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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water treatment result" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Demystifying water treatment  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly accountable for the environmental quality and cost of managing their waste and process water streams, customers require more precise data about the constituents in their water. This has forced suppliers to unlock some of the secrets of water treatment. In the open exchange of information, users are trading in esoteric formulations for products that are more chemical efficient and environmentally benign. Factoring more prominently in the water treatment equation are service and supply. This paper reviews some of these simpler treatments.

Hairston, D.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Water treatment on wheels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Design options and combinations of fixed and mobile demineralization equipment give power plant operators the flexibility to continually optimize their water treatment system to meet rapidly changing needs. The article classifies water treatment service contracts for demineralized water into four categories and presents associated design, economic and operational advantages to power plant designers, constructors, owners and operators. 1 tab.

Taylor, R.T.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Water Treatment Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to see the operation than have us explain it. Basically, most treatment plants remove the solid material and use living organisms and chlorine to clean up the water. Steve Sample...

4

Water_Treatment.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Since dewatering at the Weldon Spring site began in Since dewatering at the Weldon Spring site began in 1992, more than 290 million gallons of contaminated water have been treated and released into the Missouri River from two similar water treatment facilities at the site and the nearby Quarry. On September 30, 1999, dewatering efforts at the Chemical Plant site were completed, meeting one of the most substantial milestones of the project and bringing to an end a part of history that was started nearly 5 decades ago. From 1955 to 1966, uranium materials were processed at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Uranium Feed Materials Plant. The ore was processed in a nitric acid solution that separated the uranium from other chemicals. The by-product, called raffinate, was neutralized with lime, then placed in four settling basins,

5

Ultraviolet Water Treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

UV Ray of Hope for Safer Drinking Water. ... It is not, however, too soon for the American Water Works Association to express its appreciation. ...

2013-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

6

Water treatment method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH); Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

1991-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

7

Water treatment method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for reducing the concentration of many undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite. 1 tab.

Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

1990-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

8

Water treatment method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

1991-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

9

Water Treatment Strategies: Microorganism Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents an overview of the fundamental concepts of microorganism control and a discussion about how these concepts can be applied for optimizing current prevention and mitigation strategies in nuclear power plant service water systems. A database has been established to facilitate development of treatment and operation strategies that meet the requirement for preventing microbiological problems while overcoming limitations with current water treatment technologies.

2004-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

10

Apparatus and process for water treatment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus is disclosed utilizing permeable treatment media for treatment of contaminated water, along with a method for enhanced passive flow of contaminated water through the treatment media. The apparatus includes a treatment cell including a permeable structure that encloses the treatment media, the treatment cell may be located inside a water collection well, exterior to a water collection well, or placed in situ within the pathway of contaminated groundwater. The passive flow of contaminated water through the treatment media is maintained by a hydraulic connection between a collecting point of greater water pressure head, and a discharge point of lower water pressure head. The apparatus and process for passive flow and groundwater treatment utilizes a permeable treatment media made up of granular metal, bimetallics, granular cast iron, activated carbon, cation exchange resins, and/or additional treatment materials. An enclosing container may have an outer permeable wall for passive flow of water into the container and through the enclosed treatment media to an effluent point. Flow of contaminated water is attained without active pumping of water through the treatment media. Remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and other water contaminants to acceptable regulatory concentration levels is accomplished without the costs of pumping, pump maintenance, and constant oversight by personnel.

Phifer, Mark A. (North Augusta, SC); Nichols, Ralph L. (North Augusta, SC)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Guidelines for Makeup Water Treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The quality of boiler and heat recovery steam generator HRSG cycle makeup water is central to ensuring the necessary purity of boiler or HRSG water, feedwater, and steam. It plays an important role in ensuring component availability and reliability in fossil and combined cycle plants. This report presents up-to-date guidelines based on proven approaches for producing makeup water from various raw water supplies. Major losses of availability in fossil fuel plants are attributable to water and steam contam...

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

12

Copyright Awwa Research Foundation 2006 Advanced Water Treatment Impacts onAdvanced Water Treatment Impacts on  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, brackish groundwater, produced water, etc.produced water, etc. Advanced treatmentAdvanced treatment Water and variables affecting VFactors and variables affecting V (volume produced from alternative water supplies)(volume produced from alternative water supplies) ""Supply sideSupply side"" Volume availableVolume available from

Keller, Arturo A.

13

Water treatment program raises boiler operating efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report details the boiler water treatment program which played a vital role in changing an aging steam plant into a profitable plant in just three years. Boiler efficiency increased from approximately 70 percent initially to 86 percent today. The first step in this water treatment program involves use of a sodium zeolite water softener that works to remove scale-forming ions from municipal water used in the system. A resin cleaner is also added to prolong the life of resins in the softener. The water is then passed through a new blow-down heat exchanger, which allows preheating from the continuous blow-down from the boiler system. The water gets pumped into a deaerator tank where sulfite treatment is added. The water then passes from feedpumps into the boiler system.

