National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for water vapor profiles

  1. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    2004-02-19

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  2. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  3. Water Vapor Turbulence Profiles in Stationary Continental Convective Mixed Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, D. D.; Wulfmeyer, Volker; Berg, Larry K.; Schween, Jan

    2014-10-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s Raman lidar at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in north-central Oklahoma has collected water vapor mixing ratio (q) profile data more than 90% of the time since October 2004. Three hundred (300) cases were identified where the convective boundary layer was quasi-stationary and well-mixed for a 2-hour period, and q mean, variance, third order moment, and skewness profiles were derived from the 10-s, 75-m resolution data. These cases span the entire calendar year, and demonstrate that the q variance profiles at the mixed layer (ML) top changes seasonally, but is more related to the gradient of q across the interfacial layer. The q variance at the top of the ML shows only weak correlations (r < 0.3) with sensible heat flux, Deardorff convective velocity scale, and turbulence kinetic energy measured at the surface. The median q skewness profile is most negative at 0.85 zi, zero at approximately zi, and positive above zi, where zi is the depth of the convective ML. The spread in the q skewness profiles is smallest between 0.95 zi and zi. The q skewness at altitudes between 0.6 zi and 1.2 zi is correlated with the magnitude of the q variance at zi, with increasingly negative values of skewness observed lower down in the ML as the variance at zi increases, suggesting that in cases with larger variance at zi there is deeper penetration of the warm, dry free tropospheric air into the ML.

  4. Improved Retrievals of Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles Using a Twelve-Channel Microwave Radiometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Retrievals of Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles Using a Twelve-Channel Microwave Radiometer J. C. Liljegren Environmental Research Division Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois Introduction Radiometrics Corporation has developed a twelve-channel microwave radiometer capable of providing continuous, real-time vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor, and limited-resolution cloud liquid water from the surface to 10 km in nearly all weather conditions (Solheim et al. 1998a). Since

  5. Continuous Water Vapor Profiles for the Fixed Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, M; Troyan, D

    2006-01-09

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program defined a specific metric for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2006 to complete a continuous time series of the vertical profile of water vapor for selected 30-day periods from each of the fixed ARM sites. In order to accomplish this metric, a new technique devised to incorporate radiosonde data, microwave radiometer data and analysis information from numerical weather forecast models has been developed. The product of this analysis, referred to as the merged sounding value-added product, includes vertical profiles of atmospheric water vapor concentration and several other important thermodynamic state variables at 1-minute time intervals and 266 vertical levels.

  6. Water vapor and ozone profiles with a CO{sub 2} DIAL system in south Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellecci, C.; Caputi, G.; De Donato, F.; Gaudio, P.; Valentini, M.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the authors present the work carried out at the University of Calabria regarding a prototype of a DIAL system. This has been realized for remote pollution monitoring. Most of the efforts have been done to perform several measurements on an horizontal path in order to scan the wide surrounding area. The concentrations of ozone and water vapor have been carried out using two different methods both related with the DIAL technique. With the integrated technique, average concentrations have been evaluated up to 5 km using topographical targets. In the range resolution technique, profiles of ozone and water vapor have been performed up to 700 m with a spatial resolution of about 30 m. Although the system needs a revision in several subsystems of its set-up, the experimentation has pointed out the performance available and the necessary improvements.

  7. ARM Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM Water Vapor IOP The SGP CART site will host the third ARM water vapor IOP on September 18-October 8, 2000. The CART site is home to a powerful array of instruments capable of measuring water vapor, making it a prime location for research of this type. The first water vapor IOP, conducted in September 1996, focused on using instruments to measure water vapor and determining the accuracy and calibration of each instrument. The second water vapor IOP, held in September and October of 1997,

  8. ARM - Water Vapor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Vapor Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Water Vapor Water vapor is the most effective, fastest changing, and least understood of the greenhouse gases. Water vapor is a powerful greenhouse gas; as a matter of fact, it is the dominant greenhouse gas. But scientists don't

  9. Water Vapor Experiment Concludes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Water Vapor Experiment Concludes The AIRS (atmospheric infrared sounder) Water Vapor Experiment - Ground (AWEX-G) intensive operations period (IOP) at the SGP central facility began on October 27 and ended on November 16, 2003. Researchers David Whiteman and Francis Schmidlin of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Holger Voemel of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Larry Miloshevich of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and Barry Lesht

  10. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caddeau, MP

    2010-06-23

    The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from 15 channels between 170 and 183.310 GHz. Atmospheric emission in this spectral region is primarily due to water vapor, with some influence from liquid water. Channels between 170.0 and 176.0 GHz are particularly sensitive to the presence of liquid water. The sensitivity to water vapor of the 183.31-GHz line is approximately 30 times higher than at the frequencies of the two-channel microwave radiometer (MWR) for a precipitable water vapor (PWV) amount of less than 2.5 mm. Measurements from the GVRP instrument are therefore especially useful during low-humidity conditions (PWV < 5 mm). In addition to integrated water vapor and liquid water, the GVRP can provide low-resolution vertical profiles of water vapor in very dry conditions.

  11. PROJECT PROFILE: Stable Perovskite Solar Cells via Chemical Vapor...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stable Perovskite Solar Cells via Chemical Vapor Deposition PROJECT PROFILE: Stable Perovskite Solar Cells via Chemical Vapor Deposition Funding Opportunity: SuNLaMP SunShot ...

  12. Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guastad, Krista; Riihimaki, Laura; none,

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio (TWRMR) value-added product (VAP) is to calculate water-vapor mixing ratio at the 25-meter and 60-meter levels of the meteorological tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility.

  13. Water vapor distribution in protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Fujun; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-09-01

    Water vapor has been detected in protoplanetary disks. In this work, we model the distribution of water vapor in protoplanetary disks with a thermo-chemical code. For a set of parameterized disk models, we calculate the distribution of dust temperature and radiation field of the disk with a Monte Carlo method, and then solve the gas temperature distribution and chemical composition. The radiative transfer includes detailed treatment of scattering by atomic hydrogen and absorption by water of Ly? photons, since the Ly? line dominates the UV spectrum of accreting young stars. In a fiducial model, we find that warm water vapor with temperature around 300 K is mainly distributed in a small and well-confined region in the inner disk. The inner boundary of the warm water region is where the shielding of UV field due to dust and water itself become significant. The outer boundary is where the dust temperature drops below the water condensation temperature. A more luminous central star leads to a more extended distribution of warm water vapor, while dust growth and settling tends to reduce the amount of warm water vapor. Based on typical assumptions regarding the elemental oxygen abundance and the water chemistry, the column density of warm water vapor can be as high as 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}. A small amount of hot water vapor with temperature higher than ?300 K exists in a more extended region in the upper atmosphere of the disk. Cold water vapor with temperature lower than 100 K is distributed over the entire disk, produced by photodesorption of the water ice.

  14. Optical monitor for water vapor concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, P.

    1998-06-02

    A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma. 5 figs.

  15. Optical monitor for water vapor concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, Paul

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma.

  16. PROJECT PROFILE: Stable Perovskite Solar Cells via Chemical Vapor

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deposition | Department of Energy Stable Perovskite Solar Cells via Chemical Vapor Deposition PROJECT PROFILE: Stable Perovskite Solar Cells via Chemical Vapor Deposition Funding Opportunity: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: Photovoltaics Location: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO SunShot Award Amount: $125,000 This project is focused on novel approaches to remove risk related to the development of hybrid perovskite solar cells (HPSCs). Researchers will synthesize a new and

  17. ARM - Field Campaign - Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Water Vapor IOP 1996.09.10 - 1996.09.30 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb For data sets, see below. Summary SCHEDULE This IOP will be conducted from September 10 - 30, 1996 (coincident with the Fall ARM-UAV IOP). Instruments that do not require supervision will be operated continuously during this period. Instruments that do

  18. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koontz, A; Cadeddu, M

    2012-12-05

    The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) value-added product (VAP) computes precipitable water vapor using neural network techniques from data measured by the GVR. The GVR reports time-series measurements of brightness temperatures for four channels located at 183.3 ± 1, 3, 7, and 14 GHz.

  19. Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The primary objective of the TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) instrument on the Aura spacecraft is the retrieval of trace gases, especially water vapor and ozone. The TES...

  20. ARM - Field Campaign - Fall 1997 Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Vapor IOP ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Fall 1997 Water Vapor IOP 1997.09.15 - 1997.10.05 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb For data sets, see below. Summary The Water Vapor IOP was conducted as a follow-up to a predecessor IOP on water vapor held in September 1996. This IOP relied heavily on both ground-based guest and CART instrumentation and in-situ aircraft and tethered

  1. Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates V. Mattioli and P. Basili Department of Electronic and Information Engineering University of Perugia Perugia, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Introduction In recent years the Global

  2. University of Oregon: GPS-based Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Vignola, F.; Andreas, A.

    2013-08-22

    A partnership with the University of Oregon and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) data to compliment existing resource assessment data collection by the university.

  3. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM-FIRE Water Vapor Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were the airborne NASA LaRC LASE water vapor lidar and Diode Laser Hygrometer (DLH), the ground-based Vaisala RS-80H (after application of corrections for time-lag, temperature...

  4. ARM - Field Campaign - AIRS Water Vapor Experiment - Ground ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsAIRS Water Vapor Experiment - Ground (AWEX-G) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at...

  5. ARM - Field Campaign - Single Frequency GPS Water Vapor Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsSingle Frequency GPS Water Vapor Network ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA....

  6. University of Oregon: GPS-based Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Vignola, F.; Andreas, A.

    A partnership with the University of Oregon and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) data to compliment existing resource assessment data collection by the university.

  7. Overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) D. C. Tobin, H. E. Revercomb, and D. D. Turner University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin Introduction An overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) is given. This field experiment was conducted during November-December 2000 near the central ground-based Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in north central Oklahoma, and was sponsored jointly by the ARM, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

  8. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, David, D.; Ferrare, Richard, A.

    2011-07-06

    The 'Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds' project focused extensively on the analysis and utilization of water vapor and aerosol profiles derived from the ARM Raman lidar at the Southern Great Plains ARM site. A wide range of different tasks were performed during this project, all of which improved quality of the data products derived from the lidar or advanced the understanding of atmospheric processes over the site. These activities included: upgrading the Raman lidar to improve its sensitivity; participating in field experiments to validate the lidar aerosol and water vapor retrievals; using the lidar aerosol profiles to evaluate the accuracy of the vertical distribution of aerosols in global aerosol model simulations; examining the correlation between relative humidity and aerosol extinction, and how these change, due to horizontal distance away from cumulus clouds; inferring boundary layer turbulence structure in convective boundary layers from the high-time-resolution lidar water vapor measurements; retrieving cumulus entrainment rates in boundary layer cumulus clouds; and participating in a field experiment that provided data to help validate both the entrainment rate retrievals and the turbulent profiles derived from lidar observations.

  9. Removal of Sarin Aerosol and Vapor by Water Sprays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brockmann, John E.

    1998-09-01

    Falling water drops can collect particles and soluble or reactive vapor from the gas through which they fall. Rain is known to remove particles and vapors by the process of rainout. Water sprays can be used to remove radioactive aerosol from the atmosphere of a nuclear reactor containment building. There is a potential for water sprays to be used as a mitigation technique to remove chemical or bio- logical agents from the air. This paper is a quick-look at water spray removal. It is not definitive but rather provides a reasonable basic model for particle and gas removal and presents an example calcu- lation of sarin removal from a BART station. This work ~ a starting point and the results indicate that further modeling and exploration of additional mechanisms for particle and vapor removal may prove beneficial.

  10. Effect of higher water vapor content on TBC performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pint, Bruce A; Haynes, James A

    2012-01-01

    Coal gasification, or IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle), is one pathway toward cleaner use of coal for power generation with lower emissions. However, when coal-derived synthesis gas (i.e., syngas) is burned in turbines designed for natural gas, turbine manufacturers recommend 'derating,' or lowering the maximum temperature, which lowers the efficiency of the turbine, making electricity from IGCC more expensive. One possible reason for the derating is the higher water vapor contents in the exhaust gas. Water vapor has a detrimental effect on many oxidation-resistant high-temperature materials. In a turbine hot section, Ni-base superalloys are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC) allowing the gas temperature to be higher than the superalloy solidus temperature. TBCs have a low thermal conductivity ceramic top coating (typically Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}, or YSZ) and an oxidation-resistant metallic bond coating. For land-based gas turbines, the industry standard is air plasma sprayed (APS) YSZ and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed NiCoCrAlY bond coatings. To investigate the role of higher water vapor content on TBC performance and possible mitigation strategies, furnace cycling experiments were conducted in dry O{sub 2} and air with 10% (typical with natural gas or jet fuel) or 50 vol% water vapor. Cycle frequency and temperature were accelerated to one hour at 1100 C (with 10 minute cooling to {approx}30 C between each thermal cycle) to induce early failures in coatings that are expected to operate for several years with a metal temperature of {approx}900 C. Coupons (16 mm diameter x 2 mm thick) of commercial second-generation single crystal superalloy CMSX4 were HVOF coated on both sides with {approx}125 {micro}m of Ni-22wt%Co-17Cr-12Al either with 0.7Y or 0.7Y-0.3Hf-0.4Si. One side was then coated with 190-240 {micro}m of APS YSZ. Coatings were cycled until the YSZ top coating spalled. Figure 2 shows the results of the initial phase of experiments. Compared to dry O{sub 2}, the addition of 10% water vapor decreased the lifetime of MCrAlY by {approx}30% for the conventional CMSX4 substrates. Higher average lifetimes were observed with Hf in the bond coating, but a similar decrease in lifetime was observed when water vapor was added. The addition of Y and La to the superalloy substrate did not change the YSZ lifetime with 10% water vapor. However, increasing water vapor content from 10 to 50% did not further decrease the lifetime of either bond coating with the doped superalloy substrate. Thus, these results suggest that higher water vapor contents cannot explain the derating of syngas-fired turbines, and other factors such as sulfur and ash from imperfect syngas cleanup (or upset conditions) need to be explored. Researchers continue to study effects of water vapor on thermally grown alumina scale adhesion and growth rate, and are looking for bond coating compositions more resistant to oxidation in the presence of water vapor.

  11. Fixation of nitrogen in the presence of water vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harteck, Paul (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A process for the fixation of nitrogen is disclosed which comprises combining a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, metal oxide and water vapor, initially heating the combination to initiate a reaction which forms nitrate, but at a temperature and pressure range below the dissociation pressure of the nitrate. With or without the water component, the yield of fixed nitrogen is increased by the use of a Linde Molecular Sieve Catalyst.

  12. Heterogeneous nucleation of naphthalene vapor on water surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolik, J.; Schwarz, J.

    1997-01-15

    Transfer processes between drops and gas play an important role in many natural and industrial processes, as absorption of gaseous pollutants by water drops in the atmosphere, combustion of fuel droplets, spray drying, synthesis of nanopowders, wet-dry desulfurization or extinguishing of hot combustion gases. The evaporation of a water drop into a ternary gaseous mixture of air, steam, and naphthalene vapor was investigated. The experimental results were compared with a theoretical prediction based on a numerical solution of coupled boundary layer equations for heat and mass transfer from a drop moving in ternary gas. In the experiments the naphthalene vapor condensed on the water drop as a supercooled liquid even at temperatures far below the melting point of naphthalene. The condensation on drop surface is discussed in terms of classical theory of heterogeneous nucleation on smooth surfaces.

  13. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-122 G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    state or reflect those of the U.S. Government or any agency thereof. DOESC-ARMTR-122 G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product A...

  14. An optical water vapor sensor for unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy A. Berkoff; Paul L. Kebabian; Robert A. McClatchy; Charles E. Kolb; Andrew Freedman

    1998-12-01

    The water vapor sensor developed by Aerodyne Research, based on the optical absorption of light at {approximately}935 nm, has been successfully demonstrated on board the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Gulfstream-1 research aircraft during the Department of Energy's ARM Intensive Operations Period in August 1998. Data taken during this field campaign show excellent agreement with a chilled mirror and Lyman-alpha hygrometers and measurements confirm the ability to measure rapid, absolute water vapor fluctuations with a high degree of instrument stability and accuracy, with a noise level as low 10 ppmv (1 Hz measurement bandwidth). The construction of this small, lightweight sensor contains several unique elements which result in several significant advantages when compared to other techniques. First, the low power consumption Argon discharge lamp provides an optical beam at a fixed wavelength without a need for temperature or precision current control. The multi-pass absorption cell developed for this instrument provides a compact, low cost method that can survive deployment in the field. Fiber-optic cables, which are used to convey to light between the absorption cell, light source, and detection modules enable remote placement of the absorption cell from the opto-electronics module. Finally, the sensor does not use any moving parts which removes a significant source of potential malfunction. The result is an instrument which maintained its calibration throughout the field measurement campaign, and was not affected by high vibration and large uncontrolled temperature excursions. We believe that the development of an accurate, fast response water vapor monitor described in this report will open up new avenues of aerial-vehicle-based atmospheric research which have been relatively unexplored due to the lack of suitable low-cost, light-weight instrumentation.

  15. Final Report for ARM Project Measuring 4-D Water Vapor Fields with GPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braun, John

    2006-02-06

    Water vapor is a primary element in the Earth’s climate system. Atmospheric water vapor is central to cloud processes, radiation transfer, and the hydrological cycle. Using funding from Department of Energy (DOE) grant DE-FG03-02ER63327, the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) developed new observational techniques to measure atmospheric water vapor and applied these techniques to measure four dimensional water vapor fields throughout the United States Southern Great Plains region. This report summarizes the development of a new observation from ground based Global Positioning System (GPS) stations called Slant Water Vapor (SW) and it’s utilization in retrieving four dimensional water vapor fields. The SW observation represents the integrated amount of water vapor between a GPS station and a transmitting satellite. SW observations provide improved temporal and spatial sampling of the atmosphere when compared to column-integrated quantities such as preciptitable water vapor (PW). Under funding from the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, GPS networks in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) region were deployed to retrieve SW to improve the characterization of water vapor throughout the region. These observations were used to estimate four dimensional water vapor fields using tomographic approaches and through assimilation into the MM5 numerical weather model.

  16. COLD WATER VAPOR IN THE BARNARD 5 MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wirström, E. S.; Persson, C. M.; Charnley, S. B.; Cordiner, M. A.; Buckle, J. V.; Takakuwa, S.

    2014-06-20

    After more than 30 yr of investigations, the nature of gas-grain interactions at low temperatures remains an unresolved issue in astrochemistry. Water ice is the dominant ice found in cold molecular clouds; however, there is only one region where cold (?10 K) water vapor has been detected—L1544. This study aims to shed light on ice desorption mechanisms under cold cloud conditions by expanding the sample. The clumpy distribution of methanol in dark clouds testifies to transient desorption processes at work—likely to also disrupt water ice mantles. Therefore, the Herschel HIFI instrument was used to search for cold water in a small sample of prominent methanol emission peaks. We report detections of the ground-state transition of o-H{sub 2}O (J = 1{sub 10}-1{sub 01}) at 556.9360 GHz toward two positions in the cold molecular cloud, Barnard 5. The relative abundances of methanol and water gas support a desorption mechanism which disrupts the outer ice mantle layers, rather than causing complete mantle removal.

  17. MEASUREMENTS AND RETRIEVALS FROM A NEW 183-GHz WATER VAPOR RADIOMETER IN

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    THE ARCTIC MEASUREMENTS AND RETRIEVALS FROM A NEW 183-GHz WATER VAPOR RADIOMETER IN THE ARCTIC Cadeddu, Maria Argonne National Laboratory Category: Instruments A new G-band (183 GHz) vapor radiometer (GVR), developed and built by Prosensing Inc. (http://www.prosensing.com), was deployed in Barrow, Alaska, in April 2005. The radiometer was deployed as part of the ongoing Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's effort to improve water vapor retrievals in the cold, dry Arctic

  18. The role of water vapor feedback in unperturbed climate variability and global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, A.; Manabe, Syukuro

    1999-08-01

    To understand the role of water vapor feedback in unperturbed surface temperature variability, a version of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory coupled ocean-atmosphere model is integrated for 1,000 yr in two configurations, one with water vapor feedback and one without. To understand the role of water vapor feedback in global warming, two 500-yr integrations were also performed in which CO{sub 2} was doubled in both model configurations. The final surface global warming in the model with water vapor feedback is 3.38 C, while in the one without it is only 1.05 C. However, the model`s water vapor feedback has a larger impact on surface warming in response to a doubling of CO{sub 2} than it does on internally generated, low-frequency, global-mean surface temperature anomalies. Water vapor feedback`s strength therefore depends on the type of temperature anomaly it affects. Finally, the authors compare the local and global-mean surface temperature time series from both unperturbed variability experiments to the observed record. The experiment without water vapor feedback does not have enough global-scale variability to reproduce the magnitude of the variability in the observed global-mean record, whether or not one removes the warming trend observed over the past century. In contrast, the amount of variability in the experiment with water vapor feedback is comparable to that of the global-mean record, provided the observed warming trend is removed. Thus, the authors are unable to simulate the observed levels of variability without water vapor feedback.

  19. Water Energy Load Profiling (WELP) Tool | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Load Profiling (WELP) Tool Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Water Energy Load Profiling (WELP) Tool AgencyCompany Organization: California Public...

  20. Latitudinal survey of middle atmospheric water vapor revealed by shipboard microwave spectroscopy. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrader, M.L.

    1994-05-01

    Water vapor is one of the most important greenhouse gases and is an important tracer of atmospheric motions in the middle atmosphere. It also plays an important role in the chemistry of the middle atmosphere and through its photodissociation by solar radiation, it is the major source of hydrogen escaping to space. Ground-based microwave measurements conducted in the 1980s have provided a fair understanding of the seasonal variation of mesospheric water vapor in the northern hemisphere mid-latitudes, but the global distribution of water vapor in the middle atmosphere is only beginning to be revealed by space-based measurements.

  1. ARM: G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer profiler: 15 microwave brightness temperatures from 170.0 to 183.3 GHz

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    2008-04-01

    G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer profiler: 15 microwave brightness temperatures from 170.0 to 183.3 GHz

  2. Observed Increase of TTL Temperature and Water Vapor in Polluted Couds over Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Hui; Jiang, Jonathan; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, J.; Read, William G.; Massie, Steven T.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Colarco, Peter; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Santee, Michelle L.

    2011-06-01

    Aerosols can affect cloud particle size and lifetime, which impacts precipitation, radiation and climate. Previous studies1-4 suggested that reduced ice cloud particle size and fall speed due to the influence of aerosols may increase evaporation of ice crystals and/or cloud radiative heating in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), leading to higher water vapor abundance in air entering the stratosphere. Observational substantiation of such processes is still lacking. Here, we analyze new observations from multiple NASA satellites to show the imprint of pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. We focus our analysis on the highly-polluted South and East Asia region during boreal summer. We find that "polluted" ice clouds have smaller ice effective radius than "clean" clouds. In the TTL, the polluted clouds are associated with warmer temperature and higher specific humidity than the clean clouds. The water vapor difference between the polluted and clean clouds cannot be explained by other meteorological factors, such as updraft and detrainment strength. Therefore, the observed higher water vapor entry value into the stratosphere in the polluted clouds than in the clean clouds is likely a manifestation of aerosol pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. Given the radiative and chemical importance of stratospheric water vapor, the increasing emission of aerosols over Asia may have profound impacts on stratospheric chemistry and global energy balance and water cycle.

  3. Measurements of the Infrared SpectraLines of Water Vapor at Atmospheri...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sensing studies and their dependence upon temperature have also been measured by using lean mixtures of water vapor and air. For the sake of brevity they have not been presented...

  4. Liquid-phase and vapor-phase dehydration of organic/water solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Yu; Ly, Jennifer; Aldajani, Tiem; Baker, Richard W.

    2011-08-23

    Processes for dehydrating an organic/water solution by pervaporation or vapor separation using fluorinated membranes. The processes are particularly useful for treating mixtures containing light organic components, such as ethanol, isopropanol or acetic acid.

  5. Reaction kinetics for the high temperature oxidation of Pu--1wt%Ga in water vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stakebake, J L; Saba, M A

    1988-01-01

    Oxidation of plutonium metal is greatly accelerated by the presence of water vapor. The magnitude of the effect of water vapor on oxidation kinetics is determined by temperature, water concentration, and oxygen concentration. Most of the previous work has been directed toward evaluating the effect of moisture on the atmospheric oxidation of plutonium. Work on the isolation and characterization of the water reaction with plutonium has been very limited. The present work was undertaken to determine the kinetics of the plutonium--water reaction over a wide range of temperature and pressure. Reaction kinetics were measured using a vacuum microbalance system. The temperature range investigated was 100--500/degree/C. The effect of water vapor pressure on reaction kinetics was determined at 300/degree/C by varying the water pressure from 0.1 to 15 Torr. 2 figs.

  6. Posters Toward an Operational Water Vapor Remote Sensing System Using the Global Positioning System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Posters Toward an Operational Water Vapor Remote Sensing System Using the Global Positioning System S. I. Gutman, (a) R. B. Chadwick, (b) and D. W. Wolf (c) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado A. Simon Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science Boulder, Colorado T. Van Hove and C. Rocken University Navstar Consortium Boulder, Colorado Background Water vapor is one of the most important constituents of the free atmosphere since it is the principal

  7. GPS Water Vapor Projects Within the ARM Southern Great Plains Region

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GPS Water Vapor Projects Within the ARM Southern Great Plains Region J. Braun, T. Van Hove, S. Y. Ha, and C. Rocken GPS Science and Technology Program University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Boulder, Colorado Abstract The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has a need for an improved capability to measure and characterize the four-dimensional distribution of water vapor within the atmosphere. Applications for this type of data include their use

  8. Water vapor and temperature inversions near the 0 deg C level over the tropical western Pacific. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    During the Intensive Observation Period (IOP), several periods of water vapor and temperature inversions near the 0 deg C level were observed. Satellite and radiosonde data from TOGA COARE are used to document the large-scale conditions and thermodynamic and kinematic structures present during three extended periods in which moisture and temperature inversions near the freezing level were very pronounced. Observations from each case are synthesized into schematics which represent typical structures of the inversion phenomena. Frequency distributions of the inversion phenomena along with climatological humidity and temperature profiles are calculated for the four-month IOP.

  9. Charge transfer effects of ions at the liquid water/vapor interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soniat, Marielle; Rick, Steven W.

    2014-05-14

    Charge transfer (CT), the movement of small amounts of electron density between non-bonded pairs, has been suggested as a driving force for a variety of physical processes. Herein, we examine the effect of CT on ion adsorption to the water liquid-vapor interface. Using a CT force field for molecular dynamics, we construct a potential of mean force (PMF) for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cl{sup ?}, and I{sup ?}. The PMFs were produced with respect to an average interface and an instantaneous interface. An analysis of the PMF relative to the instantaneous surface reveals that the area in which the anions experience a free energy minimum is quite narrow, and the cations feel a steeply repulsive free energy near the interface. CT is seen to have only minor effects on the overall free energy profiles. However, the long-ranged effects of ions are highlighted by the CT model. Due to CT, the water molecules at the surface become charged, even when the ion is over 15 Ĺ away from the surface.

  10. Materials, methods and devices to detect and quantify water vapor concentrations in an atmosphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allendorf, Mark D; Robinson, Alex L

    2014-12-09

    We have demonstrated that a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor coated with a nanoporous framework material (NFM) film can perform ultrasensitive water vapor detection at concentrations in air from 0.05 to 12,000 ppmv at 1 atmosphere pressure. The method is extendable to other MEMS-based sensors, such as microcantilevers, or to quartz crystal microbalance sensors. We identify a specific NFM that provides high sensitivity and selectivity to water vapor. However, our approach is generalizable to detection of other species using NFM to provide sensitivity and selectivity.

  11. A NORMETEX MODEL 15 M3/HR WATER VAPOR PUMPING TEST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.; Fowley, M.; Steeper, T.

    2010-12-20

    Tests were performed using a Model 15 m{sup 3}/hr Normetex vacuum pump to determine if pump performance degraded after pumping a humid gas stream. An air feed stream containing 30% water vapor was introduced into the pump for 365 hours with the outlet pressure of the pump near the condensation conditions of the water. Performance of the pump was tested before and after the water vapor pumping test and indicated no loss in performance of the pump. The pump also appeared to tolerate small amounts of condensed water of short duration without increased noise, vibration, or other adverse indications. The Normetex pump was backed by a dual-head diaphragm pump which was affected by the condensation of water and produced some drift in operating conditions during the test.

  12. Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile Â… Vapor Retarder Classification

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    6 the IRC has permitted Class III vapor retarders like latex paint (see list above) in all climate zones under certain conditions thanks to research by Building America teams. Air-tight and well-insulated homes have little or no tolerance for drying if they get wet; moisture control is critical. That's why Building America research establishing vapor retarder classifications and their appropriate applications has been instrumental in the market transformation to high-performance homes. As

  13. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westwater, Edgeworth

    2011-05-06

    The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of this contract, we participated in another ARM-sponsored experiment at the NSA during February-March 2007. This experiment is called the Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC) and the GSR was operated successfully for the duration of the campaign. One of the principal goals of the experiment was to provide retrievals of water vapor during PWV amounts less than 2 mm and to compare GSR data with ARM radiometers and radiosondes. A secondary goal was to compare the radiometric response of the microwave and millimeter wavelength radiometers to water and ice clouds. In this final report, we will include the separate progress reports for each of the three years of the project and follow with a section on major accomplishments of the project.

  14. Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor During the May 2003 Aerosol IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor During the May 2003 Aerosol IOP R. A. Ferrare National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia D. D. Turner Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington M. Clayton Science Applications International Corporation National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia B. S. Schmid and J. Redemann BAER/NASA Ames Research Institute Moffett Field, California D.

  15. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.

    2012-10-01

    This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

  16. Vertical Variability of Aerosols and Water Vapor Over the Southern Great Plains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vertical Variability of Aerosols and Water Vapor Over the Southern Great Plains R. A. Ferrare National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia D. D. Turner Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington M. Clayton and V. Brackett Science Applications International Corporation National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia T. P. Tooman and J. E. M. Goldsmith Sandia National Laboratories Livermore,

  17. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-128 Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio Value-Added

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio Value-Added Product April 2013 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights.

