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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Estimating the Atmospheric Water Vapor Content from Sun Photometer Measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The differential absorption technique for estimating columnar water vapor values from the analysis of sunphotometric measurements with wide- and narrowband interferential filters centered near 0.94 ?m is discussed and adapted. Water vapor line ...

Artemio Plana-Fattori; Michel Legrand; Didier Tanré; Claude Devaux; Anne Vermeulen; Philippe Dubuisson

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor During the...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

modifications reduced but could not eliminate these adverse effects. The Raman lidar water vapor (aerosol extinction) measurements produced by these modified algorithms were,...

3

High-resolution terahertz atmospheric water vapor continuum measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-resolution terahertz atmospheric water vapor continuum measurements David M. Slocum,* Thomas M such as pollution monitoring and the detection of energetic chemicals using remote sensing over long path lengths through the atmosphere. Although there has been much attention to atmospheric effects over narrow

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

4

Measurements of atmospheric water vapor above Mauna Kea using an infrared radiometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurements of atmospheric water vapor above Mauna Kea using an infrared radiometer David A in atmospheric water vapor that distort the phase coherence of incoming celestial signals. The signal received water vapor, this paper presents results obtained with a second generation IRMA operating at the James

Naylor, David A.

5

Homogeneous nucleation rate measurements in supersaturated water vapor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The rate of homogeneous nucleation in supersaturated vapors of water was studied experimentally using a thermal diffusion cloud chamber. Helium was used as a carrier gas. Our study covers a range of nucleation rates from 3 × 10 ? 1 to 3 × 10 2 cm ? 3 s ? 1 at four isotherms: 290 300 310 and 320 K . The molecular content of critical clusters was estimated from the slopes of experimental data. The measured isothermal dependencies of nucleation rate of water on saturation ratio were compared with the prediction of the classical theory of homogeneous nucleation the empirical prediction of Wölk et al. [J. Chem. Phys.117 10 (2002)] the scaled model of Hale [Phys. Rev. A33 4156 (1986)] and the former nucleation onset data.

David Brus; Vladimír Ždímal; Ji?í Smolík

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

MEASUREMENTS AND RETRIEVALS FROM A NEW 183-GHz WATER VAPOR RADIOMETER IN  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

MEASUREMENTS AND RETRIEVALS FROM A NEW 183-GHz WATER VAPOR RADIOMETER IN MEASUREMENTS AND RETRIEVALS FROM A NEW 183-GHz WATER VAPOR RADIOMETER IN THE ARCTIC Cadeddu, Maria Argonne National Laboratory Category: Instruments A new G-band (183 GHz) vapor radiometer (GVR), developed and built by Prosensing Inc. (http://www.prosensing.com), was deployed in Barrow, Alaska, in April 2005. The radiometer was deployed as part of the ongoing Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's effort to improve water vapor retrievals in the cold, dry Arctic environment. The instrument measures brightness temperatures from four double sideband channels centered at 1, 3, 7, and 14 GHz from the 183.31-GHz water vapor line. Atmospheric emission in this spectral region is primarily due to water vapor, with some influence from liquid water. The GVR will remain in Barrow

7

Measurements of water vapor adsorption on the Geysers rocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ORNL high temperature isopiestic apparatus was adapted for adsorption measurements. The quantity of water retained by rock samples taken from three different wells of The Geysers was measured at 150 °C and at 200 °C as a function of pressure in the range 0.00 ? p/p0 ? 0.98, where p0 is the saturated water vapor pressure. The rocks were crushed and sieved into three fractions of different grain sizes (with different specific surface areas). Both adsorption (increasing pressure) and desorption (decreasing pressure) runs were made in order to investigate the nature and extent of the hysteresis. Additionally, BET surface area analyses were performed by Porous Materials Inc. on the same rock samples using nitrogen or krypton adsorption measurements at 77 K. Specific surface areas and pore volumes were determined. These parameters are important in estimating water retention capability of a porous material. The same laboratory also determined the densities of the samples by helium pycnometry. Their results were then compared with our own density values obtained by measuring the effect of buoyancy in compressed argon. One of the goals of this project is to determine the dependence of the water retention capacity of the rocks as a function of temperature. The results show a significant dependence of the adsorption and desorption isotherms on the grain size of the sample. The increase in the amount of water retained with temperature observed previously (Shang et al., 1994a, 1994b, 1995) between 90 and 130°C for various reservoir rocks from The Geysers may be due to the contribution of slow chemical adsorption and may be dependent on the time allowed for equilibration. In contrast with the results of Shang et al. (1994a, 1994b, 1995), some closed and nearly closed hysteresis loops on the water adsorption/desorption isotherms (with closing points at p/p0 ? 0.6) were obtained in this study. In these cases the effects of activated processes were not present, and no increase in water adsorption with temperature was observed

Gruszkiewicz, Miroslaw S.; Horita, Juske; Simonson, John M.; Mesmer, Robert E.

1996-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

8

Final Report for ARM Project Measuring 4-D Water Vapor Fields with GPS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water vapor is a primary element in the Earth’s climate system. Atmospheric water vapor is central to cloud processes, radiation transfer, and the hydrological cycle. Using funding from Department of Energy (DOE) grant DE-FG03-02ER63327, the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) developed new observational techniques to measure atmospheric water vapor and applied these techniques to measure four dimensional water vapor fields throughout the United States Southern Great Plains region. This report summarizes the development of a new observation from ground based Global Positioning System (GPS) stations called Slant Water Vapor (SW) and it’s utilization in retrieving four dimensional water vapor fields. The SW observation represents the integrated amount of water vapor between a GPS station and a transmitting satellite. SW observations provide improved temporal and spatial sampling of the atmosphere when compared to column-integrated quantities such as preciptitable water vapor (PW). Under funding from the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, GPS networks in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) region were deployed to retrieve SW to improve the characterization of water vapor throughout the region. These observations were used to estimate four dimensional water vapor fields using tomographic approaches and through assimilation into the MM5 numerical weather model.

Braun, John

2006-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

9

Inexpensive Near-IR Sun Photometer for Measuring Total Column Water Vapor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An inexpensive two-channel near-IR sun photometer for measuring total atmospheric column water vapor (precipitable water) has been developed for use by the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) environmental science ...

David R. Brooks; Forrest M. Mims III; Richard Roettger

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Measurements of the Infrared SpectraLines of Water Vapor at Atmospheric Temperatures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Measurements of the Infrared Spectral Lines Measurements of the Infrared Spectral Lines of Water Vapor at Atmospheric Temperatures P. Varanasi and Q. Zou Institute for Terrestrial and Planetary Atmospheres State University of New York at Stony Brook Stony Brook, New York Introduction Water vapor is undoubtedly the most dominant greenhouse gas in the terrestrial atmosphere. In the two facets of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program research, atmospheric remote sensing (air-borne as well as Cloud and Radiation Testbed [CART] site-based) and modeling of atmospheric radiation, the spectrum of water vapor, ranging from the microwave to the visible wavelengths, plays a significant role. Its spectrum has been the subject of many studies throughout the last century. Therefore, it is natural to presume it should be fairly well established by now. However, the need for a

11

ARM Water Vapor IOP  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ARM Water Vapor IOP The SGP CART site will host the third ARM water vapor IOP on September 18-October 8, 2000. The CART site is home to a powerful array of instruments capable of...

12

A simple test method for measuring water vapor resistance of porous polymeric materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A simple test method is proposed for measuring water vapor resistance of fabrics. A piece of cotton fabric connected to a container filled with distilled water through a plastic tube was used on a hot plate to generate a saturated water vapor condition on one side of the sample. The temperature of the cotton fabric (approximation of human skin covered with sweat) was measured by a thermocouple. The water vapor resistance of the sample was determined based on the water vapor pressure gradient across the sample and the heat flux. Five types of textile fabric laminated to PU/TPU membranes, plus one type of conventional fabric, were tested by using this simple apparatus as well as the sweating guarded hot plate instrument. The results showed that good agreement was observed between these two test methods. In addition, the surface temperature of the cotton ‘skin’ varied with different fabrics. This is in accordance with the actual intended situation, i.e., the skin temperature of the body is related to the ability of clothing materials to transfer water vapor. Therefore, this simple test apparatus better simulates real-life conditions than the sweating guarded hot plate instrument.

Jianhua Huang; Chang Zhang; Xiaoming Qian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Measurement of Water Vapor Concentration using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tunable diode laser spectroscopy and the Beer-Lambert relation has been used to measure the absorption of water vapor both in an absorption cell and in a shock tube. The purpose of this thesis is to develop a laser diagnostic capable of determining...

Barrett, Alexander B.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

14

Time-to-Detect Trends in Precipitable Water Vapor with Varying Measurement Error  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study determined the theoretical time-to-detect (TTD) global climate model (GCM) precipitable water vapor (PWV) 100-yr trends when realistic measurement errors are considered. Global trends ranged from 0.055 to 0.072 mm yr?1 and varied ...

Jacola Roman; Robert Knuteson; Steve Ackerman

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

ARM - Water Vapor  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Vapor Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global...

16

Posters Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Aerosols  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5 5 Posters Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Aerosols R. A. Ferrare and K. D. Evans (a) Hughes STX Corporation Lanham, Maryland S. H. Melfi and D. N. Whiteman NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland The principal objective of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) is to develop a better understanding of the atmospheric radiative balance in order to improve the parameterization of radiative processes in general circulation models (GCMs) which are used to study climate change. Meeting this objective requires detailed measurements of both water vapor and aerosols since these atmospheric constituents affect the radiation balance directly, through scattering and absorption of solar and

17

Isotope 18O/16O ratio measurements of water vapor by use of the 950-nm wavelength region with cavity ring-down and photoacoustic spectroscopic techniques  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two optical methods, cavity ring-down spectroscopy and photoacoustic spectroscopy, are applied to the measurement of the isotope ratio 18O/16O in water-vapor...

Samura, Ken; Hashimoto, Satoshi; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Hayashida, Akira; Kagi, Eriko; Ishiwata, Takashi; Matsumi, Yutaka

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

A Portable Eddy Covariance System for the Measurement of Ecosystem–Atmosphere Exchange of CO2, Water Vapor, and Energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To facilitate the study of flux heterogeneity within a region, the authors have designed and field-tested a portable eddy covariance system to measure exchange of CO2, water vapor, and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere. The ...

D. P. Billesbach; M. L. Fischer; M. S. Torn; J. A. Berry

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Ten Years of Measurements of Tropical Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor by MOZAIC. Part I: Climatology, Variability, Transport, and Relation to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). 1. Introduction Water vapor is the key atmosphericTen Years of Measurements of Tropical Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor by MOZAIC. Part I: Climatology, Variability, Transport, and Relation to Deep Convection ZHENGZHAO LUO, DIETER KLEY,* AND RICHARD H. JOHNSON

Lombardi, John R.

20

Hydrogen Cars and Water Vapor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This cycle is currently under way with hydrogen fuel cells. As fuel cell cars are suggested as a solutionHydrogen Cars and Water Vapor D.W.KEITHANDA.E.FARRELL'S POLICY FORUM "Rethinking hydrogen cars" (18 misidentified as "zero-emissions vehicles." Fuel cell vehicles emit water vapor. A global fleet could have

Colorado at Boulder, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

The Dust Settles on Water Vapor Feedback  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...To understand water vapor feedback...shifts in the atmospheric circulation...caused a positive water vapor feedback...temperature. Condensation, evaporation...shifts in the atmospheric circulation...caused a positive water vapor feedback...temperature. Condensation, evaporation...

Anthony D. Del Genio

2002-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

22

G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) value-added product (VAP) computes precipitable water vapor using neural network techniques from data measured by the GVR. The GVR reports time-series measurements of brightness temperatures for four channels located at 183.3 ± 1, 3, 7, and 14 GHz.

Koontz, A; Cadeddu, M

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

23

Optical monitor for water vapor concentration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma. 5 figs.

Kebabian, P.

1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

24

Optical monitor for water vapor concentration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma.

Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

ARM - Field Campaign - Fall 1997 Water Vapor IOP  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Vapor IOP Water Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Fall 1997 Water Vapor IOP 1997.09.15 - 1997.10.05 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb For data sets, see below. Summary The Water Vapor IOP was conducted as a follow-up to a predecessor IOP on water vapor held in September 1996. This IOP relied heavily on both ground-based guest and CART instrumentation and in-situ aircraft and tethered sonde/kite measurements. Primary operational hours were from 6 p.m. Central until at least midnight, with aircraft support normally from about 9 p.m. until midnight when available. However, many daytime measurements were made to support this IOP. The first Water Vapor IOP primarily concentrated on the atmosphere's lowest

26

investigating the source, transport, and isotope fractionation of water vapor in the atmospheric boundary layer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

investigating the source, transport, and isotope fractionation of water vapor in the atmospheric cospectral similarity for temperature and water vapor isotope fluxes. mixing ratio generator Routine field use in water vapor isotope research. The unit generates a stable water vapor mixing ratio by measuring

Minnesota, University of

27

Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates V. Mattioli and P. Basili Department of Electronic and Information Engineering University of Perugia Perugia, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Introduction In recent years the Global Positioning System (GPS) has proved to be a reliable instrument for measuring precipitable water vapor (PWV) (Bevis et al. 1992), offering an independent source of information on water vapor when compared with microwave radiometers (MWRs), and/or radiosonde

28

Field Testing of Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy Analyzers Measuring Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Prevalent methods for making high-accuracy tower-based measurements of the CO2 mixing ratio, notably nondispersive infrared spectroscopy (NDIR), require frequent system calibration and sample drying. Wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down ...

Scott J. Richardson; Natasha L. Miles; Kenneth J. Davis; Eric R. Crosson; Chris W. Rella; Arlyn E. Andrews

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Satellite Measurement of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor: Development and Applications and Applications for the ARM Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) measurements from the 6.7 micron channel on GOES (8, 9, 12) and GMS-5 satellites were employed to develop a near real-time UTH product that is now available from the ARM External Data Center (XDC). The UTH product is available in either gridded format (2.0 x 2.0 lat-lon resolution), full-disk pixel resolution, or individual pixel resolution for both the SGP and TWP sites. This product provides the basis for the instrument intercomparison and validation activities (Section 0.2), diurnal analysis and model evaluation (0.3), and cloud lifecycle studies (0.5); and is also an important component of the research proposed here. Full details regarding the retrieval algorithm for the ARM sites can be found in Soden et al. (2004a) and references therein.

Brian J. Soden

2005-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

30

ARM - Field Campaign - Water Vapor IOP  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Water Vapor IOP 2000.09.18 - 2000.10.08 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb Data Availability Yes For data sets, see below. Description Scientific hypothesis: 1. Microwave radiometer (MWR) observations of the 22 GHz water vapor line can accurately constrain the total column amount of water vapor (assuming a calibration accuracy of 0.5 degC or better, which translates into 0.35 mm PWV). 2. Continuous profiling by Raman lidar provides a stable reference for handling sampling problems and observes a fixed column directly above the site only requiring a single height- independent calibration factor. 3. Agreement between the salt-bath calibrated in-situ probes, chilled

31

Overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) D. C. Tobin, H. E. Revercomb, and D. D. Turner University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin Introduction An overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) is given. This field experiment was conducted during November-December 2000 near the central ground-based Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in north central Oklahoma, and was sponsored jointly by the ARM, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE), and the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) programs. Its primary goal was to collect accurate measurements of upper-level (~8 to 12 km) water vapor near the ground-based ARM site. These data are being used to determine the accuracy of measurements that are

32

A thermoacoustic oscillator powered by vaporized water and ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We measure the temperature difference required to drive a thermoacoustic oscillator containing air water vapor and liquid water as the working fluids. The oscillator is composed of a large tube containing an array of narrow tubes connected at one end to a tank of liquid water. When the water is heated the temperature difference across the tube array increases until thermoacoustic oscillations occur. The temperature difference at the onset of oscillation is measured to be 56 ? ° C significantly smaller (by ? 200 ? ° C ) than the temperature measured when the tank is filled with dry air instead of water. The temperature difference can be further reduced to 47 ? ° C by using ethanol instead of water.

Daisuke Noda; Yuki Ueda

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

ARM - Field Campaign - Water Vapor IOP  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Water Vapor IOP 1996.09.10 - 1996.09.30 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb For data sets, see below. Summary SCHEDULE This IOP will be conducted from September 10 - 30, 1996 (coincident with the Fall ARM-UAV IOP). Instruments that do not require supervision will be operated continuously during this period. Instruments that do require supervision are presently planned to be operated for 8-hour periods each day. Because it is necessary to cover as broad a range of environmental conditions as possible, the daily 8-hour period will be shifted across the diurnal cycle as deemed appropriate during the IOP (but will be maintained as a contiguous 8-hour block).

34

atmospheric water vapor | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

atmospheric water vapor atmospheric water vapor Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. Source NREL Date Released July 31st, 2006 (8 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords atmospheric water vapor Carribean Islands Central America DNI GIS Mexico NREL GEF solar SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 247.8 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 370.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review

35

atmoshperic water vapor | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

atmoshperic water vapor atmoshperic water vapor Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude for China. Source NREL Date Released April 12th, 2005 (9 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords atmoshperic water vapor China GEF GIS NREL solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 625.6 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 704.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 01/01/1985 - 12/31/1991 License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL) Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote Usefulness of the dataset Average vote Your vote Ease of access

36

Environmental Chemistry at Vapor/Water Interfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental Chemistry at Vapor/Water Interfaces: Insights from Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy Aaron M. Jubb, Wei Hua, and Heather C. Allen Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State/0505-0107$20.00 Keywords salts, lipids, atmospheric chemistry, ion binding, oxidation Abstract The chemistry that occurs

37

Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with ARM  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with ARM Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with ARM Observations Cady-Pereira, Karen Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Shephard, Mark Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Clough, Shepard Atmospheric and Environmental Research Mlawer, Eli Atmospheric & Environmental Research, Inc. Turner, David University of Wisconsin-Madison Category: Atmospheric State and Surface The primary objective of the TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) instrument on the Aura spacecraft is the retrieval of trace gases, especially water vapor and ozone. The TES retrievals extremely useful for global monitoring of the atmospheric state, but they must be validated. The ARM sites are well instrumented and provide continuous measurements, which

38

Apparent Temperature Dependence on Localized Atmospheric Water Vapor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Apparent Temperature Dependence on Localized Atmospheric Water Vapor Matthew Montanaroa, Carl), hence water vapor is the primary constituent of concern. The tower generates a localized water vapor, Office B108, Aiken, SC, USA ABSTRACT The atmosphere is a critical factor in remote sensing. Radiance from

Salvaggio, Carl

39

Phase effects for electrons in liquid water and water vapor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of these studies is to compare transport, energy loss, and other phenomena for electrons in water in the liquid and vapor phases. Understanding the differences and similarities is an interesting physics problem in its own right. It is also important for applying the relatively large body of experimental data available for the vapor to the liquid, which is of greater relevance in radiobiology. This paper presents a summary of results from a series of collaborative studies carried out by the authors at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung (GSF). 14 figs.

Turner, J.E.; Paretzke, H.G.; Wright, H.A.; Hamm, R.N.; Ritchie, R.H.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Tropospheric Water Vapor Profiles Retrieved from Pressure-Broadened Emission Spectra at 22 GHz  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The authors present the analysis and the evaluation of the retrieval of tropospheric water vapor profiles from pressure-broadened emission spectra at 22 GHz measured with a ground-based microwave spectroradiometer. The spectra have a bandwidth of ...

Alexander Haefele; Niklaus Kämpfer

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Pressure Broadening of H2O Absorption Lines in the 1.3 ?m Region Measured by Continuous Wave-Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy: Application in the Trace Detection of Water Vapor in N2, SiH4, CF4, and PH3  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A continuous wave cavity ring-down (cw-CRD) spectrometer has been developed for the measurement of trace levels of water vapor by absorption spectroscopy at wavelengths in the...

Fiadzomor, Phyllis A Y; Baker, Derek M; Keen, Anthony M; Grant, Robert B; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

GPS Water Vapor Projects Within the ARM Southern Great Plains Region  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

GPS Water Vapor Projects Within the ARM GPS Water Vapor Projects Within the ARM Southern Great Plains Region J. Braun, T. Van Hove, S. Y. Ha, and C. Rocken GPS Science and Technology Program University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Boulder, Colorado Abstract The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has a need for an improved capability to measure and characterize the four-dimensional distribution of water vapor within the atmosphere. Applications for this type of data include their use in radiation transfer studies, cloud-resolving and single-column models, and for the establishment of an extended time series of water vapor observations. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research's (UCAR) GPS Science and Technology (GST) Program is working with ARM to leverage the substantial investment in

43

ARM - Field Campaign - Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govCampaignsArctic Winter Water Vapor IOP govCampaignsArctic Winter Water Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP 2004.03.09 - 2004.04.09 Lead Scientist : Ed Westwater Data Availability http://www.etl.noaa.gov/programs/2004/wviop/data will contain quicklooks of all of the data. For data sets, see below. Summary During the IOP, the Ground-based Scanning Radiometer of NOAA/ETL, and the ARM MicroWave Radiometer and Microwave Profiler, yielded excellent data over a range of conditions. In all, angular-scanned and calibrated radiometric data from 22.345 to 380 GHz were taken. The Precipitable Water Vapor varied about an order of magnitude from 1 to 10 mm, and surface temperatures varied from about -10 to -40 deg. Celcius. Vaisala RS90

44

Photocoupling of Methane in Water Vapor to Saturated Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Methane can be converted into alkanes (from C2 to C6) continuously by ultraviolet (185 nm) irradiation in the presence of water vapor. The products from this reaction are alkanes, which is different from the comp...

JunePyo Oh; Taketoshi Matsumoto; Junji Nakamura

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Temperature and water vapor pressure effects on the friction coefficient of hydrogenated diamondlike carbon films.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microtribological measurements of a hydrogenated diamondlike carbon film in controlled gaseous environments show that water vapor plays a significant role in the friction coefficient. These experiments reveal an initial high friction transient behavior that does not reoccur even after extended periods of exposure to low partial pressures of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2}. Experiments varying both water vapor pressure and sample temperature show trends of a decreasing friction coefficient as a function of both the decreasing water vapor pressure and the increasing substrate temperature. Theses trends are examined with regard to first order gas-surface interactions. Model fits give activation energies on the order of 40 kJ/mol, which is consistent with water vapor desorption.

Dickrell, P. L.; Sawyer, W. G.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Erdemir, A.; Energy Technology; Univ. of Florida

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Calculating the vapor pressure of water from the second law of thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Calculating the vapor pressure of water from the second law of thermodynamics ... Thermodynamics ...

M. H. Everdell

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Cloud and Aerosol Properties, Precipitable Water, and Profiles of Temperature and Water Vapor from MODIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cloud and Aerosol Properties, Precipitable Water, and Profiles of Temperature and Water Vapor from such as cloud mask, atmos- pheric profiles, aerosol properties, total precipitable water, and cloud properties vapor amount, aerosol particles, and the subsequently formed clouds [9]. Barnes et al. [2] provide

Sheridan, Jennifer

48

Raman lidar profiling of water vapor and aerosols over the ARM SGP Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have developed and implemented automated algorithms to retrieve profiles of water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol backscattering, and aerosol extinction from Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman Lidar data acquired during both daytime and nighttime operations. The Raman lidar sytem is unique in that it is turnkey, automated system designed for unattended, around-the-clock profiling of water vapor and aerosols. These Raman lidar profiles are important for determining the clear-sky radiative flux, as well as for validating the retrieval algorithms associated with satellite sensors. Accurate, high spatial and temporal resolution profiles of water vapor are also required for assimilation into mesoscale models to improve weather forecasts. The authors have also developed and implemented routines to simultaneously retrieve profiles of relative humidity. These routines utilize the water vapor mixing ratio profiles derived from the Raman lidar measurements together with temperature profiles derived from a physical retrieval algorithm that uses data from a collocated Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). These aerosol and water vapor profiles (Raman lidar) and temperature profiles (AERI+GOES) have been combined into a single product that takes advantage of both active and passive remote sensors to characterize the clear sky atmospheric state above the CART site.

Ferrare, R.A.

2000-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

49

RAMAN LIDAR PROFILING OF WATER VAPOR AND AEROSOLS OVER THE ARM SGP SITE.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed and implemented automated algorithms to retrieve profiles of water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol backscattering, and aerosol extinction from Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman Lidar data acquired during both daytime and nighttime operations. This Raman lidar system is unique in that it is turnkey, automated system designed for unattended, around-the-clock profiling of water vapor and aerosols (Goldsmith et al., 1998). These Raman lidar profiles are important for determining the clear-sky radiative flux, as well as for validating the retrieval algorithms associated with satellite sensors. Accurate, high spatial and temporal resolution profiles of water vapor are also required for assimilation into mesoscale models to improve weather forecasts. We have also developed and implemented routines to simultaneously retrieve profiles of relative humidity. These routines utilize the water vapor mixing ratio profiles derived from the Raman lidar measurements together with temperature profiles derived from a physical retrieval algorithm that uses data from a collocated Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) (Feltz et al., 1998; Turner et al., 1999). These aerosol and water vapor profiles (Raman lidar) and temperature profiles (AERI+GOES) have been combined into a single product that takes advantage of both active and passive remote sensors to characterize the clear sky atmospheric state above the CART site.

FERRARE,R.A.

2000-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

50

Fatigue Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures Affected by Water Vapor Movement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation has two key objectives: the first objective is to develop a method of predicting and quantifying the amount of water that can enter into a pavement system by vapor transport; the second objective is to identify to which extent...

Tong, Yunwei

2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

51

Experimental Study of Water Vapor Adsorption on Geothermal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Geothermal Program under Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG07-90IDI2934,and by the Department of PetroleumSGP-TR-148 Experimental Study of Water Vapor Adsorption on Geothermal Reservoir Rocks Shubo Shang Engineering, Stanford University Stanford Geothermal Program Interdisciplinary Research in Engineering

Stanford University

52

Posters Toward an Operational Water Vapor Remote Sensing System Using the Global Positioning System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 3 Posters Toward an Operational Water Vapor Remote Sensing System Using the Global Positioning System S. I. Gutman, (a) R. B. Chadwick, (b) and D. W. Wolf (c) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado A. Simon Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science Boulder, Colorado T. Van Hove and C. Rocken University Navstar Consortium Boulder, Colorado Background Water vapor is one of the most important constituents of the free atmosphere since it is the principal mechanism by which moisture and latent heat are transported and cause "weather." The measurement of atmospheric water vapor is essential for weather and climate research as well as for operational weather forecasting. An important goal in modern weather prediction is to improve the accuracy of short-term

53

Water Vapor Radiometry : Outline of Goals and Tasks for the Spring Semester 2001  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that can accu­ rately measure the spectrum of the water vapor emis­ sion. The current receivers follow, as in a conventional re­ ceiver, the correlation receiver splits the rf signal into two with a splitter that follows the feed horn. Both branches are mixed with a carefully controlled ther­ mal load. A 180 ffi phase shift

Backer, Don

54

Interannual Variations of Stratospheric Water Vapor in MLS Observations and Climate Model Simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By analyzing the almost-decade-long record of water vapor measurements from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument on the NASA Aura satellite and by detailed diagnostic analysis of the results from state-of-the art climate model simulations, ...

Yoshio Kawatani; Jae N. Lee; Kevin Hamilton

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Tropical Water Vapor and Cloud Feedbacks in Climate Models: A Further Assessment Using Coupled Simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By comparing the response of clouds and water vapor to ENSO forcing in nature with that in Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) simulations by some leading climate models, an earlier evaluation of tropical cloud and water vapor ...

De-Zheng Sun; Yongqiang Yu; Tao Zhang

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

WATER VAPOR IN THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK OF DG Tau  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water is key in the evolution of protoplanetary disks and the formation of comets and icy/water planets. While high-excitation water lines originating in the hot inner disk have been detected in several T Tauri stars (TTSs), water vapor from the outer disk, where most water ice reservoirs are stored, was only reported in the nearby TTS TW Hya. We present spectrally resolved Herschel/HIFI observations of the young TTS DG Tau in the ortho- and para-water ground-state transitions at 557 and 1113 GHz. The lines show a narrow double-peaked profile, consistent with an origin in the outer disk, and are {approx}19-26 times brighter than in TW Hya. In contrast, CO and [C II] lines are dominated by emission from the envelope/outflow, which makes H{sub 2}O lines a unique tracer of the disk of DG Tau. Disk modeling with the thermo-chemical code ProDiMo indicates that the strong UV field, due to the young age and strong accretion of DG Tau, irradiates a disk upper layer at 10-90 AU from the star, heating it up to temperatures of 600 K and producing the observed bright water lines. The models suggest a disk mass of 0.015-0.1 M{sub Sun }, consistent with the estimated minimum mass of the solar nebula before planet formation, and a water reservoir of {approx}10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} Earth oceans in vapor and {approx}100 times larger in the form of ice. Hence, this detection supports the scenario of ocean delivery on terrestrial planets by the impact of icy bodies forming in the outer disk.

Podio, L.; Dougados, C.; Thi, W.-F.; Menard, F.; Pinte, C. [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Kamp, I.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M.; Aresu, G. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen (Netherlands); Codella, C. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence (Italy); Cabrit, S. [LERMA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, Ecole Normale Superieure, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 61 Av. de l'Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Nisini, B. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Sandell, G. [SOFIA-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232-12, Building N232, Rm. 146, P.O. Box 1, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States); Williams, J. P. [Institute for Astronomy (IfA), University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Testi, L. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Woitke, P. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

57

Determination of effective water vapor diffusion coefficient in pemfc gas diffusion layers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

route from the cathode catalyst layer to the cathode flow channels. Water can be removed from the cellDetermination of effective water vapor diffusion coefficient in pemfc gas diffusion layers Jacob M: Water vapor diffusion PEMFC Water management GDL Diffusivity MPL a b s t r a c t The primary removal

Kandlikar, Satish

58

Retrieval of water vapor profiles over ocean using SSM/I and SSM/T-2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of water vapor profiles, while the SSM/I can be used to retrieve, among other things, the total integrated water vapor (TIWV) in a column of air. It is theoretically possible to use SSM/I data to supplement the SSM/T-2 data, producing more accurate water...

Blankenship, Clay Bruce

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

59

Outdoor field evaluation of passive tritiated water vapor samplers at Canadian power reactor sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tritium is one of several radioactive nuclides routinely monitored in and around CANDU{reg_sign} (CANada Deuterium Uranium) power reactor facilities. Over the last ten years, passive samplers have replaced active sampling devices for sampling tritiated water vapor in the workplace at many CANDU stations. The potential of passive samplers for outdoor monitoring has also been realized. This paper presents the result of a 1-y field trial carried out at all five Canadian CANDU reactor sites. The results indicate that passive samplers can be used at most sampling locations to measure tritiated water vapor in air concentrations as low as 1 Bq m{sup -3} over a 30-d sampling period. Only in one of the five sampling locations was poor agreement observed between active and passive monitoring data. This location, however, was very windy and it is suspected that the gusty winds were the source of the discrepancies observed. 15 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Wood, M.J. [Chalk River Lab., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Viscosity of the Aqueous Liquid/Vapor Interfacial Region: 2D Electrochemical Measurements with a Piperidine Nitroxy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Viscosity of the Aqueous Liquid/Vapor Interfacial Region: 2D Electrochemical Measurements, and that it is coupled to the interfacial water via hydrogen bonding with H2O. In view of this postulate, the viscosity into the dynamic characteristics of aqueous interfaces. Thus, parameters such as the viscosity of water

Majda, Marcin

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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61

ARM - PI Product - MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govDataPI Data ProductsMWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water govDataPI Data ProductsMWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor 2005.02.01 - 2011.04.25 Site(s) FKB GRW HFE NIM PYE SBS General Description A new algorithm is being developed for the ARM Program to derive liquid water path (LWP) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) from the 2-channel (23.8 and 31.4 GHz) microwave radiometers (MWRs) deployed at ARM climate research facilities. This algorithm utilizes the "monoRTM" radiative transfer model (http://rtweb.aer.com), a combination of both an advanced statistical and physical-iterative retrieval, and brightness temperature offsets applied before the retrieval is performed. This allows perhaps the

62

Water, Vapor, and Salt Dynamics in a Hot Repository  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a new model study examining the high temperature nuclear waste disposal concept at Yucca Mountain using MULTIFLUX, an integrated in-drift- and mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic model. The results show that a large amount of vapor flow into the drift is expected during the period of above-boiling temperatures. This phenomenon makes the emplacement drift a water/moisture attractor during the above-boiling temperature operation. The evaporation of the percolation water into the drift gives rise to salt accumulation in the rock wall, especially in the crown of the drift for about 1500 years in the example. The deposited salts over the drift footprint, almost entirely present in the fractures, may enter the drift either by rock fall or by water drippage. During the high temperature operation mode, the barometric pressure variation creates fluctuating relative humidity in the emplacement drift with a time period of approximately 10 days. Potentially wet and dry conditions and condensation on salt-laden drift wall sections may adversely affect the storage environment. Salt accumulations during the above-boiling temperature operation must be sufficiently addressed to fully understand the waste package environment during the thermal period. Until the questions are resolved, a below-boiling repository design is favored where the Alloy-22 will be less susceptible to localized corrosion. (authors)

Bahrami, Davood; Danko, George [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, 1664 N. Virginia St., Reno, NV, 89557 (United States); Walton, John [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University, El Paso, TX, 79968 (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Chem. Mater. 1995, 7, 2269-2272 2269 Water Vapor Adsorption on Chemically Treated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chem. Mater. 1995, 7, 2269-2272 2269 Water Vapor Adsorption on Chemically Treated Activated Carbon August 25, 1995@ Water vapor adsorption on activated carbon cloth (ACCBO)which has been oxidized% Cl), and ACCBO (4% N), exhibits sigmoidal isotherms with hysteresis loops of varying magnitudes

Cal, Mark P.

64

On the challenges of tomography retrievals of a 2D water vapor field using ground-based microwave radiometers: An observation system simulation experiment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two-dimensional water vapor fields were retrieved by simulated measurements from multiple ground-based microwave radiometers using a tomographic approach. The goal of this paper was to investigate how the various aspects of the instrument set-up (...

Véronique Meunier; David D. Turner; Pavlos Kollias

65

Desalination-of water by vapor-phase transport through hydrophobic nanopores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a new approach to desalination of water whereby a pressure difference across a vapor-trapping nanopore induces selective transport of water by isothermal evaporation and condensation across the pore. Transport ...

Lee, Jongho

66

Transport and sorption of volatile organic compounds and water vapor in porous media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To gain insight on the controlling mechanisms for VOC transport in porous media, the relations among sorbent properties, sorption equilibrium and intraparticle diffusion processes were studied at the level of individual sorbent particles and laboratory columns for soil and activated carbon systems. Transport and sorption of VOCs and water vapor were first elucidated within individual dry soil mineral grains. Soil properties, sorption capacity, and sorption rates were measured for 3 test soils; results suggest that the soil grains are porous, while the sorption isotherms are nonlinear and adsorption-desorption rates are slow and asymmetric. An intragranular pore diffusion model coupled with the nonlinear Freundlich isotherm was developed to describe the sorption kinetic curves. Transport of benzene and water vapor within peat was studied; partitioning and sorption kinetics were determined with an electrobalance. A dual diffusion model was developed. Transport of benzene in dry and moist soil columns was studied, followed by gaseous transport and sorption in activated carbon. The pore diffusion model provides good fits to sorption kinetics for VOCs to soil and VOC to granular activated carbon and activated carbon fibers. Results of this research indicate that: Intraparticle diffusion along with a nonlinea sorption isotherm are responsible for the slow, asymmetric sorption-desorption. Diffusion models are able to describe results for soil and activated carbon systems; when combined with mass transfer equations, they predict column breakthrough curves for several systems. Although the conditions are simplified, the mechanisms should provide insight on complex systems involving transport and sorption of vapors in porous media.