Not Available

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Membrane Research for Water and Wastewater Treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document summarizes two research projects involving the use of membranes in water treatment: o Technologies for Improving Water Desalination -- The objectives of this study were to compare capacitive deionization (CDI) with carbon aerogel and reverse osmosis (RO) for salinity reduction using conventional treatment, conventional treatment with ozone and biologically active filters, and microfiltration as the pretreatment step. o Membrane Pretreatment of Reclaimed Wastewater for Reverse Osmosis Desali...

2001-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

15

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT MODIFICATIONS  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

WASTE WATER TREATMENT MODIFICATIONS WASTE WATER TREATMENT MODIFICATIONS FOR IMPROVED EFFLUENT COMPLIANCE BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY UPTON, NEW YORK BROOKHAVEN SITE OFFICE JUNE 24, 2011 DOE/EA-1854 i Table of Contents 1.0 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 1 2.0 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................ 1 3.0 PURPOSE AND NEED ....................................................................................................17 4.0 ALTERNATIVES ..............................................................................................................17 4.1 Alternative 1 - Groundwater Recharge System (Preferred Alternative) .............. 17

16

Missouri Water Treatment Plant Upgraded | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Treatment Plant Upgraded Missouri Water Treatment Plant Upgraded July 13, 2010 - 11:30am Addthis The high service pumps at the St. Peters Water Treatment Plant are almost 30...

17

A new approach for water treatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A quantity of up to 4000 m3/h of water is used at CERN for cooling purposes: experiments, magnets and radio frequency cavities are refrigerated by closed circuits filled with deionized water; other utilities, such as air-conditioning, use chilled/hot water, also in closed circuits. All these methods all employ a cold source, the primary supply of water, coming from the cooling towers. About 500 kCHF are spent every year on water treatment in order to keep the water within these networks in operational conditions. In the line of further rationalization of resources, the next generation of contracts with the water treatment industry will aim for improved performance and better monitoring of quality related parameters in this context. The author will provide a concise report based upon an examination of the state of the installations and of the philosophy followed up until now for water treatment. Furthermore, he/she will propose a new approach from both a technical and contractual point of view, in preparation ...

Principe, R

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contamination has complicated the remediation of gasoline contaminated sites. Many sites are using biological processes for ground water treatment and would like to apply the same technology to MTBE. However, the efficiency and reliability of MTBE biological treatment is not well documented. The objective of this study was to examine the operational and environmental variables influencing MTBE biotreatment. A fluidized bed reactor was installed at a fuel transfer station and used to treat ground water contaminated with MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons. A complete set of chemical and operational data was collected during this study and a statistical approach was used to determine what variables were influencing MTBE treatment efficiency. It was found that MTBE treatment was more sensitive to up-set than gasoline hydrocarbon treatment. Events, such as excess iron accumulation, inhibited MTBE treatment, but not hydrocarbon treatment. Multiple regression analysis identified biomass accumulation and temperature as the most important variables controlling the efficiency of MTBE treatment. The influent concentration and loading of hydrocarbons, but not MTBE, also impacted MTBE treatment efficiency. The results of this study suggest guidelines for improving MTBE treatment. Long cell retention times in the reactor are necessary for maintaining MTBE treatment. The onset of nitrification only occurs when long cell retention times have been reached and can be used as an indicator in fixed film reactors that conditions favorable to MTBE treatment exist. Conversely, if the reactor can not nitrify, it is unlikely to have stable MTBE treatment.

Stringfellow, William T.; Hines Jr., Robert D.; Cockrum, Dirk K.; Kilkenny, Scott T.

2001-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

19

Linking ceragenins to water-treatment membranes to minimize biofouling.  