  18. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummings, James; Withers, Charles; Martin, Eric; Moyer, Neil

    2012-10-01

    This report is a revision of an earlier report titled: Measure Guideline: Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes. Revisions include: Information in the text box on page 1 was revised to reflect the most accurate information regarding classifications as referenced in the 2012 International Residential Code. “Measure Guideline” was dropped from the title of the report. An addition was made to the reference list.

  19. Fractionation of soil gases by diffusion of water vapor, gravitational settling, and thermal diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Severinghaus, J.P.; Bender, M.L. [Univ. of Rhode Island, RI (United States)] [Univ. of Rhode Island, RI (United States); Keeling, R.F. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, LaJolla, CA (United States)] [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, LaJolla, CA (United States); Broecker, W.S. [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States)] [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Air sampled from the moist unsaturated zone in a sand dune exhibits depletion in the heavy isotopes of N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. We propose that the depletion is caused by a diffusive flux of water vapor out of the dune, which sweeps out the other gases, forcing them to diffuse back into the dune. The heavy isotopes of N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} diffuse back more slowly, resulting in a steady-state depletion of the heavy isotopesin the dune interior. We predict the effect`s magnitude with molecular diffusion theory and reproduce it in a laboratory simulation, finding good agreement between field, theory, and lab. The magnitude of the effect is governed by the ratio of the binary diffusivities against water vapor of a pair of gases, and increases {approximately} linearly with the difference between the water vapor mole fraction of the site and the advectively mixed reservoir with which it is in diffusive contact (in most cases the atmosphere). 32 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  20. Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

    2005-03-11

    This report summarizes work performed on this project from October 2004 through March 2005. In previous work, a surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) was shown to be an effective system for removing BTEX contaminants from produced water. Additional work on this project demonstrated that a compost-based biofilter could biodegrade the BTEX contaminants found in the SMZ regeneration waste gas stream. However, it was also determined that the BTEX concentrations in the waste gas stream varied significantly during the regeneration period and the initial BTEX concentrations were too high for the biofilter to handle effectively. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using a passive adsorption column placed upstream of the biofilter to attenuate the peak gas-phase VOC concentrations delivered to the biofilter during the SMZ regeneration process. In preparation for the field test of the SMZ/VPB treatment system in New Mexico, a pilot-scale SMZ system was also designed and constructed during this reporting period. Finally, a cost and feasibility analysis was also completed. To investigate the merits of the passive buffering system during SMZ regeneration, two adsorbents, SMZ and granular activated carbon (GAC) were investigated in flow-through laboratory-scale columns to determine their capacity to handle steady and unsteady VOC feed conditions. When subjected to a toluene-contaminated air stream, the column containing SMZ reduced the peak inlet 1000 ppmv toluene concentration to 630 ppmv at a 10 second contact time. This level of buffering was insufficient to ensure complete removal in the downstream biofilter and the contact time was longer than desired. For this reason, using SMZ as a passive buffering system for the gas phase contaminants was not pursued further. In contrast to the SMZ results, GAC was found to be an effective adsorbent to handle the peak contaminant concentrations that occur early during the SMZ regeneration process. At a one second residence time, the GAC bed reduced peak contaminant concentrations by 97%. After the initial peak, the inlet VOC concentration in the SMZ regeneration gas stream drops exponentially with time. During this period, the contaminants on the GAC subsequently desorbed at a nearly steady rate over the next 45 hours resulting in a relatively steady effluent concentration of approximately 25 ppm{sub v}. This lower concentration is readily degradable by a downstream vapor phase biofilter (VPB) and the steady nature of the feed stream will prevent the biomass in the VPB from enduring starvation conditions between SMZ regeneration cycles. Repetitive sorption and desorption cycles that would be expected in the field were also investigated. It was determined that although the GAC initially lost some VOC sorption capacity, the adsorption and desorption profiles stabilized after approximately 6 cycles indicating that a GAC bed should be suitable for continuous operation. In preparation for the pilot field testing of the SMZ/VPB system, design, ''in-house'' construction and testing of the field system were completed during this project period. The design of the SMZ system for the pilot test was based on previous investigations by the PI's in Wyoming, 2002 and on analyses of the produced water at the field site in New Mexico. The field tests are scheduled for summer, 2005. A cost survey, feasibility of application and cost analyses were completed to investigate the long term effectiveness of the SMZ/VPB system as a method of treating produced water for re-use. Several factors were investigated, including: current costs to treat and dispose of produced water, end-use water quality requirements, and state and federal permitting requirements.

  1. Molecular dynamics study of two-dimensional sum frequency generation spectra at vapor/water interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Morita, Akihiro; Tahara, Tahei

    2015-06-07

    Two-dimensional heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation (2D HD-VSFG) spectra at vapor/water interface were studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation with a classical flexible and nonpolarizable model. The present model well describes the spectral diffusion of 2D infrared spectrum of bulk water as well as 2D HD-VSFG at the interface. The effect of isotopic dilution on the 2D HD-VSFG was elucidated by comparing the normal (H{sub 2}O) water and HOD water. We further performed decomposition analysis of 2D HD-VSFG into the hydrogen-bonding and the dangling (or free) OH vibrations, and thereby disentangled the different spectral responses and spectral diffusion in the 2D HD-VSFG. The present MD simulation demonstrated the role of anharmonic coupling between these modes on the cross peak in the 2D HD-VSFG spectrum.

  2. Oxidation of zirconium alloys in 2.5 kPa water vapor for tritium readiness.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Bernice E.

    2007-11-01

    A more reactive liner material is needed for use as liner and cruciform material in tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBAR) in commercial light water nuclear reactors (CLWR). The function of these components is to convert any water that is released from the Li-6 enriched lithium aluminate breeder material to oxide and hydrogen that can be gettered, thus minimizing the permeation of tritium into the reactor coolant. Fourteen zirconium alloys were exposed to 2.5 kPa water vapor in a helium stream at 300 C over a period of up to 35 days. Experimental alloys with aluminum, yttrium, vanadium, titanium, and scandium, some of which also included ternaries with nickel, were included along with a high nitrogen impurity alloy and the commercial alloy Zircaloy-2. They displayed a reactivity range of almost 500, with Zircaloy-2 being the least reactive.

  3. Kinetics of Chronic Oxidation of NBG-17 Nuclear Graphite by Water Vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contescu, Cristian I; Burchell, Timothy D; Mee, Robert

    2015-05-01

    This report presents the results of kinetic measurements during accelerated oxidation tests of NBG-17 nuclear graphite by low concentration of water vapor and hydrogen in ultra-high purity helium. The objective is to determine the parameters in the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) equation describing the oxidation kinetics of nuclear graphite in the helium coolant of high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR). Although the helium coolant chemistry is strictly controlled during normal operating conditions, trace amounts of moisture (predictably < 0.2 ppm) cannot be avoided. Prolonged exposure of graphite components to water vapor at high temperature will cause very slow (chronic) oxidation over the lifetime of graphite components. This behavior must be understood and predicted for the design and safe operation of gas-cooled nuclear reactors. The results reported here show that, in general, oxidation by water of graphite NBG-17 obeys the L-H mechanism, previously documented for other graphite grades. However, the characteristic kinetic parameters that best describe oxidation rates measured for graphite NBG-17 are different than those reported previously for grades H-451 (General Atomics, 1978) and PCEA (ORNL, 2013). In some specific conditions, certain deviations from the generally accepted L-H model were observed for graphite NBG-17. This graphite is manufactured in Germany by SGL Carbon Group and is a possible candidate for the fuel elements and reflector blocks of HTGR.

  4. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard A. Ferrare; David D. Turner

    2011-09-01

    Project goals: (1) Use the routine surface and airborne measurements at the ARM SGP site, and the routine surface measurements at the NSA site, to continue our evaluations of model aerosol simulations; (2) Determine the degree to which the Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol scattering and extinction can be used to remotely characterize the aerosol humidification factor; (3) Use the high temporal resolution CARL data to examine how aerosol properties vary near clouds; and (4) Use the high temporal resolution CARL and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to quantify entrainment in optically thin continental cumulus clouds.

  5. In-Reactor Oxidation of Zircaloy-4 Under Low Water Vapor Pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luscher, Walter G.; Senor, David J.; Clayton, Kevin; Longhurst, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Complementary in- and ex-reactor oxidation tests have been performed to evaluate the oxidation and hydrogen absorption performance of Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) under relatively low partial pressures (300 and 1000 Pa) of water vapor at specified test temperatures (330° and 370°C). Data from these tests will be used to support fabrication of components intended for isotope-producing targets and provide information regarding the temperature and pressure dependence of oxidation and hydrogen absorption of Zr-4 over the specified range of test conditions. Comparisons between in- and ex- reactor test results were performed to evaluate the influence of irradiation.

  6. In-reactor oxidation of zircaloy-4 under low water vapor pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luscher, Walter G.; Senor, David J.; Clayton, Kevin K.; Longhurst, Glen R.

    2015-01-01

    Complementary in- and ex-reactor oxidation tests have been performed to evaluate the oxidation and hydrogen absorption performance of Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) under relatively low partial pressures (300 and 1000 Pa) of water vapor at specified test temperatures (330 and 370 şC). Data from these tests will be used to support the fabrication of components intended for isotope-producing targets and provide information regarding the temperature and pressure dependence of oxidation and hydrogen absorption of Zr- 4 over the specified range of test conditions. Comparisons between in- and ex-reactor test results were performed to evaluate the influence of irradiation.

  7. Method of condensing vaporized water in situ to treat tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chia-Fu

    2010-03-16

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. Heat may be allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a first portion of the formation. Conditions may be controlled in the formation so that water vaporized by the heaters in the first portion is selectively condensed in a second portion of the formation. At least some of the fluids may be produced from the formation.

  8. Development of a Water Based, Critical Flow, Non-Vapor Compression cooling Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosni, Mohammad H.

    2014-03-30

    Expansion of a high-pressure liquid refrigerant through the use of a thermostatic expansion valve or other device is commonplace in vapor-compression cycles to regulate the quality and flow rate of the refrigerant entering the evaporator. In vapor-compression systems, as the condensed refrigerant undergoes this expansion, its pressure and temperature drop, and part of the liquid evaporates. We (researchers at Kansas State University) are developing a cooling cycle that instead pumps a high-pressure refrigerant through a supersonic converging-diverging nozzle. As the liquid refrigerant passes through the nozzle, its velocity reaches supersonic (or critical-flow) conditions, substantially decreasing the refrigerant’s pressure. This sharp pressure change vaporizes some of the refrigerant and absorbs heat from the surrounding conditions during this phase change. Due to the design of the nozzle, a shockwave trips the supersonic two-phase refrigerant back to the starting conditions, condensing the remaining vapor. The critical-flow refrigeration cycle would provide space cooling, similar to a chiller, by running a secondary fluid such as water or glycol over one or more nozzles. Rather than utilizing a compressor to raise the pressure of the refrigerant, as in a vapor-cycle system, the critical-flow cycle utilizes a high-pressure pump to drive refrigerant liquid through the cooling cycle. Additionally, the design of the nozzle can be tailored for a given refrigerant, such that environmentally benign substances can act as the working fluid. This refrigeration cycle is still in early-stage development with prototype development several years away. The complex multi-phase flow at supersonic conditions presents numerous challenges to fully understanding and modeling the cycle. With the support of DOE and venture-capital investors, initial research was conducted at PAX Streamline, and later, at Caitin. We (researchers at Kansas State University) have continued development of the cycle and have gained an in-depth understanding of the governing fundamental knowledge, based on the laws of physics and thermodynamics and verified with our testing results. Through this research, we are identifying optimal working fluid and operating conditions to eventually demonstrate the core technology for space cooling or other applications.

  9. Evaluating Water Vapor in the NCAR CAM3 Climate Model with RRTMG/McICA using Modeled and Observed AIRS Spectral Radiances

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Vapor in the NCAR CAM3 Climate Model with RRTMG/McICA using Modeled and Observed AIRS Spectral Radiances Michael J. Iacono, Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., 131 Hartwell Avenue, Lexington, MA 02421 USA 1. Overview Objectives: * Evaluate water vapor and temperature simulation in two versions of CAM3 by comparing modeled and observed cloud-cleared AIRS spectral radiances. * Use spectral differences to verify comparisons between modeled water vapor and temperature and observed

  10. Final Scientific/Technical Report. A closed path methane and water vapor gas analyzer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liukang, Xu; Dayle, McDermitt; Tyler, Anderson; Brad, Riensche; Anatoly, Komissarov; Julie, Howe

    2012-05-01

    Robust, economical, low-power and reliable closed-path methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor (H2O) analyzers suitable for long-term measurements are not readily available commercially. Such analyzers are essential for quantifying the amount of CH4 and CO2 released from various ecosystems (wetlands, rice paddies, forests, etc.) and other surface contexts (e.g. landfills, animal husbandry lots, etc.), and for understanding the dynamics of the atmospheric CH4 and CO2 budget and their impact on climate change and global warming. The purpose of this project is to develop a closed-path methane, carbon dioxide gas and water vapor analyzer capable of long-term measurements in remote areas for global climate change and environmental research. The analyzer will be capable of being deployed over a wide range of ecosystems to understand methane and carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and the surface. Measurements of methane and carbon dioxide exchange need to be made all year-round with limited maintenance requirements. During this Phase II effort, we successfully completed the design of the electronics, optical bench, trace gas detection method and mechanical infrastructure. We are using the technologies of two vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, a multiple-pass Herriott optical cell, wavelength modulation spectroscopy and direct absorption to measure methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. We also have designed the instrument application software, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), along with partial completion of the embedded software. The optical bench has been tested in a lab setting with very good results. Major sources of optical noise have been identified and through design, the optical noise floor is approaching -60dB. Both laser modules can be temperature controlled to help maximize the stability of the analyzer. Additionally, a piezo electric transducer has been utilized to randomize the noise introduced from potential etalons. It is expected that all original specifications contained within the initial proposal will be met. We are currently in the beginning stages of assembling the first generation prototypes and finalizing the remaining design elements. The first prototypes will initially be tested in our environmental calibration chamber in which specific gas concentrations, temperature and humidity levels can be controlled. Once operation in this controlled setting is verified, the prototypes will be deployed at LI-COR�¢����s Experimental Research Station (LERS). Deployment at the LERS site will test the instrument�¢����s robustness in a real-world situation.

  11. A comparison of water vapor quantities from model short-range forecasts and ARM observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hnilo, J J

    2006-03-17

    Model evolution and improvement is complicated by the lack of high quality observational data. To address a major limitation of these measurements the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program was formed. For the second quarter ARM metric we will make use of new water vapor data that has become available, and called the 'Merged-sounding' value added product (referred to as OBS, within the text) at three sites: the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Darwin Australia (DAR) and the Southern Great Plains (SGP) and compare these observations to model forecast data. Two time periods will be analyzed March 2000 for the SGP and October 2004 for both DAR and NSA. The merged-sounding data have been interpolated to 37 pressure levels (e.g., from 1000hPa to 100hPa at 25hPa increments) and time averaged to 3 hourly data for direct comparison to our model output.

  12. Treatment of Produced Water Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; Robert S. Bowman; Enid J. Sullivan; Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Craig R. Altare

    2006-01-31

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. Produced waters typically contain a high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component as well as chemicals added during the oil-production process. It has been estimated that a total of 14 billion barrels of produced water were generated in 2002 from onshore operations (Veil, 2004). Although much of this produced water is disposed via reinjection, environmental and cost considerations can make surface discharge of this water a more practical means of disposal. In addition, reinjection is not always a feasible option because of geographic, economic, or regulatory considerations. In these situations, it may be desirable, and often necessary from a regulatory viewpoint, to treat produced water before discharge. It may also be feasible to treat waters that slightly exceed regulatory limits for re-use in arid or drought-prone areas, rather than losing them to reinjection. A previous project conducted under DOE Contract DE-AC26-99BC15221 demonstrated that surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) represents a potential treatment technology for produced water containing BTEX. Laboratory and field experiments suggest that: (1) sorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) to SMZ follows linear isotherms in which sorption increases with increasing solute hydrophobicity; (2) the presence of high salt concentrations substantially increases the capacity of the SMZ for BTEX; (3) competitive sorption among the BTEX compounds is negligible; and, (4) complete recovery of the SMZ sorption capacity for BTEX can be achieved by air sparging the SMZ. This report summarizes research for a follow on project to optimize the regeneration process for multiple sorption/regeneration cycles, and to develop and incorporate a vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) system for treatment of the off-gas generated during air sparging. To this end, we conducted batch and column laboratory SMZ and VPB experiments with synthetic and actual produced waters. Based on the results of the laboratory testing, a pilot scale study was designed and conducted to evaluate the combined SMZ/VPB process. An economic and regulatory feasibility analysis was also completed as part of the current study to assess the viability of the process for various water re-use options.

  13. TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS USING A SURFACTANT MODIFIED ZEOLITE/VAPOR PHASE BIOREATOR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LYNN E. KATZ; KERRY A. KINNEY; R.S. BOWMAN; E.J. SULLIVAN

    2003-10-01

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some of them must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. An efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed to remove these constituents. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. Our previous DOE research work (DE-AC26-99BC15221) demonstrated that SMZ could successfully remove BTEX compounds from the produced water. In addition, SMZ could be regenerated through a simple air sparging process. The primary goal of this project is to develop a robust SMZ/VPB treatment system to efficiently remove the organic constituents from produced water in a cost-effective manner. This report summarizes work of this project from March 2003 through September 2003. We have continued our investigation of SMZ regeneration from our previous DOE project. Ten saturation/stripping cycles have been completed for SMZ columns saturated with BTEX compounds. The results suggest that BTEX sorption capacity is not lost after ten saturation/regeneration cycles. The composition of produced water from a site operated by Crystal Solutions Ltd. in Wyoming has been characterized and was used to identify key semi-volatile components. Isotherms with selected semi-volatile components have been initiated and preliminary results have been obtained. The experimental vapor phase bioreactors for this project have been designed and assembled to treat the off-gas from the SMZ regeneration process. These columns will be used both in the laboratory and in the proposed field testing to be conducted next year. Innocula for the columns that degrade all of the BTEX columns have been developed.

  14. Vapor deposition of water on graphitic surfaces: Formation of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupi, Laura; Kastelowitz, Noah; Molinero, Valeria

    2014-11-14

    Carbonaceous surfaces are a major source of atmospheric particles and could play an important role in the formation of ice. Here we investigate through molecular simulations the stability, metastability, and molecular pathways of deposition of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, and ice I from water vapor on graphitic and atomless Lennard-Jones surfaces as a function of temperature. We find that bilayer ice is the most stable ice polymorph for small cluster sizes, nevertheless it can grow metastable well above its region of thermodynamic stability. In agreement with experiments, the simulations predict that on increasing temperature the outcome of water deposition is amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water. The deposition nucleation of bilayer ice and ice I is preceded by the formation of small liquid clusters, which have two wetting states: bilayer pancake-like (wetting) at small cluster size and droplet-like (non-wetting) at larger cluster size. The wetting state of liquid clusters determines which ice polymorph is nucleated: bilayer ice nucleates from wetting bilayer liquid clusters and ice I from non-wetting liquid clusters. The maximum temperature for nucleation of bilayer ice on flat surfaces, T{sub B}{sup max} is given by the maximum temperature for which liquid water clusters reach the equilibrium melting line of bilayer ice as wetting bilayer clusters. Increasing water-surface attraction stabilizes the pancake-like wetting state of liquid clusters leading to larger T{sub B}{sup max} for the flat non-hydrogen bonding surfaces of this study. The findings of this study should be of relevance for the understanding of ice formation by deposition mode on carbonaceous atmospheric particles, including soot.

  15. Biophysical controls on carbon and water vapor fluxes across a grassland climatic gradient in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagle, Pradeep; Xiao, Xiangming; Scott, Russell L.; Kolb, Thomas E.; Cook, David R.; Brunsell, Nathaniel; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Basara, Jeffrey; Matamala, Roser; Zhou, Yuting; Bajgain, Rajen

    2015-12-01

    Understanding of the underlying causes of spatial variation in exchange of carbon and water vapor fluxes between grasslands and the atmosphere is crucial for accurate estimates of regional and global carbon and water budgets, and for predicting the impact of climate change on biosphere–atmosphere feedbacks of grasslands. We used ground-based eddy flux and meteorological data, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) enhanced vegetation index (EVI) from 12 grasslands across the United States to examine the spatial variability in carbon and water vapor fluxes and to evaluate the biophysical controls on the spatial patterns of fluxes. Precipitation was strongly associated with spatial and temporal variability in carbon and water vapor fluxes and vegetation productivity. Grasslands with annual average precipitation <600 mm generally had neutral annual carbon balance or emitted small amount of carbon to the atmosphere. Despite strong coupling between gross primary production (GPP)and evapotranspiration (ET) across study sites, GPP showed larger spatial variation than ET, and EVI had a greater effect on GPP than on ET. Consequently, large spatial variation in ecosystem water use efficiency (EWUE = annual GPP/ET; varying from 0.67 ± 0.55 to 2.52 ± 0.52 g C mm?ąET) was observed. Greater reduction in GPP than ET at high air temperature and vapor pressure deficit caused a reduction in EWUE in dry years, indicating a response which is opposite than what has been reported for forests. Our results show that spatial and temporal variations in ecosystem carbon uptake, ET, and water use efficiency of grasslands were strongly associated with canopy greenness and coverage, as indicated by EVI.

  16. Water vapor in the spectrum of the extrasolar planet HD 189733b. II. The eclipse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crouzet, Nicolas; McCullough, Peter R.; Deming, Drake; Madhusudhan, Nikku

    2014-11-10

    Spectroscopic observations of exoplanets are crucial to infer the composition and properties of their atmospheres. HD 189733b is one of the most extensively studied exoplanets and is a cornerstone for hot Jupiter models. In this paper, we report the dayside emission spectrum of HD 189733b in the wavelength range 1.1-1.7 ?m obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) in spatial scan mode. The quality of the data is such that even a straightforward analysis yields a high-precision Poisson noise-limited spectrum: the median 1? uncertainty is 57 ppm per 0.02 ?m bin. We also build a white-light curve correcting for systematic effects and derive an absolute eclipse depth of 96 ± 39 ppm. The resulting spectrum shows marginal evidence for water vapor absorption, but can also be well explained by a blackbody spectrum. However, the combination of these WFC3 data with previous Spitzer photometric observations is best explained by a dayside atmosphere of HD 189733b with no thermal inversion and a nearly solar or subsolar H{sub 2}O abundance in a cloud-free atmosphere. Alternatively, this apparent subsolar abundance may be the result of clouds or hazes that future studies need to investigate.

  17. Method and apparatus for simulating atomospheric absorption of solar energy due to water vapor and CO.sub.2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth's surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO.sub.2 and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO.sub.2 and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO.sub.2 and moisture.

  18. Method and apparatus for simulating atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to water vapor and CO{sub 2}

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1995-06-20

    A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth`s surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO{sub 2} and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO{sub 2} and moisture. 8 figs.

  19. Evaluation of an ambient air sampling system for tritium (as tritiated water vapor) using silica gel adsorbent columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patton, G.W.; Cooper, A.T.; Tinker, M.R.

    1995-08-01

    Ambient air samples for tritium analysis (as the tritiated water vapor [HTO] content of atmospheric moisture) are collected for the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) using the solid adsorbent silica gel. The silica gel has a moisture sensitive indicator which allows for visual observation of moisture movement through a column. Despite using an established method, some silica gel columns showed a complete change in the color indicator for summertime samples suggesting that breakthrough had occurred; thus a series of tests was conducted on the sampling system in an environmental chamber. The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum practical sampling volume and overall collection efficiency for water vapor collected on silica gel columns. Another purpose was to demonstrate the use of an impinger-based system to load water vapor onto silica gel columns to provide realistic analytical spikes and blanks for the Hanford Site SESP. Breakthrough volumes (V{sub b}) were measured and the chromatographic efficiency (expressed as the number of theoretical plates [N]) was calculated for a range of environmental conditions. Tests involved visual observations of the change in the silica gel`s color indicator as a moist air stream was drawn through the column, measurement of the amount of a tritium tracer retained and then recovered from the silica gel, and gravimetric analysis for silica gel columns exposed in the environmental chamber.

  20. PROGRESS REPORT OF FY 2004 ACTIVITIES: IMPROVED WATER VAPOR AND CLOUD RETRIEVALS AT THE NSA/AAO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. R. Westwater; V. V. Leuskiy; M. Klein; A. J. Gasiewski; and J. A. Shaw

    2004-11-01

    The basic goals of the research are to develop and test algorithms and deploy instruments that improve measurements of water vapor, cloud liquid, and cloud coverage, with a focus on the Arctic conditions of cold temperatures and low concentrations of water vapor. The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. Although several technologies have been investigated to measure these column amounts, microwave radiometers (MWR) have been used operationally by the ARM program for passive retrievals of these quantities: precipitable water vapor (PWV) and integrated water liquid (IWL). The technology of PWV and IWL retrievals has advanced steadily since the basic 2-channel MWR was first deployed at ARM CART sites Important advances are the development and refinement of the tipcal calibration method [1,2], and improvement of forward model radiative transfer algorithms [3,4]. However, the concern still remains that current instruments deployed by ARM may be inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and IWL. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important because of the possibility of scaling and/or quality control of radiosondes by the water amount. Extremely dry conditions, with PWV less than 3 mm, commonly occur in Polar Regions during the winter months. Accurate measurements of the PWV during such dry conditions are needed to improve our understanding of the regional radiation energy budgets. The results of a 1999 experiment conducted at the ARM North Slope of Alaska/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site during March of 1999 [5] have shown that the strength associated with the 183 GHz water vapor absorption line makes radiometry in this frequency regime suitable for measuring low amounts of PWV. As a portion of our research, we conducted another millimeter wave radiometric experiment at the NSA/AAO in March-April 2004. This experiment relied heavily on our experiences of the 1999 experiment. Particular attention was paid to issues of radiometric calibration and radiosonde intercomparisons. Our theoretical and experimental work also supplements efforts by industry (F. Solheim, Private Communication) to develop sub-millimeter radiometers for ARM deployment. In addition to quantitative improvement of water vapor measurements at cold temperature, the impact of adding millimeter-wave window channels to improve the sensitivity to arctic clouds was studied. We also deployed an Infrared Cloud Imager (ICI) during this experiment, both for measuring continuous day-night statistics of the study of cloud coverage and identifying conditions suitable for tipcal analysis. This system provided the first capability of determining spatial cloud statistics continuously in both day and night at the NSA site and has been used to demonstrate that biases exist in inferring cloud statistics from either zenith-pointing active sensors (lidars or radars) or sky imagers that rely on scattered sunlight in daytime and star maps at night [6].

  1. Water injection as a means for reducing non-condensible andcorrosive gases in steam produced from vapor-dominated reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, Karsten; Spycher, Nicolas; Kneafsey, Timothy J.

    2007-01-08

    Large-scale water injection at The Geysers, California, hasgenerated substantial benefits in terms of sustaining reservoir pressuresand production rates, as well as improving steam composition by reducingthe content of non-condensible gases (NCGs). Two effects have beenrecognized and discussed in the literature as contributing to improvedsteam composition, (1) boiling of injectate provides a source of "clean"steam to production wells, and (2) pressurization effects induced byboiling of injected water reduce upflow of native steam with large NCGconcentrations from depth. In this paper we focus on a possibleadditional effect that could reduce NCGs in produced steam by dissolutionin a condensed aqueous phase.Boiling of injectate causes pressurizationeffects that will fairly rapidly migrate outward, away from the injectionpoint. Pressure increases will cause an increase in the saturation ofcondensed phase due to vapor adsorption on mineral surfaces, andcapillary condensation in small pores. NCGs will dissolve in theadditional condensed phase which, depending upon their solubility, mayreduce NCG concentrations in residual steam.We have analyzed thepartitioning of HCl between vapor and aqueous phases, and have performednumerical simulations of injection into superheated vapor zones. Oursimulations provide evidence that dissolution in the condensed phase canindeed reduce NCG concentrations in produced steam.

  2. Vapor spill monitoring method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bianchini, Gregory M. (Livermore, CA); McRae, Thomas G. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

  3. DRAFT Microwave Radiometer Profiler Handbook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microwave Radiometer Profiler Handbook Evaluation of a New Multi-Frequency Microwave Radiometer for Measuring the Vertical Distribution of Temperature, Water Vapor, and Cloud Liquid Water Prepared by James C. Liljegren Environmental Research Division Argonne National Laboratory December 4, 2002 For the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program 2 Table of Contents Abstract

  4. MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Data Sets (Revision 2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaustad, KL; Turner, DD; McFarlane, SA

    2011-07-25

    This report provides a short description of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility microwave radiometer (MWR) Retrieval (MWRRET) value-added product (VAP) algorithm. This algorithm utilizes a complementary physical retrieval method and applies brightness temperature offsets to reduce spurious liquid water path (LWP) bias in clear skies resulting in significantly improved precipitable water vapor (PWV) and LWP retrievals. We present a general overview of the technique, input parameters, output products, and describe data quality checks. A more complete discussion of the theory and results is given in Turner et al. (2007b).

  5. Effect of Water Vapor on the 1100oC Oxidation Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed TBCs with HVOF NiCoCrAlX Bond Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynes, James A; Unocic, Kinga A; Pint, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    With the goal of investigating the reported detrimental effect of water vapor on thermal barrier coating (TBC) performance, furnace cycle experiments were conducted in dry O2 and air with 10 and 50% water vapor at 1100 C. The TBC systems evaluated were air plasma-sprayed (APS), yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coatings with high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF)-deposited NiCoCrAlY or NiCoCrAlYHfSi bond coating. Average TBC lifetime was reduced by ~30% in air with 10% water vapor compared to cycling in dry O2, using 1h cycle durations. Superalloy substrates with Y and La additions also were investigated but showed no statistical change in the average TBC lifetime compared to the base CMSX4 superalloy. In all cases, the bond coating with Hf and Si additions increased YSZ lifetime by 20% or more. Experiments that increased water vapor to 50% showed no further decrease in TBC lifetime. Increasing the cycle frequency to 100h resulted in a large increase in TBC lifetime, especially for the NiCoCrAlYHfSi bond coatings. Co-doping the NiCoCrAl bond coat with Y and Hf was beneficial to TBC lifetime, but did not mitigate the detrimental impact of water vapor.

