999 experiment. Particular attention was paid to issues of radiometric calibration and radiosonde intercomparisons. Our theoretical and experimental work also supplements efforts by industry (F. Solheim, Private Communication) to develop sub-millimeter radiometers for ARM deployment. In addition to quantitative improvement of water vapor measurements at cold temperature, the impact of adding millimeter-wave window channels to improve the sensitivity to arctic clouds was studied. We also deployed an Infrared Cloud Imager (ICI) during this experiment, both for measuring continuous day-night statistics of the study of cloud coverage and identifying conditions suitable for tipcal analysis. This system provided the first capability of determining spatial cloud statistics continuously in both day and night at the NSA site and has been used to demonstrate that biases exist in inferring cloud statistics from either zenith-pointing active sensors (lidars or radars) or sky imagers that rely on scattered sunlight in daytime and star maps at night [6].

E. R. Westwater; V. V. Leuskiy; M. Klein; A. J. Gasiewski; and J. A. Shaw

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Plasma Kinetics in Electrical Discharge in Mixture of Air, Water and Ethanol Vapors for Hydrogen Enriched Syngas Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The complex theoretical and experimental investigation of plasma kinetics of the electric discharge in the mixture of air and ethanol-water vapors is carried out. The discharge was burning in the cavity, formed by air jets pumping between electrodes, placed in aqueous ethanol solution. It is found out that the hydrogen yield from the discharge is maximal in the case when ethanol and water in the solution are in equal amounts. It is shown that the hydrogen production increases with the discharge power and reaches the saturation at high value. The concentrations of the main stable gas-phase components, measured experimentally and calculated numerically, agree well in the most cases.

Shchedrin, A I; Ryabtsev, A V; Chernyak, V Ya; Yukhymenko, V V; Olszewski, S V; Naumov, V V; Prysiazhnevych, I V; Solomenko, E V; Demchina, V P; Kudryavtsev, V S

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Water injection as a means for reducing non-condensible andcorrosive gases in steam produced from vapor-dominated reservoirs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large-scale water injection at The Geysers, California, hasgenerated substantial benefits in terms of sustaining reservoir pressuresand production rates, as well as improving steam composition by reducingthe content of non-condensible gases (NCGs). Two effects have beenrecognized and discussed in the literature as contributing to improvedsteam composition, (1) boiling of injectate provides a source of "clean"steam to production wells, and (2) pressurization effects induced byboiling of injected water reduce upflow of native steam with large NCGconcentrations from depth. In this paper we focus on a possibleadditional effect that could reduce NCGs in produced steam by dissolutionin a condensed aqueous phase.Boiling of injectate causes pressurizationeffects that will fairly rapidly migrate outward, away from the injectionpoint. Pressure increases will cause an increase in the saturation ofcondensed phase due to vapor adsorption on mineral surfaces, andcapillary condensation in small pores. NCGs will dissolve in theadditional condensed phase which, depending upon their solubility, mayreduce NCG concentrations in residual steam.We have analyzed thepartitioning of HCl between vapor and aqueous phases, and have performednumerical simulations of injection into superheated vapor zones. Oursimulations provide evidence that dissolution in the condensed phase canindeed reduce NCG concentrations in produced steam.

Pruess, Karsten; Spycher, Nicolas; Kneafsey, Timothy J.

2007-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

117

A logical extension of the ASTM Standard E96 to determine the dependence of water vapor transmission on relative humidity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is well known that the water vapor transmission properties of hygroscopic building materials depend on the local relative humidities(rh). Traditionally, the ASTM Standard E96 specifies only two conditions of rh. The dry cup method in the standard corresponds to a mean rh of 25% and the wet cup to 75%. This information is not enough to describe the behavior of the material through the entire range of rh. European Standards have already proposed an extension of the existing standard to address this issue. ASTM standard should follow this change. A logical extension of the E96 standard to include the effect of rh on water vapor transmission properties has been proposed and is being discussed by one of the C16 Committee Task Groups. This paper presents the application of the proposed extension to several common building materials. The details include the operating principles of a constant temperature-rh chamber and the effects on the test results, of the vapor resistance offered by still air inside the cup, the surface resistances and buoyancy. The experimental data were used to critically assess the above effects. The data as well as the analyses of the data are expected to provide guidance to refine the existing ASTM Standard.

Lackey, J.C.; Marchand, R.G.; Kumaran, M.K. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Inst. for Research in Construction

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Numerical Simulation of Hydrodynamics of a Heavy Liquid Drop Covered by Vapor Film in a Water Pool  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A numerical study on the hydrodynamics of a droplet covered by vapor film in water pool is carried out. Two level set functions are used as to implicitly capture the interfaces among three immiscible fluids (melt-drop, vapor and coolant). This approach leaves only one set of conservation equations for the three phases. A high-order Navier-Stokes solver, called Cubic-Interpolated Pseudo-Particle (CIP) algorithm, is employed in combination with level set approach, which allows large density ratios (up to 1000), surface tension and jump in viscosity. By this calculation, the hydrodynamic behavior of a melt droplet falling into a volatile coolant is simulated, which is of great significance to reveal the mechanism of steam explosion during a hypothetical severe reactor accident. (authors)

Ma, W.M.; Yang, Z.L.; Giri, A.; Sehgal, B.R. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Drottning Kristinas vaeg 33 A, 100 44, Stockholm (Sweden)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria of the water + 2-propanol system at 30, 60, and 100 kPa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Distillation is perhaps the separation process most widely used in the chemical processing industry. The correct design of distillation columns requires the availability of accurate and, if possible, thermodynamically consistent vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) data. The present work is part of a project studying the effect of pressure on the behavior of the azeotropic point in mixtures in which at least one component is an alcohol. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria were obtained for the water + 2-propanol system at 30, 60, and 100 kPa. The activity coefficients were found to be thermodynamically consistent by the methods of Van Ness-Byer-Gibbs, Kojima, and Wisniak. The data were correlated with five liquid phase activity coefficient models (Margules, Van Laar, Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC).

Marzal, P.; Monton, J.B.; Rodrigo, M.A. [Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica] [Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Combining sedimentological, trace metal (Mn, Mo) and molecular evidence for reconstructing past water-column  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combining sedimentological, trace metal (Mn, Mo) and molecular evidence for reconstructing past online 22 June 2013 Abstract Here, we present sedimentological, trace metal, and molecular evidence underscores the value of combining sedimentological, geochemical, and microbiological approaches

Wehrli, Bernhard

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor trace" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Vapor spill monitoring method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

Bianchini, Gregory M. (Livermore, CA); McRae, Thomas G. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

A Fixed Point Charge Model for Water Optimized to the Vapor-Liquid Coexistence Properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the temperature range of the liquid. Results were compared to the SPC, SPC/E, and MSPC/E models, vapor pressures, critical parameters, and the second virial coefficient. It is inferior to the SPC interactions. Models of this type include the Bernal-Fowler1 , ST22 , TIPS23 , TIP4P4 , SPC5 , SPC/E6

123

MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Data Sets (Revision 2)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a short description of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility microwave radiometer (MWR) Retrieval (MWRRET) value-added product (VAP) algorithm. This algorithm utilizes a complementary physical retrieval method and applies brightness temperature offsets to reduce spurious liquid water path (LWP) bias in clear skies resulting in significantly improved precipitable water vapor (PWV) and LWP retrievals. We present a general overview of the technique, input parameters, output products, and describe data quality checks. A more complete discussion of the theory and results is given in Turner et al. (2007b).

Gaustad, KL; Turner, DD; McFarlane, SA

2011-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

124

Collaborative Research: The Influence of Cloud Microphysics and Radiation on the Response of Water Vapor and Clouds to Climate Change  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uncertainties in representing the atmospheric water cycle are major obstacles to an accurate prediction of future climate. This project focused on addressing some of these uncertainties by implementing new physics for convection and radiation into the NCAR climate model. To better understand and eventually better represent these processes, we modified CAM3.5 to use the convection and cloud schemes developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the RRTMG rapid radiation code for global models developed by Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER). The impact of the new physics on the CAM3.5 simulation of convection on diurnal and intra-seasonal scales, intra-seasonal oscillations and the distribution of water vapor has been investigated. The effect of the MIT and AER physics also has been tested in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional forecast model. It has been found that the application of the AER radiation and MIT convection produces significant improvements in the modeled diurnal cycle of convection, especially over land, in the NCAR climate model. However, both the standard CAM3.5 (hereinafter STD) and the modified CAM3.5 with the new physics (hereinafter MOD) are still unable to capture the proper spectrum and propagating characteristics of the intra-seasonal oscillations (ISOs). The new physics methods modify, but do not substantially improve, the distribution of upper tropospheric water vapor relative to satellite measurements.

Dr. Kerry Emanuel; Michael J. Iacono

2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

125

Water vapor and temperature inversions near the 0 deg C level over the tropical western Pacific. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the Intensive Observation Period (IOP), several periods of water vapor and temperature inversions near the 0 deg C level were observed. Satellite and radiosonde data from TOGA COARE are used to document the large-scale conditions and thermodynamic and kinematic structures present during three extended periods in which moisture and temperature inversions near the freezing level were very pronounced. Observations from each case are synthesized into schematics which represent typical structures of the inversion phenomena. Frequency distributions of the inversion phenomena along with climatological humidity and temperature profiles are calculated for the four-month IOP.

Hart, K.A.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Interactive influences of bioactive trace metals on biological production in oceanic waters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors present an overview of the oceanic chemistries of the bioactive trace metals, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn; the authors combine field data with results from laboratory phytoplankton culture-trace metal studies and speculate on the potential influences of these trace metals on oceanic plankton production and species composition. Most field studies have focused on the effects of single metals. However, they propose that synergistic and antagonistic interactions between multiple trace metals could be very important in the oceans. Trace metal antagonisms that may prove particularly important are those between Cu and the potential biolimiting metals Fe, Mn, and Zn. These antagonistic interactions could have the greatest influence on biological productivity in areas of the open ocean isolated from terrestrial inputs, such as the remote high nutrient regions of the Pacific and Antarctic Oceans. The emerging picture of trace metal-biota interactions in these oceanic areas is one in which biology strongly influences distribution and chemical speciation of all these bioactive trace metals. It also seems likely that many of these bioactive trace metals and their speciation may influence levels of primary productivity, species composition, and trophic structure. Future investigations should give more complete consideration to the interactive effects of biologically important trace metals.

Bruland, K.W.; Donat, J.R.; Hutchins, D.A. (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz (United States))

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

The Influence of Cloud Microphysics and Radiation on the Response of Water Vapor and Clouds to Climate Change  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uncertainties in representing the atmospheric water cycle are major obstacles to the accurate prediction of future climate. This project focused on addressing some of these uncertainties by implementing new physics for convection and radiation into the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). To better understand and eventually better represent these processes in this major national climate model, we modified CAM3.5 to use the convection and cloud schemes developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the RRTMG rapid radiation code for global climate models developed by Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER). The impact of the new physics on the CAM3.5 simulation of convection on diurnal and intra-seasonal scales, on intra-seasonal oscillations and on the distribution of water vapor has been investigated. In addition, the MIT and AER physics packages have been incorporated and tested in combination within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional forecast model for the purpose of evaluating and improving convective and radiative processes on time scales appropriate to weather simulations. It has been found that the application of the AER radiation and MIT convection produces significant improvements in the modeled diurnal cycle of convection, especially over land, in the NCAR climate model. However, both the standard CAM3.5 and the modified CAM3.5 with the new physics are unable to capture the proper spectrum and propagating characteristics of dynamical intra-seasonal oscillations such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation. In addition, it has been shown that the new physics methods modify, but do not substantially improve, the distribution of upper tropospheric water vapor in CAM as established through the comparison of modeled and observed satellite radiances. This suggests that continuing regional discrepancies in water vapor amounts in the climate model may not be solely related to convective or radiative processes. The major results of this project have been described in more detail in a journal article titled ??The Impacts of AER Radiation and MIT Convection on the Water Cycle Simulated by CAM3.5? that will be submitted for publication during Fall 2010.

Emanuel, Kerry; Iacono, Michael J.

2010-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

128

Oxidation of Slurry Aluminide Coatings on Cast Stainless Steel Alloy CF8C-Plus at 800oC in Water Vapor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new, cast austenitic stainless steel, CF8C-Plus, has been developed for a wide range of high temperature applications, including diesel exhaust components, turbine casings and turbocharger housings. CF8C-Plus offers significant improvements in creep rupture life and creep rupture strength over standard CF8C steel. However, at higher temperatures and in more aggressive environments, such as those containing significant water vapor, an oxidation-resistant protective coating will be necessary. The oxidation behavior of alloys CF8C and CF8C-Plus with various aluminide coatings were compared at 800oC in air plus 10 vol% water vapor. Due to their affordability, slurry aluminides were the primary coating system of interest, although chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and pack cementation coatings were also compared. Additionally, a preliminary study of the low cycle fatigue behavior of aluminized CF8C-Plus was conducted at 800oC. Each type of coating provided substantial improvements in oxidation behavior, with simple slurry aluminides showing very good oxidation resistance after 4,000 h testing in water vapor. Preliminary low cycle fatigue results indicated that thicker aluminide coatings degraded high temperature fatigue properties of CF8C-Plus, whereas thinner coatings did not. Results suggest that appropriately designed slurry aluminide coatings are a viable option for economical, long-term oxidation protection of austenitic stainless steels in water vapor.

Haynes, James A [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Dryepondt, Sebastien N [ORNL; Kumar, Deepak [ORNL; Zhang, Ying [Tennessee Technological University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Cobalt Ultrathin Film Catalyzed Ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cobalt Ultrathin Film Catalyzed Ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) using a cobalt ultrathin film (1 nm) as the catalyst and ethanol as carbon feedstock flow during the growth. The trace amount of self-contained water (0.2-5 wt %) in ethanol may act

Hone, James

130

DOE/SC-ARM/TR-122 G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phases onOrganizationElectronic Reading2Q)38232 Revision2 G-Band Vapor

131

DOE/SC-ARM/TR-128 Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio Value-Added  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phases onOrganizationElectronic Reading2Q)38232 Revision2 G-Band Vapor48

132

Direct Determination of Trace-Level Haloacetic Acids in Drinking Water by Two-1 Dimensional Ion Chromatography with Suppressed Conductivity2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Direct Determination of Trace-Level Haloacetic Acids in Drinking Water by Two-1 Dimensional Ion thetreatment process of drinking water, disinfectants (chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide)13 react on water of the nine existing Halo-Acetic Acids (HAA) are commonly found15 in drinking water(Monochloroacetic acid MCAA

Boyer, Edmond

133

SPECIATION OF TRACE ORGANIC LIGANDS AND INORGANIC AND ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1979). retort water, boiler blowdown, and heater- treaterGeokinetics Retort Water Occidental Heater-Treater :ss.ssa) situ Occidental Heater-Treater Water Retort 6 modified

Fish, Richard H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Analysis and forecast improvements from simulated satellite water vapor profiles and rainfall using a global data assimilation system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential improvements of analyses and forecasts from the use of satellite-observed rainfall and water vapor measurements from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Sensor Microwave (SSM) T-1 and T-2 instruments are investigated in a series of observing system simulation experiments using the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (formerly Air Force Geophysics Laboratory) data assimilation system. Simulated SSM radiances are used directly in a radiance retrieval step following the conventional optimum interpolation analysis. Simulated rainfall rates in the tropics are used in a moist initialization procedure to improve the initial specification of divergence, moisture, and temperature. Results show improved analyses and forecasts of relative humidity and winds compared to the control experiment in the tropics and the Southern Hemisphere. Forecast improvements are generally restricted to the first 1-3 days of the forecast. 27 refs., 11 figs.

Nehrkorn, T.; Hoffman, R.N.; Louis, J.F.; Isaacs, R.G.; Moncet, J.L. (Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 102, NO. D24, PAGES 29,737-29,745, DECEMBER 26, 1997 Atmospheric aerosol and water vapor characteristics over north  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric aerosol and water vapor characteristics over north central Canada during BOREAS B. L. Markham, J typically0.09 and 0.34 cm, respectively.Size distributionsderivedfrom solar almucantarmeasurementsshowtheHughesSTXCorporation,Greenbelt,Maryland. 2Formerlyat HSTX/GSFC-NASA,Greenbelt,Maryland. Copyright1997by the American

136

Interaction of wide-band-gap single crystals with 248-nm excimer laser radiation. XI. The effect of water vapor and temperature on laser desorption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Significantly, introducing water vapor lowers the particle velocities and thus the effective surface temperature systems, simultaneous electronic excitation and exposure to aggressive chemicals can acceler- ate etching-induced neutral particle desorption and surface erosion on single- crystal sodium chloride in the presence of low

Dickinson, J. Thomas

137

Ocean Water Vapor and Cloud Burden Trends Derived from the Topex Microwave Radiometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

algorithm is a log-linear regression algorithm with coefficients that are stratified by wind speed and water. TMR OBSERVATIONS The TMR flew in a 10-day non-sun-synchronous exact repeat orbit with an inclination

Ruf, Christopher

138

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria for binary and ternary systems composed of water, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol at 100 kPa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria data were obtained for the 2-propanol + 1-propanol binary system and the water + 1-propanol + 2-propanol ternary system at 100 kPa. The data were found to be thermodynamically consistent according to the Van Ness-Byer-Gibbs method for the binary system and according to the McDermott-Ellis method for the ternary one. The binary system is well represented by assuming ideal behavior. The binary interaction parameters obtained from this and previous work are used to predict the vapor-liquid equilibrium for the ternary system using the UNIQUAC, NRTL, and Wilson models. The ternary system is well predicted from binary data.

Gabaldon, C.; Marzal, P.; Monton, J.B.; Rodrigo, M.A. [Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica] [Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Sediment water exchange of trace metals and nutrients in Galveston Bay, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-10% Of PO-3 4 10-17% of Si(OH)4, 5-31 % of Mn, 39-49% of Ni and 25-38% of Zn could be attributed to diffusion. To gain a further understanding of the distribution of trace metals between solid sediment and porewater, sequential sediment leaching experiments...

Warnken, Kent Wayne

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Intraparticle heat and mass transfer characteristics of silica-gel/water vapor adsorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently, highly efficient energy utilization systems which extensively employ adsorption phenomena such as pressure swing adsorption, heat storage, adsorption heat pump, etc. are being regarded as one of the countermeasures for environmental issues such as green house effect and ozone layer destruction. An Adsorption Heat Pump (AHP) has been investigated as one of the important techniques via which cold heat energy is obtained from waste thermal energy below 373K without using electricity and CFCs. An AHP normally consists of an adsorber and an evaporator/condenser and cold heat energy is generated by latent heat of evaporation during adsorption process. For realizing the AHP technology, it has been pointed out that the development of an adsorber with optimum heat and mass transfer characteristics is essentially important. In this study, experimental studies were carried out which was based on the data of temperature inside the adsorbent particle and adsorptivity profiles at the adsorption/desorption process by volumetric method. To clarify adsorption mechanism relatively large silica-gel particle (7 mm f) was used. Temperature distribution in the particle is determined at the center, at one half radius in the radial direction and at the surface by using very thin (30 mm f) thermocouples. The temperatures at these points simultaneously increase/decrease as soon as the adsorption/desorption started, reached their respective maximum/minimum values and then return to initial temperature. The temperature profiles for the adsorption process show that the temperature at the surface is initially slightly higher than the other two points. All three points reached their respective maximum temperature at the same time with the temperature at the center point the highest and at the surface the lowest. The temperature profiles during the desorptive process are almost exactly the opposite to that of the adsorption process. This shows that the adsorption phenomena can take place not only at the surface but inside the adsorbent particle, implying that intraparticle vapor diffusion has a great influence on adsorptivity.

Yamamoto, Eri; Watanabe, Fujio; Hasatani, Masanobu

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor trace" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Extremely Luminous Water Vapor Emission from a Type 2 Quasar at Redshift z = 0.66  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A search for water masers in 47 Sloan Digital Sky Survey Type 2 quasars using the Green Bank Telescope has yielded a detection at a redshift of z = 0.660. This maser is more than an order of magnitude higher in redshift than any previously known and, with a total isotropic luminosity of 23,000 L_sun, also the most powerful. The presence and detectability of water masers in quasars at z ~ 0.3-0.8 may provide a better understanding of quasar molecular tori and disks, as well as fundamental quasar and galaxy properties such as black hole masses. Water masers at cosmologically interesting distances may also eventually provide, via direct distance determinations, a new cosmological observable for testing the reality and properties of dark energy, currently inferred primarily through Type 1a supernova measurements.

Richard Barvainis; Robert Antonucci

2005-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

142

Hydrogen Ingress in Steels During High-Temperature Oxidation in Water Vapor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is well established that hydrogen derived from water vapour can penetrate oxidizing alloys with detrimental effect. However, the complexities of tracking hydrogen in these materials have prevented the direct profiling of hydrogen ingress needed to understand these phenomena. Here we report hydrogen profiles in industrially-relevant alumina- and chromia- forming steels correlated with the local oxide-metal nano/microstructure by use of SIMS D2O tracer studies and experimental protocols to optimize D retention. The D profiles unexpectedly varied markedly among the alloys examined, which indicates mechanistic complexity but also the potential to mitigate detrimental water vapour effects by manipulation of alloy chemistry.

Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Fayek, Mostafa [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Wavelength-modulation laser hygrometer for ultrasensitive detection of water vapor in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- bines wavelength-modulation absorption spectros- copy WMS 12­16 that uses near-infrared InGaAsP diode is measured by use of a near-infrared diode laser and wavelength-modulation absorption spectroscopy. Humidity in the spectral regions of strongest water absorption. Sensitive single-mode cavity ring-down techniques based

144

Improved Retrievals of Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles Using a Twelve-Channel Microwave Radiometer  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinementEtching.348 270 300 219 255Retrievals of Temperature and Water

145

SPECIATION OF TRACE ORGANIC LIGANDS AND INORGANIC AND ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CA 94720 ABSTRACT in the boiler used to make process steam.water, gas condensate, and boiler blowdown. A summary of thewater, gas condensate, and boiler blowd01m. Retort water and

Fish, Richard H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

SPECIATION OF TRACE ORGANIC LIGANDS AND INORGANIC AND ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

organoarsenic compounds in oi.l shale process waters using aPresented at the 13th Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO, April~1ETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS Richard H.

Fish, Richard H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

SPECIATION OF TRACE ORGANIC LIGANDS AND INORGANIC AND ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Presented at the 13th Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO, April~1ETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS Richard H.compounds in the seven oil shale process waters. These

Fish, Richard H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Turn-key Raman lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor, clouds, and aerosols at the US Southern Great Plains Climate Study Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are clearly identified scientific requirements for continuous profiling of atmospheric water vapor at the Department of Energy, Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program, Southern Great Plains CART (Cloud and Radiation Testbed) site in northern Oklahoma. Research conducted at several laboratories has demonstrated the suitability of Raman lidar for providing measurements that are an excellent match to those requirements. We have developed and installed a ruggedized Raman lidar system that resides permanently at the CART site, and that is computer automated to eliminate the requirements for operator interaction. In addition to the design goal of profiling water vapor through most of the troposphere during nighttime and through the boundary layer during daytime, the lidar provides quantitative characterizations of aerosols and clouds, including depolarization measurements for particle phase studies.

Goldsmith, J.E.M.; Blair, F.H.; Bisson, S.E.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

149

NEAR FIELD RECEIVING WATER MONITORING OF TRACE METALS IN CLAMS (MACOMA BALTHICA) AND SEDIMENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE PALO ALTO WATER QUALITY CONTROL PLANT IN SOUTH SAN FRANCISCO BAY, CALIFORNIA: 1999 NEAR THE PALO ALTO WATER QUALITY CONTROL PLANT IN SOUTH SAN FRANCISCO BAY, CALIFORNIA: 1999-2001 Carlos................................................................................................................................. 13 5. Graph showing near-total and acid-extractable copper concentrations in sediments from 1994

150

A study of certain trace metals in sea water using anodic stripping voltammetry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anodic stripping voltammetry utilizing a thin film mercury composite graphite electrode has been evaluated and applied for the direct analysis of the metals, Zn,J Cu, Pb, and Cd in sea water. The electrode was observed to ...