Lin, Tsair-Fuh

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

A three-beam water vapor sensor system for combustion diagnostics using a 1390 nm tunable diode laser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

H{sub 2}O(v) is an important species in combustion and hypersonic flow measurements because it is a primary combustion product. Measurements of water vapor can be used to determine performance parameters, such as extent and efficiency of combustion in propulsion and aerodynamics facilities. Water vapor concentration measurement in these high-temperature hypervelocity combustion conditions requires very high sensitivity and fast time response. A three-beam diode laser H{sub 2}O(v) measurement system for nonintrusive combustion diagnostics has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center and successfully tested and installed at GASL NASA HYPULSE facility for routine operation. The system was built using both direct laser absorption spectroscopy and frequency modulation laser spectroscopy. The output beam from a distributed feedback (DFB) InGaAsP diode laser (emitting around 1.39 {micro}m) is split into three equal-powered equal-distanced parallel beams with separation of 9 mm. With three beams, the authors are able to obtain water vapor number densities at three locations. Frequency modulation spectroscopy technique is used to achieve high detection sensitivity. The diode laser is modulated at radio frequency (RF), while the wavelength of the diode laser is tuned to scan over a strong water vapor absorption line. The detected RF signal is then demodulated at the fundamental frequency of the modulation (one-F demodulation). A working model and a computer software code have been developed for data process and data analysis. Water vapor number density measurements are achieved with consideration of temperature dependence. Experimental results and data analysis will be presented.

Wang, L.G. [Coll. of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Vay, S. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

68

Vapor spill monitoring method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

Bianchini, Gregory M. (Livermore, CA); McRae, Thomas G. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Distribution of binding energies of a water molecule in the water liquid-vapor interface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Distributions of binding energies of a water molecule in the water liquid-vapor interface are obtained on the basis of molecular simulation with the SPC/E model of water. These binding energies together with the observed interfacial density profile are used to test a minimally conditioned Gaussian quasi-chemical statistical thermodynamic theory. Binding energy distributions for water molecules in that interfacial region clearly exhibit a composite structure. A minimally conditioned Gaussian quasi-chemical model that is accurate for the free energy of bulk liquid water breaks down for water molecules in the liquid-vapor interfacial region. This breakdown is associated with the fact that this minimally conditioned Gaussian model would be inaccurate for the statistical thermodynamics of a dilute gas. Aggressive conditioning greatly improves the performance of that Gaussian quasi-chemical model. The analogy between the Gaussian quasi-chemical model and dielectric models of hydration free energies suggests that naive dielectric models without the conditioning features of quasi-chemical theory will be unreliable for these interfacial problems. Multi-Gaussian models that address the composite nature of the binding energy distributions observed in the interfacial region might provide a mechanism for correcting dielectric models for practical applications.

Chempath, Shaji [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pratt, Lawrence R [TULANE UNIV

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Application of two-photon laser-induced fluorescence for visualization of water vapor in combustion environments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigations concerning the potential for the visualization of water vapor in combustion processes have been made. The water molecules were excited through a two-photon excitation...

Neij, Hans; Aldén, Marcus

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path from Scanning Microwave Radiometers During the 2003 Cloudiness Inter-Comparison Experiment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path from Scanning Microwave Radiometers During the 2003 Cloudiness Inter-Comparison Experiment V. Mattioli Department of Electronic and Information Engineering University of Perugia Perugia, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado V. Morris Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction Ground-based microwave radiometers (MWR) are widely used to measure atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV) and cloud liquid path (CLP). Comparisons of PWV derived from MWRs with water vapor retrievals from instruments like radiosondes, Global Positioning System (GPS) and Raman

72

Effect of Water Vapor on the Oxidation Mechanisms of a Commercial Stainless Steel for Interconnect Application in High Temperature Water Vapor Electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High temperature water vapor electrolysis is one of the most promising methods...2–5 %H2O) and cathode atmospheres (10 %H2–90 %H2O). In cathode atmosphere, ageing tests performed up to 1,000 h revealed the format...

Maria Rosa Ardigo; Ioana Popa; Sébastien Chevalier; Sylvain Weber…

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Water Vapor Adsorption Effect on Silica Surface Electrostatic Patterning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Even after a few centuries of research by distinguished authors, electrostatic charging of insulators is still poorly known, and it often goes out of control because the identity of charge carriers is not known, in nearly every case in the laboratory or in a practical situation. ... (16-22) Three different mechanisms for contact electrification were recently emphasized by McCarty and Whitesides: electron transfer for contact between metals or semiconductors, ion transfer for contact involving materials that contain mobile ions, and asymmetric partitioning of hydroxide ions between adsorbed layers of water for contact involving nonionic and insulating materials. ... (15, 48, 49) The apparatus was built using two aluminum concentric cylinders (electrically insulated from each other by using polyethylene foam) connected by a coaxial cable to a Keithley instrument model 610C electrometer that was used in the charge measurement mode. ...

Rubia F. Gouveia; Carlos A. R. Costa; Fernando Galembeck

2008-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

74

Posters Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: Status and Water Vapor Continuum Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

9 9 Posters Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: Status and Water Vapor Continuum Results H. E. Revercomb, R. O. Knuteson, W. L. Smith, F. A. Best, and R. G. Dedecker University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin H. B. Howell National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Systems Design and Applications Branch Madison, Wisconsin Introduction Accurate and spectrally detailed observations of the thermal emission from radiatively important atmospheric gases, aerosols, and clouds are now being provided to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data base by the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) prototype at the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site. Spectra over the range from 520 to 3000 cm -1 (3 to 19 microns) with a resolution of 0.5 cm

75

The Impact of Thermal Conductivity and Diffusion Rates on Water Vapor Transport through Gas Diffusion Layers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water management in a hydrogen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is critical for performance. The impact of thermal conductivity and water vapor diffusion coefficients in a gas diffusion layer (GDL) has been studied by a mathematical model. The fraction of product water that is removed in the vapour phase through the GDL as a function of GDL properties and operating conditions has been calculated and discussed. Furthermore, the current model enables identification of conditions when condensation occurs in each GDL component and calculation of temperature gradient across the interface between different layers, providing insight into the overall mechanism of water transport in a given cell design. Water transport mode and condensation conditions in the GDL components depend on the combination of water vapor diffusion coefficients and thermal conductivities of the GDL components. Different types of GDL and water removal scenarios have been identified and related to experimentally-determined GDL proper...

Burlatsky, S F; Gummallaa, M; Condita, D; Liua, F

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Vertical Variability of Aerosols and Water Vapor Over the Southern Great Plains  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Vertical Variability of Aerosols and Water Vapor Vertical Variability of Aerosols and Water Vapor Over the Southern Great Plains R. A. Ferrare National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia D. D. Turner Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington M. Clayton and V. Brackett Science Applications International Corporation National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia T. P. Tooman and J. E. M. Goldsmith Sandia National Laboratories Livermore, California J. A. Ogren National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Boulder, Colorado E. Andrews Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado

77

The exchange rate for tritiated water vapor adsorbed on silica gel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EXCHANGE RATE FOR TRITIATED WATER VAPOR ADSORBED ON SILICA GEL A Thesis by PENNY ALANE SHAMBLIN Submitted to the Cnaduate College of Texas A8cM University in partial fulfihmnt of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1987 Major Subject: Health Physics THE EXCHANGE RATE FOR ~TED WATER VAPOR ADSORBED ON SILICA GEL A Thesis by PENNY ALANE SHAMBUN Approved as to style and content by: Milton E. McLain (Chair of Committee) Gerald A. Schla (Member) Ric ard...

Shamblin, Penny Alane

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

78

Materials, methods and devices to detect and quantify water vapor concentrations in an atmosphere  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

We have demonstrated that a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor coated with a nanoporous framework material (NFM) film can perform ultrasensitive water vapor detection at concentrations in air from 0.05 to 12,000 ppmv at 1 atmosphere pressure. The method is extendable to other MEMS-based sensors, such as microcantilevers, or to quartz crystal microbalance sensors. We identify a specific NFM that provides high sensitivity and selectivity to water vapor. However, our approach is generalizable to detection of other species using NFM to provide sensitivity and selectivity.

Allendorf, Mark D; Robinson, Alex L

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

79

Phase Transition Enthalpy Measurements of Organic and Organometallic Compounds. Sublimation, Vaporization and Fusion Enthalpies From  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Phase Transition Enthalpy Measurements of Organic and Organometallic Compounds. Sublimation, Vaporization and Fusion Enthalpies From 1880 to 2010 William Acree, Jr. Department of Chemistry, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 James S. Chickosa... Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

Chickos, James S.

80

A NORMETEX MODEL 15 M3/HR WATER VAPOR PUMPING TEST  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tests were performed using a Model 15 m{sup 3}/hr Normetex vacuum pump to determine if pump performance degraded after pumping a humid gas stream. An air feed stream containing 30% water vapor was introduced into the pump for 365 hours with the outlet pressure of the pump near the condensation conditions of the water. Performance of the pump was tested before and after the water vapor pumping test and indicated no loss in performance of the pump. The pump also appeared to tolerate small amounts of condensed water of short duration without increased noise, vibration, or other adverse indications. The Normetex pump was backed by a dual-head diaphragm pump which was affected by the condensation of water and produced some drift in operating conditions during the test.

Klein, J.; Fowley, M.; Steeper, T.

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Measurement of Total Water with a Tunable Diode Laser Hygrometer: Inlet Analysis, Calibration Procedure, and Ice Water Content Determination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The University of Colorado closed-path tunable diode laser hygrometer (CLH), a new instrument for the in situ measurement of enhanced total water (eTW, the sum of water vapor and condensed water enhanced by a subisokinetic inlet), has recently ...

Sean M. Davis; A. Gannet Hallar; Linnea M. Avallone; William Engblom

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Sorption-caused attenuation and delay of water-vapor signals in eddy-covariance sampling tubes and filters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Adsorption and desorption (together sorption) processes in sampling tubes and filters of eddy-covariance stations cause attenuation and delay of water-vapor signals, leading to underestimation of water-vapor fluxes by tens of per cent. The aim of ...

Annika Nordbo; Pekka Kekäläinen; Erkki Siivola; Ivan Mammarella; Jussi Timonen; Timo Vesala

83

Water Vapor Transport and Moisture Budget over Eastern China: Remote Forcing from the Two Types of El Niño  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The water vapor transport and moisture budget over eastern China remotely forced by the cold-tongue (CT) and warm-pool (WP) El Niño show striking differences throughout their lifetime. The water vapor transport response is weak in the developing ...

Xiuzhen Li; Wen Zhou; Deliang Chen; Chongyin Li; Jie Song

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Summary Weusedthreemethodstomeasureboundarylayer conductance to heat transfer (gbH) and water vapor transfer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Summary Weusedthreemethodstomeasureboundarylayer conductance to heat transfer (gbH) and water vapor of transpiration). The boundary layer conductance to heat transfer is small enough that leaf temperature can become diffusion, the boundary layer around a leaf also provides resistance to the transfer of heat between a leaf

Martin, Timothy

85

2.1 RAMAN LIDAR PROFILING OF WATER VAPOR AND AEROSOLS OVER THE ARM SGP SITE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with satellite sensors. Accurate, high spatial and temporal resolution profiles of water vapor are also required+GOES) have been combined into a single product that takes advantage of both active and passive remote sensors with the use of narrowband (~0.4 nm bandpass) filters, reduces the background skylight and, therefore

86

Water Vapor and Mechanical Work: A Comparison of Carnot and Steam Cycles OLIVIER PAULUIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by the corresponding Carnot cycle. The Carnot and steam cycles can be combined into a mixed cycle that is forcedWater Vapor and Mechanical Work: A Comparison of Carnot and Steam Cycles OLIVIER PAULUIS Center in the atmosphere is discussed here by comparing two idealized heat engines: the Carnot cycle and the steam cycle

Pauluis, Olivier M.

87

Water Vapor Budget in a Developing Tropical Cyclone and Its Implication for Tropical Cyclone Formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Evolution of the water vapor budget from the tropical wave stage to the tropical cyclone stage is examined using a high-resolution numerical model simulation. The focus is on a time window from 27 h prior to genesis to 9 h after genesis, and the ...

Cody Fritz; Zhuo Wang

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Using radiative transfer models to study the atmospheric water vapor content and to eliminate telluric lines from high-resolution optical spectra  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) and the retrieval algorithm, incorporated in the SCIATRAN 2.2 software package developed at the Institute of Remote Sensing/Institute of Enviromental Physics of Bremen University (Germany), allows to simulate, among other things, radiance/irradiance spectra in the 2400-24 000 {\\AA} range. In this work we present applications of RTM to two case studies. In the first case the RTM was used to simulate direct solar irradiance spectra, with different water vapor amounts, for the study of the water vapor content in the atmosphere above Sierra Nevada Observatory. Simulated spectra were compared with those measured with a spectrometer operating in the 8000-10 000 {\\AA} range. In the second case the RTM was used to generate telluric model spectra to subtract the atmospheric contribution and correct high-resolution stellar spectra from atmospheric water vapor and oxygen lines. The results of both studies are discussed.

Gardini, A; Pérez, E; Quesada, J A; Funke, B

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Models of the atmospheric water vapor budget for the Texas HIPLEX area: by Steven Francis Williams.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF CELLS Im ALL CASES zi III 500 LI IL' IL II) LI IZ 550 650 700 750 GOC r 0 r r I V 650 los 106 LOSS (gs ) 106 I09 GAIN Eiq ?13 Local ate-of ? ch, . iioe in the total IIaSS Of Water Vapor in 50-mb layers (q 6 l) over the Texas HTPLL... and vertical tzanspo" 2. of water vapor through boundaries of 50-mb layers in (g s r) over the Texas HIPLEX area averaged ior types of convective activity local r-te-of-change in. the total in-ss of water , ? 1 vaoor in 50-mb 1 yers (g s ) over the Texas...

Williams, Steven Francis

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

ARM - Measurement - Total cloud water  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

cloud water cloud water ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Total cloud water The total concentration (mass/vol) of ice and liquid water particles in a cloud; this includes condensed water content (CWC). Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. External Instruments NCEPGFS : National Centers for Environment Prediction Global Forecast System Field Campaign Instruments CSI : Cloud Spectrometer and Impactor PDI : Phase Doppler Interferometer

91

Sensitive and selective detection of hydrocarbon/water vapor mixtures with a nanoporous silicon microcantilever  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We have developed a sensitive and selective sensor for hydrocarbon/water vapor mixtures using nanomechanical infrared (IR) spectroscopy with a porous silicon (P-Si) microcantilever. Facile and direct anodization process is utilized to fabricate vertically aligned nanopores of 20–50 nm diameters on a plain silicon microcantilever. The effective Young's modulus and surface area of a P-Si microcantilever can be easily controlled by the thickness of the anodized P-Si layer. Here we demonstrate the detection of 1 wt% naphtha/water vapor mixtures using nanoporous cantilever IR spectroscopy. Nanoporous nature of the cantilever surface enhances its thermomechanical sensitivity. In addition, trapping the volatile hydrocarbon molecules in the nanowells increases the analyte concentration on the surface. Nanomechanical IR spectra of adsorbed vapors were obtained by plotting the deflection amplitudes of the microcantilever as a function of the illuminating IR wavenumber. The mass of the adsorbed vapors was determined from variations in the resonance frequency of the cantilever.

Dongkyu Lee; Omid Zandieh; Seonghwan Kim; Sangmin Jeon; Thomas Thundat

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Remote sensing of total integrated water vapor, wind speed, and cloud liquid water over the ocean using the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A modified D-matrix retrieval method is the basis of the refined total integrated water vapor (TIWV), total integrated cloud liquid water (CLW), and surface wind speed (WS) retrieval methods that are developed. The 85 GHZ polarization difference...

Manning, Norman Willis William

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

93

Effect of water vapor/hydrogen environments on niobium, B-66 niobium alloy, tantalum, and Ta-10W alloy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, the results of an experimental investigation of the effect of water vapor/hydrogen environments on the mechanical properties of niobium, B-66 niobium alloy, tantalum, and Ta-10W alloy are presented. Tensile tests were conducted on specimens of these materials in water vapor/hydrogen mixture ratios of 1 and 3. The water vapor/hydrogen environment caused strength reductions on tantalum and Ta-10W and ductility reductions on all four materials. The degree and causes of embrittlement were a complex function of temperature.

Walter, R.J.; Bentle, G.G.; Chandler, W.T. (Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.)

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Ice-water and liquid-vapor phase transitions by a Ginzburg–Landau model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A model for the first order phase transitions as ice-water and liquid-vapor is proposed using the Ginzburg–Landau equation for the order parameter ? . In this model the density ? is composed of two quantities ? 0 and ? 1 such that 1 / ? = 1 / ? 0 + 1 / ? 1 where ? 1 is strictly connected to the order parameter ? . By means of this decomposition we are able to represent the Andrew diagram without the use of the heuristic van der Waals equation.

Mauro Fabrizio

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Tensile, water vapor barrier and antimicrobial properties of PLA/nanoclay composite films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

PLA-based composite films with different types of nanoclays, such as Cloisite Na+, Cloisite 30B and Cloisite 20A, were prepared using a solvent casting method and their tensile, water vapor barrier and antimicrobial properties were tested. Tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (E), and water vapor permeability (WVP) of control PLA film were 50.45 ± 0.75 MPa, 3.0 ± 0.1%, and 1.8 × 10?11 g m/m2 s Pa, respectively. TS and E of nanocomposite films prepared with 5 g of clay/100 g of PLA decreased 10–20% and 11–17%, respectively, depending on the clays used. On the contrary, WVP of the nanocomposite films decreased 6–33% through nanoclay compounding. Among the clay types used, Cloisite 20A was the most effective in improving the water vapor barrier property while sacrificing tensile properties the least. The effect of clay concentration tested using Cloisite 20A showed a significant decrease in TS and WVP, with increases in clay content. Among the PLA/clay composite films tested, only PLA/Cloisite 30B composite film showed a bacteriostatic function against Listeria monocytogenes.

Jong-Whan Rhim; Seok-In Hong; Chang-Sik Ha

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Collaborative Research: The Influence of Cloud Microphysics and Radiation on the Response of Water Vapor and Clouds to Climate Change  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uncertainties in representing the atmospheric water cycle are major obstacles to an accurate prediction of future climate. This project focused on addressing some of these uncertainties by implementing new physics for convection and radiation into the NCAR climate model. To better understand and eventually better represent these processes, we modified CAM3.5 to use the convection and cloud schemes developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the RRTMG rapid radiation code for global models developed by Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER). The impact of the new physics on the CAM3.5 simulation of convection on diurnal and intra-seasonal scales, intra-seasonal oscillations and the distribution of water vapor has been investigated. The effect of the MIT and AER physics also has been tested in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional forecast model. It has been found that the application of the AER radiation and MIT convection produces significant improvements in the modeled diurnal cycle of convection, especially over land, in the NCAR climate model. However, both the standard CAM3.5 (hereinafter STD) and the modified CAM3.5 with the new physics (hereinafter MOD) are still unable to capture the proper spectrum and propagating characteristics of the intra-seasonal oscillations (ISOs). The new physics methods modify, but do not substantially improve, the distribution of upper tropospheric water vapor relative to satellite measurements.

Dr. Kerry Emanuel; Michael J. Iacono

2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

97

Short-range precipitation forecasts using assimilation of simulated satellite water vapor profiles and column cloud liquid water amounts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These observing system simulation experiments investigate the assimilation of satellite-observed water vapor and cloud liquid water data in the initialization of a limited-area primitive equations model with the goal of improving short-range precipitation forecasts. The assimilation procedure presented includes two aspects: specification of an initial cloud liquid water vertical distribution and diabatic initialization. The satellite data is simulated for the next generation of polar-orbiting satellite instruments, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the High-Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS), which are scheduled to be launched on the NOAA-K satellite in the mid-1990s. Based on cloud-top height and total column cloud liquid water amounts simulated for satellite data a diagnostic method is used to specify an initial cloud water vertical distribution and to modify the initial moisture distribution in cloudy areas. Using a diabatic initialization procedure, the associated latent heating profiles are directly assimilated into the numerical model. The initial heating is estimated by time averaging the latent heat release from convective and large-scale condensation during the early forecast stage after insertion of satellite-observed temperature, water vapor, and cloud water formation.

Wu, X.; Diak, G.R.; Hayden, C.M.; Young, J.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Multi-reanalysis comparison of variability in column water vapor and its analysis increment associated with Madden–Julian Oscillation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study conducts a multi-reanalysis comparison of variability in column water vapor (CWV) represented in three reanalysis products (JRA-55, JRA-25, and ERA-Interim) associated with Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) in boreal winter, with emphasis ...

Satoru Yokoi

99

Tunable structures and properties of electrospun regenerated silk fibroin mats annealed in water vapor at different times and temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Regenerated silk fibroin (SF) mats were fabricated using electrospinning technique, followed by mild water vapor annealing to effectively tune the structures and improve the mechanical properties of the mats at different annealing times and temperatures. ...

Xiangyu Huang, Suna Fan, Alhadi Ibrahim Mohammed Altayp, Yaopeng Zhang, Huili Shao, Xuechao Hu, Minkai Xie, Yuemin Xu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Glacial Cooling in the Tropics: Exploring the Roles of Tropospheric Water Vapor, Surface Wind Speed, and Boundary Layer Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper is a modeling study of possible roles for tropospheric water vapor, surface wind speed, and boundary layer processes in glacial cooling in the Tropics. The authors divide the Tropics into a region of persistent deep convection and a ...

Richard Seager; Amy C. Clement; Mark A. Cane

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

The Representation of Water Vapor and Its Dependence on Vertical Resolution in the Hadley Centre Climate Model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Simulations of the Hadley Centre Atmospheric Climate Model version 3, HadAM3, are used to investigate the impact of increasing vertical resolution on simulated climates. In particular, improvements in the representation of water vapor and ...

V. D. Pope; J. A. Pamment; D. R. Jackson; A. Slingo

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Measurement of Enthalpies of Vaporization of Isooctane and Ethanol Blends and Their Effects on PM Emissions from a GDI Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurement of Enthalpies of Vaporization of Isooctane and Ethanol Blends and Their Effects on PM Emissions from a GDI Engine ... The enthalpy of vaporization is very important for the performance of spark ignition engines, especially those that use gasoline direct injection (GDI). ... However, measurements reported here show that the increased enthalpy of vaporization has an adverse effect on the particulate matter (PM) emissions from a GDI engine. ...

Longfei Chen; Richard Stone

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

103

Contribution of water vapor pressure to pressurization of plutonium dioxide storage containers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pressurization of long-term storage containers filled with materials meeting the US DOE storage standard is of concern.1 2 For example temperatures within storage containers packaged according to the standard and contained in 9975 shipping packages that are stored in full view of the sun can reach internal temperatures of 250?°C.3 Twenty five grams of water (0.5 wt.%) at 250?°C in the storage container with no other material present would result in a pressure of 412 psia which is limited by the amount of water. The pressure due to the water can be substantially reduced due to interactions with the stored material. Studies of the adsorption of water by PuO 2 and surface interactions of water with PuO 2 show that adsorption of 0.5 wt.% of water is feasible under many conditions and probable under high humidity conditions.4 5 6 However no data are available on the vapor pressure of water over plutonium dioxide containing materials that have been exposed to water.

D. Kirk Veirs; John S. Morris; Dane R. Spearing

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) Handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from 15 channels between 170 and 183.310 GHz. Atmospheric emission in this spectral region is primarily due to water vapor, with some influence from liquid water. Channels between 170.0 and 176.0 GHz are particularly sensitive to the presence of liquid water. The sensitivity to water vapor of the 183.31-GHz line is approximately 30 times higher than at the frequencies of the two-channel microwave radiometer (MWR) for a precipitable water vapor (PWV) amount of less than 2.5 mm. Measurements from the GVRP instrument are therefore especially useful during low-humidity conditions (PWV < 5 mm). In addition to integrated water vapor and liquid water, the GVRP can provide low-resolution vertical profiles of water vapor in very dry conditions.

Caddeau, MP

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

105

Oxidation of zirconium alloys in 2.5 kPa water vapor for tritium readiness.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A more reactive liner material is needed for use as liner and cruciform material in tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBAR) in commercial light water nuclear reactors (CLWR). The function of these components is to convert any water that is released from the Li-6 enriched lithium aluminate breeder material to oxide and hydrogen that can be gettered, thus minimizing the permeation of tritium into the reactor coolant. Fourteen zirconium alloys were exposed to 2.5 kPa water vapor in a helium stream at 300 C over a period of up to 35 days. Experimental alloys with aluminum, yttrium, vanadium, titanium, and scandium, some of which also included ternaries with nickel, were included along with a high nitrogen impurity alloy and the commercial alloy Zircaloy-2. They displayed a reactivity range of almost 500, with Zircaloy-2 being the least reactive.

Mills, Bernice E.

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

In-reactor oxidation of zircaloy-4 under low water vapor pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Complementary in- and ex-reactor oxidation tests have been performed to evaluate the oxidation and hydrogen absorption performance of Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) under relatively low partial pressures (300 and 1000 Pa) of water vapor at specified test temperatures (330 and 370 C). Data from these tests will be used to support the fabrication of components intended for isotope-producing targets and provide information regarding the temperature and pressure dependence of oxidation and hydrogen absorption of Zr- 4 over the specified range of test conditions. Comparisons between in- and ex-reactor test results were performed to evaluate the influence of irradiation.

Walter G. Luscher; David J. Senor; Keven K. Clayton; Glen R. Longhurst

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Role of oxygen vacancies in water vapor chemisorption and CO oxidation on titania  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Titanium dioxide is widely used as support for various important catalysts. Although nonstoichiometric titania behaves as an n-type semiconductor, the nature of the defect sites is not yet fully understood. In the present investigation the water vapor adsorption and carbon monoxide oxidation on TiO[sub 2] is explained considering oxygen vacancies as the major defect. It is also shown that incorporation of an Al[sup 3+] ion in TiO[sub 2] reduces the concentration of oxygen ion vacancies and inhibits the transformation of anatase to rutile.

Sengupta, G.; Chatterjee, R.N.; Maity, G.C. (Project and Development India Ltd. Sindri, Dhanbad, Bihar (India)); Satyanarayna, C.V.V. (RSIC, Bombay (India). Indian Inst. of Tech. Powai)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Method of condensing vaporized water in situ to treat tar sands formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. Heat may be allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a first portion of the formation. Conditions may be controlled in the formation so that water vaporized by the heaters in the first portion is selectively condensed in a second portion of the formation. At least some of the fluids may be produced from the formation.

Hsu, Chia-Fu (Rijswijk, NL)

2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

109

Climatological aspects of the balance of water-vapor in the atmosphere overlying the Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Water-Vapor in the Atmosphere Overlying the Gulf of Mexico (August 1968) Allen Dean Cummings, B, S. , Baylor EEniversity Directed by: Dr, Guy A, Franceschini Aerological data from ten observing stations around the perimeter of the Gulf of Mexico... for the period, . Tune 1962 through May 1966 were used to study the water balance of the atmosphere ove. - the Gulf. For each of forty-ci ht months, average vector. components of water-vapor transfer at sixteen levels in the atmosphere were computed...

Cummings, Allen Dean

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

110

Analysis and forecast improvements from simulated satellite water vapor profiles and rainfall using a global data assimilation system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential improvements of analyses and forecasts from the use of satellite-observed rainfall and water vapor measurements from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Sensor Microwave (SSM) T-1 and T-2 instruments are investigated in a series of observing system simulation experiments using the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (formerly Air Force Geophysics Laboratory) data assimilation system. Simulated SSM radiances are used directly in a radiance retrieval step following the conventional optimum interpolation analysis. Simulated rainfall rates in the tropics are used in a moist initialization procedure to improve the initial specification of divergence, moisture, and temperature. Results show improved analyses and forecasts of relative humidity and winds compared to the control experiment in the tropics and the Southern Hemisphere. Forecast improvements are generally restricted to the first 1-3 days of the forecast. 27 refs., 11 figs.

Nehrkorn, T.; Hoffman, R.N.; Louis, J.F.; Isaacs, R.G.; Moncet, J.L. (Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Development of a Water Based, Critical Flow, Non-Vapor Compression cooling Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Expansion of a high-pressure liquid refrigerant through the use of a thermostatic expansion valve or other device is commonplace in vapor-compression cycles to regulate the quality and flow rate of the refrigerant entering the evaporator. In vapor-compression systems, as the condensed refrigerant undergoes this expansion, its pressure and temperature drop, and part of the liquid evaporates. We (researchers at Kansas State University) are developing a cooling cycle that instead pumps a high-pressure refrigerant through a supersonic converging-diverging nozzle. As the liquid refrigerant passes through the nozzle, its velocity reaches supersonic (or critical-flow) conditions, substantially decreasing the refrigerant’s pressure. This sharp pressure change vaporizes some of the refrigerant and absorbs heat from the surrounding conditions during this phase change. Due to the design of the nozzle, a shockwave trips the supersonic two-phase refrigerant back to the starting conditions, condensing the remaining vapor. The critical-flow refrigeration cycle would provide space cooling, similar to a chiller, by running a secondary fluid such as water or glycol over one or more nozzles. Rather than utilizing a compressor to raise the pressure of the refrigerant, as in a vapor-cycle system, the critical-flow cycle utilizes a high-pressure pump to drive refrigerant liquid through the cooling cycle. Additionally, the design of the nozzle can be tailored for a given refrigerant, such that environmentally benign substances can act as the working fluid. This refrigeration cycle is still in early-stage development with prototype development several years away. The complex multi-phase flow at supersonic conditions presents numerous challenges to fully understanding and modeling the cycle. With the support of DOE and venture-capital investors, initial research was conducted at PAX Streamline, and later, at Caitin. We (researchers at Kansas State University) have continued development of the cycle and have gained an in-depth understanding of the governing fundamental knowledge, based on the laws of physics and thermodynamics and verified with our testing results. Through this research, we are identifying optimal working fluid and operating conditions to eventually demonstrate the core technology for space cooling or other applications.

Hosni, Mohammad H.

2014-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

112

Comparison of Atmospheric Water Vapor in Observational and Model Data Sets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The global water vapor distribution for five observational based data sets and three GCM integrations are compared. The variables considered are the mean and standard deviation values of the precipitable water for the entire atmospheric column and the 500 to 300 hPa layer for January and July. The observationally based sets are the radiosonde data of Ross and Elliott, the ERA and NCEP reanalyses, and the NVAP blend of sonde and satellite data. The three GCM simulations all use the NCAR CCM3 as the atmospheric model. They include: a AMIP type simulation using observed SSTs for the period 1979 to 1993, the NCAR CSM 300 year coupled ocean--atmosphere integration, and a CSM integration with a 1% CO2 increase per year. The observational data exhibit some serious inconsistencies. There are geographical patterns of differences related to interannual variations and national instrument biases. It is clear that the proper characterization of water vapor is somewhat uncertain. Some conclusions about these data appear to be robust even given the discrepancies. The ERA data are too dry especially in the upper levels. The observational data evince much better agreement in the data rich Northern Hemisphere compared to the Southern. Distinct biases are quite pronounced over the Southern Ocean. The mean values and particularly the standard deviations of the three reanalyses are very dependent upon the GCM used as the assimilation vehicle for the analyses. This is made clear by the much enhanced tropical variability in the NCEP/DOE/ AMIP reanalyses compared the initial NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis. The NCAR CCM3 shows consistent evidence of a dry bias. The 1% CO2 experiment shows a very similar pattern of disagreement with the sonde data as the other integrations, once account is taken of the warming trend. No new modes of difference are evident in the 1% CO2 experiment. All the CCM3 runs indicated too much Tropical variability especially in the western Tropical Pacific and Southeast Asia. A EOF analysis of the interannual variations of the zonally averaged precipitable water and the 500 to 300 hPa layer reveals fundamental differences in the structure of the variations. The impact of ENSO and variations of the ITCZ have only a low level of correspondence between the observed data, much less the simulations. It is apparent that an adequate characterization of the climatology of the global water vapor distribution is not yet at hand.

Boyle, J.S.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

A QSPR Study of the Solubility of Gases and Vapors in Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

QSPR correlation equations were developed for the prediction of the solubilities of organic gases and vapors in water. ... The Ostwald solubility coefficient (L) is defined as the ratio of the equilibrium concentrations of a gaseous compound in the liquid and in the gas phase (eq 1), where a superscript w (Lw) usually denotes water as a solvent. ... Table 2) are as follows:? the energy gap between HOMO and LUMO (EHOMO ? ELUMO), the numbers of nitrogen atoms and of oxygen atoms in the molecule, and the most negative partial charge weighted topological electronic index43a (PCWTE) defined by eq 7, where qi and qj are the Zefirov partial charges43b of the bonded atoms, rij is the respective bond lengths, and Qmin is the most negative partial charge. ...

Alan R. Katritzky; Lan Mu; Mati Karelson

1996-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

114

Low-level wind maxima over the western Gulf of Mexico and their role in water vapor advection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pressure gradient favorable for the maintenance of a LLJ over the western Gulf. The LLT along the South Texas coast contributed to large northward fluxes of water vapor. The western coast of the Gulf of Mexico accounted for 12% more water vapor... stations 33 8 As in Figure 7 except the NGM and radiosonde observation from along the eastern Gulf coast are being compared 34 9 As in Figure 7 except the NGM and radiosonde observations from along the western Gulf coast are being compared 36 10...

Engel, Gregory Thomas

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

115

DOE/SC-ARM/TR-128 Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio Value-Added  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

8 8 Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio Value-Added Product April 2013 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the U.S. Government or any agency thereof. The views and

116

Chemical vapor detection using nanomechanical platform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For high sensitive and multiplexed chemical analysis, an opto-mechanical detection platform has been built. To check the performance of the platform, we performed water vapor response measurements for ... sensors...

S. H. Lim

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Accurate measurement of the through-plane water content of proton-exchange  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Accurate measurement of the through-plane water content of proton-exchange Accurate measurement of the through-plane water content of proton-exchange membranes using neutron radiography Title Accurate measurement of the through-plane water content of proton-exchange membranes using neutron radiography Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Hussey, Daniel S., Dusan Spernjak, Adam Z. Weber, Rangachary Mukundan, Joseph Fairweather, Eric L. Brosha, John Davey, Jacob S. Spendelow, David L. Jacobson, and Rodney L. Borup Journal Journal of Applied Physics Volume 112 Issue 10 Pagination 104906 Date Published 2012 ISSN 00218979 Keywords electrolyte fuel-cells, in-situ, liquid water, microchannel plate detectors, model, nafion, polymer electrolytes, schroeders-paradox, transport, x-ray-scattering Abstract The water sorption of proton-exchange membranes (PEMs) was measured in situ using high-resolution neutron imaging in small-scale fuel cell test sections. A detailed characterization of the measurement uncertainties and corrections associated with the technique is presented. An image-processing procedure resolved a previously reported discrepancy between the measured and predicted membrane water content. With high-resolution neutron-imaging detectors, the water distributions across N1140 and N117 Nafion membranes are resolved in vapor-sorption experiments and during fuel cell and hydrogen-pump operation. The measured in situ water content of a restricted membrane at 80 degrees C is shown to agree with ex situ gravimetric measurements of free-swelling membranes over a water activity range of 0.5 to 1.0 including at liquid equilibration. Schroeder's paradox was verified by in situ water-content measurements which go from a high value at supersaturated or liquid conditions to a lower one with fully saturated vapor. At open circuit and during fuel cell operation, the measured water content indicates that the membrane is operating between the vapor-and liquid-equilibrated states.

118

Quantitative IR Spectrum and Vibrational Assignments for Glycolaldehyde Vapor: Glycolaldehyde Measurements in Biomass Burning Plumes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Glycolaldehyde (GA, 2-hydroxyethanal, C2H4O2) is a semi-volatile molecule of atmospheric importance, recently proposed as a precursor in the formation of aqueous-phase secondary organic aerosol (SOA). There are few methods to measure glycolaldehyde vapor, but infrared spectroscopy has been used successfully. Using vetted protocols we have completed the first assignment of all fundamental vibrational modes and derived quantitative IR absorption band strengths using both neat and pressure-broadened GA vapor. Even though GA is problematic due to its propensity to both dimerize and condense, our intensities agree well with the few previously published values. Using the reference ?10 band Q-branch at 860.51 cm-1, we have also determined GA mixing ratios in biomass burning plumes generated by field and laboratory burns of fuels from the southeastern and southwestern United States, including the first field measurements of glycolaldehyde in smoke. The GA emission factors were anti-correlated with modified combustion efficiency confirming release of GA from smoldering combustion. The GA emission factors (g of GA emitted per kg dry biomass burned on a dry mass basis) had a low dependence on fuel type consistent with the production mechanism being pyrolysis of cellulose. GA was emitted at 0.23 ± 0.13% of CO from field fires and we calculate that it accounts for ~18% of the aqueous-phase SOA precursors that we were able to measure.