  6. ARM - Field Campaign - Microwave Radiometer Profiler Evaluation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsMicrowave Radiometer Profiler Evaluation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Microwave Radiometer Profiler Evaluation 2000.09.01 - 2001.03.31 Lead Scientist : James Liljegren For data sets, see below. Abstract The microwave radiometer profiler (MWRP) is a new 12-channel radiometer developed by Radiometrics Corporation for measuring vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor, and

  7. The Use of Water Vapor as a Refrigerant: Impact of Cycle Modifications on Commercial Viability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon F. Lachner, Jr.; Gregory F. Nellis; Douglas T. Reindl

    2004-08-30

    This project investigated the economic viability of using water as the refrigerant in a 1000-ton chiller application. The most attractive water cycle configuration was found to be a flash-intercooled, two-stage cycle using centrifugal compressors and direct contact heat exchangers. Component level models were developed that could be used to predict the size and performance of the compressors and heat exchangers in this cycle as well as in a baseline, R-134a refrigeration cycle consistent with chillers in use today. A survey of several chiller manufacturers provided information that was used to validate and refine these component models. The component models were integrated into cycle models that were subsequently used to investigate the life-cycle costs of both an R-134a and water refrigeration cycle. It was found that the first cost associated with the water as a refrigerant cycle greatly exceeded the savings in operating costs associated with its somewhat higher COP. Therefore, the water refrigeration cycle is not an economically attractive option to today's R-134a refrigeration system. There are a number of other issues, most notably the requirements associated with purging non-condensable gases that accumulate in a direct contact heat exchanger, which will further reduce the economic viability of the water cycle.

  8. Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path from Scanning Microwave Radiometers During the 2003 Cloudiness Inter-Comparison Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path from Scanning Microwave Radiometers During the 2003 Cloudiness Inter-Comparison Experiment V. Mattioli Department of Electronic and Information Engineering University of Perugia Perugia, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado V. Morris Pacific Northwest National

  9. Water-level sensor and temperature-profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    A temperature profile detector is described which comprises a surrounding length of metal tubing and an interior electrical conductor both constructed of high temperature high electrical resistance materials. A plurality of gas-filled expandable bellows made of electrically conductive material are positioned at spaced locations along a length of the conductors. The bellows are sealed and contain a predetermined volume of a gas designed to effect movement of the bellows from an open circuit condition to a closed circuit condition in response to monitored temperature changes sensed by each bellows.

  10. Molecular Mechanism of the Adsorption Process of an Iodide Anion into Liquid-Vapor Interfaces of Water-Methanol Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annapureddy, Harsha V.; Dang, Liem X.

    2012-12-07

    To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanism of ion adsorption to the interface of mixtures, we systematically carried out a free energy calculations study involving the transport of an iodide anion across the interface of a water-methanol mixture. Many body affects are taken into account to describe the interactions among the species. The surface propensities of I- at interfaces of pure water and methanol are well understood. In contrast, detailed knowledge of the molecular level adsorption process of I- at aqueous mixture interfaces has not been reported. In this paper, we explore how this phenomenon will be affected for mixed solvents with varying compositions of water and methanol. Our potential of mean force study as function of varying compositions indicated that I- adsorption free energies decrease from pure water to pure methanol but not linearly with the concentration of methanol. We analyze the computed density profiles and hydration numbers as a function of concentrations and ion positions with respect to the interface to further explain the observed phenomenon. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by BES.

  11. Vapor Retarder Classification - Building America Top Innovation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This Top Innovation profile describes Building America research that established vapor ... Find other case studies of Building America projects across the country that utilizes ...

  12. A review of the remote sensing of lower-tropospheric thermodynamic profiles and its indispensable role for the understanding and the simulation of water and energy cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wulfmeyer, Volker; Hardesty, Mike; Turner, David D.; Behrendt, Andreas; Cadeddu, Maria; Di Girolamo, Paolo; Schlüssel, Peter; van Baelen, Joël; Zus, Florian

    2015-07-08

    A review of remote sensing technology for lower-tropospheric thermodynamic (TD) profiling is presented with focus on high accuracy and high temporal-vertical resolution. The contributions of these instruments to the understanding of the Earth system are assessed with respect to radiative transfer, land-surface-atmosphere feedback, convection initiation, and data assimilation. We demonstrate that for progress in weather and climate research, TD profilers are essential. These observational systems must resolve gradients of humidity and temperature in the stable or unstable atmospheric surface layer close to the ground, in the mixed layer, in the interfacial layer – usually characterized by an inversion – and the lower troposphere. A thorough analysis of the current observing systems is performed revealing significant gaps that must be addressed to fulfill existing needs. We analyze whether current and future passive and active remote sensing systems can close these gaps. A methodological analysis and demonstration of measurement capabilities with respect to bias and precision is executed both for passive and active remote sensing including passive infrared and microwave spectroscopy, the global positioning system as well as water-vapor and temperature Raman lidar and water-vapor differential absorption lidar. Whereas passive remote sensing systems are already mature with respect to operational applications, active remote sensing systems require further engineering to become operational in networks. However, active remote sensing systems provide a smaller bias as well as higher temporal and vertical resolutions. For a suitable mesoscale network design, TD profiler system developments should be intensified and dedicated observing system simulation experiments should be performed.

  13. A review of the remote sensing of lower-tropospheric thermodynamic profiles and its indispensable role for the understanding and the simulation of water and energy cycles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wulfmeyer, Volker; Hardesty, Mike; Turner, David D.; Behrendt, Andreas; Cadeddu, Maria; Di Girolamo, Paolo; Schlüssel, Peter; van Baelen, Joël; Zus, Florian

    2015-07-08

    A review of remote sensing technology for lower-tropospheric thermodynamic (TD) profiling is presented with focus on high accuracy and high temporal-vertical resolution. The contributions of these instruments to the understanding of the Earth system are assessed with respect to radiative transfer, land-surface-atmosphere feedback, convection initiation, and data assimilation. We demonstrate that for progress in weather and climate research, TD profilers are essential. These observational systems must resolve gradients of humidity and temperature in the stable or unstable atmospheric surface layer close to the ground, in the mixed layer, in the interfacial layer – usually characterized by an inversion – andmore » the lower troposphere. A thorough analysis of the current observing systems is performed revealing significant gaps that must be addressed to fulfill existing needs. We analyze whether current and future passive and active remote sensing systems can close these gaps. A methodological analysis and demonstration of measurement capabilities with respect to bias and precision is executed both for passive and active remote sensing including passive infrared and microwave spectroscopy, the global positioning system as well as water-vapor and temperature Raman lidar and water-vapor differential absorption lidar. Whereas passive remote sensing systems are already mature with respect to operational applications, active remote sensing systems require further engineering to become operational in networks. However, active remote sensing systems provide a smaller bias as well as higher temporal and vertical resolutions. For a suitable mesoscale network design, TD profiler system developments should be intensified and dedicated observing system simulation experiments should be performed.« less

  14. Vapor Retarder Classification - Building America Top Innovation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Vapor Retarder Classification - Building America Top Innovation Vapor Retarder Classification - Building America Top Innovation Photo of a vapor retarder classification. Air-tight and well-insulated homes have little or no tolerance for drying if they get wet; moisture control is critical. This Top Innovation profile describes Building America research that established vapor retarder classifications and appropriate applications that has been instrumental in the market

  15. Modification and Application of a New Method for Retrieving Water-Cloud Microphysics Vertical Profile

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modification and Application of a New Method for Retrieving Water-Cloud Microphysics Vertical Profile F.-L Chang and Z. Li Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center University of Maryland College Park, Maryland Z. Li Department of Meteorology University of Maryland College Park, Maryland X. Dong Department of Atmospheric Sciences University of North Dakota Grand Forks, North Dakota Introduction Low- level boundary layer clouds have the most significant influence on cloud radiative forcing

  16. INJECTION PROFILE MODIFICATION IN A HOT, DEEP MINNELUSA WATER INJECTION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

    2001-09-01

    As oil fields in the United States age, production enhancements and modifications will be needed to increase production from deeper and hotter oil reservoirs. New techniques and products must be tested in these areas before industry will adapt them as common practice. The Minnelusa fields of northeastern Wyoming are relatively small, deep, hot fields that have been developed in the past ten to twenty years. As part of the development, operators have established waterfloods early in the life of the fields to maximize cumulative oil production. However, channeling between injectors and producers does occur and can lead to excessive water production and bypassed oil left in the reservoir. The project evaluated the use of a recently developed, high-temperature polymer to modify the injection profiles in a waterflood project in a high-temperature reservoir. The field is the Hawk Point field in Campbell County, Wyoming. The field was discovered in 1986 and initially consisted of eight producing wells with an average depth of 11,500 feet and a temperature of 260 F (127 C). The polymer system was designed to plug the higher permeable channels and fractures to provide better conformance, i.e. sweep efficiency, for the waterflood. The project used a multi-well system to evaluate the treatment. Injection profile logging was used to evaluate the injection wells both before and after the polymer treatment. The treatment program was conducted in January 2000 with a treatment of the four injection wells. The treatment sizes varied between 500 bbl and 3,918 bbl at a maximum allowable pressure of 1,700 psig. Injection in three of the wells was conducted as planned. However, the injection in the fourth well was limited to 574 bbl instead of the planned 3,750 bbl because of a rapid increase in injection pressure, even at lower than planned injection rates. Following completion of polymer placement, the injection system was not started for approximately one week to permit the gel to set. The system then returned to operation as before the test with no major change in the fieldwide injection. The injection and production rates for the field were monitored for approximately one year to give the production side of the system time to stabilize. The polymer treatment conducted on the injection wells in Hawk Point is believed to be the largest treatment of a hot, deep reservoir to date. These injection well treatments did produce some change in the injection profile of the injection wells. However, it is very disappointing that there was no significant improvement in the performance of the field. There was no noticeable reduction in the water production, the water-oil ratio (WOR), or an increase in oil production. The cosponsor has determined that the field is currently at its economic limit because of the high cost of this deep operation and the continual downhole problems. A restructuring of the injection-production pattern is presently being done to prolong the life of the field.

  17. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

    1989-01-01

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  18. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

    1988-04-26

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  19. Vapor spill pipe monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

    1983-06-23

    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

  20. Long Term Field Development of a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System for Treatment of Produced Waters for Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn Katz; Kerry Kinney; Robert Bowman; Enid Sullivan; Soondong Kwon; Elaine Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Craig Altare

    2007-12-31

    The main goal of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using a combined physicochemical/biological treatment system to remove the organic constituents present in saline produced water. In order to meet this objective, a physical/chemical adsorption process was developed and two separate biological treatment techniques were investigated. Two previous research projects focused on the development of the surfactant modified zeolite adsorption process (DE-AC26-99BC15221) and development of a vapor phase biofilter (VPB) to treat the regeneration off-gas from the surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorption system (DE-FC26-02NT15461). In this research, the SMZ/VPB was modified to more effectively attenuate peak loads and to maintain stable biodegradation of the BTEX constituents from the produced water. Specifically, a load equalization system was incorporated into the regeneration flow stream. In addition, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) system was tested for its ability to simultaneously remove the aromatic hydrocarbon and carboxylate components from produced water. The specific objectives related to these efforts included the following: (1) Optimize the performance VPBs treating the transient loading expected during SMZ regeneration: (a) Evaluate the impact of biofilter operating parameters on process performance under stable operating conditions. (b) Investigate how transient loads affect biofilter performance, and identify an appropriate technology to improve biological treatment performance during the transient regeneration period of an SMZ adsorption system. (c) Examine the merits of a load equalization technology to attenuate peak VOC loads prior to a VPB system. (d) Evaluate the capability of an SMZ/VPB to remove BTEX from produced water in a field trial. (2) Investigate the feasibility of MBR treatment of produced water: (a) Evaluate the biodegradation of carboxylates and BTEX constituents from synthetic produced water in a laboratory-scale MBR. (b) Evaluate the capability of an SMZ/MBR system to remove carboxylates and BTEX from produced water in a field trial. Laboratory experiments were conducted to provide a better understanding of each component of the SMZ/VPB and SMZ/MBR process. Laboratory VPB studies were designed to address the issue of influent variability and periodic operation (see DE-FC26-02NT15461). These experiments examined multiple influent loading cycles and variable concentration loadings that simulate air sparging as the regeneration option for the SMZ system. Two pilot studies were conducted at a produced water processing facility near Farmington, New Mexico. The first field test evaluated SMZ adsorption, SMZ regeneration, VPB buffering, and VPB performance, and the second test focused on MBR and SMZ/MBR operation. The design of the field studies were based on the results from the previous field tests and laboratory studies. Both of the biological treatment systems were capable of removing the BTEX constituents in the laboratory and in the field over a range of operating conditions. For the VPB, separation of the BTEX constituents from the saline aqueous phase yielded high removal efficiencies. However, carboxylates remained in the aqueous phase and were not removed in the combined VPB/SMZ system. In contrast, the MBR was capable of directly treating the saline produced water and simultaneously removing the BTEX and carboxylate constituents. The major limitation of the MBR system is the potential for membrane fouling, particularly when the system is treating produced water under field conditions. The combined process was able to effectively pretreat water for reverse osmosis treatment and subsequent downstream reuse options including utilization in power generation facilities. The specific conclusions that can be drawn from this study are summarized.

  1. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  2. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Larson, Ronald A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Goodrich, Lorenzo D. (Shelley, ID); Hall, Harold J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stoddard, Billy D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davis, Sean G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kaser, Timothy G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

  3. Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In most U.S. climates, vapor diffusion retarders can help prevent moisture problems, increase energy efficiency, and improve comfort in homes.

  4. LNG fire and vapor control system technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

  5. Simulation of in-core neutron noise measurements for axial void profile reconstruction in boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dykin, V.; Pazsit, I.

    2012-07-01

    A possibility to reconstruct the axial void profile from the simulated in-core neutron noise which is caused by density fluctuations in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) heated channel is considered. For this purpose, a self-contained model of the two-phase flow regime is constructed which has quantitatively and qualitatively similar properties to those observed in real BWRs. The model is subsequently used to simulate the signals of neutron detectors induced by the corresponding perturbations in the flow density. The bubbles are generated randomly in both space and time using Monte-Carlo techniques. The axial distribution of the bubble production is chosen such that the mean axial void fraction and void velocity follow the actual values of BWRs. The induced neutron noise signals are calculated and then processed by the standard signal analysis methods such as Auto-Power Spectral Density (APSD) and Cross-Power Spectral Density (CPSD). Two methods for axial void and velocity profiles reconstruction are discussed: the first one is based on the change of the break frequency of the neutron auto-power spectrum with axial core elevation, while the second refers to the estimation of transit times of propagating steam fluctuations between different axial detector positions. This paper summarizes the principles of the model and presents a numerical testing of the qualitative applicability to estimate the required parameters for the reconstruction of the void fraction profile from the neutron noise measurements. (authors)

  6. ARM - PI Product - AERIoe Thermodynamic Profile and Cloud Retrieval for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MC3E Lamont X-band site (I6) Lamont X-band site (I6) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : AERIoe Thermodynamic Profile and Cloud Retrieval for MC3E Lamont X-band site (I6) [ ARM research ] The AERIoe algorithm retrieves profiles of temperature and water vapor mixing ratio, together with cloud properties for a single-layer cloud (i.e., LWP, effective radius), from AERI-observed infrared

  7. Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

  8. Wick for metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, David B. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    An improved wick for a metal vapor laser is made of a refractory metal cylinder, preferably molybdenum or tungsten for a copper laser, which provides the wicking surface. Alternately, the inside surface of the ceramic laser tube can be metalized to form the wicking surface. Capillary action is enhanced by using wire screen, porous foam metal, or grooved surfaces. Graphite or carbon, in the form of chunks, strips, fibers or particles, is placed on the inside surface of the wick to reduce water, reduce metal oxides and form metal carbides.

  9. Monitoring PVD metal vapors using laser absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braun, D.G.; Anklam, T.M.; Berzins, L.V.; Hagans, K.G.

    1994-04-01

    Laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) has been used by the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program for over 10 years to monitor the co-vaporization of uranium and iron in its separators. During that time, LAS has proven to be an accurate and reliable method to monitor both the density and composition of the vapor. It has distinct advantages over other rate monitors, in that it is completely non-obtrusive to the vaporization process and its accuracy is unaffected by the duration of the run. Additionally, the LAS diagnostic has been incorporated into a very successful process control system. LAS requires only a line of sight through the vacuum chamber, as all hardware is external to the vessel. The laser is swept in frequency through an absorption line of interest. In the process a baseline is established, and the line integrated density is determined from the absorption profile. The measurement requires no hardware calibration. Through a proper choice of the atomic transition, a wide range of elements and densities have been monitored (e.g. nickel, iron, cerium and gadolinium). A great deal of information about the vapor plume can be obtained from the measured absorption profiles. By monitoring different species at the same location, the composition of the vapor is measured in real time. By measuring the same density at different locations, the spatial profile of the vapor plume is determined. The shape of the absorption profile is used to obtain the flow speed of the vapor. Finally, all of the above information is used evaluate the total vaporization rate.

  10. Near-field thermal radiative transfer and thermoacoustic effects from vapor plumes produced by pulsed CO{sub 2} laser ablation of bulk water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudryashov, S. I.; Lyon, Kevin; Allen, S. D.

    2006-12-15

    Submillimeter deep heating of bulk water by thermal radiation from ablative water plumes produced by a 10.6 {mu}m transversely excited atmospheric CO{sub 2} laser and the related acoustic generation has been studied using a contact time-resolved photoacoustic technique. Effective penetration depths of thermal radiation in water were measured as a function of incident laser fluence and the corresponding plume temperatures were estimated. The near-field thermal and thermoacoustic effects of thermal radiation in laser-ablated bulk water and their potential near-field implications are discussed.

  11. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1986-08-15

    The atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process for the enrichment of uranium is evaluated. (AIP)

  12. Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mather, James

    2008-01-15

    We have generated a suite of products that includes merged soundings, cloud microphysics, and radiative fluxes and heating profiles. The cloud microphysics is strongly based on the ARM Microbase value added product (Miller et al., 2003). We have made a few changes to the microbase parameterizations to address issues we observed in our initial analysis of the tropical data. The merged sounding product is not directly related to the product developed by ARM but is similar in that it uses the microwave radiometer to scale the radiosonde column water vapor. The radiative fluxes also differ from the ARM BBHRP (Broadband Heating Rate Profile) product in terms of the radiative transfer model and the sampling interval.

  13. Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mather, James

    We have generated a suite of products that includes merged soundings, cloud microphysics, and radiative fluxes and heating profiles. The cloud microphysics is strongly based on the ARM Microbase value added product (Miller et al., 2003). We have made a few changes to the microbase parameterizations to address issues we observed in our initial analysis of the tropical data. The merged sounding product is not directly related to the product developed by ARM but is similar in that it uses the microwave radiometer to scale the radiosonde column water vapor. The radiative fluxes also differ from the ARM BBHRP (Broadband Heating Rate Profile) product in terms of the radiative transfer model and the sampling interval.

  14. Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA); Moses, Edward I. (Castro Valley, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment.

  15. Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.W.; Ault, E.R.; Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment. 2 figs.

  16. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

    1983-02-08

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

  17. In-well vapor stripping drilling and characterization work plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koegler, K.J.

    1994-03-13

    This work plan provides the information necessary for drilling, sampling, and hydrologic testing of wells to be completed in support of a demonstration of the in-well vapor stripping system. The in-well vapor stripping system is a remediation technology designed to preferentially extract volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater by converting them to a vapor phase. Air-lift pumping is used to lift and aerate groundwater within the well. The volatiles escaping the aerated water are drawn off by a slight vacuum and treated at the surface while the water is allowed to infiltrate the vadose zone back to the watertable.

  18. Category:Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mercury Vapor Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Mercury Vapor page? For detailed information on Mercury Vapor as...

  19. Organic vapor jet printing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2012-10-23

    An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

  20. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1985-11-08

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985 the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for the internationally competitive production of uranium separative work. The economic basis for this decision is considered, with an indicated of the constraints placed on the process figures of merit and the process laser system. We then trace an atom through a generic AVLIS separator and give examples of the physical steps encountered, the models used to describe the process physics, the fundamental parameters involved, and the role of diagnostic laser measurements.

  1. Stratified vapor generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Hassani, Vahab (Golden, CO)

    2008-05-20

    A stratified vapor generator (110) comprises a first heating section (H.sub.1) and a second heating section (H.sub.2). The first and second heating sections (H.sub.1, H.sub.2) are arranged so that the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2) is operatively associated with the outlet of the first heating section (H.sub.1). A moisture separator (126) having a vapor outlet (164) and a liquid outlet (144) is operatively associated with the outlet (124) of the second heating section (H.sub.2). A cooling section (C.sub.1) is operatively associated with the liquid outlet (144) of the moisture separator (126) and includes an outlet that is operatively associated with the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2).

  2. The vapor pressures of explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Hotchkiss, Peter

    2013-01-05

    The vapor pressures of many explosive compounds are extremely low and thus determining accurate values proves difficult. Many researchers, using a variety of methods, have measured and reported the vapor pressures of explosives compounds at single temperatures, or as a function of temperature using vapor pressure equations. There are large variations in reported vapor pressures for many of these compounds, and some errors exist within individual papers. This article provides a review of explosive vapor pressures and describes the methods used to determine them. We have compiled primary vapor pressure relationships traceable to the original citations and include the temperature ranges for which they have been determined. Corrected values are reported as needed and described in the text. In addition, after critically examining the available data, we calculate and tabulate vapor pressures at 25 °C.

  3. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  4. ARM - PI Product - AERIoe Thermodynamic Profile and Cloud Retrieval for SGP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CF during LABLE-2012 2 ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : AERIoe Thermodynamic Profile and Cloud Retrieval for SGP CF during LABLE-2012 [ ARM research ] The AERIoe algorithm retrieves profiles of temperature and water vapor mixing ratio, together with cloud properties for a single-layer cloud (i.e., LWP, effective radius), from AERI-observed infrared radiance spectrum. The method is a

  5. ARM - PI Product - AERIoe Thermodynamic Profile and Cloud Retrieval for SGP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CF during LABLE-2013 3 ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : AERIoe Thermodynamic Profile and Cloud Retrieval for SGP CF during LABLE-2013 [ ARM research ] The AERIoe algorithm retrieves profiles of temperature and water vapor mixing ratio, together with cloud properties for a single-layer cloud (i.e., LWP, effective radius), from AERI-observed infrared radiance spectrum. The method is a

  6. Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

    2012-09-11

    Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

  7. Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    called "structural" vapor diffusion retarders. Materials such as rigid foam insulation, reinforced plastics, aluminum, and stainless steel are relatively resistant to...

  8. Vaporization of zinc from scrap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    The rate of zinc vaporization from galvanized scrap was measured using a thermogravimetric apparatus along with chemical analysis. It is found that the rate of zinc vaporization is very fast in nitrogen and carbon monoxide atmospheres at temperatures higher than 950 C. At lower temperature rate decreases with decreasing temperature and is controlled by the gas phase mass transport. The simultaneous oxidation and vaporization of zinc occurs when the samples were heated in carbon dioxide and air. The current experimental results indicate that almost all of the zinc from scrap vaporizes during the heating process in a very short period of time after the temperature reaches above 850 C.

  9. ARM - Field Campaign - Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CART RL Order Data Westwater ETL MWR Order Data Whiteman GSFC RL Order Data GallagherWeber Dataplane Order Data Gutman GPS Order Data Lesht BBSS Order Data Morris CART MWR Order...

  10. Promising Technology: Condensing Gas Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Condensing water heaters achieve higher efficiencies than conventional water heaters by capturing the latent heat from water vapor contained in the flue gases. Combustion gases are exhausted through a secondary heat exchanger where the latent heat of water vapor in the exhaust gas is transferred to the stored water. This technology enables the water heater to achieve thermal efficiencies up to 99%.

  11. New Atmospheric Profiling Instrument Added to SGP CART Suite

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to those required by computer models, over the years ARM has deployed several additional ground-based remote-sensing instruments to collect temperature and water vapor data....

  12. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2007-06-12

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  13. Vapor deposition of hardened niobium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blocher, Jr., John M.; Veigel, Neil D.; Landrigan, Richard B.

    1983-04-19

    A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

  14. ARM - Field Campaign - Microwave Radiometer Profiler Evaluation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    vapor, and low-resolution cloud liquid water. It was deployed at the Blackwell-Tonkawa airport, northeast of the ARM SGP central facility, from 25 February through 22 March 2000,...

  15. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the CARL UT water vapor profiles. Incorporating the temperature dependence of the Raman water vapor filter response would also slightly reduce the CARL UT water vapor...

  16. Vapor Pressures and Heats of Vaporization of Primary Coal Tars

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    / PC92544-18 VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS FINAL REPORT Grant Dates: August, 1992 - November, 1996 Principal Authors: Eric M. Suuberg (PI) and Vahur Oja Report Submitted: April, 1997 Revised: July, 1997 Grant Number: DE-FG22-92PC92544 Report Submitted by: ERIC M. SUUBERG DIVISION OF ENGINEERING BROWN UNIVERSITY PROVIDENCE, RI 02912 TEL. (401) 863-1420 Prepared For: U. S. DEPT. OF ENERGY FEDERAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CENTER P.O. BOX 10940 PITTSBURGH, PA 15236 DR.

  17. Vapor deposition of thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.C.; Pattillo, S.G.; Laia, J.R. Jr.; Sattelberger, A.P.

    1990-10-05

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl){sub 3}, iridium(allyl){sub 3}, molybdenum(allyl){sub 4}, tungsten(allyl){sub 4}, rhenium (allyl){sub 4}, platinum(allyl){sub 2}, or palladium(allyl){sub 2} are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  18. Vapor deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Sattelberger, Alfred P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  19. Production of higher quality bio-oils by in-line esterification of pyrolysis vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hilten, Roger Norris; Das, Keshav; Kastner, James R; Bibens, Brian P

    2014-12-02

    The disclosure encompasses in-line reactive condensation processes via vapor phase esterification of bio-oil to decease reactive species concentration and water content in the oily phase of a two-phase oil, thereby increasing storage stability and heating value. Esterification of the bio-oil vapor occurs via the vapor phase contact and subsequent reaction of organic acids with ethanol during condensation results in the production of water and esters. The pyrolysis oil product can have an increased ester content and an increased stability when compared to a condensed pyrolysis oil product not treated with an atomized alcohol.

  20. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of calibrated vapor samples of explosives compounds remains a challenge due to the low vapor pressures of the explosives, adsorption of explosives on container and tubing walls, and the requirement to manage (typically) multiple temperature zones as the vapor is generated, diluted, and delivered. Methods that have been described to generate vapors can be classified as continuous or pulsed flow vapor generators. Vapor sources for continuous flow generators are typically explosives compounds supported on a solid support, or compounds contained in a permeation or diffusion device. Sources are held at elevated isothermal temperatures. Similar sources can be used for pulsed vapor generators; however, pulsed systems may also use injection of solutions onto heated surfaces with generation of both solvent and explosives vapors, transient peaks from a gas chromatograph, or vapors generated by s programmed thermal desorption. This article reviews vapor generator approaches with emphasis on the method of generating the vapors and on practical aspects of vapor dilution and handling. In addition, a gas chromatographic system with two ovens that is configurable with up to four heating ropes is proposed that could serve as a single integrated platform for explosives vapor generation and device testing. Issues related to standards, calibration, and safety are also discussed.

  1. Vacuum vapor deposition gun assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, Joseph D. (Boulder, CO)

    1985-01-01

    A vapor deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, a hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  2. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyeth, R.W.; Paisner, J.A.; Story, T.

    1990-08-21

    A laser spectroscopy system is utilized in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. The system determines spectral components of an atomic vapor utilizing a laser heterodyne technique. 23 figs.

  3. Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, Barbara K. (Charleston, WV)

    1991-01-01

    Volatilized metal compounds retard vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

  4. ARM - Measurement - Precipitable water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsPrecipitable water ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Precipitable water Total amount of water vapor in a vertical column of air, often expressed as the depth of the layer of water that would be formed if all the water vapor were condensed to liquid water. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following

  5. ARM - Evaluation Product - MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vapor ProductsMWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor A new algorithm is being developed for the ARM Program to derive liquid water path (LWP) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) from the

  6. Underwater vapor phase burning of aluminum particles and on aluminum ignition during steam explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, M. )

    1991-09-01

    Recently reported experimental studies on aluminum-water steam explosions indicate that there may be a critical metal temperature at which the process changes over from a physical explosion to one which is very violent and involves the rapid liberation of chemical energy. In this report we examine the hypothesis that vapor-phase burning of aluminum is a necessary condition for the occurrence of such ignition-type'' steam explosions. An available two-phase stagnation flow film-boiling model is used to calculate the steam flux to the vaporizing aluminum surface. Combining this calculation with the notion that there is an upper limit to the magnitude of the metal vaporization rate at which the reaction regime must change from vapor phase to surface burning, leads to prediction of the critical metal surface temperature below which vapor phase burning is impossible. The critical temperature is predicted for both the aluminum-water pre-mixture configuration in which coarse drops of aluminum are falling freely through water and for the finely-fragmented aluminum drops in the wake of the pressure shock that triggers'' the explosion. Vapor phase burning is predicted to be possible during the pre-mixture phase but not very likely during the trigger phase of a steam explosion. The implications of these findings in terms of the validity of the hypothesis that ignition may begin with the vapor phase burning of aluminum is discussed. Recently postulated, alternative mechanisms of underwater aluminum ignition are also discussed.

  7. Underwater vapor phase burning of aluminum particles and on aluminum ignition during steam explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, M.