Fitzgerald, William Francis, 1926-

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Trace metal fractionation as a mean to improve on the management of1 contaminated sediments from runoff water infiltration basins2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Trace metal fractionation as a mean to improve on the management of1 contaminated sediments from as a mean to improve on the management of21 contaminated sediments from runoff water infiltration basins22 The management of stormwater sediment is a key issue for local authorities due to their23 pollution load

Boyer, Edmond

152

Effect of Mo Dispersion Size and Water Vapor on Oxidation of Two-Phase Directionally Solidified NiAl-9Mo In-Situ Composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidation of two-phase NiAl-9Mo eutectics with 3 different growth rates/2nd phase Mo dispersion sizes were investigated at 900 C in air and air with 10% water vapor. Good oxidation resistance via alumina formation was observed in dry air, with Mo volatilization loss minimized by fine submicron Mo dispersions. However, extensive Mo volatilization and in-place internal oxidation of prior Mo phase regions was observed in wet air oxidation. Ramifications of this phenomenon for the development of multi-phase high-temperature alloys are discussed

Brady, Michael P [ORNL] [ORNL; Bei, Hongbin [ORNL] [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta Ann [ORNL] [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL] [ORNL; Tortorelli, Peter F [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Measurements of heat and mass transfer coefficients during absorption of water vapor by lithium bromide and (Li,K,Na)NO sub 3 mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A knowledge of heat and mass transfer coefficients in heat pump fluids, plays an important role in the design of absorption machines. Heat and mass transfer coefficients as well as subcooling are measured for absorption of water vapor in (Li, K, Na)No{sub 3} and Lithium Bromide (LiBr) mixtures.The rate of absorption of water vapor is obtained from the difference in concentration of mixtures between inlet and outlet streams across the absorber. In situ concentrations of aqueous salt mixtures over temperature ranges between 80 to 135 {degrees}C were calculated from density measurements. This technique of measurement is a reliable and convenient but not a very accurate ({plus minus}0.8 wt% salt) method of measuring the in situ salt concentration. Results show that the subcooling at the absorber exit is not only a property of the fluid, but depends strongly on the process conditions. The subcooling in LiBr mixtures without additive is shown to vary between 2.2 and 24.3 {degrees}C and the film heat transfer coefficient between 1365.2 and 801.1 W/m{sup 2}.K respectively, depending upon process conditions. These empirical results will prove to be of value to heat pump manufacturers because they have a strong bearing on costs and performance. Heat and mass transfer coefficients in aqueous salt solutions ate presented as a function of dimensionless numbers. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Zaltash, A.; Ally, M.R.; Linkous, R.L.; Klatt, L.N.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

Atkinson, David

2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

155

Assessment of trace metals during episodic events using DGT passive sampler: A proposal for water management enhancement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in "Water Resources Management 27, 12 (2013) 4163-4181" DOI : 10.1007/s11269-013-0401-5 #12;Abstract disturbance (dredging) and provide proposal for a better water management. The results indicate that: (1) DGT of metals from the lake to the estuary; and (4) at the confluence of the Marikina River water management

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

156

Vapor spill pipe monitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

1983-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

157

Rapid Migration of Radionuclides Leaked from High-Level Water Tanks; A Study of Salinity Gradients, Wetted Path Geometry and Water Vapor Transport  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The basis of this study was the hypothesis that the physical and chemical properties of hypersaline tank waste could lead to wetting from instability and fingered flow following a tank leak. Thus, the goal of this project was to develop an understanding of the impacts of the properties of hypersaline fluids on transport through the unsaturated zone beneath Hanford's Tank Farms. There were three specific objectives (i) to develop an improved conceptualization of hypersaline fluid transport in laboratory (ii) to identify the degree to which field conditions mimic the flow processes observed in the laboratory and (iii) to provide a validation data set to establish the degree to which the conceptual models, embodied in a numerical simulator, could explain the observed field behavior. As hypothesized, high ionic strength solutions entering homogeneous pre-wetted porous media formed unstable wetting fronts atypical of low ionic strength infiltration. In the field, this mechanism could for ce flow in vertical flow paths, 5-15 cm in width, bypassing much of the media and leading to waste penetration to greater depths than would be predicted by current conceptual models. Preferential flow may lead to highly accelerated transport through large homogeneous units, and must be included in any conservative analysis of tank waste losses through coarse-textured units. However, numerical description of fingered flow using current techniques has been unreliable, thereby precluding tank-scale 3-D simulation of these processes. A new approach based on nonzero, hysteretic contract angles and fluid-dependent liquid entry has been developed for the continuum scale modeling of fingered flow. This approach has been coupled with and adaptive-grid finite-difference solver to permit the prediction of finger formation and persistence form sub centimeter scales to the filed scale using both scalar and vector processors. Although laboratory experiments demonstrated that elevated surface tens ion of imbibing solutions can enhance vertical fingered flow, this phenomenon was not observed in the field. Field tests showed that the fingered flow behavior was overwhelmed by the variability in texture resulting from differences in the depositional environment. Field plumes were characterized by lateral spreading with an average width to depth aspect ratio of 4. For both vertical fingers and lateral flow, the high ionic strength contributed to the vapor phase dilution of the waste, which increased waste volume and pushed the wetting from well beyond what would have occurred if the volume of material had remained unchanged from that initially released into the system. It was also observed that following significant vapor-phase dilution of this waste simulants that streams of colloids were ejected from the sediment surfaces. It was shown that due to the high-sodium content of the tank wastes the colloids were deflocculated below a critical salt concentration in Hanford sediments. Th e released colloids, which at the site would be expected to carry the bulk of the sorbed heavy metals and radioisotopes, were mobile though coarse Hanford sediments, but clogged finer layers. The developments resulting from this study are already being applied at Hanford in the nonisothermal prediction of the hypersaline, high pH waste migration in tank farms and in the development of inverse methods for history matching under DOE's Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project at Hanford.

Anderson l. Ward; Glendon W. Gee; John S. Selker; Clay Cooper

2002-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

158

Rapid Migration of Radionuclides Leaked from High-Level Water Tanks: A Study of Salinity Gradients, Wetted Path Geometry and Water Vapor Transport  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The basis of this study was the hypothesis that the physical and chemical properties of hypersaline tank waste could lead to wetting from instability and fingered flow following a tank leak. Thus, the goal of this project was to develop an understanding of the impacts of the properties of hypersaline fluids on transport through the unsaturated zone beneath Hanford's Tank Farms. There were three specific objectives (i) to develop an improved conceptualization of hypersaline fluid transport in laboratory (ii) to identify the degree to which field conditions mimic the flow processes observed in the laboratory and (iii) to provide a validation data set to establish the degree to which the conceptual models, embodied in a numerical simulator, could explain the observed field behavior. As hypothesized, high ionic strength solutions entering homogeneous pre-wetted porous media formed unstable wetting fronts a typical of low ionic strength infiltration. In the field, this mechanism could force flow in vertical flow paths, 5-15 cm in width, bypassing much of the media and leading to waste penetration to greater depths than would be predicted by current conceptual models. Preferential flow may lead to highly accelerated transport through large homogeneous units, and must be included in any conservative analysis of tank waste losses through coarse-textured units. However, numerical description of fingered flow using current techniques has been unreliable, thereby precluding tank-scale 3-D simulation of these processes. A new approach based on nonzero, hysteretic contact angles and fluid-dependent liquid entry has been developed for the continuum scale modeling of fingered flow. This approach has been coupled with and adaptive-grid finite-difference solver to permit the prediction of finger formation and persistence form sub centimeter scales to the filed scale using both scalar and vector processors. Although laboratory experiments demonstrated that elevated surface tension of imbibing solutions can enhance vertical fingered flow, this phenomenon was not observed in the field. Field tests of showed that the fingered flow behavior was overwhelmed by the variability in texture resulting from differences in the depositional environment. Field plumes were characterized by lateral spreading with an average width to depth aspect ratio of 4. For both vertical fingers and lateral flow, the high ionic strength contributed to the vapor phase dilution of the waste, which increased waste volume and pushed the wetting from well beyond what would have occurred if the volume of material had remained unchanged from that initially released into the system. It was also observed that following significant vapor-phase dilution of the waste simulants that streams of colloids were ejected from the sediment surfaces. It was shown that due to the high-sodium content of the tank wastes the colloids were deflocculated below a critical salt concentration in Hanford sediment s. The released colloids, which at the site would be expected to carry the bulk of the sorbed heavy metals and radioisotopes, were mobile though coarse Hanford sediments, but clogged finer layers. The developments resulting from this study are already being applied at Hanford in the nonisothermal prediction of the hypersaline, high pH waste migration in tank farms and in the development of inverse methods for history matching under DOE's Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project at Hanford.

Anderson L. Ward; Glendon W. Gee; John S. Selker; Caly Cooper

2002-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

159

Calibrated vapor generator source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

160

On the Diurnal Cycle of Deep Convection, High-Level Cloud, and Upper Troposphere Water Vapor in the Multiscale Modeling Framework  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Multiscale Modeling Framework (MMF), also called superparameterization, embeds a cloud-resolving model (CRM) at each grid column of a general circulation model to replace traditional parameterizations of moist convection and large-scale condensation. This study evaluates the diurnal cycle of deep convection, high-level clouds, and upper troposphere water vapor by applying an infrared (IR) brightness temperature (Tb) and a precipitation radar (PR) simulator to the CRM column data. Simulator results are then compared with IR radiances from geostationary satellites and PR reflectivities from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). While the actual surface precipitation rate in the MMF has a reasonable diurnal phase and amplitude when compared with TRMM observations, the IR simulator results indicate an inconsistency in the diurnal anomalies of high-level clouds between the model and the geostationary satellite data. Primarily because of its excessive high-level clouds, the MMF overestimates the simulated precipitation index (PI) and fails to reproduce the observed diurnal cycle phase relationships among PI, high-level clouds, and upper troposphere relative humidity. The PR simulator results show that over the tropical oceans, the occurrence fraction of reflectivity in excess of 20 dBZ is almost 1 order of magnitude larger than the TRMM data especially at altitudes above 6 km. Both results suggest that the MMF oceanic convection is overactive and possible reasons for this bias are discussed. However, the joint distribution of simulated IR Tb and PR reflectivity indicates that the most intense deep convection is found more often over tropical land than ocean, in agreement with previous observational studies.

Zhang, Yunyan; Klein, Stephen A.; Liu, Chuntao; Tian, Baijun; Marchand, Roger T.; Haynes, J. M.; McCoy, Renata; Zhang, Yuying; Ackerman, Thomas P.

2008-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor trace" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

VOL. 32, No.4 UNL WATER CENTER AUGUST 2000 New Method For Detecting Trace Amounts of MTBE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water their use to help curb growing prob- at spill sites. lems with air pollution. MTBE is the most emis-by Steve Ress sions, are considered small. Gasoline additives that help keep our air clean can- "Most of the information available on oxygenates 10 mine the extent of their environmental impacts

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

162

Thermoelectrically cooled water trap  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water trap system based on a thermoelectric cooling device is employed to remove a major fraction of the water from air samples, prior to analysis of these samples for chemical composition, by a variety of analytical techniques where water vapor interferes with the measurement process. These analytical techniques include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography. The thermoelectric system for trapping water present in air samples can substantially improve detection sensitivity in these analytical techniques when it is necessary to measure trace analytes with concentrations in the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) partial pressure range. The thermoelectric trap design is compact and amenable to use in a portable gas monitoring instrumentation.

Micheels, Ronald H. (Concord, MA)

2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

163

Modelling Mixed Bed Ion Exchange Kinetics for Removal of Trace Levels of Divalent Cations in Ultrapure Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ion exchanger resin fluid film mass transfer coefficients and the ionic diffusivities from which they are derived are often measured by use of ion exchange resin columns. Such tests, usually run dynamically using short resin beds, are often performed using relatively high (ppm) concentrations of ions to accurately measure output concentrations as a function of flow rate. The testing described herein was performed to determine fluid film ionic diffusivities for cationic concentrations typical of ultrapure water ({le}ppb levels) containing ppm levels of ammonia. Effective ionic diffusivities at these low ionic concentrations and high pHs were needed to complete a computer model (SIMIX) to be used in ion exchange simulations. SIMIX is a generalized multicomponent ion exchange model designed to simulate the removal of divalent cations from ultrapure water.

B. Widman

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

LNG fire and vapor control system technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Warm water vapor envelope in the supergiants alf Ori and alf Her and its effects on the apparent size from the near-infrared to the mid-infrared  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a possible interpretation for the increase of the angular diameter of the supergiants alf Ori (M1-2 Ia-Ibe) and alf Her (M5 Ib-II) from the K band to the 11 micron region and the high-resolution 11 micron spectra without any salient spectral features revealed by Weiner et al. (2003). The angular diameters as well as the high-resolution spectra of alf Ori and alf Her obtained in the 11 micron region can be reproduced by a warm water vapor envelope, whose presence in alf Ori was revealed by Tsuji (2000) based on the reanalysis of the near-infrared data obtained with the Stratoscope II. While prominent absorption due to H2O can be expected from such a dense, warm water vapor envelope, the absorption lines can be filled in by emission from the extended part of the envelope. This effect leads to a significant weakening of the H2O lines in the 11 micron region, and makes the observed spectra appear to be rather featureless and continuum-like. However, the emission due to H2O lines from the extended envelope leads to an increase of the apparent size in this spectral region. The observed angular diameter and the high resolution spectra of alf Ori and alf Her in the 11 micron region can be best interpreted by the water vapor envelope extending to 1.4--1.5 Rstar, with a temperature of about 2000 K and a column density of H2O of the order of 10^20 cm^-2.

Keiichi Ohnaka

2004-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

166

Desalination Using Vapor-Compression Distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and MSF, this research investigates a high-efficiency mechanical vapor-compression distillation system that employs an improved water flow arrangement. The incoming salt concentration was 0.15% salt for brackish water and 3.5% salt for seawater, whereas...

Lubis, Mirna R.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

167

Preliminary assessment of halogenated alkanes as vapor-phase tracers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New tracers are needed to evaluate the efficiency of injection strategies in vapor-dominated environments. One group of compounds that seems to meet the requirements for vapor-phase tracing are the halogenated alkanes (HCFCs). HCFCs are generally nontoxic, and extrapolation of tabulated thermodynamic data indicate that they will be thermally stable and nonreactive in a geothermal environment. The solubilities and stabilities of these compounds, which form several homologous series, vary according to the substituent ratios of fluorine, chlorine, and hydrogen. Laboratory and field tests that will further define the suitability of HCFCs as vapor-phase tracers are under way.

Adams, Michael C.; Moore, Joseph N.; Hirtz, Paul

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Hybrid Optical Pumping of Optically Dense Alkali-Metal Vapor without Quenching Gas M. V. Romalis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hybrid Optical Pumping of Optically Dense Alkali-Metal Vapor without Quenching Gas M. V. Romalis; published 7 December 2010) Optical pumping of an optically thick atomic vapor typically requires a quenching the atoms. We show that optical pumping of a trace contamination of Rb present in K metal results in a 4

Romalis, Mike

169

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid vapor pressures Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sciences and Ecology 22 3b. Thermodynamics of moist air Water phase, water latent heat of vaporization Lv Summary: 3b. Thermodynamics of moist air Water phase, water latent...

170

Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

The role of trace gas flux networks in biogeosciences  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vast networks of meteorological sensors ring the globe, providing continuous measurements of an array of atmospheric state variables such as temperature, humidity, rainfall, and the concentration of carbon dioxide [New etal., 1999; Tans etal., 1996]. These measurements provide input to weather and climate models and are key to detecting trends in climate, greenhouse gases, and air pollution. Yet to understand how and why these atmospheric state variables vary in time and space, biogeoscientists need to know where, when, and at what rates important gases are flowing between the land and the atmosphere. Tracking trace gas fluxes provides information on plant or microbial metabolism and climate-ecosystem interactions. The existence of trace gas flux networks is a relatively new phenomenon, dating back to research in 1984. The first gas flux measurement networks were regional in scope and were designed to track pollutant gases such as sulfur dioxide, ozone, nitric acid, and nitrogen dioxide. Atmospheric observations and model simulations were used to infer the depositional rates of these hazardous chemicals [Fowler etal., 2009; Meyers etal., 1991]. In the late 1990s, two additional trace gas flux measurement networks emerged. One, the United States Trace Gas Network (TRAGNET), was a short-lived effort that measured trace gas emissions from the soil and plants with chambers distributed throughout the country [Ojima etal., 2000]. The other, FLUXNET, was an international endeavor that brought many regional networks together to measure the fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and sensible heat exchange with the eddy covariance technique [Baldocchi etal., 2001]. FLUXNET, which remains active today, currently includes more than 400 tower sites, dispersed across most of the world's climatic zones and biomes, with sites in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia. More recently, several specialized networks have emerged, including networks dedicated to urban areas (Urban Fluxnet), nitrogen compounds in Europe (NitroEurope), and methane (MethaneNet). Technical Aspects of Flux Networks Eddy covariance flux measurements are the preferred method by which biogeoscientists measure trace gas exchange between ecosystems and the atmosphere [Baldocchi, 2003].

Baldocch, Dennis [Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley,; Reichstein, Markus [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry; Papale, D. [University of Tuscia; KOTEEN, LAURIE [University of California, Berkeley; VARGAS, RODRIGO [Ensenada Center for Scientific Research and Higher Education (CICESE); Agarwal, D.A [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Cook, Robert B [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Wick for metal vapor laser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved wick for a metal vapor laser is made of a refractory metal cylinder, preferably molybdenum or tungsten for a copper laser, which provides the wicking surface. Alternately, the inside surface of the ceramic laser tube can be metalized to form the wicking surface. Capillary action is enhanced by using wire screen, porous foam metal, or grooved surfaces. Graphite or carbon, in the form of chunks, strips, fibers or particles, is placed on the inside surface of the wick to reduce water, reduce metal oxides and form metal carbides.

Duncan, David B. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment.

Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA); Moses, Edward I. (Castro Valley, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Gasoline vapor recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a gasoline distribution network wherein gasoline is drawn from a gasoline storage tank and pumped into individual vehicles and wherein the gasoline storage tank is refilled periodically from a gasoline tanker truck, a method of recovering liquid gasoline from gasoline vapor that collects in the headspace of the gasoline storage tank as the liquid gasoline is drawn therefrom, said method comprising the steps of: (a) providing a source of inert gas; (b) introducing inert gas into the gasoline storage tank as liquid gasoline is drawn therefrom so that liquid gasoline drawn from the tank is displaced by inert gas and gasoline vapor mixes with the inert gas in the headspace of the tank; (c) collecting the inert gas/gasoline vapor mixture from the headspace of the gasoline storage tank as the tank is refilled from a gasoline tanker truck; (d) cooling the inert gas/gasoline vapor mixture to a temperature sufficient to condense the gasoline vapor in the mixture to liquid gasoline but not sufficient to liquify the inert gas in the mixture; (e) separating the condensed liquid gasoline from the inert gas; and delivering the condensed liquid gasoline to a remote location for subsequent use.

Lievens, G.; Tiberi, T.P.

1993-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

175

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

1983-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

176

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well.

Sederquist, Richard A. (Newington, CT); Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Sawyer, Richard D. (Canton, CT)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

178

Mixing between oxic and anoxic waters of the Black Sea as traced by Chernobyl cesium isotopes. (Reannouncement with new availability information). Technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Chernobyl nuclear power station accident in 1986 released readily measureable quantities of fallout 134 Cs and 137 Cs to Black Sea surface waters. This pulse-like input of tracers can be used to follow the physical mixing of the surface oxic waters, now labeled with the Chernobyl tracers, and the deeper anoxic waters, which were initially Chernobyl free. By 1988, there is clear evidence of Chernobyl Cs penetration below the oxic/anoxic interface at deep water stations in the western and eastern basins of the Black Sea. This rapid penetration of surface waters across the pycnocline cannot be explained by vertical mixing processes alone. Data from profiles at the mouth of the Bosporus suggest that significant ventilation of intermediate depths can occur as the outflowing Black Sea waters are entrained with the inflowing Mediterranean waters. forming a sub-surface water mass which is recognized by its surface water characteristics, i.e. initially a relatively high oxygen content and Chernobyl Cs signal. The lateral propagation of this signal along isopycnals into the basin interior would provide a rapid and effective mechanism for ventilating intermediate depths of the Black Sea. This process could also account for the lateral injection of resuspended margin sediments into the basin interior. The temperature and salinity data suggest that the entrainment process occurs at depths of 50-80 m, mixing waters from the Cold Intermediate Layer with the incoming, denser Mediterranean waters.

Buesseler, K.O.; Livingston, H.D.; Casso, S.A.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

179

Water-vapor effect on the electrical conductivity of a single-walled carbon nanotube mat A. Zahab,* L. Spina, and P. Poncharal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of physico-chemical adsorption of gases in nanotubes have been reported.11­14 One of the most excit- ing was then carefully out- gassed by heating the sample up to 220 °C at a constant rate of about 3 °C/mn. The sample lower than 0.1 °C during water injection and pumping cycle was negli- gible when compared

Demouchy, Sylvie

180

Temperature dependent vapor pressures of chlorinated catechols, syringols, and syringaldehydes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The vapor pressures of nine chlorinated catechols, syringols, and syringaldehydes were determined as a function of temperature with a gas chromatographic retention time technique. The vapor pressures at 298.15 K were in the range of 0.02--1 Pa, and the enthalpies of vaporization, between 68 and 82 kJ/mol. The validity of the technique was established by a calibration involving four chlorinated phenols with well-known vapor pressures. Using these data and previously reported solubility data, Henry`s law constants for these substances and some chlorinated guaiacols and veratrols were estimated. The vapor pressure of these substances tends to decrease with increasing polarity and an increasing number of chlorine atoms. Henry`s law constants decrease sharply with increasing polarity, suggesting that methylation can result in a significant increase in a chemical`s potential for volatilization from water.

Lei, Y.D.; Shiu, W.Y.; Boocock, D.G.B. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry] [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry; Wania, F. [WECC Wania Environmental Chemists Corp., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [WECC Wania Environmental Chemists Corp., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor trace" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path from Scanning Microwave Radiometers During the 2003 Cloudiness Inter-Comparison Experiment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment SurfacesResource ProgramModification andinterface of water.OrganicNov 4 5

182

Organic vapor jet printing system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

Forrest, Stephen R

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

183

Enthalpies of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures of Some Deuterated Hydrocarbons. Liquid-Vapor Pressure Isotope Effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

* Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of MissourisSt. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63121 Liquid vapor pressure isotope effects have generally been observed, pD > pH.12 Vapor pressure and sublimation

Chickos, James S.

184

Vapor-phase heat-transport system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A vapor-phase heat-transport system is being tested in one of the passive test cells at Los Alamos. The system consists of one selective-surface collector and a condenser inside a water storage tank. The refrigerant, R-11, can be returned to the collector by gravity or with a pump. Results from several operating configurations are presented, together with a comparison with other passive systems. A new self-pumping concept is presented.

Hedstrom, J.C.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Vapor-liquid equilibrium of water-acetone-air at ambient temperatures and pressures. An analysis of different VLE-fitting methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The availability of accurate equilibrium data is of high importance in chemical engineering practice both for design and research purposes. It appeared that for the gas absorption system water-acetone-air in the range of special interest for absorption and desorption operations, neither literature data nor calculations following UNIFAC gave a sufficient accuracy. An experimental program was set up to determine equilibrium data with an accuracy within 2% for low acetone concentrations (up to 7 wt % gas phase) at ambient temperature (16-30/sup 0/C) and atmospheric pressure (740-860 mmHg). From experiments the activity coefficient at infinite dilution of acetone ..gamma.. is found to be 6.79 (0.01) at 20/sup 0/C and 7.28 (0.01) at 25/sup 0/C, while the total error in ..gamma.. is 1.5%. The equilibrium constant can be calculated from ..gamma.. and shows the same error. The experimental data-fitting with procedures of Margules (two parameters) and Van Laar were successful, but NRTL, Wilson, and UNIQUAC failed, probably because of the small concentration range used.

Lichtenbelt, J.H.; Schram, B.J.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Stratified vapor generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A stratified vapor generator (110) comprises a first heating section (H.sub.1) and a second heating section (H.sub.2). The first and second heating sections (H.sub.1, H.sub.2) are arranged so that the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2) is operatively associated with the outlet of the first heating section (H.sub.1). A moisture separator (126) having a vapor outlet (164) and a liquid outlet (144) is operatively associated with the outlet (124) of the second heating section (H.sub.2). A cooling section (C.sub.1) is operatively associated with the liquid outlet (144) of the moisture separator (126) and includes an outlet that is operatively associated with the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2).

Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Hassani, Vahab (Golden, CO)

2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

187

Proceedings o(rhe South Dakota Academy ofScience, Vol. 76 (1997) 3l/1-tU 253 TRACE METALS IN WATER AND SEDIMENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) EPA criteria de- pend on water hardness; these elements exceeded in highly contaminated areas near smelters in northern Idaho were attributed [0 direct and secondary effects

188

VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Nutrients, pesticides, surfactants, and trace metals in ground water from the Howe and Mud Lake areas upgradient from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reconnaissance-level sampling for selected nutrients, pesticides, and surfactants in ground water upgradient from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was conducted during June 1989. Water samples collected from eight irrigation wells, five domestic or livestock wells, and two irrigation canals were analyzed for nutrients, herbicides, insecticides and polychlorinated compounds, and surfactants. In addition to the above constituents, water samples from one irrigation well, one domestic well, and one irrigation canal were analyzed for arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, and silver. Concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen ranged from less than the reporting to 6.10 mg/L (milligrams per liter), and orthophosphate concentrations as phosphorus ranged from less than the reporting level to 0.070 mg/L (micrograms per liter). Concentrations of 2,4-D in two water samples were 0.1 {mu}g/L and 0.10 {mu}g/L. Water samples analyzed for 15 other herbicides, 10 carbamate insecticides, 11 organophosphorus insecticides, and 15 organochlorine insecticides, gross polychlorinated biphenyls, and gross polychlorinated naphthalenes all had concentration below their reporting levels. Concentrations of surfactants ranged from 0.02 to 0.35 mg/L. Arsenic, barium, chromium, selenium, and silver concentrations exceeded reporting levels in most of the samples. 19 refs., 1 fig., 19 tabs.

Edwards, D.D.; Bartholomay, R.C.; Bennett, C.M.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

To estimate vapor pressure easily  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vapor pressures as functions of temperature for approximately 700 major organic chemical compounds are given. The tabulation also gives the temperature range for which the data are applicable. Minimum and maximum temperatures are denoted by TMIN and TMAX. The Antoine equation that correlates vapor pressure as a function of temperature is described. A representative comparison of calculated and actual data values for vapor pressure is shown for ethyl alcohol. The coefficient tabulation is based on both literature (experimental data) and estimated values.

Yaws, C.L.; Yang, H.C. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (USA))

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Vaporization of zinc from scrap  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The rate of zinc vaporization from galvanized scrap was measured using a thermogravimetric apparatus along with chemical analysis. It is found that the rate of zinc vaporization is very fast in nitrogen and carbon monoxide atmospheres at temperatures higher than 950 C. At lower temperature rate decreases with decreasing temperature and is controlled by the gas phase mass transport. The simultaneous oxidation and vaporization of zinc occurs when the samples were heated in carbon dioxide and air. The current experimental results indicate that almost all of the zinc from scrap vaporizes during the heating process in a very short period of time after the temperature reaches above 850 C.

Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

192

ARM - Field Campaign - Water Vapor IOP  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD) by Microtops Atmospheric OpticalExperiment (VORTEX) govCampaignsVerification

193

Fuel vapor control device  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fuel vapor control device is described having a valve opening and closing a passage connecting a carburetor and a charcoal canister according to a predetermined temperature. A first coil spring formed by a ''shape memory effect'' alloy is provided to urge the valve to open the passage when the temperature is high. A second coil spring urges the valve to close the passage. A solenoid is provided to urge an armature against the valve to close the passage against the force of the first coil spring when the engine is running. The solenoid heats the first coil spring to generate a spring force therein when the engine is running. When the engine is turned off, the solenoid is deactivated, and the force of the first spring overcomes the force of the second spring to open the passage until such time as the temperature of the first spring drops below the predetermined temperature.

Ota, I.; Nishimura, Y.; Nishio, S.; Yogo, K.

1987-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

194

Time Series of Trace Element Concentrations Calculated from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a). A total of 120 samples were collected at sites within the Bay, outside the Golden Gate receives many waste water discharges, especially in areas south of the Dumbarton Bridge, that contain trace

195

Passive vapor extraction feasibility study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm.

Rohay, V.J.

1994-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

196

Tracing Noble Gas Radionuclides in the Environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Trace analysis of radionuclides is an essential and versatile tool in modern science and technology. Due to their ideal geophysical and geochemical properties, long-lived noble gas radionuclides, in particular, 39Ar (t1/2 = 269 yr), 81Kr (t1/2 = 2.3x10^5 yr) and 85Kr (t1/2 = 10.8 yr), have long been recognized to have a wide range of important applications in Earth sciences. In recent years, significant progress has been made in the development of practical analytical methods, and has led to applications of these isotopes in the hydrosphere (tracing the flow of groundwater and ocean water). In this article, we introduce the applications of these isotopes and review three leading analytical methods: Low-Level Counting (LLC), Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA).

P. Collon; W. Kutschera; Z. -T. Lu

2004-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

197

Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

Ho, Clifford K. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

198

Vapor deposition of hardened niobium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

Blocher, Jr., John M. (Columbus, OH); Veigel, Neil D. (Columbus, OH); Landrigan, Richard B. (Columbus, OH)

1983-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

199

Optimization of multi-pressure himidification-dehumidification desalination using thermal vapor compression and hybridization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Humidification-dehumidification (HD or HDH) desalination, and specifically HD driven by a thermal vapor compressor (TVC), is a thermal desalination method that has the potential to produce potable water efficiently in order ...

Mistry, Karan Hemant

200

Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics in the Forced Dispersion Modeling of LNG Vapor Clouds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The safety and security of liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities has prompted the need for continued study of LNG mitigation systems. Water spray systems are widely recognized as an effective measure for dispersing LNG vapor clouds. Currently...

Kim, Byung-Kyu

2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor trace" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Production of higher quality bio-oils by in-line esterification of pyrolysis vapor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure encompasses in-line reactive condensation processes via vapor phase esterification of bio-oil to decease reactive species concentration and water content in the oily phase of a two-phase oil, thereby increasing storage stability and heating value. Esterification of the bio-oil vapor occurs via the vapor phase contact and subsequent reaction of organic acids with ethanol during condensation results in the production of water and esters. The pyrolysis oil product can have an increased ester content and an increased stability when compared to a condensed pyrolysis oil product not treated with an atomized alcohol.

Hilten, Roger Norris; Das, Keshav; Kastner, James R; Bibens, Brian P

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

202

The Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Some Primary Amines of Pharmaceutical Importance by Correlation Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by Correlation Gas Chromatography Chase Gobble, Nigam Rath, and James Chickos* Department of Chemistry Information ABSTRACT: Vapor pressures, vaporization, and sublimation enthalpies of several pharmaceuticals and boiling temperatures when available. Sublimation enthalpies and vapor pressures are also evaluated for 1

Chickos, James S.

203

Evaluation and prevention of explosions in soil vapor extraction systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to the widespread and long term use of petroleum derived fuels and solvents, many areas have subsurface soils contaminated with petroleum derivatives. This contamination can migrate to groundwater, which is frequently used to supply drinking water needs. A common method of cleaning up that contamination is soil vapor extraction (SVE). SVE is a technique where several extraction wells are installed in the contaminated area, with screens in the appropriate vertical locations. The soil vapors re extracted form the wells using a positive displacement blower. To prevent this subsurface contamination from becoming air pollution, the extracted vapors are then sent to some hydrocarbon removal device, such as a carbon adsorption system or a thermal oxidizer. The data used in this investigation were collected as part of a Radian Corporation project for a client. The site is a former petroleum refinery, and the hydrocarbons are primarily gasoline and diesel.

Hower, J.W. [Radian Corp., El Segundo, CA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

204

Vapor deposition of thin films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Sattelberger, Alfred P. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Removal of inorganic trace contaminants by electrodialysis in a remote Australian community  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water provision for developing countries is a critical issue as a vast number of lives are lost annually due to lack of access to safe drinking water. The presence and fate of inorganic trace contaminants is of particular ...

Banasiak, Laura J.; Schfer, Andrea

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

VAPORIZATION THERMODYNAMICS OF KCl. COMBINING VAPOR PRESSURE AND GRAVIMETRIC DATA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.B. Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119899, Russia Bonnell D.W., Hastie J.W. National temperature chemistry situations, vapor pressures are typically less than 100 kPa. The molar volume is p = 101325 Pa). The subscript trs denotes that the changeisfor a transition, typically sublimation

Rudnyi, Evgenii B.

207

Water Management in A PEMFC: Water Transport Mechanism and Material  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Management in A PEMFC: Water Transport Mechanism and Material Degradation in Gas Diffusion on the water management of the PEMFC, namely the transport of product water (both liquid and vapor its water management performance and func- tion as indicators of the degradation of GDL material

Kandlikar, Satish

208

Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Volatilized metal compounds retard vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

Warren, Barbara K. (Charleston, WV)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Trace metal capture by various sorbents during fluidized bed coal combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Toxic trace metallic elements such as arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, and selenium are usually contained in coal in various forms and trace amounts. These metals will either stay in the ash or be vaporized during high temperature combustion. Portions of the vaporized metals may eventually be emitted from a combustion system in the form of metal fumes or particulates with diameters less than 1 micron, which are potentially hazardous to the environment. Current practice of controlling trace metal emissions during coal combustion employs conventional air pollution control devices (APCDs), such as electrostatic precipitators and baghouses, to collect fly ash and metal fumes. The control may not always be effective on metal fumes due to their extremely fine sizes. This study is to explore the opportunities for improved control of toxic trace metal emissions from coal-fired combustion systems. Specifically, the technology proposed is to employ suitable sorbents to reduce the amount of metal volatilization and capture volatilized metal vapors during fluidized bed coal combustion. The objective of the study was to investigate experimentally and theoretically the metal capture process.

Ho, T.C.; Ghebremeskel, A.N.; Hopper, J.R. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

210

Vapor canister heater for evaporative emissions systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Automotive evaporative emissions systems use a charcoal canister to store evaporative hydrocarobn emissions. These stored vapors are later purged and burned during engine operation. Under certain conditions the engine cannot completely purge the canister of the stored fuel vapors, which results in a decreased vapor storage capacity in the canister. A self-regulating PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) heater has been developed to warm the purge air as it enters the canister, in order to provide thermal energy for increased release of the vapors from charcoal sites. This paper describes the construction and operation of the vapor canister heater as it relates to improved evaporative emission system performance.

Bishop, R.P.; Berg, P.G.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Method of and apparatus for measuring vapor density  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus and method are disclosed which determine the concentration of an individual component, such as water vapor, of a multi-component mixture, such as a gaseous mixture for cooling a nuclear reactor. A hygrometer apparatus includes an infrared source for producing a broadband infrared energy beam that includes a strong water vapor absorption band and a weak water vapor absorption region. The beam is chopped to select infrared pulses. A temporally first pulse has a wavelength in the weakly absorbing region, a temporally second pulse has a wavelength in the strong band and a temporally third pulse has a wavelength in the weakly absorbing region. A fourth reference pulse representing background radiation is interposed in such chopped pulses. An indium arsenide infrared sensor is responsive to the pulses for generating an output signal in proportion to an equation given in the patent where N1 is proportional to the transmission through the sample of the first signal, N4 is related to the background radiation, and [K2 (N2-N4) + K3 (N3-N4)] is the time-weighted average of the transmission through the sample of the second and third pulses applicable at the time of the second pulse, with the reference pulse N4 being subtracted in each case to render the ratio independent of variations in the background radiation. 11 figs.

Nelson, L.D.; Cerni, T.A.

1989-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

212

Method of and apparatus for measuring vapor density  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus and method determine the concentration of an individual component, such as water vapor, of a multi-component mixture, such as a gaseous mixture for cooling a nuclear reactor. A hygrometer apparatus includes an infrared source for producing a broadband infrared energy beam that includes a strong water vapor absorption band and a weak water vapor absorption region. The beam is chopped to select infrared pulses. A temporally first pulse has a wavelength in the weakly absorbing region, a temporally second pulse has a wavelength in the strong band and a temporally third pulse has a wavlength in the weakly absorbing region. A fourth reference pulse representing background radiation is interposed in such chopped pulses. An indium arsenide infrared sensor is responsive to the pulses for generating an output signal in proportion to: ##EQU1## where N1 is proportional to the transmission through the sample of the first signal, N4 is related to the background radiation, and [K2 (N2-N4)+K3 (N3-N4)] is the time-weighted average of the transmission through the sample of the second and third pulses applicable at the time of the second pulse, with the reference pulse N4 being subtracted in each case to render the ratio independent of variations in the background radiation.

Nelson, Loren D. (Morrison, CO); Cerni, Todd A. (Littleton, CO)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

214

MEMS Lubrication by In-Situ Tribochemical Reactions From the Vapor Phase.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vapor Phase Lubrication (VPL) of silicon surfaces with pentanol has been demonstrated. Two potential show stoppers with respect to application of this approach to real MEMS devices have been investigated. Water vapor was found to reduce the effectiveness of VPL with alcohol for a given alcohol concentration, but the basic reaction mechanism observed in water-free environments is still active, and devices operated much longer in mixed alcohol and water vapor environments than with chemisorbed monolayer lubricants alone. Complex MEMS gear trains were successfully lubricated with alcohol vapors, resulting in a factor of 104 improvement in operating life without failure. Complex devices could be made to fail if operated at much higher frequencies than previously used, and there is some evidence that the observed failure is due to accumulation of reaction products at deeply buried interfaces. However, if hypothetical reaction mechanisms involving heated surfaces are valid, then the failures observed at high frequency may not be relevant to operation at normal frequencies. Therefore, this work demonstrates that VPL is a viable approach for complex MEMS devices in conventional packages. Further study of the VPL reaction mechanisms are recommended so that the vapor composition may be optimized for low friction and for different substrate materials with potential application to conventionally fabricated, metal alloy parts in weapons systems. Reaction kinetics should be studied to define effective lubrication regimes as a function of the partial pressure of the vapor phase constituent, interfacial shear rate, substrate composition, and temperature.

Dugger, Michael T.; Asay, David B.; Kim, Seong H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Vapor explosion in the RIA-ST-4 experiment. [BWR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A concern in assuring the safety of commercial light water reactors (LWRs) is whether core overheating, during which molten fuel is produced, can lead to massive vaporization of the coolant and shock pressurization of the system due to an energetic molten fuel-coolant interaction (MFCI). The RIA-ST-4 experiment was one of four scoping tests in the Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) Test Series which is being conducted in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) to define an energy deposition failure threshold and to determine modes and consequences of fuel rod failure during a postulated boiling water reactor (BWR) control rod drop accident.

El-Genk, M.S.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Sustaining dry surfaces under water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water. In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys - thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical predictions are consistent with molecular dynamics simulations and experiments.

Paul R. Jones; Xiuqing Hao; Eduardo R. Cruz-Chu; Konrad Rykaczewski; Krishanu Nandy; Thomas M. Schutzius; Kripa K. Varanasi; Constantine M. Megaridis; Jens H. Walther; Petros Koumoutsakos; Horacio D. Espinosa; Neelesh A. Patankar

2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

217

Heat-Traced Fluid Transfer Lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HEAT-TRACED FLUID TRANSFER LINES Robert E. Schilling, P.E. Eaton Corporation Aurora, Ohio This paper discusses basic considerations in designing a heat tracing system using either steam or electrical tracing. Four basic reasons to heat...

Schilling, R. E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Behavior of trace and companion elements of ULC-IF steel grades during RH-treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A large number of metallurgical reactions are caused by lowering the partial pressure during vacuum treatment. One of these reactions is the volatilization of elements with high vapor pressure. The concentration of trace and companion elements during RH-treatment mostly changes because of cooling scrap, deoxidation agents and ferro-alloy additions, slag/metal reactions, vaporization and also because of reactions with the RH-vessel lining. These changes in the concentration of trace and companion elements during RH-treatment are exemplified for ULC-IF (ultra low carbon--interstitial free) steel grades. The elements which are considered are chromium, nickel, molybdenum, copper, vanadium, tin, zinc, lead, phosphorus, sulfur and nitrogen. Calculations of the theoretical equilibrium solubility using thermodynamic data--in dependence of pressure and temperature--correspond well with the values obtained during steel production operations. 67 refs.

Jungreithmeier, A.; Viertauer, A.; Presslinger, H. [Voest-Alpine Stahl Linz GmbH (Austria)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

219

Assessment of radionuclide vapor-phase transport in unsaturated tuff  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes bounding calculations performed to investigate the possibility of radionuclide migration in a vapor phase associated with the emplacement of high-level waste canister in unsaturated tuff formations. Two potential radionuclide transport mechanisms in the vapor phase were examined: aerosol migration and convection/diffusion of volatile species. The former may have significant impact on the release of radionuclides to the accessible environment as the concentration in the aerosols will be equal to that in the ground water. A conservative analysis of air diffusion in a stagnant liquid film indicated that for all expected repository conditions, aerosol formation is not possible. The migration of volatile species was examined both in the vicinity of a waste canister and outside the thermally disturbed zone. Two-dimensional (radial) and three-dimensional (radial-vertical) coupled heat transfer-gas flow-liquid flow simulations were performed using the TOUGH computer code. The gas flow rate relative to the liquid flow rate predicted from the simulations allowed calculations of mobility ratios due to convection which led to the conclusion that, except for the immediate region near the canister, transport in the liquid phase will be dominant for radionuclides heavier than radon. Near the waste canister, iodine transport may also be important in the vapor phase. Bounding calculations for vertical mobility ratios were carried out as a function of saturation. These calculations are conservative and agree well with the two-dimensional simulations. Based on this analysis, it is clear that vapor-phase transport will not be important for radionuclides such as cesium and heavier species. Vapor transport for iodine may play a role in the overall release scenario depending on the particular repository conditions.

Smith, D.M.; Updegraff, C.D.; Bonano, E.J.; Randall, J.D.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Control of flow through a vapor generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a Rankine cycle system wherein a vapor generator receives heat from exhaust gases, provision is made to avoid overheating of the refrigerant during ORC system shut down while at the same time preventing condensation of those gases within the vapor generator when its temperature drops below a threshold temperature by diverting the flow of hot gases to ambient and to thereby draw ambient air through the vapor generator in the process. In one embodiment, a bistable ejector is adjustable between one position, in which the hot gases flow through the vapor generator, to another position wherein the gases are diverted away from the vapor generator. Another embodiment provides for a fixed valve ejector with a bias towards discharging to ambient, but with a fan on the downstream side of said vapor generator for overcoming this bias.

Radcliff, Thomas D.

2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor trace" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Overview of chemical vapor infiltration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is developing into a commercially important method for the fabrication of continuous filament ceramic composites. Current efforts are focused on the development of an improved understanding of the various processes in CVI and its modeling. New approaches to CVI are being explored, including pressure pulse infiltration and microwave heating. Material development is also proceeding with emphasis on improving the oxidation resistance of the interfacial layer between the fiber and matrix. This paper briefly reviews these subjects, indicating the current state of the science and technology.

Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Lowden, R.A.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

1988-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

223

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Volatilized metal compounds are described which are capable of retarding vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

Warren, B.K.

1991-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

225

A simple grand canonical approach to compute the vapor pressure of bulk and finite size systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this article we introduce a simple grand canonical screening (GCS) approach to accurately compute vapor pressures from molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo simulations. This procedure entails a screening of chemical potentials using a conventional grand canonical scheme, and therefore it is straightforward to implement for any kind of interface. The scheme is validated against data obtained from Gibbs ensemble simulations for water and argon. Then, it is applied to obtain the vapor pressure of the coarse-grained mW water model, and it is shown that the computed value is in excellent accord with the one formally deduced using statistical thermodynamics arguments. Finally, this methodology is used to calculate the vapor pressure of a water nanodroplet of 94 molecules. Interestingly, the result is in perfect agreement with the one predicted by the Kelvin equation for a homogeneous droplet of that size.

Factorovich, Matas H.; Scherlis, Damin A. [Departamento de Qumica Inorgnica, Analtica y Qumica Fsica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. II, Buenos Aires C1428EHA (Argentina)] [Departamento de Qumica Inorgnica, Analtica y Qumica Fsica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. II, Buenos Aires C1428EHA (Argentina); Molinero, Valeria [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0850 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0850 (United States)

2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

226

Trace metal behaviour in riverine sediments: role of organic matter and sulphides Adeline Charriaua  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Trace metal behaviour in riverine sediments: role of organic matter and sulphides Authors Adeline : 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2010.11.005 #12;2 Abstract Three sediment cores were collected in the Scheldt. The speciation and the distribution of trace metals in pore waters and sediment particles were assessed through

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

227

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

Novick, Vincent J.; Johnson, Stanley A.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

1999-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

229

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Control of Trace Metal Emissions During Coal Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emissions of toxic trace metals in the form of metal fumes or submicron particulate from a coal-fired combustion source have received greater environmental and regulatory concern over the past years. Current practice of controlling these emissions is to collect them at the cold-end of the process by air-pollution control devices (APCDS) such as electrostatic precipitators and baghouses. However, trace metal fumes may not always be effectively collected by these devices because the formed fumes are extremely small. The proposed research is to explore the opportunities for improved control of toxic trace metal emissions, alternatively, at the hot-end of the coal combustion process, i.e., in the combustion chamber. The technology proposed is to prevent the metal fumes from forming during the process, which would effectively eliminate the metal emission problems. Specifically, the technology is to employ suitable sorbents to (1) reduce the amount of metal volatilization during combustion and (2) capture volatilized metal vapors. The objectives of the project are to demonstrate the technology and to characterize the metal capture process during coal combustion in a fluidized bed combustor.

Thomas C. Ho

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler for sampling semi-volatile organic gases and particulate components. A semi-volatile organic reversible gas sorbent macroreticular resin agglomerates of randomly packed microspheres with the continuous porous structure of particles ranging in size between 0.05-10 .mu.m for use in an integrated diffusion vapor-particle sampler.

Gundel, Lara (Berkeley, CA); Daisey, Joan M. (Walnut Creek, CA); Stevens, Robert K. (Cary, NC)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Thermophilic Biotrickling Filtration of Ethanol Vapors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermophilic Biotrickling Filtration of Ethanol Vapors H U U B H . J . C O X , T H O M A S S E X of ethanol vapors in biotrickling filters for air pollution control was investigated. Two reactors were adaptation phase, the removal of ethanol was similar in both reactors. At a bed contact time of 57 s

233

E-Print Network 3.0 - airbone trace metals Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Loss of Heavy Metals from Experimental Salt Marsh Plots Summary: L of 12 M trace metal grade hydrochloric acid (HCl) and reheated the samples to 65-80 C in a water bath......

234

VAPOR PRESSURE ISOTOPE EFFECTS IN THE MEASUREMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL TRITIUM SAMPLES.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Standard procedures for the measurement of tritium in water samples often require distillation of an appropriate sample aliquot. This distillation process may result in a fractionation of tritiated water and regular light water due to the vapor pressure isotope effect, introducing either a bias or an additional contribution to the total tritium measurement uncertainty. The magnitude of the vapor pressure isotope effect is characterized as functions of the amount of water distilled from the sample aliquot and the heat settings for the distillation process. The tritium concentration in the distillate is higher than the tritium concentration in the sample early in the distillation process, it then sharply decreases due to the vapor pressure isotope effect and becomes lower than the tritium concentration in the sample, until the high tritium concentration retained in the boiling flask is evaporated at the end of the process. At that time, the tritium concentration in the distillate again overestimates the sample tritium concentration. The vapor pressure isotope effect is more pronounced the slower the evaporation and distillation process is conducted; a lower heat setting during the evaporation of the sample results in a larger bias in the tritium measurement. The experimental setup used and the fact that the current study allowed for an investigation of the relative change in vapor pressure isotope effect in the course of the distillation process distinguish it from and extend previously published measurements. The separation factor as a quantitative measure of the vapor pressure isotope effect is found to assume values of 1.034 {+-} 0.033, 1.052 {+-} 0.025, and 1.066 {+-} 0.037, depending on the vigor of the boiling process during distillation of the sample. A lower heat setting in the experimental setup, and therefore a less vigorous boiling process, results in a larger value for the separation factor. For a tritium measurement in water samples, this implies that the tritium concentration could be underestimated by 3 - 6%.

Kuhne, W.

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

235

HANFORD CHEMICAL VAPORS WORKER CONCERNS & EXPOSURE EVALUATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical vapor emissions from underground hazardous waste storage tanks on the Hanford site in eastern Washington State are a potential concern because workers enter the tank farms on a regular basis for waste retrievals, equipment maintenance, and surveillance. Tank farm contractors are in the process of retrieving all remaining waste from aging single-shell tanks, some of which date to World War II, and transferring it to newer double-shell tanks. During the waste retrieval process, tank farm workers are potentially exposed to fugitive chemical vapors that can escape from tank headspaces and other emission points. The tanks are known to hold more than 1,500 different species of chemicals, in addition to radionuclides. Exposure assessments have fully characterized the hazards from chemical vapors in half of the tank farms. Extensive sampling and analysis has been done to characterize the chemical properties of hazardous waste and to evaluate potential health hazards of vapors at the ground surface, where workers perform maintenance and waste transfer activities. Worker concerns. risk communication, and exposure assessment are discussed, including evaluation of the potential hazards of complex mixtures of chemical vapors. Concentrations of vapors above occupational exposure limits-(OEL) were detected only at exhaust stacks and passive breather filter outlets. Beyond five feet from the sources, vapors disperse rapidly. No vapors have been measured above 50% of their OELs more than five feet from the source. Vapor controls are focused on limited hazard zones around sources. Further evaluations of vapors include analysis of routes of exposure and thorough analysis of nuisance odors.

ANDERSON, T.J.

2006-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

236

Trace fossil assemblages in selected shelf sandstones  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Harris. Thank you, good luck in the future, and may God bless you all. vi TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Background Objectives Methods . TRACE FOSSIL IDENTIFICATION IN CORES Introduction Description of Selected Trace Fossils TRACE FOSSILS..., the trace foss11 distributions agreed with those of the ichnofacies described by Seilacher (1978) and with the known environmental distributions compiled by Chamberlain (1978), but many trace fossils have widespread occurrences that limit...

Locke, Kathleen Ann

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ABSTRACT: Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising; however, possible CO2 or CO2-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define to provide a range of concentrations that can be used as the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations. Storage source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from cements and sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, and basalts from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin, Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands, and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution was tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g., pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments because of the presence of CO2. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rocks exceed the MCLs byan order of magnitude, while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

Karamalidis, Athanasios; Torres, Sharon G.; Hakala, Jacqueline A.; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Carroll, Susan A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Quantitative Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-PhaseGlyoxal...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-Phase Glyoxal,Methylglyoxal, and 2,3-Butanedione (Diacetyl) with Quantitative Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-Phase Glyoxal,Methylglyoxal,...

239

Absolute integrated intensities of vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Absolute integrated intensities of vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide (H202) in the mid-infrared at atmospheric pressure. Absolute integrated intensities of vapor-phase hydrogen...

240

Hybrid Optical Pumping of Optically Dense Alkali-Metal Vapor without Quenching Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optical pumping of an optically thick atomic vapor typically requires a quenching buffer gas, such as N{sub 2}, to prevent radiation trapping of unpolarized photons which would depolarize the atoms. We show that optical pumping of a trace contamination of Rb present in K metal results in a 4.5 times higher polarization of K than direct optical pumping of K in the absence of N{sub 2}. Such spin-exchange polarization transfer from optically thin species is useful in a variety of areas, including spin-polarized nuclear scattering targets and electron beams, quantum-nondemolition spin measurements, and ultrasensitive magnetometry.

Romalis, M. V. [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor trace" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran polymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis develops a platform for deposition of polymer thin films that can be further tailored by chemical surface modification. First, we explore chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran films using ...

Olsson, Ylva Kristina

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Chemical vapor deposition of antimicrobial polymer coatings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There is large and growing interest in making a wide variety of materials and surfaces antimicrobial. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD), a solventless low-temperature process, is used to form thin films of polymers ...

Martin, Tyler Philip, 1977-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Trace Assessment for BWR ATWS Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A TRACE/PARCS input model has been developed in order to be able to analyze anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) in a boiling water reactor. The model is based on one developed previously for the Browns Ferry reactor for doing loss-of-coolant accident analysis. This model was updated by adding the control systems needed for ATWS and a core model using PARCS. The control systems were based on models previously developed for the TRAC-B code. The PARCS model is based on information (e.g., exposure and moderator density (void) history distributions) obtained from General Electric Hitachi and cross sections for GE14 fuel obtained from an independent source. The model is able to calculate an ATWS, initiated by the closure of main steam isolation valves, with recirculation pump trip, water level control, injection of borated water from the standby liquid control system and actuation of the automatic depres-surization system. The model is not considered complete and recommendations are made on how it should be improved.

Cheng, L.Y.; Diamond, D.; Arantxa Cuadra, Gilad Raitses, Arnold Aronson

2010-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

244

Water mist injection in oil shale retorting  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

1980-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

245

Distributed trace using central performance counter memory  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

Satterfield, David L; Sexton, James C

2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

246

Distributed trace using central performance counter memory  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

Satterfield, David L.; Sexton, James C.