SciTech Connect

Ceragenins were used to create biofouling resistant water-treatment membranes. Ceragenins are synthetically produced antimicrobial peptide mimics that display broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. While ceragenins have been used on bio-medical devices, use of ceragenins on water-treatment membranes is novel. Biofouling impacts membrane separation processes for many industrial applications such as desalination, waste-water treatment, oil and gas extraction, and power generation. Biofouling results in a loss of permeate flux and increase in energy use. Creation of biofouling resistant membranes will assist in creation of clean water with lower energy usage and energy with lower water usage. Five methods of attaching three different ceragenin molecules were conducted and tested. Biofouling reduction was observed in the majority of the tests, indicating the ceragenins are a viable solution to biofouling on water treatment membranes. Silane direct attachment appears to be the most promising attachment method if a high concentration of CSA-121a is used. Additional refinement of the attachment methods are needed in order to achieve our goal of several log-reduction in biofilm cell density without impacting the membrane flux. Concurrently, biofilm forming bacteria were isolated from source waters relevant for water treatment: wastewater, agricultural drainage, river water, seawater, and brackish groundwater. These isolates can be used for future testing of methods to control biofouling. Once isolated, the ability of the isolates to grow biofilms was tested with high-throughput multiwell methods. Based on these tests, the following species were selected for further testing in tube reactors and CDC reactors: Pseudomonas ssp. (wastewater, agricultural drainage, and Colorado River water), Nocardia coeliaca or Rhodococcus spp. (wastewater), Pseudomonas fluorescens and Hydrogenophaga palleronii (agricultural drainage), Sulfitobacter donghicola, Rhodococcus fascians, Rhodobacter katedanii, and Paracoccus marcusii (seawater), and Sphingopyxis spp. (groundwater). The testing demonstrated the ability of these isolates to be used for biofouling control testing under laboratory conditions. Biofilm forming bacteria were obtained from all the source water samples.

Hibbs, Michael R.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Feng, Yanshu (Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah); Savage, Paul B. (Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah); Pollard, Jacob (Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah); Branda, Steven S.; Goeres, Darla (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Buckingham-Meyer, Kelli (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Stafslien, Shane (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Marry, Christopher; Jones, Howland D. T.; Lichtenberger, Alyssa; Kirk, Matthew F.; McGrath, Lucas K. (LMATA, Albuquerque, NM)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Chemical Treatment Fosters Zero Discharge by Making Cooling Water Reusable  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the past decade, the water requirements for cooling industrial manufacturing processes have changed dramatically. Once-through cooling has been largely replaced by open recirculating cooling water methods. This approach reduces water consumption by increasing the use of recycled water. Simplistically, the circulating cooling water flows through heat exchanger equipment and is cooled by passing through a cooling tower. The recycled water is cooled by evaporation of some of the circulating water as it passes through the tower. As a result of the evaporation process, the dissolved solids in the water become concentrated. The evaporated water is replaced by fresh makeup water. The dissolved solids content of the water is maintained by the rate of water discharge (blowdown). As the amount of dissolved solids increases, their solubility is exceeded and the solids tend to precipitate from the cooling water. The precipitated scale adheres to heat transfer surfaces and reduces heat transfer efficiency. In order to achieve zero discharge of water, it is paramount that the potential for scale formation and deposition be minimized. This can be accomplished through physical separation of scale-forming ions and particulate matter. Two widely used mechanical methods in this category are lime-soda side stream softening and vapor compression blowdown evaporation. Another approach is chemical treatment to promote scale inhibition and dispersion.

Boffardi, B. P.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water treatment result" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Yosemite Waters Vehicle Evaluation Report: Final Results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Document details the evaluation of Fischer-Tropsch diesel, a gas-to-liquid fuel, in medium-duty delivery vehicles at Yosemite Waters. The study was conducted by NREL at the company's Fullerton, California, bottling headquarters.

Eudy, L.; Barnitt, R.; Alleman, T. L.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Design and Operating Guidelines Manual for Cooling-Water Treatment - Treatment of Recirculated Cooling Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This preliminary manual was developed to provide a systematic procedure for evaluating candidate strategies for the treatment of recirculated cooling water. It presents (1) a means of selecting optimal treatment methods and facilities on the basis of technical and economic considerations, and (2) guidelines for proper cooling-water system operation. Descriptions of, and user's manuals for, the cooling-system process and chemical equilibrium computer simulation models are included.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Novel Americium Treatment Process for Surface Water and Dust Suppression Water  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), a former nuclear weapons production plant, has been remediated under CERCLA and decommissioned to become a National Wildlife Refuge. The site conducted this cleanup effort under the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement (RFCA) that established limits for the discharge of surface and process waters from the site. At the end of 2004, while a number of process buildings were undergoing decommissioning, routine monitoring of a discharge pond (Pond A-4) containing approximately 28 million gallons of water was discovered to have been contaminated with a trace amount of Americium-241 (Am-241). While the amount of Am-241 in the pond waters was very low (0.5 - 0.7 pCi/l), it was above the established Colorado stream standard of 0.15 pCi/l for release to off site drainage waters. The rapid successful treatment of these waters to the regulatory limit was important to the site for two reasons. The first was that the pond was approaching its hold-up limit. Without rapid treatment and release of the Pond A-4 water, typical spring run-off would require water management actions to other drainages onsite or a mass shuttling of water for disposal. The second reason was that this type of contaminated water had not been treated to the stringent stream standard at Rocky Flats before. Technical challenges in treatment could translate to impacts on water and secondary waste management, and ultimately, cost impacts. All of the technical challenges and specific site criteria led to the conclusion that a different approach to the treatment of this problem was necessary and a crash treatability program to identify applicable treatment techniques was undertaken. The goal of this program was to develop treatment options that could be implemented very quickly and would result in the generation of no high volume secondary waste that would be costly to dispose. A novel chemical treatment system was developed and implemented at the RFETS to treat Am-241 contaminated pond water, surface run-off and D and D dust suppression water during the later stages of the D and D effort at Rocky Flats. This novel chemical treatment system allowed for highly efficient, high-volume treatment of all contaminated waste waters to the very low stream standard of 0.15 pCi/1 with strict compliance to the RFCA discharge criteria for release to off-site surface waters. The rapid development and implementation of the treatment system avoided water management issues that would have had to be addressed if contaminated water had remained in Pond A-4 into the Spring of 2005. Implementation of this treatment system for the Pond A-4 waters and the D and D waters from Buildings 776 and 371 enabled the site to achieve cost-effective treatment that minimized secondary waste generation, avoiding the need for expensive off-site water disposal. Water treatment was conducted for a cost of less than $0.20/gal which included all development costs, capital costs and operational costs. This innovative and rapid response effort saved the RFETS cleanup program well in excess of $30 million for the potential cost of off-site transportation and treatment of radioactive liquid waste. (authors)