    1991-09-01

    Recently reported experimental studies on aluminum-water steam explosions indicate that there may be a critical metal temperature at which the process changes over from a physical explosion to one which is very violent and involves the rapid liberation of chemical energy. In this report we examine the hypothesis that vapor-phase burning of aluminum is a necessary condition for the occurrence of such ``ignition-type`` steam explosions. An available two-phase stagnation flow film-boiling model is used to calculate the steam flux to the vaporizing aluminum surface. Combining this calculation with the notion that there is an upper limit to the magnitude of the metal vaporization rate at which the reaction regime must change from vapor phase to surface burning, leads to prediction of the critical metal surface temperature below which vapor phase burning is impossible. The critical temperature is predicted for both the aluminum-water pre-mixture configuration in which coarse drops of aluminum are falling freely through water and for the finely-fragmented aluminum drops in the wake of the pressure shock that ``triggers`` the explosion. Vapor phase burning is predicted to be possible during the pre-mixture phase but not very likely during the trigger phase of a steam explosion. The implications of these findings in terms of the validity of the hypothesis that ignition may begin with the vapor phase burning of aluminum is discussed. Recently postulated, alternative mechanisms of underwater aluminum ignition are also discussed.

  8. Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting Print Hydrogen is an attractive form of fuel because its only by-product is nonpolluting water vapor. The problem,...

  9. An Evaluation of MWR Retrievals of Liquid Water Path

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    retrievals of precipitable water vapor (PWV) and liquid water path (LWP). The paper shows case study comparisons between the standard "statistical" approach and those obtained...

  10. Means and method for vapor generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

    1984-01-01

    A liquid, in heat transfer contact with a surface heated to a temperature well above the vaporization temperature of the liquid, will undergo a multiphase (liquid-vapor) transformation from 0% vapor to 100% vapor. During this transition, the temperature driving force or heat flux and the coefficients of heat transfer across the fluid-solid interface, and the vapor percentage influence the type of heating of the fluid--starting as "feedwater" heating where no vapors are present, progressing to "nucleate" heating where vaporization begins and some vapors are present, and concluding with "film" heating where only vapors are present. Unstable heating between nucleate and film heating can occur, accompanied by possibly large and rapid temperature shifts in the structures. This invention provides for injecting into the region of potential unstable heating and proximate the heated surface superheated vapors in sufficient quantities operable to rapidly increase the vapor percentage of the multiphase mixture by perhaps 10-30% and thereby effectively shift the multiphase mixture beyond the unstable heating region and up to the stable film heating region.

  11. Method of and apparatus for measuring vapor density

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Loren D. (Morrison, CO); Cerni, Todd A. (Littleton, CO)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method determine the concentration of an individual component, such as water vapor, of a multi-component mixture, such as a gaseous mixture for cooling a nuclear reactor. A hygrometer apparatus includes an infrared source for producing a broadband infrared energy beam that includes a strong water vapor absorption band and a weak water vapor absorption region. The beam is chopped to select infrared pulses. A temporally first pulse has a wavelength in the weakly absorbing region, a temporally second pulse has a wavelength in the strong band and a temporally third pulse has a wavlength in the weakly absorbing region. A fourth reference pulse representing background radiation is interposed in such chopped pulses. An indium arsenide infrared sensor is responsive to the pulses for generating an output signal in proportion to: ##EQU1## where N1 is proportional to the transmission through the sample of the first signal, N4 is related to the background radiation, and [K2 (N2-N4)+K3 (N3-N4)] is the time-weighted average of the transmission through the sample of the second and third pulses applicable at the time of the second pulse, with the reference pulse N4 being subtracted in each case to render the ratio independent of variations in the background radiation.

  12. Method of and apparatus for measuring vapor density

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, L.D.; Cerni, T.A.

    1989-10-17

    Apparatus and method are disclosed which determine the concentration of an individual component, such as water vapor, of a multi-component mixture, such as a gaseous mixture for cooling a nuclear reactor. A hygrometer apparatus includes an infrared source for producing a broadband infrared energy beam that includes a strong water vapor absorption band and a weak water vapor absorption region. The beam is chopped to select infrared pulses. A temporally first pulse has a wavelength in the weakly absorbing region, a temporally second pulse has a wavelength in the strong band and a temporally third pulse has a wavelength in the weakly absorbing region. A fourth reference pulse representing background radiation is interposed in such chopped pulses. An indium arsenide infrared sensor is responsive to the pulses for generating an output signal in proportion to an equation given in the patent where N1 is proportional to the transmission through the sample of the first signal, N4 is related to the background radiation, and [K2 (N2-N4) + K3 (N3-N4)] is the time-weighted average of the transmission through the sample of the second and third pulses applicable at the time of the second pulse, with the reference pulse N4 being subtracted in each case to render the ratio independent of variations in the background radiation. 11 figs.

  13. Process for recovering organic vapors from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Mountain View, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A process for recovering and concentrating organic vapor from a feed stream of air having an organic vapor content of no more than 20,000 ppm by volume. A thin semipermeable membrane is provided which has a feed side and a permeate side, a selectivity for organic vapor over air of at least 50, as measured by the ratio of organic vapor permeability to nitrogen permeability, and a permeability of organic vapor of at least 3.times.10.sup.-7 cm.sup.3 (STP) cm/cm.sup.2 sec.cm Hg. The feed stream is passed across the feed side of the thin semipermeable membrane while providing a pressure on the permeate side which is lower than the feed side by creating a partial vacuum on the permeate side so that organic vapor passes preferentially through the membrane to form an organic vapor depleted air stream on the feed side and an organic vapor enriched stream on the permeate side. The organic vapor which has passed through the membrane is compressed and condensed to recover the vapor as a liquid.

  14. Chemical vapor deposition of sialon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, Richard L. (Livermore, CA); Casey, Alton W. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A laminated composite and a method for forming the composite by chemical vapor deposition. The composite includes a layer of sialon and a material to which the layer is bonded. The method includes the steps of exposing a surface of the material to an ammonia containing atmosphere; heating the surface to at least about 1200.degree. C.; and impinging a gas containing in a flowing atmosphere of air N.sub.2, SiCl.sub.4, and AlCl.sub.3 on the surface.

  15. Control of flow through a vapor generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radcliff, Thomas D.

    2005-11-08

    In a Rankine cycle system wherein a vapor generator receives heat from exhaust gases, provision is made to avoid overheating of the refrigerant during ORC system shut down while at the same time preventing condensation of those gases within the vapor generator when its temperature drops below a threshold temperature by diverting the flow of hot gases to ambient and to thereby draw ambient air through the vapor generator in the process. In one embodiment, a bistable ejector is adjustable between one position, in which the hot gases flow through the vapor generator, to another position wherein the gases are diverted away from the vapor generator. Another embodiment provides for a fixed valve ejector with a bias towards discharging to ambient, but with a fan on the downstream side of said vapor generator for overcoming this bias.

  16. Novel methods of copper vapor laser excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McColl, W.B.; Ching, H.; Bosch, R.; Brake, M.; Gilgenbach, R.

    1990-12-31

    Microwave and intense electron beam excitation of copper vapor are being investigated to be used in copper vapor lasers for isotope separation. Both methods use copper chloride vapor by heating copper chloride. Helium was used as the buffer gas at 2 to 100 torr. In the microwave system, intense copperlines at 510 nm and 578 nm were observed. Initial electron beam results indicate that light emission follows the beam current.

  17. Coupling apparatus for a metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, D.G.; Miller, J.L.

    1993-02-23

    Coupling apparatus for a large bore metal vapor laser is disclosed. The coupling apparatus provides for coupling high voltage pulses (approximately 40 KV) to a metal vapor laser with a high repetition rate (approximately 5 KHz). The coupling apparatus utilizes existing thyratron circuits and provides suitable power input to a large bore metal vapor laser while maintaining satisfactory operating lifetimes for the existing thyratron circuits.

  18. Coupling apparatus for a metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Miller, John L. (Dublin, CA)

    1993-01-01

    Coupling apparatus for a large bore metal vapor laser is disclosed. The coupling apparatus provides for coupling high voltage pulses (approximately 40 KV) to a metal vapor laser with a high repetition rate (approximately 5 KHz). The coupling apparatus utilizes existing thyratron circuits and provides suitable power input to a large bore metal vapor laser while maintaining satisfactory operating lifetimes for the existing thyratron circuits.

  19. MEMS Lubrication by In-Situ Tribochemical Reactions From the Vapor Phase.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugger, Michael T.; Asay, David B.; Kim, Seong H.

    2008-01-01

    Vapor Phase Lubrication (VPL) of silicon surfaces with pentanol has been demonstrated. Two potential show stoppers with respect to application of this approach to real MEMS devices have been investigated. Water vapor was found to reduce the effectiveness of VPL with alcohol for a given alcohol concentration, but the basic reaction mechanism observed in water-free environments is still active, and devices operated much longer in mixed alcohol and water vapor environments than with chemisorbed monolayer lubricants alone. Complex MEMS gear trains were successfully lubricated with alcohol vapors, resulting in a factor of 104 improvement in operating life without failure. Complex devices could be made to fail if operated at much higher frequencies than previously used, and there is some evidence that the observed failure is due to accumulation of reaction products at deeply buried interfaces. However, if hypothetical reaction mechanisms involving heated surfaces are valid, then the failures observed at high frequency may not be relevant to operation at normal frequencies. Therefore, this work demonstrates that VPL is a viable approach for complex MEMS devices in conventional packages. Further study of the VPL reaction mechanisms are recommended so that the vapor composition may be optimized for low friction and for different substrate materials with potential application to conventionally fabricated, metal alloy parts in weapons systems. Reaction kinetics should be studied to define effective lubrication regimes as a function of the partial pressure of the vapor phase constituent, interfacial shear rate, substrate composition, and temperature.

  20. People Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    People Profiles Featured Profile Hye-Sook Park Pursuing a challenging-and rewarding-career Read More » Tanza Lewis Tanza Lewis Jamie King Jamie King Lisa Burrows Lisa Burrows Jeremy Huckins Jeremy Huckins Ibo Matthews Ibo Matthews Peter Thelin Peter Thelin Susanna Reyes Susana Reyes Jerry Britten Jerry Britten Reggie Drachenberg Reggie Drachenberg Beth Dzenitis Beth Dzenitis Rebecca Dylla-Spears Rebecca Dylla-Spears John Heebner John Heebner Terry Land Terry Land Zhi Liao Zhi Liao Roark Marsh

  1. Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, B.K.

    1991-12-17

    Volatilized metal compounds are described which are capable of retarding vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

  2. FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    give a higher lower limit value than the completely vaporized sample. Conversely, the heavy fractions or residue give a smaller lower limit value. For this reason, there is...

  3. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1999-08-03

    A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

  4. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

  5. Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Liu, Guosheng

    2008-01-15

    Cloud ice water concentration is one of the most important, yet poorly observed, cloud properties. Developing physical parameterizations used in general circulation models through single-column modeling is one of the key foci of the ARM program. In addition to the vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor and condensed water at the model grids, large-scale horizontal advective tendencies of these variables are also required as forcing terms in the single-column models. Observed horizontal advection of condensed water has not been available because the radar/lidar/radiometer observations at the ARM site are single-point measurement, therefore, do not provide horizontal distribution of condensed water. The intention of this product is to provide large-scale distribution of cloud ice water by merging available surface and satellite measurements. The satellite cloud ice water algorithm uses ARM ground-based measurements as baseline, produces datasets for 3-D cloud ice water distributions in a 10 deg x 10 deg area near ARM site. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) areal measurement. That is, this study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements at the point of ARM site. We use the cloud characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain satellite retrieval, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the cloud ice water distributions within an area, i.e., 10 deg x 10 deg centered at ARM site.

  6. Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Liu, Guosheng

    Cloud ice water concentration is one of the most important, yet poorly observed, cloud properties. Developing physical parameterizations used in general circulation models through single-column modeling is one of the key foci of the ARM program. In addition to the vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor and condensed water at the model grids, large-scale horizontal advective tendencies of these variables are also required as forcing terms in the single-column models. Observed horizontal advection of condensed water has not been available because the radar/lidar/radiometer observations at the ARM site are single-point measurement, therefore, do not provide horizontal distribution of condensed water. The intention of this product is to provide large-scale distribution of cloud ice water by merging available surface and satellite measurements. The satellite cloud ice water algorithm uses ARM ground-based measurements as baseline, produces datasets for 3-D cloud ice water distributions in a 10 deg x 10 deg area near ARM site. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) areal measurement. That is, this study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements at the point of ARM site. We use the cloud characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain satellite retrieval, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the cloud ice water distributions within an area, i.e., 10 deg x 10 deg centered at ARM site.

  7. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

    2008-09-30

    This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

  8. Stacked vapor fed amtec modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sievers, Robert K. (North Huntingdon, PA)

    1989-01-01

    The present invention pertains to a stacked AMTEC module. The invention includes a tubular member which has an interior. The member is comprised of a ion conductor that substantially conducts ions relative to electrons, preferably a beta"-alumina solid electrolyte, positioned about the interior. A porous electrode for conducting electrons and allowing sodium ions to pass therethrough, and wherein electrons and sodium ions recombine to form sodium is positioned about the beta"-alumina solid electrolyte. The electrode is operated at a temperature and a pressure that allows the recombined sodium to vaporize. Additionally, an outer current collector grid for distributing electrons throughout the porous electrode is positioned about and contacts the porous electrode. Also included in the invention is transporting means for transporting liquid sodium to the beta"-alumina solid electrolyte of the tubular member. A transition piece is positioned about the interior of the member and contacts the transporting means. The transition piece divides the member into a first cell and a second cell such that each first and second cell has a beta"-alumina solid electrolyte, a first and second porous electrode and a grid. The transition piece conducts electrons from the interior of the tubular member. There is supply means for supplying sodium to the transporting means. Preferably the supply means is a shell which surrounds the tubular member and is operated at a temperature such that the vaporized sodium condenses thereon. Returning means for returning the condensed sodium from the shell to the transporting means provides a continuous supply of liquid sodium to the transporting means. Also, there are first conducting means for conducting electric current from the transition piece which extends through the shell, and second conducting means for conducting electric current to the grid of the first cell which extends through the shell.

  9. Quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gundel, Lara; Daisey, Joan M.; Stevens, Robert K.

    1998-01-01

    A quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler for sampling semi-volatile organic gases and particulate components. A semi-volatile organic reversible gas sorbent macroreticular resin agglomerates of randomly packed microspheres with the continuous porous structure of particles ranging in size between 0.05-10 .mu.m for use in an integrated diffusion vapor-particle sampler.

  10. High bandwidth vapor density diagnostic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Globig, Michael A. (Antioch, CA); Story, Thomas W. (Oakley, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A high bandwidth vapor density diagnostic system for measuring the density of an atomic vapor during one or more photoionization events. The system translates the measurements from a low frequency region to a high frequency, relatively noise-free region in the spectrum to provide improved signal to noise ratio.

  11. A simple grand canonical approach to compute the vapor pressure of bulk and finite size systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Factorovich, Matías H.; Scherlis, Damián A.

    2014-02-14

    In this article we introduce a simple grand canonical screening (GCS) approach to accurately compute vapor pressures from molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo simulations. This procedure entails a screening of chemical potentials using a conventional grand canonical scheme, and therefore it is straightforward to implement for any kind of interface. The scheme is validated against data obtained from Gibbs ensemble simulations for water and argon. Then, it is applied to obtain the vapor pressure of the coarse-grained mW water model, and it is shown that the computed value is in excellent accord with the one formally deduced using statistical thermodynamics arguments. Finally, this methodology is used to calculate the vapor pressure of a water nanodroplet of 94 molecules. Interestingly, the result is in perfect agreement with the one predicted by the Kelvin equation for a homogeneous droplet of that size.

  12. Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra-Efficient Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to...

  13. After More Than 20 Years Operating, Hanford's Soil Vapor Extraction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wise, Juan Aguilar, Doug Rybarski, and Christina Agular. The soil vapor extraction trailer is shown near Hanfords Plutonium Finishing Plant. The soil vapor extraction...

  14. Vapor Extraction Well Performance and Recommendations for Future...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Well Performance and Recommendations for Future Soil Vapor Extraction Activities at the A-014 Outfall Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Vapor Extraction Well ...

  15. Process for vaporizing a liquid hydrocarbon fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Kuzminskas, Vaidotas (Glastonbury, CT); Bittner, Joseph E. (East Hartford, CT)

    1981-01-01

    The object of the invention is to provide a process for vaporizing liquid hydrocarbon fuels efficiently and without the formation of carbon residue on the apparatus used. The process includes simultaneously passing the liquid fuel and an inert hot gas downwardly through a plurality of vertically spaed apart regions of high surface area packing material. The liquid thinly coats the packing surface, and the sensible heat of the hot gas vaporizes this coating of liquid. Unvaporized liquid passing through one region of packing is uniformly redistributed over the top surface of the next region until all fuel has been vaporized using only the sensible heat of the hot gas stream.

  16. Recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirza, Zia I. (La Verne, CA); Knell, Everett W. (Los Alamitos, CA); Winter, Bruce L. (Danville, CA)

    1980-09-30

    Values are recovered from a hydrocarbon-containing vapor by contacting the vapor with quench liquid consisting essentially of hydrocarbons to form a condensate and a vapor residue, the condensate and quench fluid forming a combined liquid stream. The combined liquid stream is mixed with a viscosity-lowering liquid to form a mixed liquid having a viscosity lower than the viscosity of the combined liquid stream to permit easy handling of the combined liquid stream. The quench liquid is a cooled portion of the mixed liquid. Viscosity-lowering liquid is separated from a portion of the mixed liquid and cycled to form additional mixed liquid.

  17. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation using resonance ionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comaskey, B.; Crane, J.; Erbert, G.; Haynam, C.; Johnson, M.; Morris, J.; Paisner, J.; Solarz, R.; Worden, E.

    1986-09-01

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power-reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985, the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for enriched uranium. Resonance photoionization is the heart of the AVLIS process. We discuss those fundamental atomic parameters that are necessary for describing isotope-selective resonant multistep photoionization along with the measurement techniques that we use. We illustrate the methodology adopted with examples of other elements that are under study in our program.

  18. Chemical vapor infiltration using microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devlin, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Currier, Robert P. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A method for producing reinforced ceramic composite articles by means of chemical vapor infiltration and deposition in which an inverted temperature gradient is utilized. Microwave energy is the source of heat for the process.

  19. Vapor purification with self-cleaning filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Josephson, Gary B.; Heath, William O.; Aardahl, Christopher L.

    2003-12-09

    A vapor filtration device including a first electrode, a second electrode, and a filter between the first and second electrodes is disclosed. The filter is formed of dielectric material and the device is operated by applying a first electric potential between the electrodes to polarize the dielectric material such that upon passing a vapor stream through the filter, particles from the vapor stream are deposited onto the filter. After depositing the particles a second higher voltage is applied between the electrodes to form a nonthermal plasma around the filter to vaporize the collected particles thereby cleaning the filter. The filter can be a packed bed or serpentine filter mat, and an optional upstream corona wire can be utilized to charge airborne particles prior to their deposition on the filter.

  20. Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, Russell N. (Shoreham, NY); Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY)

    1981-01-01

    A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

  1. Coalescence-controlled and coalescence-free growth regimes during deposition of pulsed metal vapor fluxes on insulating surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lü, B.; Münger, E. P.; Sarakinos, K.

    2015-04-07

    The morphology and physical properties of thin films deposited by vapor condensation on solid surfaces are predominantly set by the processes of island nucleation, growth, and coalescence. When deposition is performed using pulsed vapor fluxes, three distinct nucleation regimes are known to exist depending on the temporal profile of the flux. These regimes can be accessed by tuning deposition conditions; however, their effect on film microstructure becomes marginal when coalescence sets in and erases morphological features obtained during nucleation. By preventing coalescence from being completed, these nucleation regimes can be used to control microstructure evolution and thus access a larger palette of film morphological features. Recently, we derived the quantitative criterion to stop coalescence during continuous metal vapor flux deposition on insulating surfaces—which typically yields 3-dimensional growth—by describing analytically the competition between island growth by atomic incorporation and the coalescence rate of islands [Lü et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 163107 (2014)]. Here, we develop the analytical framework for entering a coalescence-free growth regime for metal vapor deposition on insulating substrates using pulsed vapor fluxes, showing that there exist three distinct criteria for suppressing coalescence that correspond to the three nucleation regimes of pulsed vapor flux deposition. The theoretical framework developed herein is substantiated by kinetic Monte Carlo growth simulations. Our findings highlight the possibility of using atomistic nucleation theory for pulsed vapor deposition to control morphology of thin films beyond the point of island density saturation.

  2. Alabama Profile

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Alabama State Energy Profile Alabama Quick Facts In 2013, Alabama ranked 17th in the nation in the number of producing natural gas wells. Mobile, Alabama was the fourth-largest seaport for exporting U.S. coal in 2013. Coking coal used in the steelmaking process accounted for 82% of total exported coal. The three reactors at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant in Limestone County, Alabama have a combined generating capacity of 3,310 megawatts, second in capacity only to Arizona's Palo Verde plant.

  3. ARM - PI Product - MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govDataPI Data ProductsMWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us...

  4. Differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric temperature profiles - Theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theopold, F.A.; Boesenberg, J. )

    1993-04-01

    The method of measuring atmospheric temperature profiles with differential absorption lidar (DIAL), based on the temperature dependence of oxygen absorption lines in the near-IR, is investigated in detail. Particularly, the influence of Doppler broadening on the Rayleigh-backscattered signal is evaluated, and a correction method for this effect is presented which requires an accurate estimate of the molecular and particle backscatter contributions; this is noted not to be achievable by the usual lidar inversion techniques. Under realistic conditions, resulting errors may be as high as 10 K. First range-resolved measurements using this technique are presented, using a slightly modified DIAL system originally constructed for water vapor measurements. While much better resolution can certainly be achieved by technical improvements, the errors introduced by the uncertainty of the backscatter contributions will remain and determine the accuracy that can be obtained with this method. 35 refs.

  5. Water and Heat Balance Model for Predicting Drainage Below the Plant Root Zone

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1989-11-01

    UNSAT-H Version 2.0 is a one-dimensional model that simulates the dynamic processes of infiltration, drainage, redistribution, surface evaporation, and the uptake of water from soil by plants. The model was developed for assessing the water dynamics of arid sites used or proposed for near-surface waste disposal. In particular, the model is used for simulating the water balance of cover systems over buried waste and for estimating the recharge rate (i.e., the drainage rate beneath themore » plant root zone when a sizable vadose zone is present). The mathematical base of the model are Richards'' equation for water flow, Ficks'' law for vapor diffusion, and Fouriers law for heat flow. The simulated profile can be homogeneous or layered. The boundary conditions can be controlled as either constant (potential or temperature) or flux conditions to reflect actual conditions at a given site.« less

  6. Environmental profile of Paraguay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    The social, cultural, physical, and economic dimensions of Paraguay's environment are analyzed to identify main environmental features and problems and to recommend specific actions. The environmental profile presents an overview of Paraguay's ethno-historic and anthropological background, present-day society, and the impact of pollution. Descriptions are presented of: the legal and institutional aspects of environmental policy; the structure and performance of the economy, with focus on the primary and energy sectors; physical resources (climate, geological, mineral, soil, and water resources); and biological resources (vegetation, wild animal life, protected areas, and fish resources).

  7. ARM - Field Campaign - Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Al Gasiewsk, Taneil Uttal, and Duane Hazen, Domenico CiminiM Vinia Mattioli, Bob L. Weber, Sally Dowlatshahi,Joe A. Shaw, Jim Liljegren ,B. M. Lesht, Bernie Zak; The 2004 North...

  8. Using information about small-scale variability in water vapor...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Category: Modeling Deep convection is the process that most strongly affects the transport of energy and moisture in the atmosphere, and it produces clouds which have...

  9. Tropical Anvil Characteristics and Water Vapor of the Tropical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the nature of solute. 2) Heymsfield and Miloshevich (1993): J r depends on T. Depression of freezing point due to solute and curvature effects is considered but those...

  10. Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry (Tracy, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself.

  11. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Dawson, Jay W. (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2006-07-26

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  12. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Dawson, Jay W. (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2007-10-23

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  13. Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.

    1988-03-15

    A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself. 4 figs.

  14. Method and Apparatus for Concentrating Vapors for Analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Baldwin, David L. (Kennewick, WA); Anheier, Jr., Norman C. (Richland, WA)

    2008-10-07

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for pre-concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the apparatus can be thermally desorbed achieving at least partial separation of vapor mixtures. The apparatus is suitable, e.g., for preconcentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than for direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications.

  15. Installation and Initial Operation of DOE's 449-MHz Wind Profiling Radars on the U.S. West Coast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flaherty, Julia E.; Shaw, William J.; Morris, Victor R.; Wilczak, J. M.; White, A. B.; Ayers, Tom; Jordan, Jim; King, Clark W.

    2015-10-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has recently completed the installation of three new wind profiling radars on the Washington and Oregon coasts. These systems operate at a frequency of 449 MHz and provide mean wind profiles to a height of roughly 8 km, with the maximum measurement height depending on time-varying atmospheric conditions. This is roughly half the depth of the troposphere at these latitudes. Each system is also equipped with a radio acoustic sounding system (RASS), which provides a measure of the temperature profile to heights of approximately 2 km. Other equipment deployed alongside the radar includes a surface meteorological station and GPS for column water vapor. This project began in fiscal year 2014, starting with equipment procurements and site selection. In addition, environmental reviews, equipment assembly and testing, site access agreements, and infrastructure preparations have been performed. Finally, with equipment deployment with data collection and dissemination, the primary tasks of this project have been completed. The three new wind profiling radars have been deployed at airports near Coos Bay, OR, and Astoria, OR, and at an industrial park near Forks, WA. Data are available through the NOAA Earth Systems Research Laboratory Data Display website, and will soon be made available through the DOE Atmosphere to Electrons data archive and portal as well.

  16. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkinson, David

    2012-10-15

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  17. Chemical vapor deposition of mullite coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, Vinod (Lexington, MA); Mulpuri, Rao (Boston, MA)

    1998-01-01

    This invention is directed to the creation of crystalline mullite coatings having uniform microstructure by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The process comprises the steps of establishing a flow of reactants which will yield mullite in a CVD reactor, and depositing a crystalline coating from the reactant flow. The process will yield crystalline coatings which are dense and of uniform thickness.

  18. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Atkinson, David

    2014-07-24

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  19. Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

  20. Water mist injection in oil shale retorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

    1980-07-30

    Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

  1. Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-10-01

    In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor permeable insulation on retrofit walls with vapor permeable cavity insulation. Retrofit strategies are a key factor in reducing exterior building stock consumption.

  2. Type B Accident Investigation of the Acid Vapor Inhalation on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Acid Vapor Inhalation on June 7, 2005, in TA-48, Building RC-1 Room 402 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Type B Accident Investigation of the Acid Vapor Inhalation on June 7,...

  3. Non-Vapor Compression HVAC Technologies Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Non-Vapor Compression HVAC Technologies Report Non-Vapor Compression HVAC Technologies Report This thermoelastic system provides a promising alternative to traditional vapor-compression HVAC technologies. Read the full report below to learn more. <em>Credit: University of Maryland</em> This thermoelastic system provides a promising alternative to traditional vapor-compression HVAC technologies. Read the full report below to learn more. Credit: University of Maryland While

  4. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to measuring temperature and water vapor. Key conclusions concern the design of future ground-based networks of water vapor and temperature profiling systems, identification of...

  5. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP Starts; Microwave Radiometer Profiler Deployed Bookmark and Share Some of the instruments collecting data during the Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP...

  6. Final report on the project entitled "The Effects of Disturbance & Climate on Carbon Storage & the Exchanges of CO2 Water Vapor & Energy Exchange of Evergreen Coniferous Forests in the Pacific Northwest: Integration of Eddy Flux, Plant and Soil Measurements at a Cluster of Supersites"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beverly E. Law , Christoph K. Thomas

    2011-09-20

    This is the final technical report containing a summary of all findings with regard to the following objectives of the project: (1) To quantify and understand the effects of wildfire on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in a chronosequence of ponderosa pine (disturbance gradient); (2) To investigate the effects of seasonal and interannual variation in climate on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in mature conifer forests in two climate zones: mesic 40-yr old Douglas-fir and semi-arid 60-yr old ponderosa pine (climate gradient); (3) To reduce uncertainty in estimates of CO2 feedbacks to the atmosphere by providing an improved model formulation for existing biosphere-atmosphere models; and (4) To provide high quality data for AmeriFlux and the NACP on micrometeorology, meteorology, and biology of these systems. Objective (1): A study integrating satellite remote sensing, AmeriFlux data, and field surveys in a simulation modeling framework estimated that the pyrogenic carbon emissions, tree mortality, and net carbon exchange associated with four large wildfires that burned ~50,000 hectares in 2002-2003 were equivalent to 2.4% of Oregon statewide anthropogenic carbon emissions over the same two-year period. Most emissions were from the combustion of the forest floor and understory vegetation, and only about 1% of live tree mass was combusted on average. Objective (2): A study of multi-year flux records across a chronosequence of ponderosa pine forests yielded that the net carbon uptake is over three times greater at a mature pine forest compared with young pine. The larger leaf area and wetter and cooler soils of the mature forest mainly caused this effect. A study analyzing seven years of carbon and water dynamics showed that interannual and seasonal variability of net carbon exchange was primarily related to variability in growing season length, which was a linear function of plant-available soil moisture in spring and early summer. A multi-year drought (2001-2003) led to a significant reduction of net ecosystem exchange due to carry-over effects in soil moisture and carbohydrate reserves in plant-tissue. In the same forest, the interannual variability in the rate carbon is lost from the soil and forest floor is considerable and related to the variability in tree growth as much as it is to variability in soil climatic conditions. Objective (3): Flux data from the mature ponderosa pine site support a physical basis for filtering nighttime data with friction velocity above the canopy. An analysis of wind fields and heat transport in the subcanopy at the mesic 40-year old Douglas site yielded that the non-linear structure and behavior of spatial temperature gradients and the flow field require enhanced sensor networks to estimate advective fluxes in the subcanopy of forest to close the surface energy balance in forests. Reliable estimates for flux uncertainties are needed to improve model validation and data assimilation in process-based carbon models, inverse modeling studies and model-data synthesis, where the uncertainties may be as important as the fluxes themselves. An analysis of the time scale dependence of the random and flux sampling error yielded that the additional flux obtained by increasing the perturbation timescale beyond about 10 minutes is dominated by random sampling error, and therefore little confidence can be placed in its value. Artificial correlation between gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) is a consequence of flux partitioning of eddy covariance flux data when GEP is computed as the difference between NEE and computed daytime Re (e.g. using nighttime Re extrapolated into daytime using soil or air temperatures). Tower-data must be adequately spatially averaged before comparison to gridded model output as the time variability of both is inherently different. The eddy-covariance data collected at the mature ponderosa pine site and the mesic Douglas fir site were used to develop and evaluate a new method to extra

  7. Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by-product is nonpolluting water vapor. The problem, however, is that the production of hydrogen-via the process of water splitting-currently requires the burning of traditional...