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

247

Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising, however, possible CO{sub 2} or CO{sub 2}-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define trace metal source terms from the reaction of supercritical CO{sub 2}, storage reservoir brines, reservoir and cap rocks. Storage reservoir source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, basalts and cements from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution is tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g. pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments due to the presence of CO{sub 2}. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rock exceed the MCLs by an order of magnitude while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the reservoir and caprock source term to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

Karamalidis, Athanasios K.; Torres, Sharon G.; Hakala, J. Alexandra; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Carroll, Susan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Ray Tracing JELLO Brand Paul S. Heckbert  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ray Tracing JELL­O ® Brand Gelatin Paul S. Heckbert Dessert Foods Division Pixar San Rafael, CA ABSTRACT Ray tracing has established itself in recent years as the most general image synthesis algorithm for ray tracing Jell­O ® brand gelatin. We believe the method may have application to other brands

Treuille, Adrien

249

Trace Explosive Detection Using Nanosensors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Selective and sensitive detection of explosives is very important in countering terrorist threats. Detecting trace explosives has become a very complex and expensive endeavor because of a number of factors, such as the wide variety of materials that can be used as explosives, the lack of easily detectable signatures, the vast number of avenues by which these weapons can be deployed, and the lack of inexpensive sensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. High sensitivity and selectivity, combined with the ability to lower the deployment cost of sensors using mass production, is essential in winning the war on explosives-based terrorism. Nanosensors have the potential to satisfy all the requirements for an effective platform for the trace detection of explosives.

Senesac, Larry R [ORNL; Thundat, Thomas George [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Vapor Pressures and Vaporization, Sublimation, and Fusion Enthalpies of Some Fatty Acids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vapor Pressures and Vaporization, Sublimation, and Fusion Enthalpies of Some Fatty Acids Joe A. Wilson and James S. Chickos* Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of MissouriSt. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63121, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Sublimation enthalpies

Chickos, James S.

251

Vapor Pressures and Vaporization Enthalpies of a Series of Dialkyl Phthalates by Correlation Gas Chromatography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chromatography Chase Gobble and James Chickos* Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis Missouri 63121, United States Sergey P. Verevkin Department of Physical Chemistry: Experimental vapor pressures, vaporization, fusion and sublimation enthalpies of a number of dialkyl

Chickos, James S.

252

Membrane-Extraction Ion Mobility Spectrometry for In-Situ Detection of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Membrane-extraction ion mobility spectrometry (ME-IMS) has been developed for in-situ sampling and analysis of trace chlorinated hydrocarbons in water in a single procedure. The sampling is configured so that aqueous contaminants permeate through a spiral hollow polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane and are carried away by a vapor flow through the membrane tube. The extracted analyte flows into an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) chamber and is analyzed in a home-made IMS analyzer. PDMS membrane is found to effectively extract chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents from liquid phase to vapor. The specialized IMS analyzer has been found to have resolutions of R=33 and 41, respectively, for negative- and positive-modes and is capable of detecting aqueous tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) as low as 80 g/L and 74 g/L in negative ion mode, respectively. The time-dependent characteristics of sampling and detection of TCE are both experimentally and theoretically studied for various concentrations, membrane lengths, and flow rates. These characteristics demonstrate that membrane-extraction IMS is feasible for the continuous monitoring of chlorinated hydrocarbons in water.

Du, Yongzhai [ORNL; Zhang, Wei [ORNL; Whitten, William B [ORNL; Li, Haiyang [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Xu, Jun [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Water Formation in the Early Universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate that high abundances of water vapor could have existed in extremely low metallicity ($10^{-3}$ solar) partially shielded gas, during the epoch of first metal enrichment of the interstellar medium of galaxies at high redshifts.

Bialy, Shmuel; Loeb, Abraham

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehiclesTankless or Demand-Type WaterTravel TravelUpcomingUsefulAbout

255

Vapor scavenging by atmospheric aerosol particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Particle growth due to vapor scavenging was studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Vapor scavenging by particles is an important physical process in the atmosphere because it can result in changes to particle properties (e.g., size, shape, composition, and activity) and, thus, influence atmospheric phenomena in which particles play a role, such as cloud formation and long range transport. The influence of organic vapor on the evolution of a particle mass size distribution was investigated using a modified version of MAEROS (a multicomponent aerosol dynamics code). The modeling study attempted to identify the sources of organic aerosol observed by Novakov and Penner (1993) in a field study in Puerto Rico. Experimentally, vapor scavenging and particle growth were investigated using two techniques. The influence of the presence of organic vapor on the particle`s hydroscopicity was investigated using an electrodynamic balance. The charge on a particle was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A prototype apparatus--the refractive index thermal diffusion chamber (RITDC)--was developed to study multiple particles in the same environment at the same time.

Andrews, E.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Chemical weathering of granitic rock: experiments and Pb-Li isotopes tracing Romain Millot  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is to better constrain the processes of water/rock interactions both in terms of source (dissolutionChemical weathering of granitic rock: experiments and Pb-Li isotopes tracing Romain Millot Philippe of weathering. In order to go further and to better characterize water/rock interactions, we performed

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

257

Unique Approaches to Water Resources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as a result of free trade, atmospheric transport of trace pollutants, and urbanization. Available waterUnique Approaches to Water Resources Education in Florida Watershed Journal Executive Committee Photos courtesy of Dr. Frederick Bloetscher, PE W e are a diverse community of water profes- sionals. We

Central Florida, University of

258

Water Vapor Turbulence Statistics in the Convective Boundary...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

This study presented the first long-term data set of variance and skewness turbulent statistic profiles in the CBL, spanning a range of seasons and environmental conditions. These...

259

EXAMINING THE SPECTROSCOPY OF WATER VAPOR IN THE ATMOSPHERE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Compare to relative humidity probe Describes VCSEL accuracy #12;FLOW DILUTION SYSTEM Critical Orifice

Petta, Jason

260

Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with ARM  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism inS-4500II FieldVacancy-InducedCloud PropertiesObservations

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor trace" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Desalination of water by vapor transport through hydrophobic nanopores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Although Reverse osmosis (RO) is the state-of-the-art desalination technology, it still suffers from persistent drawbacks including low permeate flux, low selectivity for non-ionic species, and lack of resistance to chlorine. ...

Lee, Jongho, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

ARM - Field Campaign - ARM-FIRE Water Vapor Experiment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience4AJ01)3, 2010September 30,JuneMayIIIgovCampaignsARM West

263

ARM - Field Campaign - Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience4AJ01)3, 2010SeptemberInfraredgovCampaignsAircraft

264

ARM - Field Campaign - Fall 1997 Water Vapor IOP  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience4AJ01)3,Cloud ODgovCampaignsFIRE-ArcticShortwave IOP ARM DataUAV

265

ARM - Field Campaign - Single Frequency GPS Water Vapor Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD) by Microtops Atmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)govCampaignsReplicatorgovCampaignsSingle Column

266

Overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006 The 2002Optics GroupPlanning Workshop Overview ofOverview of the

267

Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program has developed, in cooperation with Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory, the equipment and expertise to characterize gases and vapors in the high-level radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in south central Washington State. This capability has been demonstrated by the characterization of the tank 241-C-103 headspace. This tank headspace is the first, and for many reasons is expected to be the most problematic, that will be characterized (Osborne 1992). Results from the most recent and comprehensive sampling event, sample job 7B, are presented for the purpose of providing scientific bases for resolution of vapor issues associated with tank 241-C-103. This report is based on the work of Clauss et al. 1994, Jenkins et al. 1994, Ligotke et al. 1994, Mahon et al. 1994, and Rasmussen and Einfeld 1994. No attempt has been made in this report to evaluate the implications of the data presented, such as the potential impact of headspace gases and vapors to tank farm workers health. That and other issues will be addressed elsewhere. Key to the resolution of worker health issues is the quantitation of compounds of toxicological concern. The Toxicology Review Panel, a panel of Pacific Northwest Laboratory experts in various areas, of toxicology, has chosen 19 previously identified compounds as being of potential toxicological concern. During sample job 7B, the sampling and analytical methodology was validated for this preliminary list of compounds of toxicological concern. Validation was performed according to guidance provided by the Tank Vapor Conference Committee, a group of analytical chemists from academic institutions and national laboratories assembled and commissioned by the Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program.

Huckaby, J.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Story, M.S. [Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc. Richland, WA (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Method and Apparatus for Concentrating Vapors for Analysis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method are disclosed for pre-concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the apparatus can be thermally desorbed achieving at least partial separation of vapor mixtures. The apparatus is suitable, e.g., for preconcentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than for direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications.

Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Baldwin, David L. (Kennewick, WA); Anheier, Jr., Norman C. (Richland, WA)

2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

269

Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself. 4 figs.

Alger, T.

1988-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

270

Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

Norton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Trace 700 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov Pty LtdSteen,Ltd JumpOperationsInformationRowleyIndianaToyon Power StationTrace

272

Water cooled steam jet  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfrared Land SurfaceVirus-Infected Macaques

274

Vapor intrusion modeling : limitations, improvements, and value of information analyses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vapor intrusion is the migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a subsurface source into the indoor air of an overlying building. Vapor intrusion models, including the Johnson and Ettinger (J&E) model, can be ...

Friscia, Jessica M. (Jessica Marie)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor permeable insulation on retrofit walls with vapor permeable cavity insulation. Retrofit strategies are a key factor in reducing exterior building stock consumption.

Not Available

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Final report on the project entitled "The Effects of Disturbance & Climate on Carbon Storage & the Exchanges of CO2 Water Vapor & Energy Exchange of Evergreen Coniferous Forests in the Pacific Northwest: Integration of Eddy Flux, Plant and Soil Measurements at a Cluster of Supersites"  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final technical report containing a summary of all findings with regard to the following objectives of the project: (1) To quantify and understand the effects of wildfire on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in a chronosequence of ponderosa pine (disturbance gradient); (2) To investigate the effects of seasonal and interannual variation in climate on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in mature conifer forests in two climate zones: mesic 40-yr old Douglas-fir and semi-arid 60-yr old ponderosa pine (climate gradient); (3) To reduce uncertainty in estimates of CO2 feedbacks to the atmosphere by providing an improved model formulation for existing biosphere-atmosphere models; and (4) To provide high quality data for AmeriFlux and the NACP on micrometeorology, meteorology, and biology of these systems. Objective (1): A study integrating satellite remote sensing, AmeriFlux data, and field surveys in a simulation modeling framework estimated that the pyrogenic carbon emissions, tree mortality, and net carbon exchange associated with four large wildfires that burned ~50,000 hectares in 2002-2003 were equivalent to 2.4% of Oregon statewide anthropogenic carbon emissions over the same two-year period. Most emissions were from the combustion of the forest floor and understory vegetation, and only about 1% of live tree mass was combusted on average. Objective (2): A study of multi-year flux records across a chronosequence of ponderosa pine forests yielded that the net carbon uptake is over three times greater at a mature pine forest compared with young pine. The larger leaf area and wetter and cooler soils of the mature forest mainly caused this effect. A study analyzing seven years of carbon and water dynamics showed that interannual and seasonal variability of net carbon exchange was primarily related to variability in growing season length, which was a linear function of plant-available soil moisture in spring and early summer. A multi-year drought (2001-2003) led to a significant reduction of net ecosystem exchange due to carry-over effects in soil moisture and carbohydrate reserves in plant-tissue. In the same forest, the interannual variability in the rate carbon is lost from the soil and forest floor is considerable and related to the variability in tree growth as much as it is to variability in soil climatic conditions. Objective (3): Flux data from the mature ponderosa pine site support a physical basis for filtering nighttime data with friction velocity above the canopy. An analysis of wind fields and heat transport in the subcanopy at the mesic 40-year old Douglas site yielded that the non-linear structure and behavior of spatial temperature gradients and the flow field require enhanced sensor networks to estimate advective fluxes in the subcanopy of forest to close the surface energy balance in forests. Reliable estimates for flux uncertainties are needed to improve model validation and data assimilation in process-based carbon models, inverse modeling studies and model-data synthesis, where the uncertainties may be as important as the fluxes themselves. An analysis of the time scale dependence of the random and flux sampling error yielded that the additional flux obtained by increasing the perturbation timescale beyond about 10 minutes is dominated by random sampling error, and therefore little confidence can be placed in its value. Artificial correlation between gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) is a consequence of flux partitioning of eddy covariance flux data when GEP is computed as the difference between NEE and computed daytime Re (e.g. using nighttime Re extrapolated into daytime using soil or air temperatures). Tower-data must be adequately spatially averaged before comparison to gridded model output as the time variability of both is inherently different. The eddy-covariance data collected at the mature ponderosa pine site and the mesic Douglas fir site were used to develop and evaluate a new method to extra

Beverly E. Law (PI), Christoph K. Thomas (CoI)

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

277

Reductive Dehalogenation of Trichloroethene Vapors in an  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to treat trichloroethene (TCE) from waste gases generated by soil vapor extraction or dual-phase extraction through the recirculating liquid as a source of hydrogen, the electron donor for Dehalococcoides strains (DPE) (4). However, these techniques result in a waste gas stream that needs further treatment. Several

278

Vaporization of synthetic fuels. Final report. [Thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The problem of transient droplet vaporization in a hot convective environment is examined. The main objective of the present study is to develop an algorithm for the droplet vaporization which is simple enough to be feasibly incorporated into a complete spray combustion analysis and yet will also account for the important physics such as liquid-phase internal circulation, unsteady droplet heating and axisymmetric gas-phase convection. A simplified liquid-phase model has been obtained based on the assumption of the existence of a Hill's spherical vortex inside the droplet together with some approximations made in the governing diffusion equation. The use of the simplified model in a spray situation has also been examined. It has been found that droplet heating and vaporization are essentially unsteady and droplet temperature is nonuniform for a significant portion of its lifetime. It has also been found that the droplet vaporization characteristic can be quite sensitive to the particular liquid-phase and gas-phase models. The results of the various models are compared with the existing experimental data. Due to large scattering in the experimental measurements, particularly the droplet diameter, no definite conclusion can be drawn based on the experimental data. Finally, certain research problems which are related to the present study are suggested for future studies.

Sirignano, W.A.; Yao, S.C.; Tong, A.Y.; Talley, D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Chemical vapor deposition of mullite coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention is directed to the creation of crystalline mullite coatings having uniform microstructure by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The process comprises the steps of establishing a flow of reactants which will yield mullite in a CVD reactor, and depositing a crystalline coating from the reactant flow. The process will yield crystalline coatings which are dense and of uniform thickness.

Sarin, Vinod (Lexington, MA); Mulpuri, Rao (Boston, MA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

ASHRAE Transactions: Research 3 A steady-state simulation model for a water-to-water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ASHRAE Transactions: Research 3 ABSTRACT A steady-state simulation model for a water Reciprocating vapor compression heat pumps and chill- ers have been the target of a number of simulation models

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor trace" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

An evaluation of trace element release associated with acid mine drainage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The determination of trace element release from geologic materials, such as oil shale and coal overburden, is important for proper solid waste management planning. The objective of this study was to determine a correlation between release using the following methods: (1) sequential selective dissolution for determining trace element residencies, (2) toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), and (3) humidity cell weathering study simulating maximum trace element release. Two eastern oil shales were used, a New Albany shale that contains 4.6 percent pyrite, and a Chattanooga shale that contains 1.5 percent pyrite. Each shale was analyzed for elemental concentrations by soluble, adsorbed, organic, carbonate, and sulfide phases. The results of the results of the selective dissolution studies show that each trace element has a unique distribution between the various phases. Thus, it is possible to predict trace element release based on trace element residency. The TCLP results show that this method is suitable for assessing soluble trace element release but does not realistically assess potential hazards. The results of the humidity cell studies do demonstrate a more reasonable method for predicting trace element release and potential water quality hazards. The humidity cell methods, however, require months to obtain the required data with a large number of analytical measurements. When the selective dissolution data are compared to the trace element concentrations in the TCLP and humidity cell leachates, it is shown that leachate concentrations are predicted by the selective dissolution data. Therefore, selective dissolution may represent a rapid method to assess trace element release associated with acid mine drainage.

Sullivan, P.J.; Yelton, J.L. (Univ. of Wyoming Research Corp., Laramie (United States))

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Industrial Heat Pumps Using Solid/Vapor Working Fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMPS USING SOLID/VAPOR WORKING FLUIDS Uwe Rockenfeller, Desert Research Institute, Boulder City, Nevada ABSTRACT Industrial heat pumps have the potential to reduce the operating costs of chemical and heat treating processes... with vapor re-compression recovery systems. The state-of-the-art heat pump equipment employing liquid/vapor working fluids fulfills the requirements only in some applications. The employment of solid/vapor complex compounds leads to 'nore cost effective...

Rockenfeller, U.

283

Trace gas contaminant control in a space station atmosphere using adsorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Trace contaminants enter spacecraft atmospheres through offgassing of spacecraft materials and as products of crew metabolism. The consequences of fire or accidental release of toxic vapors from onboard systems is also a crew safety concern. The purpose of this work was to determine how these contaminants could be limited to safe concentrations in the atmosphere of the proposed space station. Contaminant source models were developed from spacecraft material offgassing and human metabolic production rate measurements. Contaminants were represented with a simplified model of 30 compounds by grouping similar species together. A trace contaminant control process, which consists of chemisorption of ammonia on phosphoric acid-impregnated activated carbon, ambient temperature catalytic oxidation of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, catalytic conversion of the sulfur in hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans to elemental sulfur, and adsorption of the other contaminants in a regenerable activated carbon adsorber, was proposed. Trace contaminant adsorption rate and equilibrium equations were derived. Various adsorbents were evaluated to determine the optimum sorbents for this application. Removal system performance limits were established, and optimum design ranges for process parameters were developed. Trace gas contaminants can be limited to safe concentrations by the process proposed under normal conditions using as little as 1 Kg/man-year of ammonia chemisorbent. The most likely accidental contaminant releases can be removed in {approximately}20 hours using frequent adsorber regenerations.

Winter, J.D.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetric Measurements of Trace Uranium...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Measurements of Trace Uranium at the Bismuth Film Electrode. Abstract: Bismuth-coated carbon-fiber electrodes have been successfully applied for adsorptive-stripping...

285

Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Trace metal characterization...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Trace metal characterization and speciation in geothermal effluent by multiple scanning anodic stripping voltammetry and atomic absorpotion analysis. Annual progress report...

286

Modeling engine oil vaporization and transport of the oil vapor in the piston ring pack on internal combustion engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A model was developed to study engine oil vaporization and oil vapor transport in the piston ring pack of internal combustion engines. With the assumption that the multi-grade oil can be modeled as a compound of several ...

Cho, Yeunwoo, 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

The interaction of flow, heat transfer, and free interfaces in an electron-beam vaporization system for metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A numerical analysis is made of the liquid flow and energy transport in a system to vaporize metals. The energy from an electron beam heats metal confined in a water-cooled crucible. Metal vaporizes from a hot pool of circulating liquid which is surrounded by a shell of its own solid. Flow in the pool is strongly driven by temperature-induced buoyancy and capillary forces and is located in the transition region between laminar and turbulent flow. At high vaporization rates, the thrust of the departing vapor forms a trench at the beam impact site. A modified finite element method is used to calculate the flow and temperature fields coupled with the interface locations. The mesh is structured with spines that stretch and pivot as the interfaces move. The discretized equations are arranged in an {open_quotes}arrow{close_quotes} matrix and solved using the Newton-Raphson method. The electron-beam power and width are varied for cases involving the high-rate vaporization of aluminum. Attention is focused on the interaction of vaporization, liquid flow, and heat transport in the trench area.

Westerberg, K.W. [Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); McClelland, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Finlayson, B.A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Water dimer equilibrium constant calculation: A quantum formulation including metastable states  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a full quantum evaluation of the water second virial coefficient B(T) based on the Takahashi-Imada second order approximation. As the associated trace Tr[e{sup ??H{sub A}{sub B}}?e{sup ??H{sub A}{sub B}{sup o}}] is performed in the coordinate representation, it does also include contribution from the whole continuum, i.e., resonances and collision pairs of monomers. This approach is compared to a Path Integral Monte Carlo evaluation of this coefficient by Schenter [J. Chem. Phys. 117, 6573 (2002)] for the TIP4P potential and shown to give extremely close results in the low temperature range (250450 K) reported. Using a recent ab initio flexible potential for the water dimer, this new formulation leads to very good agreement with experimental values over the whole range of temperatures available. The virial coefficient is then used in the well known relation K{sub p}(T) = ?(B(T) ? b{sub M})/RT where the excluded volume b{sub M} is assimilated to the second virial coefficient of pure water monomer vapor and approximated from the inner repulsive part of the interaction potential. This definition, which renders b{sub M} temperature dependent, allows us to retrieve the 38?cm{sup 3}?mol{sup ?1} value commonly used, at room temperature. The resulting values for K{sub p}(T) are in agreement with available experimental data obtained from infrared absorption spectra of water vapor.

Leforestier, Claude, E-mail: claude.leforestier@univ-montp2.fr [Institut Charles Gerhardt, CNRS 5253, CC 15.01, Universit Montpellier II-CNRS, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France)] [Institut Charles Gerhardt, CNRS 5253, CC 15.01, Universit Montpellier II-CNRS, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France)

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

289

Apparatus and method for photochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photochemical vapor deposition apparatus includes a reactor housing having a window in one wall above a reaction chamber in the housing. A transparent curtain divides the reaction chamber into a reaction zone and a flush zone. At least one substrate is mounted in the reaction zone in light communication with the window so that ultraviolet radiation may penetrate through the window into the reaction zone. The window is kept clear by a gas flowing through the flush zone.

Jackson, Scott C. (Wilmington, DE); Rocheleau, Richard E. (Wilmington, DE)

1987-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

290

DuPont Chemical Vapor Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DuPont Safety Resources was tasked with reviewing the current chemical vapor control practices and providing preventive recommendations on best commercial techniques to control worker exposures. The increased focus of the tank closure project to meet the 2024 Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestones has surfaced concerns among some CH2MHill employees and other interested parties. CH2MHill is committed to providing a safe working environment for employees and desires to safely manage the tank farm operations using appropriate control measures. To address worker concerns, CH2MHill has chartered a ''Chemical Vapors Project'' to integrate the activities of multiple CH2MHill project teams, and solicit the expertise of external resources, including an independent Industrial Hygiene expert panel, a communications consultant, and DuPont Safety Resources. Over a three-month time period, DuPont worked with CH2MHill ESH&Q, Industrial Hygiene, Engineering, and the independent expert panel to perform the assessment. The process included overview presentations, formal interviews, informal discussions, documentation review, and literature review. DuPont Safety Resources concluded that it is highly unlikely that workers in the tank farms are exposed to chemicals above established standards. Additionally, the conventional and radiological chemistry is understood, the inherent chemical hazards are known, and the risk associated with chemical vapor exposure is properly managed. The assessment highlighted management's commitment to addressing chemical vapor hazards and controlling the associated risks. Additionally, we found the Industrial Hygiene staff to be technically competent and well motivated. The tank characterization data resides in a comprehensive database containing the tank chemical compositions and relevant airborne concentrations.

MOORE, T.L.

2003-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

291

Modeling of LNG Pool Spreading and Vaporization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

..................................................................................... 15 Figure 5: 90 mol% Methane 10mol% Ethane mixture VLE phase envelope .................. 18 Figure 6: Boiling temperature and vapor composition of 90 mol% methane 10mol% ethane mixture... process of natural gas allows a 600 fold reduction in the volume of the gas being transported at ambient pressure. The resulting liquid which is mainly composed of methane presents some hazardous properties linked to its flammable nature and its...

Basha, Omar 1988-

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

292

Combined rankine and vapor compression cycles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An organic rankine cycle system is combined with a vapor compression cycle system with the turbine generator of the organic rankine cycle generating the power necessary to operate the motor of the refrigerant compressor. The vapor compression cycle is applied with its evaporator cooling the inlet air into a gas turbine, and the organic rankine cycle is applied to receive heat from a gas turbine exhaust to heat its boiler within one embodiment, a common condenser is used for the organic rankine cycle and the vapor compression cycle, with a common refrigerant, R-245a being circulated within both systems. In another embodiment, the turbine driven generator has a common shaft connected to the compressor to thereby eliminate the need for a separate motor to drive the compressor. In another embodiment, an organic rankine cycle system is applied to an internal combustion engine to cool the fluids thereof, and the turbo charged air is cooled first by the organic rankine cycle system and then by an air conditioner prior to passing into the intake of the engine.

Radcliff, Thomas D.; Biederman, Bruce P.; Brasz, Joost J.

2005-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

293

Designing Water Smart Landscapes Activity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Designing Water Smart Landscapes Activity Objective: Create a water smart home landscape. Materials the perimeters of the existing buildings for your plan. 2. Draw your base map using graph paper. Draw the existing buildings to scale, and include the driveway and walkways. 3. Using tracing paper over your base

294

Origin of waters observed along 137E Frederick M. Bingham  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

16 October 2001; accepted 25 October 2001; published 16 July 2002. [1] Using the World Ocean Atlas Water, but includes much of the water midlatitude thermocline. A method is developed to trace

Bingham, Frederick M.

295

Feasibility of the detection of trace elements in particulate...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of trace elements in particulate matter using online High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry. Feasibility of the detection of trace elements in particulate matter using online...

296

atom trap trace: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1 An atom trap trace analysis system for measuring krypton contamination in xenon dark matter detectors Physics Websites Summary: An atom trap trace analysis system for measuring...

297

Infrared near-field spectroscopy of trace explosives using an...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

spectroscopy of trace explosives using an external cavity quantum cascade laser. Infrared near-field spectroscopy of trace explosives using an external cavity quantum...