Tiepel, E.W.; Pigeon, P. [Golder Associates (United States); Nesta, S. [Kaiser-Hill Company, LLC (United States); Anderson, J. [Rocky Flats Closure Site Services - RFCSS (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Boiler System Efficiency Improves with Effective Water Treatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water treatment is an important aspect of boiler operation which can affect efficiency or result in damage if neglected. Without effective water treatment, scale can form on boiler tubes, reducing heat transfer, and causing a loss of boiler efficiency and availability. Proper control of boiler blowdown is also important to assure clean boiler surfaces without wasting water, heat, and chemicals. Recovering hot condensate for reuse as boiler feedwater is another means of improving system efficiency. Condensate which is contaminated with corrosion products or process chemicals, however, is ill fit for reuse; and steam which leaks from piping, valves, traps and connections cannot be recovered. Effective chemical treatment, in conjunction with mechanical system improvements, can assure that condensate can be safely returned and valuable energy recovered.

Bloom, D.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

News Release: DOE Announces Riverton Water Sampling Results | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Announces Riverton Water Sampling Results Announces Riverton Water Sampling Results News Release: DOE Announces Riverton Water Sampling Results May 11, 2012 - 3:25pm Addthis News Contact: Contractor, Judy Miller, S.M. Stoller Corporation Public Affairs (970) 248-6363 jmiller@lm.doe.gov Laboratory results indicate water from the alternative water supply system is safe for residents to drink The U.S. Department of Energy announced today that residential drinking water testing from an alternative water supply system in Riverton, Wyoming, confirmed the water is safe. Results from ater samples collected on May 3, 2012, show that uranium levels at 0.0001 milligrams per liter, well below the drinking water standard set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. "We take the issue of potential water contamination very seriously and

26

Optimized alumina coagulants for water treatment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Substitution of a single Ga-atom or single Ge-atom (GaAl.sub.12 and GeAl.sub.12 respectively) into the center of an aluminum Keggin polycation (Al.sub.13) produces an optimal water-treatment product for neutralization and coagulation of anionic contaminants in water. GaAl.sub.12 consistently shows .about.1 order of magnitude increase in pathogen reduction, compared to Al.sub.13. At a concentration of 2 ppm, GaAl.sub.12 performs equivalently to 40 ppm alum, removing .about.90% of the dissolved organic material. The substituted GaAl.sub.12 product also offers extended shelf-life and consistent performance. We also synthesized a related polyaluminum chloride compound made of pre-hydrolyzed dissolved alumina clusters of [GaO.sub.4Al.sub.12(OH).sub.24(H.sub.2O).sub.12].sup.7+.

Nyman, May D. (Albuquerque, NM); Stewart, Thomas A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

27

Materials Challenges for Next-Generation Water Treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Materials Challenges for Next-Generation Water Treatment. Purpose: Thank you to all the participants for a great workshop! ...

2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

28

Design, Construction, and Field Testing of a Prototype Mobile Vault Water Treatment System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Subsurface vaults and manholes provide access to underground electric distribution equipment in many areas. These structures can accumulate water through storm water runoff or ground water seepage. The water must be removed before maintenance work can proceed. This report presents results of a project to design, construct, and test a mobile treatment system to manage vault waters.