  8. Uranium accountancy in Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carver, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The AVLIS program pioneers the large scale industrial application of lasers to produce low cost enriched uranium fuel for light water reactors. In the process developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, normal uranium is vaporized by an electron beam, and a precisely tuned laser beam selectively photo-ionizes the uranium-235 isotopes. These ions are moved in an electromagnetic field to be condensed on the product collector. All other uranium isotopes remain uncharged and pass through the collector section to condense as tails. Tracking the three types of uranium through the process presents special problems in accountancy. After demonstration runs, the uranium on the collector was analyzed for isotopic content by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Their results were checked at LLNL by analysis of parallel samples. The differences in isotopic composition as reported by the two laboratories were not significant.

  9. Metal vapor laser including hot electrodes and integral wick

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, E.R.; Alger, T.W.

    1995-03-07

    A metal vapor laser, specifically one utilizing copper vapor, is disclosed herein. This laser utilizes a plasma tube assembly including a thermally insulated plasma tube containing a specific metal, e.g., copper, and a buffer gas therein. The laser also utilizes means including hot electrodes located at opposite ends of the plasma tube for electrically exciting the metal vapor and heating its interior to a sufficiently high temperature to cause the metal contained therein to vaporize and for subjecting the vapor to an electrical discharge excitation in order to lase. The laser also utilizes external wicking arrangements, that is, wicking arrangements located outside the plasma tube. 5 figs.

  10. Apparatus and method for photochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Scott C. (Wilmington, DE); Rocheleau, Richard E. (Wilmington, DE)

    1987-03-31

    A photochemical vapor deposition apparatus includes a reactor housing having a window in one wall above a reaction chamber in the housing. A transparent curtain divides the reaction chamber into a reaction zone and a flush zone. At least one substrate is mounted in the reaction zone in light communication with the window so that ultraviolet radiation may penetrate through the window into the reaction zone. The window is kept clear by a gas flowing through the flush zone.

  11. Combined rankine and vapor compression cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radcliff, Thomas D.; Biederman, Bruce P.; Brasz, Joost J.

    2005-04-19

    An organic rankine cycle system is combined with a vapor compression cycle system with the turbine generator of the organic rankine cycle generating the power necessary to operate the motor of the refrigerant compressor. The vapor compression cycle is applied with its evaporator cooling the inlet air into a gas turbine, and the organic rankine cycle is applied to receive heat from a gas turbine exhaust to heat its boiler within one embodiment, a common condenser is used for the organic rankine cycle and the vapor compression cycle, with a common refrigerant, R-245a being circulated within both systems. In another embodiment, the turbine driven generator has a common shaft connected to the compressor to thereby eliminate the need for a separate motor to drive the compressor. In another embodiment, an organic rankine cycle system is applied to an internal combustion engine to cool the fluids thereof, and the turbo charged air is cooled first by the organic rankine cycle system and then by an air conditioner prior to passing into the intake of the engine.

  12. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  13. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, E.P. Jr.

    1999-01-12

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

  14. Falcon series data report: 1987 LNG vapor barrier verification field trials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, T.C.; Cederwall, R.T.; Chan, S.T.; Ermak, D.L.; Koopman, R.P.; Lamson, K.C.; McClure, J.W.; Morris, L.K.

    1990-06-01

    A series of five Liquefied Natural Gas Spills up to 66 m{sup 3} in volume were performed on water within a vapor barrier structure at Frenchman Flat on the Nevada Test Site as a part of a joint government/industry study. This data report presents a description of the tests, the test apparatus, the instrumentation, the meteorological conditions, and the data from the tests. 16 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Petrology and geochemistry of Alto Peak, a vapor-cored hydrothermal system, Leyte Province, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes, A.G.; Giggenbach, W.F.; Saleras, J.R.M.; Salonga, N.D.; Vergara, M.C.

    1993-10-01

    Based on detailed petrological information on secondary mineral assemblages and the composition of fluids trapped in inclusions and discharged from five wells, the Alto Peak geothermal field was found to represent a combined vapor and liquid-dominated system. A central core or chimney, with a diameter of about 1 km, a height of some 3 km and occupied by a high gas vapor (1.1 to 5.6 molal CO{sub 2}), is surrounded by an envelope of intermediate salinity water (7,000 mg/kg Cl) with temperatures between 250 and 350 C. The transition from purely vapor-dominated to liquid-dominated zones takes place via two-phase zones occupied by fluid mixtures of highly variable compositions. Much of the lower temperature, mature neutral pH Cl water is likely to have formed during an earlier stage in the evolution of the system. High temperatures of > 300 C, and associated alteration, are limited to wells AP-1D and the lower parts of AP-2D and are ascribed to re-heating by recent magmatic intrusions. The isotopic composition of the well discharges suggests that they contain some 40 to 50% of magmatic water. Alto Peak is considered a typical example of hydrothermal systems associated with many dormant volcanoes.

  16. Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berkman, Samuel (Florham Park, NJ)

    1984-01-01

    A single chamber continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor is described for depositing continuously on flat substrates, for example, epitaxial layers of semiconductor materials. The single chamber reactor is formed into three separate zones by baffles or tubes carrying chemical source material and a carrier gas in one gas stream and hydrogen gas in the other stream without interaction while the wafers are heated to deposition temperature. Diffusion of the two gas streams on heated wafers effects the epitaxial deposition in the intermediate zone and the wafers are cooled in the final zone by coolant gases. A CVD reactor for batch processing is also described embodying the deposition principles of the continuous reactor.

  17. New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SCIENTIFIC REPORT Title Page Project Title: New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration DOE Award Number: DE-FG36-04GO14327 Document Title: Final Scientific Report Period Covered by Report: September 30, 2004 to September 30, 2005 Name and Address of Recipient Organization: Magnetic Development, Inc., 68 Winterhill Road, Madison, CT 06443, phone: 203-214-7247, fax: 203-421-7948, e-mail: mjb1000@aol.com Contact Information: Mark J. Bergander, Ph.D., P.E., Principal Investigator,

  18. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Wylie, Allan H.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus has been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing.

  19. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, J.M.; Wylie, A.H.

    1996-01-09

    A method and apparatus have been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing. 10 figs.

  20. Copper vapor laser acoustic thermometry system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galkowski, Joseph J. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A copper vapor laser (CVL) acoustic thermometry system is disclosed. The invention couples an acoustic pulse a predetermined distance into a laser tube by means of a transducer and an alumina rod such that an echo pulse is returned along the alumina rod to the point of entry. The time differential between the point of entry of the acoustic pulse into the laser tube and the exit of the echo pulse is related to the temperature at the predetermined distance within the laser tube. This information is processed and can provide an accurate indication of the average temperature within the laser tube.

  1. Method and apparatus for concentrating vapors for analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Baldwin, David L. (Kennewick, WA); Anheier, Jr., Norman C. (Richland, WA)

    2012-06-05

    A pre-concentration device and a method are disclosed for concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the pre-concentration device are thermally desorbed, achieving at least partial separation of the vapor mixtures. The pre-concentration device is suitable, e.g., for pre-concentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable.

  2. Oxide vapor distribution from a high-frequency sweep e-beam system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, R.; Tassano, P.L.; Tsujimoto, N.

    1995-03-01

    Oxide vapor distributions have been determined as a function of operating parameters of a high frequency sweep e-beam source combined with a programmable sweep controller. We will show which parameters are significant, the parameters that yield the broadest oxide deposition distribution, and the procedure used to arrive at these conclusions. A design-of-experimental strategy was used with five operating parameters: evaporation rate, sweep speed, sweep pattern (pre-programmed), phase speed (azimuthal rotation of the pattern), profile (dwell time as a function of radial position). A design was chosen that would show which of the parameters and parameter pairs have a statistically significant effect on the vapor distribution. Witness flats were placed symmetrically across a 25 inches diameter platen. The stationary platen was centered 24 inches above the e-gun crucible. An oxide material was evaporated under 27 different conditions. Thickness measurements were made with a stylus profilometer. The information will enable users of the high frequency e-gun systems to optimally locate the source in a vacuum system and understand which parameters have a major effect on the vapor distribution.

  3. Propane-induced biodegradation of vapor phase trichloroethylene (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Propane-induced biodegradation of vapor phase trichloroethylene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Propane-induced biodegradation of vapor phase trichloroethylene Microbial degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) has been demonstrated under aerobic conditions with propane. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of introducing a vapor phase form of TCE in the presence of propane to batch bioreactors containing a liquid phase

  4. Investigation of odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in atomic vapors

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Investigation of odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in atomic vapors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Investigation of odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in atomic vapors We theoretically deduce the macroscopic symmetry constraints for arbitrary odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in homogeneous media including atomic vapors for the first time. After theoretically calculating the expressions

  5. Review of enhanced vapor diffusion in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, S.W.; Ho, C.K.

    1998-08-01

    Vapor diffusion in porous media in the presence of its own liquid has often been treated similar to gas diffusion. The gas diffusion rate in porous media is much lower than in free space due to the presence of the porous medium and any liquid present. However, enhanced vapor diffusion has also been postulated such that the diffusion rate may approach free-space values. Existing data and models for enhanced vapor diffusion, including those in TOUGH2, are reviewed in this paper.

  6. Mercury Vapor At Medicine Lake Area (Kooten, 1987) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Medicine Lake Area (Kooten, 1987) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Medicine Lake Area (Kooten, 1987) Exploration...

  7. Ground Gravity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey...

  8. Thermodynamic and transport properties of sodium liquid and vapor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    sodium liquid and vapor. Recently published Russian recommendations and results of equation of state calculations on thermophysical properties of sodium have been included in...

  9. Mercury Vapor At Mokapu Penninsula Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Mokapu Penninsula Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  10. Mercury Vapor At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  11. Mercury Vapor At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Kawaihae...

  12. Mercury Vapor At Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Area (Thomas, 1986...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details...

  13. Mercury Vapor At Socorro Mountain Area (Kooten, 1987) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Socorro Mountain Area (Kooten, 1987) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  14. Ground Magnetics At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Magnetics At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  15. Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heating and Refrigeration Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra-Efficient Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Lead Performer: Sandia ...

  16. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002)...

  17. Mercury Vapor At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

  18. Glenwood Springs Vapor Caves Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Glenwood Springs Vapor Caves Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Glenwood Springs...

  19. IMPROVED MAGNUS' FORM OF SATURATION VAPOR PRESSURE Oleg A. Alduchov...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... to convert between temperature and the saturation vapor pressure with minimal error. The requirements of simplicity and minimal error will eliminate many of the approximations. ...

  20. Profiling Your Application

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Profiling Your Application Profiling Your Application Introduction By quantifying the performance of your application on present-day architectures, you will be better able to prioritize, plan, and implement code changes that will enable good performance on Cori. Here, we provide general background on application profiling, as well as links to resources and tools available at NERSC to assist you in this effort. Background Of the platforms available at NERSC, we recommend profiling on Edison and

  1. PROJECT PROFILE: Boston University | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PROJECT PROFILE: Boston University PROJECT PROFILE: Boston University Funding Opportunity: CSP: APOLLO SunShot Subprogram: CSP Location: Boston, MA Amount Awarded: $1,150,000 Awardee Cost Share: $390,864 Boston University Logo.png The Boston University project under CSP: Apollo will use laboratory-scale electrodynamic-screen self-cleaning solar technology with heliostat mirrors and parabolic troughs in large scale solar plants. The objective is to reduce both the need to clean mirrors with water

  2. Chemicals Industry Profile | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chemicals Industry Profile Chemicals Industry Profile Chemical products are essential to the production of a myriad of manufactured products. More than 96% of all manufactured goods are directly touched by the chemicals industry.1 The industry greatly influences our safe water supply, food, shelter, clothing, health care, computer technology, transportation, and almost every other facet of modern life. Economic The United States is the top chemical producer in the world, accounting for nearly

  3. Energy Landscape of Water and Ethanol on Silica Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Di; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Hui; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-06-26

    Fundamental understanding of small molecule–silica surface interactions at their interfaces is essential for the scientific, technological, and medical communities. We report direct enthalpy of adsorption (?hads) measurements for ethanol and water vapor on porous silica glass (CPG-10), in both hydroxylated and dehydroxylated (hydrophobic) forms. Results suggest a spectrum of energetics as a function of coverage, stepwise for ethanol but continuous for water. The zero-coverage enthalpy of adsorption for hydroxylated silica shows the most exothermic enthalpies for both water (-72.7 ± 3.1 kJ/mol water) and ethanol (-78.0 ± 1.9 kJ/mol ethanol). The water adsorption enthalpy becomes less exothermic gradually until reaching its only plateau (-20.7 ± 2.2 kJ/mol water) reflecting water clustering on a largely hydrophobic surface, while the enthalpy of ethanol adsorption profile presents two well separated plateaus, corresponding to strong chemisorption of ethanol on adsorbate-free silica surface (-66.4 ± 4.8 kJ/mol ethanol), and weak physisorption of ethanol on ethanol covered silica (-4.0 ± 1.6 kJ/mol ethanol). On the other hand, dehydroxylation leads to missing water–silica interactions, whereas the number of ethanol binding sites is not impacted. The isotherms and partial molar properties of adsorption suggest that water may only bind strongly onto the silanols (which are a minor species on silica glass), whereas ethanol can interact strongly with both silanols and the hydrophobic areas of the silica surface.

  4. Vapor and gas sampling of the single-shell tank 241-S-101 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-08-05

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-S-101. This document presents In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the June 6, 1996 sampling of SST 241-S-101. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media.

  5. Vapor and gas sampling of Single-Shell Tank 241-A-101 using the Vapor Sampling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caprio, G.S.

    1995-11-01

    This document presents sampling data resulting from the June 8, 1995, sampling of SST 241-A-101 using the Vapor Sampling System.

  6. Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

  7. Chemical vapor deposition of group IIIB metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erbil, A.

    1989-11-21

    Coatings of Group IIIB metals and compounds thereof are formed by chemical vapor deposition, in which a heat decomposable organometallic compound of the formula given in the patent where M is a Group IIIB metal, such as lanthanum or yttrium and R is a lower alkyl or alkenyl radical containing from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, with a heated substrate which is above the decomposition temperature of the organometallic compound. The pure metal is obtained when the compound of the formula 1 is the sole heat decomposable compound present and deposition is carried out under nonoxidizing conditions. Intermetallic compounds such as lanthanum telluride can be deposited from a lanthanum compound of formula 1 and a heat decomposable tellurium compound under nonoxidizing conditions.

  8. Chemical vapor deposition of group IIIB metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erbil, Ahmet (Atlanta, GA)

    1989-01-01

    Coatings of Group IIIB metals and compounds thereof are formed by chemical vapor deposition, in which a heat decomposable organometallic compound of the formula (I) ##STR1## where M is a Group IIIB metal, such as lanthanum or yttrium and R is a lower alkyl or alkenyl radical containing from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, with a heated substrate which is above the decomposition temperature of the organometallic compound. The pure metal is obtained when the compound of the formula I is the sole heat decomposable compound present and deposition is carried out under nonoxidizing conditions. Intermetallic compounds such as lanthanum telluride can be deposited from a lanthanum compound of formula I and a heat decomposable tellurium compound under nonoxidizing conditions.

  9. Monitoring of vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.

    2004-06-01

    An apparatus for monitoring vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a high-temperature environment has an excitation source producing electromagnetic radiation, an optical path having an optical probe optically communicating the electromagnetic radiation received at a proximal end to a distal end, a spectrometer or polychromator, a detector, and a positioner coupled to the first optical path. The positioner can slidably move the distal end of the optical probe to maintain the distal end position with respect to an area of a material undergoing combustion. The emitted wavelength can be directed to a detector in a single optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration, in a dual optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration or in a dual optical probe 90.degree. side scattered configuration. The apparatus can be used to monitor an emitted wavelength of energy from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as it fluoresces in a high temperature environment.

  10. Method and apparatus for conducting variable thickness vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nesslage, G.V.

    1984-08-03

    A method of vapor depositing metal on a substrate in variable thickness comprises conducting the deposition continuously without interruption to avoid formation of grain boundaries. To achieve reduced deposition in specific regions a thin wire or ribbon blocking body is placed between source and substrate to partially block vapors from depositing in the region immediately below.

  11. Gas Separation Using Organic-Vapor-Resistent Membranes In Conjunctin With Organic-Vapor-Selective Membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); He, Zhenjie (Fremont, CA); Da Costa, Andre R. (Menlo Park, CA); Daniels, Ramin (San Jose, CA); Amo, Karl D. (Mountain View, CA); Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA)

    2003-06-03

    A process for treating a gas mixture containing at least an organic compound gas or vapor and a second gas, such as natural gas, refinery off-gas or air. The process uses two sequential membrane separation steps, one using membrane selective for the organic compound over the second gas, the other selective for the second gas over the organic vapor. The second-gas-selective membranes use a selective layer made from a polymer having repeating units of a fluorinated polymer, and demonstrate good resistance to plasticization by the organic components in the gas mixture under treatment, and good recovery after exposure to liquid aromatic hydrocarbons. The membrane steps can be combined in either order.

  12. Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System: Thermal Storage Using Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-04

    HEATS Project: UTRC is developing a new climate-control system for EVs that uses a hybrid vapor compression adsorption system with thermal energy storage. The targeted, closed system will use energy during the battery-charging step to recharge the thermal storage, and it will use minimal power to provide cooling or heating to the cabin during a drive cycle. The team will use a unique approach of absorbing a refrigerant on a metal salt, which will create a lightweight, high-energy-density refrigerant. This unique working pair can operate indefinitely as a traditional vapor compression heat pump using electrical energy, if desired. The project will deliver a hot-and-cold battery that provides comfort to the passengers using minimal power, substantially extending the driving range of EVs.

  13. Energy Landscape of Water and Ethanol on Silica Surfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, Di; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Hui; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-06-26

    Fundamental understanding of small molecule–silica surface interactions at their interfaces is essential for the scientific, technological, and medical communities. We report direct enthalpy of adsorption (Δhads) measurements for ethanol and water vapor on porous silica glass (CPG-10), in both hydroxylated and dehydroxylated (hydrophobic) forms. Results suggest a spectrum of energetics as a function of coverage, stepwise for ethanol but continuous for water. The zero-coverage enthalpy of adsorption for hydroxylated silica shows the most exothermic enthalpies for both water (-72.7 ± 3.1 kJ/mol water) and ethanol (-78.0 ± 1.9 kJ/mol ethanol). The water adsorption enthalpy becomes less exothermic gradually until reachingmore » its only plateau (-20.7 ± 2.2 kJ/mol water) reflecting water clustering on a largely hydrophobic surface, while the enthalpy of ethanol adsorption profile presents two well separated plateaus, corresponding to strong chemisorption of ethanol on adsorbate-free silica surface (-66.4 ± 4.8 kJ/mol ethanol), and weak physisorption of ethanol on ethanol covered silica (-4.0 ± 1.6 kJ/mol ethanol). On the other hand, dehydroxylation leads to missing water–silica interactions, whereas the number of ethanol binding sites is not impacted. The isotherms and partial molar properties of adsorption suggest that water may only bind strongly onto the silanols (which are a minor species on silica glass), whereas ethanol can interact strongly with both silanols and the hydrophobic areas of the silica surface.« less

  14. Fermilab Today | University Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University Profiles Archive Subscribe | Contact Fermilab Today | Archive | Classifieds Search GO More than 2,000 scientists worldwide work with Fermilab. In the United States, about 1,300 scientists from institutions in 36 states rely on Fermilab for their research, with support from the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation. These profiles, published in Fermilab Today, spotlight the critical role of universities in particle physics research. We'd love to profile your

  15. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nevada Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Nevada) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 10,652 34 Electric...

  16. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Minnesota Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Minnesota) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 15,758 26 Electric...

  17. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mississippi Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Mississippi) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 15,561 28...

  18. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    York Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (New York) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural Gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 39,918 6 Electric...

  19. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vermont Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Vermont) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 1,255 50 Electric...

  20. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hampshire Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (New Hampshire) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 4,413 44 Electric...

  1. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Montana Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Montana) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 6,329 41 Electric utilities...

  2. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Massachusetts Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Massachusetts) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 13,678 32...

  3. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Virginia Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Virginia) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 24,828 16 Electric...

  4. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Missouri Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Missouri) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 21,801 19 Electric...

  5. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Connecticut Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Connecticut) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,769 35...

  6. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    North Carolina Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (North Carolina) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 30,048 12...

  7. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Texas Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Texas) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 109,584 1 Electric...

  8. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rhode Island Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Rhode Island) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 1,809 49...

  9. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wisconsin Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Wisconsin) Item Value Rank Primary Energy Source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 17,342 23 Electric...

  10. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Michigan Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Michigan) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 30,128 11 Electric...

  11. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Jersey Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (New Jersey) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 18,997 22 Electric...

  12. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pennsylvania Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Pennsylvania) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 43,040 5 Electric...

  13. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nebraska Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Nebraska) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,449 36 Electric utilities...

  14. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alaska Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Alaska) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural Gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 2,384 48 Electric...

  15. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oklahoma Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Oklahoma) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 23,300 17 Electric...

  16. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dakota Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (North Dakota) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 6,566 40 Electric...

  17. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    West Virginia Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (West Virginia) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 16,282 24...

  18. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maryland Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Maryland) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 12,339 33 Electric...

  19. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    District of Columbia Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (District of Columbia) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity...

  20. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (South Carolina) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 23,017 18 Electric...

  1. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Tennessee Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Tennessee) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 21,326 20 Electric...

  2. Chemical analyses and preliminary interpretation of waters collected...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    system appears to be a hot water type. The surface expression of fumarole and acid sulfate pools and shallow steam wells gives a false indication of an extensive vapor...

  3. Enhanced Attenuation Technologies: Passive Soil Vapor Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vangelas, K.; Looney, B.; Kamath, R.; Adamson, D.; Newell, C.

    2010-03-15

    Passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) is an enhanced attenuation (EA) approach that removes volatile contaminants from soil. The extraction is driven by natural pressure gradients between the subsurface and atmosphere (Barometric Pumping), or by renewable sources of energy such as wind or solar power (Assisted PSVE). The technology is applicable for remediating sites with low levels of contamination and for transitioning sites from active source technologies such as active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) to natural attenuation. PSVE systems are simple to design and operate and are more cost effective than active systems in many scenarios. Thus, PSVE is often appropriate as an interim-remedial or polishing strategy. Over the past decade, PSVE has been demonstrated in the U.S. and in Europe. These demonstrations provide practical information to assist in selecting, designing and implementing the technology. These demonstrations indicate that the technology can be effective in achieving remedial objectives in a timely fashion. The keys to success include: (1) Application at sites where the residual source quantities, and associated fluxes to groundwater, are relatively low; (2) Selection of the appropriate passive energy source - barometric pumping in cases with a deep vadose zone and barrier (e.g., clay) layers that separate the subsurface from the atmosphere and renewable energy assisted PSVE in other settings and where higher flow rates are required. (3) Provision of sufficient access to the contaminated vadose zones through the spacing and number of extraction wells. This PSVE technology report provides a summary of the relevant technical background, real-world case study performance, key design and cost considerations, and a scenario-based cost evaluation. The key design and cost considerations are organized into a flowchart that dovetails with the Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics Guidance of the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The PSVE flowchart provides a structured process to determine if the technology is, or is not, reasonable and defensible for a particular site. The central basis for that decision is the expected performance of PSVE under the site specific conditions. Will PSVE have sufficient mass removal rates to reduce the release, or flux, of contamination into the underlying groundwater so that the site can meet it overall remedial objectives? The summary technical information, case study experiences, and structured decision process provided in this 'user guide' should assist environmental decision-makers, regulators, and engineers in selecting and successfully implementing PSVE at appropriate sites.

  4. Optimization of Xenon Difluoride Vapor Delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeney, Joseph; Marganski, Paul; Kaim, Robert; Wodjenski, Mike; Gregg, John; Yedave, Sharad; Sergi, Steve; Bishop, Steve; Eldridge, David; Zou Peng [ATMI, Inc., Danbury, Connecticut 06810 (United States)

    2008-11-03

    Xenon difluoride (XeF{sub 2}) has been shown to provide many process benefits when used as a daily maintenance recipe for ion implant. Regularly flowing XeF{sub 2} into the ion source cleans the deposits generated by ion source operation. As a result, significant increases in productivity have been demonstrated. However, XeF{sub 2} is a toxic oxidizer that must be handled appropriately. Furthermore, it is a low vapor pressure solid under standard conditions ({approx}4.5 torr at 25 deg. C). These aspects present unique challenges for designing a package for delivering the chemistry to an ion implanter. To address these challenges, ATMI designed a high-performance, re-usable cylinder for dispensing XeF{sub 2} in an efficient and reliable manner. Data are presented showing specific attributes of the cylinder, such as the importance of internal heat transfer media and the cylinder valve size. The impact of mass flow controller (MFC) selection and ion source tube design on the flow rate of XeF{sub 2} are also discussed. Finally, cylinder release rate data are provided.

  5. Catalytic Reactor For Oxidizing Mercury Vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Helfritch, Dennis J.

    1998-07-28

    A catalytic reactor (10) for oxidizing elemental mercury contained in flue gas is provided. The catalyst reactor (10) comprises within a flue gas conduit a perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) having a plurality of through openings (33) and a plurality of projecting corona discharge electrodes (31); a perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) having a plurality of through openings (43) axially aligned with the through openings (33) of the perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) displaced from and opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31); and a catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) overlaying that face of the perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31). A uniformly distributed corona discharge plasma (1000) is intermittently generated between the plurality of corona discharge electrode tips (31) and the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) when a stream of flue gas is passed through the conduit. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is not being generated, the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) adsorb mercury vapor contained in the passing flue gas. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is being generated, ions and active radicals contained in the generated corona discharge plasma (1000) desorb the mercury from the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d), oxidizing the mercury in virtually simultaneous manner. The desorption process regenerates and activates the catalyst member molecules.

  6. The Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-09

    This report provides the finding and recommendations on the audit of the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program. The status of the program was assessed to determine whether the Department was achieving objectives stated in its January 1990 Plan for the Demonstration, Transition and Deployment of AVLIS Technology. Through Fiscal Year 1991, the Department had spent about $1.1 billion to develop AVLIS technology. The January 1990 plan provided for AVLIS to be far enough along by September to enable the Department to make a determination of the technical and economic feasibility of deployment. However, the milestones needed to support that determination were not met. An estimated $550 million would be needed to complete AVLIS engineering development and related testing prior to deployment. The earliest possible deployment date has slipped to beyond the year 2000. It is recommended that the Department reassess the requirement for AVLIS in light of program delays and changes that have taken place in the enrichment market since January 1990. Following the reassessment, a decision should be made to either fully support and promote the actions needed to complete AVLIS development or discontinue support for the program entirely. Management`s position is that the Department will successfully complete the AVLIS technology demonstration and that the program should continue until it can be transferred to a Government corporation. Although the auditors recognize that AVLIS may be transferred, there are enough technical and financial uncertainties that a thorough assessment is warranted.

  7. Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

    1988-01-01

    The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled.

  8. Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1988-05-24

    The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled. 2 figs.

  9. MHK Technologies/Water Wall Turbine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Water Wall Turbine.png Technology Profile Primary Organization Water Wall Turbine Technology Type Click...

  10. MHK Technologies/Water Air Pump WAP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Air Pump WAP < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Water Air Pump WAP.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Shamil...

  11. Direct synthesis of large area graphene on insulating substrate by gallium vapor-assisted chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murakami, Katsuhisa Hiyama, Takaki; Kuwajima, Tomoya; Fujita, Jun-ichi; Tanaka, Shunsuke; Hirukawa, Ayaka; Kano, Emi; Takeguchi, Masaki

    2015-03-02

    A single layer of graphene with dimensions of 20?mm?×?20?mm was grown directly on an insulating substrate by chemical vapor deposition using Ga vapor catalysts. The graphene layer showed highly homogeneous crystal quality over a large area on the insulating substrate. The crystal quality of the graphene was measured by Raman spectroscopy and was found to improve with increasing Ga vapor density on the reaction area. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations showed that the synthesized graphene had a perfect atomic-scale crystal structure within its grains, which ranged in size from 50?nm to 200?nm.

  12. Systems and methods for generation of hydrogen peroxide vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Love, Adam H; Eckels, Joel Del; Vu, Alexander K; Alcaraz, Armando; Reynolds, John G

    2014-12-02

    A system according to one embodiment includes a moisture trap for drying air; at least one of a first container and a second container; and a mechanism for at least one of: bubbling dried air from the moisture trap through a hydrogen peroxide solution in the first container for producing a hydrogen peroxide vapor, and passing dried air from the moisture trap into a headspace above a hydrogen peroxide solution in the second container for producing a hydrogen peroxide vapor. A method according one embodiment includes at least one of bubbling dried air through a hydrogen peroxide solution in a container for producing a first hydrogen peroxide vapor, and passing dried air from the moisture trap into a headspace above the hydrogen peroxide solution in a container for producing a second hydrogen peroxide vapor. Additional systems and methods are also presented.

  13. Vaporization, dispersion, and radiant fluxes from LPG spills. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    Both burning and non-burning spills of LPG (primarily propane) were studied. Vaporization rates for propane spills on soil, concrete, insulating concrete, asphalt, sod, wood, and polymer foams were measured. Thermal conductivity, heat transfer coefficients, and steady state vaporization rates were determined. Vapor concentrations were measured downwind of open propane pools 25, 100, 400, and 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area. A Gaussian dispersion model modified for area sources provided a good correlation of measured concentrations. Emitted and incident radiant fluxes from propane fires were measured. Simplified flame radiation models were adequate for predicting radiant fluxes; the maximum effective flux emitted at the flame surface was about 50,000 Btu/h-ft/sup 2/. A few tests in which propane was sprayed into the air showed that at moderately high spray rates all the propane flashed to vapor or atomized; no liquid collected on the ground.