Johnson, Timothy J.; Sams, Robert L.; Profeta, Luisa T.; Akagi, Sheryl; Burling, Ian R.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Williams, Stephen D.

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

119

Charge transfer effects of ions at the liquid water/vapor interface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Charge transfer (CT), the movement of small amounts of electron density between non-bonded pairs, has been suggested as a driving force for a variety of physical processes. Herein, we examine the effect of CT on ion adsorption to the water liquid-vapor interface. Using a CT force field for molecular dynamics, we construct a potential of mean force (PMF) for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cl{sup ?}, and I{sup ?}. The PMFs were produced with respect to an average interface and an instantaneous interface. An analysis of the PMF relative to the instantaneous surface reveals that the area in which the anions experience a free energy minimum is quite narrow, and the cations feel a steeply repulsive free energy near the interface. CT is seen to have only minor effects on the overall free energy profiles. However, the long-ranged effects of ions are highlighted by the CT model. Due to CT, the water molecules at the surface become charged, even when the ion is over 15 Å away from the surface.

Soniat, Marielle; Rick, Steven W., E-mail: srick@uno.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana 70148 (United States)

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

120

Method and apparatus to measure vapor pressure in a flow system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a method for determining, by a condensation method, the vapor pressure of a material with a known vapor pressure versus temperature characteristic, in a flow system particularly in a mercury isotope enrichment process.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Biblarz, Oscar (Swampscott, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Tropical Anvil Characteristics and Water Vapor of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL): Impact of Homogeneous Freezing Parameterizations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Freezing Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Freezing Parameterizations on Tropical Anvil Characteristics and Water Vapor Content of the TTL Jiwen Fan Climate Physics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Contributed by: Jennifer Comstock, Mikhail Ovtchinnikov, Sally McFarlane, and Greg McFarquhar OBJECTIVES Look into the effects of the commonly used heterogeneous and homogeneous freezing parameterizations on anvil properties and water vapor content in the TTL for the deep convective clouds developed in the contrasting environments. Examine the impact of the immersion-freezing on homogeneous freezing process. Homogeneous freezing parameterizations (HFPs) 1) Koop et al. (2000): J r depends on the water activity of the solution and is independent of the nature of solute.

122

Angular and energy dependence of cross sections for ejection of electrons from water vapor. III. 20–150-keV neutral-hydrogen impact  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Absolute values of cross sections for electron production in collisions of neutral hydrogen atoms of 20–150 keV energy with water vapor molecules have been measured as a function of the ejection energy and angle. The range of angles was 10° to 160° and the electron energy range was 1–300 eV. The doubly differential cross sections were integrated over angle and/or energy to obtain singly differential cross sections, total electron production cross sections, and average energies of ejection. The angular distribution of the electron loss peak was found to have some features in common with the cross section for elastic scattering of electrons.

M. A. Bolorizadeh and M. E. Rudd

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Corrosion of aluminum-uranium alloys in water vapor at 200 C  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Specimens of aluminum-uranium alloys at 10 and 18 wt.% uranium were exposed to a saturated water vapor condition at 200 C up to about 12 weeks and compared to previous results for aluminum 1100. The aluminum-uranium materials exhibited a range of initial corrosion rates and approached similar rates with the formation of a passive film of boehmite (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center{underscore}dot}H{sub 2}O). The initial corrosion rates of the aluminum-uranium materials were one to four times higher than that for aluminum 1100. It is postulated that a micro-galvanic coupling between the large UAl{sub 4} particles and the aluminum matrix has caused this difference. Sectioning the exposed specimens shows different characteristics of the oxide layers. In the oxide on the aluminum-10% uranium alloy (Al-10%U), small uranium aluminide particles can be seen in a boehmite matrix and do not seem to be corroded. The oxide film on the aluminum-18% uranium alloy (Al-18%U) appears to have two distinct oxide layers. The outer layer has mass aggregates in a boehmite matrix, while the inner layer contains UAl{sub 4} particles as in the case of Al-10%U.

Lam, P.S.; Sindelar, R.L.; Barrett, K.Y.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Corrosion of Aluminum-Uranium Alloys in Water Vapor at 200\\260C  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coupons of aluminum-uranium alloys at 10 and 18 weight percent were exposed to a saturated water vapor condition at 200 degrees C up to about 1500 hours and compared to previous results for aluminum 1100. The aluminum-uranium materials exhibited a range of initial corrosion rates and approached similar rates with the formation of a passive film of boehmite (Al2O3oH2O). The cast and extruded 10 percent uranium, having a primary aluminum-eutectic microstructure, was more corrosion resistant than the 18% cast and extruded. The initial corrosion rates of the aluminum-uranium materials were one to four times higher than that for aluminum 1100. It is postulated that a micro-galvanic coupling between the large UAl4 particles and the aluminum matrix has caused the variation. Sectioning the exposed specimens shows different characteristics of the oxide layers. In the case of the cast and extruded Al-10 percent U alloy, small uranium aluminide particles can be seen in the boehmite matrix and do not seem to be corroded. The oxide film of the Al-18 percent U alloy appears to have two distinct oxide layers. The outer layer has mass aggregates formed in the aluminum oxide matrix, while the inner layer contains UAl4 particles as in the case of Al-10 percent U

Lam, P.S.

1998-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

125

In situ PEM fuel cell water measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efficient PEM fuel cell performance requires effective water management. The materials used, their durability, and the operating conditions under which fuel cells run, make efficient water management within a practical fuel cell system a primary challenge in developing commercially viable systems. We present experimental measurements of water content within operating fuel cells. in response to operational conditions, including transients and freezing conditions. To help understand the effect of components and operations, we examine water transport in operating fuel cells, measure the fuel cell water in situ and model the water transport within the fuel cell. High Frequency Resistance (HFR), AC Impedance and Neutron imaging (using NIST's facilities) were used to measure water content in operating fuel cells with various conditions, including current density, relative humidity, inlet flows, flow orientation and variable GDL properties. Ice formation in freezing cells was also monitored both during operation and shut-down conditions.

Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davey, John R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendalow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

3708 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 47, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2009 Retrieval of Atmospheric Water Vapor Density With  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3708 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 47, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2009 Retrieval, remote sensing, water vapor. Manuscript received November 1, 2008; revised May 2, 2009 and August 8, 2009 the latent heat of vaporization is a principal mechanism for the transport of energy from the equatorial

Reising, Steven C.

127

Wavelength-modulation laser hygrometer for ultrasensitive detection of water vapor in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- bines wavelength-modulation absorption spectros- copy WMS 12­16 that uses near-infrared InGaAsP diode is measured by use of a near-infrared diode laser and wavelength-modulation absorption spectroscopy. Humidity in the spectral regions of strongest water absorption. Sensitive single-mode cavity ring-down techniques based

128

Method and apparatus for simulating atomospheric absorption of solar energy due to water vapor and CO.sub.2  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth's surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO.sub.2 and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO.sub.2 and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO.sub.2 and moisture.

Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Method and apparatus for simulating atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to water vapor and CO{sub 2}  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth`s surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO{sub 2} and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO{sub 2} and moisture. 8 figs.

Sopori, B.L.

1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

130

Glass softening, crystallization, and vaporization of nano-aggregates of Amorphous Solid Water: Fast Scanning Calorimetry studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fast scanning calorimetry (FSC) was employed to investigate glass softening dynamics in amorphous solid water (ASW) nano-aggregates with thicknesses ranging from 2 to 20 nm. ASW nano-aggregates were prepared by vapor-deposition on the surface of a tungsten filament near 141 K and then heated at a rate of 100 kK/s. The resulting thermogram complex endo- and exothermal features were analyzed using a simple model. The results of the analysis show that glass softening of ASW nano-aggregates takes place at 160 K and vaporization of ASW nano-aggregates can take place at temperatures as low as 185 K. The results of these studies are discussed in conjunction with results of past studies of glass softening dynamics in water in various confining geometries.

Deepanjan Bhattacharya; Liam OReilly; Vlad Sadtchenko

2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

131

In Situ Measurement Technique for Simultaneous Detection of K, KCl, and KOH Vapors Released During Combustion of Solid Biomass Fuel in a Single Particle Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A quantitative and simultaneous measurement of K, KCl, and KOH vapors from a burning fuel sample combusted in a single particle reactor was performed using collinear photofragmentation...

Sorvajärvi, Tapio; DeMartini, Nikolai; Rossi, Jussi; Toivonen, Juha

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

\\{NOx\\} emission characteristics of fluidized bed combustion in atmospheres rich in oxygen and water vapor for high-nitrogen fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The present study examines the influence of water vapor in combustion atmosphere on \\{NOx\\} emission from oxygen-enriched combustion of air-dried distilled spirit lees and its char in a laboratory fluidized bed of 760 mm high and 68 mm in inner diameter. Steam was added into the fluidizing gas to vary the vapor content in the combustion atmosphere. At a combustion temperature of 950 °C and a steam-to-fuel mass ratio (S/F) of 0.5, the presence of water vapor reduced the \\{NOx\\} concentration in the flue gas for low O2 contents (?30 vol.%) in the combustion agent but increased the \\{NOx\\} emission for high O2 contents (?40 vol.%). The possible causes were clarified for this shift from suppression to promotion of fuel-N conversion into \\{NOx\\} with raising O2 concentration in the combustion agent. Varying temperature from 850 °C to 1150 °C resulted in a peak conversion of fuel-N to \\{NOx\\} in the temperature range of 950–1050 °C for all the tested O2 concentrations. Increasing the O2 concentration tended to lower the critical temperature corresponding to such a peak fuel-N conversion. Testing results also suggested that the presence of excessive water vapor in the combustion atmosphere would inhibit the release of fuel-N in the devolatilization stage and promote the formation of some reducing gases. In addition to the anticipated diluting effect, the steam addition also shortened the reaction time for homogeneous and heterogeneous \\{NOx\\} reduction by the reducing gases and char. It is postulated that the formation of OH radicals at high O2 content and high temperature could cause the observed increase in the \\{NOx\\} emission.

Chuanqiang Zhu; Shuyuan Liu; Huan Liu; Juan Yang; Xiaoxing Liu; Guangwen Xu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Evaluating Water Vapor in the NCAR CAM3 Climate Model with RRTMG/McICA using Modeled and Observed AIRS Spectral Radiances  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Vapor in the NCAR CAM3 Climate Model with Water Vapor in the NCAR CAM3 Climate Model with RRTMG/McICA using Modeled and Observed AIRS Spectral Radiances Michael J. Iacono, Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., 131 Hartwell Avenue, Lexington, MA 02421 USA 1. Overview Objectives: * Evaluate water vapor and temperature simulation in two versions of CAM3 by comparing modeled and observed cloud-cleared AIRS spectral radiances. * Use spectral differences to verify comparisons between modeled water vapor and temperature and observed fields retrieved from AIRS radiances. Models: OSS: Optimal Spectral Sampling model developed at AER was used to simulate clear sky AIRS radiance spectra in CAM3. RRTMG/McICA: ARM-supported LW and SW radiative transfer model developed at AER for application to GCMs. RRTMG has been fully

134

Atmospheric Water Vapor Pressure over Land Surfaces: A Generic Algorithm with Data Input Limited to Air Temperature, Precipitation and Geographic Location  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A lack of information for surface water vapor pressure (WVP) represents a major impediment to model-assisted ecosystem analysis for understanding plant-environment interactions or for projecting biospheric re...

X. Yin

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes work performed on this project from October 2004 through March 2005. In previous work, a surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) was shown to be an effective system for removing BTEX contaminants from produced water. Additional work on this project demonstrated that a compost-based biofilter could biodegrade the BTEX contaminants found in the SMZ regeneration waste gas stream. However, it was also determined that the BTEX concentrations in the waste gas stream varied significantly during the regeneration period and the initial BTEX concentrations were too high for the biofilter to handle effectively. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using a passive adsorption column placed upstream of the biofilter to attenuate the peak gas-phase VOC concentrations delivered to the biofilter during the SMZ regeneration process. In preparation for the field test of the SMZ/VPB treatment system in New Mexico, a pilot-scale SMZ system was also designed and constructed during this reporting period. Finally, a cost and feasibility analysis was also completed. To investigate the merits of the passive buffering system during SMZ regeneration, two adsorbents, SMZ and granular activated carbon (GAC) were investigated in flow-through laboratory-scale columns to determine their capacity to handle steady and unsteady VOC feed conditions. When subjected to a toluene-contaminated air stream, the column containing SMZ reduced the peak inlet 1000 ppmv toluene concentration to 630 ppmv at a 10 second contact time. This level of buffering was insufficient to ensure complete removal in the downstream biofilter and the contact time was longer than desired. For this reason, using SMZ as a passive buffering system for the gas phase contaminants was not pursued further. In contrast to the SMZ results, GAC was found to be an effective adsorbent to handle the peak contaminant concentrations that occur early during the SMZ regeneration process. At a one second residence time, the GAC bed reduced peak contaminant concentrations by 97%. After the initial peak, the inlet VOC concentration in the SMZ regeneration gas stream drops exponentially with time. During this period, the contaminants on the GAC subsequently desorbed at a nearly steady rate over the next 45 hours resulting in a relatively steady effluent concentration of approximately 25 ppm{sub v}. This lower concentration is readily degradable by a downstream vapor phase biofilter (VPB) and the steady nature of the feed stream will prevent the biomass in the VPB from enduring starvation conditions between SMZ regeneration cycles. Repetitive sorption and desorption cycles that would be expected in the field were also investigated. It was determined that although the GAC initially lost some VOC sorption capacity, the adsorption and desorption profiles stabilized after approximately 6 cycles indicating that a GAC bed should be suitable for continuous operation. In preparation for the pilot field testing of the SMZ/VPB system, design, ''in-house'' construction and testing of the field system were completed during this project period. The design of the SMZ system for the pilot test was based on previous investigations by the PI's in Wyoming, 2002 and on analyses of the produced water at the field site in New Mexico. The field tests are scheduled for summer, 2005. A cost survey, feasibility of application and cost analyses were completed to investigate the long term effectiveness of the SMZ/VPB system as a method of treating produced water for re-use. Several factors were investigated, including: current costs to treat and dispose of produced water, end-use water quality requirements, and state and federal permitting requirements.

Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

2005-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

136

Method and apparatus to measure vapor pressure in a flow system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a method for determining, by a condensation method, the vapor pressure of a material with a known vapor pressure versus temperature characteristic, in a flow system particularly in a mercury isotope enrichment process. 2 figures.

Grossman, M.W.; Biblarz, O.

1991-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

137

A logical extension of the ASTM Standard E96 to determine the dependence of water vapor transmission on relative humidity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is well known that the water vapor transmission properties of hygroscopic building materials depend on the local relative humidities(rh). Traditionally, the ASTM Standard E96 specifies only two conditions of rh. The dry cup method in the standard corresponds to a mean rh of 25% and the wet cup to 75%. This information is not enough to describe the behavior of the material through the entire range of rh. European Standards have already proposed an extension of the existing standard to address this issue. ASTM standard should follow this change. A logical extension of the E96 standard to include the effect of rh on water vapor transmission properties has been proposed and is being discussed by one of the C16 Committee Task Groups. This paper presents the application of the proposed extension to several common building materials. The details include the operating principles of a constant temperature-rh chamber and the effects on the test results, of the vapor resistance offered by still air inside the cup, the surface resistances and buoyancy. The experimental data were used to critically assess the above effects. The data as well as the analyses of the data are expected to provide guidance to refine the existing ASTM Standard.

Lackey, J.C.; Marchand, R.G.; Kumaran, M.K. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Inst. for Research in Construction

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Numerical Simulation of Hydrodynamics of a Heavy Liquid Drop Covered by Vapor Film in a Water Pool  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A numerical study on the hydrodynamics of a droplet covered by vapor film in water pool is carried out. Two level set functions are used as to implicitly capture the interfaces among three immiscible fluids (melt-drop, vapor and coolant). This approach leaves only one set of conservation equations for the three phases. A high-order Navier-Stokes solver, called Cubic-Interpolated Pseudo-Particle (CIP) algorithm, is employed in combination with level set approach, which allows large density ratios (up to 1000), surface tension and jump in viscosity. By this calculation, the hydrodynamic behavior of a melt droplet falling into a volatile coolant is simulated, which is of great significance to reveal the mechanism of steam explosion during a hypothetical severe reactor accident. (authors)

Ma, W.M.; Yang, Z.L.; Giri, A.; Sehgal, B.R. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Drottning Kristinas vaeg 33 A, 100 44, Stockholm (Sweden)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Water desalination: An imperative measure for water security in Egypt  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water Desalination is an indispensable industry for the most of the Arab countries. In the last four decades, the number and capacities of desalination units have increased dramatically (45% Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) and 42% Reverse Osmosis (RO) of world capacity); especially in the Gulf States. Almost all available conventional water resources in Egypt - represented by the Nile water, renewable groundwater, and some scant annual precipitation- have been exhausted. Further development measures require review of current water allocations in order to raise efficiencies and protect against pollution, in addition to exploring new options of non-conventional water resources to narrow the gap between water supply and demand. These measures are the pillars of Egypt's integrated water policy and have been clearly postulated in its National Water Resources Plan 2017. The objective of this paper is to study and investigate water desalination as a solution for water scarcity in Egypt. Moreover, the present work demonstrates the significance of seawater desalination for national development in Egypt. At present, Egypt is encouraging, not only the public sector but also the private sector, to apply modern technologies for desalination, which historically started with Distillation then Electrodyalisis and followed by RO. The great achievements in desalination technology have now moved the costs for desalting in many applications from the realm of "expensive" to "competitive". Current technology is feasible for tourist villages in the north coast and the Red Sea, due to its far distances from conventional sources that makes the cost of water conveyance very high and subject to pollution problems. The results indicated that, in spite of research and developments, still the energy requirement and membrane know-how are limiting factors. Thus, Egypt's future vision is non-traditional in the field of desalination. It is based on a real breakthrough towards the use of renewable energy, namely, solar energy to be harnessed for operating high compression pumps needed for reverse osmosis modular systems. The reasons are obvious, since Egypt has great potential of brackish water wells, immense amounts of solar radiation in remote areas and future integrated development projects are located at a distance from the Nile water. This trend is what Egypt is focusing on as a prospective future for wide applications of desalination. Finally, this research concluded that, the water desalination as a conventional water resource should be considered as an imperative measure for water security in Egypt. The future use of such resource for different purposes will largely depend on the rate of improvement in the technologies used for desalination and the cost of needed power.

Alaa El-Sadek

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

High-temperature stress measurement on chemical-vapor-deposited tungsten silicide and tungsten films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stresses in chemical-vapor-deposited tungsten silicide and tungsten films at high temperatures were measured. Tungsten silicide films were formed from WF/sub 6/ and SiH/sub 4/ or Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/. Tungsten films were formed from WF/sub 6/ and H/sub 2/. The stress in tungsten silicide films is tensile and in the order of 10/sup 9/--10/sup 10/ dynes/cm/sup 2/. For a composition ratio of Si/Wless than or equal to2.6, the stress of a film of more than 1000 A has a maximum at about 500 /sup 0/C. On the other hand, for a composition Si/W>2.9, the stress has no maximum. The maximum of the stress is caused by crystallization of the film. The stress has two components. One component is related to the difference of the thermal expansion coefficients between the film and the Si substrate. Another is related to the film crystallization. It was found that the stress concentrates in the portion of the film nearest the substrate. The stress in tungsten films also reaches a maximum at 550 /sup 0/C, similar to the tungsten silicide films. However, the cause of this behavior is not clear.

Shioya, Y.; Ikegami, K.; Maeda, M.; Yanagida, K.

1987-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Fault detection methods for vapor-compression air conditioners using electrical measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(cont.) This method was experimentally tested and validated on a commercially available air handler and duct system. In the second class of faults studied, liquid refrigerant, rather than vapor, enters the cylinder of a ...

Laughman, Christopher Reed.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

The Influence of Cloud Microphysics and Radiation on the Response of Water Vapor and Clouds to Climate Change  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uncertainties in representing the atmospheric water cycle are major obstacles to the accurate prediction of future climate. This project focused on addressing some of these uncertainties by implementing new physics for convection and radiation into the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). To better understand and eventually better represent these processes in this major national climate model, we modified CAM3.5 to use the convection and cloud schemes developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the RRTMG rapid radiation code for global climate models developed by Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER). The impact of the new physics on the CAM3.5 simulation of convection on diurnal and intra-seasonal scales, on intra-seasonal oscillations and on the distribution of water vapor has been investigated. In addition, the MIT and AER physics packages have been incorporated and tested in combination within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional forecast model for the purpose of evaluating and improving convective and radiative processes on time scales appropriate to weather simulations. It has been found that the application of the AER radiation and MIT convection produces significant improvements in the modeled diurnal cycle of convection, especially over land, in the NCAR climate model. However, both the standard CAM3.5 and the modified CAM3.5 with the new physics are unable to capture the proper spectrum and propagating characteristics of dynamical intra-seasonal oscillations such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation. In addition, it has been shown that the new physics methods modify, but do not substantially improve, the distribution of upper tropospheric water vapor in CAM as established through the comparison of modeled and observed satellite radiances. This suggests that continuing regional discrepancies in water vapor amounts in the climate model may not be solely related to convective or radiative processes. The major results of this project have been described in more detail in a journal article titled â??The Impacts of AER Radiation and MIT Convection on the Water Cycle Simulated by CAM3.5â? that will be submitted for publication during Fall 2010.

Emanuel, Kerry; Iacono, Michael J.

2010-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

143

Final report on the project entitled "The Effects of Disturbance & Climate on Carbon Storage & the Exchanges of CO2 Water Vapor & Energy Exchange of Evergreen Coniferous Forests in the Pacific Northwest: Integration of Eddy Flux, Plant and Soil Measurements at a Cluster of Supersites"  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final technical report containing a summary of all findings with regard to the following objectives of the project: (1) To quantify and understand the effects of wildfire on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in a chronosequence of ponderosa pine (disturbance gradient); (2) To investigate the effects of seasonal and interannual variation in climate on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in mature conifer forests in two climate zones: mesic 40-yr old Douglas-fir and semi-arid 60-yr old ponderosa pine (climate gradient); (3) To reduce uncertainty in estimates of CO2 feedbacks to the atmosphere by providing an improved model formulation for existing biosphere-atmosphere models; and (4) To provide high quality data for AmeriFlux and the NACP on micrometeorology, meteorology, and biology of these systems. Objective (1): A study integrating satellite remote sensing, AmeriFlux data, and field surveys in a simulation modeling framework estimated that the pyrogenic carbon emissions, tree mortality, and net carbon exchange associated with four large wildfires that burned ~50,000 hectares in 2002-2003 were equivalent to 2.4% of Oregon statewide anthropogenic carbon emissions over the same two-year period. Most emissions were from the combustion of the forest floor and understory vegetation, and only about 1% of live tree mass was combusted on average. Objective (2): A study of multi-year flux records across a chronosequence of ponderosa pine forests yielded that the net carbon uptake is over three times greater at a mature pine forest compared with young pine. The larger leaf area and wetter and cooler soils of the mature forest mainly caused this effect. A study analyzing seven years of carbon and water dynamics showed that interannual and seasonal variability of net carbon exchange was primarily related to variability in growing season length, which was a linear function of plant-available soil moisture in spring and early summer. A multi-year drought (2001-2003) led to a significant reduction of net ecosystem exchange due to carry-over effects in soil moisture and carbohydrate reserves in plant-tissue. In the same forest, the interannual variability in the rate carbon is lost from the soil and forest floor is considerable and related to the variability in tree growth as much as it is to variability in soil climatic conditions. Objective (3): Flux data from the mature ponderosa pine site support a physical basis for filtering nighttime data with friction velocity above the canopy. An analysis of wind fields and heat transport in the subcanopy at the mesic 40-year old Douglas site yielded that the non-linear structure and behavior of spatial temperature gradients and the flow field require enhanced sensor networks to estimate advective fluxes in the subcanopy of forest to close the surface energy balance in forests. Reliable estimates for flux uncertainties are needed to improve model validation and data assimilation in process-based carbon models, inverse modeling studies and model-data synthesis, where the uncertainties may be as important as the fluxes themselves. An analysis of the time scale dependence of the random and flux sampling error yielded that the additional flux obtained by increasing the perturbation timescale beyond about 10 minutes is dominated by random sampling error, and therefore little confidence can be placed in its value. Artificial correlation between gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) is a consequence of flux partitioning of eddy covariance flux data when GEP is computed as the difference between NEE and computed daytime Re (e.g. using nighttime Re extrapolated into daytime using soil or air temperatures). Tower-data must be adequately spatially averaged before comparison to gridded model output as the time variability of both is inherently different. The eddy-covariance data collected at the mature ponderosa pine site and the mesic Douglas fir site were used to develop and evaluate a new method to extra

Beverly E. Law (PI), Christoph K. Thomas (CoI)

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

144

The effect of water vapor on the release of fission gas from the fuel elements of high temperature, gas-cooled reactors: A preliminary assessment of experiments HRB-17, HFR-B1, HFR-K6 and KORA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of water vapor on the release of fission gas from the fuel elements of high temperature, gas-cooled reactors has been measured in different laboratories under both irradiation and post irradiation conditions. The data from experiments HRB-17, HFR-B1, HFR-K6, and in the KORA facility are compared to assess their consistency and complimentarily. The experiments are consistent under comparable experimental conditions and reveal two general mechanisms involving exposed fuel kernels embedded in carbonaceous materials. One is manifest as a strong dependence of fission gas release on the partial pressure of water vapor below 1 kPa and the other, as a weak dependence above 1 kPa.

Myers, B.F.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Oxidation of Slurry Aluminide Coatings on Cast Stainless Steel Alloy CF8C-Plus at 800oC in Water Vapor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new, cast austenitic stainless steel, CF8C-Plus, has been developed for a wide range of high temperature applications, including diesel exhaust components, turbine casings and turbocharger housings. CF8C-Plus offers significant improvements in creep rupture life and creep rupture strength over standard CF8C steel. However, at higher temperatures and in more aggressive environments, such as those containing significant water vapor, an oxidation-resistant protective coating will be necessary. The oxidation behavior of alloys CF8C and CF8C-Plus with various aluminide coatings were compared at 800oC in air plus 10 vol% water vapor. Due to their affordability, slurry aluminides were the primary coating system of interest, although chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and pack cementation coatings were also compared. Additionally, a preliminary study of the low cycle fatigue behavior of aluminized CF8C-Plus was conducted at 800oC. Each type of coating provided substantial improvements in oxidation behavior, with simple slurry aluminides showing very good oxidation resistance after 4,000 h testing in water vapor. Preliminary low cycle fatigue results indicated that thicker aluminide coatings degraded high temperature fatigue properties of CF8C-Plus, whereas thinner coatings did not. Results suggest that appropriately designed slurry aluminide coatings are a viable option for economical, long-term oxidation protection of austenitic stainless steels in water vapor.

Haynes, James A [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Dryepondt, Sebastien N [ORNL; Kumar, Deepak [ORNL; Zhang, Ying [Tennessee Technological University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Diode laser measurement of H?O, CO?, and temperature in gas turbine exhaust through the application of wavelength modulation spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Absorption-Measurements of Water-Vapor Concentration, Temperature, and Line-Shape Parameters Using a Tunable Ingaasp

Leon, Marco E.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Assessment of precipitable water vapor derived from ground-based BeiDou observations with Precise Point Positioning approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Precipitable water vapor (PWV) estimation from Global Positioning System (GPS) has been extensively studied and used for meteorological applications. However PWV estimation using the emerging BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) is very limited. In this paper the PWV estimation strategy and the evaluation of the results inferred from ground-based BDS observations using Precise Point Positioning (PPP) method are presented. BDS and GPS data from 10 stations distributed in the Asia–Pacific and West Indian Ocean regions during the year 2013 are processed using the PANDA (Position and Navigation Data Analyst) software package. The BDS-PWV and GPS-PWV are derived from the BDS-only and GPS-only observations, respectively. The PPP positioning differences between BDS-only and GPS-only show a standard deviation (STD) Indian Ocean regions and that BDS alone can be used for PWV estimation with an accuracy comparable to GPS.

Min Li; Wenwen Li; Chuang Shi; Qile Zhao; Xing Su; Lizhong Qu; Zhizhao Liu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Vapor spill pipe monitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

1983-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

149

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 102, NO. D24, PAGES 29,737-29,745, DECEMBER 26, 1997 Atmospheric aerosol and water vapor characteristics over north  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric aerosol and water vapor characteristics over north central Canada during BOREAS B. L. Markham, J typically0.09 and 0.34 cm, respectively.Size distributionsderivedfrom solar almucantarmeasurementsshowtheHughesSTXCorporation,Greenbelt,Maryland. 2Formerlyat HSTX/GSFC-NASA,Greenbelt,Maryland. Copyright1997by the American

150

Ocean Water Vapor and Cloud Burden Trends Derived from the Topex Microwave Radiometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. TMR OBSERVATIONS The TMR flew in a 10-day non-sun-synchronous exact repeat orbit with an inclination algorithm is a log-linear regression algorithm with coefficients that are stratified by wind speed and water

Ruf, Christopher

151

Oxygen isotope anomaly observed in water vapor from Alert, Canada and the implication for the stratosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...stratospheric input of anomalous water, injections of stratospheric tritium (mainly produced by atmospheric detonations of thermonuclear devices during 1954?1963) to various sites in Greenland and Antarctica were recorded in snow pits (e.g., ref...

Ying Lin; Robert N. Clayton; Lin Huang; Noboru Nakamura; James R. Lyons

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Intraparticle heat and mass transfer characteristics of silica-gel/water vapor adsorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently, highly efficient energy utilization systems which extensively employ adsorption phenomena such as pressure swing adsorption, heat storage, adsorption heat pump, etc. are being regarded as one of the countermeasures for environmental issues such as green house effect and ozone layer destruction. An Adsorption Heat Pump (AHP) has been investigated as one of the important techniques via which cold heat energy is obtained from waste thermal energy below 373K without using electricity and CFCs. An AHP normally consists of an adsorber and an evaporator/condenser and cold heat energy is generated by latent heat of evaporation during adsorption process. For realizing the AHP technology, it has been pointed out that the development of an adsorber with optimum heat and mass transfer characteristics is essentially important. In this study, experimental studies were carried out which was based on the data of temperature inside the adsorbent particle and adsorptivity profiles at the adsorption/desorption process by volumetric method. To clarify adsorption mechanism relatively large silica-gel particle (7 mm f) was used. Temperature distribution in the particle is determined at the center, at one half radius in the radial direction and at the surface by using very thin (30 mm f) thermocouples. The temperatures at these points simultaneously increase/decrease as soon as the adsorption/desorption started, reached their respective maximum/minimum values and then return to initial temperature. The temperature profiles for the adsorption process show that the temperature at the surface is initially slightly higher than the other two points. All three points reached their respective maximum temperature at the same time with the temperature at the center point the highest and at the surface the lowest. The temperature profiles during the desorptive process are almost exactly the opposite to that of the adsorption process. This shows that the adsorption phenomena can take place not only at the surface but inside the adsorbent particle, implying that intraparticle vapor diffusion has a great influence on adsorptivity.

Yamamoto, Eri; Watanabe, Fujio; Hasatani, Masanobu

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Hydrogen Ingress in Steels During High-Temperature Oxidation in Water Vapor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is well established that hydrogen derived from water vapour can penetrate oxidizing alloys with detrimental effect. However, the complexities of tracking hydrogen in these materials have prevented the direct profiling of hydrogen ingress needed to understand these phenomena. Here we report hydrogen profiles in industrially-relevant alumina- and chromia- forming steels correlated with the local oxide-metal nano/microstructure by use of SIMS D2O tracer studies and experimental protocols to optimize D retention. The D profiles unexpectedly varied markedly among the alloys examined, which indicates mechanistic complexity but also the potential to mitigate detrimental water vapour effects by manipulation of alloy chemistry.

Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Fayek, Mostafa [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Constraints on the microwave opacity of gaseous methane and water vapor in the Jovian atmosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gaseous NH/sub 3/'s microwave absorption in the Jovian atmosphere appears too great to be due to a solar abundance of this gas. The additional capacity of microwave absorption is presently sought in measurements of the microwave absorption of CH/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/O under simulated Jovian conditions at 2.25 GHz, 8.5 GHz, 21.7 GHz; due to large error bars, measurements represent upper limits on the microwave opacity generated by H/sub 2/O and CH/sub 4/. The results obtained are consistent with theoretical expressions for microwave opacity in a Jovian atmosphere at the specified frequencies. The presence of an NH/sub 3/ abundance exceeding the solar level by a factor of 1.5 is indicated by test results. 16 references.

Jenkins, J.M.; Steffes, P.G.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Designing Turbine Endwalls for Deposition Resistance with 1,400 °C Combustor Exit Temperatures and Syngas Water Vapor Levels„The Ohio State University  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Designing Turbine Endwalls for Designing Turbine Endwalls for Deposition Resistance with 1,400 °C Combustor Exit Temperatures and Syngas Water Vapor Levels-The Ohio State University Background This University Turbine Systems Research (UTSR) project will explore a critical need for innovative turbine endwall designs that could increase turbine durability and mitigate the adverse effects of residue deposition from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). The Ohio State University (OSU), in cooperation with Brigham Young University (BYU),

156

Measurements of dissolved nonmethane hydrocarbons in sea water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An automated stripping technique for the measurement of dissolved hydrocarbons in sea water is presented together with some results obtained ... cruise from Europe to Brazil. The sea water concentrations of NMHC ...

C. Plass; R. Koppmann; J. Rudolph

157

Water distribution measurement in sand using sound vibration and SLDV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water distribution measurement in sand using sound vibration and SLDV T. Sugimotoa , Y. Nakagawaa vibrator is used as a sound source. SLDV measures the vibration of ground surface. The propagation velocity between vibrator and measuring point is used to estimate the water distribution. Also, the soil

Boyer, Edmond

158

Influence of gas composition on wafer temperature in a tungsten chemical vapor deposition reactor: Experimental measurements, model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of gas composition on wafer temperature in a tungsten chemical vapor deposition reactor-wafer, lamp-heated chemical vapor deposition system were used to study the wafer temperature response to gas composition. A physically based simulation procedure for the process gas and wafer temperature was developed

Rubloff, Gary W.

159

Laser-induced fluorescence measurements and kinetic analysis of Si atom formation in a rotating disk chemical vapor deposition reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An extensive set of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements of Si atoms during the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of silicon from silane and disilane in a research rotating disk reactor are presented. The experimental results are compared in detail with predictions from a numerical model of CVD from silane and disilane that treats the fluid flow coupled to gas-phase and gas-surface chemistry. The comparisons showed that the unimolecular decomposition of SiH[sub 2] could not account for the observed gas-phase Si atom density profiles. The H[sub 3]SiSiH [leftrightarrow] Si + SiH[sub 4] and H[sub 3]SiSiH + SiH[sub 2] [leftrightarrow] Si + Si[sub 2]H[sub 6] reactions are proposed as the primary Si atom production routes. The model is in good agreement with the measured shapes of the Si atom profiles and the trends in Si atom density with susceptor temperature, pressure, and reactant gas mixture. 33 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

Ho, P.; Coltrin, M.E.; Breiland, W.G. (Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1994-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

160

Water Vapor Electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen plays an important role in the so-called hydrogen economy (technology). The term expresses an energy concept in which hydrogen serves as energy storage and fuel for combustion in engines or fuel cells. H...