2001-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

29

Solar Farm Going Strong at Water Treatment Plant in Pennsylvania |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Farm Going Strong at Water Treatment Plant in Pennsylvania Farm Going Strong at Water Treatment Plant in Pennsylvania Solar Farm Going Strong at Water Treatment Plant in Pennsylvania October 8, 2010 - 10:39am Addthis Aqua Pennsylvania, Inc. installed a 1 MW solar farm at its Ingram’s Mill Water Treatment Plant in East Bradford, Pa. The solar project is saving the water company $77,000 a year. | File photo Aqua Pennsylvania, Inc. installed a 1 MW solar farm at its Ingram's Mill Water Treatment Plant in East Bradford, Pa. The solar project is saving the water company $77,000 a year. | File photo Stephen Graff Former Writer & editor for Energy Empowers, EERE It takes a lot of energy to run a water treatment plant round-the-clock. And pumping 35 million gallons of water a day to hundreds of thousands businesses and residents can get expensive.

30

Yosemite Waters Vehicle Evaluation Report: Final Results (Brochure)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Results Results Prepared for South Coast Air Quality Management District by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory CRD-01-098 Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Fuel Demonstration in a Southern California Vehicle Fleet Yosemite Waters Vehicle Evaluation Report Yosemite Waters Vehicle Evaluation Report i Alternative Fuel Trucks YOSEMITE WATERS VEHICLE EVALUATION REPORT Authors Leslie Eudy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

31

Program on Technology Innovation: New Concepts of Water Conservation Cooling and Water Treatment Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes 114 proposals received as a result of Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) worldwide solicitations that were distributed in February 2011 and June 2012. The solicitations sought early-stage concepts for innovative power plant water-conserving technologies for cooling, waste heat utilization, and water treatment. The report also highlights 18 cooling proposals from 2011, including 5 funded projects. In addition, it describes current cooling ...

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

32

Water Power Program: Program Plans, Implementation, and Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Power Program Water Power Program HOME ABOUT RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL OPPORTUNITIES INFORMATION RESOURCES NEWS EVENTS EERE » Water Power Program » About Key Activities Plans, Implementation, & Results Budget Peer Review 2011 Contacts Plans, Implementation, and Results Here you'll find an overview of the Water Power Program and links to its program planning, implementation, and results documents. This list summarizes the program's water power research, development, and demonstration activities. Read more about: Overview Learn more about this EERE Office. Plans Discover the plans, budgets, and analyses that set the direction of office priorities and activities. Implementation Find out how the office controls, implements, and adjusts its plans and manages its activities.

33

Water Power Program: Program Plans, Implementation, and Results  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Power Program Water Power Program HOME ABOUT RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL OPPORTUNITIES INFORMATION RESOURCES NEWS EVENTS EERE » Water Power Program » About Key Activities Plans, Implementation, & Results Budget Peer Review 2011 Contacts Plans, Implementation, and Results Here you'll find an overview of the Water Power Program and links to its program planning, implementation, and results documents. This list summarizes the program's water power research, development, and demonstration activities. Read more about: Overview Learn more about this EERE Office. Plans Discover the plans, budgets, and analyses that set the direction of office priorities and activities. Implementation Find out how the office controls, implements, and adjusts its plans and manages its activities.

34

Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater April 13, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - A water treatment system that can turn wastewater into clean water has been shown to reduce potential environmental impacts associated with producing natural gas from shale formations in the Appalachian basin. Altela Inc.'s AltelaRain® 4000 water desalination system was tested at BLX, Inc.'s Sleppy well site in Indiana County, Pa. as part of a National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)-sponsored demonstration. During nine continuous months of operation, the unit successfully treated 77 percent of the water stream onsite, providing distilled water as the product. The average treated water cost per barrel over the demonstration period was

35

Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater April 13, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - A water treatment system that can turn wastewater into clean water has been shown to reduce potential environmental impacts associated with producing natural gas from shale formations in the Appalachian basin. Altela Inc.'s AltelaRain® 4000 water desalination system was tested at BLX, Inc.'s Sleppy well site in Indiana County, Pa. as part of a National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)-sponsored demonstration. During nine continuous months of operation, the unit successfully treated 77 percent of the water stream onsite, providing distilled water as the product. The average treated water cost per barrel over the demonstration period was

36

Treatment methods for breaking certain oil and water emulsions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are treatment methods for breaking emulsions of petroleum oil and salt water, fatty oil and water, and those resulting from liquefication of organic material. The emulsions are broken by heating to a predetermined temperature at or above about 200.degree. C. and pressurizing to a predetermined pressure above the vapor pressure of water at the predetermined temperature to produce a heated and pressurized fluid. The heated and pressurized fluid is contained in a single vessel at the predetermined temperature and pressure for a predetermined period of time to effectively separate the emulsion into substantially distinct first and second phases, the first phase comprising primarily the petroleum oil, the second phase comprising primarily the water. The first and second phases are separately withdrawn from the vessel at a withdraw temperature between about 200.degree. C. and 374.degree. C. and a withdraw pressure above the vapor pressure of water at the withdraw temperature. Where solids are present in the certain emulsions, the above described treatment may also effectively separate the certain emulsion into a substantially distinct third phase comprising primarily the solids.