  14. Mechanistic aspects of vapor phase lubrication of silicon. (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Mechanistic aspects of vapor phase lubrication of silicon. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanistic aspects of vapor phase lubrication of silicon. No abstract prepared. Authors: Dugger, Michael Thomas ; Dirk, Shawn M. ; Ohlhausen, James Anthony Publication Date: 2010-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1028381 Report Number(s): SAND2010-7362C TRN: US201122%%249 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Proposed for

  15. Flammability characteristics of combustible gases and vapors. [249 refs]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Flammability characteristics of combustible gases and vapors. [249 refs] Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flammability characteristics of combustible gases and vapors. [249 refs] Ă— You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in

  16. Injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA)

    1988-01-01

    An injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers is disclosed. The invention includes the combination of a seeding oscillator with an injection locked oscillator (ILO) for improving the quality, particularly the intensity, of an output laser beam pulse. The present invention includes means for matching the first seeder laser pulses from the seeding oscillator to second laser pulses of a metal vapor laser to improve the quality, and particularly the intensity, of the output laser beam pulse.

  17. Thermoelectrically cooled water trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheels, Ronald H.

    2006-02-21

    A water trap system based on a thermoelectric cooling device is employed to remove a major fraction of the water from air samples, prior to analysis of these samples for chemical composition, by a variety of analytical techniques where water vapor interferes with the measurement process. These analytical techniques include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography. The thermoelectric system for trapping water present in air samples can substantially improve detection sensitivity in these analytical techniques when it is necessary to measure trace analytes with concentrations in the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) partial pressure range. The thermoelectric trap design is compact and amenable to use in a portable gas monitoring instrumentation.

  18. Kinetics of laser-pulse vaporization of uranium carbide by mass spectrometry. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tehranian, F.

    1983-06-01

    The kinetics of uranium carbide vaporization in the temperature range 3000 K to 5200 K was studied using a Nd-glass laser with peak power densities from 1.6 x 10/sup 5/ to 4.0 x 10/sup 5/ watts/cm/sup 2/. The vapor species U, UC/sub 2/, C/sub 1/ and C/sub 3/ were detected and analyzed by a quadrupole mass spectrometer. From the mass spectrometer signals number densities of the various species in the ionizer were obtained as functions of time. The surface of the irradiated uranium carbide was examined by scanning electron microscope and the depth profile of the crater was obtained. In order to aid analysis of the data, the heat conduction and species diffusion equations for the solid (or liquid) were solved numerically by a computer code to obtain the temperature and composition transients during laser heating. A sensitivity analysis was used to study the effect of uncertainties in the input parameters on the computed surface temperatures.

  19. Dispersion of seed vapor and gas ionization in an MHD second stage combustor and channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X.

    1992-01-01

    An approach is introduced for the simulation of a magnetohydrodynamic system consisting of a second stage combustor, a convergent nozzle, and a channel. The simulation uses an Argonne integral combustion flow computer code and another Argonne channel computer code to predict flow, thermal and electric properties in the seed particle laden reacting flow in the system. The combustion code is a general hydrodynamics computer code for two-phase, two-dimensional, turbulent, and reacting flows, based on mass, momentum, and energy conservation laws for gaseous and condensed phases. The channel code is a multigrid three-dimensional computer code for compressible flow subject to magnetic and electric interactions. Results of this study suggests that (1) the processes of seed particle evaporation, seed vapor dispersion, and gas ionization in the reacting flow are critical to the evaluation of the downstream channel performance and (2) particle size, loading, and inlet profile have strong effects on wall deposition and plasma temperature development.

  20. Dispersion of seed vapor and gas ionization in an MHD second stage combustor and channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X.

    1992-07-01

    An approach is introduced for the simulation of a magnetohydrodynamic system consisting of a second stage combustor, a convergent nozzle, and a channel. The simulation uses an Argonne integral combustion flow computer code and another Argonne channel computer code to predict flow, thermal and electric properties in the seed particle laden reacting flow in the system. The combustion code is a general hydrodynamics computer code for two-phase, two-dimensional, turbulent, and reacting flows, based on mass, momentum, and energy conservation laws for gaseous and condensed phases. The channel code is a multigrid three-dimensional computer code for compressible flow subject to magnetic and electric interactions. Results of this study suggests that (1) the processes of seed particle evaporation, seed vapor dispersion, and gas ionization in the reacting flow are critical to the evaluation of the downstream channel performance and (2) particle size, loading, and inlet profile have strong effects on wall deposition and plasma temperature development.

  1. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Georgia Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Georgia) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 38,210 7 Electric...

  2. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Arizona Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Arizona) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 27,910 13 Electric...

  3. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maine Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Maine) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 4,499 43 Electric...

  4. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Utah Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Utah) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 7,698 39 Electric utilities 6,669...

  5. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hawaii Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Hawaii) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Petroleum Net summer capacity (megawatts) 2,757 47 Electric...

  6. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kentucky Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Kentucky) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 21,004 21 Electric...

  7. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Indiana Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Indiana) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 27,196 14 Electric...

  8. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Colorado Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Colorado) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 14,769 30 Electric...

  9. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Louisiana Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Louisiana) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 26,228 15...

  10. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Ohio Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Ohio) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 32,482 8 Electric utilities 20,779...

  11. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Iowa Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Iowa) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 15,929 25 Electric utilities...

  12. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Illinois Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Illinois) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 44,950 4 Electric...

  13. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Delaware Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Delaware) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 3,246 46...

  14. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    California Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (California) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Natural Gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 73,772 2...

  15. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mexico Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (New Mexico) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 7,938 38 Electric...

  16. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kansas Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Kansas) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 14,093 32 Electric...

  17. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Florida Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Florida) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 58,781 3 Electric...

  18. Design, demonstration and evaluation of a thermal enhanced vapor extraction system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phelan, J.; Reavis, B.; Swanson, J.

    1997-08-01

    The Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES), which combines powerline frequency heating (PLF) and radio frequency (RF) heating with vacuum soil vapor extraction, was used to effectively remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from a pit in the chemical waste landfill (CWL) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) within a two month heating period. Volume average temperatures of 83{degrees}C and 112{degrees}C were reached for the PLF and RF heating periods, respectively, within the 15 ft x 45 ft x 18.5 ft deep treated volume. This resulted in the removal of 243 lb of measured toxic organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs), 55 gallons of oil, and 11,000 gallons of water from the site. Reductions of up to 99% in total chromatographic organics (TCO) was achieved in the heated zone. Energy balance calculations for the PLF heating period showed that 36.4% of the heat added went to heating the soil, 38.5% went to evaporating water and organics, 4.2% went to sensible heat in the water, 7.1% went to heating the extracted air, and 6.6% was lost. For the RF heating period went to heating the soil, 23.5% went to evaporating water and organics, 2.4% went to sensible heat in the water, 7.5% went to heating extracted air, and 9.7% went to losses. Energy balance closure was 92.8% for the PLF heating and 98% for the RF heating. The energy input requirement per unit soil volume heated per unit temperature increase was 1.63 kWH/yd{sup 3}-{degrees}C for PLF heating and 0.73 kWH/yd{sup 3}{degrees}C for RF heating.

  19. The Effect Of ZnO Addition On Co/C Catalyst For Vapor And Aqueous Phase Reforming Of Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Sun, Junming; Hong, Yongchun; Karim, Ayman M.; Datye, Abhaya K.; Wang, Yong

    2014-02-05

    The effect of ZnO addition on the oxidation behavior of Co along with catalytic performance in vapor and aqueous phase reforming of ethanol were investigated on Co supported on carbon black (XC-72R). Carbon was selected to minimize the support interactions. Effect of ZnO addition during both vapor and aqueous phase reforming were compared at 250 °C. ZnO addition inhibited the reduction of cobalt oxides by H2 and created surface sites for H2O activation. During vapor phase reforming at 450 °C the redox of cobalt, driven by steam oxidation and H2 reduction, trended to an equilibrium of Co0/Co2+. ZnO showed no significant effect on cobalt oxidation, inferred from the minor changes of C1 product yield. Surface sites created by ZnO addition enhanced water activation and oxidation of surface carbon species, increasing CO2 selectivity. At 250 °C cobalt reduction was minimal, in situ XANES demonstrated that ZnO addition significantly facilitated oxidation of Co0 under vapor phase reforming conditions, demonstrated by lower C1 product yield. Sites introduced by ZnO addition improved the COx selectivity at 250 °C. Both Co/C and Co-ZnO/C rapidly oxidized under aqueous phase reaction conditions at 250 °C, showing negligible activity in aqueous phase reforming. This work suggests that ZnO affects the activation of H2O for Co catalysts in ethanol reforming.

  20. Cycle simulation of the low-temperature triple-effect absorption chiller with vapor compression unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J.S.; Lee, H.

    1999-07-01

    The construction of a triple-effect absorption chiller machine using the lithium bromide-water solution as a working fluid is strongly limited by corrosion problems caused by the high generator temperature. In this work, three new cycles having the additional vapor compression units were suggested in order to lower the generator temperature of a triple-effect absorption chiller. Each new cycle has one compressor located at the different position which was used to elevate the pressure of the refrigerant vapor. Computer simulations were carried out in order to examine both the basic triple-effect cycle and three new cycles. All types of triple-effect absorption chiller cycles were found to be able to lower the temperature of high-temperature generator to the more favorable operation range. The COPs of three cycles calculated by considering the additional compressor works showed a small level of decrease or increase compared with that of the basic triple-effect cycle. Consequently, a low-temperature triple-effect absorption chiller can be possibly constructed by adapting one of three new cycles. A great advantage of these new cycles over the basic one is that the conventionally used lithium bromide-water solution can be successfully used as a working fluid without the danger of corrosion.

  1. Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting Print Wednesday, 26 September 2012 00:00 Hydrogen is an attractive form of fuel because its only by-product is nonpolluting water vapor. The problem, however, is that the production of hydrogen-via the process of water splitting-currently requires the burning of traditional fossil fuels. Therefore, water splitting by photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) fueled by solar power has long

  2. Direct Real-Time Detection of Vapors from Explosive Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewing, Robert G.; Clowers, Brian H.; Atkinson, David A.

    2013-10-03

    The real-time detection of vapors from low volatility explosives including PETN, tetryl, RDX and nitroglycerine along with various compositions containing these substances is demonstrated. This was accomplished with an atmospheric flow tube (AFT) using a non-radioactive ionization source and coupled to a mass spectrometer. Direct vapor detection was demonstrated in less than 5 seconds at ambient temperature without sample pre-concentration. The several seconds of residence time of analytes in the AFT provides a significant opportunity for reactant ions to interact with analyte vapors to achieve ionization. This extended reaction time, combined with the selective ionization using the nitrate reactant ions (NO3- and NO3-•HNO3), enables highly sensitive explosives detection. Observed signals from diluted explosive vapors indicate detection limits below 10 ppqv using selected ion monitoring (SIM) of the explosive-nitrate adduct at m/z 349, 378, 284 and 289 for tetryl, PETN, RDX and NG respectively. Also provided is a demonstration of the vapor detection from 10 different energetic formulations, including double base propellants, plastic explosives and commercial blasting explosives using SIM for the NG, PETN and RDX product ions.

  3. Vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Musket, Ronald G. (Danville, CA); Porter, John D. (Berkeley, CA); Yoshiyama, James M. (Fremont, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR)

    2000-01-01

    A process involving vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials for creating high aspect ratio (i.e., length much greater than diameter), isolated cylindrical holes in dielectric materials that have been exposed to high-energy atomic particles. The process includes cleaning the surface of the tracked material and exposing the cleaned surface to a vapor of a suitable etchant. Independent control of the temperatures of the vapor and the tracked materials provide the means to vary separately the etch rates for the latent track region and the non-tracked material. As a rule, the tracked regions etch at a greater rate than the non-tracked regions. In addition, the vapor-etched holes can be enlarged and smoothed by subsequent dipping in a liquid etchant. The 20-1000 nm diameter holes resulting from the vapor etching process can be useful as molds for electroplating nanometer-sized filaments, etching gate cavities for deposition of nano-cones, developing high-aspect ratio holes in trackable resists, and as filters for a variety of molecular-sized particles in virtually any liquid or gas by selecting the dielectric material that is compatible with the liquid or gas of interest.

  4. Laser absorption spectroscopy system for vaporization process characterization and control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galkowski, J.; Hagans, K.

    1993-09-07

    In support of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) Program, a laser atomic absorption spectroscopy (LAS) system has been developed. This multi-laser system is capable of simultaneously measuring the line densities of {sup 238}U ground and metastable states, {sup 235}U ground and metastable states, iron, and ions at up to nine locations within the separator vessel. Supporting enrichment experiments that last over one hundred hours, this laser spectroscopy system is employed to diagnose and optimize separator system performance, control the electron beam vaporizer and metal feed systems, and provide physics data for the validation of computer models. As a tool for spectroscopic research, vapor plume characterization, vapor deposition monitoring, and vaporizer development, LLNL`s LAS laboratory with its six argon-ion-pumped ring dye lasers and recently added Ti:Sapphire and external-cavity diode-lasers has capabilities far beyond the requirements of its primary mission.

  5. Detonation Wave Profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2015-12-14

    The Zel’dovich-von Neumann-Doering (ZND) profile of a detonation wave is derived. Two basic assumptions are required: i. An equation of state (EOS) for a partly burned explosive; P(V, e, λ). ii. A burn rate for the reaction progress variable; d/dt λ = R(V, e, λ). For a steady planar detonation wave the reactive flow PDEs can be reduced to ODEs. The detonation wave profile can be determined from an ODE plus algebraic equations for points on the partly burned detonation loci with a specified wave speed. Furthermore, for the CJ detonation speed the end of the reaction zone is sonic. A solution to the reactive flow equations can be constructed with a rarefaction wave following the detonation wave profile. This corresponds to an underdriven detonation wave, and the rarefaction is know as a Taylor wave.

  6. Apparatus for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Gloucester, MA); Marcucci, Rudolph V. (Danvers, MA)

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for enriching the isotopic Hg content of mercury is provided. The apparatus includes a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill including mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. In a preferred embodiment, constant mercury pressure is maintained in the filter by means of a water-cooled tube that depends from it, the tube having a drop of mercury disposed in it. The reactor is arranged around the filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of a material which is transparent to ultraviolet light.

  7. Low temperature photochemical vapor deposition of alloy and mixed metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, D.K.

    1992-12-15

    Method and apparatus are described for formation of an alloy thin film, or a mixed metal oxide thin film, on a substrate at relatively low temperatures. Precursor vapor(s) containing the desired thin film constituents is positioned adjacent to the substrate and irradiated by light having wavelengths in a selected wavelength range, to dissociate the gas(es) and provide atoms or molecules containing only the desired constituents. These gases then deposit at relatively low temperatures as a thin film on the substrate. The precursor vapor(s) is formed by vaporization of one or more precursor materials, where the vaporization temperature(s) is selected to control the ratio of concentration of metals present in the precursor vapor(s) and/or the total precursor vapor pressure. 7 figs.

  8. Low temperature photochemical vapor deposition of alloy and mixed metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, David K.

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for formation of an alloy thin film, or a mixed metal oxide thin film, on a substrate at relatively low temperatures. Precursor vapor(s) containing the desired thin film constituents is positioned adjacent to the substrate and irradiated by light having wavelengths in a selected wavelength range, to dissociate the gas(es) and provide atoms or molecules containing only the desired constituents. These gases then deposit at relatively low temperatures as a thin film on the substrate. The precursor vapor(s) is formed by vaporization of one or more precursor materials, where the vaporization temperature(s) is selected to control the ratio of concentration of metals present in the precursor vapor(s) and/or the total precursor vapor pressure.

  9. Liquid-phase compositions from vapor-phase analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, W. Jr. ); Cochran, H.D. )

    1990-02-01

    Arsenic normally is not considered to be a contaminant. However, because arsenic was found in many cylinders of UF{sub 6}, including in corrosion products, a study was performed of the distribution of the two arsenic fluorides, AsF{sub 3} and AsF{sub 5}, between liquid and vapor phases. The results of the study pertain to condensation or vaporization of liquid UF{sub 6}. This study includes use of various experimental data plus many extrapolations necessitated by the meagerness of the experimental data. The results of this study provide additional support for the vapor-liquid equilibrium model of J.M. Prausnitz and his coworkers as a means of describing the distribution of various impurities between vapor and liquid phases of UF{sub 6}. Thus, it is concluded that AsF{sub 3} will tend to concentrate in the liquid phase but that the concentration of AsF{sub 5} in the vapor phase will exceed its liquid-phase concentration by a factor of about 7.5, which is in agreement with experimental data. Because the weight of the liquid phase in a condensation operation may be in the range of thousands of times that of the vapor phase, most of any AsF{sub 5} will be in the liquid phase in spite of this separation factor of 7.5. It may also be concluded that any arsenic fluorides fed into a uranium isotope separation plant will either travel with other low-molecular-weight gases or react with materials present in the plant. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Effect of furnace operating conditions on alkali vaporization, batch

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    carryover, and the formation of SO2 and NO in an oxy-fuel fired container glass furnace. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect furnace operating conditions on alkali vaporization, batch carryover, and the formation of SO2 and NO in an oxy-fuel fired container glass furnace. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of furnace operating conditions on alkali vaporization, batch carryover, and the formation of SO2 and NO in an oxy-fuel fired container glass furnace. No abstract prepared.

  11. Oxidation of coal-water slurry feed to hydrogasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Bernard S.

    1976-01-01

    An aqueous coal slurry is preheated, subjected to partial oxidation and vaporization by injection of high pressure oxygen and is introduced into a top section of a hydrogasifier in direct contact with hot methane-containing effluent gases where vaporization of the slurry is completed. The resulting solids are reacted in the hydrogasifier and the combined gases and vapors are withdrawn and subjected to purification and methanation to provide pipeline gas. The amount of oxygen injected into the slurry is controlled to provide the proper thermal balance whereby all of the water in the slurry can be evaporated in contact with the hot effluent gases from the hydrogasifier.

  12. Low profile thermite igniter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halcomb, Danny L.; Mohler, Jonathan H.

    1991-03-05

    A thermite igniter/heat source comprising a housing, high-density thermite, and low-density thermite. The housing has a relatively low profile and can focus energy by means of a torch-like ejection of hot reaction products and is externally ignitable.

  13. The effects of heat conduction on the vaporization of liquid invading superheated permeable rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, Andrew, W.; Fitzgerald, Shaun D.

    1996-01-24

    We examine the role of conductive and convective heat transfer in the vaporization of liquid as it slowly invades a superheated permeable rock. For very slow migration, virtually all of the liquid vaporizes. As the liquid supply rate increases beyond the rate of heat transfer by thermal conduction, a decreasing fraction of the liquid can vaporize. Indeed, for sufficiently high flow rates, the fraction vaporizing depends solely on the superheat of the rock, and any heat transfer from the superheated region is negligible. These results complement earlier studies of vaporization under very high injection rates, in which case the dynamic vapour pressure reduces the mass fraction vaporizing to very small values.

  14. The Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program. [Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-09

    This report provides the finding and recommendations on the audit of the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program. The status of the program was assessed to determine whether the Department was achieving objectives stated in its January 1990 Plan for the Demonstration, Transition and Deployment of AVLIS Technology. Through Fiscal Year 1991, the Department had spent about $1.1 billion to develop AVLIS technology. The January 1990 plan provided for AVLIS to be far enough along by September to enable the Department to make a determination of the technical and economic feasibility of deployment. However, the milestones needed to support that determination were not met. An estimated $550 million would be needed to complete AVLIS engineering development and related testing prior to deployment. The earliest possible deployment date has slipped to beyond the year 2000. It is recommended that the Department reassess the requirement for AVLIS in light of program delays and changes that have taken place in the enrichment market since January 1990. Following the reassessment, a decision should be made to either fully support and promote the actions needed to complete AVLIS development or discontinue support for the program entirely. Management's position is that the Department will successfully complete the AVLIS technology demonstration and that the program should continue until it can be transferred to a Government corporation. Although the auditors recognize that AVLIS may be transferred, there are enough technical and financial uncertainties that a thorough assessment is warranted.

  15. Source profiles for nonmethane organic compounds in the atmosphere of Cairo, Egypt.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doskey, P. V.; Fukui, Y.; Sultan, M.; Maghraby, A. A.; Taher, A.; Environmental Research; Cairo Univ.

    1999-07-01

    Profiles of the sources of nonmethane organic compounds (NMOCs) were developed for emissions from vehicles, petroleum fuels (gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and natural gas), a petroleum refinery, a smelter, and a cast iron factory in Cairo, Egypt. More than 100 hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons were tentatively identified and quantified. Gasoline-vapor and whole-gasoline profiles could be distinguished from the other profiles by high concentrations of the C{sub 5} and C{sub 6} saturated hydrocarbons. The vehicle emission profile was similar to the whole-gasoline profile, with the exception of the unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, which were present at higher concentrations in the vehicle emission profile. High levels of the C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} saturated hydrocarbons, particularly n-butane, were characteristic features of the petroleum refinery emissions. The smelter and cast iron factory emissions were similar to the refinery emissions; however, the levels of benzene and toluene were greater in the former two sources. The LPG and natural gas emissions contained high concentrations of n-butane and ethane, respectively. The NMOC source profiles for Cairo were distinctly different from profiles for U.S. sources, indicating that NMOC source profiles are sensitive to the particular composition of petroleum fuels that are used in a location.

  16. melfi-98.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and 2 show typical profile comparisons of water vapor mixing ratio data from the various measurement techniques during two different observation periods. The profiles shown in the...

  17. Effects of self-heating and phase change on the thermal profile of hydrogen isotopes in confined geometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxamusa, S. Field, J.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Kozioziemski, B.; Suratwala, T.; Sater, J.

    2014-03-28

    Growth of high-quality single-crystal hydrogen in confined geometries relies on the in situ formation of seed crystals. Generation of deuterium-tritium seed crystals in a confined geometry is governed by three effects: self-heating due to tritium decay, external thermal environment, and latent heat of phase change at the boundary between hydrogen liquid and vapor. A detailed computation of the temperature profile for liquid hydrogen inside a hollow shell, as is found in inertial confinement fusion research, shows that seeds are likely to form at the equatorial plane of the shell. Radioactive decay of tritium to helium slowly alters the composition of the hydrogen vapor, resulting in a modified temperature profile that encourages seed formation at the top of the shell. We show that the computed temperature profile is consistent with a variety of experimental observations.

  18. Water resources data for Louisiana, water year 1996. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1995-30 September 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, C.R.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.

    1997-05-01

    The report contains records for water discharge at 64 gaging stations; stage only for 41 gaging stations and 5 lakes; water quality for 38 surface-water stations (including 22 gage stations) and 100 wells; and water levels for 235 observation wells. Also included are data for 117 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations.

  19. Method for removing metal vapor from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.

    1996-04-02

    A process for cleaning an inert gas contaminated with a metallic vapor, such as cadmium, involves withdrawing gas containing the metallic contaminant from a gas atmosphere of high purity argon; passing the gas containing the metallic contaminant to a mass transfer unit having a plurality of hot gas channels separated by a plurality of coolant gas channels; cooling the contaminated gas as it flows upward through the mass transfer unit to cause contaminated gas vapor to condense on the gas channel walls; regenerating the gas channels of the mass transfer unit; and, returning the cleaned gas to the gas atmosphere of high purity argon. The condensing of the contaminant-containing vapor occurs while suppressing contaminant particulate formation, and is promoted by providing a sufficient amount of surface area in the mass transfer unit to cause the vapor to condense and relieve supersaturation buildup such that contaminant particulates are not formed. Condensation of the contaminant is prevented on supply and return lines in which the contaminant containing gas is withdrawn and returned from and to the electrorefiner and mass transfer unit by heating and insulating the supply and return lines. 13 figs.

  20. Method for removing metal vapor from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahluwalia, R. K. (6440 Hillcrest Dr., Burr Ridge, IL 60521); Im, K. H. (925 Lehigh Cir., Naperville, IL 60565)

    1996-01-01

    A process for cleaning an inert gas contaminated with a metallic vapor, such as cadmium, involves withdrawing gas containing the metallic contaminant from a gas atmosphere of high purity argon; passing the gas containing the metallic contaminant to a mass transfer unit having a plurality of hot gas channels separated by a plurality of coolant gas channels; cooling the contaminated gas as it flows upward through the mass transfer unit to cause contaminated gas vapor to condense on the gas channel walls; regenerating the gas channels of the mass transfer unit; and, returning the cleaned gas to the gas atmosphere of high purity argon. The condensing of the contaminant-containing vapor occurs while suppressing contaminant particulate formation, and is promoted by providing a sufficient amount of surface area in the mass transfer unit to cause the vapor to condense and relieve supersaturation buildup such that contaminant particulates are not formed. Condensation of the contaminant is prevented on supply and return lines in which the contaminant containing gas is withdrawn and returned from and to the electrorefiner and mass transfer unit by heating and insulating the supply and return lines.

  1. Chemical vapor deposition of fluorine-doped zinc oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Roy G.; Kramer, Keith; Liang, Haifan

    2000-06-06

    Fims of fluorine-doped zinc oxide are deposited from vaporized precursor compounds comprising a chelate of a dialkylzinc, such as an amine chelate, an oxygen source, and a fluorine source. The coatings are highly electrically conductive, transparent to visible light, reflective to infrared radiation, absorbing to ultraviolet light, and free of carbon impurity.

  2. Industrial applications of high-power copper vapor lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, B.E.; Boley, C.D.; Chang, J.J.; Dragon, E.P.; Havstad, M.A.; Martinez, M.; McLean, W. II

    1995-08-01

    A growing appreciation has developed in the last several years for the copper vapor laser because of its utility in ablating difficult materials at high rates. Laser ablation at high rates shows promise for numerous industrial applications such as thin film deposition, precision hole drilling, and machining of ceramics and other refractories.