298

Ultrasensitive Voltammetric Detection of Trace Heavy Metal Ions...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Voltammetric Detection of Trace Heavy Metal Ions Using Carbon Nanotube Nanoelectrode Array. Ultrasensitive Voltammetric Detection of Trace Heavy Metal Ions Using Carbon Nanotube...

299

MULTI-TRACAGE DE LA FONTAINE DE NIMES Multi-tracing of Fontaine de Nmes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.jouanen@free.fr 3 European Water Tracing Services, rue de la Chapelle 43, B-4550 Nandrin, Belgique, e-mail : ewts de Nîmes (ii) le conduit karstique ouest joue un rôle majeur dans le drainage du bassin d results are following: (i) all the dye tracers have been identified at the Fontaine de Nimes spring (ii

Boyer, Edmond

300

Ch.9 Water Resources ! Hydrologic cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Balance G Ts Td H LE Q t = Rn - LE - H - G where Q/t is the heat storage change of soil column in the liquid or solid phase at or near the land surface becomes water vapor. Water Bare soil Vegetated of the water molecules to a solid surface (e.g., soil or glass). #12;A simple soil-water-balance equation

Pan, Feifei

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor trace" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Simulation of natural corrosion by vapor hydration test: seven-year results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have investigated the alteration behavior of synthetic basalt and SRL 165 borosilicate waste glasses that had been reacted in water vapor at 70 {degrees}C for time periods up to seven years. The nature and extent of corrosion of glasses have been determined by characterizing the reacted glass surface with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Alteration in 70 {degrees}C laboratory tests was compared to that which occurs at 150-200 {degrees}C and also with Hawaiian basaltic glasses of 480 to 750 year old subaerially altered in nature. Synthetic basalt and waste glasses, both containing about 50 percent wt SiO{sub 2} were found to react with water vapor to form an amorphous hydrated gel that contained small amounts of clay, nearly identical to palagonite layers formed on naturally altered basaltic glass. This result implies that the corrosion reaction in nature can be simulated with a vapor hydration test. These tests also provide a means for measuring the corrosion kinetics, which are difficult to determine by studying natural samples because alteration layers have often spelled off the samples and we have only limited knowledge of the conditions under which alteration occurred.

Luo, J.S.; Ebert, W.L.; Mazer, J.J.; Bates, J.K.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

302

Method and apparatus for concentrating vapors for analysis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pre-concentration device and a method are disclosed for concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the pre-concentration device are thermally desorbed, achieving at least partial separation of the vapor mixtures. The pre-concentration device is suitable, e.g., for pre-concentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable.

Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Baldwin, David L. (Kennewick, WA); Anheier, Jr., Norman C. (Richland, WA)

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

303

RESTRICTED-TRACE APPROXIMATION FOR NUCLEAR ANTIFERROMAGNETISM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1353 RESTRICTED-TRACE APPROXIMATION FOR NUCLEAR ANTIFERROMAGNETISM M. GOLDMAN and G. SARMA Service to predict several properties of nuclear antiferromagnetic structures : sublattice magnetization of nuclear dipolar magnetic ordering, either antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic, has been reported

Boyer, Edmond

304

Extraction of trace metals from fly ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous, the fly ash having a silicate base and containing surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like, with the process being carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl.sub.3 in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl.sub.3 to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

Blander, Milton (Palos Park, IL); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Nagy, Zoltan (Woodridge, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Extraction of trace metals from fly ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous. The fly ash has a silicate base and contains surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like. The process is carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl/sub 3/ in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl/sub 3/ to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

Blander, M.; Wai, C.M.; Nagy, Z.

1983-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

Trace element analysis of Texas lignite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or in the planning stages, Near surface lignite re- sources are estimated to be 21 billion metric tons in Texas, while deep basin reserves are estimated at 31 billion metric tons. Near (3] surface reserves alone could fulfill Texas' electrical needs for 100 years... for environmental and health concerns trace element characterization of lignites is important. A needed avenue of research is charact- erization of trace element pathways in lignite fired power plants. :hat is to say what percentage of a certain element...

Mahar, Sean

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A single chamber continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor is described for depositing continuously on flat substrates, for example, epitaxial layers of semiconductor materials. The single chamber reactor is formed into three separate zones by baffles or tubes carrying chemical source material and a carrier gas in one gas stream and hydrogen gas in the other stream without interaction while the wafers are heated to deposition temperature. Diffusion of the two gas streams on heated wafers effects the epitaxial deposition in the intermediate zone and the wafers are cooled in the final zone by coolant gases. A CVD reactor for batch processing is also described embodying the deposition principles of the continuous reactor.

Berkman, Samuel (Florham Park, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Vapor port and groundwater sampling well  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus has been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing.

Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wylie, Allan H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Storing images in warm atomic vapor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reversible and coherent storage of light in atomic medium is a key-stone of future quantum information applications. In this work, arbitrary two-dimensional images are slowed and stored in warm atomic vapor for up to 30 $\\mu$s, utilizing electromagnetically induced transparency. Both the intensity and the phase patterns of the optical field are maintained. The main limitation on the storage resolution and duration is found to be the diffusion of atoms. A techniqueanalogous to phase-shift lithography is employed to diminish the effect of diffusion on the visibility of the reconstructed image.

M. Shuker; O. Firstenberg; R. Pugatch; A. Ron; N. Davidson

2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

310

Vapor port and groundwater sampling well  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus have been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing. 10 figs.

Hubbell, J.M.; Wylie, A.H.

1996-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

311

Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey,(MonasterLowellisMcDonald isMelletteEnclosed andEnergySolar SystemsVapor

312

Review of enhanced vapor diffusion in porous media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vapor diffusion in porous media in the presence of its own liquid has often been treated similar to gas diffusion. The gas diffusion rate in porous media is much lower than in free space due to the presence of the porous medium and any liquid present. However, enhanced vapor diffusion has also been postulated such that the diffusion rate may approach free-space values. Existing data and models for enhanced vapor diffusion, including those in TOUGH2, are reviewed in this paper.

Webb, S.W.; Ho, C.K.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Recovery of benzene in an organic vapor monitor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solid adsorbents available (silica gel, activated alumina, etc. ), activated charcoal is most frequently utilized. Activated charcoal has retentivity for sorbed vapors several times that of silica gel and it displays a selectivity for organic vapors... (diffusion rate) of the vapor molecules to the sur- face of the adsorbent. The adsorption process determine how effective the adsorbent collects and holds the contam- inant on the surface of the activated charcoal. Recovery of the contaminant from...

Krenek, Gregory Joel

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Vaporizer design criteria for ethanol fueled internal combustion engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Stout (Member) L r x ge Edwa d A. Hiler (Head of Department) May 1985 ABSTRACT Vaporizer Design Criteria For Ethanol Fueled Internal Combustion Engines. (May 1985) Arachchi Rallage Ariyaratne, B. S. , University of Sri Lanka Chairman... VAPORIZATION LENGTH WITH UNIFORM HEAT FLUX 8 POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS FOR EVALUATING PARAMETERS C VARIATION OF HEAT FLUX AND AVERAGE SURFACE TEMPARATURE D PROGRAM FOR PREDICTING VAPORIZATION LENGTH 73 75 78 80 VITA 87 LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 1...

Ariyaratne, Arachchi Rallage

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

315

Mercury Vapor At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Varekamp...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration...

316

Global Climate Modeling of the Martian water cycle with improved microphysics and radiatively active water ice clouds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiative effects of water ice clouds have noteworthy consequences on the Martian atmosphere, its thermal structure and circulation. Accordingly, the inclusion of such effects in the LMD Mars Global Climate Model (GCM) greatly modifies the simulated Martian water cycle. The intent of this paper is to address the impact of radiatively active clouds on atmospheric water vapor and ice in the GCM and improve its representation. We propose a new enhanced modeling of the water cycle, consisting of detailed cloud microphysics with dynamic condensation nuclei and a better implementation of perennial surface water ice. This physical modeling is based on tunable parameters. This new version of the GCM is compared to the Thermal Emission Spectrometer observations of the water cycle. Satisfying results are reached for both vapor and cloud opacities. However, simulations yield a lack of water vapor in the tropics after Ls=180{\\deg} which is persistent in simulations compared to observations, as a consequence of aphelion c...

Navarro, Thomas; Forget, Franois; Spiga, Aymeric; Millour, Ehouarn; Montmessin, Franck

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Water, Sun, Energy | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and Materials Disposition3 Water Vapor ExperimentIrrigatingWater,

318

The control of confined vapor phase explosions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The probability of, for example, a fire or explosion occurring during a process operation is related both to the fire-related properties of the materials used, such as flash point, flammable limits etc., i.e. the material or intrinsic factors, and the nature of the operation and the equipment used, i.e. the extrinsic factors. The risk, or frequency of occurrence, of other hazards such as reaction runaway, major toxic release etc. can be determined in a similar manner. For a vapor phase explosion (and a fire) the probability of the event is the product of the probability of generating a flammable atmosphere and the probability of ignition. Firstly, materials may be coded using properties that are relevant to the hazard in question. Secondly, different operations have different degrees of risk and these risks are assigned as Low, Medium, High etc. according to criteria outlined here. Combination of these two factors will then be a measure of the overall risk of the operation with the specified material and may be used to define operating standards. Currently, the hazard/risk of a vapor phase explosions is examined by this method but in due course dust explosions, fires, condensed phase explosions, reaction runaways, physical explosions, major toxic releases and incompatibility will be included.

Scilly, N.F. [Laporte plc, Widnes (United Kingdom); Owen, O.J.R. [Fine Organics, Ltd., Middlesborough (United Kingdom); Wilberforce, J.K. [Solvay SA, Brussels (Belgium)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

319

Vapor and gas sampling of Single-Shell Tank 241-T-111 using the vapor sampling system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents sampling data resulting from the January 20, 1995, sampling of SST 241-T-111 using the vapor sampling system.

Caprio, G.S.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-BY-112 using the vapor sampling system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents sampling data from the November 18, 1994, sampling of SST 241-BY-112 using the vapor sampling system.

Caprio, G.S.

1995-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor trace" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Vapor and gas sampling of Single-Shell Tank 241-A-101 using the Vapor Sampling System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents sampling data resulting from the June 8, 1995, sampling of SST 241-A-101 using the Vapor Sampling System.

Caprio, G.S.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Dynamic characteristics of gas-water interfacial plasma under water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas-water interfacial plasmas under water were generated in a compact space in a tube with a sandglass-like structure, where two metal wires were employed as electrodes with an applied 35 kHz ac power source. The dynamic behaviors of voltage/current were investigated for the powered electrode with/without water cover to understand the effect of the gas-water interface. It is found that the discharge exhibits periodic pulsed currents after breakdown as the powered electrode is covered with water, whereas the electrical current reveals a damped oscillation with time with a frequency about 10{sup 6} Hz as the powered electrode is in a vapor bubble. By increasing water conductivity, a discharge current waveform transition from pulse to oscillation presents in the water covering case. These suggest that the gas-water interface has a significant influence on the discharge property.

Zheng, S. J.; Zhang, Y. C.; Ke, B.; Ding, F.; Tang, Z. L.; Yang, K.; Zhu, X. D. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

323

RESONANT FARADAY ROTATION IN A HOT LITHIUM VAPOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESONANT FARADAY ROTATION IN A HOT LITHIUM VAPOR By SCOTT RUSSELL WAITUKAITIS A Thesis Submitted: #12;Abstract I describe a study of Faraday rotation in a hot lithium vapor. I begin by dis- cussing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3 The Lithium Oven and Solenoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3 Theoretical Framework

Cronin, Alex D.

324

Chemical vapor detection with a multispectral thermal imager  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemical vapor detection with a multispectral thermal imager Mark 1. G. Aithouse, MEMBER SPIE U.S. Army Chemical Research Development and Engineering Center SMCCR-DDT Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland algorithm 7. Conclusions 8. Acknowledgments 9. References 1. INTRODUCTION Detection of chemical vapor clouds

Chang, Chein-I

325

Informal Report . VAPOR DETECTION OF TRAFFICKING OF CONTRABAND MONEY-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I BNL- 62834 Informal Report . VAPOR DETECTION OF TRAFFICKING OF CONTRABAND MONEY-· [D VAPOR DETECTION OF TRAFFICKING OF CONTRABAND MONEY- A DISCUSSION OF TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY Concept MONEY --A DISCUSSION OF TECHNICAL FEASffiILITY Russell N. Dietz, Head Tracer Technology Center

326

Analysis of electron-beam vaporization of refractory metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An electron beam is focussed onto a small area on the surface of a refractory metal to locally raise the temperature and vaporize metal. At high vaporization rates the hot area is on the surface of a churning liquid-metal pool contained in a solid-metal skull which sits in a cooled crucible. Inner workings of the process are revealed by analysis of momentum, energy, and mass transfer. At the surface high temperature causes high vaporization rate and high vapor thrust, depressing the vapor/liquid surface. In the liquid pool surface-tension gradients and thermal buoyancy drive a (typically) chaotic flow. In the solid skull thermal conductivity and contact resistance regulate the rate of heat transfer from pool to crucible. Analyses of these phenomena together reveal process performance sensitivities - e.g., to depression size or to magnitude of surface-tension gradients. 12 refs., 3 figs.

Kheshgi, H.S.; Gresho, P.M.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Chemical vapor deposition of group IIIB metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coatings of Group IIIB metals and compounds thereof are formed by chemical vapor deposition, in which a heat decomposable organometallic compound of the formula given in the patent where M is a Group IIIB metal, such as lanthanum or yttrium and R is a lower alkyl or alkenyl radical containing from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, with a heated substrate which is above the decomposition temperature of the organometallic compound. The pure metal is obtained when the compound of the formula 1 is the sole heat decomposable compound present and deposition is carried out under nonoxidizing conditions. Intermetallic compounds such as lanthanum telluride can be deposited from a lanthanum compound of formula 1 and a heat decomposable tellurium compound under nonoxidizing conditions.

Erbil, A.

1989-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

328

Monitoring of vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for monitoring vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a high-temperature environment has an excitation source producing electromagnetic radiation, an optical path having an optical probe optically communicating the electromagnetic radiation received at a proximal end to a distal end, a spectrometer or polychromator, a detector, and a positioner coupled to the first optical path. The positioner can slidably move the distal end of the optical probe to maintain the distal end position with respect to an area of a material undergoing combustion. The emitted wavelength can be directed to a detector in a single optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration, in a dual optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration or in a dual optical probe 90.degree. side scattered configuration. The apparatus can be used to monitor an emitted wavelength of energy from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as it fluoresces in a high temperature environment.

Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

330

Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System: Thermal Storage Using Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HEATS Project: UTRC is developing a new climate-control system for EVs that uses a hybrid vapor compression adsorption system with thermal energy storage. The targeted, closed system will use energy during the battery-charging step to recharge the thermal storage, and it will use minimal power to provide cooling or heating to the cabin during a drive cycle. The team will use a unique approach of absorbing a refrigerant on a metal salt, which will create a lightweight, high-energy-density refrigerant. This unique working pair can operate indefinitely as a traditional vapor compression heat pump using electrical energy, if desired. The project will deliver a hot-and-cold battery that provides comfort to the passengers using minimal power, substantially extending the driving range of EVs.

None

2012-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

331

Gas Separation Using Organic-Vapor-Resistent Membranes In Conjunctin With Organic-Vapor-Selective Membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for treating a gas mixture containing at least an organic compound gas or vapor and a second gas, such as natural gas, refinery off-gas or air. The process uses two sequential membrane separation steps, one using membrane selective for the organic compound over the second gas, the other selective for the second gas over the organic vapor. The second-gas-selective membranes use a selective layer made from a polymer having repeating units of a fluorinated polymer, and demonstrate good resistance to plasticization by the organic components in the gas mixture under treatment, and good recovery after exposure to liquid aromatic hydrocarbons. The membrane steps can be combined in either order.

Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); He, Zhenjie (Fremont, CA); Da Costa, Andre R. (Menlo Park, CA); Daniels, Ramin (San Jose, CA); Amo, Karl D. (Mountain View, CA); Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA)

2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

332

M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Vapor Power Cycles 1 Vapor Power Cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is not a suitable model for steam power cycle since: The turbine has to handle steam with low quality which steam is condensed in the condenser 4 3 1 2 s T 1 2 34 s #12;M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Vapor Power = 0 qin = h3 ­ h2 Turbine q = 0 wturbine,out = h3 ­ h4 Condenser w = 0 qout = h4 ­ h1 The thermal

Bahrami, Majid

333

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol-assisted chemical vapor Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Work to Prevent Chemical Warfare Agent Vapor Infiltration? John H. Sorensen Barbara M. Vogt Date... protection strategies to reduce exposure to vapors from chemical warfare...

334

E-Print Network 3.0 - arc vapor deposition Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

has been produced... al Vaporization and melting of materials in fusion devices 325 ENERGY DEPOSITED (Jcm21 Figure 3... VAPORIZATION AND MELTING OF MATERIALS IN FUSION...

335

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic vapor laser Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with the exception of pagination. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE 1 Summary: vapor, atomic physics and vapor ionization, absorption reflection in a heated plasma layer, and...

336

E-Print Network 3.0 - atom vapor cells Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

rotation in the vapor cell due to inten- sity-induced birefringence in the rubidium atomic vapor. While... Super efficient absorption filter for quantum memory using atomic...

337

Emission factors for particles, elemental carbon, and trace gases from the Kuwait oil fires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emission factors are presented for particles, elemental carbon (i.e., soot), total organic carbon in particles and vapor, and for various trace gases from the 1991 Kuwait oil fires. Particle emissions accounted for {approximately} 2% of the fuel burned. In general, soot emission factors were substantially lower than those used in recent {open_quotes}nuclear winter{close_quotes} calculations. Differences in the emissions and appearances of some of the individual fires are discussed. Carbon budget data for the composite plumes from the Kuwait fires are summarized; most of the burned carbon in the plumes was in the form of CO{sub 2}. Fluxes are presented for several combustion products. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Laursen, K.K.; Ferek, R.J.; Hobbs, P.V. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rasmussen, R.A. [Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR (United States)

1992-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

338

Trace-element geochemistry of coal resource development related to environmental quality and health  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report assesses for decision makers and those involved in coal resource development the environmental and health impacts of trace-element effects arising from significant increases in the use of coal, unless unusual precautions are invoked. Increasing demands for energy and the pressing need for decreased dependence of the United States on imported oil require greater use of coal to meet the nation's energy needs during the next decade. If coal production and consumption are increased at a greatly accelerated rate, concern arises over the release, mobilization, transportation, distribution, and assimilation of certain trace elements, with possible adverse effects on the environment and human health. It is, therefore, important to understand their geochemical pathways from coal and rocks via air, water, and soil to plants, animals, and ultimately humans, and their relation to health and disease. To address this problem, the Panel on Trace Element Geochemistry of Coal Resource Development Related to Health (PECH) was established. Certain assumptions were made by the Panel to highlight the central issues of trace elements and health and to avoid unwarranted duplication of other studies. Based on the charge to the Panel and these assumptions, this report describes the amounts and distribution of trace elements related to the coal source; the various methods of coal extraction, preparation, transportation, and use; and the disposal or recycling of the remaining residues or wastes. The known or projected health effects are discussed at the end of each section.

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

AC03CH05-Levinger ARI 11 February 2010 22:19 Analysis of Water in Confined  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of hydrogen fuel cells. Water's unique properties can be traced to its formation of an extended hydrogen micelles, nanoscopically confined water, hydrogen bond dynamics, orientational dynamics Abstract The properties of water depend on its extended hydrogen bond network and thecontinualpicosecond

Fayer, Michael D.

340

Improving the Thermal Output Availability of Reciprocating Engine Cogeneration Systems by Mechanical Vapor Compression  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LOW?PRESSURE I WASTE STEAM r ... IMPROVING THE THERMAL OUTPUT AVAILABILITY OF RECIPROCATING ENGINE COGENERATION SYSTEMS BY MECHANICAL VAPOR COMPRESSION F.E. Becker and F.A. DiBella Tecogen, Inc., a Subsidiary of Thermo El~ctron Corporation...-user with electric power and process heat that is totally in the form of high-pressure steam. Current recipro cating engine systems can now provide only low pressure steam or hot water from the engine jacket, and this often is not needed or not the most appro...

Becker, F. E.; DiBella, F. A.; Lamphere, F.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor trace" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

A study of the minimum meniscus radius as a function of vapor temperature using heat pipes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/sec 2 latent heat of vaporization, BTU/lb m wick permeability, ft 2 length, ft molecular weight, ibm water parameter, hf pfof/uf fgff f pressure, lbf/ft 2 desorption pressure, lbf/ft 2 saturation pressure, lbf/ft 2 heat transfer rate, BTU... into Cosgrove's equation, assuming the temperature is uni- form inside the heat pipe, replacing the sum of the section lengths by the total length of the heat pipe, and combining the fluid prop- erties into one var1able there is obtained N = hf pfof/uf...

Sonnier, Ronald James

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Density Profiles of Liquid/Vapor Interfaces Away from Their Critical Point  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We examine the applicability of various model profiles for the liquid/vapor interface by X-ray reflectivities on water and ethanol and their mixtures at room temperature. Analysis of the X-ray reflecivities using various density profiles shows an error-function like profile is the most adequate within experimental error. Our finding, together with recent observations from simulation studies on liquid surfaces, strongly suggest that the capillary-wave dynamics shapes the interfacial density profile in terms of the error function.

Wei Bu; Doseok Kim; David Vaknin

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

343

ARM - PI Product - MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD) by Microtops Atmospheric OpticalExperimentgovFieldgovDataPI Data ProductsMWR Retrievals of Cloud

344

Background Concentrations of Trace Metals in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Florida State University System of Florida FLORIDA CENTER FOR SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT 2207 NW for evaluating land application of non-hazardous waste materials and monitoring the mobility of trace metals from 8,000 archived samples. l To validate the sampling protocol used by the Florida Cooperative Soil

Ma, Lena

345

Trace metals in sediments of coastal Siberia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For the work described in this thesis, a total of 218 samples from 104 cores from the East Siberian, Laptev, Kara, and Pechora Seas and the Ob and Yenisei Rivers were analyzed for the trace metals Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn...

Esnough, Teresa Elizabeth

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Reaction and Transformation of Hg and Trace Metals in Combustion Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of this project was to produce a working dynamic model to predict the transformation and partitioning of trace metals resulting from combustion of a broad range of fuels. The information provided from this model will be instrumental in efforts to identify fuels and conditions that can be varied to reduce metal emissions. Through the course of this project, it was determined that mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) would be the focus of the experimental investigation. Experiments were therefore conducted to examine homogeneous and heterogeneous mercury oxidation pathways, and to assess potential interactions between arsenic and calcium. As described in this report, results indicated that the role of SO{sub 2} on Hg oxidation was complex and depended upon overall gas phase chemistry, that iron oxide (hematite) particles contributed directly to heterogeneous Hg oxidation, and that As-Ca interactions occurred through both gas-solid and within-char reaction pathways. Modeling based on this study indicated that, depending upon coal type and fly ash particle size, vaporization-condensation, vaporization-surface reaction, and As-CaO in-char reaction all play a role in arsenic transformations under combustion conditions.

J. Helble; Clara Smith; David Miller

2009-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

347

Reactive trace metals in the stratified central North Pacific  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vertical concentration profiles of the dissolved and suspended particulate phases were determined for a suite of reactive trace metals, Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cd, during summertime at a station in the center of the North Pacific gyre. During summer the euphotic zone becomes stratified, forming a shallow (0-25 m), oligotrophic, mixed layer overlying a subsurface (25-140 m), strongly-stratified region. The physical, biological, and chemical structure within the euphotic zone during this period enhanced the effect of atmospheric inputs of Al, Fe, and Mn on mixed layer concentrations. For example, the concentration of dissolved Fe in the surface mixed layer was eighteen times that observed at a depth of 100 m. The observed aeolian signature of these metals matched that predicted from estimates of atmospheric input during the period between the onset of stratification and sampling. The distributions of suspended particulate Al, Fe, and Mn all exhibited minima in the euphotic zone and increased with depth into the main thermocline. Particulate Al and Fe were then uniform with depth below 1000 m before increasing in the near bottom nepheloid layer. Average particulate phase concentrations in intermediate and deep waters of the central North Pacific were 1.0, 0.31, and 0.055 nmol[center dot]kg[sup [minus]1] for Al, Fe, and Mn, respectively. The distribution of particulate Cd exhibited a maximum within the subsurface euphotic zone. Particulate zinc also exhibited a surface maximum, albeit a smaller one. Concentrations of particulate Zn and Cd in intermediate and deep waters were 17 and 0.2 pmol[center dot]kg[sup [minus]1]. Substantial interbasin differences in particulate trace metals occur. Concentrations of suspended particulate Al, Fe, and Mn were three to four times lower in the central North Pacific than recently reported for the central North Atlantic gyre, consistent with differences in atmospheric input to these two regions.

Bruland, K.W. (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)); Orians, K.J. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)); Cowen, J.P. (Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States))

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Enhanced Attenuation Technologies: Passive Soil Vapor Extraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) is an enhanced attenuation (EA) approach that removes volatile contaminants from soil. The extraction is driven by natural pressure gradients between the subsurface and atmosphere (Barometric Pumping), or by renewable sources of energy such as wind or solar power (Assisted PSVE). The technology is applicable for remediating sites with low levels of contamination and for transitioning sites from active source technologies such as active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) to natural attenuation. PSVE systems are simple to design and operate and are more cost effective than active systems in many scenarios. Thus, PSVE is often appropriate as an interim-remedial or polishing strategy. Over the past decade, PSVE has been demonstrated in the U.S. and in Europe. These demonstrations provide practical information to assist in selecting, designing and implementing the technology. These demonstrations indicate that the technology can be effective in achieving remedial objectives in a timely fashion. The keys to success include: (1) Application at sites where the residual source quantities, and associated fluxes to groundwater, are relatively low; (2) Selection of the appropriate passive energy source - barometric pumping in cases with a deep vadose zone and barrier (e.g., clay) layers that separate the subsurface from the atmosphere and renewable energy assisted PSVE in other settings and where higher flow rates are required. (3) Provision of sufficient access to the contaminated vadose zones through the spacing and number of extraction wells. This PSVE technology report provides a summary of the relevant technical background, real-world case study performance, key design and cost considerations, and a scenario-based cost evaluation. The key design and cost considerations are organized into a flowchart that dovetails with the Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics Guidance of the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The PSVE flowchart provides a structured process to determine if the technology is, or is not, reasonable and defensible for a particular site. The central basis for that decision is the expected performance of PSVE under the site specific conditions. Will PSVE have sufficient mass removal rates to reduce the release, or flux, of contamination into the underlying groundwater so that the site can meet it overall remedial objectives? The summary technical information, case study experiences, and structured decision process provided in this 'user guide' should assist environmental decision-makers, regulators, and engineers in selecting and successfully implementing PSVE at appropriate sites.