Sealock, Jr., L. John (W. Richland, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF IN-SITU RETORT WATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Phyllis Fox INTRODUCTION Oil shale retorting produces fromWaste Water from Oil Shale Processing" ACS Division of FuelEvaluates Treatments for Oil-Shale Retort Water," Industrial

Ossio, Edmundo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

A general water supply planning model: Evaluation of decentralized treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing population, diminishing supplies and variable climatic conditions can cause difficulties in meeting water demands; especially in arid regions where water resources are limited. Given the complexity of the system and the interactions among ... Keywords: Decentralized wastewater treatment system, System dynamics, Water conservation, Water supply

G. Chung; K. Lansey; P. Blowers; P. Brooks; W. Ela; S. Stewart; P. Wilson

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

SEMMENS, L.S.

1999-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

40

Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs.

Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water treatment result" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Integrated thermal treatment system sudy: Phase 2, Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study, the results of which have been published as an interim report, examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 2 systems. The assumptions and methods were the same as for the Phase 1 study. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in he Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr).

Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Water Discharge from Waste Treatment - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 29, 1996 ... TMS Logo. About the 1996 International Symposium on Extraction and Processing for the Treatment and Minimization of Wastes...

43

Performance of a Treatment Loop for Recycling Spent Rinse Waters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper summarizes an evaluation of a treatment loop designed to upgrade the quality of spent rinse waters discharged from 10 wet benches located in the fab at Sandia's Microelectronics Development Laboratory (MDL). The goal of the treatment loop is to make these waters, presently being discharged to the fab's acid waste neutralization (AWN) station, suitable for recycling as feed water back into the fab's ultrapure water (UPW) plant. The MDL typically operates 2 shifts per day, 5 days per week. Without any treatment, the properties of the spent rinse waters now being collected have been shown to be compatible with recycling about 30% (50/168) of the time (weekends primarily, when the fab is idling) which corresponds to about 12% of the present water discharged from the fab to the AWN. The primary goal of adding a treatment loop is to increase the percentage of recyclable water from these 10 wet benches to near 100%, increasing the percentage of total recyclable water to near 40% of the total present fab discharge to the AWN. A second goal is to demonstrate compatibility with recycling this treated spent rinse water to the present R/O product water tank, reducing both the present volume of R/O reject water and the present load on the R/O. The approach taken to demonstrate achieving these goals is to compare all the common metrics of water quality for the treated spent rinse waters with those of the present R/O product water. Showing that the treated rinse water is equal or superior in quality to the water presently stored in the R/O tank by every metric all the time is assumed to be sufficient argument for proceeding with plans to incorporate recycling of these spent rinse waters back into MDL's R/O tank.

DONOVAN,ROBERT PATRICK; TIMON,ROBERT P.; DEBUSK,MICHAEL JOHN; JONES,RONALD V.; ROGERS,DARELL M.

2000-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

44

No Chemical, Zero Bleed Cooling Tower Water Treatment Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes a process to treat cooling tower water by means of a fully automated and chemical free mechanical water treatment process. This is an alternative to conventional chemical treatment. Beginning with a suction pump to draw water out of the tower sump, water goes through a permanent magnetic descaler to increase the water solubility and begin the scale inhibition process. This also descales existing scale build-up in the system. Ozone is manufactured from ambient air and injected into the bypass system through a venturi type injector. This kills algae, slime and bacteria and enhances the magnetic descaling process. The final stage filter separates solids from the water to prevent corrosion from impingement. These solids are automatically purged to the sanitary drain. Clarified water is returned to the sump where the process repeats on a 10%-20% by volume side stream basis.

Coke, A. L.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Online Produced Water Treatment Catalog and Decision Tool  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to create an internet-based Water Treatment Technology Catalog and Decision Tool that will increase production, decrease costs and enhance environmental protection. This is to be accomplished by pairing an operator's water treatment cost and capacity needs to specific water treatments. This project cataloged existing and emerging produced water treatment technologies and allows operators to identify the most cost-effective approaches for managing their produced water. The tool captures the cost and capabilities of each technology and the disposal and beneficial use options for each region. The tool then takes location, chemical composition, and volumetric data for the operator's water and identifies the most cost effective treatment options for that water. Regulatory requirements or limitations for each location are also addressed. The Produced Water Treatment Catalog and Decision Tool efficiently matches industry decision makers in unconventional natural gas basins with: 1) appropriate and applicable water treatment technologies for their project, 2) relevant information on regulatory and legal issues that may impact the success of their project, and 3) potential beneficial use demands specific to their project area. To ensure the success of this project, it was segmented into seven tasks conducted in three phases over a three year period. The tasks were overseen by a Project Advisory Council (PAC) made up of stakeholders including state and federal agency representatives and industry representatives. ALL Consulting has made the catalog and decision tool available on the Internet for the final year of the project. The second quarter of the second budget period, work was halted based on the February 18, 2011 budget availability; however previous project deliverables were submitted on time and the deliverables for Task 6 and 7 were completed ahead of schedule. Thus the application and catalog were deployed to the public Internet. NETL did not provide additional funds and work on the project stopped on February 18, 2011. NETL ended the project on March 31, 2012.