  3. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alabama Nuclear Profile 2010 Alabama profile Alabama total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 5,043 15.6 37,941 24.9 Coal 11,441 35.3 63,050 41.4 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3,272 10.1 8,704 5.7 Natural Gas 11,936 36.8 39,235 25.8 Other1 100 0.3 643 0.4 Other Renewable1 583 1.8 2,377 1.6 Petroleum 43 0.1 200

  4. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Arizona Nuclear Profile 2010 Arizona profile Arizona total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,937 14.9 31,200 27.9 Coal 6,233 23.6 43,644 39.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,937 11.1 6,831 6.1 Natural Gas 13,012 49.3 29,676 26.6 Other 1 - - 15 * Other Renewable1 181 0.7 319 0.3 Petroleum 93 0.4 66 0.1 Total

  5. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Arkansas Nuclear Profile 2010 Arkansas profile Arkansas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State ttal (percent) Nuclear 1,835 11.5 15,023 24.6 Coal 4,535 28.4 28,152 46.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,369 8.6 3,658 6.0 Natural Gas 7,894 49.4 12,469 20.4 Other 1 - - 28 * Other Renewable1 326 2.0 1,624 2.7 Petroleum 22 0.1 45 0.1 Total

  6. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    California Nuclear Profile 2010 California profile California total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 4,390 6.5 32,201 15.8 Coal 374 0.6 2,100 1.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 13,954 20.7 33,260 16.3 Natural Gas 41,370 61.4 107,522 52.7 Other 1 220 0.3 2,534 1.2 Other Renewable1 6,319 9.4 25,450 12.5 Petroleum

  7. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Connecticut Nuclear Profile 2010 Connecticut profile Connecticut total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 2,103 25.4 16,750 50.2 Coal 564 6.8 2,604 7.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 151 1.8 400 1.2 Natural Gas 2,292 27.7 11,716 35.1 Other 1 27 0.3 730 2.2 Other Renewable1 159 1.9 740 2.2 Petroleum 2,989 36.1 409

  8. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Florida Nuclear Profile 2010 Florida profile Florida total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary Energy Source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 3,924 6.6 23,936 10.4 Coal 9,975 16.9 59,897 26.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 55 0.1 177 0.1 Natural Gas 31,563 53.4 128,634 56.1 Other1 544 0.9 2,842 1.2 Other Renewable1 1,053 1.8 4,487 2.0 Petroleum 12,033 20.3

  9. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Georgia Nuclear Profile 2010 Georgia profile Georgia total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 4,061 11.1 33,512 24.6 Coal 13,230 36.1 73,298 54.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3,851 10.5 3,044 2.7 Natural Gas 12,668 34.6 23,884 15.9 Other 1 - - 18 * Other Renewable1 637 1.7 3,181 2.2 Petroleum 2,189 6.0 641 0.5

  10. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Illinois Nuclear Profile 2010 Illinois profile Illinois total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 11,441 25.9 96,190 47.8 Coal 15,551 35.2 93,611 46.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 34 0.1 119 0.1 Natural Gas 13,771 31.2 5,724 2.8 Other 1 145 0.3 461 0.2 Other Renewable1 2,078 4.7 5,138 2.6 Petroleum 1,106 2.5 110

  11. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Iowa Nuclear Profile 2010 Iowa profile Iowa total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 601 4.1 4,451 7.7 Coal 6,956 47.7 41,283 71.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 144 1.0 948 1.6 Natural Gas 2,299 15.8 1,312 2.3 Other Renewable1 3,584 24.6 9,360 16.3 Petroleum 1,007 6.9 154 .0.3 Total 14,592 100.0 57,509 100

  12. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kansas Nuclear Profile 2010 Kansas profile Kansas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,160 9.2 9,556 19.9 Coal 5,179 41.3 32,505 67.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3 * 13 * Natural Gas 4,573 36.5 2,287 4.8 Other Renewable1 1,079 8.6 3,459 7.2 Petroleum 550 4.4 103 0.2 Total 12,543 100.0 47,924 100

  13. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Louisiana Nuclear Profile 2010 Louisiana profile Louisiana total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (nw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand nwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 2,142 8.0 18,639 18.1 Coal 3,417 12.8 23,924 23.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 192 0.7 1,109 1.1 Natural Gas 19,574 73.2 51,344 49.9 Other 1 213 0.8 2,120 2.1 Other Renewable1 325 1.2 2,468 2.4 Petroleum 881 3.3

  14. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maryland Nuclear Profile 2010 Maryland profile Maryland total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (Percent) Nuclear 1,705 13.6 13,994 32.1 Coal 4,886 39.0 23,668 54.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 590 4.7 1,667 3.8 Natural Gas 2,041 16.3 2,897 6.6 Other 1 152 1.2 485 1.1 Other Renewable1 209 1.7 574 1.3 Petroleum 2,933 23.4 322

  15. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Massachusetts Nuclear Profile 2010 Massachusetts profile Massachusetts total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 685 5.0 5,918 13.8 Coal 1,669 12.2 8,306 19.4 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,942 14.2 659 1.5 Natural Gas 6,063 44.3 25,582 59.8 Other 1 3 * 771 1.8 Other Renewable1 304 2.2 1,274 3.0 Petroleum 3,031

  16. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Michigan Nuclear Profile 2010 Michigan profile Michigan total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 3,947 13.2 29,625 26.6 Coal 11,531 38.7 65,604 58.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,109 7.1 228 0.2 Natural Gas 11,033 37.0 12,249 11.0 Other 1 - - 631 0.6 Other Renewable1 571 1.9 2,832 2.5 Petroleum 640 2.1 382 0.3

  17. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Minnesota Nuclear Profile 2010 Minnesota profile Minnesota total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,549 10.8 13,478 25.1 Coal 4,789 32.5 28,083 52.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 193 1.3 840 1.6 Natural Gas 4,936 33.5 4,341 8.1 Other 1 13 0.1 258 0.5 Other Renewable1 2,395 16.3 6,640 12.4 Petroleum 795 5.4 31

  18. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mississippi Nuclear Profile 2010 Mississippi profile Mississippi total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,251 8.0 9,643 17.7 Coal 2,526 16.1 13,629 25.0 Natural Gas 11,640 74.2 29,619 54.4 Other 1 4 * 10 * Other Renewable1 235 1.5 1,504 2.8 Petroleum 35 0.2 18 0.1 Total 15,691 100.0 54,487 100.0

  19. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Missouri Nuclear Profile 2010 Missouri profile Missouri total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,190 5.5 8,996 9.7 Coal 12,070 55.5 75,047 81.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,221 5.6 2,427 2.6 Natural Gas 5,579 25.7 4,690 5.1 Other 1 - - 39 * Other Renewable1 466 2.1 988 1.1 Petroleum 1,212 5.6 126 0.1 Total

  20. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nebraska Nuclear Profile 2010 Nebraska profile Nebraska total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,245 15.8 11,054 30.2 Coal 3,932 50.0 23,368 63.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 278 3.5 1,314 3.6 Natural Gas 1,864 23.5 375 1.0 Other Renewable1 165 2.1 493 1.3 Petroleum 387 4.9 31 0.1 Total 7,857 100.0 36,630

  1. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hampshire Nuclear Profile 2010 New Hampshire profile New Hampshire total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,247 29.8 10,910 49.2 Coal 546 13.1 3,083 13.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 489 11.7 1,478 6.7 Natural Gas 1,215 29.1 5,365 24.2 Other 1 - - 57 0.3 Other Renewable1 182 4.4 1,232 5.6 Petroleum 501 12.0

  2. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Jersey Nuclear Profile 2010 New Jersey profile New Jersey total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 4,108 22.3 32,771 49.9 Coal 2,036 11.1 6,418 9.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 404 2.2 -176 -0.3 Natural Gas 10,244 55.6 24,902 37.9 Other 1 56 0.3 682 1.0 Other Renewable1 226 1.2 850 1.3 Petroleum 1,351 7.3 235

  3. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    York Nuclear Profile 2010 New York profile New York total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 5,271 13.4 41,870 30.6 Coal 2,781 7.1 13,583 9.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 5,714 14.5 24,942 18.2 Natural Gas 17,407 44.2 48,916 35.7 Other 1 45 0.1 832 0.6 Other Renewable1 1,719 4.4 4,815 3.5 Petroleum 6,421 16.3

  4. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    North Carolina Nuclear Profile 2010 North Carolina profile North Carolina total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 4,958 17.9 40,740 31.7 Coal 12,766 46.1 71,951 55.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,042 7.4 4,757 3.7 Natural Gas 6,742 24.4 8,447 6.6 Other 1 50 0.2 407 0.3 Other Renewable1 543 2.0 2,083 1.6

  5. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pennsylvania Nuclear Profile 2010 Pennsylvania profile Pennsylvania total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 9,540 20.9 77,828 33.9 Coal 18,481 40.6 110,369 48.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,268 5.0 1,624 0.7 Natural Gas 9,415 20.7 33,718 14.7 Other 1 100 0.2 1,396 0.6 Other Renewable1 1,237 2.7 4,245 1.8

  6. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alabama Nuclear Profile 2010 Alabama profile Alabama total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 5,043 15.6 37,941 24.9 Coal 11,441 35.3 63,050 41.4 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3,272 10.1 8,704 5.7 Natural Gas 11,936 36.8 39,235 25.8 Other1 100 0.3 643 0.4 Other Renewable1 583 1.8 2,377 1.6 Petroleum 43 0.1 200

  7. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Arizona Nuclear Profile 2010 Arizona profile Arizona total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,937 14.9 31,200 27.9 Coal 6,233 23.6 43,644 39.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,937 11.1 6,831 6.1 Natural Gas 13,012 49.3 29,676 26.6 Other 1 - - 15 * Other Renewable1 181 0.7 319 0.3 Petroleum 93 0.4 66 0.1 Total

  8. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Arkansas Nuclear Profile 2010 Arkansas profile Arkansas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State ttal (percent) Nuclear 1,835 11.5 15,023 24.6 Coal 4,535 28.4 28,152 46.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,369 8.6 3,658 6.0 Natural Gas 7,894 49.4 12,469 20.4 Other 1 - - 28 * Other Renewable1 326 2.0 1,624 2.7 Petroleum 22 0.1 45 0.1 Total

  9. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    California Nuclear Profile 2010 California profile California total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 4,390 6.5 32,201 15.8 Coal 374 0.6 2,100 1.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 13,954 20.7 33,260 16.3 Natural Gas 41,370 61.4 107,522 52.7 Other 1 220 0.3 2,534 1.2 Other Renewable1 6,319 9.4 25,450 12.5 Petroleum

  10. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Connecticut Nuclear Profile 2010 Connecticut profile Connecticut total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 2,103 25.4 16,750 50.2 Coal 564 6.8 2,604 7.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 151 1.8 400 1.2 Natural Gas 2,292 27.7 11,716 35.1 Other 1 27 0.3 730 2.2 Other Renewable1 159 1.9 740 2.2 Petroleum 2,989 36.1 409

  11. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Florida Nuclear Profile 2010 Florida profile Florida total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary Energy Source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 3,924 6.6 23,936 10.4 Coal 9,975 16.9 59,897 26.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 55 0.1 177 0.1 Natural Gas 31,563 53.4 128,634 56.1 Other1 544 0.9 2,842 1.2 Other Renewable1 1,053 1.8 4,487 2.0 Petroleum 12,033 20.3

  12. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Georgia Nuclear Profile 2010 Georgia profile Georgia total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 4,061 11.1 33,512 24.6 Coal 13,230 36.1 73,298 54.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3,851 10.5 3,044 2.7 Natural Gas 12,668 34.6 23,884 15.9 Other 1 - - 18 * Other Renewable1 637 1.7 3,181 2.2 Petroleum 2,189 6.0 641 0.5

  13. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Illinois Nuclear Profile 2010 Illinois profile Illinois total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 11,441 25.9 96,190 47.8 Coal 15,551 35.2 93,611 46.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 34 0.1 119 0.1 Natural Gas 13,771 31.2 5,724 2.8 Other 1 145 0.3 461 0.2 Other Renewable1 2,078 4.7 5,138 2.6 Petroleum 1,106 2.5 110

  14. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iowa Nuclear Profile 2010 Iowa profile Iowa total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 601 4.1 4,451 7.7 Coal 6,956 47.7 41,283 71.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 144 1.0 948 1.6 Natural Gas 2,299 15.8 1,312 2.3 Other Renewable1 3,584 24.6 9,360 16.3 Petroleum 1,007 6.9 154 .0.3 Total 14,592 100.0 57,509 100

  15. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kansas Nuclear Profile 2010 Kansas profile Kansas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,160 9.2 9,556 19.9 Coal 5,179 41.3 32,505 67.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3 * 13 * Natural Gas 4,573 36.5 2,287 4.8 Other Renewable1 1,079 8.6 3,459 7.2 Petroleum 550 4.4 103 0.2 Total 12,543 100.0 47,924 100

  16. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Louisiana Nuclear Profile 2010 Louisiana profile Louisiana total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (nw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand nwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 2,142 8.0 18,639 18.1 Coal 3,417 12.8 23,924 23.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 192 0.7 1,109 1.1 Natural Gas 19,574 73.2 51,344 49.9 Other 1 213 0.8 2,120 2.1 Other Renewable1 325 1.2 2,468 2.4 Petroleum 881 3.3

  17. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Maryland Nuclear Profile 2010 Maryland profile Maryland total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (Percent) Nuclear 1,705 13.6 13,994 32.1 Coal 4,886 39.0 23,668 54.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 590 4.7 1,667 3.8 Natural Gas 2,041 16.3 2,897 6.6 Other 1 152 1.2 485 1.1 Other Renewable1 209 1.7 574 1.3 Petroleum 2,933 23.4 322

  18. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Massachusetts Nuclear Profile 2010 Massachusetts profile Massachusetts total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 685 5.0 5,918 13.8 Coal 1,669 12.2 8,306 19.4 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,942 14.2 659 1.5 Natural Gas 6,063 44.3 25,582 59.8 Other 1 3 * 771 1.8 Other Renewable1 304 2.2 1,274 3.0 Petroleum 3,031

  19. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Michigan Nuclear Profile 2010 Michigan profile Michigan total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 3,947 13.2 29,625 26.6 Coal 11,531 38.7 65,604 58.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,109 7.1 228 0.2 Natural Gas 11,033 37.0 12,249 11.0 Other 1 - - 631 0.6 Other Renewable1 571 1.9 2,832 2.5 Petroleum 640 2.1 382 0.3

  20. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Minnesota Nuclear Profile 2010 Minnesota profile Minnesota total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,549 10.8 13,478 25.1 Coal 4,789 32.5 28,083 52.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 193 1.3 840 1.6 Natural Gas 4,936 33.5 4,341 8.1 Other 1 13 0.1 258 0.5 Other Renewable1 2,395 16.3 6,640 12.4 Petroleum 795 5.4 31

  1. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mississippi Nuclear Profile 2010 Mississippi profile Mississippi total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,251 8.0 9,643 17.7 Coal 2,526 16.1 13,629 25.0 Natural Gas 11,640 74.2 29,619 54.4 Other 1 4 * 10 * Other Renewable1 235 1.5 1,504 2.8 Petroleum 35 0.2 18 0.1 Total 15,691 100.0 54,487 100.0

  2. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Missouri Nuclear Profile 2010 Missouri profile Missouri total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,190 5.5 8,996 9.7 Coal 12,070 55.5 75,047 81.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,221 5.6 2,427 2.6 Natural Gas 5,579 25.7 4,690 5.1 Other 1 - - 39 * Other Renewable1 466 2.1 988 1.1 Petroleum 1,212 5.6 126 0.1 Total

  3. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nebraska Nuclear Profile 2010 Nebraska profile Nebraska total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,245 15.8 11,054 30.2 Coal 3,932 50.0 23,368 63.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 278 3.5 1,314 3.6 Natural Gas 1,864 23.5 375 1.0 Other Renewable1 165 2.1 493 1.3 Petroleum 387 4.9 31 0.1 Total 7,857 100.0 36,630

  4. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hampshire Nuclear Profile 2010 New Hampshire profile New Hampshire total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,247 29.8 10,910 49.2 Coal 546 13.1 3,083 13.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 489 11.7 1,478 6.7 Natural Gas 1,215 29.1 5,365 24.2 Other 1 - - 57 0.3 Other Renewable1 182 4.4 1,232 5.6 Petroleum 501 12.0

  5. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jersey Nuclear Profile 2010 New Jersey profile New Jersey total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 4,108 22.3 32,771 49.9 Coal 2,036 11.1 6,418 9.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 404 2.2 -176 -0.3 Natural Gas 10,244 55.6 24,902 37.9 Other 1 56 0.3 682 1.0 Other Renewable1 226 1.2 850 1.3 Petroleum 1,351 7.3 235

  6. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    York Nuclear Profile 2010 New York profile New York total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 5,271 13.4 41,870 30.6 Coal 2,781 7.1 13,583 9.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 5,714 14.5 24,942 18.2 Natural Gas 17,407 44.2 48,916 35.7 Other 1 45 0.1 832 0.6 Other Renewable1 1,719 4.4 4,815 3.5 Petroleum 6,421 16.3

  7. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    North Carolina Nuclear Profile 2010 North Carolina profile North Carolina total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 4,958 17.9 40,740 31.7 Coal 12,766 46.1 71,951 55.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,042 7.4 4,757 3.7 Natural Gas 6,742 24.4 8,447 6.6 Other 1 50 0.2 407 0.3 Other Renewable1 543 2.0 2,083 1.6

  8. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ohio Nuclear Profile 2010 Ohio profile Ohio total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 2,134 6.5 15,805 11.0 Coal 21,360 64.6 117,828 82.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 101 0.3 429 0.3 Natural Gas 8,203 24.8 7,128 5.0 Other 1 123 0.4 266 0.2 Other Renewable1 130 0.4 700 0.5 Petroleum 1,019 3.1 1,442 1.0 Total

  9. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pennsylvania Nuclear Profile 2010 Pennsylvania profile Pennsylvania total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 9,540 20.9 77,828 33.9 Coal 18,481 40.6 110,369 48.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,268 5.0 1,624 0.7 Natural Gas 9,415 20.7 33,718 14.7 Other 1 100 0.2 1,396 0.6 Other Renewable1 1,237 2.7 4,245 1.8

  10. Temperature profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, R.D.

    1983-10-11

    Disclosed is a temperature profile detector shown as a tubular enclosure surrounding an elongated electrical conductor having a plurality of meltable conductive segments surrounding it. Duplicative meltable segments are spaced apart from one another along the length of the enclosure. Electrical insulators surround these elements to confine molten material from the segments in bridging contact between the conductor and a second electrical conductor, which might be the confining tube. The location and rate of growth of the resulting short circuits between the two conductors can be monitored by measuring changes in electrical resistance between terminals at both ends of the two conductors. Additional conductors and separate sets of meltable segments operational at differing temperatures can be monitored simultaneously for measuring different temperature profiles. 8 figs.

  11. Aerosol Extinction Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Thermodynamic Responses to Uncertainty in Aerosol Extinction Profiles For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/ Research Highlight Aerosol radiative effects are of great importance for climate simulations over South Asia. For quantifying aerosol direct radiative effect, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) are often compared with observations. These comparisons have revealed large AOD underestimation and

  12. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    State Nuclear Profiles 2010 April 2012 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as

  13. Temperature-profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    Temperature profiles at elevated temperature conditions are monitored by use of an elongated device having two conductors spaced by the minimum distance required to normally maintain an open circuit between them. The melting point of one conductor is selected at the elevated temperature being detected, while the melting point of the other is higher. As the preselected temperature is reached, liquid metal will flow between the conductors creating short circuits which are detectable as to location.

  14. Temperature profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Temperature profiles at elevated temperature conditions are monitored by use of an elongated device having two conductors spaced by the minimum distance required to normally maintain an open circuit between them. The melting point of one conductor is selected at the elevated temperature being detected, while the melting point of the other is higher. As the preselected temperature is reached, liquid metal will flow between the conductors, creating short circuits which are detectable as to location.

  15. LANL Data Profile

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data Profile 2012-2013 Total: 10,407 Quick Facts FY2013 Operating Budget ..... $1.95 billion Operating costs 54% NNSA Weapons Programs 12% Work for other agencies 10% Nonproliferation programs 9% Environmental management 6% Safeguards and security 5% DOE Office of Science 4% Energy and related programs Workforce Demographics Average Age: 46 67% male, 33% female 45% ethnic minorities 67% university degrees -28% undergraduate degrees -17% graduate degrees -22% PhD degrees Capital/Construction

  16. Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting Print Hydrogen is an attractive form of fuel because its only by-product is nonpolluting water vapor. The problem, however, is that the production of hydrogen-via the process of water splitting-currently requires the burning of traditional fossil fuels. Therefore, water splitting by photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) fueled by solar power has long been a primary goal of sustainable energy research. One roadblock to this goal is that the

  17. Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting Print Hydrogen is an attractive form of fuel because its only by-product is nonpolluting water vapor. The problem, however, is that the production of hydrogen-via the process of water splitting-currently requires the burning of traditional fossil fuels. Therefore, water splitting by photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) fueled by solar power has long been a primary goal of sustainable energy research. One roadblock to this goal is that the

  18. Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting Print Hydrogen is an attractive form of fuel because its only by-product is nonpolluting water vapor. The problem, however, is that the production of hydrogen-via the process of water splitting-currently requires the burning of traditional fossil fuels. Therefore, water splitting by photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) fueled by solar power has long been a primary goal of sustainable energy research. One roadblock to this goal is that the

  19. Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting Print Hydrogen is an attractive form of fuel because its only by-product is nonpolluting water vapor. The problem, however, is that the production of hydrogen-via the process of water splitting-currently requires the burning of traditional fossil fuels. Therefore, water splitting by photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) fueled by solar power has long been a primary goal of sustainable energy research. One roadblock to this goal is that the

  20. Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting Print Hydrogen is an attractive form of fuel because its only by-product is nonpolluting water vapor. The problem, however, is that the production of hydrogen-via the process of water splitting-currently requires the burning of traditional fossil fuels. Therefore, water splitting by photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) fueled by solar power has long been a primary goal of sustainable energy research. One roadblock to this goal is that the

  1. Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting Print Hydrogen is an attractive form of fuel because its only by-product is nonpolluting water vapor. The problem, however, is that the production of hydrogen-via the process of water splitting-currently requires the burning of traditional fossil fuels. Therefore, water splitting by photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) fueled by solar power has long been a primary goal of sustainable energy research. One roadblock to this goal is that the

  2. Technology Solutions Case Study: Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor permeable insulation on retrofit walls with vapor permeable cavity insulation. Retrofit strategies are a key factor in reducing exterior building stock consumption.

  3. Method and apparatus to measure vapor pressure in a flow system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Biblarz, Oscar (Swampscott, MA)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for determining, by a condensation method, the vapor pressure of a material with a known vapor pressure versus temperature characteristic, in a flow system particularly in a mercury isotope enrichment process.

  4. Surface profiling interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Takacs, Peter Z. (P.O. Box 385, Upton, NY 11973); Qian, Shi-Nan (Hefei Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and, Hefei, Anhui, CN)

    1989-01-01

    The design of a long-trace surface profiler for the non-contact measurement of surface profile, slope error and curvature on cylindrical synchrotron radiation (SR) mirrors. The optical system is based upon the concept of a pencil-beam interferometer with an inherent large depth-of-field. The key feature of the optical system is the zero-path-difference beam splitter, which separates the laser beam into two colinear, variable-separation probe beams. A linear array detector is used to record the interference fringe in the image, and analysis of the fringe location as a function of scan position allows one to reconstruct the surface profile. The optical head is mounted on an air bearing slide with the capability to measure long aspheric optics, typical of those encountered in SR applications. A novel feature of the optical system is the use of a transverse "outrigger" beam which provides information on the relative alignment of the scan axis to the cylinder optic symmetry axis.

  5. The role of polymer formation during vapor phase lubrication of silicon.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect The role of polymer formation during vapor phase lubrication of silicon. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The role of polymer formation during vapor phase lubrication of silicon. The lubrication of silicon surfaces with alcohol vapors has recently been demonstrated. With a sufficient concentration of pentanol vapor present, sliding of a silica ball on an oxidized silicon wafer can proceed with no measurable wear. The initial results of time-of-flight

  6. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Investigation of Water in Supercritical CO2 and the Effect of CaCl2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zheming; Felmy, Andrew R.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Loring, John S.; Joly, Alan G.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Dixon, David A.

    2013-01-25

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was applied to investigate the dissolution and chemical interaction of water dissolved into supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and the influence of CaCl2 in the co-existing aqueous phase at fo empe e : 40 50 75 nd 100 C at 90 atm. Consistent with the trend of the vapor pressure of water, the solubility of pure water in scCO2 inc e ed f om 40 ?C (0.32 mole%) o 100 ?C (1.61 mole%). The presence of CaCl2 negatively affects the solubility of water in scCO2: at a given temperature and pressure the solubility of water decreased as the concentration of CaCl2 in the aqueous phase increased, following the trend of the activity of water. A 40 ?C, the water concentration in scCO2 in contact with saturated CaCl2 aqueous solution was only 0.16 mole%, a drop of more than 50% as compared to pure water while that a 100 ?C was 1.12 mole%, a drop of over 30% as compared to pure water, under otherwise the same conditions. Analysis of the spectral profiles suggested that water dissolved into scCO2 exists in the monomeric form under the evaluated temperature and pressure conditions, for both neat water and CaCl2 solutions. However, its rotational degrees of freedom decrease at lower temperatures due to higher fluid densities, leading to formation of weak H2O:CO2 Lewis acid-base complexes. Similarly, the nearly invariant spectral profiles of dissolved water in the presence and absence of saturated CaCl2 under the same experimental conditions was taken as evidence that CaCl2 dissolution in scCO2 was limited as the dissolved Ca2+/CaCl2 would likely be highly hydrated and would alter the overall spectra of waters in the scCO2 phase.

  7. Advanced interferometric profile measurements through refractive media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koev, Stephan T.; Ghodssi, Reza [MEMS Sensors and Actuators Laboratory (MSAL), Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Optical profilers are valuable tools for the characterization of microelectromechanical systems (MEMSs). They use phase sifting interferometry (PSI) or vertical scanning interferometry to measure the topography of microscale structures with nanometer resolution. However, for many emerging MEMS applications, the sample needs to be imaged while placed in a liquid or in a package with a glass window. The increased refractive index of the transparent medium degrades the interference image contrast and prevents any measurement of the sample. We report on the modification of a Veeco NT1100 optical profiler to enable PSI measurements through refractive media. This approach can be applied to any other optical profiler with PSI capability. The modification consists in replacing the original illumination source with a custom-built narrow linewidth source, which increases the coherence length of the light and the contrast of the interference image. We present measurements taken with the modified configuration on samples covered with 3 mm water or 500 {mu}m glass, and we compare them to measurements of uncovered samples. We show that the measurement precision is only slightly reduced by the water and glass, and that it is still sufficiently high for typical MEMS applications. The described method can be readily used for measuring through other types and thicknesses of refractive materials.

  8. Profile Interface Generator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-11-09

    The Profile Interface Generator (PIG) is a tool for loosely coupling applications and performance tools. It enables applications to write code that looks like standard C and Fortran functions calls, without requiring that applications link to specific implementations of those function calls. Performance tools can register with PIG in order to listen to only the calls that give information they care about. This interface reduces the build and configuration burden on application developers and allowsmore » semantic instrumentation to live in production codes without interfering with production runs.« less

  9. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alaska Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Alaska) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural Gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 2,384 48 Electric utilities 2,205 39 IPP & CHP 179 50 Net generation (megawatthours) 6,496,822 49 Electric utilities 5,851,727 39 IPP & CHP 645,095 49 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 4,202 43 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 18,043 37 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 3,768 44 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.3 29 Nitrogen oxide

  10. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Arizona Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Arizona) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 27,910 13 Electric utilities 20,668 12 IPP & CHP 7,242 16 Net generation (megawatthours) 113,325,986 12 Electric utilities 92,740,582 8 IPP & CHP 20,585,405 15 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 23,716 31 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 59,416 15 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 55,342 16 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 42 Nitrogen

  11. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    California Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (California) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Natural Gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 73,772 2 Electric utilities 28,165 4 IPP & CHP 45,607 2 Net generation (megawatthours) 200,077,115 5 Electric utilities 78,407,643 14 IPP & CHP 121,669,472 4 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 2,109 48 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 96,842 5 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 57,323 13 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.0 49

  12. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Colorado Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Colorado) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 14,769 30 Electric utilities 10,238 28 IPP & CHP 4,531 20 Net generation (megawatthours) 52,937,436 28 Electric utilities 42,508,826 25 IPP & CHP 10,428,610 29 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 40,012 27 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 49,623 21 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 39,387 20 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.5 27 Nitrogen

  13. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Connecticut Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Connecticut) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,769 35 Electric utilities 152 46 IPP & CHP 8,617 13 Net generation (megawatthours) 35,610,789 38 Electric utilities 50,273 45 IPP & CHP 35,560,516 10 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 3,512 45 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 9,372 45 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 8,726 41 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.2 47 Nitrogen

  14. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Delaware Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Delaware) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 3,246 46 Electric utilities 102 47 IPP & CHP 3,144 32 Net generation (megawatthours) 7,760,861 47 Electric utilities 25,986 47 IPP & CHP 7,734,875 34 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 2,241 47 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 2,585 48 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 4,722 43 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.6 40 Nitrogen oxide

  15. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    District of Columbia Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (District of Columbia) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 9 51 Electric utilities IPP & CHP 9 51 Net generation (megawatthours) 65,852 51 Electric utilities IPP & CHP 65,852 51 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 0 51 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 148 51 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 49 50 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.0 51 Nitrogen oxide (lbs/MWh) 4.5 3

  16. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Florida Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Florida) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 58,781 3 Electric utilities 50,967 1 IPP & CHP 7,813 15 Net generation (megawatthours) 222,398,924 3 Electric utilities 202,527,297 1 IPP & CHP 19,871,627 18 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 117,797 12 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 88,345 6 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 108,431 3 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.1 34

  17. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Georgia Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Georgia) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 38,210 7 Electric utilities 28,875 2 IPP & CHP 9,335 10 Net generation (megawatthours) 120,953,734 10 Electric utilities 107,082,884 4 IPP & CHP 13,870,850 26 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 123,735 10 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 55,462 20 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 56,812 15 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.0 20

  18. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hawaii Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Hawaii) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Petroleum Net summer capacity (megawatts) 2,757 47 Electric utilities 1,821 40 IPP & CHP 937 45 Net generation (megawatthours) 10,267,052 45 Electric utilities 5,748,256 40 IPP & CHP 4,518,796 40 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 20,710 33 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 25,416 31 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 7,428 42 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 4.0 5 Nitrogen oxide

  19. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Idaho Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Idaho) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Hydroelectric Net summer capacity (megawatts) 4,924 42 Electric utilities 3,394 37 IPP & CHP 1,530 39 Net generation (megawatthours) 15,186,128 43 Electric utilities 9,600,216 36 IPP & CHP 5,585,912 39 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 6,565 42 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 7,627 46 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 1,942 49 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.9 37 Nitrogen

  20. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Illinois Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Illinois) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 44,950 4 Electric utilities 5,269 35 IPP & CHP 39,681 4 Net generation (megawatthours) 203,004,919 4 Electric utilities 11,571,734 35 IPP & CHP 191,433,185 3 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 203,951 6 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 63,358 11 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 97,812 6 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.0 21 Nitrogen

  1. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Indiana Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Indiana) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 27,196 14 Electric utilities 23,309 8 IPP & CHP 3,888 24 Net generation (megawatthours) 110,403,477 13 Electric utilities 96,047,678 7 IPP & CHP 14,355,799 23 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 273,718 4 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 121,681 3 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 98,895 5 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 5.0 2 Nitrogen

  2. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Iowa Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Iowa) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 15,929 25 Electric utilities 12,092 21 IPP & CHP 3,837 26 Net generation (megawatthours) 56,670,757 27 Electric utilities 41,932,708 26 IPP & CHP 14,738,048 22 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 106,879 14 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 44,657 25 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 39,175 21 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.8 6 Nitrogen oxide

  3. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kansas Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Kansas) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 14,093 32 Electric utilities 11,593 24 IPP & CHP 2,501 35 Net generation (megawatthours) 48,472,581 32 Electric utilities 39,808,763 28 IPP & CHP 8,663,819 32 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 30,027 30 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 30,860 30 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 33,125 27 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.2 30 Nitrogen

  4. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kentucky Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Kentucky) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 21,004 21 Electric utilities 19,599 16 IPP & CHP 1,405 40 Net generation (megawatthours) 89,741,021 18 Electric utilities 89,098,127 11 IPP & CHP 642,894 50 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 190,782 7 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 87,201 7 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 85,304 7 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 4.3 4 Nitrogen oxide

  5. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Louisiana Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Louisiana) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 26,228 15 Electric utilities 17,297 17 IPP & CHP 8,931 12 Net generation (megawatthours) 102,010,177 15 Electric utilities 56,226,016 17 IPP & CHP 45,784,161 8 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 122,578 11 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 82,286 9 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 58,274 12 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.4 16

  6. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maine Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Maine) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 4,499 43 Electric utilities 14 49 IPP & CHP 4,485 21 Net generation (megawatthours) 14,030,038 44 Electric utilities 597 49 IPP & CHP 14,029,441 25 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 13,365 38 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 9,607 44 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 3,675 45 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.9 23 Nitrogen oxide

  7. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maryland Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Maryland) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 12,339 33 Electric utilities 85 48 IPP & CHP 12,254 8 Net generation (megawatthours) 35,850,812 37 Electric utilities 30,205 46 IPP & CHP 35,820,607 9 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 41,539 26 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 21,995 34 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 18,950 34 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.3 17 Nitrogen oxide

  8. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Massachusetts Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Massachusetts) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 13,678 32 Electric utilities 969 42 IPP & CHP 12,709 7 Net generation (megawatthours) 32,885,021 40 Electric utilities 611,320 44 IPP & CHP 32,273,700 12 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 12,339 40 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 15,150 41 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 14,735 38 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.8 38