Ulrich Guth

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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161

Water Vapor Experiment Concludes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(Holger Voemel, NOAA and University of Colorado). November 2003 2 first North American launch of the new Vaisala RS92 radiosonde on November 5, 2003. NASA also deployed a...

162

On the Diurnal Cycle of Deep Convection, High-Level Cloud, and Upper Troposphere Water Vapor in the Multiscale Modeling Framework  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Multiscale Modeling Framework (MMF), also called ‘‘superparameterization’’, embeds a cloud-resolving model (CRM) at each grid column of a general circulation model to replace traditional parameterizations of moist convection and large-scale condensation. This study evaluates the diurnal cycle of deep convection, high-level clouds, and upper troposphere water vapor by applying an infrared (IR) brightness temperature (Tb) and a precipitation radar (PR) simulator to the CRM column data. Simulator results are then compared with IR radiances from geostationary satellites and PR reflectivities from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). While the actual surface precipitation rate in the MMF has a reasonable diurnal phase and amplitude when compared with TRMM observations, the IR simulator results indicate an inconsistency in the diurnal anomalies of high-level clouds between the model and the geostationary satellite data. Primarily because of its excessive high-level clouds, the MMF overestimates the simulated precipitation index (PI) and fails to reproduce the observed diurnal cycle phase relationships among PI, high-level clouds, and upper troposphere relative humidity. The PR simulator results show that over the tropical oceans, the occurrence fraction of reflectivity in excess of 20 dBZ is almost 1 order of magnitude larger than the TRMM data especially at altitudes above 6 km. Both results suggest that the MMF oceanic convection is overactive and possible reasons for this bias are discussed. However, the joint distribution of simulated IR Tb and PR reflectivity indicates that the most intense deep convection is found more often over tropical land than ocean, in agreement with previous observational studies.

Zhang, Yunyan; Klein, Stephen A.; Liu, Chuntao; Tian, Baijun; Marchand, Roger T.; Haynes, J. M.; McCoy, Renata; Zhang, Yuying; Ackerman, Thomas P.

2008-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

163

Water Calibration Measurements for Neutron Radiography: Application to Water Content Quantification in Porous Media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 2 mm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector / scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

Kang, Misun [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Cheng, Chu-lin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Perfect, Edmund [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Horita, Juske [Texas Tech University (TTU); Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

165

Measurement of the Cotton Mouton effect of water vapour  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we report on a measurement of the Cotton Mouton effect of water vapour. Measurement performed at room temperature ($T=301$ K) with a wavelength of 1064 nm gave the value $\\Delta n_u = (6.67 \\pm 0.45) \\cdot 10^{-15}$ for the unit magnetic birefringence (1 T magnetic field and atmospheric pressure).

Della Valle, F; Gastaldi, U; Messineo, G; Milotti, E; Pengo, R; Piemontese, L; Ruoso, G; Zavattini, G

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Ozone Measurements at Geesthacht (53.4° N, 10.4° E) with an Advanced Raman Lidar  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An advanced Raman lidar, which measures ozone, water vapor, aerosol backscatter, and extinction profiles simoultaneously and independently, has been in routine operation at Geesthacht since February 1995. Results...

Marcus Seiwazi; Jens Reichardt…

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Measurements and Calculation of Vapor?Liquid Equilibria for the Binary Mixtures of Fluorobenzene and Alkanes at a Pressure of 101.4 kPa  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Vapor?liquid equilibria (VLE) of binary mixtures of (hexane + fluorobenzene) and (heptane + fluorobenzene) were measured over the whole composition range in a dynamic recirculation ebulliometer at the pressure 101.4 kPa. ... It is actually used to control carbon content in steel manufacturing, as a common starting reagent for fluorinating pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals, as pesticides?insecticide, and for plastic and resin polymers. ... Figure 2 Equilibrium compositions diagram (y1, x1):? ·, (x1C6H14 + x2C6H5F); ?, (x1C7H16 + x2C6H5F); ___, UNIQUAC eq. ...

Zadjia Atik

2007-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

168

Goniometric measurement of power scattered from wind driven water surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A recently constructed 11?ft 3?axis semiautomatic underwater goniometer has made possible precision measurement of acoustic power scattered from the statistically stationary wind driven water surface at Yale. Measurements have been made over 180° of azimuth and at several grazing angles. These measurements have been corrected for beam patterns and pulse shape to give a scattering cross section for the surfaces and geometries studied. The results of these measurements indicate that current mathematical models of the scattering process are not able to predict spatial distribution of scattered power in all cases.

J. G. Zornig

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

AUTOMATED WATER LEVEL MEASUREMENTS IN SMALL-DIAMETER AQUIFER TUBES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Groundwater contaminated with hexavalent chromium, strontium-90, and uranium discharges into the Columbia River along approximately 16 km (10 mi) of the shoreline. Various treatment systems have and will continue to be implemented to eliminate the impact of Hanford Site contamination to the river. To optimize the various remediation strategies, it is important to understand interactions between groundwater and the surface water of the Columbia River. An automated system to record water levels in aquifer sampling tubes installed in the hyporheic zone was designed and tested to (1) gain a more complete understanding of groundwater/river water interactions based on gaining and losing conditions ofthe Columbia River, (2) record and interpret data for consistent and defensible groundwater/surface water conceptual models that may be used to better predict subsurface contaminant fate and transport, and (3) evaluate the hydrodynamic influence of extraction wells in an expanded pump-and-treat system to optimize the treatment system. A system to measure water levels in small-diameter aquifer tubes was designed and tested in the laboratory and field. The system was configured to allow manual measurements to periodically calibrate the instrument and to permit aquifer tube sampling without removing the transducer tube. Manual measurements were collected with an e-tape designed and fabricated especially for this test. Results indicate that the transducer system accurately records groundwater levels in aquifer tubes. These data are being used to refine the conceptual and numeric models to better understand interactions in the hyporheic zone of the Columbia River and the adjacent river water and groundwater, and changes in hydrochemistry relative to groundwater flux as river water recharges the aquifer and then drains back out in response to changes in the river level.

PETERSEN SW; EDRINGTON RS; MAHOOD RO; VANMIDDLESWORTH PE

2011-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

170

Environmental and Transport Effects on Core Measurements of Water Saturation, Salinity, Wettability, and Hydrocarbon Composition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and core surfacing operations can significantly alter the water saturation, salinity, hydrocarbon measurements of water saturation, salinity, hydrocarbon composition, and wettability are critical for accurateSPE 166154 Environmental and Transport Effects on Core Measurements of Water Saturation, Salinity

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

171

Methodology for Predicting Water Content in Supercritical Gas Vapor and Gas Solubility in Aqueous Phase for Natural Gas Process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The streams in the natural gas process contain light hydrocarbons, mainly methane and ethane, associated with non-hydrocarbon supercritical gases (nitrogen, hydrogen, argon, etc.). ... For system that contains supercritical gases, the gas solubility in water can be related to the Henry's law constant. ...

Chorng H. Twu; Suphat Watanasiri; Vince Tassone

2007-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

172

Long Term Field Development of a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System for Treatment of Produced Waters for Power Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main goal of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using a combined physicochemical/biological treatment system to remove the organic constituents present in saline produced water. In order to meet this objective, a physical/chemical adsorption process was developed and two separate biological treatment techniques were investigated. Two previous research projects focused on the development of the surfactant modified zeolite adsorption process (DE-AC26-99BC15221) and development of a vapor phase biofilter (VPB) to treat the regeneration off-gas from the surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorption system (DE-FC26-02NT15461). In this research, the SMZ/VPB was modified to more effectively attenuate peak loads and to maintain stable biodegradation of the BTEX constituents from the produced water. Specifically, a load equalization system was incorporated into the regeneration flow stream. In addition, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) system was tested for its ability to simultaneously remove the aromatic hydrocarbon and carboxylate components from produced water. The specific objectives related to these efforts included the following: (1) Optimize the performance VPBs treating the transient loading expected during SMZ regeneration: (a) Evaluate the impact of biofilter operating parameters on process performance under stable operating conditions. (b) Investigate how transient loads affect biofilter performance, and identify an appropriate technology to improve biological treatment performance during the transient regeneration period of an SMZ adsorption system. (c) Examine the merits of a load equalization technology to attenuate peak VOC loads prior to a VPB system. (d) Evaluate the capability of an SMZ/VPB to remove BTEX from produced water in a field trial. (2) Investigate the feasibility of MBR treatment of produced water: (a) Evaluate the biodegradation of carboxylates and BTEX constituents from synthetic produced water in a laboratory-scale MBR. (b) Evaluate the capability of an SMZ/MBR system to remove carboxylates and BTEX from produced water in a field trial. Laboratory experiments were conducted to provide a better understanding of each component of the SMZ/VPB and SMZ/MBR process. Laboratory VPB studies were designed to address the issue of influent variability and periodic operation (see DE-FC26-02NT15461). These experiments examined multiple influent loading cycles and variable concentration loadings that simulate air sparging as the regeneration option for the SMZ system. Two pilot studies were conducted at a produced water processing facility near Farmington, New Mexico. The first field test evaluated SMZ adsorption, SMZ regeneration, VPB buffering, and VPB performance, and the second test focused on MBR and SMZ/MBR operation. The design of the field studies were based on the results from the previous field tests and laboratory studies. Both of the biological treatment systems were capable of removing the BTEX constituents in the laboratory and in the field over a range of operating conditions. For the VPB, separation of the BTEX constituents from the saline aqueous phase yielded high removal efficiencies. However, carboxylates remained in the aqueous phase and were not removed in the combined VPB/SMZ system. In contrast, the MBR was capable of directly treating the saline produced water and simultaneously removing the BTEX and carboxylate constituents. The major limitation of the MBR system is the potential for membrane fouling, particularly when the system is treating produced water under field conditions. The combined process was able to effectively pretreat water for reverse osmosis treatment and subsequent downstream reuse options including utilization in power generation facilities. The specific conclusions that can be drawn from this study are summarized.

Lynn Katz; Kerry Kinney; Robert Bowman; Enid Sullivan; Soondong Kwon; Elaine Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Craig Altare

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

173

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric moisture  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

moisture moisture ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric moisture The moisture content of the air as indicated by several measurements including relative humidity, specific humidity, dewpoint, vapor pressure, water vapor mixing ratio, and water vapor density; note that precipitable water is a separate type. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AERI : Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer

174

Comparison of Short-Term Oxidation Behavior of Model and Commercial Chromia-Forming Ferritic Stainless Steels in Air with Water Vapor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high-purity Fe-20Cr and commercial type 430 ferritic stainless steel were exposed at 700 and 800 C in dry air and air with 10% water vapor (wet air) and characterized by SEM, XRD, STEM, SIMS, and EPMA. The Fe-20Cr alloy formed a fast growing Fe-rich oxide scale at 700 C in wet air after 24 h exposure, but formed a thin chromia scale at 700 C in dry air and at 800 C in both dry air and wet air. In contrast, thin spinel + chromia base scales with a discontinuous silica subscale were formed on 430 stainless steel under all conditions studied. Extensive void formation was observed at the alloy-oxide interface for the Fe-20Cr in both dry and wet conditions, but not for the 430 stainless steel. The Fe-20Cr alloy was found to exhibit a greater relative extent of subsurface Cr depletion than the 430 stainless steel, despite the former's higher Cr content. Depletion of Cr in the Fe-20Cr after 24 h exposure was also greater at 700 C than 800 C. The relative differences in oxidation behavior are discussed in terms of the coarse alloy grain size of the high-purity Fe-20Cr material, and the effects of Mn, Si, and C on the oxide scale formed on the 430 stainless steel.

Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Fayek, Mostafa [University of Manitoba, Canada; Walker, Larry R [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta Ann [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Ground-Based and Airborne (PMS 2-D Probe Canister-Mounted) 183 GHz Water  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ground-Based and Airborne (PMS 2-D Probe Canister-Mounted) 183 GHz Water Ground-Based and Airborne (PMS 2-D Probe Canister-Mounted) 183 GHz Water Vapor Radiometer Pazmany, Andrew ProSensing Inc. Category: Instruments ProSensing Inc. has developed a G-band (183 GHz, 1.5 mm wavelength) water vapor radiometer (GVR) for the measurement of low concentrations of atmospheric water vapor and liquid water. The instrument's precipitable water vapor measurement precision is approximately 0.01 mm in dry (<2 mm vapor column) conditions. The ground-based version of the instrument was first deployed at ProSensing's facility in Amherst, MA in February 2005, then at the North Slope of Alaska DOE ARM site in Barrow AK in April 2005, where it has been continuously operating since. An airborne version, designed to operate from a standard PMS 2-D probe canister, is now being

176

New High Performance Water Vapor Membranes to Improve Fuel Cell Balance of Plant Efficiency and Lower Costs (SBIR Phase I) - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

0 0 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Earl H. Wagener (Primary Contact), Brad P. Morgan, Jeffrey R. DiMaio Tetramer Technologies L.L.C. 657 S. Mechanic St. Pendleton, SC 29670 Phone: (864) 646-6282 Email: earl.wagener@tetramertechnologies.com DOE Manager HQ: Nancy Garland Phone: (202) 586-5673 Email: Nancy.Garland@ee.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-SC0006172 Project Start Date: June 17, 2011 Project End Date: March 16, 2012 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Demonstrate water vapor transport membrane with * >18,000 gas permeation units (GPU) Water vapor membrane with less than 20% loss in * performance after stress tests Crossover leak rate: <150 GPU * Temperature Durability of 90°C with excursions to * 100°C Cost of <$10/m

177

Measurement of water by oven evaporation using a novel oven design. 2. Water in motor oils and motor oil additives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The measurement of water in lubricating oils is important because water accelerates the corrosion of metal parts and bearings in motors. Some of the additives added to lubricating ... (KFR) causing a positive bia...

Sam A. Margolis; Kevin Vaishnav; John R. Sieber

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Pressurized water reactor fuel assembly subchannel void fraction measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The void fraction measurement experiment of pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies has been conducted since 1987 under the sponsorship of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry as a Japanese national project. Two types of test sections are used in this experiment. One is a 5 x 5 array rod bundle geometry, and the other is a single-channel geometry simulating one of the subchannels in the rod bundle. Wide gamma-ray beam scanners and narrow gamma-ray beam computed tomography scanners are used to measure the subchannel void fractions under various steady-state and transient conditions. The experimental data are expected to be used to develop a void fraction prediction model relevant to PWR fuel assemblies and also to verify or improve the subchannel analysis method. The first series of experiments was conducted in 1992, and a preliminary evaluation of the data has been performed. The preliminary results of these experiments are described.

Akiyama, Yoshiei [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Nuclear Fuel and Core Engineering Dept.; Hori, Keiichi [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Hyougo (Japan); Miyazaki, Keiji [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Mishima, Kaichiro [Kyoto Univ., Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.; Sugiyama, Shigekazu [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Nuclear Fuel Dept.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Calibrated vapor generator source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

180

A Model for Water Factor Measurements With Fission-Neutron Logging...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

A Model for Water Factor Measurements With Fission-Neutron Logging Tools (May 1983) A Model for Water Factor Measurements With Fission-Neutron Logging Tools (May 1983) A Model for...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Measurements of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Measurements of atmospheric water vapor over the oceans Measurements of atmospheric water vapor over the oceans Szczodrak, Malgorzata University of Miami Minnett, Peter University of Miami Feltz, Wayne University of Wisconsin Atmospheric water vapor is an important part of the Earth's hydrological cycle and plays a crucial role in many aspects of the climate system. The main source of the atmospheric moisture are the oceans, but the information we have about the distribution of atmospheric water vapor over the oceans is based on a relatively sparse distribution of radiosonde profiles, or on satellite-based measurements from microwave radiometers. The Marine-Atmosphere Emitted Radiance Interferometer (M-AERI) is a sea-going instrument that measures spectra of atmospheric infrared emission with ~10 minute temporal resolution. These spectra can be used to retrieve profiles

182

Evaluation of Uranium Measurements in Water by Various Methods - 13571  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In December 2000, EPA amended its drinking water regulations for radionuclides by adding a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for uranium (so called MCL Rule)[1] of 30 micrograms per liter (?g/L). The MCL Rule also included MCL goals of zero for uranium and other radionuclides. Many radioactively contaminated sites must test uranium in wastewater and groundwater to comply with the MCL rule as well as local publicly owned treatment works discharge limitations. This paper addresses the relative sensitivity, accuracy, precision, cost and comparability of two EPA-approved methods for detection of total uranium: inductively plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and alpha spectrometry. Both methods are capable of measuring the individual uranium isotopes U-234, U- 235, and U-238 and both methods have been deemed acceptable by EPA. However, the U-238 is by far the primary contributor to the mass-based ICP-MS measurement, especially for naturally-occurring uranium, which contains 99.2745% U-238. An evaluation shall be performed relative to the regulatory requirement promulgated by EPA in December 2000. Data will be garnered from various client sample results measured by ALS Laboratory in Fort Collins, CO. Data shall include method detection limits (MDL), minimum detectable activities (MDA), means and trends in laboratory control sample results, performance evaluation data for all methods, and replicate results. In addition, a comparison will be made of sample analyses results obtained from both alpha spectrometry and the screening method Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis (KPA) performed at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) FUSRAP Maywood Laboratory (UFML). Many uranium measurements occur in laboratories that only perform radiological analysis. This work is important because it shows that uranium can be measured in radiological as well as stable chemistry laboratories and it provides several criteria as a basis for comparison of two uranium test methods. This data will indicate which test method is the most accurate and most cost effective. This paper provides a benefit to Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and other Department of Defense (DOD) programs that may be performing uranium measurements. (authors)

Tucker, Brian J. [Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure Group, 150 Royall Street, Canton, MA (United States)] [Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure Group, 150 Royall Street, Canton, MA (United States); Workman, Stephen M. [ALS Laboratory Group, Environmental Division, 225 Commerce Drive, Fort Collins, CO 80524 (United States)] [ALS Laboratory Group, Environmental Division, 225 Commerce Drive, Fort Collins, CO 80524 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Sample Vapor Introduction Techniques for Use with Cryofocusing GC Inlet Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......the vapor generator was operated at atmospheric pressure for...condensed water. Other studies...Because the water vapor was...tail of the water peak. Thus...obtained from an atmospheric pressure source...the vapor generator over a 1......

Christine L. Rankin; Richard D. Sacks

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Comparing Time Domain Reflectometry and Electrical Resistivity Tomography Measurements for Estimating Soil Water Distribution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

511 Comparing Time Domain Reflectometry and Electrical Resistivity Tomography Measurements compared with electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) measurements along the same cross's interior for the measurements. However, determining the soil water content from the resulting electrical

Sailhac, Pascal

185

A method for measuring dissolved gases in pore waters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sep 5, 1973 ... Pore water intended for dissolved gas analysis is .... solubility values for 35gc, 21

2000-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

186

LNG fire and vapor control system technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Verification of Supercooled Cloud Water Forecasts with In Situ Aircraft Measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In situ measurements of temperature (Ta), horizontal wind speed (V), dewpoint (Td), total water content (TWC), and cloud and supercooled cloud water (SCW) events, made during 50 flights from three research field programs, have been compared to ...

Hong Guan; Stewart G. Cober; George A. Isaac

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Vapor Pressure measurements for dichlorosilane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the processing of silicon-based materials, such as those used for electronic and photovoltaic materials, one of the key initial components is dichlorosilane. Dichlorosilane is often used in mixtures that include other pure silanes, like...

Morris, Tony Knimbula

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

189

Vapor Power Systems MAE 4263 Final Exam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vapor Power Systems MAE 4263 Final Exam Wednesday, May 5, 2004 Prof. P.M. Moretti Key Instructions, then think, then write! 1. What is the dewpoint of the exhaust of your car, if the gasoline consists2 so that the mole fraction of water vapor is yH2 O = 9 9 + 8 + 47 = 0:14063 pH2 O = 0:14063 14

190

MEASUREMENT OF HEAT TRANSFER DURING DROP-WISE CONDENSATION OF WATER ON POLYETHYLENE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MEASUREMENT OF HEAT TRANSFER DURING DROP-WISE CONDENSATION OF WATER ON POLYETHYLENE Gagan Deep distribution of temperature during drop-wise condensation over a polyethylene substrate was measured using on the substrate was simultaneously visualized. Static contact angles of water on polyethylene are measured

Khandekar, Sameer

191

measurements of primary production in coastal sea water using a ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

of plant material was followed by cell counts and pigment values and by ..... Total solar radiation and the water ... The net production of organic matter dur-.

192

Draft Guidance for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

for the Implementation for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Covered Facilities (per 42 U.S.C. 8253(f), Use of Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Federal Buildings) September 2012 U.S. Department of ENERGY United States Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 i Guidance for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Covered Facilities (per 42 U.S.C. 8253(f), Use of Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Federal Buildings) September 2012 I. PURPOSE ............................................................................................................................................ 1 II. BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................................. 1

193

Draft Guidance for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for the Implementation for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Covered Facilities (per 42 U.S.C. 8253(f), Use of Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Federal Buildings) September 2012 U.S. Department of ENERGY United States Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 i Guidance for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Covered Facilities (per 42 U.S.C. 8253(f), Use of Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Federal Buildings) September 2012 I. PURPOSE ............................................................................................................................................ 1 II. BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................................. 1

194

Measure Guideline: Water Management at Tub and Shower Assemblies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to the high concentrations of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home's structure a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. This guide shows how to install fundamental waterproofing strategies to prevent water related issues at shower and tub areas. When conducting a total gut rehab of a structure or constructing a new home, best practice installation and detailing for effective waterproofing are critically important at bathtub and shower assemblies. Water management issues in a structure may go unrecognized for long periods, so that when they are finally observed, the damage from long-term water exposure is extensive. A gut rehab is often undertaken when a home has experienced a natural disaster or when the homeowners are interested in converting an old, high-energy-use building into a high-quality, efficient structure that meets or exceeds one of the national energy standards, such as ENERGY STAR or LEED for homes. During a gut rehab, bath areas need to be replaced with diligent attention to detail. Employing effective water management practices in the installation and detailing of tub and shower assemblies will minimize or eliminate water issues within the building cavities and on the finished surfaces. A residential tub-and-shower surround or shower-stall assembly is designed to handle a high volume of water - 2.5 gallons per minute, with multiple baths occurring during a typical day. Transitions between dissimilar materials and connections between multiple planes must be installed with care to avoid creating a pathway for water to enter the building assemblies. Due to the high volume of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home's structure, a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. At each stage of construction, successive trades must take care not to create a defect nor to compound or cover up a previous trade's defect. Covering a defect hides the inevitable point of failure and may even exacerbate the situation.

Dickson, B.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

The use of a permanent magnet for water content measurements of wood chips  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diagram of a Wood Chip Moisture Content Measurement DeviceMeasurement of Moisture Content in Wood Chips Using NMR andWood chip water-content tests were done over a broad range of moisture contents

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Measurement of microbial oxidation of methane in lake water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oct 5, 1973 ... displacing the water through a second 26-G needle. ... and the shaking of serum bottles was car- ried out in diffuse ... to power source;. 3-plastic.

197

The use of a permanent magnet for water content measurements ofwood chips  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has developed a device that measures the water content of wood chips, pulp and brown stock for the paper industry. This device employs a permanent magnet as the central part of a NMR measurement system. This report describes the magnet and the NMR measurement system. The results of water content measurements in wood chips in a magnetic field of 0.47 T are presented.

Barale, P.J.; Fong, C.G.; Green, M.A.; Luft, P.A.; McInturff,A.D.; Reimer, J.A.; Yahnke, M.

2001-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

198

Determination of efficiency of anechoic or decoupling hull coatings using water tank acoustic measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Determination of efficiency of anechoic or decoupling hull coatings using water tank acoustic and radiated noise, respectively. Measurement of test panels in a water tank gives only the reflection in a water tank has already been presented in a previous paper [2]. The purpose of the present paper

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

199

Ecosystem-scale measurements of biomass water using cosmic ray neutrons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ecosystem-scale measurements of biomass water using cosmic ray neutrons Trenton E. Franz,1,2 Marek 2013. [1] Accurate estimates of biomass are imperative for under- standing the global carbon cycle. However, measurements of biomass and water in the biomass are difficult to obtain at a scale consistent

Zreda, Marek

200

Surface excess properties from energy transport measurements during water evaporation Fei Duan and C. A. Ward*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface excess properties from energy transport measurements during water evaporation Fei Duan condi- tions, accounts for as little as 50% of the energy required to evaporate water at the measured moles per unit surface area , surface in- ternal energy uLV excess energy per excess mole , and spe

Ward, Charles A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Three-Phase Vapor?Liquid?Liquid Equilibria for Methane + n-Octane + Monoethylene Glycol + Water at Pressures from (3.1 to 15.0) MPa and Temperatures from (281 to 363) K  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There are several commercial processes available for the dehydration of gas, such as the use of liquid or solid desiccants and expansion refrigeration. ... The gaseous part of the liquid samples, and the gas phase samples direct from the equilibrium cell, were expanded into a series of evacuated vessels of known volume from which the total amount of substance was determined from the perfect gas equation using the measured low-pressure PVT data. ... To predict the losses of MEG in processes for the dehydration of natural gas, the concentrations of MEG in the vapor phase are of interest to the gas industry. ...

Stanley J. Ashcroft; Gerd Brunner; Hansjörg Vollmer; Christopher W. Sweeney

2009-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

202

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid vapor pressures Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sciences and Ecology 22 3b. Thermodynamics of moist air Water phase, water latent heat of vaporization Lv Summary: 3b. Thermodynamics of moist air Water phase, water latent...

203

Feasibility of Using Measurements of Internal Components ofTankless Water Heaters for Field Monitoring of Energy and Water Use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to determine if it was feasible to collect information regarding energy use and hot water delivery from tankless gas water heaters using the sensors and controls built into the water heaters. This could then be used to determine the water heater efficiency ? the ratio of energy out (hot water delivered) to energy in (energy in the gas) in actual residential installations. The goal was to be as unobtrusive as possible, and to avoid invalidating warranties or exposing researchers to liability issues. If feasible this approach would reduce the costs of instrumentation.This paper describes the limited field and laboratory investigations to determine if using the sensors and controls built into tankless water heaters is feasible for field monitoring.It was more complicated to use the existing gas flow, water and temperature sensors than was anticipated. To get the signals from the existing sensors and controls is difficult and may involve making changes that would invalidate manufacturer warrantees. The procedures and methods for using signals from the existing gas valves, water flow meters and temperature sensors will vary by model. To be able to monitor different models and brands would require detailed information about each model and brand.Based on these findings, we believe that for field monitoring projects it would be easier, quicker and safer to connect external meters to measure the same parameters rather than using the sensors and controls built into tankless water heaters.

Lutz, Jim; Biermayer, Peter

2008-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

204

Wick for metal vapor laser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved wick for a metal vapor laser is made of a refractory metal cylinder, preferably molybdenum or tungsten for a copper laser, which provides the wicking surface. Alternately, the inside surface of the ceramic laser tube can be metalized to form the wicking surface. Capillary action is enhanced by using wire screen, porous foam metal, or grooved surfaces. Graphite or carbon, in the form of chunks, strips, fibers or particles, is placed on the inside surface of the wick to reduce water, reduce metal oxides and form metal carbides.

Duncan, David B. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Comparison and Verification of Bacterial Water Quality Indicator Measurement Methods Using Ambient Coastal Water Samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

More than 30 laboratories routinely monitor water along southern California's beaches for bacterial indicators of fecal contamination. Data from these efforts frequently are combined and compared even though t...

John F. Griffith; Larissa A. Aumand…

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Interaction of Ozone and Water Vapor with Spark Discharge Soot Aerosol Particles Coated with Benzo[a]pyrene:? O3 and H2O Adsorption, Benzo[a]pyrene Degradation, and Atmospheric Implications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Besides their relevance as toxic air pollutants, polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC = PAH + derivatives) at the surface of combustion aerosol particles can influence these particles' interaction with reactive trace gases and water vapor, their activity as condensation nuclei, their atmospheric residence times, and consequently their direct and indirect climatic effects. ... Assuming equal relative losses of triphenylene and BaP during the clean up process, the triphenylene recovery, which was generally on the order of 70%, was used to correct the BaP peak area to 100% recovery. ... Thus, the potential influence of liquid organic or aqueous layers on atmospheric particles has to be kept in mind when using the kinetic parameters presented in this work for extrapolations to the atmosphere. ...

Ulrich Pöschl; Thomas Letzel; Christian Schauer; Reinhard Niessner

2001-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

207

New Surface Meteorological Measurements at SGP,  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NM, March 22 - 26, 2004 NM, March 22 - 26, 2004 1 New Surface Meteorological Measurements at SGP, and Their Use for Assessing Radiosonde Measurement Accuracy L.M. Miloshevich National Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder, Colorado B.M. Lesht and M. Ritche Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois Introduction Several recent ARM investigations have been directed toward characterizing and improving the accuracy of ARM radiosonde water vapor measurements. Tobin et al. (2002) showed that calculating the downwelling and outgoing longwave fluxes with a target accuracy of 1 W m -2 requires knowing the total-column precipitable water vapor (PW) with 2% absolute accuracy and knowing the upper troposphere (UT) water vapor with 10% absolute accuracy. Turner et al. (2003) used an empirical

208

Measurement and Modeling of Wave-induced Sediment Resuspension in Nearshore Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurement and Modeling of Wave-induced Sediment Resuspension in Nearshore Water Primary. Analyzing additional data collected since 2000. 2. Incorporating the resuspension model developed previously conditions of sediment availability. Proposed Work The resuspension model developed in 2004

209

Measurements of the spatial and energy distribution of thermal neutrons in uranium, heavy water lattices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Intracell activity distributions were measured in three natural uranium, heavy water lattices of 1. 010 inch diameter, aluminum clad rods on triangular spacings of 4. 5 inches, 5. 0 inches, and 5. 75 inches, respectively, ...

Brown, Paul S. (Paul Sherman)

1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Measurement of Triclosan in Water Using a Magnetic Particle Enzyme Immunoassay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurement of Triclosan in Water Using a Magnetic Particle Enzyme Immunoassay ... A sensitive magnetic particle-based immunoassay to determine triclosan [5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol] in drinking water and wastewater was developed. ... The triclosan antibody was coupled to magnetic particles via the NHS/EDC reaction. ...

Weilin L. Shelver; Lisa M. Kamp; Jennifer L. Church; Fernando M. Rubio

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

211

Management Measures of Improving Water Resources Utilization in Guangxi Power Grid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

by analyzing the use of water resources situation in Guangxi Power Grid, many deficiencies of the hydropower resources in Guangxi are existed, such as rich but with low development, big gap between peak and valley of power load, the inadequate capacity ... Keywords: Guangxi Power Grid, Water utilization, Management, Technical measures

Jiqing Li; Yong Wang; Cairong Mu; Biao Chen

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Draft Guidance for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Guidance 9Dec2010 Guidance 9Dec2010 i DRAFT Guidance for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Covered Facilities (per 42 U.S.C. 8253 Subsection (f), Use of Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Federal Buildings) December 9, 2010 I. PURPOSE ............................................................................................................................................ 1 II. BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................................. 1 A. Authority ................................................................................................................................. 1 B. Related DOE Guidance and Activity ...................................................................................... 1

213

Development of a lidar polarimeter technique of measuring suspended solids in water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DEVELOPMENT OF A LIDAR POLARIMETER TECHNIQUE OF MEASURING SUSPENDED SOLIDS IN WATER A Thesis by DAVID W. PRESLEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1980 Major Subject; Electrical Engineering DEVELOPMENT OF A LIDAR POLARIMETER TECHNIQUE OF MEASURING SUSPENDED SOLIDS IN WATER A Thesis by DAVID W, PRESLEY Approved as to sty1e and content by: Chairman of Committee H d of Department...

Presley, David W

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment.

Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA); Moses, Edward I. (Castro Valley, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Quantitative Analysis of Ternary Vapor Mixtures Using a Microcantilever-Based Electronic Nose  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors report the identification and quantification of the components of a ternary vapor mixture using a microcantilever-based electronic nose. An artificial neural network was used for pattern recognition. Dimethyl methyl phosphonate vapor in ppb concentrations and water and ethanol vapors in ppm concentrations were quantitatively identified either individually or in binary and ternary mixtures at varying concentrations.

Pinnaduwage, Lal A [ORNL; Zhao, Weichang [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Allman, Steve L [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Measurement and Correlation of the Solubility of Carbohydrates in Subcritical Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An additional factor to consider when attempting to measure carbohydrate solubilities at higher temperatures is the exponential increase of the sugar solubility, particularly beyond the boiling point of water. ... This water was then placed in the water storage tank (Figure 2), where it was blanketed with nitrogen to avoid absorption of air. ... The molar enthalpy of the solution can be calculated from the Gibbs?Helmholtz equation, as shown in eq 7, where R is the universal gas constant, T is the temperature (K), and xs is the experimentally measured solubility of the sugar on a mole fraction scale. ...

Dongfang Zhang; Fernando Montan?e?s; Keerthi Srinivas; Tiziana Fornari; Elena Iba?n?ez; Jerry W. King

2010-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

217

Review of state of the art methods for measuring water in landfills  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In recent years several types of sensors and measurement techniques have been developed for measuring the moisture content, water saturation, or the volumetric water content of landfilled wastes. In this work, we review several of the most promising techniques. The basic principles behind each technique are discussed and field applications of the techniques are presented, including cost estimates. For several sensors, previously unpublished data are given. Neutron probes, electrical resistivity (impedance) sensors, time domain reflectometry (TDR) sensors, and the partitioning gas tracer technique (PGTT) were field tested with results compared to gravimetric measurements or estimates of the volumetric water content or moisture content. Neutron probes were not able to accurately measure the volumetric water content, but could track changes in moisture conditions. Electrical resistivity and TDR sensors tended to provide biased estimates, with instrument-determined moisture contents larger than independent estimates. While the PGTT resulted in relatively accurate measurements, electrical resistivity and TDR sensors provide more rapid results and are better suited for tracking infiltration fronts. Fiber optic sensors and electrical resistivity tomography hold promise for measuring water distributions in situ, particularly during infiltration events, but have not been tested with independent measurements to quantify their accuracy. Additional work is recommended to advance the development of some of these instruments and to acquire an improved understanding of liquid movement in landfills by application of the most promising techniques in the field.

Imhoff, Paul T. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)], E-mail: imhoff@udel.edu; Reinhart, Debra R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2450 (United States); Englund, Marja [Fortum Service Ltd., P.O. Box 10, FIN-00048, Fortum (Finland); Guerin, Roger [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, UMR 7619 Sisyphe, case courrier 105, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Gawande, Nitin [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2450 (United States); Han, Byunghyun [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Jonnalagadda, Sreeram; Townsend, Timothy G. [Civil and Environmental Engineering Sciences Department, Gainesville, FL 32609 (United States); Yazdani, Ramin [Planning, Resources, and Public Works Department, Division of Integrated Waste Management, 292 West Beamer Street, Woodland, CA 95695 (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Two-phase air-water stratified flow measurement using ultrasonic techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, a time resolved ultrasound system was developed for investigating two-phase air-water stratified flow. The hardware of the system includes a pulsed wave transducer, a pulser/receiver, and a digital oscilloscope. The time domain cross correlation method is used to calculate the velocity profile along ultrasonic beam. The system is able to provide velocities with spatial resolution of around 1mm and the temporal resolution of 200?s. Experiments were carried out on single phase water flow and two-phase air-water stratified flow. For single phase water flow, the flow rates from ultrasound system were compared with those from electromagnetic flow (EM) meter, which showed good agreement. Then, the experiments were conducted on two-phase air-water stratified flow and the results were given. Compared with liquid height measurement from conductance probe, it indicated that the measured velocities were explainable.