Vangelas, K.; Looney, B.; Kamath, R.; Adamson, D.; Newell, C.

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

349

Physical and chemical properties of the regional mixed layer of Mexico's Megapolis Part II: Evaluation of measured and modeled trace gases and particle size distributions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study extends the work of Baumgardner et al. (2009) in which measurements of trace gases and particles at a remote, high-altitude mountain site 60 km from Mexico City were analyzed with respect to the origin of air masses. In the current evaluation, the temperature, water vapor, ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), acyl peroxy nitrate (APN) and particle size distributions (PSDs) of the mass concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and organic mass (OM) were simulated with the WRF-Chem chemical transport model and compared with the measurements at the mountain site. The model prediction of the diurnal trends of the gases were well correlated with the measurements before the regional boundary layer reached the measurement site but underestimated the concentrations after that time. The differences are caused by an overly rapid growth of the boundary layer by the model with too much dilution. There also appears to be more O3 produced by photochemical production, downwind of the emission sources, than predicted by the model. The measured and modeled PSDs compare very well with respect to their general shape and diameter of the peak concentrations. The spectra are log normally distributed with most of the mass in the accumulation mode and the geometric diameter centered at 200 20 nm, with little observed or predicted change with respect to the origin of the air mass or the time when the RBL is above the Altzomoni research. Only the total mass changed with time and air mass origin. The invariability of the average diameter of the accumulation mode suggests that there is very little growth of the particles by condensation or coagulation after six hours of aging downwind of the major sources of anthropogenic emissions in Mexicos Megapolis.

Ochoa, Carlos; Baumgardner, Darrel; Grutter, M.; Allan, James D.; Fast, Jerome D.; Rappengluck, B.

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

350

Thermodynamic formalism of water uptakes on solid porous adsorbents for adsorption cooling applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Letter presents a thermodynamic formulation to calculate the amount of water vapor uptakes on various adsorbents such as zeolites, metal organic frameworks, and silica gel for the development of an advanced adsorption chiller. This formalism is developed from the rigor of the partition distribution function of each water vapor adsorptive site on adsorbents and the condensation approximation of adsorptive water molecules and is validated with experimental data. An interesting and useful finding has been established that the proposed model is thermodynamically connected with the pore structures of adsorbent materials, and the water vapor uptake highly depends on the isosteric heat of adsorption at zero surface coverage and the adsorptive sites of the adsorbent materials. Employing the proposed model, the thermodynamic trends of water vapor uptakes on various adsorbents can be estimated.

Sun, Baichuan; Chakraborty, Anutosh, E-mail: AChakraborty@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

351

Catalytic Reactor For Oxidizing Mercury Vapor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalytic reactor (10) for oxidizing elemental mercury contained in flue gas is provided. The catalyst reactor (10) comprises within a flue gas conduit a perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) having a plurality of through openings (33) and a plurality of projecting corona discharge electrodes (31); a perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) having a plurality of through openings (43) axially aligned with the through openings (33) of the perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) displaced from and opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31); and a catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) overlaying that face of the perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31). A uniformly distributed corona discharge plasma (1000) is intermittently generated between the plurality of corona discharge electrode tips (31) and the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) when a stream of flue gas is passed through the conduit. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is not being generated, the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) adsorb mercury vapor contained in the passing flue gas. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is being generated, ions and active radicals contained in the generated corona discharge plasma (1000) desorb the mercury from the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d), oxidizing the mercury in virtually simultaneous manner. The desorption process regenerates and activates the catalyst member molecules.

Helfritch, Dennis J. (Baltimore, MD)

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

352

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric trace element Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: 6 2.0 Sources and Deposition of Trace Metals Trace elements enter the atmosphere via both natural... 5 Chapter 2: Sources and Deposition of Trace Metals...

353

12.479 Trace-Element Geochemistry, Spring 2009  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The emphasis of this course is to use Trace Element Geochemistry to understand the origin and evolution of igneous rocks. The approach is to discuss the parameters that control partitioning of trace elements between phases ...

Frey, Frederick

354

12.479 Trace-Element Geochemistry, Fall 2006  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Focuses on element distribution in rocks and minerals using data obtained from natural and experimental systems. Emphasizes models describing trace-element partitioning and applications of trace-element geochemistry to ...

Frey, Frederick August

355

T-720: Blue Coat Director HTTP Trace Processing Flaw Permits...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

0: Blue Coat Director HTTP Trace Processing Flaw Permits Cross-Site Scripting Attacks T-720: Blue Coat Director HTTP Trace Processing Flaw Permits Cross-Site Scripting Attacks...

356

A graphics architecture for ray tracing and photon mapping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and spatial locality, as well as eliminating unnecessary random memory accesses. A high level abstraction of the combined ray tracing and photon mapping streaming pipeline is introduced. Based on this abstraction, an e?cient ray tracing and photon...

Ling, Junyi

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Steam Tracing...New Technologies for the 21st Century  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For decades, steam tracing has been an accepted practice in the heating of piping, vessels, and equipment. This paper presents recent product innovations such as "burn-safe" and "energy efficient" steam tracing products. For the many applications...

Pitzer, R. K.; Barth, R. E.; Bonorden, C.

358

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Terra: Flagship of the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atlas IIAS and Centaur Overview...................................................................20 EOS and nutrients on Earth. "Terra will simultaneously study clouds, water vapor, aerosol particles, trace gases

359

The Effect Of ZnO Addition On Co/C Catalyst For Vapor And Aqueous Phase Reforming Of Ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of ZnO addition on the oxidation behavior of Co along with catalytic performance in vapor and aqueous phase reforming of ethanol were investigated on Co supported on carbon black (XC-72R). Carbon was selected to minimize the support interactions. Effect of ZnO addition during both vapor and aqueous phase reforming were compared at 250 C. ZnO addition inhibited the reduction of cobalt oxides by H2 and created surface sites for H2O activation. During vapor phase reforming at 450 C the redox of cobalt, driven by steam oxidation and H2 reduction, trended to an equilibrium of Co0/Co2+. ZnO showed no significant effect on cobalt oxidation, inferred from the minor changes of C1 product yield. Surface sites created by ZnO addition enhanced water activation and oxidation of surface carbon species, increasing CO2 selectivity. At 250 C cobalt reduction was minimal, in situ XANES demonstrated that ZnO addition significantly facilitated oxidation of Co0 under vapor phase reforming conditions, demonstrated by lower C1 product yield. Sites introduced by ZnO addition improved the COx selectivity at 250 C. Both Co/C and Co-ZnO/C rapidly oxidized under aqueous phase reaction conditions at 250 C, showing negligible activity in aqueous phase reforming. This work suggests that ZnO affects the activation of H2O for Co catalysts in ethanol reforming.

Davidson, Stephen; Sun, Junming; Hong, Yongchun; Karim, Ayman M.; Datye, Abhaya K.; Wang, Yong

2014-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

360

Low Level Heat Recovery Through Heat Pumps and Vapor Recompression  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The intent of this paper is to examine the methods and economics of recovering low level heat through heat pumps and vapor recompression. Actual commercially available equipment is considered to determine the near-term and future economic viability...

Gilbert, J.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor trace" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Initiated chemical vapor deposition of functional polyacrylic thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) was explored as a novel method for synthesis of functional polyacrylic thin films. The process introduces a peroxide initiator, which can be decomposed at low temperatures (<200?C) ...

Mao, Yu, 1975-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

All graphene electromechanical switch fabricated by chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate an electromechanical switch comprising two polycrystalline graphene films; each deposited using ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition. The top film is pulled into electrical contact with the bottom film ...

Milaninia, Kaveh M.

363

Applications of Mechanical Vapor Recompression to Evaporation and Crystallization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

there is no boiler plant available or when electrical power is priced competitively in comparison to steam. Vapor recompression is accomplished using centrifugal, axial-flow, or positive displacement compressors and these compressors can be powered by electricity...

Outland, J. S.

364

Melt and vapor characteristics in an electron beam evaporator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We compare the free surface temperatures T{sub s}, calculated by two methods, in cerium or copper evaporation experiments. The first method considers properties of the melt: by an empirical law we take into account turbulent thermal convection, instabilities and craterization of the free surface. The second method considers the vapor flow expansion and connects T{sub s} to the measured terminal parallel temperature and the terminal mean parallel velocity of the vapor jet, by Direct Simulation Monte Carlo calculations including an atom-atom inelastic collision algorithm. The agreement between the two approaches is better for cerium than for copper in the high craterization case. The analysis, from the point of view of the properties of the melt, of the terminal parameters of the vapor jet for the high beam powers shows that T{sub s} and the Knudsen number at the vapor source reach a threshold when the beam power increases.

Blumenfeld, L.; Fleche, J.L.; Gonella, C. [DCC/DPE/SPEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

365

Enabling integration of vapor-deposited polymer thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) is a versatile, one-step process for synthesizing conformal and functional polymer thin films on a variety of substrates. This thesis emphasizes the development of tools to further ...

Petruczok, Christy D. (Christy Danielle)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Hyperfine Studies of Lithium Vapor using Saturated Absorption Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the frequency of a laser with respect to an atomic spectral feature.[20] As such, saturated absorptionHyperfine Studies of Lithium Vapor using Saturated Absorption Spectroscopy? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.3 Broadening Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.4 Saturated Absorption

Cronin, Alex D.

367

Heat transfer during film condensation of a liquid metal vapor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The object of this investigation is to resolve the discrepancy between theory and experiment for the case of heat transfer durirnfilm condensation of liquid metal vapors. Experiments by previous investigators have yielded ...

Sukhatme, S. P.

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Photoinitiated chemical vapor depostion [sic] : mechanism and applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photoinitiated chemical vapor deposition (piCVD) is developed as a simple, solventless, and rapid method for the deposition of swellable hydrogels and functional hydrogel copolymers. Mechanistic experiments show that piCVD ...

Baxamusa, Salmaan Husain

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Optical Precursors in Rubidium Vapor and Their Relation to Superradiance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical precursor is the sharp optical pulse front that does not show delay in absorptive media. In this thesis, optical precursor behavior in rubidium (Rb) vapor was investigated in the picoseconds regime. An amplified femtosecond laser was shaped...

Yang, Wenlong

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

370

Systems and methods for generation of hydrogen peroxide vapor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system according to one embodiment includes a moisture trap for drying air; at least one of a first container and a second container; and a mechanism for at least one of: bubbling dried air from the moisture trap through a hydrogen peroxide solution in the first container for producing a hydrogen peroxide vapor, and passing dried air from the moisture trap into a headspace above a hydrogen peroxide solution in the second container for producing a hydrogen peroxide vapor. A method according one embodiment includes at least one of bubbling dried air through a hydrogen peroxide solution in a container for producing a first hydrogen peroxide vapor, and passing dried air from the moisture trap into a headspace above the hydrogen peroxide solution in a container for producing a second hydrogen peroxide vapor. Additional systems and methods are also presented.

Love, Adam H; Eckels, Joel Del; Vu, Alexander K; Alcaraz, Armando; Reynolds, John G

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

371

Type B Accident Investigation of the Acid Vapor Inhalation on...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2005, in TA-48, Building RC-1 Room 402 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Type B Accident Investigation of the Acid Vapor Inhalation on June 7, 2005, in TA-48, Building RC-1...

372

Laboratory measurement of water imbibition into low-permeability welded tuff  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

repository. As water infiltrates down from the ground surface through the fracture network, some water mayLaboratory measurement of water imbibition into low-permeability welded tuff M.Q. Hu*, P. Persoff accurately water imbibi- tion and vapor condensation into welded tuff of low permeability. Automatically

Hu, Qinhong "Max"

373

Ambient methods and apparatus for rapid laser trace constituent analysis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are disclosed for measuring trace amounts of constituents in samples by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence under ambient conditions. The laser induced fluorescence is performed at a selected wavelength corresponding to an absorption state of a selected trace constituent. The intensity value of the emission decay signal which is generated by the trace constituent is compared to calibrated emission intensity decay values to determine the amount of trace constituent present.

Snyder, Stuart C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grandy, Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jeffery, Charles L. (Blackfoot, ID)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Advanced Chemical Heat Pumps Using Liquid-Vapor Reactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ically feasible systems have significant potential advantage over conventional tech nology. An electric drive reactive heat pump can use smaller heat exchangers and compressor than a vapor-compression machine, and have more flexible operating... are discussed, and performance is bounded. A discussion on liquid-vapor equilibria is included as introduction to the systems I- considered. The electric drive heat pump and TA are promising systems; the TA has potential for higher COP than absorption...

Kirol, L.

375

Injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers is disclosed. The invention includes the combination of a seeding oscillator with an injection locked oscillator (ILO) for improving the quality, particularly the intensity, of an output laser beam pulse. The present invention includes means for matching the first seeder laser pulses from the seeding oscillator to second laser pulses of a metal vapor laser to improve the quality, and particularly the intensity, of the output laser beam pulse.

Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

The development of a passive dosimeter for airborne benzene vapors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

entirely different from that usually employed in gas or vapor collection devices, as there is no need for pumps and airflow control s to provi de fi xed airflows or volumes. This principle, Ficks First Law of Diffusion, states tha t the rate of transfer...+ Ilay 1978 ABSTRACT The Development of a Passive Dosimeter for Airborne Benzene Vapor. ", . (Nay 1978) David Hilliam Hager, B. S. , University of Rochester; Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. David F. Ciapo Passive diffusion dosimeters offer...

Hager, David William

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

377

Water, water, everywhere - Controlling the properties of nanomaterials |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and Materials Disposition3 Water Vapor

378

Trace fossils and depositional environment of four clastic units, Upper Pennsylvanian megacyclothems, northeast Kansas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- ular sandstone interbedded with clay. These sediments are also flaser and wavy bedded. Common trace fossils are Asteriacites , Teichichnus , Planolites , Didymaulich nus, and gastropod trails. Channels occur near the top of the unit with a coal above.... The appearance of Diplocraterion, Arenicolites, Tigillites, Nereites, Chondrites, Neonereites biserialis, and curved burrows suggests that marine condi- tions were less restricted (i.e., increased water agitation) than in the lower part. No coal unit was found...

Hakes, W. G.

1976-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

379

Effect of Microbial Activity on Trace Element Release from Sewage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of Microbial Activity on Trace Element Release from Sewage Sludge S H A B N A M Q U R E S H in mobilization of trace elements from land-applied wastewater sludge is not well-defined. Our study examined-effective management alternative. Unfor- tunately, sewage sludge also contains potentially toxic trace elements

Walter, M.Todd

380

Water and Sediment Sampling  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and Materials Disposition3 Water Vapor Experiment ConcludesL)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor trace" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Water-LessInk  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and Materials Disposition3 Water VaporIndustrial

382

Water-LessInk  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and Materials Disposition3 Water VaporIndustrialTHE FUTURE LOOKS

383

Water-LessInk  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and Materials Disposition3 Water VaporIndustrialTHE FUTURE

384

Water-LessInk  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and Materials Disposition3 Water VaporIndustrialTHE

385

Water-LessInk  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and Materials Disposition3 Water VaporIndustrialTHEJanuary 29,

386

Water-LessInk  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and Materials Disposition3 Water VaporIndustrialTHEJanuary 29,3:

387

Water-LessInk  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and Materials Disposition3 Water VaporIndustrialTHEJanuary

388

Water-LessInk  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and Materials Disposition3 Water VaporIndustrialTHEJanuaryApril

389

Water-LessInk  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and Materials Disposition3 Water VaporIndustrialTHEJanuaryApril2:

390

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Annual status report for FY 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In Fiscal Year 1996, staff at the Vapor Analytical Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performed work in support of characterizing the vapor composition of the headspaces of radioactive waste tanks at the Hanford Site. Work performed included support for technical issues and sampling methodologies, upgrades for analytical equipment, analytical method development, preparation of unexposed samples, analyses of tank headspaces samples, preparation of data reports, and operation of the tank vapor database. Progress made in FY 1996 included completion and issuance of 50 analytical data reports. A sampling system comparison study was initiated and completed during the fiscal year. The comparison study involved the vapor sampling system (VSS), a truck-based system, and the in situ vapor sampling system (ISVS), a cart-based system. Samples collected during the study were characterized for inorganic, permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds and organic speciation by SUMMA{trademark} and TST methods. The study showed comparable sampling results between the systems resulting in the program switching from the VSS to the less expensive ISVS methodology in late May 1996. A temporal study was initiated in January 1996 in order to understand the influences seasonal temperatures changes have on the vapors in the headspace of Hanford waste tanks. A holding time study was initiated in the fourth quarter of FY 1996. Samples were collected from tank S-102 and rushed to the laboratory for time zero analysis. Additional samples will be analyzed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 weeks.

Silvers, K.L.; Fruchter, J.S.; Huckaby, J.L.; Almeida, T.L.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Pool, K.H.; Simonen, C.A.; Thornton, B.M.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Removal of trace olefins from aromatic hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for treating a hydrocarbon process stream by converting trace quantities of olefinic impurities to nonolefinic hydrocarbons. The process comprises contacting the process stream, which contains trace olefins in an amount of from about 50 to about 2000 as measured by Bromine Index and at least 80% by weight of aromatic and naphthenic hydrocarbons having from 6 to 20 carbon atoms per molecule, at reaction conditions which ensure liquid phase operation with a solid catalyst composite comprising a crystalline aluminosilicate zeolite and a refractory inorganic oxide. A catalytic olefin-consuming alkylation reaction then produces an essentially olefinfree product stream with approximately the same quantity and distribution of aromatic and naphthenic hydrocarbons as contained in the process stream.

Sachtler, J.W.A.; Barger, P.T.

1989-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

392

The development of endo-selective epoxide-opening cascades in water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This tutorial review traces the development of endo-regioselective epoxide-opening reactions in water. Templated, water-promoted epoxide-opening cyclization reactions can offer rapid access to subunits of the ladder ...

Morten, Christopher J.

393

Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

Sohoni, Milind

394

Digital imaging tracing technology for print media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

decade. Everyday, major newspapers and magazines digitally alter photographs running in their publications. Michael Morse of the National Press Photographers Association noted that, "When you' re looking at the Redbook or Mademoiselle or Sports.... . TIME and Newsweek Covers. . Page 10 12 13 14 20 22 23 Photo Enhancement . 24 10 Public Key Encryption 38 11 Digital Signature 39 12 Secure Digital Camera 40 13 Verification Software . . 41 14 Tracing Technology. . 43 INTRODUCTION Since...

Milne, Stewart William

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

395

Trace Assignment Adam Leroy, AY 203  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Trace Assignment Adam Leroy, AY 203 VLT Optics I tracked down optical components for the VLT on the web and came up with the following speci­ fication: Quantity Value r p 28800 mm k p \\Gamma1:004616 r s \\Gamma4553:57 mm k s \\Gamma1:66926 The primary has an effective inner radius of 1000 mm and and outer

Backer, Don

396

HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Trace elements and alkaliTrace elements and alkali  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

elements in fossil - and waste-derived fuelsTrace elements in fossil - and waste-derived fuels Coal Peat Heavy fuel oil Pet coke MSW RDF Wood Waste wood Waste paper Scrap tyres Sew. sludge Hg 0.02-3 ~0.07 .153 Behaviour of trace elements in coalBehaviour of trace elements in coal combustion flue gasescombustion flue

Zevenhoven, Ron

397

2, 10971130, 2002 Retrieval of water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 2, 1097­1130, 2002 Retrieval of water vapor columns R. Lang et al. Title Page Abstract, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 2 SRON National Institute for Space Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands 3 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Received: 20 June 2002

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

398

Control of trace metal emissions during coal combustion. Technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emissions of toxic trace metals in the form of metal fumes or submicron particulates from a coal-fired combustion source have received greater environmental and regulatory concern over the past years. Current practice of controlling these emissions is to collect them at the cold-end of the process by air-pollution control devices (APCDs) such as electrostatic precipitators and baghouses. However, trace metal fumes may not always be effectively collected by these devices because the fumes are extremely small. The proposed research is to explore the opportunities for improved control of toxic trace metal emissions, alternatively, at the hot-end of the coal combustion process, i.e., in the combustion chamber. The technology proposed is to prevent the metal fumes from forming during the process, which would effectively eliminate the metal emission problems. Specifically, the technology is to employ suitable sorbents to reduce the amount of metal volatilization during combustion and capture volatilized metal vapors. The objectives of the project are to demonstrate the technology and to characterize the metal capture process during coal combustion in a fluidized bed combustor.

Ho, T.C.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Control of trace metal emissions during coal combustion. Technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emissions of toxic trace metals in the form of metal fumes or submicron particulates from a coal-fired combustion source have received greater environmental and regulatory concern over the past years. Current practice of controlling these emissions is to collect them at the cold-end of the process by air-pollution control devices (APCDs) such as electrostatic precipitators and baghouses. However, trace metal fumes may not always be effectively collected by these devices because the formed fumes are extremely small. The proposed research is to explore the opportunities for improved control of toxic trace metal emissions, alternatively, at the hot-end of the coal combustion process, i.e., in the combustion chamber. The technology proposed is to prevent the metal fumes from forming during the process, which would effectively eliminate the metal emission problems. Specifically, the technology is to employ suitable sorbents to (1) reduce the amount of metal volatilization during combustion and (2) capture volatilized metal vapors. The objectives of the project are to demonstrate the technology and to characterize the metal capture process during coal combustion in a fluidized bed combustor.

Ho, T.C.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12.5% of the nation's  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12 are the heart of air conditioners, heat pumps, chillers, supermarket refrigeration systems, and more. Global use of vapor compression system configurations including multi-functional integrated heat pumps, multi

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor trace" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

A model of vapor-liquid equilibria in acid gas: Aqueous alkanolamine systems using the electrolyte-NRTL equation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper a thermodynamically-consistent model is developed for representing vapor-liquid equilibria in the acid gas (H/sub 2/S, CO/sub 2/)-alkanolamine-water system. The model accounts for chemical equilibria in a rigorous manner. Activity coefficients are represented with the Electrolyte-NRTL equation, treating both long-range ion-ion interactions and short-range interactions between all true liquid phase species. Both water and alkanolamine are treated as solvents. Adjustable parameters of the Electrolyte-NRTL equation, representing short-range binary interactions, are fitted primarily on binary and ternary system VLE data. Calculated vapor pressures of H/sub 2/S or CO/sub 2/ over aqueous solutions of monoethanolamine or diethanolamine generally agree with published experimental data within 10 percent over the temperature range 25-120{sup 0}C. No more than two additional parameters are adjusted on quartenary system VLE data to provide a good representation of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ vapor pressures over the same alkanolamine solutions.

Austgen, D.M.; Rochelle, G.T. (Univ. of Texas at Austin, TX (US)); (Peng, X. (Sinopen Beijing Design Institute (US)); Chen, C.C. (Aspen Technology, Inc. TX (US)))

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

TRACE/PARCS Core Modeling of a BWR/5 for Accident Analysis of ATWS Events  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The TRACE/PARCS computational package [1, 2] isdesigned to be applicable to the analysis of light water reactor operational transients and accidents where the coupling between the neutron kinetics (PARCS) and the thermal-hydraulics and thermal-mechanics (TRACE) is important. TRACE/PARCS has been assessed for itsapplicability to anticipated transients without scram(ATWS) [3]. The challenge, addressed in this study, is to develop a sufficiently rigorous input model that would be acceptable for use in ATWS analysis. Two types of ATWS events were of interest, a turbine trip and a closure of main steam isolation valves (MSIVs). In the first type, initiated by turbine trip, the concern is that the core will become unstable and large power oscillations will occur. In the second type,initiated by MSIV closure,, the concern is the amount of energy being placed into containment and the resulting emergency depressurization. Two separate TRACE/PARCS models of a BWR/5 were developed to analyze these ATWS events at MELLLA+ (maximum extended load line limit plus)operating conditions. One model [4] was used for analysis of ATWS events leading to instability (ATWS-I);the other [5] for ATWS events leading to emergency depressurization (ATWS-ED). Both models included a large portion of the nuclear steam supply system and controls, and a detailed core model, presented henceforth.

Cuadra A.; Baek J.; Cheng, L.; Aronson, A.; Diamond, D.; Yarsky, P.

2013-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

403

Clemson University Water System System No, SC3910006  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and other things you should know about drinking water. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the S.C. Department of Health and Environmental Control have strict standards for all drinking water contaminant that was detected in the water, even in the most minute traces, is listed here. The table contains

Duchowski, Andrew T.

404

Fant's Grove Water System System No, SC390112  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and other things you should know about drinking water. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the S.C. Department of Health and Environmental Control have strict standards for all drinking water contaminant that was detected in the water, even in the most minute traces, is listed here. The table contains

Duchowski, Andrew T.

405

Clemson University Water System System No, SC3910006  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

things you should know about drinking water. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the S.C. Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC) have strict standards for all drinking water contaminant that was detected in the water, even the most minute trace, is listed here. The table contains

Duchowski, Andrew T.