J. Arthur

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

46

Results of acid treatments in hydrothermal direct heat experiment wells  

SciTech Connect

Matrix acid treatments have been employed in two low-to-moderate temperature hydrothermal wells with successful results. These two wells showed flow rate increases of 40% and 50%. The increased flow reduced the payback periods for the heating systems to nearly one-half of what they were before acidization. It is recommended that well designs in certain areas consider accommodating such acid stimulation techniques, if testing suggests they are warranted as a well completion tool.

Strawn, J.A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Microbiological treatment of uranium mine waters  

SciTech Connect

Percolation of uranium mine discharge water through Ambrosia Lake, NM, soil is shown to be an effective method for lowering selenium, uranium, molybdenum, and sulfate concentrations in the mine water. Selenium concentrations were lowered from approx.1.6 to <0.05 mg/L by reduction of soluble selenate and selenite to insoluble selenium metal. This reaction is most likely performed by bacteria belonging to the genus Clostridium. In addition, sulfate-reducing bacteria in the soil, such as Desulfovibrio bacteria, metabolize sulfate to hydrogen sulfide, which reacts with uranyl and molybdate ions to form insoluble uranium and molybdenum species. The concentrations of sulfate, uranium, and molybdenum were reduced to less than 600, 0.1, and 0.05 mg/L, respectively. A qualitative understanding of the effects of mine water temperature, flow rate, and nutrients on metals removal is provided. The process was successfully field tested for 7 months in a soil column 1.5 m deep. 13 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

Kauffman, J.W.; Laughlin, W.C.; Baldwin, R.A.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Separation of saturated hydrocarbons from coal by treatment with water at supercritical parameters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The treatment of coals of various degrees of metamorphism in supercritical water (SCW) over the temperature region 380-800{sup o}C was studied. The yields and compositions of liquid products obtained by treatment in SCW were determined. These data were compared with the results of the semicoking of the above coals.

M.R. Predtechenskiy; M.V. Pukhovoy [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russia). Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

49

TREATMENT OF PRODUCED OIL AND GAS WATERS WITH SURFACTANT-MODIFIED ZEOLITE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. It is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current treatment options are successful in reducing the organic content; however, they cannot always meet the levels of current or proposed regulations for discharged water. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. This report summarizes the work and results of this four-year project. We tested the effectiveness of surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) for removal of BTEX with batch and column experiments using waters with BTEX concentrations that are comparable to those of produced waters. The data from our experimental investigations showed that BTEX sorption to SMZ can be described by a linear isotherm model, and competitive effects between compounds were not significant. The SMZ can be readily regenerated using air stripping. We field-tested a prototype SMZ-based water treatment system at produced water treatment facilities and found that the SMZ successfully removes BTEX from produced waters as predicted by laboratory studies. When compared to other existing treatment technologies, the cost of the SMZ system is very competitive. Furthermore, the SMZ system is relatively compact, does not require the storage of potentially hazardous chemicals, and could be readily adapted to an automated system.

Lynn E. Katz; R.S. Bowman; E.J. Sullivan

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Croatian refiner meets waste water treatment standards, reduces fines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new approach to waste water treatment at a refinery in Croatia produces effluent that not only meets the region`s regulations for disposal into the Adriatic Sea, but also surpasses the refinery`s specifications for recycling process water. Key to the dramatic reduction in pollutants was the installation of a Sandfloat unit developed by Krofta Engineering Corp. The Sandfloat unit is a dissolved air flotation clarifier that combines flocculation, flotation, and multilayer filtration to produce high-quality effluent. In fact, the effluent from the unit has a lower hydrocarbon concentration than water from the underground wells that supply process water to the refinery. While similar systems have been used for decades in industrial applications, this is the first time a Sandfloat unit has been installed in an oil refinery. The article describes the problem, refinery operations, treatment costs, and effluent recycling.