Fan, Shiwei; Yan, Tinghu; Yeung, Hoi [School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

219

NATURAL RADIONUCLIDES MEASUREMENTS IN DRINKING WATER BY LIQUID SCINTILLATION COUNTING. METHODS AND RESULTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to dose evaluation, namely gross alpha and beta activity, uranium and radium isotopes content. For tritium activity and uranium isotope concentration have been measured. A Quantulus-Wallac scintillation counter hasNATURAL RADIONUCLIDES MEASUREMENTS IN DRINKING WATER BY LIQUID SCINTILLATION COUNTING. METHODS

220

Gasoline vapor recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a gasoline distribution network wherein gasoline is drawn from a gasoline storage tank and pumped into individual vehicles and wherein the gasoline storage tank is refilled periodically from a gasoline tanker truck, a method of recovering liquid gasoline from gasoline vapor that collects in the headspace of the gasoline storage tank as the liquid gasoline is drawn therefrom, said method comprising the steps of: (a) providing a source of inert gas; (b) introducing inert gas into the gasoline storage tank as liquid gasoline is drawn therefrom so that liquid gasoline drawn from the tank is displaced by inert gas and gasoline vapor mixes with the inert gas in the headspace of the tank; (c) collecting the inert gas/gasoline vapor mixture from the headspace of the gasoline storage tank as the tank is refilled from a gasoline tanker truck; (d) cooling the inert gas/gasoline vapor mixture to a temperature sufficient to condense the gasoline vapor in the mixture to liquid gasoline but not sufficient to liquify the inert gas in the mixture; (e) separating the condensed liquid gasoline from the inert gas; and delivering the condensed liquid gasoline to a remote location for subsequent use.

Lievens, G.; Tiberi, T.P.

1993-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Economic and Technical Tradeoffs Between Open and Closed Cycle Vapor Compression Evaporators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and solute. Evaporation tends to be a very energy intensive process. Approximately 1000 BTUs of energy are required to vaporize one pound of water. Many techniques have been developed to reuse energy Within an evaporation system so as to vaporize... Recompression A schematic of an open cycle vapor recompression evaporator is shown in Figure 2. This method uses the vapor in an open cycle for both heating and cooling. Rather than being condensed after the last effect, steam is compressed to a slightly...

Timm, M. L.

222

A Precise Water Abundance Measurement for the Hot Jupiter WASP-43b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The water abundance in a planetary atmosphere provides a key constraint on the planet's primordial origins because water ice is expected to play an important role in the core accretion model of planet formation. However, the water content of the Solar System giant planets is not well known because water is sequestered in clouds deep in their atmospheres. By contrast, short-period exoplanets have such high temperatures that their atmospheres have water in the gas phase, making it possible to measure the water abundance for these objects. We present a precise determination of the water abundance in the atmosphere of the 2 $M_\\mathrm{Jup}$ short-period exoplanet WASP-43b based on thermal emission and transmission spectroscopy measurements obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. We find the water content is consistent with the value expected in a solar composition gas at planetary temperatures (0.4-3.5x solar at 1 $\\sigma$ confidence). The metallicity of WASP-43b's atmosphere suggested by this result extends th...

Kreidberg, Laura; Désert, Jean-Michel; Line, Michael R; Fortney, Jonathan J; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Stevenson, Kevin B; Showman, Adam P; Charbonneau, David; McCullough, Peter R; Seager, Sara; Burrows, Adam; Henry, Gregory W; Williamson, Michael; Kataria, Tiffany; Homeier, Derek

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Pulse neutron subcritical K/sub EFF/ measurements on water flooded arrays of fuel rods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pulsed neutron source technique has been utilized at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for some twenty years for measurement of subcritical reactivities of a variety of fuel systems. One area of application has included measurements of subcritical reactivities of water flooded arrays of fuel rods. This report summarizes these measurements. The theory behind the measurement process is reviewed and the instrumentation of the measurement system discussed. Also, four experiment programs are described in detail, illustrating system use and flexibility. Some changes are suggested for system improvements to speed up data collection and data reduction, and some possible areas of future application of the method are described.

Durst, B.M.; Bierman, S.R.; Clayton, E.D.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

1983-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

225

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well.

Sederquist, Richard A. (Newington, CT); Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Sawyer, Richard D. (Canton, CT)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Water-vapor effect on the electrical conductivity of a single-walled carbon nanotube mat A. Zahab,* L. Spina, and P. Poncharal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of physico-chemical adsorption of gases in nanotubes have been reported.11­14 One of the most excit- ing was then carefully out- gassed by heating the sample up to 220 °C at a constant rate of about 3 °C/mn. The sample lower than 0.1 °C during water injection and pumping cycle was negli- gible when compared

Demouchy, Sylvie

227

Water-saving Measures: Energy and Cost Savings Calculator | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water-saving Measures: Energy and Cost Savings Calculator Water-saving Measures: Energy and Cost Savings Calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Water-saving Measures: Energy and Cost Savings Calculator Agency/Company /Organization: California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) Sector: Water Focus Area: Energy Efficiency, Water Conservation Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.doe2.com/download/Water-Energy/ Country: United States Locality: California Cost: Free Northern America Coordinates: 37.09024°, -95.712891° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.09024,"lon":-95.712891,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

228

Non-invasive field measurements of soil water content using a pulsed 14 MeV neutron generator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Non-invasive field measurements of soil water content using a pulsed 14 MeV neutron generator S to the atmosphere. Soil water sensors routinely are used in applications such as research on crop production, water-3120, United States 1. Introduction Knowledge of soil water content is critical to agricultural, hydrological

Johnson, Peter D.

229

Organic vapor jet printing system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

Forrest, Stephen R

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

230

HEXOS—Humidity Exchange Over the Sea A Program for Research on Water-Vapor and Droplet Fluxes from Sea of Air at Moderate to High Wind Speeds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

HEXOS is an international program for the study of evaporation and spray-droplet flux from sea to air. The program includes measurements in the field at moderate-to-high wind speeds, wind-tunnel studies, instrument development, boundary-layer ...

Kristina B. Katsaros; Stuart D. Smith; Wiebe A. Oost

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Production of elemental sulfur and ammonium thiosulfate by the oxidation of H2S containing water vapor and ammonia over V/Zr-PILC catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The catalytic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide in the presence of water and ammonia was studied over V2O5 supported on Zr-pillared clay catalysts (V/Zr-PILCs). The synthesized catalysts were examined using a variety of characterization techniques. A catalytic performance study using V/Zr-PILC catalysts showed that H2S was successfully converted to elemental sulfur and ammonium thiosulfate (ATS) without considerable emission of sulfur dioxide. The H2S conversion over V/Zr-PILCs increased with increasing the content of vanadia up to 6 wt.%. This superior catalytic performance might be related to the uniform dispersion of vanadia species on the Zr-PILC support.

Kanattukara Vijayan Bineesh; Moon-il Kim; Goo-Hwa Lee; Manickam Selvaraj; Kyu Hyun; Dae-Won Park

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Evaluation of the soft measures' effects on ambient water quality improvement and household and industry economies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Various ecological footprint calculators, carbon footprint calculators and water footprint calculators have been developed in recent years. The basic concepts of ecological behaviour record notebooks and of carbon dioxide emission calculators have been developed since the late 20th century. The first carbon dioxide emission calculator was developed in 1991. Likewise, water pollutant discharge calculators have been developed to estimate the effects of soft measures introduced into households to reduce pollutant discharge since 2004. The soft measures which have been developed in Japan may consist of a wider framework, household sustainable consumption, which has been developed in Europe, and can be referred to cleaner consumption. In this research, summarisation of the short history of ecological behaviour record notebooks and ecological footprint calculators in Japan since the 1980s was conducted, and the soft measures in households to reduce pollutant discharge were evaluated for their effects on ambient water quality improvement as well as household and industry economies. Effects of the soft measures on related industry economies were investigated using an Input–Output Table analysis and the effects of the imported goods were evaluated with an import effect matrix, which was developed in this research. The effects of the soft measures on household expenditures were estimated to be a decrease by 2.5% or USD 285 person?1 year?1 in 2003–2006. The results show that the soft measures positively affect the chemical fibre industry and significantly affect the detergent industry. Analysis of the import effect matrix proved that the six industries were tightly related through extensive amounts of imported goods. The soft measures in households may lead to household sustainable consumption and thus reduce disadvantageous human impacts on water environments. The effects of the measures introduced to improve the environment should be qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated to avoid redundant concerns and discord between the environment and the economy, which may be worried when the relationship is not well understood.

Yoshiaki Tsuzuki

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

The use of chlorine isotope measurements to trace water movements at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The rates of water movements in the tuffs at Yucca Mountain are important for assessing the performance of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. Measurements of cosmogenic 3.0 {times} 10{sup 5} yr {sup 36}Cl in tuff from the unsaturated zone and in water from the saturated zone can provide information about water movements over times of 10{sup 15} to 10{sup 6} years. The data derived from the analysis of cuttings from a dry-drilled hole at Yucca Mountain indicate the presence of a {sup 36}Cl background that must be taken into account for proper interpretation of the {sup 36}Cl interpretation of the {sup 36}Cl results. Similarly, the {sup 36}Cl measured in water from the saturated zone requires additional work for correct interpretation. Fallout of {sup 36}Cl from nuclear weapons tests between 1952 and 1962 provided a tracer for an infiltration study. Measurements of the {sup 36}Cl bomb pulse in tuffs from the unsaturated zone show potential for tracing recent water flow in faults and fractures. 5 refs.

Norris, A.E.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Shear viscosity measurements in the binary mixture butyl cellosolve-water near its upper and lower critical consolute points  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

has been measured for a two-component critical liquid system, butyl cellosolve-water, in the region to report measurements of the shear viscosity of critical binary mixture butyl cello- solve (2-n353 Shear viscosity measurements in the binary mixture butyl cellosolve-water near its upper

Boyer, Edmond

235

Measurement of Liquid Water Accumulation in a PEMFC with Dead-Ended Anode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurement of Liquid Water Accumulation in a PEMFC with Dead-Ended Anode Jason B. Siegel,a, *,z electrolyte membrane fuel cell PEMFC with a dead-ended anode is observed using neutron imaging gas diffusion layer. Even though dry hydrogen is supplied to the anode via pressure regulation

Stefanopoulou, Anna

236

Investigation of trace amounts of gas on microvave water-cut measurement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In recent years, the upstream oil and gas industry has dealt with some of the most challenging metering applications. One of these is the measurement of water percentage at the point of allocation. It is an essential requirement when test separators...

Liu, Jin

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

237

Measurements of water uptake and transport properties in anion-exchange membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the electro-osmotic drag (EOD) coefficient, and the mass-transfer coefficient of water at the cathode catalyst/membrane interface falls in the range of 1.0 Ã? 10Ã?6 to 1.0 Ã? 10Ã?5 m sÃ?1 . The EOD coefficients measured at 30 C

Zhao, Tianshou

238

Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor Mercury Vapor Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Mercury Vapor Details Activities (23) Areas (23) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Lab Analysis Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Fluid Lab Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Fluid Lab Analysis Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Anomalously high concentrations can indicate high permeability or conduit for fluid flow Hydrological: Field wide soil sampling can generate a geometrical approximation of fluid circulation Thermal: High concentration in soils can be indicative of active hydrothermal activity Dictionary.png Mercury Vapor: Mercury is discharged as a highly volatile vapor during hydrothermal

239

Stratified vapor generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A stratified vapor generator (110) comprises a first heating section (H.sub.1) and a second heating section (H.sub.2). The first and second heating sections (H.sub.1, H.sub.2) are arranged so that the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2) is operatively associated with the outlet of the first heating section (H.sub.1). A moisture separator (126) having a vapor outlet (164) and a liquid outlet (144) is operatively associated with the outlet (124) of the second heating section (H.sub.2). A cooling section (C.sub.1) is operatively associated with the liquid outlet (144) of the moisture separator (126) and includes an outlet that is operatively associated with the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2).

Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Hassani, Vahab (Golden, CO)

2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

240

Design and development of a laboratory suction measuring device  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Measurements with Soil Samples to Measurements i~8th Salt Solutions. 105 105 106 106 109 112 CHAPTER Page Conclusions. 114 X MODEL DETERMINATION FOR SET UP CALIBRATION BASED ON THE SHORTCOMINGS. . 115 Introduction. Regression Model Parameters.... This method is based on the equilibration of moisture flosv between the filter paper and soil sample sealed in a container Moisture flow occurs in the form of liquid water or water vapor exchange (Fredlund and Rahardjo 1993). When the measuring matric...

Ayhan, Serpil Rezzan

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

A thermal method for measuring the rate of water movement in plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

L?BP A 8 V a L ?BPA8B8 op A THERMAL METHOD FOR MEASURING THE RATE OF WATER MOVEMENT IN PLANTS A Dissertation By Morris Elkins Bloodworth Vao Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial... Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May, 1958 TLX Major Subject: Soil Physics p ^i???pP ??^i?? ??? ??p?????? ^i? ?p^? ?? WATER MOVEMENT IN PLANTS A Dissertation By Morris Elkins Bloodworth Approved as to style...

Bloodworth, Morris Elkins

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Ignition and combustion drive by powerful laser radiation acting on a water surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ignition and combustion effects in water vapor generated...2-laser radiation on a water surface are investigated...

G. I. Kozlov; V. A. Kuznetsov

243

System analysis of membrane facilitated water generation from air humidity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The use of water vapor selective membranes can reduce the energy requirement for extracting water out of humid air by more than 50%. We performed a system analysis of a proposed unit, that uses membranes to separate water vapor from other atmospheric gases. This concentrated vapor can then be condensed specifically, rather than cooling the whole body of air. The driving force for the membrane permeation is maintained with a condenser and a vacuum pump. The pump regulates the total permeate side pressure by removing non-condensable gases that leak into the system. We show that by introducing a low-pressure, recirculated, sweep stream, the total permeate side pressure can be increased without impairing the water vapor permeation. This measure allows energy efficiency even in the presence of leakages, as it significantly lowers the power requirements of the vacuum pump. Such a constructed atmospheric water generator with a power of 62 kW could produce 9.19 m3/day of water (583 MJ/m3) as compared to 4.45 m3/day (1202 MJ/m3) that can be condensed without membranes. Due to the physical barrier the membrane imposes, fresh water generated in this manner is also cleaner and of higher quality than water condensed directly out of the air.

D. Bergmair; S.J. Metz; H.C. de Lange; A.A. van Steenhoven

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Home Air Sealing for New Home Construction Insulation Types of Insulation Insulation and Air Sealing Products and Services External Resources Find a Local AirVapor Barrier...

245

Gasification of Charcoal: Influence of Water Vapor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Direct use of biomass as a fuel offers a limited field of applications. Conversion of biomass to gases and liquids is of great importance to make transport of energy cheaper, gases and liquids being more easil...

J. R. Richard; M. Cathonnet; J. P. Rouan

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Isotope Fractionation of Water during Evaporation without Condensation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Specifially, isotope fractionation factors associated with free evaporation (?evap) have been measured as a function of the isotopic composition and temperature of the liquid. ... Liquid-vapor fractionation of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of water from the freezing to the critical temperature ...

Christopher D. Cappa; Walter S. Drisdell; Jared D. Smith; Richard J. Saykally; Ronald C. Cohen

2005-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

247

The water vapour self- and water–nitrogen continuum absorption in the 1000 and 2500?cm?1 atmospheric windows  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...measurements with a multi-pass cell, shown in figure-2 by...would like to thank the NIST Physics Laboratory Management for the...atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: application to water vapor...base-length White-type multi-pass cell coupled with a BOMEM DA3-002...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Feasibility of Using Measurements of Internal Components of Tankless Water Heaters for Field Monitoring of Energy and Water Use  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

speed motor that modulates the blower speed, this watermotor amps Energy Efficiency versus gas input for both waterWater flow versus gas input At this site we also compared gas consumption to blower motor

Lutz, Jim

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Fuel vapor control device  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fuel vapor control device is described having a valve opening and closing a passage connecting a carburetor and a charcoal canister according to a predetermined temperature. A first coil spring formed by a ''shape memory effect'' alloy is provided to urge the valve to open the passage when the temperature is high. A second coil spring urges the valve to close the passage. A solenoid is provided to urge an armature against the valve to close the passage against the force of the first coil spring when the engine is running. The solenoid heats the first coil spring to generate a spring force therein when the engine is running. When the engine is turned off, the solenoid is deactivated, and the force of the first spring overcomes the force of the second spring to open the passage until such time as the temperature of the first spring drops below the predetermined temperature.

Ota, I.; Nishimura, Y.; Nishio, S.; Yogo, K.

1987-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

250

D/sup -/ production by charge transfer in metal vapors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fast D/sup -/ ions can be produced from D/sup +/ by multiple charge-transfer collisions in a metal-vapor target. Experimental cross sections and thick-target D/sup -/ yields are presented and discussed. The high D/sup -/ yield experimentally observed from charge transfer in cesium vapor is consistent with recent low-energy cross-section calculations and measurements.

Schlachter, A.S.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Category:Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Mercury Vapor page? For detailed information on Mercury Vapor as exploration techniques,...

252

Radar range measurements in the atmosphere.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The earth's atmosphere affects the velocity of propagation of microwave signals. This imparts a range error to radar range measurements that assume the typical simplistic model for propagation velocity. This range error is a function of atmospheric constituents, such as water vapor, as well as the geometry of the radar data collection, notably altitude and range. Models are presented for calculating atmospheric effects on radar range measurements, and compared against more elaborate atmospheric models.

Doerry, Armin Walter

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

EFFECT OF THE SIZE OF AGGREGATES ON PORE CHARACTERISTICS OF MINERALS MEASURED BY MERCURY INTRUSION AND WATER-VAPOR DESORPTION TECHNIQUES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...13 , 1280-1285. Jarzebski, A.B., Lorenc, J., and Pajak, L. (1997) Surface fractal characteristics of silica aerogels. Langmuir , 13 , 1031-1035. Jozefaciuk, G. (2001a) Comparison of soil pore characteristics obtained from desorption...

Grzegorz Jozefaciuk

254

Investigation of Pool Spreading and Vaporization Behavior in Medium-Scale LNG Tests  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A failure of a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanker can occur due to collision or loading/unloading operation resulting in spillage of LNG on water. Upon release, a spreading liquid can form a pool with rapid vaporization leading to the formation of a flammable vapor cloud. Safety analysis for the protection of public and property involves the determination of consequences of such accidental releases. To address this complex pool spreading and vaporization phenomenon of LNG, an investigation is performed based on the experimental tests that were conducted by the Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center (MKOPSC) in 2007. The 2007 tests are a part of medium-scale experiments carried out at the Brayton Fire Training Field (BFTF), College Station. The dataset represents a semi-continuous spill on water, where LNG is released on a confined area of water for a specified duration of time. The pool spreading and vaporization behavior are validated using empirical models, which involved determination of pool spreading parameters and vaporization rates with respect to time. Knowledge of the pool diameter, pool height and spreading rate are found to be important in calculating the vaporization rates of the liquid pool. The paper also presents a method to determine the vaporization mass flux of LNG using water temperature data that is recorded in the experiment. The vaporization rates are observed to be high initially and tend to decrease once the pool stopped spreading. The results of the analysis indicated that a vaporization mass flux that is varying with time is required for accurate determination of the vaporization rate. Based on the data analysis, sources of uncertainties in the experimental data were identified to arise from ice formation and vapor blocking.

Nirupama Gopalaswami; R. Mentzer; M. Sam Mannan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Water Velocity Measurements on a Vertical Barrier Screen at the Bonneville Dam Second Powerhouse  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fish screens at hydroelectric dams help to protect rearing and migrating fish by preventing them from passing through the turbines and directing them towards the bypass channels by providing a sweeping flow parallel to the screen. However, fish screens may actually be harmful to fish if they become impinged on the surface of the screen or become disoriented due to poor flow conditions near the screen. Recent modifications to the vertical barrier screens (VBS) at the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse (B2) intended to increase the guidance of juvenile salmonids into the juvenile bypass system (JBS) have resulted in high mortality and descaling rates of hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon during the 2008 juvenile salmonid passage season. To investigate the potential cause of the high mortality and descaling rates, an in situ water velocity measurement study was conducted using acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADV) in the gatewell slot at Units 12A and 14A of B2. From the measurements collected the average approach velocity, sweep velocity, and the root mean square (RMS) value of the velocity fluctuations were calculated. The approach velocities measured across the face of the VBS varied but were mostly less than 0.3 m/s. The sweep velocities also showed large variances across the face of the VBS with most measurements being less than 1.5 m/s. This study revealed that the approach velocities exceeded criteria recommended by NOAA Fisheries and Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife intended to improve fish passage conditions.

Hughes, James S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Weiland, Mark A.; Martinez, Jayson J.; Yuan, Yong

2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

256

The development of a passive dosimeter for airborne aniline vapors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

passive sampl1ng dosimeter was designed to measure concen- trat1ons of aniline vapor in air. Diffus1on tubes of 1. 5, 3. 0 and 4. 5 cm lengths were tested under controlled conditions of relative humid1ty, air temperature and vapor concentrations. A... of Measured vs Calculated Concentrations APPENDIX D-Student-t Test on Slopes of Measured vs Calculated Data . APPENDIX E-Statistical Analysis of Four Hour Time- Weighted Average Study on 3. 0 cm Dosimeter VITA ~pa e 42 45 48 59 62 63 65 70 73...

Campbell, James Evan

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Vapor deposition of hardened niobium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

Blocher, Jr., John M. (Columbus, OH); Veigel, Neil D. (Columbus, OH); Landrigan, Richard B. (Columbus, OH)

1983-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

258

Measuring water velocity using DIDSON and image cross-correlation techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To design or operate hydroelectric facilities for maximum power generation and minimum ecological impact, it is critical to understand the biological responses of fish to different flow structures. However, information is still lacking on the relationship between fish behavior and flow structures despite many years of research. Existing field characterization approaches conduct fish behavior studies and flow measurements separately and coupled later using statistical analysis. These types of studies, however, lack a way to determine the specific hydraulic conditions or the specific causes of the biological response. The Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar (DIDSON) has been in wide use for fish behavior studies since 1999. The DIDSON can detect acoustic targets at long ranges in dark or turbid dark water. PIV is a state-of-the-art, non-intrusive, whole-flow-field technique, providing instantaneous velocity vector measurements in a whole plane using image cross-correlating techniques. There has been considerable research in the development of image processing techniques associated with PIV. This existing body of knowledge is applicable and can be used to process the images taken by the DIDSON. This study was conducted in a water flume which is 9 m long, 1.2 m wide, and 1.2 m deep when filled with water. A lab jet flow was setup as the benchmark flow to calibrate DIDSON images. The jet nozzle was 6.35 cm in diameter and core jet velocity was 1.52 m/s. Different particles were used to seed the flow. The flow was characterized based on the results using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV). A DIDSON was mounted about 5 meters away from the jet nozzle. Consecutive DIDSON images with known time delay were divided into small interrogation spots after background was subtracted. Across-correlation was then performed to estimate the velocity vector for each interrogation spot. The estimated average velocity in the core zone was comparable to that obtained using a LDV. This proof-of-principle project demonstrated the feasibility of extracting water flow velocity information from underwater DIDSON images using image cross-correlation techniques.

Deng, Zhiqun; Mueller, Robert P.; Richmond, Marshall C.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Factors for converting dose measured in polystyrene phantoms to dose reported in water phantoms for incident proton beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Previous dosimetry protocols allowed calibrations of proton beamline dose monitors to be performed in plastic phantoms. Nevertheless, dose determinations were referenced to absorbed dose-to-muscle or absorbed dose-to-water. The IAEA Code of Practice TRS 398 recommended that dose calibrations be performed with ionization chambers only in water phantoms because plastic-to-water dose conversion factors were not available with sufficient accuracy at the time of its writing. These factors are necessary, however, to evaluate the difference in doses delivered to patients if switching from calibration in plastic to a protocol that only allows calibration in water. Methods: This work measured polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors for this purpose. Uncertainties in the results due to temperature, geometry, and chamber effects were minimized by using special experimental set-up procedures. The measurements were validated by Monte Carlo simulations. Results: At the peak of non-range-modulated beams, measured polystyrene-to-water factors ranged from 1.015 to 1.024 for beams with ranges from 36 to 315 mm. For beams with the same ranges and medium sized modulations, the factors ranged from 1.005 to 1.019. The measured results were used to generate tables of polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors. Conclusions: The dose conversion factors can be used at clinical proton facilities to support beamline and patient specific dose per monitor unit calibrations performed in polystyrene phantoms.

Moyers, M. F.; Vatnitsky, A. S.; Vatnitsky, S. M. [Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California 92354 (United States); Guthrie Clinic/Robert Packard Hospital, Sayre, Pennsylvania 18840 (United States); EBG MedAustron, Wiener Neustadt, Austria A2700 (Austria)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

Chemical vapor deposition sciences  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a widely used method for depositing thin films of a variety of materials. Applications of CVD range from the fabrication of microelectronic devices to the deposition of protective coatings. New CVD processes are increasingly complex, with stringent requirements that make it more difficult to commercialize them in a timely fashion. However, a clear understanding of the fundamental science underlying a CVD process, as expressed through computer models, can substantially shorten the time required for reactor and process development. Research scientists at Sandia use a wide range of experimental and theoretical techniques for investigating the science of CVD. Experimental tools include optical probes for gas-phase and surface processes, a range of surface analytic techniques, molecular beam methods for gas/surface kinetics, flow visualization techniques and state-of-the-art crystal growth reactors. The theoretical strategy uses a structured approach to describe the coupled gas-phase and gas-surface chemistry, fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer of a CVD process. The software used to describe chemical reaction mechanisms is easily adapted to codes that model a variety of reactor geometries. Carefully chosen experiments provide critical information on the chemical species, gas temperatures and flows that are necessary for model development and validation. This brochure provides basic information on Sandia`s capabilities in the physical and chemical sciences of CVD and related materials processing technologies. It contains a brief description of the major scientific and technical capabilities of the CVD staff and facilities, and a brief discussion of the approach that the staff uses to advance the scientific understanding of CVD processes.

NONE

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Lessons and Measures Learned from Continuous Commissioning(SM) of Central Chilled/Hot Water Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water and hot water system operation. It can be performed before, during, or after building side continuous commissioning. Successful central chilled/hot water system CC not only results in improved production and distribution, but also achieves...

Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D. E.; Bruner, H.; Chen, H.; Wei, G.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

ARM - Measurement - Virtual temperature  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsVirtual temperature govMeasurementsVirtual temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Virtual temperature The virtual temperature Tv = T(1 + rv/{epsilon}), where rv is the mixing ratio, and {epsilon} is the ratio of the gas constants of air and water vapor ( 0.622). Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems MWRP : Microwave Radiometer Profiler RWP : Radar Wind Profiler

263

Optimization of multi-pressure himidification-dehumidification desalination using thermal vapor compression and hybridization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Humidification-dehumidification (HD or HDH) desalination, and specifically HD driven by a thermal vapor compressor (TVC), is a thermal desalination method that has the potential to produce potable water efficiently in order ...

Mistry, Karan Hemant

264

Site-Specific Measurement of Water Dynamics in the Substrate Pocket of Ketosteroid Isomerase Using Time-Resolved Vibrational  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with function is rarely available.23 In contrast, vibrational dynamic Stokes shift measure- ments24-30 haveSite-Specific Measurement of Water Dynamics in the Substrate Pocket of Ketosteroid Isomerase Using Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy Santosh Kumar Jha,,§, Minbiao Ji,,, Kelly J. Gaffney

Boxer, Steven G.

265

Measuring and moderating the water resource impact of biofuel production and trade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and  Argentina  already  face  water  scarcity   issues,  which  would  be  exacerbated  by  further  bioenergy  

Fingerman, Kevin Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Production of higher quality bio-oils by in-line esterification of pyrolysis vapor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure encompasses in-line reactive condensation processes via vapor phase esterification of bio-oil to decease reactive species concentration and water content in the oily phase of a two-phase oil, thereby increasing storage stability and heating value. Esterification of the bio-oil vapor occurs via the vapor phase contact and subsequent reaction of organic acids with ethanol during condensation results in the production of water and esters. The pyrolysis oil product can have an increased ester content and an increased stability when compared to a condensed pyrolysis oil product not treated with an atomized alcohol.

Hilten, Roger Norris; Das, Keshav; Kastner, James R; Bibens, Brian P

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

267

The Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Some Primary Amines of Pharmaceutical Importance by Correlation Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by Correlation Gas Chromatography Chase Gobble, Nigam Rath, and James Chickos* Department of Chemistry Information ABSTRACT: Vapor pressures, vaporization, and sublimation enthalpies of several pharmaceuticals and boiling temperatures when available. Sublimation enthalpies and vapor pressures are also evaluated for 1

Chickos, James S.

268

An Evaluation of MWR Retrievals of Liquid Water Path  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Evaluation of MWR Retrievals Evaluation of MWR Retrievals of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor R. T. Marchand and T. P. Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction This paper offers some observations on the quality of Microwave Radiometer (MWR) retrievals of precipitable water vapor (PWV) and liquid water path (LWP). The paper shows case study comparisons between the standard "statistical" approach and those obtained using an iterative solution of the microwave radiative transfer equations. These examples show how improvements in the retrieval of LWP can be obtained by using an iterative approach, but that possible improvements are limited by the accuracy of the forward model absorption coefficients and errors in the brightness temperature measurements. Each of these effects limits the

269

Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels, Phase 2: Evaluations of Field Samples and Laboratory Blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Study to measure the flammability of gasoline/ethanol fuel vapors at low ambient temperatures and develop a mathematical model to predict temperatures at which flammable vapors were likely to form.

Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; LaViolette, M.

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Cloud ice water concentration is one of the most important, yet poorly observed, cloud properties. Developing physical parameterizations used in general circulation models through single-column modeling is one of the key foci of the ARM program. In addition to the vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor and condensed water at the model grids, large-scale horizontal advective tendencies of these variables are also required as forcing terms in the single-column models. Observed horizontal advection of condensed water has not been available because the radar/lidar/radiometer observations at the ARM site are single-point measurement, therefore, do not provide horizontal distribution of condensed water. The intention of this product is to provide large-scale distribution of cloud ice water by merging available surface and satellite measurements. The satellite cloud ice water algorithm uses ARM ground-based measurements as baseline, produces datasets for 3-D cloud ice water distributions in a 10 deg x 10 deg area near ARM site. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) areal measurement. That is, this study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements at the point of ARM site. We use the cloud characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain satellite retrieval, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the cloud ice water distributions within an area, i.e., 10 deg x 10 deg centered at ARM site.

Liu, Guosheng

271

Study on the Portable and Integrated Type Pore Plate Flow Measureing Device for Condensate Water of 300MW Steam Turbine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to insure the accuracy of steam turbine thermal test in power plant, the flowrate measurement accuracy of condensate water should be insured. In this paper, the portable and integrated type flow measuring device for condensate water of 300MW steam turbine flow is designed, which is based on the condensate water parameters and the specific pipeline conditions at the exit of the No. 5 low pressure heater for 300MW unit. A integration of non standard differential pressure orifice flow meter is designed in this paper Through calibration in standard experimental system, the reason of the large error is that the flow field is disturbed by the origin plate type downward welding connecting flanges. Then the welding neck flanges is designed for the connecting flanges. The distribution of connecting flanges of flow field is weaken, and the measurement accuracy can meet the demand of steam turbine thermal test.

Yong Li; Jia-yong Wang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

VAPORIZATION THERMODYNAMICS OF KCl. COMBINING VAPOR PRESSURE AND GRAVIMETRIC DATA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.B. Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119899, Russia Bonnell D.W., Hastie J.W. National temperature chemistry situations, vapor pressures are typically less than 100 kPa. The molar volume is p = 101325 Pa). The subscript trs denotes that the changeisfor a transition, typically sublimation

Rudnyi, Evgenii B.

273

Measuring optical absorption coefficient of pure water in UV using the integrating cavity absorption meter.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

................................................................ 50 2. Water purification system ............................................................. 51 3. Sample preparation........................................................................ 54 viii CHAPTER Page V APPARATUS... ................................................................ 50 2. Water purification system ............................................................. 51 3. Sample preparation........................................................................ 54 viii CHAPTER Page V APPARATUS...

Wang, Ling

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

274

Measurement of the variance of water surface slopes by a radar: Verification of algorithms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A full-scale experiment is carried out to study backscattering of a microwave radar signal by a rough water surface during flight over the Gorky water storage. A centimeter-wavelength Doppler radar with a knif...

V. Yu. Karaev; M. B. Kanevsky; E. M. Meshkov…

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Diode laser measurements of H[sub 2]O line intensities and self-broadening coefficients in the 1. 4-[mu]m region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Precise knowledge of water vapor radiative properties in the infrared spectrum is needed for many applications. Such applications include atmospheric sounding experiments, radiative sensing of combustion processes, and optical diagnostics for gas-dynamic and aerodynamic studies. Spectrally resolved measurements of pure water vapor absorption spectra have been performed with a tunable diode laser. The laser, a distributed feedback InGaAsP diode, emits in the 1.4-[mu]m region. A total of 12 lines were studied corresponding to rovibrational transitions within the [nu][sub 1] + [nu][sub 3] and 2[nu][sub 1] vibrational bands. A Voigt profile analysis of lineshape is used to infer both intensities and self-collision-broadening coefficients of the water vapor. Good agreements is found between the observed line intensities and those recently measured by Toth. These results are apparently the first published measurements of the broadening coefficient within this spectral range.

Langlois, S.; Birbeck, T.P.; Hanson, R.K. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Water Management in A PEMFC: Water Transport Mechanism and Material  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Management in A PEMFC: Water Transport Mechanism and Material Degradation in Gas Diffusion on the water management of the PEMFC, namely the transport of product water (both liquid and vapor its water management performance and func- tion as indicators of the degradation of GDL material

Kandlikar, Satish

277

Measurements on 5:1 Scale Abrasive Water Jet Cutting Head Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nozzle orifice s Isentropic (e.g. in w.jet.s) w.jet Water jet water Water Superscripts: * Symbol for non, an achievable accuracy also mentioned by Hashish in [7]. Improving the AWJ cutting process in a way that parts with precise accuracy of motion, a precisely manufactured tool (cutting head) and optimally set machining

278

Measurement of gas/water uptake coefficients for trace gases active in the marine environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ocean produced reduced sulfur compounds including dimethylsulfide (DMS), hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}), methyl mercaptan (CH{sub 3}CH) and carbonyl sulfide (OCS) deliver a sulfur burden to the atmosphere which is roughly equal to sulfur oxides produced by fossil fuel combustion. These species and their oxidation products dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), dimethyl sulfone (DMSO{sub 2}) and methane sulfonic acid (MSA) dominate aerosol and CCN production in clean marine air. Furthermore, oxidation of reduced sulfur species will be strongly influenced by NO{sub x}/O{sub 3} chemistry in marine atmospheres. The multiphase chemical processes for these species must be understood in order to study the evolving role of combustion produced sulfur oxides over the oceans. We have measured the chemical and physical parameters affecting the uptake of reduced sulfur compounds, their oxidation products, ozone, and nitrogen oxides by the ocean's surface, and marine clouds, fogs, and aerosols. These parameters include: gas/surface mass accommodation coefficients; physical and chemically modified (effective) Henry's law constants; and surface and liquid phase reaction constants. These parameters are critical to understanding both the interaction of gaseous trace species with cloud and fog droplets and the deposition of trace gaseous species to dew covered, fresh water and marine surfaces.

Davidovits, P. (Boston Coll., Chestnut Hill, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry); Worsnop, D.W.; Zahniser, M.S.; Kolb, C.E. (Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics)

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Vacuum vapor deposition gun assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vapor deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, a hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

Zeren, Joseph D. (Boulder, CO)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

LNG Vaporizer Utilizing Vacuum Steam Condensing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This report concerns the field test results of a new type of peak-shaving LNG vaporizer (VSV) whose heat source is ... heat of vacuum steam to vaporize and superheat LNG within heat transfer tubes. Prior to the.....

Y. Miyata; M. Hanamure; H. Kujirai; Y. Sato…

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Running-Film Vaporizer for LNG  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Advances in welding technology and steel fabrication techniques have permitted the development of a new concept in cryogenic vaporizers—the running-film plate vaporizer. Although similar in heat transfer philosop...