406

Vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process involving vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials for creating high aspect ratio (i.e., length much greater than diameter), isolated cylindrical holes in dielectric materials that have been exposed to high-energy atomic particles. The process includes cleaning the surface of the tracked material and exposing the cleaned surface to a vapor of a suitable etchant. Independent control of the temperatures of the vapor and the tracked materials provide the means to vary separately the etch rates for the latent track region and the non-tracked material. As a rule, the tracked regions etch at a greater rate than the non-tracked regions. In addition, the vapor-etched holes can be enlarged and smoothed by subsequent dipping in a liquid etchant. The 20-1000 nm diameter holes resulting from the vapor etching process can be useful as molds for electroplating nanometer-sized filaments, etching gate cavities for deposition of nano-cones, developing high-aspect ratio holes in trackable resists, and as filters for a variety of molecular-sized particles in virtually any liquid or gas by selecting the dielectric material that is compatible with the liquid or gas of interest.

Musket, Ronald G. (Danville, CA); Porter, John D. (Berkeley, CA); Yoshiyama, James M. (Fremont, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Influence of annual windbreak on the water relations, growth and yield of cotton and peanuts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in monitoring of microclimate. Instrument Parameter and Units Manufacturer and Model Anemometer windspeed (ms ~) R. M. Young Gi11 3-cup anemom- eter Model 12102 Pyranometer Temperature Sensor Humidity Sensor Datalogger solar radiation ! Langleys... in turbulence or vertical air movement . Water vapor tr ansfer, heat and gaseous exchanges are affected by both the horizontal and vertical movement of the air. Since wi ndbreaks reduce wi ndspeed and turbulence, the rate of removal of water vapor and heat...

Waweru, Francis Mbote

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

408

Atom trap trace analysis of krypton isotopes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new method of ultrasensitive isotope trace analysis has been developed. This method, based on the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms, has been used to count individual {sup 85}Kr and {sup 81}Kr atoms present in a natural krypton gas sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10{sup {minus}11} and 10{sup {minus}13}, respectively. This method is free of contamination from other isotopes and elements and can be applied to several different isotope tracers for a wide range of applications. The demonstrated detection efficiency is 1 x 10{sup {minus}7}. System improvements could increase the efficiency by many orders of magnitude.

Bailey, K.; Chen, C. Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y. M.; Lu, Z.-T.; O'Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

1999-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

409

POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE ELECTROLYZER OPERATION WITH VARYING INLET WATER FEED CONFIGURATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) electrolysis is a potential alternative technology to crack water in specialty applications where a dry gas stream is needed, such as isotope production. One design proposal is to feed the cathode of the electrolyzer with vapor phase water. This feed configuration would allow isotopic water to be isolated on the cathode side of the electrolyzer and the isotope recovery system could be operated in a closed loop. Tests were performed to characterize the difference in the current-voltage behavior between a PEM electrolyzer operated with a cathode water vapor feed and with an anode liquid water feed. The cathode water vapor feed cell had a maximum limiting current density of 100 mA/cm2 at 70 C compared to a current density of 800 mA/cm2 for the anode liquid feed cell at 70 C. The limiting current densities for the cathode water vapor feed cell were approximately 3 times lower than predicted by a water mass transfer model. It is estimated that a cathode water vapor feed electrolyzer system will need to be between 8-14 times larger in active area or number of cells than an anode liquid feed system.

Fox, E

2008-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

410

Interactions between Liquid-Wall Vapor and Edge Plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of liquid walls for fusion reactors could help solve problems associated with material erosion from high plasma heat-loads and neutronic activation of structures. A key issue analyzed here is the influx of impurity ions to the core plasma from the vapor of liquid side-walls. Numerical 2D transport simulations are performed for a slab geometry which approximates the edge region of a reactor-size tokamak. Both lithium vapor (from Li or SnLi walls) and fluorine vapor (from Flibe walls) are considered for hydrogen edge-plasmas in the high- and low-recycling regimes. It is found that the minimum influx is from lithium with a low-recycling hydrogen plasma, and the maximum influx occurs for fluorine with a high-recycling hydrogen plasma.

Rognlien, T D; Rensink, M E

2000-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

411

VAPORIZATION OF TUNGSTEN-METAL IN STEAM AT HIGH TEMPERATURES.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The vaporization of tungsten from the APT spallation target dominates the radiological source term for unmitigated target overheating accidents. Chemical reactions of tungsten with steam which persist to tungsten temperatures as low as 800 C result in the formation of a hydrated tungsten-oxide which has a high vapor pressure and is readily convected in a flowing atmosphere. This low-temperature vaporization reaction essentially removes the oxide film that forms on the tungsten-metal surface as soon as it forms, leaving behind a fresh metallic surface for continued oxidation and vaporization. Experiments were conducted to measure the oxidative vaporization rates of tungsten in steam as part of the effort to quantify the MT radiological source term for severe target accidents. Tests were conducted with tungsten rods (1/8 inch diameter, six inches long) heated to temperatures from approximately 700 C to 1350 C in flowing steam which was superheated to 140 C. A total of 19 experiments was conducted. Fifteen tests were conducted by RF induction heating of single tungsten rods held vertical in a quartz glass retort. Four tests were conducted in a vertically-mounted tube furnace for the low temperature range of the test series. The aerosol which was generated and transported downstream from the tungsten rods was collected by passing the discharged steam through a condenser. This procedure insured total collection of the steam along with the aerosol from the vaporization of the rods. The results of these experiments revealed a threshold temperature for tungsten vaporization in steam. For the two tests at the lowest temperatures which were tested, approximately 700 C, the tungsten rods were observed to oxidize without vaporization. The remainder of the tests was conducted over the temperature range of 800 C to 1350 C. In these tests, the rods were found to have lost weight due to vaporization of the tungsten and the missing weight was collected in the downstream condensate system. The aerosol formed a fine white smoke of tungsten-oxide which was visible to the eye as it condensed in the laminar boundary layer of steam which flowed along the surface of the rod. The aerosol continued to flow as a smoke tube downstream of the rod, flowing coaxially along the centerline axis of the quartz glass tube and depositing by impaction along the outside of a bend and at sudden area contractions in the piping. The vaporization rate data from the 17 experiments which exceeded the vaporization threshold temperature are shown in Figure 5 in the form of vaporization rates (g/cm{sup 2} s) vs. inverse temperature (K{sup {minus}1}). Two correlations to the present data are presented and compared to a published correlation by Kilpatrick and Lott. The differences are discussed.

GREENE,G.A.; FINFROCK,C.C.

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

TRACE Model for Simulation of Anticipated Transients Without Scram in a BWR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A TRACE model has been developed for using theTRACE/PARCS computational package [1, 2] to simulate anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events in a boiling water reactor (BWR). The model represents a BWR/5 housed in a Mark II containment. The reactor and the balance of plant systems are modeled in sufficient detail to enable the evaluation of plant responses and theeffectiveness of automatic and operator actions tomitigate this beyond design basis accident.The TRACE model implements features thatfacilitate the simulation of ATWS events initiated by turbine trip and closure of the main steam isolation valves (MSIV). It also incorporates control logic to initiate actions to mitigate the ATWS events, such as water levelcontrol, emergency depressurization, and injection of boron via the standby liquid control system (SLCS). Two different approaches have been used to model boron mixing in the lower plenum of the reactor vessel: modulate coolant flow in the lower plenum by a flow valve, and use control logic to modular.

Cheng L. Y.; Baek J.; Cuadra,A.; Aronson, A.; Diamond, D.; Yarsky, P.

2013-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

413

Liquid-phase compositions from vapor-phase analyses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Arsenic normally is not considered to be a contaminant. However, because arsenic was found in many cylinders of UF{sub 6}, including in corrosion products, a study was performed of the distribution of the two arsenic fluorides, AsF{sub 3} and AsF{sub 5}, between liquid and vapor phases. The results of the study pertain to condensation or vaporization of liquid UF{sub 6}. This study includes use of various experimental data plus many extrapolations necessitated by the meagerness of the experimental data. The results of this study provide additional support for the vapor-liquid equilibrium model of J.M. Prausnitz and his coworkers as a means of describing the distribution of various impurities between vapor and liquid phases of UF{sub 6}. Thus, it is concluded that AsF{sub 3} will tend to concentrate in the liquid phase but that the concentration of AsF{sub 5} in the vapor phase will exceed its liquid-phase concentration by a factor of about 7.5, which is in agreement with experimental data. Because the weight of the liquid phase in a condensation operation may be in the range of thousands of times that of the vapor phase, most of any AsF{sub 5} will be in the liquid phase in spite of this separation factor of 7.5. It may also be concluded that any arsenic fluorides fed into a uranium isotope separation plant will either travel with other low-molecular-weight gases or react with materials present in the plant. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Davis, W. Jr. (Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, TN (USA)); Cochran, H.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Apparatus for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for enriching the isotopic Hg content of mercury is provided. The apparatus includes a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill including mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. In a preferred embodiment, constant mercury pressure is maintained in the filter by means of a water-cooled tube that depends from it, the tube having a drop of mercury disposed in it. The reactor is arranged around the filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of a material which is transparent to ultraviolet light.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Gloucester, MA); Marcucci, Rudolph V. (Danvers, MA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

The development of a passive dosimeter for airborne aniline vapors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

passive sampl1ng dosimeter was designed to measure concen- trat1ons of aniline vapor in air. Diffus1on tubes of 1. 5, 3. 0 and 4. 5 cm lengths were tested under controlled conditions of relative humid1ty, air temperature and vapor concentrations. A... of Measured vs Calculated Concentrations APPENDIX D-Student-t Test on Slopes of Measured vs Calculated Data . APPENDIX E-Statistical Analysis of Four Hour Time- Weighted Average Study on 3. 0 cm Dosimeter VITA ~pa e 42 45 48 59 62 63 65 70 73...

Campbell, James Evan

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Control of trace metal emissions during coal combustion. Technical progress report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emissions of toxic trace metals in the form of metal fumes or submicron particulates from a coal-fired combustion source have received greater environmental and regulatory concern over the past years. Current practice of controlling these emissions is to collect them at the cold end of the process by air-pollution control devices such as electrostatic precipitators and baghouses. However, trace metal fumes may not always be effectively collected by these devices because the formed fumes are extremely small. The proposed research is to explore the opportunities for improved control of toxic trace metal emissions at the hot end of the coal combustion process, i.e., in the combustion chamber. The technology proposed is to prevent the metal fumes from forming during the process. Specifically, the technology is to employ suitable sorbents to reduce the amount of metal volatilization during combustion and capture volatized metal vapors. The objectives of this project are to demonstrate the technology and to characterize the metal capture process during coal combustion in a fluidized bed combustor. The following progress has been made during the performance period from Oct. 1, 1995 through Dec. 31, 1995: (1) Additional combustion experiments involving both coal and wood pellets were carried out in the constructed quartz fluidized bed combustor. (2) A new Buck Scientific Model 210VGP Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer equipped with a continuous flow hydride generator especially for arsenic and selenium was installed for the project. (3) A paper, entitled ``Capture of Toxic Metals by Various Sorbents during Fluidized Bed Coal Combustion,`` was presented at the 1995 AIChE Annual Meeting held in Miami, November 13--17, 1995. (4) A manuscript, entitled ``Trace Metal Capture by Various Sorbents during Fluidized Bed Coal Combustion,`` was submitted to the 26th International Symposium on Combustion for presentation and for publication in the symposium proceedings. 1 ref., 3 tabs.

Ho, Thomas C.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Trace Element Geochemical Zoning in the Roosevelt Hot Springs...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

in the development of distinctive trace element signatures. Geochemical analysis of soil sample, shallow temperature gradient drill hole cuttings and deep drill hole cutting...

418

Trace-Element Distribution In An Active Hydrothermal System,...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

trace-element dispersion patterns. Multielement analyses of surface rock samples, soil samples and drill cuttings from deep exploration wells provide a three-dimensional...

419

The Effects of Trace Contaminants on Catalytic Processing of...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Processing of Biomass-Derived Feedstocks . Abstract: Trace components in biomass feedstocks are potential catalyst poisons when catalytically processing these materials to...

420

Towards a Ubiquitous Semantics of Interaction: phenomenology, scenarios and traces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Towards a Ubiquitous Semantics of Interaction: phenomenology, scenarios and traces Alan Dix does not attempt to address the whole question, but focuses on a phenomenological semantics

Dix, Alan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor trace" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Amine functionalization by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) for interfacial adhesion and film cohesion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Amine functional polymer thin films provide a versatile platform for subsequent functionalization because of their diverse reactivity. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a polymer chemical vapor deposition ...

Xu, Jingjing, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Chemical vapor deposition thin films as biopassivation coatings and directly patternable dielectrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Organosilicon thin films deposited by pulsed plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PPECVD) and hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) were investigated as potential biopassivation coatings for neural probes. ...

Pryce Lewis, Hilton G. (Hilton Gavin), 1973-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of carbon-free ZnO using...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of carbon-free ZnO using the bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato)zinc precursor. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of carbon-free...

424

Heat transfer during film condensation of potassium vapor on a horizontal plate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The object of the investigation is to analyze the following two features of heat transfer during condensation of potassium vapor: a. Heat transfer during film condensation of a pure saturated potassium vapor on a horizontal ...

Meyrial, Paul M.

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Method and apparatus to measure vapor pressure in a flow system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a method for determining, by a condensation method, the vapor pressure of a material with a known vapor pressure versus temperature characteristic, in a flow system particularly in a mercury isotope enrichment process.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Biblarz, Oscar (Swampscott, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Carbon-Supported bimetallic Pd-Fe catalysts for vapor-phasehydrodeoxy...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon-Supported bimetallic Pd-Fe catalysts for vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol. Carbon-Supported bimetallic Pd-Fe catalysts for vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation of...

427

Energy Saving in Distillation Using Structured Packing and Vapor Recompression  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

difference across the column. VRC uses hot compressed overhead vapors, instead of steam, to heat the reboiler. Cost savings are highest when the pressure ratio for the compressor is low. The pressure ratio depends on the boiling point difference of top...

Hill, J.H.

428

DIAMOND CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION Nucleation and Early Growth Stages  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a reality. Epi- taxial diamond has been grown on diamond and cubic-BN. Polycrystalline diamond films haveDIAMOND CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION Nucleation and Early Growth Stages by Huimin Liu David S. Dandy of high-quality diamond coatings on preshaped parts and synthesis of free-standing shapes of diamond

Dandy, David

429

A transient model for a cesium vapor thermionic converter. [Cs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents an analytical model for simulating the transient and steady-state operation of cesium vapor thermionic converters. A parametric analysis is performed to assess the transient response of the converter to changes in fission power and width of interelectrode gap. The model optimizes the converter performance for maximum electric power to the load.(AIP)

El-Genk, M.S.; Murray, C.S.; Chaudhuri, S. (Institute for Space Nuclear Power Studies, Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico (USA))

1991-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

430

CVD CNT CNT (Vapor-grown carbon fiber, VGCF)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CNT CNT CVD CNT CNT (Vapor-grown carbon fiber, VGCF) 10001300 CNT CVD Smalley CO 24 CCVD 1 #12; 27 mm 3% 200 sccm 800 10 10 Torr 300 sccm Ethanol tank Hot bath boat Ar/H2 Ar or Ethanol tank Hot bath Ethanol tank Hot bath Pressure gauge Maindraintube Subdraintube

Maruyama, Shigeo

431

OPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS CONSIDERING ADSORPTION. Because of the costs associated with injection, optimizing an injection program involves not only of the injectate can become available for production and at the same time optimize the present worth of the project

Stanford University

432

UNCORRECTEDPROOF 2 Vaporization, fusion and sublimation enthalpies of the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UNCORRECTEDPROOF 2 Vaporization, fusion and sublimation enthalpies of the 3 dicarboxylic acids from of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-St. Louis, 8001 Natural Bridge, St. Louis, MO 63121, USA observed previously in the sublimation enthalpies of these compounds. The results are dis- 16 cussed

Chickos, James S.

433

Method for removing metal vapor from gas streams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for cleaning an inert gas contaminated with a metallic vapor, such as cadmium, involves withdrawing gas containing the metallic contaminant from a gas atmosphere of high purity argon; passing the gas containing the metallic contaminant to a mass transfer unit having a plurality of hot gas channels separated by a plurality of coolant gas channels; cooling the contaminated gas as it flows upward through the mass transfer unit to cause contaminated gas vapor to condense on the gas channel walls; regenerating the gas channels of the mass transfer unit; and, returning the cleaned gas to the gas atmosphere of high purity argon. The condensing of the contaminant-containing vapor occurs while suppressing contaminant particulate formation, and is promoted by providing a sufficient amount of surface area in the mass transfer unit to cause the vapor to condense and relieve supersaturation buildup such that contaminant particulates are not formed. Condensation of the contaminant is prevented on supply and return lines in which the contaminant containing gas is withdrawn and returned from and to the electrorefiner and mass transfer unit by heating and insulating the supply and return lines. 13 figs.

Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.

1996-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

434

Method for removing metal vapor from gas streams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for cleaning an inert gas contaminated with a metallic vapor, such as cadmium, involves withdrawing gas containing the metallic contaminant from a gas atmosphere of high purity argon; passing the gas containing the metallic contaminant to a mass transfer unit having a plurality of hot gas channels separated by a plurality of coolant gas channels; cooling the contaminated gas as it flows upward through the mass transfer unit to cause contaminated gas vapor to condense on the gas channel walls; regenerating the gas channels of the mass transfer unit; and, returning the cleaned gas to the gas atmosphere of high purity argon. The condensing of the contaminant-containing vapor occurs while suppressing contaminant particulate formation, and is promoted by providing a sufficient amount of surface area in the mass transfer unit to cause the vapor to condense and relieve supersaturation buildup such that contaminant particulates are not formed. Condensation of the contaminant is prevented on supply and return lines in which the contaminant containing gas is withdrawn and returned from and to the electrorefiner and mass transfer unit by heating and insulating the supply and return lines.

Ahluwalia, R. K. (6440 Hillcrest Dr., Burr Ridge, IL 60521); Im, K. H. (925 Lehigh Cir., Naperville, IL 60565)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Autonomous microexplosives subsurface tracing system final report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the autonomous micro-explosive subsurface tracing system is to image the location and geometry of hydraulically induced fractures in subsurface petroleum reservoirs. This system is based on the insertion of a swarm of autonomous micro-explosive packages during the fracturing process, with subsequent triggering of the energetic material to create an array of micro-seismic sources that can be detected and analyzed using existing seismic receiver arrays and analysis software. The project included investigations of energetic mixtures, triggering systems, package size and shape, and seismic output. Given the current absence of any technology capable of such high resolution mapping of subsurface structures, this technology has the potential for major impact on petroleum industry, which spends approximately $1 billion dollar per year on hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States alone.

Engler, Bruce Phillip; Nogan, John; Melof, Brian Matthew; Uhl, James Eugene; Dulleck, George R., Jr.; Ingram, Brian V.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Rivas, Raul R.; Cooper, Paul W.; Warpinski, Norman Raymond; Kravitz, Stanley H.

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Can the trace formula describe weak localisation?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We attempt to systematically derive perturbative quantum corrections to the Berry diagonal approximation of the two-level correlation function (TLCF) for chaotic systems. To this end, we develop a ``weak diagonal approximation'' based on a recent description of the first weak localisation correction to conductance in terms of the Gutzwiller trace formula. This semiclassical method is tested by using it to derive the weak localisation corrections to the TLCF for a semiclassically disordered system. Unfortunately the method is unable to correctly reproduce the ``Hikami boxes'' (the relatively small regions where classical paths are glued together by quantum processes). This results in the method failing to reproduce the well known weak localisation expansion. It so happens that for the first order correction it merely produces the wrong prefactor. However for the second order correction, it is unable to reproduce certain contributions, and leads to a result which is of a different form to the standard one.

Robert S. Whitney; Igor V. Lerner; Robert A. Smith

1999-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

437

The control of mercury vapor using biotrickling filters Ligy Philip a,b,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The control of mercury vapor using biotrickling filters Ligy Philip a,b,1 , Marc A. Deshusses b August 2007 Abstract The feasibility of using biotrickling filters for the removal of mercury vapor from. In particular, the biotrickling filters with sulfur oxidizing bacteria were able to remove 100% of mercury vapor

438

A three-phase K-value study for pure hydrocarbons/water and crude oil/water systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steam distillation, or vaporization of crude oil in porous media is on of the major mechanisms responsible for high oil recovery by steamflooding from heavy oil as well as light oil reservoir systems. Several authors have reported steam dsitillation...-phase equilibrium data for hydrocarbon/water systems ranging from light to heavy crude oil fractions. ! Experimental data describing the phase behavior and the hydrocarbon/water separation process for multi-component hydrocarbon/water and crude oil...

Lanclos, Ritchie Paul

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Leaf water potential in Pinus taeda L. as related to fluctuating soil water and atmospheric conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

growing on Bienville loamy fine sand near Rusk, Texas. The average available water storage capacity was 9. 50 inches in the 8-foot profile. Siruiltaneous measurements of leaf water potential and environmental variables were made weekly at two hour... pressure 2 deficit, temperature, and wind (R 0. 78). A regression equation relating total daily water stress to only vapor pressure deficit and soil water content in the 0- to 4-foot soil layer was also signifi- 2= cant (R = 0. 76). The total daily...

Ellison, Stanley Lee

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Fixed Space of Positive Trace-Preserving Super-Operators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We examine the fixed space of positive trace-preserving super-operators. We describe a specific structure that this space must have and what the projection onto it must look like. We show how these results, in turn, lead to an alternative proof of the complete characterization of the fixed space of completely positive trace-preserving super-operators.

Ansis Rosmanis

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor trace" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Accuracy of Memory Reference Traces of Parallel Computations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the trace-driven simulator uses the intrinsic traces and the sequence of loads and stores before the current cy- cle, to determine the next address. The mapping between load and store sequences and next addresses to issue, sometimes, requires partial program reexecution. Programs that do not require partial

Holliday, Mark A.

442

Initial conditions for paraxial ray tracing in inhomogeneous anisotropic media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, theoretical seismology, seismic anisotropy, wave propagation 1 Introduction By standard kinematic ray tracing and in numerical modelling and interpretation of high-frequency seismic wave #12;elds propagating in inhomogeneous to such important quantities as geometrical spreading and ray amplitudes. The limitations of kinematic ray tracing

Cerveny, Vlastislav

443

Evaluating regional emission estimates using the TRACE-P observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evaluating regional emission estimates using the TRACE-P observations G. R. Carmichael,1 Y. Tang,1. Wang,6 D. R. Blake,7 E. Atlas,8 A. Fried,8 B. Potter,9 M. A. Avery,10 G. W. Sachse,10 S. T. Sandholm,11 the NASA Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) experiment are used in conjunction

Clarke, Antony

444

A Feasibility Study: Mining Daily Traces for Home Heating Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Feasibility Study: Mining Daily Traces for Home Heating Control Dezhi Hong and Kamin Whitehouse savings as well as 14.9%59.2% reduction in miss time. Keywords Energy, home heating, daily traces, prediction 1. INTRODUCTION Heating, ventilation and cooling (HVAC) contributes most to a home's energy bills

Whitehouse, Kamin

445

TCgen 2.0: A Tool to Automatically Generate Lossless Trace Compressors Martin Burtscher  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TCgen 2.0: A Tool to Automatically Generate Lossless Trace Compressors Martin Burtscher Computer of TCgen, a tool for generating portable lossless trace compressors based on user-provided trace format, making it ideal for trace-based research and teaching environments as well as for trace archives. Version

Burtscher, Martin

446

Problems of trace element ratios and geothermometry in a gravel geothermal-aquifer system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Tertiary-age, block-faulted basin in which a Pleistocene gravel bed acts as a confined aquifer and permits the lateral dispersion of the geothermal fluids is studied. Basic data on geology and trace element holes presented previously are reproduced along with fluoride data. Evaluation of the phenomena in this system was attempted using a dissolved silica-enthalpy graph. A chalcedomy curve is also plotted. An enthalpy versus chloride plot suggests that either conductive cooling occurs before mixing or that higher chloride content background waters are available for mixing. (MHR)

Sonderegger, J.L.; Donovan, J.J.; Ruscetta, C.A.; Foley, D. (eds.)

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Simulation of a main steam line break with steam generator tube rupture using trace  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simulation of the OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Project Test 5 was made with the thermal-hydraulic code TRACE5. Test 5 performed in the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) reproduced a Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) with a Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The result of these simultaneous breaks is a depressurization in the secondary and primary system in loop B because both systems are connected through the SGTR. Good approximation was obtained between TRACE5 results and experimental data. TRACE5 reproduces qualitatively the phenomena that occur in this transient: primary pressure falls after the break, stagnation of the pressure after the opening of the relief valve of the intact steam generator, the pressure falls after the two openings of the PORV and the recovery of the liquid level in the pressurizer after each closure of the PORV. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis has been performed to know the effect of varying the High Pressure Injection (HPI) flow rate in both loops on the system pressures evolution. (authors)

Gallardo, S.; Querol, A.; Verdu, G. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica Y Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022, Valencia (Spain)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Method for the generation of variable density metal vapors which bypasses the liquidus phase  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a method for producing a metal vapor that includes the steps of combining a metal and graphite in a vessel to form a mixture; heating the mixture to a first temperature in an argon gas atmosphere to form a metal carbide; maintaining the first temperature for a period of time; heating the metal carbide to a second temperature to form a metal vapor; withdrawing the metal vapor and the argon gas from the vessel; and separating the metal vapor from the argon gas. Metal vapors made using this method can be used to produce uniform powders of the metal oxide that have narrow size distribution and high purity.

Kunnmann, Walter (Stony Brook, NY); Larese, John Z. (Rocky Point, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Clemson University Water System Clemson, SC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the S.C. Department of Health and Environmental-quality analyses. Every regulated contaminant that was detected in the water, even in the most minute traces), the ideal goals for public health, the amount detected, the usual sources of such contamination, footnotes

Duchowski, Andrew T.

450

Fant's Grove Water System Clemson, SC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the S.C. Department of Health and Environmental Control have strict-quality analyses. Every regulated contaminant that was detected in the water, even in the most minute traces), the ideal goals for public health, the amount detected, the usual sources of such contamination, footnotes

Duchowski, Andrew T.