  9. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Michigan Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Michigan) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 30,128 11 Electric utilities 22,148 9 IPP & CHP 7,981 14 Net generation (megawatthours) 105,417,801 14 Electric utilities 83,171,310 13 IPP & CHP 22,246,490 14 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 237,091 5 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 86,058 8 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 67,193 10 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 4.5 3 Nitrogen oxide

  10. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Minnesota Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Minnesota) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 15,758 26 Electric utilities 11,901 22 IPP & CHP 3,858 25 Net generation (megawatthours) 51,296,988 31 Electric utilities 41,155,904 27 IPP & CHP 10,141,084 30 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 35,625 28 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 36,972 28 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 29,255 29 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.4 28 Nitrogen

  11. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mississippi Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Mississippi) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 15,561 28 Electric utilities 12,842 20 IPP & CHP 2,719 35 Net generation (megawatthours) 52,810,264 29 Electric utilities 45,413,403 23 IPP & CHP 7,396,861 35 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 87,718 17 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 24,490 32 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 22,633 33 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.3 9

  12. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Missouri Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Missouri) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 21,801 19 Electric utilities 20,562 15 IPP & CHP 1,239 42 Net generation (megawatthours) 91,626,593 17 Electric utilities 89,217,205 10 IPP & CHP 2,409,387 46 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 157,488 8 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 78,033 10 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 78,344 8 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.4 8 Nitrogen oxide

  13. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Montana Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Montana) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 6,329 41 Electric utilities 2,568 38 IPP & CHP 3,761 27 Net generation (megawatthours) 27,687,326 41 Electric utilities 7,361,898 38 IPP & CHP 20,325,428 16 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 16,865 36 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 21,789 35 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 16,951 35 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.2 31 Nitrogen oxide

  14. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nebraska Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Nebraska) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,449 36 Electric utilities 7,911 30 IPP & CHP 538 49 Net generation (megawatthours) 37,104,628 34 Electric utilities 35,170,167 30 IPP & CHP 1,934,461 48 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 66,884 22 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 31,505 29 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 28,043 32 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.6 7 Nitrogen oxide

  15. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nevada Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Nevada) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 10,652 34 Electric utilities 7,915 29 IPP & CHP 2,737 34 Net generation (megawatthours) 36,443,874 35 Electric utilities 27,888,008 34 IPP & CHP 8,555,866 33 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 7,436 41 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 16,438 39 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 15,690 37 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 43 Nitrogen

  16. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hampshire Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (New Hampshire) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 4,413 44 Electric utilities 1,121 41 IPP & CHP 3,292 30 Net generation (megawatthours) 19,778,520 42 Electric utilities 2,266,903 41 IPP & CHP 17,511,617 20 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 3,733 44 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 5,057 47 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 3,447 46 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 45 Nitrogen

  17. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Jersey Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (New Jersey) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 18,997 22 Electric utilities 544 43 IPP & CHP 18,452 6 Net generation (megawatthours) 64,750,942 24 Electric utilities -122,674 50 IPP & CHP 64,873,616 6 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 3,196 46 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 15,299 40 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 15,789 36 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.1 48 Nitrogen oxide

  18. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mexico Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (New Mexico) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 7,938 38 Electric utilities 5,912 33 IPP & CHP 2,026 36 Net generation (megawatthours) 35,870,965 36 Electric utilities 29,833,095 33 IPP & CHP 6,037,870 37 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 17,735 34 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 59,055 16 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 28,535 31 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.0 36 Nitrogen

  19. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    York Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (New York) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural Gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 39,918 6 Electric utilities 10,736 26 IPP & CHP 29,182 5 Net generation (megawatthours) 136,116,830 8 Electric utilities 33,860,490 31 IPP & CHP 102,256,340 5 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 30,947 29 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 44,824 24 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 33,456 26 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.5 41 Nitrogen

  20. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    North Carolina Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (North Carolina) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 30,048 12 Electric utilities 26,706 6 IPP & CHP 3,342 29 Net generation (megawatthours) 125,936,293 9 Electric utilities 116,317,050 2 IPP & CHP 9,619,243 31 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 71,293 20 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 62,397 12 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 56,940 14 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.1 32

  1. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dakota Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (North Dakota) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 6,566 40 Electric utilities 5,292 34 IPP & CHP 1,274 41 Net generation (megawatthours) 35,021,673 39 Electric utilities 31,044,374 32 IPP & CHP 3,977,299 42 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 56,854 23 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 48,454 22 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 30,274 28 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.2 11 Nitrogen oxide

  2. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Ohio Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Ohio) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 32,482 8 Electric utilities 20,779 11 IPP & CHP 11,703 9 Net generation (megawatthours) 137,284,189 7 Electric utilities 88,763,825 12 IPP & CHP 48,520,364 7 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 346,873 2 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 102,526 4 Carbon dioxide (thousand metrictons) 102,466 4 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 5.1 1 Nitrogen oxide (lbs/MWh)

  3. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oklahoma Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Oklahoma) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 23,300 17 Electric utilities 16,951 18 IPP & CHP 6,349 17 Net generation (megawatthours) 73,673,680 22 Electric utilities 53,348,841 18 IPP & CHP 20,324,839 17 Emissions Sulfur dioxide 80,418 19 Nitrogen oxide 57,024 17 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 46,268 19 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.2 18 Nitrogen oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.5 19

  4. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oregon Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Oregon) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Hydroelectric Net summer capacity (megawatts) 15,662 27 Electric utilities 10,973 25 IPP & CHP 4,689 19 Net generation (megawatthours) 59,895,515 26 Electric utilities 43,254,167 24 IPP & CHP 16,641,348 21 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 17,511 35 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 13,803 42 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 9,500 40 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.6 39 Nitrogen

  5. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pennsylvania Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Pennsylvania) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 43,040 5 Electric utilities 455 44 IPP & CHP 42,584 3 Net generation (megawatthours) 226,785,630 2 Electric utilities 1,105,740 42 IPP & CHP 225,679,890 2 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 276,851 3 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 151,148 2 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 108,729 2 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.4 15 Nitrogen

  6. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rhode Island Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Rhode Island) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 1,809 49 Electric utilities 8 50 IPP & CHP 1,802 38 Net generation (megawatthours) 6,246,807 50 Electric utilities 10,659 48 IPP & CHP 6,236,148 36 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 1,271 49 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 1,161 49 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 2,838 48 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 44 Nitrogen

  7. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (South Carolina) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 23,017 18 Electric utilities 21,039 10 IPP & CHP 1,978 37 Net generation (megawatthours) 95,249,894 16 Electric utilities 91,795,732 9 IPP & CHP 3,454,162 44 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 47,671 25 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 19,035 36 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 28,809 30 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.0 35

  8. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    South Dakota Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (South Dakota) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Hydroelectric Net summer capacity (megawatts) 4,109 45 Electric utilities 3,480 36 IPP & CHP 629 48 Net generation (megawatthours) 10,108,887 46 Electric utilities 8,030,545 37 IPP & CHP 2,078,342 47 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 15,347 37 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 11,430 43 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 3,228 47 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.0 12

  9. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Tennessee Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Tennessee) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 21,326 20 Electric utilities 20,635 13 IPP & CHP 690 47 Net generation (megawatthours) 79,651,619 19 Electric utilities 75,988,871 15 IPP & CHP 3,662,748 43 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 86,204 18 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 23,189 33 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 38,118 22 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.2 19 Nitrogen oxide

  10. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Texas Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Texas) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 109,584 1 Electric utilities 28,705 3 IPP & CHP 80,879 1 Net generation (megawatthours) 433,380,166 1 Electric utilities 96,131,888 6 IPP & CHP 337,248,278 1 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 383,728 1 Nitrogen Oxide short tons) 228,695 1 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 257,465 1 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.8 25 Nitrogen Oxide

  11. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Utah Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Utah) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 7,698 39 Electric utilities 6,669 32 IPP & CHP 1,029 44 Net generation (megawatthours) 42,516,751 33 Electric utilities 39,526,881 29 IPP & CHP 2,989,870 45 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 23,670 32 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 62,296 13 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 35,699 24 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.1 33 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh)

  12. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vermont Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Vermont) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 1,255 50 Electric utilities 329 45 IPP & CHP 925 46 Net generation (megawatthours) 6,884,910 48 Electric utilities 872,238 43 IPP & CHP 6,012,672 38 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 71 50 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 792 50 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 15 51 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.0 50 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.2 51

  13. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Virginia Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Virginia) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 24,828 16 Electric utilities 20,601 14 IPP & CHP 4,227 22 Net generation (megawatthours) 76,896,565 20 Electric utilities 63,724,860 16 IPP & CHP 13,171,706 28 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 68,077 21 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 39,706 27 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 34,686 25 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.8 26 Nitrogen

  14. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Washington Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Washington) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Hydroelectric Net summer capacity (megawatts) 30,656 10 Electric utilities 27,070 5 IPP & CHP 3,586 28 Net generation (megawatthours) 114,172,916 11 Electric utilities 100,013,661 5 IPP & CHP 14,159,255 24 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 13,259 39 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 17,975 38 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 12,543 39 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.2 46

  15. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    West Virginia Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (West Virginia) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 16,282 24 Electric utilities 10,625 27 IPP & CHP 5,657 18 Net generation (megawatthours) 75,863,067 21 Electric utilities 46,351,104 22 IPP & CHP 29,511,963 13 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 93,888 15 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 60,229 14 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 68,862 9 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.5 14

  16. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wisconsin Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Wisconsin) Item Value Rank Primary Energy Source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 17,342 23 Electric utilities 13,358 19 IPP & CHP 3,984 23 Net generation (megawatthours) 65,962,792 23 Electric utilities 47,027,455 20 IPP & CHP 18,935,337 19 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 108,306 13 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 44,114 26 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 47,686 18 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.3 10 Nitrogen

  17. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wyoming Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Wyoming) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,381 37 Electric utilities 7,279 31 IPP & CHP 1,102 43 Net generation (megawatthours) 52,483,065 30 Electric utilities 48,089,178 19 IPP & CHP 4,393,887 41 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 49,587 24 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 55,615 19 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 50,687 17 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.9 24 Nitrogen Oxide

  18. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vermont profile Vermont total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 620 55.0 4,782 72.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 324 28.7 1,347 20.3 Natural Gas - - 4 0.1 Other Renewable1 84 7.5 482 7.3 Petroleum 100 8.9 5 0.1 Total 1,128 100.0 6,620 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the

  19. Compare Gene Profiles

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-05-31

    Compare Gene Profiles (CGP) performs pairwise gene content comparisons among a relatively large set of related bacterial genomes. CGP performs pairwise BLAST among gene calls from a set of input genome and associated annotation files, and combines the results to generate lists of common genes, unique genes, homologs, and genes from each genome that differ substantially in length from corresponding genes in the other genomes. CGP is implemented in Python and runs in a Linuxmore » environment in serial or parallel mode.« less

  20. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Idaho Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Idaho) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Hydroelectric Net summer capacity (megawatts) 4,924 42 Electric utilities 3,394 37 IPP & CHP 1,530 39 Net generation (megawatthours) 15,186,128 43 Electric utilities 9,600,216 36 IPP & CHP 5,585,912 39 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 6,565 42 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 7,627 46 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 1,942 49 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.9 37 Nitrogen

  1. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oregon Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Oregon) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Hydroelectric Net summer capacity (megawatts) 15,662 27 Electric utilities 10,973 25 IPP & CHP 4,689 19 Net generation (megawatthours) 59,895,515 26 Electric utilities 43,254,167 24 IPP & CHP 16,641,348 21 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 17,511 35 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 13,803 42 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 9,500 40 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.6 39 Nitrogen

  2. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    South Dakota Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (South Dakota) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Hydroelectric Net summer capacity (megawatts) 4,109 45 Electric utilities 3,480 36 IPP & CHP 629 48 Net generation (megawatthours) 10,108,887 46 Electric utilities 8,030,545 37 IPP & CHP 2,078,342 47 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 15,347 37 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 11,430 43 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 3,228 47 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.0 12

  3. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    United States Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (United States) Item Value Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 1,060,064 Electric utilities 616,799 IPP & CHP 443,264 Net generation (megawatthours) 4,065,964,067 Electric utilities 2,388,058,409 IPP & CHP 1,677,905,658 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 3,978,753 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 2,411,564 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 2,172,355 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.0 Nitrogen Oxide

  4. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Washington Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Washington) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Hydroelectric Net summer capacity (megawatts) 30,656 10 Electric utilities 27,070 5 IPP & CHP 3,586 28 Net generation (megawatthours) 114,172,916 11 Electric utilities 100,013,661 5 IPP & CHP 14,159,255 24 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 13,259 39 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 17,975 38 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 12,543 39 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.2 46

  5. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wyoming Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Wyoming) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,381 37 Electric utilities 7,279 31 IPP & CHP 1,102 43 Net generation (megawatthours) 52,483,065 30 Electric utilities 48,089,178 19 IPP & CHP 4,393,887 41 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 49,587 24 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 55,615 19 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 50,687 17 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.9 24 Nitrogen Oxide

  6. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vermont profile Vermont total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 620 55.0 4,782 72.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 324 28.7 1,347 20.3 Natural Gas - - 4 0.1 Other Renewable1 84 7.5 482 7.3 Petroleum 100 8.9 5 0.1 Total 1,128 100.0 6,620 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the

  7. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Arkansas Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Arkansas) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 14,786 29 Electric utilities 11,559 23 IPP & CHP 3,227 31 Net generation (megawatthours) 60,322,492 25 Electric utilities 46,547,772 21 IPP & CHP 13,774,720 27 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 88,811 16 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 45,896 23 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 37,346 23 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.9 13 Nitrogen

  8. Zeolite Y adsorbents with high vapor uptake capacity and robust cycling stability for potential applications in advanced adsorption heat pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, XS; Narayanan, S; Michaelis, VK; Ong, TC; Keeler, EG; Kim, H; Mckay, IS; Griffin, RG; Wang, EN

    2015-01-01

    Modular and compact adsorption heat pumps (AHPs) promise an energy-efficient alternative to conventional vapor compression based heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. A key element in the advancement of AHPs is the development of adsorbents with high uptake capacity, fast intracrystalline diffusivity and durable hydrothermal stability. Herein, the ion exchange of NaY zeolites with ingoing Mg2+ ions is systematically studied to maximize the ion exchange degree (IED) for improved sorption performance. It is found that beyond an ion exchange threshold of 64.1%, deeper ion exchange does not benefit water uptake capacity or characteristic adsorption energy, but does enhance the vapor diffusivity. In addition to using water as an adsorbate, the uptake properties of Mg, Na-Y zeolites were investigated using 20 wt.% MeOH aqueous solution as a novel anti-freeze adsorbate, revealing that the MeOH additive has an insignificant influence on the overall sorption performance. We also demonstrated that the lab-scale synthetic scalability is robust, and that the tailored zeolites scarcely suffer from hydrothermal stability even after successive 108-fold adsorption/desorption cycles. The samples were analyzed using N-2 sorption, Al-27/Si-29 MAS NMR spectroscopy, ICP-AES, dynamic vapor sorption, SEM, Fick's 2nd law and D-R equation regressions. Among these, close examination of sorption isotherms for H2O and N-2 adsorbates allows us to decouple and extract some insightful information underlying the complex water uptake phenomena. This work shows the promising performance of our modified zeolites that can be integrated into various AHP designs for buildings, electronics, and transportation applications. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet File Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet.xlsx More Documents & Publications Statement of Work (SOW) Template ...

  10. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE ELECTROLYZER OPERATION WITH VARYING INLET WATER FEED CONFIGURATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, E

    2008-09-12

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) electrolysis is a potential alternative technology to crack water in specialty applications where a dry gas stream is needed, such as isotope production. One design proposal is to feed the cathode of the electrolyzer with vapor phase water. This feed configuration would allow isotopic water to be isolated on the cathode side of the electrolyzer and the isotope recovery system could be operated in a closed loop. Tests were performed to characterize the difference in the current-voltage behavior between a PEM electrolyzer operated with a cathode water vapor feed and with an anode liquid water feed. The cathode water vapor feed cell had a maximum limiting current density of 100 mA/cm2 at 70 C compared to a current density of 800 mA/cm2 for the anode liquid feed cell at 70 C. The limiting current densities for the cathode water vapor feed cell were approximately 3 times lower than predicted by a water mass transfer model. It is estimated that a cathode water vapor feed electrolyzer system will need to be between 8-14 times larger in active area or number of cells than an anode liquid feed system.

  11. Piston pump and method of reducing vapor lock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Harvey, Michael N. (DeSoto, TX)

    2001-01-30

    A pump includes a housing defining a cavity, at least one bore, a bore inlet, and a bore outlet. The bore extends from the cavity to the outlet and the inlet communicates with the bore at a position between the cavity and the outlet. A crankshaft is mounted in supports and has an eccentric portion disposed in the cavity. The eccentric portion is coupled to a piston so that rotation of the crankshaft reciprocates the piston in the bore between a discharge position an intake position. The bore may be offset from an axis of rotation to reduce bending of the piston during crankshaft rotation. During assembly of the pump, separate parts of the housing can be connected together to facilitate installation of internal pumping components. Also disclosed is a method of reducing vapor lock by mixing vapor and liquid portions of a substance and introducing the mixture into a piston bore.

  12. Electromagnetically induced transparency in paraffin-coated vapor cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, M.; Hohensee, M.; Walsworth, R. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Phillips, D. F. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Antirelaxation coatings in atomic vapor cells allow ground-state coherent spin states to survive many collisions with the cell walls. This reduction in the ground-state decoherence rate gives rise to ultranarrow-bandwidth features in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) spectra, which can form the basis of, for example, long-time scale slow and stored light, sensitive magnetometers, and precise frequency standards. Here we study, both experimentally and theoretically, how Zeeman EIT contrast and width in paraffin-coated rubidium vapor cells are determined by cell and laser-beam geometry, laser intensity, and atomic density. Using a picture of Ramsey pulse sequences, where atoms alternately spend ''bright'' and ''dark'' time intervals inside and outside the laser beam, we explain the behavior of EIT features in coated cells, highlighting their unique characteristics and potential applications.

  13. Piston pump and method of reducing vapor lock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Harvey, Michael N. (DeSoto, TX)

    2000-02-15

    A pump includes a housing defining a cavity, at least one bore, a bore inlet, and a bore outlet. The bore extends from the cavity to the outlet and the inlet communicates with the bore at a position between the cavity and the outlet. A crankshaft is mounted in supports and has an eccentric portion disposed in the cavity. The eccentric portion is coupled to a piston so that rotation of the crankshaft reciprocates the piston in the bore between a discharge position an intake position. The bore may be offset from an axis of rotation to reduce bending of the piston during crankshaft rotation. During assembly of the pump, separate parts of the housing can be connected together to facilitate installation of internal pumping components. Also disclosed is a method of reducing vapor lock by mixing vapor and liquid portions of a substance and introducing the mixture into a piston bore.

  14. Method for the generation of variable density metal vapors which bypasses the liquidus phase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kunnmann, Walter (Stony Brook, NY); Larese, John Z. (Rocky Point, NY)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for producing a metal vapor that includes the steps of combining a metal and graphite in a vessel to form a mixture; heating the mixture to a first temperature in an argon gas atmosphere to form a metal carbide; maintaining the first temperature for a period of time; heating the metal carbide to a second temperature to form a metal vapor; withdrawing the metal vapor and the argon gas from the vessel; and separating the metal vapor from the argon gas. Metal vapors made using this method can be used to produce uniform powders of the metal oxide that have narrow size distribution and high purity.

  15. System for the removal of contaminant soil-gas vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weidner, Jerry R. (Iona, ID); Downs, Wayne C. (Sugar City, ID); Kaser, Timothy G. (Ammon, ID); Hall, H. James (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A system extracts contaminated vapors from soil or other subsurface regions by using changes in barometric pressure to operate sensitive check valves that control air entry and removal from wells in the ground. The system creates an efficient subterranean flow of air through a contaminated soil plume and causes final extraction of the contaminants from the soil to ambient air above ground without any external energy sources.

  16. System for the removal of contaminant soil-gas vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weidner, J.R.; Downs, W.C.; Kaser, T.G.; Hall, H.J.

    1997-12-16

    A system extracts contaminated vapors from soil or other subsurface regions by using changes in barometric pressure to operate sensitive check valves that control air entry and removal from wells in the ground. The system creates an efficient subterranean flow of air through a contaminated soil plume and causes final extraction of the contaminants from the soil to ambient air above ground without any external energy sources. 4 figs.

  17. New Vapor-Particle Separator Improves Understanding of Aircraft Engine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion and Particulate Emissions - Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search New Vapor-Particle Separator Improves Understanding of Aircraft Engine Combustion and Particulate Emissions Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 11-G00248_ID2588 (2).pdf (580 KB) Technology Marketing Summary A

  18. Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HWCVD) technologies - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HWCVD) technologies Rapid, controllable growth of epitaxial silicon films National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Landry, et al., WO 2011-106624, "Hot Wire Chemical Vaport Deposition (HWCVD) with Carbide Filaments" (1,533 KB) Technology Marketing Summary NREL scientists have discovered a unique way to

  19. High average power magnetic modulator for metal vapor lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA); Miller, John L. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A three-stage magnetic modulator utilizing magnetic pulse compression designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper vapor laser at a 4.5 kHz repetition rate is disclosed. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power. The circuit includes a step up auto transformer and utilizes a rod and plate stack construction technique to achieve a high packing factor.

  20. Deflagration Wave Profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2012-04-03

    Shock initiation in a plastic-bonded explosives (PBX) is due to hot spots. Current reactive burn models are based, at least heuristically, on the ignition and growth concept. The ignition phase occurs when a small localized region of high temperature (or hot spot) burns on a fast time scale. This is followed by a growth phase in which a reactive front spreads out from the hot spot. Propagating reactive fronts are deflagration waves. A key question is the deflagration speed in a PBX compressed and heated by a shock wave that generated the hot spot. Here, the ODEs for a steady deflagration wave profile in a compressible fluid are derived, along with the needed thermodynamic quantities of realistic equations of state corresponding to the reactants and products of a PBX. The properties of the wave profile equations are analyzed and an algorithm is derived for computing the deflagration speed. As an illustrative example, the algorithm is applied to compute the deflagration speed in shock compressed PBX 9501 as a function of shock pressure. The calculated deflagration speed, even at the CJ pressure, is low compared to the detonation speed. The implication of this are briefly discussed.

  1. Evaporation monitoring and composition control of alloy systems with widely differing vapor pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anklam, T.M.; Berzins, L.V.; Braun, D.G.; Haynam, C.; McClelland, M.A.; Meier, T.

    1994-10-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing sensors and controls to improve and extend electron beam materials processing technology to alloy systems with constituents of widely varying vapor pressure. The approach under development involves using tunable lasers to measure the density and composition of the vapor plume. A laser based vaporizer control system for vaporization of a uranium-iron alloy has been previously demonstrated in multi-hundred hour, high rate vaporization experiments at LLNL. This paper reviews the design and performance of the uranium vaporization sensor and control system and discusses the extension of the technology to monitoring of uranium vaporization. Data is presented from an experiment in which titanium wire was fed into a molten niobium pool. Laser data is compared to deposited film composition and film cross sections. Finally, the potential for using this technique for composition control in melting applications is discussed.

  2. Beam Profile Monitor With Accurate Horizontal And Vertical Beam Profiles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Havener, Charles C [Knoxville, TN; Al-Rejoub, Riad [Oak Ridge, TN

    2005-12-26

    A widely used scanner device that rotates a single helically shaped wire probe in and out of a particle beam at different beamline positions to give a pair of mutually perpendicular beam profiles is modified by the addition of a second wire probe. As a result, a pair of mutually perpendicular beam profiles is obtained at a first beamline position, and a second pair of mutually perpendicular beam profiles is obtained at a second beamline position. The simple modification not only provides more accurate beam profiles, but also provides a measurement of the beam divergence and quality in a single compact device.

  3. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    South Carolina profile South Carolina total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 6,486 27.0 51,988 49.9 Coal 7,230 30.1 37,671 36.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 4,006 16.7 1,442 1.4 Natural Gas 5,308 22.1 10,927 10.5 Other 1 - - 61 0.1 Other Renewable1 284 1.2 1,873 1.8 Petroleum 670 2.8 191 0.2 Total 23,982

  4. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Tennessee profile Tennessee total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 3,401 15.9 27,739 33.7 Coal 8,805 41.1 43,670 53.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 4,277 20.0 7,416 9.0 Natural Gas 4,655 21.7 2,302 2.8 Other 1 - - 16 * Other Renewable1 222 1.0 988 1.2 Petroleum 58 0.3 217 0.3 Total 21,417 100.0 82,349 100.0

  5. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Texas profile Texas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 4,966 4.6 41,335 10.0 Coal 22,335 20.6 150,173 36.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 689 0.6 1,262 0.3 Natural Gas 69,291 64.0 186,882 45.4 Other 1 477 0.4 3,630 0.9 Other Renewable1 10,295 9.5 27,705 6.7 Petroleum 204 0.2 708 0.2 Total 108,258 100.0

  6. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Virginia profile Virginia total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 3,501 14.5 26,572 36.4 Coal 5,868 24.3 25,459 34.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 4,107 17.0 10 * Natural Gas 7,581 31.4 16,999 23.3 Other 1 - - 414 0.6 Other Renewable1 621 2.6 2,220 3.0 Petroleum 2,432 10.1 1,293 1.8 Total 24,109 100.0 72,966

  7. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Washington profile Washington total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,097 3.6 9,241 8.9 Coal 1,340 4.4 8,527 8.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 21,495 70.5 68,342 66.0 Natural Gas 3,828 12.6 10,359 10.0 Other 1 - - 354 0.3 Other Renewable1 2,703 8.9 6,617 6.4 Petroleum 15 * 32 * Total 30,478 100.0 103,473

  8. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wisconsin profile Wisconsin total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,584 8.9 13,281 20.7 Coal 8,063 45.2 40,169 62.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 492 2.8 2,112 3.3 Natural Gas 6,110 34.3 5,497 8.5 Other 1 21 0.1 63 0.1 Other Renewable1 775 4.3 2,474 3.8 Petroleum 790 4.4 718 1.1 Total 17,836 100.0 64,314

  9. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    South Carolina profile South Carolina total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 6,486 27.0 51,988 49.9 Coal 7,230 30.1 37,671 36.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 4,006 16.7 1,442 1.4 Natural Gas 5,308 22.1 10,927 10.5 Other 1 - - 61 0.1 Other Renewable1 284 1.2 1,873 1.8 Petroleum 670 2.8 191 0.2 Total 23,982

  10. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tennessee profile Tennessee total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 3,401 15.9 27,739 33.7 Coal 8,805 41.1 43,670 53.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 4,277 20.0 7,416 9.0 Natural Gas 4,655 21.7 2,302 2.8 Other 1 - - 16 * Other Renewable1 222 1.0 988 1.2 Petroleum 58 0.3 217 0.3 Total 21,417 100.0 82,349 100.0

  11. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Texas profile Texas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 4,966 4.6 41,335 10.0 Coal 22,335 20.6 150,173 36.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 689 0.6 1,262 0.3 Natural Gas 69,291 64.0 186,882 45.4 Other 1 477 0.4 3,630 0.9 Other Renewable1 10,295 9.5 27,705 6.7 Petroleum 204 0.2 708 0.2 Total 108,258 100.0

  12. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Virginia profile Virginia total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 3,501 14.5 26,572 36.4 Coal 5,868 24.3 25,459 34.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 4,107 17.0 10 * Natural Gas 7,581 31.4 16,999 23.3 Other 1 - - 414 0.6 Other Renewable1 621 2.6 2,220 3.0 Petroleum 2,432 10.1 1,293 1.8 Total 24,109 100.0 72,966

  13. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Washington profile Washington total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,097 3.6 9,241 8.9 Coal 1,340 4.4 8,527 8.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 21,495 70.5 68,342 66.0 Natural Gas 3,828 12.6 10,359 10.0 Other 1 - - 354 0.3 Other Renewable1 2,703 8.9 6,617 6.4 Petroleum 15 * 32 * Total 30,478 100.0 103,473

  14. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wisconsin profile Wisconsin total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,584 8.9 13,281 20.7 Coal 8,063 45.2 40,169 62.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 492 2.8 2,112 3.3 Natural Gas 6,110 34.3 5,497 8.5 Other 1 21 0.1 63 0.1 Other Renewable1 775 4.3 2,474 3.8 Petroleum 790 4.4 718 1.1 Total 17,836 100.0 64,314

  15. MHK Technologies/Deep water capable hydrokinetic turbine | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    water capable hydrokinetic turbine < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Technology Profile Primary Organization Hills Inc...

  16. MHK Technologies/Zero Impact Water Current Turbine | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Impact Water Current Turbine < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Technology Profile Primary Organization Green Wave Energy Corp...

  17. Google Archives by Fiscal Year — Wind and Water

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    From the EERE Web Statistics Archive: Wind and Water Power Technologies Office, retired Google Analytics profiles for the sites by fiscal year.

  18. PROJECT PROFILE: Correlative Electronic Spectroscopies for Increasing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PROJECT PROFILE: Correlative Electronic Spectroscopies for Increasing Photovoltaic Efficiency PROJECT PROFILE: Correlative Electronic Spectroscopies for Increasing Photovoltaic ...

  19. Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy Xergy is using its Electro Chemical Compression (ECC) technology to operate a heat pump cycle using water as the working fluid<br /> Image: Xergy Xergy is using its Electro Chemical Compression (ECC) technology to operate a heat pump cycle using water as the working fluid Image: Xergy Xergy's technology has the potential to move away from vapor compression technology.<BR /> Image: Xergy Xergy's technology has the potential to move away from vapor compression technology.

  20. LESSONS LEARNED FROM PREVIOUS WASTE STORAGE TANK VAPOR CONTROL ATTEMPTS ON SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) & DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) FARMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BAKER, D.M.

    2004-08-03

    This report forms the basis for a feasibility study and conceptual design to control vapor emissions from waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The Carbtrol, Vapor Mixing, and High Efficiency Gas Absorber (HEGA) vapor controls were evaluated to determine the lessons learned from previous failed vapor control attempts. This document illustrates the resulting findings based on that evaluation.