H. H. West; G. L. Puckett

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Vapor Retarder Classification- Building America Top Innovation  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Building America Innovations profile describes research in vapor retarders. Since 2006 the IRC has permitted Class III vapor retarders like latex paint (see list above) in all climate zones under certain conditions thanks to research by Building America teams.

283

Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Volatilized metal compounds retard vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

Warren, Barbara K. (Charleston, WV)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Dynamic voltage-current characteristics for a water jet plasma arc  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A virtual instrument technology is used to measure arc current, arc voltage, dynamic V-I characteristics, and nonlinear conductance for a cone-shaped water jet plasma arc under ac voltage. Experimental results show that ac arc discharge mainly happens in water vapor evaporated from water when heated. However, due to water's cooling effect and its conductance, arc conductance, reignition voltage, extinguish voltage, and current zero time are very different from those for ac arc discharge in gas work fluid. These can be valuable to further studies on mechanism and characteristics of plasma ac discharge in water, and even in gas work fluid.

Yang Jiaxiang; Lan Sheng; Xu Zuoming [College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150040 (China)

2008-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

285

USING SCHUMANN RESONANCE MEASUREMENTS FOR CONSTRAINING THE WATER ABUNDANCE ON THE GIANT PLANETS-IMPLICATIONS FOR THE SOLAR SYSTEM'S FORMATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation and evolution of the solar system is closely related to the abundance of volatiles, namely water, ammonia, and methane in the protoplanetary disk. Accurate measurement of volatiles in the solar system is therefore important for understanding not only the nebular hypothesis and origin of life but also planetary cosmogony as a whole. In this work, we propose a new remote sensing technique to infer the outer planets' water content by measuring Tremendously and Extremely Low Frequency (TLF-ELF) electromagnetic wave characteristics (Schumann resonances) excited by lightning in their gaseous envelopes. Schumann resonance detection can be potentially used for constraining the uncertainty of volatiles of the giant planets, mainly Uranus and Neptune, because such TLF-ELF wave signatures are closely related to the electric conductivity profile and water content.

Simoes, Fernando; Pfaff, Robert; Klenzing, Jeffrey; Freudenreich, Henry; Bromund, Kenneth; Martin, Steven; Rowland, Douglas [NASA/GSFC, Heliophysics Science Division, Space Weather Laboratory (Code 674), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Hamelin, Michel; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques [LATMOS/IPSL, UPMC, Paris (France); Beghin, Christian; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre [LPC2E, CNRS/Universite d'Orleans (France); Grard, Rejean [ESA/ESTEC, Research Scientific Support Department, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Sentman, Davis [Institute of Geophysics, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Takahashi, Yukihiro [Department of Geophysics, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Yair, Yoav [Department Life Natural Sciences, Open University of Israel, Raanana (Israel)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Gas Solubility Measurement and Modeling for the Nitrogen + Water System from 274.18 K to 363.02 K  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gas Solubility Measurement and Modeling for the Nitrogen + Water System from 274.18 K to 363.02 K ... (4)?Frolich, P. K.; Tauch, E. J.; Hogan, J. J.; Peer, A. A. Solubilities of Gases in Liquids at High Pressure. ...

Antonin Chapoy; Amir H. Mohammadi; Bahman Tohidi; Dominique Richon

2004-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

287

Mercury Source Zone Identification using Soil Vapor Sampling and Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Development and demonstration of reliable measurement techniqes that can detect and help quantify the nature and extent of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in the subsurface are needed to reduce certainties in the decision making process and increase the effectiveness of remedial actions. We conducted field tests at the Y-12 National Security Complex (NSC) in Oak Ridge, TN, to determine if sampling and analysis of Hg(0) vapors in the shallow subsurface (<0.3 m depth) can be used to as an indicator of the location and extent of Hg(0) releases in the subsurface. We constructed a rigid PVC pushprobe assembly, which was driven into the ground. Soil gas samples were collected through a sealed inner tube of the assembly and analyzed immediately in the field with a Lumex and/or Jerome Hg(0) analyzer. Time-series sampling showed that Hg vapor concentrations were fairly stable over time suggesting that the vapor phase Hg(0) was not being depleted and that sampling results were not dependent on the soil gas purge volume. Hg(0) vapor data collected at over 200 pushprobe locations at 3 different release sites correlated well to areas of known Hg(0) contamination. Vertical profiling of Hg(0) vapor concentrations conducted at 2 locations provided information on the vertical distribution of Hg(0) contamination in the subsurface. We concluded from our studies that soil gas sampling and analysis can be conducted rapidly and inexpensively at a large scale to help identify areas contaminated with Hg(0).

Watson, David B [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL] [ORNL; Lester, Brian P [ORNL] [ORNL; Lowe, Kenneth Alan [ORNL] [ORNL; Southworth, George R [ORNL] [ORNL; Bogle, Mary Anna [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Pierce, Eric M [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Ultrafast, Unimpeded Liquid Water Transport Through Graphene-Based Nanochannels Measured by Isotope Labelling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graphene-based laminates, with ultralong and tortuous nanocapillaries formed by simply stacking graphene flakes together, have great promises in filtration and separation. However, the information on liquid water trans-membrane permeation is lacking, which is the most fundamental problem and of crucial importance in solution-based mass transport. Here, based on isotope labelling, we investigate the liquid water transportation through graphene-based nanocapillaries under no external hydrostatic pressures. Liquid water can afford an unimpeded permeation through graphene-based nanochannels with a diffusion coefficient 4~5 orders of magnitude larger than through sub-micrometer-sized polymeric channels. When dissolving ions in sources, the diffusion coefficient of ions through graphene channels lies in the same order of magnitude as water, while the ion diffusion is faster than water, indicating that the ions are mainly transported by fast water flows and the delicate interactions between ions and nanocapillary wa...

Sun, Pengzhan; Wang, Kunlin; Zhong, Minlin; Wu, Dehai; Zhu, Hongwei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

ARM - Measurement - Trace gas concentration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsTrace gas concentration govMeasurementsTrace gas concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Trace gas concentration The amount per unit volume of trace gases other than carbon dioxide, ozone and water vapor, typically measured in conjunction with in situ aerosol measurements, e.g. carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide. Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO : Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System

290

Measuring and moderating the water resource impact of biofuel production and trade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2007 “When it comes to bioenergy, we have made the strategic2010).  WTO  Regulations  and  Bioenergy  Sustainability  Berndes,  G.  (2002).  "Bioenergy  and  water  -­?  the  

Fingerman, Kevin Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Measuring and moderating the water resource impact of biofuel production and trade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and  Argentina  already  face  water  scarcity   issues,  which  would  be  exacerbated  by  further  bioenergy  expansion  (Berndes   1.3 The  Energy/

Fingerman, Kevin Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

NREL's e-Ca Test: A Scalable, High-Sensitivity Water Permeation Measurement Methodology (Poster)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A test method is described that uses the resistivity of a Calcium film to detect very small amounts of water permeating through a barrier material.

Dameron, A.; Kempe, M.; Reese, M.

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Measuring and moderating the water resource impact of biofuel production and trade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enhanced  Oil  Recovery  (EOR)  is  used  once  additional  or  viscosity.  The  methods  for  EOR  vary  greatly.  In  Water  Flooding)   EOR  (Steam  injection)   EOR  (CO2  

Fingerman, Kevin Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

The use of a permanent magnet for water content measurements of wood chips  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the FID Cellulose and Water,” TAPPI Journal, June 1996, Vol.were compared with the TAPPI standard method of measuringmade using the standard TAPPI test employing oven drying.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Vapor Pressures and Heats of Vaporization of Primary Coal Tars  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

/ PC92544-18 / PC92544-18 VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS FINAL REPORT Grant Dates: August, 1992 - November, 1996 Principal Authors: Eric M. Suuberg (PI) and Vahur Oja Report Submitted: April, 1997 Revised: July, 1997 Grant Number: DE-FG22-92PC92544 Report Submitted by: ERIC M. SUUBERG DIVISION OF ENGINEERING BROWN UNIVERSITY PROVIDENCE, RI 02912 TEL. (401) 863-1420 Prepared For: U. S. DEPT. OF ENERGY FEDERAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CENTER P.O. BOX 10940 PITTSBURGH, PA 15236 DR. KAMALENDU DAS, FETC, MORGANTOWN , WV TECHNICAL PROJECT OFFICER "US/DOE Patent Clearance is not required prior to the publication of this document" ii United States Government Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any

296

Drinking Water Problems: Benzene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

their water. Activated charcoal or granular activated carbon Cellulose fibers Unfiltered water inlet Filtered water outlet Carbon granules Cellulose fibers Cellulose fibers Figure 2: Granular activated carbon (GAC) filter (adapted from Parrott et al...). filters used to improve the taste or remove odor of the water also can remove some contaminants in water supplies. These filters are effective in removing vola- tile organic compounds which easily vaporize into the atmosphere under normal conditions...

Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

297

Air/water subchannel measurements of the equilibrium quality and mass-flux distribution in a rod bundle. [BWR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Subchannel measurements were performed in order to determine the equilibrium quality and mass flux distribution in a four rod bundle, using air/water flow. An isokinetic technique was used to sample the flow in the center, side and corner subchannels of this test section. Flow rates of the air and water in each sampled subchannel were measured. Experiments were performed for two test-section-average mass fluxes (0.333x10/sup 6/ and 0.666x10/sup 6/ lb/sub m//h-ft/sup 2/), and the test-section-average quality was varied from 0% to 0.54% for each mass flux. Single-phase liquid, bubbly, slug and churn-turbulent two-phase flow regimes were achieved. The observed data trends agreed with previous diabatic measurements in which the center subchannel had the highest quality and mass flux, while the corner subchannel had the lowest.

Sterner, R.W.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Reply to Soper: Density measurement of confined water with neutron scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This is a response to Soper's two comments (1) regarding our papers (2, 3) in PNAS that (a) the distribution of water across the pores is not uniform and (b) the majority of water may reside outside the pores. Here, we ...

Chen, Sow-Hsin

299

Vapor deposition of tantalum and tantalum compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tantalum, and many of its compounds, can be deposited as coatings with techniques ranging from pure, thermal chemical vapor deposition to pure physical vapor deposition. This review concentrates on chemical vapor deposition techniques. The paper takes a historical approach. The authors review classical, metal halide-based techniques and current techniques for tantalum chemical vapor deposition. The advantages and limitations of the techniques will be compared. The need for new lower temperature processes and hence new precursor chemicals will be examined and explained. In the last section, they add some speculation as to possible new, low-temperature precursors for tantalum chemical vapor deposition.

Trkula, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Some of Hanford`s underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford`s organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes` future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as @ ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures.

Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Means and method for vapor generation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid, in heat transfer contact with a surface heated to a temperature well above the vaporization temperature of the liquid, will undergo a multiphase (liquid-vapor) transformation from 0% vapor to 100% vapor. During this transition, the temperature driving force or heat flux and the coefficients of heat transfer across the fluid-solid interface, and the vapor percentage influence the type of heating of the fluid--starting as "feedwater" heating where no vapors are present, progressing to "nucleate" heating where vaporization begins and some vapors are present, and concluding with "film" heating where only vapors are present. Unstable heating between nucleate and film heating can occur, accompanied by possibly large and rapid temperature shifts in the structures. This invention provides for injecting into the region of potential unstable heating and proximate the heated surface superheated vapors in sufficient quantities operable to rapidly increase the vapor percentage of the multiphase mixture by perhaps 10-30% and thereby effectively shift the multiphase mixture beyond the unstable heating region and up to the stable film heating region.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Posters Long-Pathlength Infrared Absorption Measurements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 3 Posters Long-Pathlength Infrared Absorption Measurements in the 8- to 14-µm Atmospheric Window: Self-Broadening Coefficient Data T. J. Kulp (a) and J. Shinn Geophysics and Environmental Research Program Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California Introduction The accurate characterization of the latent infrared (IR) absorption in the atmospheric window regions continues to be an area of research interest for the global climate modeling community. In the window between 8 and 14 µm, this absorption can be attributed primarily to water vapor. It consists of 1) weak lines originating from the edge of the water vapor pure rotational band (at low wavenumbers) and the trailing P-branch of the υ 2 rovibrational band (at the high-wavenumber boundary of the window); and 2) the

303

Guidance for the Implementation and Follow-Up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Covered Facilities  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Document provides specific guidance to agencies on the implementation and follow-up of energy and water efficiency measures identified and undertaken per Section 432 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) (42 U.S.C. 8253(f)(4) and (5)). Document also provides context for how these activities fit into the comprehensive approach to facility energy and water management outlined by the statute and incorporates by reference previous U.S. Department of Energy guidance released for Section 432 of EISA and other related documents.

304

Photo-Electric Ionization of Caesium Vapor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurement of photo-electric ionization in gases.—The current from a filament, normally limited by space change, is increased by the presence of positive ions. As shown by Kingdon this effect may be greatly magnified if a small cathode is practically enclosed by the anode so that the ions are imprisoned. This method was used for the detection of photo-electric ionization. Besides possessing extreme sensitivity it is unaffected by photo-electric emission from the electrodes.Photo-electric effect in caesium vapor.—The change in thermionic current with the unresolved radiation from a mercury arc was measured as functions of the applied voltage, filament temperature, and vapor pressure. Then the photo-electric effect as a function of wave-length was studied using a monochromatic illuminator to disperse light from the arc or a Mazda lamp. The ionization per unit flux was found to increase with increasing wave-length to a sharp maximum at the limit 1s=3184A of the principal series, as is required by the Bohr theory. For longer wave-lengths the ionization decreased to about 10 percent at 3400A. Photo-excitation. The simple theory does not admit of ionization by wave-lengths greater than 3184A but the data are in qualitative agreement with the hypothesis that such radiation produces excited atoms which upon collision with other atoms acquire sufficient additional energy to become ionized. Hence, unlike an x-ray limit, the photo-ionization effect for a valence electron is not sharply discontinuous at the true threshold for direct ionization.Photo-ionization photometer and intensitometer. A tube of the type described, with suitable gases for the range of wave-length involved, may be used as a photometer or may be calibrated to measure intensity of radiation directly.

Paul D. Foote and F. L. Mohler

1925-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Phase separation of quaternary solubilized solutions or micro emulsion of hydrocarbons containing sodium oleate + phenol + benzene + water by freezing point measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The depressions in freezing point measurements in quaternary solubilized solutions or micro-emulsion in sodium oleate + phenol + benzene + water are measured. Maxima and minima were observed, Gibbs' phase rule...

Dr. Bhagwan Swaroop

1978-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements and Radiosonde Comparisons During the WVIOP2000 Field Experiment D. Cimini University of L'Aquila L'Aquil, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Y. Han Science System Applications National Aeronautics Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland S. Keihm Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California Introduction During September to October 2000, a water vapor intensive operational period (WVIOP) was conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and

307

Assessment of soot particle vaporization effects during laser-induced incandescence with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessment of soot particle vaporization effects during laser-induced incandescence with time-induced incandescence (LII) has been successfully used for soot volume fraction and particle size measurements

Hahn, David W.

308

Implementation of Simple Measures for Savings Water and Energy Consumption in Kuwait Government Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper gives in details the efforts made by the Public Services Department (PSD) to reduce water and energy consumptions in the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour's (MOSAL) buildings in Kuwait. PSD manages around 125 buildings distributed...

Albaharani, H.; Al-Mulla, A.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Measurement of 222RN concentration in drinking water in Sakarya, Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......they are still below the World Health Organization recommended level...The radionuclides, which can be dangerous to human health because of their presence in the...drinking water represents a potential health risk due to human exposure through......

Hakan Yakut; Emre Tabar; Zemine Zenginerler; Nilufer Demirci; Filiz Ertugral

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Chemical Potential of Water from Measurements of Optic Axial Angle of Zeolites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...a purified sample collected at a new occurrence near Chena Hot Springs, Alaska. The chemical analysis of the sample from which...1-methyl-5-nitroimidazole-2-carboxalde-hyde thiosemicarbazone (2) in hot water. Recrystallized from dimethylformamide, the sample...

G. Donald Eberlein; C. L. Christ

1968-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

311

Sustaining dry surfaces under water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water. In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys - thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical predictions are consistent with molecular dynamics simulations and experiments.

Paul R. Jones; Xiuqing Hao; Eduardo R. Cruz-Chu; Konrad Rykaczewski; Krishanu Nandy; Thomas M. Schutzius; Kripa K. Varanasi; Constantine M. Megaridis; Jens H. Walther; Petros Koumoutsakos; Horacio D. Espinosa; Neelesh A. Patankar

2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

312

VAPORIZATION OF TUNGSTEN-METAL IN STEAM AT HIGH TEMPERATURES.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The vaporization of tungsten from the APT spallation target dominates the radiological source term for unmitigated target overheating accidents. Chemical reactions of tungsten with steam which persist to tungsten temperatures as low as 800 C result in the formation of a hydrated tungsten-oxide which has a high vapor pressure and is readily convected in a flowing atmosphere. This low-temperature vaporization reaction essentially removes the oxide film that forms on the tungsten-metal surface as soon as it forms, leaving behind a fresh metallic surface for continued oxidation and vaporization. Experiments were conducted to measure the oxidative vaporization rates of tungsten in steam as part of the effort to quantify the MT radiological source term for severe target accidents. Tests were conducted with tungsten rods (1/8 inch diameter, six inches long) heated to temperatures from approximately 700 C to 1350 C in flowing steam which was superheated to 140 C. A total of 19 experiments was conducted. Fifteen tests were conducted by RF induction heating of single tungsten rods held vertical in a quartz glass retort. Four tests were conducted in a vertically-mounted tube furnace for the low temperature range of the test series. The aerosol which was generated and transported downstream from the tungsten rods was collected by passing the discharged steam through a condenser. This procedure insured total collection of the steam along with the aerosol from the vaporization of the rods. The results of these experiments revealed a threshold temperature for tungsten vaporization in steam. For the two tests at the lowest temperatures which were tested, approximately 700 C, the tungsten rods were observed to oxidize without vaporization. The remainder of the tests was conducted over the temperature range of 800 C to 1350 C. In these tests, the rods were found to have lost weight due to vaporization of the tungsten and the missing weight was collected in the downstream condensate system. The aerosol formed a fine white smoke of tungsten-oxide which was visible to the eye as it condensed in the laminar boundary layer of steam which flowed along the surface of the rod. The aerosol continued to flow as a smoke tube downstream of the rod, flowing coaxially along the centerline axis of the quartz glass tube and depositing by impaction along the outside of a bend and at sudden area contractions in the piping. The vaporization rate data from the 17 experiments which exceeded the vaporization threshold temperature are shown in Figure 5 in the form of vaporization rates (g/cm{sup 2} s) vs. inverse temperature (K{sup {minus}1}). Two correlations to the present data are presented and compared to a published correlation by Kilpatrick and Lott. The differences are discussed.

GREENE,G.A.; FINFROCK,C.C.

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Electrochemical polarization measurement on 304 SS in high temperature, high purity water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The polarization behavior of the redox reactions of hydrogen (H{sub 2}), oxygen (O{sub 2}), and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) on 304 stainless steel (SS) in high temperature, high purity water was studied in order to determine the electrochemical kinetic constants, such as Tafel slopes, exchange currents, orders of reaction and other parameters. These values are necessary to develop the electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) predictive model for boiling water reactors (BWRs), which is used to monitor the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) susceptibility of sensitized austenitic SS.

Kim, Y.J.; Niedrach, L.W. [General Electric Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States). Corporate Research and Development Center

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Non-Vapor Compression HVAC Technologies Report  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

While vapor-compression technologies have served heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) needs very effectively, and have been the dominant HVAC technology for close to 100 years, the conventional refrigerants used in vapor-compression equipment contribute to global climate change when released to the atmosphere. The Building Technologies Office is evaluating low-global warming potential (GWP) alternatives to vapor-compression technologies.

315

Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) Exploration Activity Details Location Unspecified Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Surface soil-mercury surveys are an inexpensive and useful exploration tool for geothermal resources. ---- Surface geochemical surveys for mercury were conducted in 16 areas in 1979-1981 by ARCO Oil and Gas Company as part of its geothermal evaluation program. Three techniques used together have proved satisfactory in evaluating surface mercury data. These are contouring, histograms and cumulative frequency plots of the data. Contouring geochemical data and constructing histograms are standard

316

Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Volatilized metal compounds are described which are capable of retarding vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

Warren, B.K.

1991-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

317

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

1988-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

319

Tritium issues in commercial pressurized water reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tritium has become an important radionuclide in commercial Pressurized Water Reactors because of its mobility and tendency to concentrate in plant systems as tritiated water during the recycling of reactor coolant. Small quantities of tritium are released in routine regulated effluents as liquid water and as water vapor. Tritium has become a focus of attention at commercial nuclear power plants in recent years due to inadvertent, low-level, chronic releases arising from routine maintenance operations and from component failures. Tritium has been observed in groundwater in the vicinity of stations. The nuclear industry has undertaken strong proactive corrective measures to prevent recurrence, and continues to eliminate emission sources through its singular focus on public safety and environmental stewardship. This paper will discuss: production mechanisms for tritium, transport mechanisms from the reactor through plant, systems to the environment, examples of routine effluent releases, offsite doses, basic groundwater transport and geological issues, and recent nuclear industry environmental and legal ramifications. (authors)

Jones, G. [Constellation Energy Group, R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, Ontario, NY (United States)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

320

A simple grand canonical approach to compute the vapor pressure of bulk and finite size systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this article we introduce a simple grand canonical screening (GCS) approach to accurately compute vapor pressures from molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo simulations. This procedure entails a screening of chemical potentials using a conventional grand canonical scheme, and therefore it is straightforward to implement for any kind of interface. The scheme is validated against data obtained from Gibbs ensemble simulations for water and argon. Then, it is applied to obtain the vapor pressure of the coarse-grained mW water model, and it is shown that the computed value is in excellent accord with the one formally deduced using statistical thermodynamics arguments. Finally, this methodology is used to calculate the vapor pressure of a water nanodroplet of 94 molecules. Interestingly, the result is in perfect agreement with the one predicted by the Kelvin equation for a homogeneous droplet of that size.

Factorovich, Matías H.; Scherlis, Damián A. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química Física/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. II, Buenos Aires C1428EHA (Argentina)] [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química Física/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. II, Buenos Aires C1428EHA (Argentina); Molinero, Valeria [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0850 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0850 (United States)

2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE Building America Case Study Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing PROJECT INFORMATION Construction: Existing homes with vapor open wall assemblies Type: Residential Climate Zones: All PERFORMANCE DATA Insulation Ratio The R-value ratio of exterior to interior insulation (e.g., R-15 exterior insulation on R-11 cavity insulation has a ratio of 0.58). This variable controls sheathing temperature. Vapor Permeable Insulation An insulation with vapor permeance greater than five U.S. perms (e.g., rigid mineral fiber insulations). This variable controls water vapor flow and sheathing temperatures. Water Resisting Barrier A membrane that resists liquid water transfer. Permeable WRBs allow water

322

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

Novick, Vincent J.; Johnson, Stanley A.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

1999-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

324

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

An ECT/ERT dual-modality sensor for oil-water two-phase flow measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a new sensor for ECT/ERT dual-modality system which can simultaneously obtain the permittivity and conductivity of the materials in the pipeline. Quasi-static electromagnetic fields are produced by the inner electrodes array sensor of electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) system. The results of simulation show that the data of permittivity and conductivity can be simultaneously obtained from the same measurement electrode and the fusion of two kinds of data may improve the quality of the reconstructed images. For uniform oil-water mixtures, the performance of designed dual-modality sensor for measuring the various oil fractions has been tested on representative data and the results of experiments show that the designed sensor broadens the measurement range compared to single modality.

Wang, Pitao [School of Electronic Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, 300072 and School of Electronic Engineering, University of Jinan (China); Wang, Huaxiang; Sun, Benyuan; Cui, Ziqiang [School of Electronic Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, 300072 (China); Huang, Wenrui [HuaDian Heavy Industries Co. Ltd, Beijing, 100077 (China)

2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

326

A Flux-Gradient System for Simultaneous Measurement of the CH4, CO2, and H2O Fluxes at a Lake–Air Interface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study aims to test the performance of a flux-gradient system for simultaneous measurement of the fluxes of water vapor, CO2, and CH4 at a lake–air interface. ... The K parametrization(32) has been successfully deployed for flux observations in terrestrial ecosystems,(33) but to the best of the authors’ knowledge, extensive testing of this method for lake systems has not yet been reported in the published literature. ... This correction procedure has been thoroughly tested by the manufacturer up to a water vapor concentration of 1 %v. ...

Wei Xiao; Shoudong Liu; Hanchao Li; Qitao Xiao; Wei Wang; Zhenghua Hu; Cheng Hu; Yunqiu Gao; Jing Shen; Xiaoyan Zhao; Mi Zhang; Xuhui Lee

2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

327

Vaporization modeling of petroleum-biofuel drops using a hybrid multi-component approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Numerical modeling of the vaporization characteristics of multi-component fuel mixtures is performed in this study. The fuel mixtures studied include those of binary components, biodiesel, diesel-biodiesel, and gasoline-ethanol. The use of biofuels has become increasingly important for reasons of environmental sustainability. Biofuels are often blended with petroleum fuels, and the detailed understanding of the vaporization process is essential to designing a clean and efficient combustion system. In this study, a hybrid vaporization model is developed that uses continuous thermodynamics to describe petroleum fuels and discrete components to represent biofuels. The model is validated using the experimental data of n-heptane, n-heptane-n-decane mixture, and biodiesel. Since biodiesel properties are not universal due to the variation in feedstock, methods for predicting biodiesel properties based on the five dominant fatty acid components are introduced. Good levels of agreement in the predicted and measured drop size histories are obtained. Furthermore, in modeling the diesel-biodiesel drop, results show that the drop lifetime increases with the biodiesel concentration in the blend. During vaporization, only the lighter components of diesel fuel vaporize at the beginning. Biodiesel components do not vaporize until some time during the vaporization process. On the other hand, results of gasoline-ethanol drops indicate that both fuels start to vaporize once the process begins. At the beginning, the lighter components of gasoline have a slightly higher vaporization rate than ethanol. After a certain time, ethanol vaporizes faster than the remaining gasoline components. At the end, the drop reduces to a regular gasoline drop with heavier components. Overall, the drop lifetime increases as the concentration of ethanol increases in the drop due to the higher latent heat. (author)

Zhang, Lei; Kong, Song-Charng [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, 2025 Black Engineering Building, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

Spacecraft Habitation Systems, Water Recovery and Waste Active Charged Particle and Neutron Radiation Measurement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-PMWC) Orbital Technologies Corporation Technical Abstract Model calculations and risk assessment estimates Particle and Neutron Radiation Measurement Technologies Technical Abstract The innovative High Efficiency the resultant plastic tiles. This system requires access to power, data, and cooling interfaces. The system

329

Accident Performance of Light Water Reactor Cladding Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During a loss of coolant accident as experienced at Fukushima, inadequate cooling of the reactor core forces component temperatures ever higher where they must withstand aggressive chemical environments. Conventional zirconium cladding alloys will readily oxidize in the presence of water vapor at elevated temperatures, rapidly degrading and likely failing. A cladding breach removes the critical barrier between actinides and fission products and the coolant, greatly increasing the probability of the release of radioactivity in the event of a containment failure. These factors have driven renewed international interest in both study and improvement of the materials used in commercial light water reactors. Characterization of a candidate cladding alloy or oxidation mitigation technique requires understanding of both the oxidation kinetics and hydrogen production as a function of temperature and atmosphere conditions. Researchers in the MST division supported by the DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development program are working to evaluate and quantify these parameters across a wide range of proposed cladding materials. The primary instrument employed is a simultaneous thermal analyzer (STA) equipped with a specialized water vapor furnace capable of maintaining temperatures above 1200 C in a range of atmospheres and water vapor contents. The STA utilizes thermogravimetric analysis and a coupled mass spectrometer to measure in situ oxidation and hydrogen production of candidate materials. This capability is unprecedented in study of materials under consideration for reactor cladding use, and is currently being expanded to investigate proposed coating techniques as well as the effect of coating defects on corrosion resistance.

Nelson, Andrew T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

330

Fundamental measure theory for the electric double layer: applications to blue-energy harvesting and water desalination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Capacitive mixing (CAPMIX) and capacitive deionization (CDI) are promising candidates for harvesting clean, renewable energy and for the energy efficient production of potable water, respectively. Both CAPMIX and CDI involve water-immersed porous carbon electrodes at voltages of the order of hundreds of millivolts, such that counter-ionic packing is important. We propose a density functional theory (DFT) to model the electric double layer which forms near the surfaces of these porous materials. The White-Bear mark II fundamental measure theory (FMT) functional is combined with a mean-field Coulombic and a MSA-type correction to describe the interplay between dense packing and electrostatics, in good agreement with MD simulations. Compared to less elaborate mean-field models our DFT calculations reveal a higher work output for blue-energy cycles and a higher energy demand for desalination cycles.

Andreas Härtel; Mathijs Janssen; Sela Samin; René van Roij

2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

331

Summary of water-level measurements around the 1325-N crib during the fall of 1985 and the winter of 1986-1987  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a summary of the water-level data collected from the ground water under the Hanford Site and from the Columbia River during the fall of 1985 and the winter of 1986-1987 by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc., and more recently under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company. During this study, water levels were measured in 28 wells around the 1325-N crib and connecting trench to monitor the rise and fall of ground-water levels resulting from operation of this facility. Analysis of the water-level data demonstrated that the water being added to the 1325-N crib has a direct effect on the ground-water movement at the 100-N Area. When the crib is in operation, a mound of water forms below the crib, and when the crib is shut down, the mound flattens out and dissipates outward in all directions.

Jensen, E.J.

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Molecular Simulation of Henry's Constant at Vapor-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Phase Richard J. Sadus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coexistence. 1. Introduction Henry's constant is a well-known measure of a solute's solubility in a particularMolecular Simulation of Henry's Constant at Vapor-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Phase Boundaries Richard to determine Henry's constant from the residual chemical potential at infinite dilution at the vapor-liquid

333

Unusual thermopower of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on thermopower (TEP) and resistance measurements of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Unlike the conventional resistance of pristine graphene, the gate-dependent TEP shows a large electron-hole asymmetry. This can be accounted for by inhomogeneity of the CVD-graphene where individual graphene regions contribute with different TEPs. At the high magnetic field and low temperature, the TEP has large fluctuations near the Dirac point associated with the disorder in the CVD-graphene. TEP measurements reveal additional characteristics of CVD-graphene, which are difficult to obtain from the measurement of resistance alone.

Nam, Youngwoo, E-mail: youngwoo.nam@chalmers.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sun, Jie; Lindvall, Niclas; Yurgens, August [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Jae Yang, Seung; Rae Park, Chong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Woo Park, Yung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

334

Quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler for sampling semi-volatile organic gases and particulate components. A semi-volatile organic reversible gas sorbent macroreticular resin agglomerates of randomly packed microspheres with the continuous porous structure of particles ranging in size between 0.05-10 .mu.m for use in an integrated diffusion vapor-particle sampler.

Gundel, Lara (Berkeley, CA); Daisey, Joan M. (Walnut Creek, CA); Stevens, Robert K. (Cary, NC)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

PRE-GPS/MET REFERENCE LIST Eyre, J.R., Assimilation of radio occultation measurements into a numerical prediction system, ECMWF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PRE-GPS/MET REFERENCE LIST Eyre, J.R., Assimilation of radio occultation measurements, and L. J. Romans, Imaging the ionosphere with the Global Positioning System, Int. J. Imaging Syst, L. J. Romans and J. T. Schofield, Observing tropospheric water- vapor by radio occultation using GPS

336

Biomass Gasification in Supercritical Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biomass Gasification in Supercritical Water† ... A packed bed of carbon within the reactor catalyzed the gasification of these organic vapors in the water; consequently, the water effluent of the reactor was clean. ... A method for removing plugs from the reactor was developed and employed during an 8-h gasification run involving potato wastes. ...

Michael Jerry Antal, Jr.; Stephen Glen Allen; Deborah Schulman; Xiaodong Xu; Robert J. Divilio

2000-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

337

Laser techniques for studying chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is widely used to produce thin films for microelectronics, protective coatings and other materials processing applications. Despite the large number of applications, however, little is known about the fundamental chemistry and physics of most CVD processes. CVD recipes have generally been determined empirically, but as process requirements become more stringent, a more basic understanding will be needed to improve reactor design and speed process optimization. In situ measurements of the reacting gas are important steps toward gaining such an understanding, both from the standpoint of characterizing the reactor and testing models of a CVD process. Our work, a coordinated program of experimental and theoretical research in the fundamental mechanisms of CVD, illustrates the application of laser techniques to the understanding of a CVD system. We have used a number of laser-based techniques to probe CVD systems and have compared our measurements with predictions from computer models, primarily for the silane CVD system. The silane CVD model solves the two-dimensional, steady-state boundary layer equations of fluid flow coupled to 26 elementary chemical reactions describing the thermal decomposition of silane and the subsequent reactions of intermediate species that result in the deposition of a silicon film.

Ho, P.; Breiland, W.G.; Coltrin, M.E.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Phototransformation of Triclosan in Surface Waters:? A Relevant Elimination Process for This Widely Used BiocideLaboratory Studies, Field Measurements, and Modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Phototransformation of Triclosan in Surface Waters:? A Relevant Elimination Process for This Widely Used BiocideLaboratory Studies, Field Measurements, and Modeling ... The phototransformation of the widely used biocide triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) was quantified for surface waters using artificial UV light and sunlight irradiation. ... The pH of surface waters, commonly ranging from 7 to 9, determines the speciation of triclosan (pKa = 8.1) and therefore its absorption of sunlight. ...

Céline Tixier; Heinz P. Singer; Silvio Canonica; Stephan R. Müller

2002-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

339

A comparison of measured and simulated soil water depletion in the crop root zone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(w) aH/ax) - r(x). [1/s] (8) If a single value relationship between h and w is assumed, and the diffusivity D in m /s is represented by K(w). ah/aw, Eq. {8) becomes: 2 aw/at = a/ax (D(w) aw/ax) - ak(w)/ ax - r(x). [I/s] (9) Equation (9... by rL 2 C = T/( ] R(x)D(w)dx) [I/m ] (11) 0 where T is the transpiration rate per unit soil surface area (m water/(m soil, s)) and L is the depth to the bottom of the root zone 2 (m). The e+fective root distribution function is defined as a...

Lascano A., Roberto

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

340

Energy balance in laser-irradiated vaporizing droplets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The interactions of vaporizing aerosols with a high energy laser beam are analyzed in the diffusive vaporization regime. This is the regime in which diffusive mass transport and...

Zardecki, Andrew; Armstrong, Robert L

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Ground Gravity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et...

342

Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymers for Chemical Vapor Sensing. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Acidic Polymers for Chemical Vapor Sensing. Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymers for Chemical Vapor Sensing. Abstract: A review with 171 references. Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers for...

343

Detonation wave driven by condensation of supersaturated carbon vapor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental observation of a detonation wave driven by the energy of condensation of supersaturated carbon vapor is reported. The carbon vapor was formed by the thermal decay of unstable carbon suboxide C3O2 behind shock waves in mixtures containing 10–30% C3O2 in Ar. In the mixture 10% C3O2+Ar the insufficient heat release resulted in a regime of overdriven detonation. In the mixture 20% C3O2+Ar measured values of the pressure and wave velocity coincident with calculated Chapman-Jouguet parameters were attained. In the richest mixture 30% C3O2+Ar an excess heat release caused the slowing down of the condensation rate and the regime of underdriven detonation was observed.