451

Water Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

452

Detection of the Water Reservoir in a Forming Planetary System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Icy bodies may have delivered the oceans to the early Earth, yet little is known about water in the ice-dominated regions of extra-solar planet-forming disks. The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared on-board the Herschel Space Observatory has detected emission from both spin isomers of cold water vapor from the disk around the young star TW Hydrae. This water vapor likely originates from ice-coated solids near the disk surface hinting at a water ice reservoir equivalent to several thousand Earth Oceans in mass. The water's ortho-to-para ratio falls well below that of Solar System comets, suggesting that comets contain heterogeneous ice mixtures collected across the entire solar nebula during the early stages of planetary birth.

Hogerheijde, Michiel R; Brinch, Christian; Cleeves, L Ilsedore; Fogel, Jeffrey K J; Blake, Geoffrey A; Dominik, Carsten; Lis, Dariusz C; Melnick, Gary; Neufeld, David; Panic, Olja; Pearson, John C; Kristensen, Lars; Yildiz, Umut A; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF LIQUID-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Generator Turbine Generator Cooling Tower Condenser Cooling Water Pump Reactor Core Reactor Vessel Control and Steam (secondary loop) Water (cooling loop) Pump Steam Generator Turbine Generator Cooling Tower Water pressurized (primary loop) Water and Steam (secondary loop) Water (cooling loop) Pump Steam

Faccanoni, Gloria

454

Larval Behavior and Natural Trace Element Signatures as Indicators of Crustacean Population Connectivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

variability in an atlas of trace element signatures forin creating a trace element atlas, our results show thatstage to create a trace element atlas in 2009 (Table 4.2),

Miller, Seth Haylen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Evaporation monitoring and composition control of alloy systems with widely differing vapor pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing sensors and controls to improve and extend electron beam materials processing technology to alloy systems with constituents of widely varying vapor pressure. The approach under development involves using tunable lasers to measure the density and composition of the vapor plume. A laser based vaporizer control system for vaporization of a uranium-iron alloy has been previously demonstrated in multi-hundred hour, high rate vaporization experiments at LLNL. This paper reviews the design and performance of the uranium vaporization sensor and control system and discusses the extension of the technology to monitoring of uranium vaporization. Data is presented from an experiment in which titanium wire was fed into a molten niobium pool. Laser data is compared to deposited film composition and film cross sections. Finally, the potential for using this technique for composition control in melting applications is discussed.

Anklam, T.M.; Berzins, L.V.; Braun, D.G.; Haynam, C.; McClelland, M.A.; Meier, T.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Evaporation monitoring and composition control of alloy systems with widely differing vapor pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing sensors and controls to improve and extend electron beam materials processing technology to alloy systems with constituents of widely varying vapor pressure. The approach under development involves using tunable lasers to measure the density and composition of the vapor plume. A laser based vaporizer control system for vaporization of a uranium-iron alloy has been previously demonstrated in multi-hundred hour, high rate vaporization experiments at LLNL. This paper reviews the design and performance of the uranium vaporization sensor and control system and discusses the extension of the technology to monitoring of titanium vaporization. Data is presented from an experiment in which titanium wire was fed into a molten niobium pool. Laser data is compared to deposited film composition and film cross sections. Finally, the potential for using this technique for composition control in melting applications is discussed.

Anklam, T.M.; Berzins, L.V.; Braun, D.G.; Haynam, C.; McClelland, M.A.; Meier, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

457

Tank vapor mitigation requirements for Hanford Tank Farms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Westinghouse Hanford Company has contracted Los Alamos Technical Associates to listing of vapors and aerosols that are or may be emitted from the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at Hanford. Mitigation requirements under Federal and State law, as well as DOE Orders, are included in the listing. The lists will be used to support permitting activities relative to tank farm ventilation system up-grades. This task is designated Task 108 under MJB-SWV-312057 and is an extension of efforts begun under Task 53 of Purchase Order MPB-SVV-03291 5 for Mechanical Engineering Support. The results of that task, which covered only thirty-nine tanks, are repeated here to provide a single source document for vapor mitigation requirements for all 177 HLW tanks.

Rakestraw, L.D.

1994-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

458

Piston pump and method of reducing vapor lock  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pump includes a housing defining a cavity, at least one bore, a bore inlet, and a bore outlet. The bore extends from the cavity to the outlet and the inlet communicates with the bore at a position between the cavity and the outlet. A crankshaft is mounted in supports and has an eccentric portion disposed in the cavity. The eccentric portion is coupled to a piston so that rotation of the crankshaft reciprocates the piston in the bore between a discharge position an intake position. The bore may be offset from an axis of rotation to reduce bending of the piston during crankshaft rotation. During assembly of the pump, separate parts of the housing can be connected together to facilitate installation of internal pumping components. Also disclosed is a method of reducing vapor lock by mixing vapor and liquid portions of a substance and introducing the mixture into a piston bore.

Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Harvey, Michael N. (DeSoto, TX)

2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

459

Piston pump and method of reducing vapor lock  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pump includes a housing defining a cavity, at least one bore, a bore inlet, and a bore outlet. The bore extends from the cavity to the outlet and the inlet communicates with the bore at a position between the cavity and the outlet. A crankshaft is mounted in supports and has an eccentric portion disposed in the cavity. The eccentric portion is coupled to a piston so that rotation of the crankshaft reciprocates the piston in the bore between a discharge position an intake position. The bore may be offset from an axis of rotation to reduce bending of the piston during crankshaft rotation. During assembly of the pump, separate parts of the housing can be connected together to facilitate installation of internal pumping components. Also disclosed is a method of reducing vapor lock by mixing vapor and liquid portions of a substance and introducing the mixture into a piston bore.

Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Harvey, Michael N. (DeSoto, TX)

2001-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

460

Vapor-liquid equilibria of hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates. 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) + 1-heptene, MTBE + four-component gasoline prototype, ethanol + four-component gasoline prototype, and separately MTBE and ethanol with the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Gasoline Blend A are reported. Small additions of MTBE have a very small effect on the total equilibrium pressure of this gasoline blend, and at most temperatures will decrease this pressure. In contrast, small additions of ethanol to this gasoline blend result in a significant increase in the equilibrium pressure at all temperatures. Analysis shows that the vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the MTBE-containing systems are easily correlated using a modified Peng-Robinson equation of state with conventional van der Waals one-fluid mixing rules. Data for mixtures containing ethanol cannot be accurately correlated in this way.

Bennett, A.; Lamm, S.; Orbey, H.; Sandler, S.I. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark (United States))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor trace" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Project AIRSTREAM: Trace gas final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of 10 years of sampling for trace gases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere are presented. These samples were collected under the auspices of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the Department of Energy (DOE). Almost 1000 whole air samples were collected during the years 1973 to 1983 under Project AIRSTREAM. Project AIRSTREAM was part of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's (EML, at that time called the Health and Safety Laboratory/HASL) research effort to investigate the impact of the injection of radionuclides and stable compounds into the stratosphere. One or more of the following compounds were analyzed: CCl[sub 3]F, CCl[sub 2]F[sub 2], CCl[sub 4], N[sub 2]O, SF[sub 6], CO[sub 2], CH[sub 4], CH[sub 3]CCl[sub 3], and COS. Details of the Project's quality assurance program are discussed. Also included in the report are two-dimensional plots of the concentration of CCl[sub 3]F and a complete tabulation of the data.

Leifer, R.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Project AIRSTREAM: Trace gas final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of 10 years of sampling for trace gases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere are presented. These samples were collected under the auspices of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the Department of Energy (DOE). Almost 1000 whole air samples were collected during the years 1973 to 1983 under Project AIRSTREAM. Project AIRSTREAM was part of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory`s (EML, at that time called the Health and Safety Laboratory/HASL) research effort to investigate the impact of the injection of radionuclides and stable compounds into the stratosphere. One or more of the following compounds were analyzed: CCl{sub 3}F, CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2}, CCl{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, SF{sub 6}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CH{sub 3}CCl{sub 3}, and COS. Details of the Project`s quality assurance program are discussed. Also included in the report are two-dimensional plots of the concentration of CCl{sub 3}F and a complete tabulation of the data.

Leifer, R.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

System for the removal of contaminant soil-gas vapors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system extracts contaminated vapors from soil or other subsurface regions by using changes in barometric pressure to operate sensitive check valves that control air entry and removal from wells in the ground. The system creates an efficient subterranean flow of air through a contaminated soil plume and causes final extraction of the contaminants from the soil to ambient air above ground without any external energy sources.

Weidner, Jerry R. (Iona, ID); Downs, Wayne C. (Sugar City, ID); Kaser, Timothy G. (Ammon, ID); Hall, H. James (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

System for the removal of contaminant soil-gas vapors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system extracts contaminated vapors from soil or other subsurface regions by using changes in barometric pressure to operate sensitive check valves that control air entry and removal from wells in the ground. The system creates an efficient subterranean flow of air through a contaminated soil plume and causes final extraction of the contaminants from the soil to ambient air above ground without any external energy sources. 4 figs.

Weidner, J.R.; Downs, W.C.; Kaser, T.G.; Hall, H.J.

1997-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

465

High average power magnetic modulator for metal vapor lasers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A three-stage magnetic modulator utilizing magnetic pulse compression designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper vapor laser at a 4.5 kHz repetition rate is disclosed. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power. The circuit includes a step up auto transformer and utilizes a rod and plate stack construction technique to achieve a high packing factor.

Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA); Miller, John L. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Clemson University Water System System No, SC3910006  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and other things you should know about drinking water. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the S.C. Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC) have strict standards for all drinking-quality analyses. Every regulated contaminant that was detected in the water, even in the most minute traces

Duchowski, Andrew T.

467

Clemson University Water System System No, SC3910006  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and other things you should know about drinking water. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the S.C. Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC) have strict standards for all drinking-quality analyses. Every regulated contaminant that was detected in the water, even the most minute trace, is listed

Duchowski, Andrew T.

468

Assessing the Risk of Mercury in Drinking Water after UV Lamp Breaks Page 1 Assessing the Risk of Mercury in Drinking Water after UV Lamp Breaks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessing the Risk of Mercury in Drinking Water after UV Lamp Breaks Page 1 Assessing the Risk of Mercury in Drinking Water after UV Lamp Breaks Heidi Borchers University of New Hampshire, Environmental Ultraviolet (UV) lamps generate ultraviolet light through the vaporization of elemental mercury, by using

469

Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1979-1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this research program is to understand the potential impact of an oil shale industry on environmental levels of trace contaminants in the region. The program involves a comprehensive study of the sources, release mechanisms, transport, fate, and effects of toxic trace chemicals, principally the trace elements, in an oil shale industry. The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by shale and oil production and use. The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, and Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements are not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. Many of the so-called standard methods for analyzing trace elements in oil shale-related materials are inadequate. A sampling manual is being written for the environmental scientist and practicing engineer. A new combination of methods is developed for separating the minerals in oil shale into different density fractions. Microbial investigations have tentatively identified the existence of thiobacilli in oil shale materials such as leachates. (DC)

Chappell, W R

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

VAPOR SPACE AND LIQUID/AIR INTERFACECORROSION TESTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The phenomena of vapor space corrosion and liquid/air interface corrosion of carbon steel in simulated liquid waste environments have been investigated. Initial experiments have explored the hypothesis that vapor space corrosion may be accelerated by the formation of a corrosive electrolyte on the tank wall by a process of evaporation of relatively warmer waste and condensation of the vapor on the relatively cooler tank wall. Results from initial testing do not support the hypothesis of electrolyte transport by evaporation and condensation. The analysis of the condensate collected by a steel specimen suspended over a 40 C simulated waste solution showed no measurable concentrations of the constituents of the simulated solution and a decrease in pH from 14 in the simulant to 5.3 in the condensate. Liquid/air interface corrosion was studied as a galvanic corrosion system, where steel at the interface undergoes accelerated corrosion while steel in contact with bulk waste is protected. The zero-resistance-ammeter technique was used to measure the current flow between steel specimens immersed in solutions simulating (1) the high-pH bulk liquid waste and (2) the expected low-pH meniscus liquid at the liquid/air interface. Open-circuit potential measurements of the steel specimens were not significantly different in the two solutions, with the result that (1) no consistent galvanic current flow occurred and (2) both the meniscus specimen and bulk specimen were subject to pitting corrosion.

Zapp, P.; Hoffman, E.

2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

471

Program plan for the resolution of tank vapor issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since 1987, workers at the Hanford Site waste tank farms in Richland, Washington, have reported strong odors emanating from the large, underground high-level radioactive waste storage tanks. Some of these workers have complained of symptoms (e.g., headaches, nausea) related to the odors. In 1992, the U.S. Department of Energy, which manages the Hanford Site, and Westinghouse Hanford Company determined that the vapor emissions coming from the tanks had not been adequately characterized and represented a potential health risk to workers in the immediate vicinity of the tanks. At that time, workers in certain areas of the tank farms were required to use full-face, supplied-breathing-air masks to reduce their exposure to the fugitive emissions. While use of supplied breathing air reduced the health risks associated with the fugitive emissions, it introduced other health and safety risks (e.g., reduced field of vision, air-line tripping hazards, and heat stress). In 1992, an aggressive program was established to assure proper worker protection while reducing the use of supplied breathing air. This program focuses on characterization of vapors inside the tanks and industrial hygiene monitoring in the tank farms. If chemical filtration systems for mitigation of fugitive emissions are deemed necessary, the program will also oversee their design and installation. This document presents the plans for and approach to resolving the Hanford Site high-level waste tank vapor concerns. It is sponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management.

Osborne, J.W.; Huckaby, J.L.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Vapor-liquid equilibria for methanol + tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vapor-liquid equilibrium (P-T-x) for the methanol + tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether binary system were obtained by the static method in the range of temperatures from 293.15 to 423.15 K at 10 K intervals. The modified vapor pressure apparatus used is described. The Kuczynsky method was used to calculate the liquid and vapor composition and the activity coefficients of methanol from the initial composition of the sample and the measured pressure and temperature. The results were correlated by the NRTL and UNIQUAC temperature dependent activity coefficient models. This system shows nearly ideal behavior at 323.15 K, but positive deviations from ideality at lower temperatures and negative deviations at higher temperatures are observed. The activity coefficients become more negative with the increase in temperature and mole fraction of methanol. The excess molar enthalpy using the Gibss-Helmholtz equation and the NRTL and UNIQUAC parameters were calculated at 303.15 K and compared with experimental data. This binary system shows promise as a working pair for high-temperature heat pump applications.

Esteve, X.; Chaudhari, S.K.; Coronas, A. [Univ. Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain). Dept. of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Methanol vaporization and injection system for internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An engine equipped with an alcohol vaporization injection system operates as a four stroke cycle diesel engine that transfers the heat of exiting exhaust gases and cylinder head walls to the fuel. The engine runs on alcohol. The alcohol becomes vaporized and its pressure is high enough so that when a valve is opened between the high pressure fuel line and the combustion chamber (when it is at the peak of its compression ratio) enough alcohol will enter the combustion chamber to allow proper combustion. The overall advantages to this type of alcohol vaporization injection system is that it adds relatively few new mechanisms to the spark ignition four cycle internal combustion engine to enable it to operate as a diesel engine with a high thermal efficiency. This alcohol injection system exploits the engine's need for greater volumes of alcohol caused by the alcohol's relatively low heat of combustion (When compared to gasoline) by using this greater volume of fuel to return greater quantities of heat back to the engine to a much greater degree than other fuels can.

Bayley, R.I.

1980-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

474

Vapor-liquid equilibria in the system NH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O + LiBr. 2: Data correlation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The systems ammonia + water (NH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O) and water + lithium bromide (H{sub 2}O + LiBr) provide two working pairs most often used today in air-conditioning systems and systems for reusing industrial waste heat, such as absorption heat pumps and heat transformers. A quasi-chemical reaction model has been developed to correlate vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the system ammonia (NH{sub 3}) + water (H{sub 2}O) + lithium bromide (LiBr) in the temperature range form 303.15 to 473.15 K and at pressures up to 2.0 MPa. this model assumes the formation of ion clusters, i.e., Li{sup +} and Br{sup {minus}} ions surrounded by ammonia and water molecules. Further, ammonia nd water molecules are assumed to form a second species of complexes. The activities of the various components in the liquid phase are modeled by the NRTL equation. The vapor phase, assumed to consist of ammonia and water only, is modeled by the equation of state of Ishikawa, Chung, and Lu.

Peters, R.; Korinth, C.; Keller, J.U. [Univ. of Siegen (Germany). Institute Fluid- and Thermodynamics

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Algorithms and analysis for underwater vehicle plume tracing.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this research was to develop and demonstrate cooperative 3-D plume tracing algorithms for miniature autonomous underwater vehicles. Applications for this technology include Lost Asset and Survivor Location Systems (L-SALS) and Ship-in-Port Patrol and Protection (SP3). This research was a joint effort that included Nekton Research, LLC, Sandia National Laboratories, and Texas A&M University. Nekton Research developed the miniature autonomous underwater vehicles while Sandia and Texas A&M developed the 3-D plume tracing algorithms. This report describes the plume tracing algorithm and presents test results from successful underwater testing with pseudo-plume sources.

Byrne, Raymond Harry; Savage, Elizabeth L. (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Hurtado, John Edward (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Eskridge, Steven E.

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric trace gas Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Chemistry and Physics Discussions Trace gas measurements from... ., Rinsland, C. P., Stiller, G. P., and Zander, R.: On the assessment and uncertainty of atmospheric trace gas......

477

Control of trace metal emissions during coal combustion. Technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emissions of toxic trace metals in the form of metal fumes or submicron particulates from a coal-fired combustion source have received greater environmental and regulatory concern over the past years. Current practice of controlling these emissions is to collect them at the cold-end of the process by air-pollution control devices (APCDs) such as electrostatic precipitators and baghouses. However, trace metal fumes may not always be effectively collected by these devices because the formed fumes are extremely small. The proposed research is to explore the opportunities for improved control of toxic trace metal emissions, alternatively, at the hot-end of the coal combustion process, i.e., in the combustion chamber. The technology proposed is to prevent the metal fumes from forming during the process, which would effectively eliminate the metal emission problems. Specifically, the technology is to employ suitable sorbents to (1) reduce the amount of metal volatilization during combustion and (2) capture volatilized metal vapors. The objectives of the project are to demonstrate the technology and to characterize the metal capture process during coal combustion in a fluidized bed combustor. The observed experimental results indicated that metal capture by sorbents can be as high as 91% depending on the metal species and sorbent involved. All three sorbents tested, i.e., bauxite, zeolite and lime, were observed to be capable of capturing lead and cadmium in a various degree. Zeolite and lime were able to capture chromium. Results from thermodynamic equilibrium simulations suggested the formation of metal-sorbent compounds such as Pb{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}(s), CdAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}(s) and CdSiO{sub 3}(s) under the combustion conditions. Additional experiments are being carried out to provide more statistically representative results for better understanding the metal capture process.

Ho, T.C.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-T-110: Results from samples collected on August 31, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-T-110 (Tank T-110) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5056. Samples were collected by WHC on August 31, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

McVeety, B.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Laboratory measurements and modeling of trace atmospheric species  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Trace species play a major role in many physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere. Improving our understanding of the impact of each species requires a combination of laboratory exper- imentation, field measurements, ...

Sheehy, Philip M. (Philip Michael)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Sodium storage facility trace heat system design description  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes the SSF PLC Ladder Logic, Cross references, and the software that was used to control the amount of power applied to the SSF Trace Heated components.

Jones, D.D.

1997-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor trace" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

TRACING FLUID SOURCES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM USING FLUID...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

TRACING FLUID SOURCES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM USING FLUID-INCLUSION GAS CHEMISTRY Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings:...

482

Affine braids, Markov traces and the category O Rosa Orellana  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, affine BMW algebras, cyclotomic BMW algebras, Markov traces, Jacobi-Trudi type identities, dual pairs [Ze of affine braid groups of type A, (d) We define the affine BMW algebra (Birman-Murakami-Wenzl) and show

Ram, Arun

483

The Fidelity and Trace Norm Distances for Quantifying Coherence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the coherence measures induced by fidelity and trace norm, based on the recent proposed coherence quantification in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 140401, 2014]. We show that the fidelity of coherence does not in general satisfy the monotonicity requirement as a measure of coherence under the subselection of measurements condition. We find that the trace norm of coherence can act as a measure of coherence for qubit case and some special class of qutrits.

Lian-He Shao; Zhengjun Xi; Heng Fan; Yongming Li

2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

484

Moving zone Marangoni drying of wet objects using naturally evaporated solvent vapor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A surface tension gradient driven flow (a Marangoni flow) is used to remove the thin film of water remaining on the surface of an object following rinsing. The process passively introduces by natural evaporation and diffusion of minute amounts of alcohol (or other suitable material) vapor in the immediate vicinity of a continuously refreshed meniscus of deionized water or another aqueous-based, nonsurfactant rinsing agent. Used in conjunction with cleaning, developing or wet etching application, rinsing coupled with Marangoni drying provides a single-step process for 1) cleaning, developing or etching, 2) rinsing, and 3) drying objects such as flat substrates or coatings on flat substrates without necessarily using heat, forced air flow, contact wiping, centrifugation or large amounts of flammable solvents. This process is useful in one-step cleaning and drying of large flat optical substrates, one-step developing/rinsing and drying or etching/rinsing/drying of large flat patterned substrates and flat panel displays during lithographic processing, and room-temperature rinsing/drying of other large parts, sheets or continuous rolls of material.

Britten, Jerald A. (Oakley, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Moving zone Marangoni drying of wet objects using naturally evaporated solvent vapor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A surface tension gradient driven flow (a Marangoni flow) is used to remove the thin film of water remaining on the surface of an object following rinsing. The process passively introduces by natural evaporation and diffusion of minute amounts of alcohol (or other suitable material) vapor in the immediate vicinity of a continuously refreshed meniscus of deionized water or another aqueous-based, nonsurfactant rinsing agent. Used in conjunction with cleaning, developing or wet etching application, rinsing coupled with Marangoni drying provides a single-step process for (1) cleaning, developing or etching, (2) rinsing, and (3) drying objects such as flat substrates or coatings on flat substrates without necessarily using heat, forced air flow, contact wiping, centrifugation or large amounts of flammable solvents. This process is useful in one-step cleaning and drying of large flat optical substrates, one-step developing/rinsing and drying or etching/rinsing/drying of large flat patterned substrates and flat panel displays during lithographic processing, and room-temperature rinsing/drying of other large parts, sheets or continuous rolls of material. 5 figs.

Britten, J.A.

1997-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

486

Adsorption of Estrone on nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes in water and wastewater treatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adsorption of the trace contaminant estrone, a natural hormone and commonly abundant in surface waters and in treated as well as untreated wastewaters, to eight commercial nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) ...

Nghiem, D.L.; Schfer, Andrea; Waite, T.D.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Solar Coronal Structures and Stray Light in TRACE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using the 2004 Venus transit of the Sun to constrain a semi-empirical point-spread function for the TRACE EUV solar telescope, we have measured the effect of stray light in that telescope. We find that 43% of 171A EUV light that enters TRACE is scattered, either through diffraction off the entrance filter grid or through other nonspecular effects. We carry this result forward, via known-PSF deconvolution of TRACE images, to identify its effect on analysis of TRACE data. Known-PSF deconvolution by this derived PSF greatly reduces the effect of visible haze in the TRACE 171A images, enhances bright features, and reveals that the smooth background component of the corona is considerably less bright (and hence much more rarefied) than commonly supposed. Deconvolution reveals that some prior conlclusions about the Sun appear to have been based on stray light in the images. In particular, the diffuse background "quiet corona" becomes consistent with hydrostatic support of the coronal plasma; feature contrast is greatly increased, possibly affecting derived parameters such as the form of the coronal heating function; and essentially all existing differential emission measure studies of small features appear to be affected by contamination from nearby features. We speculate on further implications of stray light for interpretation of EUV images from TRACE and similar instruments, and advocate deconvolution as a standard tool for image analysis with future instruments such as SDO/AIA.

C. E. DeForest; P. C. H. Martens; M. J. Wills-Davey

2008-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

488

DYNAMIC MODEL OF AN INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMP USING WATER AS REFRIGERANT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 DYNAMIC MODEL OF AN INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMP USING WATER AS REFRIGERANT CHAMOUN MARWAN to improve industrial energy efficiency, the development of a high temperature heat pump using water vapor as refrigerant is investigated. Technical problems restraining the feasibility of this industrial heat pump

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

489

CONDENSATION As noted previously, heat energy imparted to water as it  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONDENSATION As noted previously, heat energy imparted to water as it evaporates is returned to liquid water as vapor condenses. During low tide, the rate of evaporation typically exceeds the rate of condensation, and it is this net rate of evapora- tion that we notice. At times, however, the rate of conden

Brody, James P.

490

Predicting CO2-water interfacial tension under pressure and temperature conditions of geologic CO2 storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

liquid/vapor interface of SPC/E water. J. Phys. Chem. 100,dioxide mixtures described by the SPC/E and EPM2 models. (and water oxygen is denoted by O SPC/E and O TIP for SPC/E (

Nielsen, L.C.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Heat transfer through a water spray curtain under the effect of a strong radiative source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat transfer through a water spray curtain under the effect of a strong radiative source P. Boulet - mail Pascal.Boulet@lemta.uhp-nancy.fr Keywords : heat transfer, radiative transfer, vaporization, convection, water spray Abstract Heat transfer inside a participating medium, made of droplets flowing in gas

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

492

Prevention of tissue damage by water jet during cavitation Daniel Palanker,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Prevention of tissue damage by water jet during cavitation Daniel Palanker,a) Alexander Vankov Cavitation bubbles accompany explosive vaporization of water following pulsed energy deposition in liquid can produce tissue damage at a distance exceeding the radius of the cavitation bubble by a factor of 4

Palanker, Daniel

493