A. Emelianov; A. Eremin; V. Fortov; H. Jander; A. Makeich; H. Gg. Wagner

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

344

Measurement of temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and viscosity of TiO{sub 2}-water nanofluids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanofluid is an innovative heat transfer fluid with superior potential for enhancing the heat transfer performance of conventional fluids. Many attempts have been made to investigate its thermal conductivity and viscosity, which are important thermophysical properties. No definitive agreements have emerged, however, about these properties. This article reports the thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of nanofluids experimentally. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles dispersed in water with volume concentration of 0.2-2 vol.% are used in the present study. A transient hot-wire apparatus is used for measuring the thermal conductivity of nanofluids whereas the Bohlin rotational rheometer (Malvern Instrument) is used to measure the viscosity of nanofluids. The data are collected for temperatures ranging from 15 C to 35 C. The results show that the measured viscosity and thermal conductivity of nanofluids increased as the particle concentrations increased and are higher than the values of the base liquids. Furthermore, thermal conductivity of nanofluids increased with increasing nanofluid temperatures and, conversely, the viscosity of nanofluids decreased with increasing temperature of nanofluids. Moreover, the measured thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids are quite different from the predicted values from the existing correlations and the data reported by other researchers. Finally, new thermophysical correlations are proposed for predicting the thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids. (author)

Duangthongsuk, Weerapun; Wongwises, Somchai [Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Lab. (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

345

Measurement and modeling of Ar ? H 2 ? C H 4 arc jet discharge chemical vapor deposition reactors II: Modeling of the spatial dependence of expanded plasma parameters and species number densities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Detailed methodology and results are presented for a two-dimensional ( r z ) computer model applicable to dc arc jet reactors operating on argon/hydrogen/hydrocarbon gas mixtures and used for chemical vapor deposition of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond and diamondlike carbon films. The model incorporates gas activation expansion into the low pressure reactor chamber and the chemistry of the neutral and charged species. It predicts the spatial variation of temperature flow velocities and number densities of 25 neutral and 14 charged species and the dependence of these parameters on the operating conditions of the reactor such as flows of H 2 and C H 4 and input power. Selected outcomes of the model are compared with experimental data in the accompanying paper [C. J. Rennick et al. J. Appl. Phys.102 063309 (2007)]. Two-dimensional spatial maps of the number densities of key radical and molecular species in the reactor derived from the model provide a summary of the complicated chemical processing that occurs. In the vortex region beyond the plume the key transformations are C H 4 ? C H 3 ? C 2 H 2 ? large hydrocarbons; in the plume or the transition zone to the cooler regions the chemical processing involves C 2 H x ? ( C H y and C H z ) C 3 H x ? ( C H y and C 2 H z ) ( C 2 H y and C 2 H z ) ? C 4 H x ? ( C H y and C 3 H z ) . Depending on the local gas temperature T g and the H ? H 2 ratio the equilibria of H-shifting reactions favor C CH and C 2 species (in the hot H-rich axial region of the plume) or C H 2 C 2 H and C 2 H 2 species (at the outer boundary of the transition zone). Deductions are drawn about the most abundant C-containing radical species incident on the growing diamond surface (C atoms and CH radicals) within this reactor and the importance of chemistry involving charged species is discussed. Modifications to the boundary conditions and model reactor geometry allow its application to a lower power arc jet reactor operated and extensively studied by Jeffries and co-workers at SRI International and comparisons are drawn with the reported laser induced fluorescence data from these studies.

Yu. A. Mankelevich; M. N. R. Ashfold; A. J. Orr-Ewing

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Investigations on optimization of accident management measures following a station blackout accident in a VVER-1000 pressurized water reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reactor safety issues are of primary importance for preserving the health of the population and ensuring no release of radioactivity and fission products into the environment. A part of the nuclear research focuses on improvement of the safety of existing nuclear power plants. Studies, research and efforts are a continuing process at improving the safety and reliability of existing and newly developed nuclear power plants at prevention of a core melt accident. Station blackout (loss of AC power supply) is one of the dominant accidents taken into consideration at performing accident analysis. In case of multiple failures of safety systems it leads to a severe accident. To prevent an accident to turn into a severe one or to mitigate the consequences, accident management measures must be performed. The present paper outlines possibilities for application and optimization of accident management measures following a station blackout accident. Assessed is the behaviour of the nuclear power plant during a station blackout accident without accident management measures and with application of primary/secondary side oriented accident management measures. Discussed are the possibilities for operators ' intervention and the influence of the performed accident management measures on the course of the accident. Special attention has been paid to the effectiveness of the passive feeding and physical phenomena having an influence on the system behaviour. The performed simulations show that the effectiveness of the secondary side feeding procedure can be limited due to an early evaporation or flashing effects in the feed water system. The analyzed cases show that the effectiveness of the accident management measures strongly depends on the initiation criteria applied for depressurization of the reactor coolant system. (authors)

Tusheva, P.; Schaefer, F.; Kliem, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Raman spectroscopic measurement of oxidation in supercritical water. 2: Conversion of isopropyl alcohol to acetone  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation of isopropyl alcohol in supercritical water has been investigated using Raman spectroscopy. Results for species concentration as a function of residence-time are presented for temperatures ranging from 400 to 480 C at constant pressure, 24.4 {+-} 0.3 MPa, and constant equivalence ratio, 0.88 {+-} 0.0. Acetone has been identified as the principal intermediate formed and subsequently destroyed, during the oxidation process. By assuming first-order kinetics for the destruction of both isopropyl alcohol and acetone, effective first-order rate constants have been determined from fits of the experimental data. Assuming Arrhenius behavior, the fits yield rate constants for isopropyl alcohol, k{sub eff,ipa} = 3.255 {times} 10{sup 22}(s{sup {minus}1}) exp [{minus}301.1 (kJ/mol)/RT], and for acetone, k{sub eff,ace} = 1.948 {times} 10{sup 10}(s{sup {minus}1}) exp[{minus}137.7(kJ/mol)/RT]. These results indicate that for temperatures greater than 425 C, the destruction of isopropyl alcohol proceeds faster than that of acetone.

Hunter, T.B.; Rice, S.F.; Hanush, R.G. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility] [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

The influence of temperature on the estimation of interstitial water by capillary pressure measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The residual hydrocarbons reznaining in the core samples were zemoved by a Soxhlet extractor using toluene as the solvent. The extraction time was eight hours. The ccrc samples we "e then dried at 250'F. The exact diameter and length of each core sample... in the graduated pipettes to an initial level corresponding to the top of the diaphragms. The cores we e placed in contact with FIGURE I CAPILLARY PRESSURE MEASUREMENT APPARATUS FRONT VIEW FIGURE l CAPILLARY PRESSURE CELI. i0 the diaphragm using a single...

Shah, Narendra

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

349

Recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing vapors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Values are recovered from a hydrocarbon-containing vapor by contacting the vapor with quench liquid consisting essentially of hydrocarbons to form a condensate and a vapor residue, the condensate and quench fluid forming a combined liquid stream. The combined liquid stream is mixed with a viscosity-lowering liquid to form a mixed liquid having a viscosity lower than the viscosity of the combined liquid stream to permit easy handling of the combined liquid stream. The quench liquid is a cooled portion of the mixed liquid. Viscosity-lowering liquid is separated from a portion of the mixed liquid and cycled to form additional mixed liquid.

Mirza, Zia I. (La Verne, CA); Knell, Everett W. (Los Alamitos, CA); Winter, Bruce L. (Danville, CA)

1980-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

350

The influence of prestrained metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial gallium-nitride templates on hydride vapor phase epitaxial growth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have varied the strain situation in metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial (MOVPE) grown gallium-nitride (GaN) by exchanging the nucleation layer and by inserting a submono-Si x N y -interlayer in the first few hundred nanometers of growth on sapphire substrates. The influence on the MOVPE template and subsequent hydride vapor phase epitaxial (HVPE) growth could be shown by in-situ measurements of the sample curvature. Using the results of these investigations we have established a procedure to confine the curvature development in MOVPE and HVPE growth to a minimum. By increasing the layer thickness in HVPE we could create self-separated freestanding GaN layers with small remaining curvature.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Measurement  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

localization that limits the present measurements. The knowledge thus gained will have input not only to fusion research, but to may ques- tions of basic plasma physics....

352

Measurement  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in the Department of Physics & Astronomy. Chapel Hill 2005 Approved: A. E. Champagne, Advisor J. C. Blackmon, Reader C. Iliadis, Reader ABSTRACT Ryan P. Fitzgerald: Measurement of...

353

Cobalt Ultrathin Film Catalyzed Ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cobalt Ultrathin Film Catalyzed Ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) using a cobalt ultrathin film (1 nm) as the catalyst and ethanol as carbon feedstock flow during the growth. The trace amount of self-contained water (0.2-5 wt %) in ethanol may act

Hone, James

354

VAPOR COMPRESSION HEAT PUMP SYSTEM FIELD TESTS AT THE TECH COMPLEX  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

323 CHAPTER 17 VAPOR COMPRESSION HEAT PUMP SYSTEM FIELD TESTS AT THE TECH COMPLEX \\B E Van D for several novel and conventional heat pump systems for space conditioning and water heating. Systems tested include the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES), solar assisted heat pumps (SAHP) both parallel and series

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

355

Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration Title Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 1995 Authors Hunt, Arlon J., Michael R. Ayers, and Wanqing Cao Journal Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids Volume 185 Pagination 227-232 Abstract A new method to produce novel composite materials based on the use of aerogels as a starting material is described. Using chemical vapor infiltration, a variety of solid materials were thermally deposited into the open pore structure of aerogel. The resulting materials possess new and unusual properties including photoluminescence, magnetism and altered optical properties. An important characteristic of this preparation process is the very small size of the deposits that gives rise to new behaviors. Silicon deposits exhibit photoluminescence, indicating quantum confinement. Two or more phases may be deposited simultaneously and one or both chemically or thermally reacted to produce new structures.

356

Chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran polymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis develops a platform for deposition of polymer thin films that can be further tailored by chemical surface modification. First, we explore chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran films using ...

Olsson, Ylva Kristina

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Entrainment measurements in annular flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air/water and vapor/freon were utilized to scale and simulate annular two-phase flow for high pressure steam/water conditions. A unique vapor/liquid Freon loop was built to obtain the high pressure data. The results were compared with two correlations available in the open literature. The Ishii and Mishima dimensionless group was able to scale the data remarkably well even for vapor/liquid Freon. However, the correlation needs to be adjusted for high Weber numbers of the gas phase.

Assad, A.; Jan, C.; Bertodano, M. de [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Beus, S.G. [Bettis Atomic Power Lab., West Mifflin, PA (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Water mist injection in oil shale retorting  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

1980-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

359

An Assessment of Microwave Absorption Models and Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water Using Clear-Sky Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Passive microwave radiometers have a long history in the remote sensing of atmospheric liquid and water vapor. Retrievals of these quantities are sensitive to variations in pressure and temperature of the liquid and water vapor. Rather than use a statistical or climatological approach to account for the natural variability in atmospheric pressure and temperature, additional information on the atmospheric profile at the time of the radiometer measurements can be directly incorporated into the retrieval process. Such an approach has been referred to in the literature as a “physical-iterative” solution. This paper presents an assessment of the accuracy of the column liquid water path that can be expected using such an iterative technique as a result of uncertainties in the microwave emissions from oxygen and water vapor. It is shown that the retrieval accuracy is influenced by the accuracy of the instrument measurements and the quality of the atmospheric profiles of temperature and pressure, as one would expect. But also critical is the uncertainty in the absorption coefficients used in the underlying microwave radiative transfer model. The uncertainty in the absorption coefficients is particularly problematic in that it may well bias the liquid water retrieval. The differences between 3 absorption models examined in this paper are equivalent to a bias of 15 to 30 g/m2, depending on the total column water vapor. An examination of typical liquid water paths from the Southern Great Plains region of the United States shows that errors of this magnitude have significant implications for shortwave radiation and retrievals of cloud effective particle size.

Marchand, Roger T.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Westwater, Ed R.; Clough, Shepard A.; Cady-Pereira, Karen; Liljegren, James C.

2003-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

360

Analysis and design of the internal mass transfer in oxygen-hydrogen fuel cell with a capillary membrane and with convective drainage of vaporous reaction products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mechanism of mass transfer is analyzed by which water vapor drains convectively from an electrode-condenser system in a fuel cell with a capillary membrane. The problem of optimizing the mass-transfer para...

V. N. Serebryakov; M. V. Mel'nikov; V. S. Ovchinnikov…

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Vapor Pressures and Vaporization, Sublimation, and Fusion Enthalpies of Some Fatty Acids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vapor Pressures and Vaporization, Sublimation, and Fusion Enthalpies of Some Fatty Acids Joe A. Wilson and James S. Chickos* Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of MissouriSt. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63121, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Sublimation enthalpies

Chickos, James S.

362

Vapor Pressures and Vaporization Enthalpies of a Series of Dialkyl Phthalates by Correlation Gas Chromatography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chromatography Chase Gobble and James Chickos* Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis Missouri 63121, United States Sergey P. Verevkin Department of Physical Chemistry: Experimental vapor pressures, vaporization, fusion and sublimation enthalpies of a number of dialkyl

Chickos, James S.

363

Characterization of isothermal vapor phase epitaxial (Hg,Cd)Te  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on the characterization of mercury cadmium telluride (Hg 1?x Cd x Te) film grown by the isothermal vapor phase epitaxial method (ISOVPE) and on the surface conversion of bulk Hg 1?xCd x Te to larger bandgap material. The crystal perfection is evaluated using defect etching electron beam and electrolyte electroreflectance (EBER and EER) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Hall measurements are used to measure carrier densities and mobilities. Surface concentrations and concentration profiles are measured for the ISOVPE grown layers by transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and electron?probe microanalysis (EPMA) to establish quantitative informations about composition control. Metal–insulator?semiconductor (MIS) structures were made and the properties important to device performance such as compositional uniformity storage time and carrier concentration are measured. The ISOVPE layers are compared in quality to films grown by other methods and show promise for MIS devices.

S. B. Lee; L. K. Magel; M. F. S. Tang; D. A. Stevenson; J. H. Tregilgas; M. W. Goodwin; R. L. Strong

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Measurement and correlation of phase equilibria for (water + aromatic hydrocarbon) binary mixtures at T = (573 to 623) K using microfluidic mixing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(Vapour + liquid) and (liquid + liquid) equilibria for (water + p-xylene) and (water + decalin) mixtures at T = (573 to 623) K were measured by a flow type apparatus with microfluidic system. The liquid–liquid slug flows in the microfluidic system were used for mixing of water and hydrocarbon due to high mass transfer between two liquid phases. The formations of the liquid–liquid slugs for (water + p-xylene) system were studied by changing the flow rate. The results of the liquid–liquid slug formations at hydrocarbon and water rich compositions were used for the measurements for (vapour + liquid) and (liquid + liquid) equilibria, respectively. It was found that the phase equilibria using the apparatus with the microfluidic system can be measured in a short residential time (1.6 to 3.2) min. The experimental results of the phase equilibria for (water + p-xylene) and (water + decalin) systems give that the regions of the (vapour + liquid) and (liquid + liquid) equilibria for both mixtures reduce with the increasing temperature. The mixture of (water + decalin) at T = (583 to 623) K forms the two phase regions of the (vapour + liquid) and (liquid + liquid) equilibria larger than those for (water + p-xylene) mixture. The experimental data of the phase equilibria obtained in this work were correlated with Peng–Robinson–Stryjek–Vera equation of state. The correlated results of the (liquid + liquid) equilibria for both systems represent the experimental data. For (vapour + liquid) equilibria, the results give the qualitative representations in the shape of the two phase region for both mixtures.

Masaki Togo; Taisuke Maeda; Akira Ito; Yusuke Shimoyama

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program, and to relate them to DOE`s programmatic objectives for ARM, based on the experience and scientific progress gained over the past five years. ARM programmatic objectives are to: (1) Relate observed radiative fluxes and radiances in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, specifically including water vapor and clouds, and to surface properties, and sample sufficient variety of situations so as to span a wide range of climatologically relevant possibilities; (2) develop and test parameterizations that can be used to accurately predict the radiative properties and to model the radiative interactions involving water vapor and clouds within the atmosphere, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation models. The primary observational methods remote sending and other observations at the surface, particularly remote sensing of clouds, water vapor and aerosols.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Optical waveguides in SBN by zinc vapor diffusion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at 600'C for a 12. 5 i1m Wide 1000'C Zinc Vapor Diffused SBN:60 Waveguide Measured at X = 0. 81 pm. IV. SBN:60 Amplitude Modulator Results . . . . . V. SBN:60 Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Results. . . . VI. Voltage-Length Product Comparison...: (a) extraordinary (TM), (b) 1. 5 x ordinary (TE). 12. Surface damage on SBN:60 diffused at 1000'C with an SiOz diffusion mask. 13. Zinc in-diffusion in SBN:60 25 . . . . . 26 . . . . . 27 . . . . . 28 29 14. Barium out-diffuison in SBN:60...

Quinn, Jeffrey Dale

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Operating experience of the IFSMTF (International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility) vapor-cooled lead system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility (IFSMTF) uses six pairs of vapor-cooled leads (VCLs) to introduce electric power to six test coils. Each VCL is housed in a dewar outside the 11-m vacuum vessel and is connected to the coal via a superconducting bus duct;the various VCLs are rated at 12 to 20 kA. Heat loss through the leads constitutes the single largest source of heat load to the cryogenic system. Concerns about voltage breakdown if a coil quenches have led to precautionary measures such as installation of a N/sub 2/-purged box near the top of the lead and shingles to collect water that condenses on the power buses. A few joints between power buses and VCLs were found to be inadequate during preliminary single-coil tests. This series of tests also pointed to the need for automatic control of helium flow through the leads. This was achieved by using the resistance measurements of the leads to control flow valves automatically. By the time full-array tests were started, a working scheme had developed that required little attention to the leads and that had little impact on the refrigerator between zero and full current to the coils. The operating loss of the VCLs at full current is averaging at about 7.4 gs of warm flow and 360 W of cold-gas return load. These results are compared with predictions that were based on earlier tests. 4 refs., 6 figs

Lue, J.W.; Fehling, D.T.; Fietz, W.A.; Lubell, M.S.; Luton, J.N.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Shen, S.S.; Stamps, R.E.; Thompson, D.H.; Wilson, C.T.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Cloud Liquid Water Measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pdry ­ Dry Power Term Pwet ­ Wet Power Term P=PdryPwet #12;Dry Power Term Energy is transferred, and temperature PdryC Ts-Ta pv x King et. al, 1981 · C ­ Calibration Constant · x - Calibration Constant · Ts the fact that this model does not pass through (0,0). va=kvx a #12;Calibration Equation Dry Term is: Pdry

Delene, David J.

369

Measurement of absorbed dose-to-water for an HDR {sup 192}Ir source with ionization chambers in a sandwich setup  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: In this study, a dedicated device for ion chamber measurements of absorbed dose-to-water for a Nucletron microSelectron-v2 HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source is presented. The device uses two ionization chambers in a so-called sandwich assembly. Using this setup and by taking the average reading of the two chambers, any dose error due to difficulties in absolute positioning (centering) of the source in between the chambers is cancelled to first order. The method's accuracy was examined by comparing measurements with absorbed dose-to-water determination based on the AAPM TG-43 protocol.Methods: The optimal source-to-chamber distance (SCD) for {sup 192}Ir dosimetry was determined from ion chamber measurements in a water phantom. The {sup 192}Ir source was sandwiched between two Exradin A1SL chambers (0.057 cm{sup 3}) at the optimal SCD separation. The measured ionization was converted to the absorbed dose-to-water using a {sup 60}Co calibration factor and a Monte Carlo-calculated beam quality conversion factor, k{sub Q}, for {sup 60}Co to {sup 192}Ir. An uncertainty estimate of the proposed method was determined based on reproducibility of measurements at different institutions for the same type of source.Results: The optimal distance for the A1SL chamber measurements was determined to be 5 cm from the {sup 192}Ir source center, considering the depth dependency of k{sub Q} for {sup 60}Co to {sup 192}Ir and the chamber positioning. The absorbed dose to water measured at (5 cm, 90°) on the transverse axis was 1.3% lower than TG-43 values and its reproducibility and overall uncertainty were 0.8% and 1.7%, respectively. The measurement doses at anisotropic points agreed within 1.5% with TG-43 values.Conclusions: The ion chamber measurement of absorbed dose-to-water with a sandwich method for the {sup 192}Ir source provides a more accurate, direct, and reference dose compared to the dose-to-water determination based on air-kerma strength in the TG-43 protocol. Due to the simple but accurate assembly, the sandwich measurement method is useful for daily dose management of {sup 192}Ir sources.

Araki, Fujio; Kouno, Tomohiro; Ohno, Takeshi [Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, 4-24-1 Kuhonji, Kumamoto 862-0976 (Japan)] [Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, 4-24-1 Kuhonji, Kumamoto 862-0976 (Japan); Kakei, Kiyotaka; Yoshiyama, Fumiaki [Department of Radiotherapy, Kumamoto University Hospital, 1-1-1 Honjyo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Kumamoto University Hospital, 1-1-1 Honjyo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Kawamura, Shinji [Department of Radiotherapy, Miyazaki University Hospital, 5200 Kihara Ohaza Kiyotake-Machi, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Miyazaki University Hospital, 5200 Kihara Ohaza Kiyotake-Machi, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

EXAMINING THE SPECTROSCOPY OF WATER VAPOR IN THE ATMOSPHERE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Compare to relative humidity probe Describes VCSEL accuracy #12;FLOW DILUTION SYSTEM Critical Orifice

Petta, Jason

371

Adsorption Equilibrium and Kinetics of Water Vapor on Different Adsorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The zeolite sample presented the highest capacity at low relative pressures, while at pressures near saturation the higher amount adsorbed was obtained on the alumina sample. ... adsorption on nonporous and porous adsorbents, considering: (1) selection of equations relating in a general way the thermodynamic characteristics of a system taking into account the adsorbate-adsorbent and adsorbate-adsorbate interactions; (2) the use of these equations in deriving from the exptl. ...

Ana M. Ribeiro; Ticiane P. Sauer; Carlos A. Grande; Regina F. P. M. Moreira; José M. Loureiro; Alírio E. Rodrigues

2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

372

Desalination of water by vapor transport through hydrophobic nanopores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Although Reverse osmosis (RO) is the state-of-the-art desalination technology, it still suffers from persistent drawbacks including low permeate flux, low selectivity for non-ionic species, and lack of resistance to chlorine. ...

Lee, Jongho, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Moisture burst structure in satellite water vapor imagery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-season satellite data over the eastern Pacific Ocean, Schroeder (1983) found that about 78% of the local severe weather outbreaks over North America were related to the interaction of a moisture burst with an extratropical weather system. He hypothesized... that the severe weather outbreak was due to the broad zone of upper tropospheric divergence between the polar jet and STJ, and the large momentum t ansport by the STJ which altered the midlatitude circulation. 12 CHAPTER III DATA A. Satellite Imagery...

Ulsh, David Joel

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

374

Balance of atmospheric water vapor over the Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

082 130 I. ake Charles, Louisiana II, III 396 171 Burrwood, Louisiana 550 250 Merida, Mexico 640 305 Burrwood, Louisiana 320 177 17 f = 10. 2 qV n n' (20a) and f = 10. 2 qV t t (20b) The units are gm/sec-m-mb, and the constant value... expressions:1 n t. f = 10. 2 q V n n' (2la) and f =102qV (21b) As can be seen, these values were dep ndent upon the monthly-averaged specific humidi ty, q, and the monthly-averaged wind components, V n and V as determined previously. 1 ~11 t. ~d fl...

Hughes, Ralph Morgan

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

375

Measurement of Fuel Oxygenates in Tap Water Using Solid-Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography—Mass Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......States, 1993-2002: U.S. Geological Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4200...5. J.H. Farrelly. Status of source water protection. Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation 22(3): 5051 (2002). 6. U.S. Environmental......

Frederick L. Cardinali; Benjamin C. Blount; Rachael Schmidt; John Morrow

376

FLEXIBILITY IN WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT: REVIEW OF CONCEPTS AND DEVELOPMENT OF ASSESSMENT MEASURES FOR FLOOD MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FLEXIBILITY IN WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT: REVIEW OF CONCEPTS AND DEVELOPMENT OF ASSESSMENT around adapting water management systems to climate change often express the need to increase system it means to have a flexible water management system, what features of a system make it more flexible than

Tullos, Desiree

377

Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program has developed, in cooperation with Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory, the equipment and expertise to characterize gases and vapors in the high-level radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in south central Washington State. This capability has been demonstrated by the characterization of the tank 241-C-103 headspace. This tank headspace is the first, and for many reasons is expected to be the most problematic, that will be characterized (Osborne 1992). Results from the most recent and comprehensive sampling event, sample job 7B, are presented for the purpose of providing scientific bases for resolution of vapor issues associated with tank 241-C-103. This report is based on the work of Clauss et al. 1994, Jenkins et al. 1994, Ligotke et al. 1994, Mahon et al. 1994, and Rasmussen and Einfeld 1994. No attempt has been made in this report to evaluate the implications of the data presented, such as the potential impact of headspace gases and vapors to tank farm workers health. That and other issues will be addressed elsewhere. Key to the resolution of worker health issues is the quantitation of compounds of toxicological concern. The Toxicology Review Panel, a panel of Pacific Northwest Laboratory experts in various areas, of toxicology, has chosen 19 previously identified compounds as being of potential toxicological concern. During sample job 7B, the sampling and analytical methodology was validated for this preliminary list of compounds of toxicological concern. Validation was performed according to guidance provided by the Tank Vapor Conference Committee, a group of analytical chemists from academic institutions and national laboratories assembled and commissioned by the Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program.

Huckaby, J.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Story, M.S. [Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc. Richland, WA (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Measurement of gas/water uptake coefficients for trace gases active in the marine environment. [Annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ocean produced reduced sulfur compounds including dimethylsulfide (DMS), hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}), methyl mercaptan (CH{sub 3}CH) and carbonyl sulfide (OCS) deliver a sulfur burden to the atmosphere which is roughly equal to sulfur oxides produced by fossil fuel combustion. These species and their oxidation products dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), dimethyl sulfone (DMSO{sub 2}) and methane sulfonic acid (MSA) dominate aerosol and CCN production in clean marine air. Furthermore, oxidation of reduced sulfur species will be strongly influenced by NO{sub x}/O{sub 3} chemistry in marine atmospheres. The multiphase chemical processes for these species must be understood in order to study the evolving role of combustion produced sulfur oxides over the oceans. We have measured the chemical and physical parameters affecting the uptake of reduced sulfur compounds, their oxidation products, ozone, and nitrogen oxides by the ocean`s surface, and marine clouds, fogs, and aerosols. These parameters include: gas/surface mass accommodation coefficients; physical and chemically modified (effective) Henry`s law constants; and surface and liquid phase reaction constants. These parameters are critical to understanding both the interaction of gaseous trace species with cloud and fog droplets and the deposition of trace gaseous species to dew covered, fresh water and marine surfaces.

Davidovits, P. [Boston Coll., Chestnut Hill, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Worsnop, D.W.; Zahniser, M.S.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself. 4 figs.

Alger, T.

1988-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

380

Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Dawson, Jay W. (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA)

2006-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Dawson, Jay W. (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA)

2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

382

Inelastic Scattering of 20-kev Electrons in Metal Vapors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The low-energy losses of 20-kev electrons passing through the vapors of Zn, Cd, Hg, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Sb, Pb, and KCl, have been measured by using an electrostatic analyzer previously used for measuring electron energy losses in thin metal films. The atomic transitions corresponding to the measured energy losses are in many cases fairly easily established. However, there remain some which are questionable due to the fact that there is more than one feasible transition with energy differences of the order of the given energy loss. It is established that the principal interaction results in the excitation from the ground state of the neutral atom to the first excited level—the resonance excitation. It is also found that dipole excitations predominate

Lewis B. Leder

1957-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

Norton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Development of a standard for calculation and measurement of the moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity in water-moderated power reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The contents of ANS 19.11, the standard for ``Calculation and Measurement of the Moderator Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity in Water-Moderated Power Reactors,`` are described. The standard addresses the calculation of the moderator temperature coefficient (MTC) both at standby conditions and at power. In addition, it describes several methods for the measurement of the at-power MTC and assesses their relative advantages and disadvantages. Finally, it specifies a minimum set of documentation requirements for compliance with the standard.

Mosteller, R.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hall, R.A. [Virginia Power, Glen Allen, VA (United States). Innsbrook Technical Center; Apperson, C.E. Jr. [Westinghouse Safety Management Solutions, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States); Lancaster, D.B. [TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc., Vienna, VA (United States); Young, E.H. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States); Gavin, P.H. [ABB Combustion Engineering, Windsor, CT (United States); Robertson, S.T. [Framatome/COGEMA Fuels, Lynchburg, VA (United States)

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BX-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on August 27, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-111 (Tank BX-111) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Ammonia was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-111 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.042 of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.157% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Sklarew, D.S. Edwards, J.A. [and others

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-C-107 temporal study headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on September 5, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank C-107 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 1.405% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <1.519% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Edwards, J.A.; Silvers, K.L. [and others

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-C-107 fourth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on December 17, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) and were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank C-107 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 2.825% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.935% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.; Hayes, J.C. [and others

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-S-102 fourth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on December 19, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm as specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank S-102 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 2.410% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.973% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.973% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.; Hayes, J.C. [and others

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Tank vapor characterization project: Tank 241-BY-101 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on August 29, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-101 (Tank BY-101) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Total non-methane organic compounds (TNMOCs) were the principal flammable constituent of the Tank By-101 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.136% of the LFL. Averaged measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B. [and others

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Tank 241-BY-108 fourth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on November 14, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected nonradioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BY-108 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 1.390% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.830% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B. [and others

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Tank vapor characterization project: Tank 241-BX-104 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on June 10, 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-104 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.270% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.675% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Hayes, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B. [and others

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BX-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on August 22, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-104 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analyses plan (SAP). Total non-methane organic compounds was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.310% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.784% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Julya, J.L. [and others

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BX-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on August 1, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-103 (Tank BX-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-103 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.385% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.633% if the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Sklarew, D.S.; Edwards, J.A. [and others] [and others

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BX-102 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on July 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-102 (Tank BX-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and and analysis plan. Ammonia and TNMOCs were the principal flammable constituents of the Tank BX-102 headspace, each determined to be present at approximately 0.002% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.107% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B. Edwards, J.A. [and others

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BX-104 second temporal study headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on December 12, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-104 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.248% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.645% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Hayes, J.C.; Olsen, K.B. [and others

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Tank 241-BX-104 fourth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on April 7, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-04 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.208% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.536% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Mitroshkov, A.V.; Hayes, J.C.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Tank 241-BX-104 third temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on February 6, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-104 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.178 % of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.458% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Hayes, J.C. [and others

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BY-108 temporal study headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on September 10, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BY-108 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 1.463% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.940% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Sklarew, D.S. [and others

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Tank 241-C-107 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on February 7, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Services Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank C-107 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 3.233% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <3.342% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Hayes, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Tank vapor characterization project: Tank 241-S-102 temporal study headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on September 19, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results from analysis of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm as specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank S-102 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 2.948% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <3.659% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Tables S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Sklarew, D.S. [and others

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Tank 241-S-102 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on February 11, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents tile results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurlsys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by tile Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based oil measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above tile immediate notification limit of 150 ppm as specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank S-102 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 1.150% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <1.624% of the LFL, Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of tile analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Mitroshkov, A.V.; Evans, J.C.; Hayes, J.C. [and others

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Tank 241-BY-108 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on January 30, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from tile headspace of waste storage tank 241-B-108 (Tank BY - 108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Services Corporation (SESC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BY-108 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.888% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <1.979% of tile LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B. [and others

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Quantitative comparison of processes of oil-and water-based mud-filtrate invasion and corresponding effects on borehole resistivity measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for hydrocarbon exploration and production, drilling fluids sustain a pressure higher than that of formationQuantitative comparison of processes of oil- and water-based mud-filtrate invasion-filtrate invasion on borehole resistivity measurements. We simulate the process of mud-fil- trate invasion

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

404

Water and energy exchange above a mixed European Beech – Norway Spruce forest canopy: a comparison of eddy covariance against soil water depletion measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Evapotranspiration of a mixed European beech – Norway spruce forest was measured by means of ... the results by (1) the degree of energy balance closure (EBC), (2) footprint...

H. Schume; H. Hager; G. Jost

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Vapor-Particle Separation Using Microporous Metallic Membrane in Crossflow Filtration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simultaneous separation of vapor and particles in industrial processes could be a key step toward manufacturing of high-quality goods. The separation is critical for successful measurement of volatile or semi-volatile aerosol particles, which no reliable technique exists. We have developed a technique for separation of vapor and particles simultaneously using a specialty microporous metallic membrane. The separator allows the thermally denuded particles traverse straight through the membrane tube, while the vapor molecules permeate through the membrane, separate from the particles and are removed subsequently. The separation technique virtually eliminates the possibility of contamination by vapor re- condensation. We tested the prototype of the vapor-particle separator (VPS) using aerosols prepared from sodium chloride to represent non-volatile aerosols. Chemical like dioctyl phthalate was chosen to represent volatile particles. The test aerosol particles were generated by an atomizer followed by a tandem differential mobility analyser to produce a stream of monodisperse particles in the size range of 10 to 100 nm. In real world particles, we tested the VPS using diesel engine particles that is a mixture of complex chemical composition. Number concentration of the nonvolatile particles reduced as the temperature increased, but the mode diameter of the aerosol population remained unchanged. Number concentration of the volatile particles was also reduced as the temperature increased, but their mode diameters became smaller as particles shrunk in diameter. Differences in the thermal behaviour of the particles were attributed to its transition energy barrier and evaporation rate. Mass balance analysis suggests the separation of vapor and test particles was reasonably complete. Thus, we conclude the VPS could provide an effective means for quantitative characterization of aerosol volatility and separation of vapors from particles.

Cheng, Mengdawn [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

Atkinson, David

2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

407

Program performs vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A program designed for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV or 41C calculators solves basic vapor-liquid equilibrium problems, including figuring the dewpoint, bubblepoint, and equilibrium flash. The algorithm uses W.C. Edmister's method for predicting ideal-solution K values.

Rice, V.L.

1982-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

408

Measurement of Petroleum Fuel Contamination in Water by Solid-Phase Microextraction with Direct Raman Spectroscopic Detection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method is described for determining petroleum fuel contamination in water based on solid-phase microextraction and Raman spectroscopy (SPME/Raman). In this method, contaminants are...

Jager, Michael J; McClintic, Daniel P; Tilotta, David C

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Synchroton X-Ray Studies of Liquid-Vapor Interfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The variation of density across the liquid-vapor interface from essentially zero density far out in the vapor phase to a homogeneous density deep in the liquid phase can be determined by X-ray reflectivity mea...

J. Als-Nielsen

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Vapor intrusion modeling : limitations, improvements, and value of information analyses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vapor intrusion is the migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a subsurface source into the indoor air of an overlying building. Vapor intrusion models, including the Johnson and Ettinger (J&E) model, can be ...

Friscia, Jessica M. (Jessica Marie)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

OPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

given by U.S. Department of Energy, Geothermal Division. #12;vii Table of Contents ABSTRACTOPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS CONSIDERING ADSORPTION governing the behavior of vapor- dominated geothermal reservoirs. These mechanisms affect both

Stanford University

412

Doped, porous iron oxide films and their optical functions and anodic photocurrents for solar water splitting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fabrication and morphological, optical, and photoelectrochemical characterization of doped iron oxide films is presented. The complex index of refraction and absorption coefficient of polycrystalline films are determined through measurement and modeling of spectral transmission and reflection data using appropriate dispersion relations. Photoelectrochemical characterization for water photo-oxidation reveals that the conversion efficiencies of electrodes are strongly influenced by substrate temperature during their oblique-angle physical vapor deposition. These results are discussed in terms of the films' morphological features and the known optoelectronic limitations of iron oxide films for application in solar water splitting devices.

Kronawitter, Coleman X.; Mao, Samuel S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Antoun, Bonnie R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

2011-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

413

ASHRAE Transactions: Research 3 A steady-state simulation model for a water-to-water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ASHRAE Transactions: Research 3 ABSTRACT A steady-state simulation model for a water Reciprocating vapor compression heat pumps and chill- ers have been the target of a number of simulation models

414

In Situ Validation of a Correction for Time-Lag and Bias Errors in Vaisala RS80-H Radiosonde Humidity Measurements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In Situ Validation of a Correction for Time-Lag and In Situ Validation of a Correction for Time-Lag and Bias Errors in Vaisala RS80-H Radiosonde Humidity Measurements L. M. Miloshevich National Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder, Colorado H. Vömel and S. J. Oltmans National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado A. Paukkunen Vaisala Oy Helsinki, Finland Introduction Radiosonde relative humidity (RH) measurements are fundamentally important to Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program goals because they are used in a wide variety of both operational and research applications, including initialization of numerical models and evaluation of model results, validation of remote-sensor water vapor retrievals, construction of water vapor climatologies and studies of climate trends, parameterization of cloud processes, and as input to

415

Water Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling: Cooling: Water cooling is commonly defined as a method of using water as a heat conduction to remove heat from an object, machine, or other substance by passing cold water over or through it. In energy generation, water cooling is typically used to cool steam back into water so it can be used again in the generation process. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Water Cooling Typical water cooled condenser used for condensing steam Water or liquid cooling is the most efficient cooling method and requires the smallest footprint when cold water is readily available. When used in power generation the steam/vapor that exits the turbine is condensed back into water and reused by means of a heat exchanger. Water cooling requires a water resource that is cold enough to bring steam, typically

416

ARM - Evaluation Product - MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ProductsMWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and ProductsMWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor 2005.02.01 - 2011.04.25 Site(s) FKB GRW HFE NIM PYE SBS General Description A new algorithm is being developed for the ARM Program to derive liquid water path (LWP) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) from the 2-channel (23.8 and 31.4 GHz) microwave radiometers (MWRs) deployed at ARM climate research facilities. This algorithm utilizes the "monoRTM" radiative transfer model (http://rtweb.aer.com), a combination of both an advanced statistical and physical-iterative retrieval, and brightness temperature offsets applied before the retrieval is performed. This allows perhaps the

417

Experimental measurements of the diffusion parameters of light hydrocarbons in water-saturated sedimentary rocks: II. Results and geochemical significance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diffusion parameters (diffusion coefficient, diffusion permeability, solubility coefficient) for methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, methylpropane and 2,2-dimethylpropane were measured on 21 samples of water-saturated sedimentary rocks at different temperatures (30, 50, and 70 C). The rock samples include sandstones, siltstones, and claystones with porosities ranging from 0.4 to 16.5% and permeabilities from <0.005 to 33.4 millidarcy. Experimental diffusion coefficients ranged from c. 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} to 9 {times} 10{sup {minus}13} m{sup 2}/s, solubility coefficients covered a range from c. 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}1} to 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}, and diffusion permeabilities lay between c. 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} and 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}14} m{sup 2}/s. Diffusion coefficients decrease with increasing molecular weight of the hydrocarbon compound, the decrease depending on the petrophysical properties and the mineralogy of the rocks and being most drastic in shales. None of the petrophysical parameters examined in this study (porosity, permeability, formation resistivity factor) gave a good correlation with the nonsteady-state diffusion coefficient, D. An excellent correlation was found between the formation resistivity factor, F, and the steady-state diffusion permeability. P. A possibly useful-though less significant-relation bearing some resemblance with Archie's law appears to exist between the porosity and the diffusion permeability. The temperature dependence of the diffusion parameters was determined on two calcareous sandstones. Based on an activated diffusion model activation energies for the diffusion process ranging around 50 kJ/mol were calculated for all hydrocarbons examined.

Krooss, B.M.; Leythaeuser, D. (Institute of petroleum and Organic Geochemistry, Juelich (Germany, F.R.))

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

A study of the mixed association of cholesterol with methyl cholate by vapor pressure osmometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

out on a Knauer Vapor Pressure Osmometer equipped w1th the Knauer Universal Temperature Measuring Apparatus (a sensitive Wheatstone bridge with a 10-turn helical potentiometer) and a chart recorder. A thorough discussion of some of the experimental... at the desired temperature. Two themistors are mounted in the chamber and are coupled to the Wheatstone bridge. Using syr1nges, a drop of pure solvent is placed on one themistor and a drop of solution on the other. Because of the lowering of solvent vapor...

Foster, Bruce William

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

CORRELATIONS BETWEEN VAPOR SATURATION, FLUID COMPOSITION, AND WELL DECLINE IN LARDERELLO  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A large body of field data from Larderello shows striking temporal correlations between decline of well flow-rate, produced gas/steam ratio, chloride concentration and produced vapor fraction. The latter is inferred from measured concentrations of non-condensible gases in samples of well fluid, using chemical phase equilibrium principles. Observed temporal changes in the vapor fractions can be interpreted in term of a ''multiple source'' model, as suggested by D'Amore and Truesdell (1979). This provides clues to the dynamics of reservoir depletion, and to the evaluation of well productivity and longevity.

D'Amore, F.; Pruess, K.

1985-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

420

Collision cross sections and equilibrium fractions of ions and atoms in metal vapor targets. Project progress report, June 1, 1979-May 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to measure atomic collision cross sections and equilibrium fractions of ions and atoms in metal vapor targets. The goal is to obtain experimental information on atomic collision processes relevant to the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. In particular, in connection with the development of double charge exchange D/sup -/ ion sources, we are measuring D/sup -/ formation cross sections in alkaline-earth metal vapor targets. During the period covered in this report we have measured electron transfer cross sections for 3-40 keV D/sup +/ ions and D/sup 0/ atoms in collision with calcium vapor.

Morgan, T J

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

The Luminosity of Mercury Vapor Distilled from the Arc in Vacuo.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Afterglow of Mercury Vapor from an Arc in Vacuum.—(1) The effect of an electric field on the spectrum was studied. It was found that charged grids decreased the luminosity without changing the color; but when, under certain conditions, the luminosity was increased, there was a change in the relative intensity of the lines. (2) The velocity of the vapor was measured by a stroboscopic method. The luminosity was decreased intermittently at a known frequency and the resulting "puffs" as they moved along the tube, were observed stroboscopically. From this velocity and the rate of distillation, the density of the vapor was computed. (3) Decay of luminosity along the tube was observed. (4) Theoretical discussion of these results leads to the conclusion that recombination of the positive and negative ions produced by the discharge, is the most probable cause of the afterglow.

Norman H. Ricker

1921-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Binary vapor-liquid equilibrium data without measurement of composition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

magnetic densimeter. In this work, Hall and Eubank's method is applied to a carbon dioxide-normal butane mixture, studied by Olds, et al (15). Since the apparatus used by these investigators was not a Burnett-Isochoric apparatus, a simulation program.... . . . . . . . C. Isochcres f' or Feed. Composition of 16. 93 molg n-Butane. . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . . . 61 D. Isochores for Feed Composition of 33. 35 mol& n-Butane. E. Isochores for Feed Composition of 65 49. 84 molg n Butane...

Nehzat, Mohammad Sadegh

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Advanced Membrane Systems: Recovering Wasteful and Hazardous Fuel Vapors at the Gasoline Tank  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Case study covering Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. and its membrane vapor processor that recovers fuel vapors from gasoline refueling.

424

Measurements of the modified conversion ratio by gamma-ray spectrometry of fuel rods for water-moderated UO[sub 2] cores  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The modified conversion ratio is defined as the ratio of [sup 238]U captures to total fission. Gamma-ray spectrometry of irradiated fuel rods has been introduced to measure this quantity in two types of water-moderated low-enriched UO[sub 2] cores: the standard core, called the 1.42S core, and a tight-lattice core, called the 0.56S core. The water moderator-to-fuel volume ratios V[sub m]/V[sub [line integral

Nakajima, Ken; Akai, Masanori; Suzaki, Takenori (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan). Dept. of Fuel Cycle Safety Research)

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Raman lidar and MPL Measurements during ALIVE  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Raman lidar and MPL Measurements during ALIVE Raman lidar and MPL Measurements during ALIVE Ferrare, Richard NASA Langley Research Center Turner, David University of Wisconsin-Madison Flynn, Connor Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Petty, Diana Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Mendoza, Albert Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Clayton, Marian NASA Langley Research Center Schmid, Beat Bay Area Environmental Research Institute Category: Field Campaigns Analysis of the aerosol and water vapor data collected by the Raman lidar during the May 2003 Aerosol IOP indicated that the sensitivity of the lidar was significantly lower than when the lidar was initially deployed. This decrease in sensitivity contributed to a significant high bias of the Raman lidar aerosol extinction measurements in relation to airborne Sun

426

Measurement of Trihalomethanes and Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether in Tap Water Using Solid-Phase Microextraction GC-MS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......ductive age living in Corpus Christi, Texas and Cobb...micro extraction with gas chromatography-mass...determinations using gas chromatog- raphy...of fulvic acids in natural waters. Env. Sci...trihalomethane by headspace-gas chromatog- raphy......

Frederick L. Cardinali; David L. Ashley; John C. Morrow; Deborah M. Moll; Benjamin C. Blount

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Precision micro drilling with copper vapor lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have developed a copper vapor laser based micro machining system using advanced beam quality control and precision wavefront tilting technologies. Micro drilling has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratio up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled on a variety of metals with good quality. For precision trepanned holes, the hole-to-hole size variation is typically within 1% of its diameter. Hole entrance and exit are both well defined with dimension error less than a few microns. Materialography of sectioned holes shows little (sub-micron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone with surface roughness within 1--2 microns.

Chang, J.J.; Martinez, M.W.; Warner, B.E.; Dragon, E.P.; Huete, G.; Solarski, M.E.

1994-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

428

Bringing part of the lab to the field: On-site chromium speciation in seawater by electrodeposition of Cr(III)/Cr(VI) on portable coiled-filament assemblies and measurement in the lab by electrothermal, near-torch vaporization sample introduction and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A field-deployable electrochemical approach to preconcentration, matrix clean up and selective electrodeposition of Cr(III) and Cr(III) + Cr(VI) in seawater is described. Using portable, battery-operated electrochemical instrumentation, Cr species in seawater were electrodeposited in the field on portable coiled-filament assemblies made from Re. Assemblies with dried residues of Cr(III) or Cr(III) + Cr(VI) on them were transported to the lab for concentration determination by electrothermal, near-torch vaporization (NTV) sample introduction and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Electrodeposition offers selective species deposition, preconcentration and matrix clean up from seawater samples. For selective deposition, free Cr(VI) was electrodeposited at ? 0.3 V and Cr(III) + Cr(VI) at ? 1.6 V (both vs Ag/AgCl). Interestingly, at 0 V (vs Ag/AgCl) and in the absence of an electrodeposition potential only Cr(VI) was spontaneously and selectively adsorbed on the coil and reasons for this are given. Due to preconcentration afforded by electrodeposition, the detection limits obtained after a 60 s electrodeposition at the voltages stated above using buffered (pH = 4.7) artificial seawater spiked with either Cr(III) or Cr(VI) were 20 pg/mL for Cr(III) and 10 pg/mL for Cr(VI). For comparison, the detection limit for Cr obtained by pipetting directly on the coil 5 ?L of diluted standard solution was 500 pg/mL, thus it was concluded that electrodeposition offered 40 to 60 fold improvements. Matrix clean up is required due to the high salt content of seawater and this was addressed by simply rinsing the coil with 18.2 M? water without any loss of Cr species. Reasons for this are provided. The method was validated in the lab using buffered artificial seawater and it was used in the field for the first time by sampling seawater, buffering it and immediately electrodepositing Cr species on portable assemblies on-site. Electrodeposition in the field addressed species transformation during sample pre-treatment. Such transformations occur due to sample acidification and may take place during transport and possibly storage prior to analysis. Thus, electrodeposition in the field is more reflective of Cr species concentration at the environmental conditions (e.g., temperature) at the time of sampling. It also opens up the possibility for shipping to the lab portable assemblies with Cr species on them rather than shipping large volumes of sample to the lab, thus also reducing shipping, handling and storage costs.

Hamid R. Badiei; Jennifer McEnaney; Vassili Karanassios

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Breakout Group 3: Water Management  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

ideas: - Water imaging, (with that of other cell component substances) - diffusivity measurement (2) - Confirmed diagnostics to map water at full-size unit cell in-situ (water...

430

Identification and quantification of components in ternary vapor mixtures using a microcantilever sensor array and a neural network  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the experimental details on the successful application of the electronic nose approach to identify and quantify components in ternary vapor mixtures. Preliminary results have recently been presented [L. A. Pinnaduwage et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 044105 (2007)]. Our microelectromechanical-system-based electronic nose is composed of a microcantilever sensor array with seven individual sensors used for vapor detection and an artificial neural network for pattern recognition. A set of custom vapor generators generated reproducible vapor mixtures in different compositions for training and testing of the neural network. The sensor array was selected to be capable of generating different response patterns to mixtures with different component proportions. Therefore, once the electronic nose was trained by using the response patterns to various compositions of the mixture, it was able to predict the composition of 'unknown' mixtures. We have studied two vapor systems: one included the nerve gas simulant dimethylmethyl phosphonate at ppb concentrations and water and ethanol at ppm concentrations; the other system included acetone, water, and ethanol all of which were at ppm concentrations. In both systems, individual, binary, and ternary mixtures were analyzed with good reproducibility.

Zhao, W [Triton Systems, Inc.; Pinnaduwage, Lal A [ORNL; Leis, J. W. [University of Southern Queensland; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Allman, Steve L [ORNL; Shepp, A. [Triton Systems, Inc.; Mahmud, K. [Triton Systems, Inc.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Desalination Using Vapor-Compression Distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ability to produce potable water economically is the primary purpose of seawater desalination research. Reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-stage flash (MSF) cost more than potable water produced from fresh water resources. As an alternative to RO...

Lubis, Mirna R.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

432

Efficient Collection of 221Fr into a Vapor Cell Magneto-optical Trap  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have efficiently loaded a vapor cell magneto-optical trap from an orthotropic source of 221Fr with a trapping efficiency of 56(10)%. A novel detection scheme allowed us to measure 900 trapped atoms with a signal to noise ratio of ?60 in 1 sec. We have measured the energies and the hyperfine constants of the 7P1/22 and 7P3/22 states.

Z.-T. Lu; K. L. Corwin; K. R. Vogel; C. E. Wieman; T. P. Dinneen; J. Maddi; Harvey Gould

1997-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

433

Posters Comparisons of Brightness Temperature Measurements and Calculations Obtained  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Posters Comparisons of Brightness Temperature Measurements and Calculations Obtained During the Spectral Radiance Experiment Y. Han, J. B. Snider, and E. R. Westwater National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Research Laboratories/Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado S. H. Melfi National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland R. A. Ferrare Hughes STX Corporation Lanham, Maryland Introduction In radiometric remote sensing of the atmosphere, the ability to calculate radiances from underlying state variables is fundamental. To infer temperature and water vapor profiles from satellite- or ground-based radiometers, one must determine cloud-free regions and then calculate clear-sky radiance emerging from the top of the earth's

434

Bubbles at the top and bottom of the water column: the acoustical effects, and the use of acoustics to measure them  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Bubbles of atmospheric gas can be entrained by breaking waves at the top of the water column: this bubble population is dynamic and will evolve through the effects of buoyancy gas exsolution and dissolution and the fragmentation and coalescence of bubbles. These processes are important to ambient noise sonar operation and the overall gas budget of the planet. At the base of the water column methanebubbles can occur in marine sediments a phenomenon important to the global methane budget to the petrochemical industry and to the stability of the sediment (e.g. for civil engineering purposes). This paper examines the acoustical effects of both of these populations and the ways in which acoustics can be used to measure them. Data will be presented from field trials including measurements of gassy marine sediments in UK waters and of wave?generated bubble clouds measured by an 11 m spar buoy deployed from 16th June to 18th July 2007 at a distance of 400 miles off the west coast of Portugal.

Timothy G. Leighton; David Coles; Michael A. Ainslie; Paul R. White

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Chemical vapor deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon from disilane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors describe hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films deposited at growth rates of 1 to 30 A/s by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from disilane source gas at 24 torr total pressure in a tubular reactor. The effects of substrate temperature and gas holding time (flow rate) on film growth rate and effluent gas composition were measured at temperatures ranging from 360{sup 0} to 485{sup 0}C and gas holding times from 3 to 62s. Effluent gases determined by gas chromatography included silane, disilane and other higher order silanes. A chemical reaction engineering model, based on a silylene (SiH/sub 2/) insertion gas phase reaction network and film growth from both SiH/sub 2/ and high molecular weight silicon species, Si/sub n/H/sub 2n/, was developed. The model predictions were in good agreement with experimentally determined growth rates and effluent gas compositions.

Bogaert, R.J.; Russell, T.W.F.; Klein, M.T. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Rocheleau, R.E.; Baron, B.N. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (USA). Inst. of Energy Conversion)

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Adsorption and Diffusion of Alcohol Vapors by Argonne Premium Coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Adsorption and Diffusion of Alcohol Vapors by Argonne Premium Coals ... Adsorption of methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, and n-butanol by Pocahontas No. 3, Upper Freeport, Illinois No. 6, and Beulah-Zap Argonne premium coals was investigated to clarify the effect of alkyl group bulk on adsorption and to evaluate the micropore and cross-linked structure of coals. ... Coals are thought to have a large surface area with an interconnected network of slitlike pores.1 However, Larsen et al.2 measured the adsorption of various gases on five Argonne Premium coals and, except for Beulah-Zap lignite, found that the very steep dependence of BET surface area was related to the molecular volume of the gas. ...

Toshimasa Takanohashi; Yuki Terao; Takahiro Yoshida; Masashi Iino

2000-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

437

Hygrothermal performance of EIFS-clad walls: Effect of vapor diffusion and air leakage on the drying of construction moisture [Exterior Insulation and Finish Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrothermal performance describes the response of the material layers that make up the wall to thermal and moisture loads. Modeling can be applied to determine the drying and wetting potential of walls with various initial construction moisture loads and to test alternative innovations. This paper investigates the drying performance of a particular barrier EIFS clad wall as a function of vapor diffusion control with a specific air leakage path. This investigation was conducted with constant interior temperature and relative humidity. The LATENITE model, developed at NRD, is employed in the investigation. This advanced hydrothermal model can incorporate system and sub-system performances by introducing simulated defects and wall system details derived from laboratory and field measurements. Moisture loads available to the EIFS structure originating either from the interior, the exterior or from initial construction moisture can be included. In this paper the authors present a study to determine the drying potential of a barrier EIFS clad wall for the climate of Wilmington, NC. This climate is characterized by the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals as being mixed. The effect of drying and wetting by airflow was investigated by introducing airflow paths. Hydrothermal performance with three different vapor diffusion control strategies and two air leakage conditions was simulated for a period of one year. Initial oriented strand board (OSB) moisture content was assumed to be very high. The influence of rain water, solar radiation and air movement within the cavity was included in the analysis.

Karagiozis, A.N.; Salonvaara, M.H.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Ash vaporization in circulating fluidized bed coal combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, the vaporization of the ash-forming constituents in circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) in a full-scale 80 MW{sub th} unit was studied. Ash vaporization in CFBC was studied by measuring the fly ash aerosols in a full-scale boiler upstream of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) at the flue gas temperature of 125{degree}C. The fly ash number size distributions showed two distinct modes in the submicrometer size range, at particle diameters 0.02 and 0.3 {mu}m. The concentration of the ultrafine 0.02-{mu}m mode showed a large variation with time and it decreased as the measurements advanced. The concentration of the 0.02-{mu}m mode was two orders of magnitude lower than in the submicrometer mode observed earlier in the bubbling FBC and up to three orders of magnitude lower than in the pulverized coal combustion. Scanning electron micrographs showed few ultrafine particles. The intermediate mode at 0.3 {mu}m consisted of particles irregular in shape, and hence in this mode the particles had not been formed via a gas to particle route. We propose that the 0.3-{mu}m mode had been formed from the partial melting of the very fine mineral particles in the coal. The mass size distribution in the size range 0.01-70 {mu}m was unimodal with maximum at 20 {mu}m. Less than 1% of the fly ash particles was found in the submicrometer size range. 35 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Lind, T.; Kauppinen, E.I.; Maenhaut, W. [Univ. of Gent (Belgium); Shah, A.; Huggins, F. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Sensitivity study of borehole-to-surface and crosswell electromagnetic measurements acquired with energized steel casing to water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with energized steel casing to water displacement in hydrocarbon-bearing layers David Pardo1 , Carlos Torres- gized steel casing in the presence of subsurface variations of electrical resistivity. Casing- gized steel casing are performed with a goal-oriented hp- adaptive finite-element method

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

440

Thermal Property Measurements and Enthalpy Calculation of the Lithium Bromide+Lithium Iodide+1,3-Propanediol+Water System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The lithium bromide+lithium iodide+1,3-propanediol+water [LiBr/LiI mole ratio=4 and (LiBr+LiI)/HO(CH2)3...OH mass ratio=4] solution is being considered as a potential working fluid for an absorption chiller. Heat...

J.-S. Kim; H.-S. Lee; H. Lee

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

CONDENSATION As noted previously, heat energy imparted to water as it  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONDENSATION As noted previously, heat energy imparted to water as it evaporates is returned to liquid water as vapor condenses. During low tide, the rate of evaporation typically exceeds the rate

Brody, James P.

442

A method for detecting breakthrough of organic solvent vapors in a charcoal tube using semiconductor gas sensors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study developed a method for detecting organic vapors that break through charcoal tubes, using semiconductor gas sensors as a breakthrough detector of vapors. A glass column equipped with two sensors was inserted in Teflon tubing, and air containing organic vapor was introduced at a constant flow rate. After the output signal of the sensors became stable, a charcoal tube was inserted into the tubing at the upstream of the sensors. The resistance of the sensors was collected temporally in an integrated circuit (IC) card. The vapor concentration of the air near the sensors was measured with a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID) at intervals of 5 minutes to obtain the breakthrough curve. When the relative humidity was zero, the output signals of the sensors began to change before the breakthrough point (1% breakthrough time). This tendency was almost the same for methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, isopropyl alcohol (IPA), toluene, and chloroform. For dichloromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane, the time when the sensor output signals began to rise was almost the same as the breakthrough point. When the relative humidity was 80 percent, the sensors could also detect many vapors before the breakthrough point, but they could not perceive dichloromethane and chloroform vapors. A personal sampling system with a breakthrough detector was developed and its availability is discussed.

Hori, Hajime; Noritake, Yuji; Murobushi, Hisako; Higashi, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Isamu

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

PERFORMANCE OF LIQUI-CEL EXTRA-FLOW MEMBRANE CONTRACTOR IN A PURE WATER AND IN A 0.2% SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION (SNO-STR-2001-11).  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After completion of SNO's first phase measurement of the neutrino charge current, two tons of salt were added into the SNO heavy water to increase the sensitivity of the neutral current measurement (Phase II). Liqui-Cel Extra-Flow Membrane Contactors (simply called Liqui-Cel) are used in the SNO heavy-water circulating system to remove the dissolved gases, such as oxygen, nitrogen, radon, and water vapor from the liquid water. One possible scenario with phase II operation is that the salt may leak through the Liqui-Cel Membrane and come in contact with the vacuum pumps and other metal components of the Heavy-Water Vapor Recovery System. In this scenario, corrosion will damage these components, especially the vacuum pump (Pfeiffer UniDry Pump with cast iron interior), and increase the operational difficulties. A series of tests for the behavior of the Liqui-Cel System in pure water and in salt systems was conducted at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in order to measure the transfer of (a) water vapor and (b) salt, if there is any, through the membrane. Initially a 10-inch by 28-inch Liqui-Cel unit, identical to those used in the SNO heavy-water circulating system, was obtained from SNO site. However, extensive analysis showed that the membrane in this unit was defective: a replacement membrane would cost several thousand dollars. Instead, a smaller, 2.5-inch x 8-inch Liqui-Cel, obtained from Dr. Richard Helmers of the University of British Columbia, was used in this experiment. A comparison of the present experiment with the SNO heavy-water system is done with theoretical calculations. The results are discussed in the following sections.

YEH,M.; BOGER,J.; HAHN,R.L.

2001-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

444

Vapor port and groundwater sampling well  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus has been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing.

Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wylie, Allan H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A single chamber continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor is described for depositing continuously on flat substrates, for example, epitaxial layers of semiconductor materials. The single chamber reactor is formed into three separate zones by baffles or tubes carrying chemical source material and a carrier gas in one gas stream and hydrogen gas in the other stream without interaction while the wafers are heated to deposition temperature. Diffusion of the two gas streams on heated wafers effects the epitaxial deposition in the intermediate zone and the wafers are cooled in the final zone by coolant gases. A CVD reactor for batch processing is also described embodying the deposition principles of the continuous reactor.

Berkman, Samuel (Florham Park, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Storing images in warm atomic vapor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reversible and coherent storage of light in atomic medium is a key-stone of future quantum information applications. In this work, arbitrary two-dimensional images are slowed and stored in warm atomic vapor for up to 30 $\\mu$s, utilizing electromagnetically induced transparency. Both the intensity and the phase patterns of the optical field are maintained. The main limitation on the storage resolution and duration is found to be the diffusion of atoms. A techniqueanalogous to phase-shift lithography is employed to diminish the effect of diffusion on the visibility of the reconstructed image.

M. Shuker; O. Firstenberg; R. Pugatch; A. Ron; N. Davidson

2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

447

Reading Comprehension - The Water Cycle  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The Water Cycle The Water Cycle Evaporation, Condensation and Precipitation The _________ moon sun water clouds evaporates _________ fish oceans rain water from lakes and oceans. As the air rises, it cools. The water vapor condenses into tiny droplets of _________ evaporation clouds water sunshine . The droplets crowd together and form a _________ cloud lake storm precipitation . Wind blows the _________ rain sun droplet cloud towards the land. The tiny droplets join together and fall as precipitation to the _________ river lake ground cloud . The water soaks into the ground and collects in _________ rivers and lakes oceans and clouds jars and cups plants and animals . The _________ storm cycle river house that never ends has started again! A water cycle diagram. Use the diagram to identify the different parts of the water cycle:

448

Sediment-water chemical exchange in the coastal zone traced by in situ radon-222 flux measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In situ radon-222 flux experiments conducted in benthic chambers in Cape Lookout Bight, a small marine basin on the North Carolina coast, reveal that enhanced chemical transport across the sediment-water interface during summer months is caused by abiogenic bubble tube structures. Transport rates for dissolved radon, methane, and ammonium more than three times greater than those predicted on the basis of molecular diffusion occur when open tubes are maintained by semidiurnal low-tide bubbling.

Martens, C.S. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill); Kipphut, G.W.; Klump, J.V.

1980-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

449

Measured Space Conditioning and Water Heating Performance of a Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump in a Residential Application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an effort to reduce residential building energy consumption, a ground-source integrated heat pump was developed to meet a home s entire space conditioning and water heating needs, while providing 50% energy savings relative to a baseline suite of minimum efficiency equipment. A prototype 7.0 kW system was installed in a 344 m2 research house with simulated occupancy in Oak Ridge, TN. The equipment was monitored from June 2012 through January 2013.

Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Recovery of benzene in an organic vapor monitor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solid adsorbents available (silica gel, activated alumina, etc. ), activated charcoal is most frequently utilized. Activated charcoal has retentivity for sorbed vapors several times that of silica gel and it displays a selectivity for organic vapors... (diffusion rate) of the vapor molecules to the sur- face of the adsorbent. The adsorption process determine how effective the adsorbent collects and holds the contam- inant on the surface of the activated charcoal. Recovery of the contaminant from...

Krenek, Gregory Joel

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

451

Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Haleakala Volcano Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes The field survey program on the northwest rift zone consisted of soil mercury and radon emanometry surveys, groundwater temperature and chemistry studies, Schlumberger resistivity soundings and self-potential profiles. Geophysical and geochemical surveys along this rift (southwest) were limited by difficult field conditions and access limitations. The geophysical program consisted of one Schlumberger sounding, one

452

Mercury Vapor At Vale Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Vale Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration Activity Details...

453

Mercury Vapor At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration Activity...

454

Mercury Vapor At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck,...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration Activity...

455

Mercury Vapor At Desert Peak Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Desert Peak Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration Activity Details...

456

Mercury Vapor At Socorro Mountain Area (Kooten, 1987) | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Socorro Mountain Area (Kooten, 1987) Exploration Activity Details Location...

457

Mercury Vapor At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Varekamp...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration...

458

Thermal Performance of a Double-Tube Type Lng Vaporizer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This report concerns the confirmed test results and method of analysis of the thermal performance of a double-tube type LNG vaporizer (DTV). The DTV is a...

Y. Miyata; T. Miura; S. Kasahara; H. Shohtani…

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Optimal Control of Vapor Extraction of Heavy Oil.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Vapor extraction (Vapex) process is an emerging technology for viscous oil recovery that has gained much attention in the oil industry. However, the oil production… (more)

Muhamad, Hameed (Author)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Geographic Information System At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Nash...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geographic Information System At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Nash, Et Al., 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water vapor measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Thermal Gradient Holes At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski,...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al.,...

462

Ground Magnetics At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) Exploration Activity Details Location Cove Fort Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Ground Magnetics Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding...

463

Spray structures and vaporizing characteristics of a GDI fuel spray  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The spray structures and distribution characteristics of liquid and vapor phases in non-evaporating and evaporating Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) fuel sprays were investigated using Laser Induced...

Dong-Seok Choi; Gyung-Min Choi; Duck-Jool Kim

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

The influence of ice nucleation mode and ice vapor growth on simulation of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The influence of ice nucleation mode and ice vapor growth on simulation of The influence of ice nucleation mode and ice vapor growth on simulation of arctic mixed-phase clouds Avramov, Alexander The Pennsylvania State University Category: Modeling Mixed-phase arctic stratus clouds are the predominant cloud type in the Arctic . Perhaps one of the most intriguing of their features is that they tend to have liquid tops that precipitate ice. Despite the fact that this situation is colloidally unstable, these cloud systems are quite long lived - from a few days to over a couple of weeks. Previous studies have suggested that this longevity may be due to a paucity of ice nucleating aerosols (ice nuclei, or IN) in the Arctic. Such studies have shown that small changes in IN concentrations can cause large changes in the amount of liquid water within a mixed-phase stratus deck. We use the Regional

465

High-expansion foam for LNG vapor mitigation. Topical report, September 1987-December 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the purposes of these high expansion foam systems is to reduce the extent of the hazardous vapor cloud generated during an accidental LNG release. Should the LNG ignite, these systems serve the additional function of controlling the LNG fire and minimizing its radiation to the surroundings. Foam generators have been installed along the tops of dike walls surrounding some LNG storage tanks, and around other fenced containment areas where LNG may be accidentally released, such as LNG pump pits and pipe rack trenches. To date there are no technically justifiable guidelines for the design and installation of these systems. Furthermore, there are no models that may be used describe the vapor source so as to be able to predict the reduction in the hazardous vapor cloud zone when high expansion foam is applied to an LNG spill. Information is essential not only for the optimal design of high expansion foam systems, but also for comparing the cost effectiveness of alternative LNG vapor mitigation measures.

Atallah, S.; Shah, J.N.; Peterlinz, M.E.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Development of a chemical kinetic measurement apparatus and the determination of the reaction rate constants for lithium-lead/water interaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental set-up for accurate measurement of hydrogen generation rate in Lithium-Lead (Li[sub 17]Pb[sub 83]) Steam or water interactions has been designed. The most important features of the design include a pneumatic actuated quick opening and closing high temperature all stainless steel valve used to control the reaction time and the placement of most measuring devices below a water line to minimize leakage of the hydrogen collected. A PC based data acquisition and control system provides remote process sequencing, acquisition and control of all major components of the set-up. Initial tests indicate that the first design objective of maintaining leakproof gas collection chamber has been achieved. Initial pressure tests indicated that the pressure drop over a time span of 30 minutes was within the tolerance of the pressure transducer used to measure the pressure (within 0.690 kPa) at a nominal system pressure of 685 kPa. The experimental system hardware, data acquisition and control programs and data analysis program have been completed, tested and are currently functional.

Biney, P.O.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Salinity Gradient Power: Utilizing Vapor Pressure Differences  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...for re-verse electrodialysis (6). The difficulties...desalination, salt water is evaporated in...for their reverse electrodialysis model, in which...dissolved in the water: power is needed...chamber. Chemical treatment for sus-pended...reversing the fresh water and the brine in...

MARK OLSSON; GERALD L. WICK; JOHN D. ISAACS

1979-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

468

A study of a dual polarization laser backscatter system for remote identification and measurement of water pollution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with Experi- mental Data for the Depolarization Ratios from Gasoline and Kerosene on Turbid Water . . . . , . . . . . . . . . 101 XV ~Fi ure A-1 Lidar Polarimeter Electronic Control Unit ~Pa e 116 A-2 A-3 Lidar Polarimeter Electronic Connec- tions... for verti- cal transmit polarization is given by y?'?= F(TI)(l ? eXp(-2N p, L)) 2Pr (III- 10) Several observations can be made about (III-10) con- cerning the magnitude of the volume reflection coefficient relative to the mean depth L and the volume...

Sheives, Thomas Carlyle

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

469

In situ, subsurface monitoring of vapor-phase TCE using fiber optics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A vapor-phase, reagent-based, fiber optic trichloroethylene (TCE) sensor developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was demonstrated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in two configurations. The first incorporated the sensor into a down-well instrument bounded by two inflatable packers capable of sealing an area for discrete depth analysis. The second involved an integration of the sensor into the probe tip of the Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station (WES) cone penetrometry system. Discrete depth measurements of vapor-phase concentrations of TCE in the vadose zone were successfully made using both configurations. These measurements demonstrate the first successful in situ sensing (as opposed to sampling) of TCE at a field site.

Rossabi, J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Colston, B. Jr.; Brown, S.; Milanovich, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Lee, L.T. Jr. [Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States). Geotechnical Lab.

1993-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

470

Review of water, lighting, and cooling energy efficiency measures for low-income homes located in warm climates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Weatherization Assistance Program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has performed a literature review of weatherization measures applicable for homes located in warm climate regions. Sources for this information included: (1) documented engineering estimates, (2) vendor information, (3) reported performance from research and field tests, and (4) direct discussions with researchers, vendors, and field reporters. Estimated savings are extrapolated from reported energy savings and applied to the end-use energy consumption for low-income homes reported by the Energy Information Administration. Additionally, installation costs, savings-to-investment ratios, and parameters indicating performance sensitivity to issues such as occupancy, construction, client education, and maintenance requirements are presented. The report is comprised of two sections: (1) an overview of measure performance, and (2) an appendix. The overview of measures is in a tabular format, which allows for quick reference. More detailed discussions and references for each measure are presented in the Appendix and it is highly recommended that these be reviewed prior to measure selection.

Martin, M.A.; Gettings, M.B.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Vapor and gas sampling of Single-Shell Tank 241-T-111 using the vapor sampling system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents sampling data resulting from the January 20, 1995, sampling of SST 241-T-111 using the vapor sampling system.

Caprio, G.S.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-BY-112 using the vapor sampling system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents sampling data from the November 18, 1994, sampling of SST 241-BY-112 using the vapor sampling system.

Caprio, G.S.

1995-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

473

Water quality Water quantity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

01-1 · Water quality · Water quantity · Remediation strategies MinE 422: Water Resources: Younger, Banwart and Hedin. 2002. Mine Water. Hydrology, Pollution, Remediation. Impacts of mining on water mining ­ Often the largest long term issue ­ Water quality affected, surface/ground water pollution

Boisvert, Jeff

474

Water quality Water quantity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Water quality · Water quantity · Remediation strategies MinE 422: Water Resources: Younger, Banwart and Hedin. 2002. Mine Water. Hydrology, Pollution, Remediation. Impacts of mining on water mining ­ Often the largest long term issue ­ Water quality affected, surface/ground water pollution

Boisvert, Jeff

475

Bioluminescence-Based Method for Measuring Assimilable Organic Carbon in Pretreatment Water for Reverse Osmosis Membrane Desalination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...bioluminescence-based assimilable organic carbon (AOC) test was developed for determining the...luminescence and is nutritionally robust. AOC was measured in both a pilot plant and a...treatment. This article presents a marine AOC test for determining the biological growth...

Lauren A. Weinrich; Orren D. Schneider; Mark W. LeChevallier