Meier, A.L. [Krofta Engineering Corp., Lenox, MA (United States); Nikolic, O. [INA Oil Refinery, Rijeka (Croatia)

1995-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

51

Economic costs of conventional surface-water treatment: A case study of the Mcallen northwest facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conventional water treatment facilities are the norm for producing potable water for U.S. metropolitan areas. Rapidly-growing urban populations, competing demands for water, imperfect water markets, and uncertainty of future water supplies contribute to high interests in alternative sources of potable water for many U.S. municipalities. In situations where multiple supply alternatives exist, properly analyzing which alternative is the most-economically efficient over the course of its useful life requires a sound economic and financial analysis of each alternative using consistent methodology. This thesis discusses such methodology and provides an assessment of the life-cycle costs of conventional water treatment using actual data from an operating surface-water treatment facility located in McAllen, Texas: the McAllen Northwest facility. This facility has a maximum-designed operating capacity of 8.25 million gallons per day (mgd), but due to required shutdown time and other limitations, it is currently operating at 78% of the designed capacity (6.44 mgd). The economic and financial life-cycle costs associated with constructing and operating the McAllen Northwest facility are analyzed using a newly-developed Excel 2 spreadsheet model, CITY H O ECONOMICS . Although specific results are applicable only to the McAllen Northwest facility, the baseline results of $771.67/acre-foot (acft)/ yr {$2.37/1,000 gallons/yr} for this analysis provide insight regarding the life-cycle costs for conventional surface-water treatment. The baseline results are deterministic (i.e., noninclusive of risk/uncertainty about datainput values), but are expanded to include sensitivity analyses with respect to several critical factors including the facilitys useful life, water rights costs, initial construction costs, and annual operations and maintenance, chemical, and energy costs. For example, alternative costs for water rights associated with sourcing water for conventional treatment facilities are considered relative to the assumed baseline cost of $2,300/ac-ft, with results ranging from a low of $653.34/ac-ft/yr (when water rights are $2,000/ac-ft) to a high of $1,061.83/ac-ft/yr (when water rights are $2,600/ac-ft). Furthermore, modifications to key data-input parameters and results are included for a more consistent basis of comparison to enable comparisons across facilities and/or technologies. The modified results, which are considered appropriate to compare to other similarly calculated values, are $667.74/ac-ft/yr {2.05/1,000 gallons/yr}.

Rogers, Callie Sue

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Summary of comparative results integrated nonthermal treatment and integrated thermal treatment systems studies  

SciTech Connect

In July 1994, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), under a contract from U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment Management Office of Science and Technology (OST, EM-50) published a report entitled {open_quotes}Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study - Phase 1 Results{close_quotes} (EGG-MS-11211). This report was the culmination of over a year of analysis involving scientists and engineers within the DOE complex and from private industry. The purpose of that study was {open_quotes}to conduct a systematic engineering evaluation of a variety of mixed low level waste (MLLW) treatment system alternatives.{close_quotes} The study also {open_quotes}identified the research and development, demonstrations, and testing and evaluation needed to assure unit operability in the most promising alternative system.{close_quotes} This study evaluated ten primary thermal treatment technologies, organized into complete {open_quotes}cradle-to-grave{close_quotes} systems (including complete engineering flow sheets), to treat DOE MLLW and calculated mass balances and 20-year total life cycle costs (TLCC) for all systems. The waste input used was a representative heterogenous mixture of typical DOE MLLW. An additional study was conducted, and then, based on response to these studies, additional work was started to investigate and evaluate non-thermal treatment options on a footing comparable to the effort devoted to thermal options. This report attempts to present a summary overview of the thermal and non-thermal treatment technologies which were examined in detail in the process of the above mentioned reviews.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Nanofiltration/reverse osmosis for treatment of coproduced waters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current high oil and gas prices have lead to renewed interest in exploration of nonconventional energy sources such as coal bed methane, tar sand, and oil shale. However oil and gas production from these nonconventional sources has lead to the coproduction of large quantities of produced water. While produced water is a waste product from oil and gas exploration it is a very valuable natural resource in the arid Western United States. Thus treated produced water could be a valuable new source of water. Commercially available nanofiltration and low pressure reverse osmosis membranes have been used to treat three produced waters. The results obtained here indicate that the permeate could be put to beneficial uses such as crop and livestock watering. However minimizing membrane fouling will be essential for the development of a practical process. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy imaging may be used to observe membrane fouling.

Mondal, S.; Hsiao, C.L.; Wickramasinghe, S.R. [Colorado State University, Ft Collins, CO (United States)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

54

INTEC CPP-603 Basin Water Treatment System Closure: Process Design  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the engineering activities that have been completed in support of the closure plan for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) CPP-603 Basin Water Treatment System. This effort includes detailed assessments of methods and equipment for performing work in four areas: 1. A cold (nonradioactive) mockup system for testing equipment and procedures for vessel cleanout and vessel demolition. 2. Cleanout of process vessels to meet standards identified in the closure plan. 3. Dismantlement and removal of vessels, should it not be possible to clean them to required standards in the closure plan. 4. Cleanout or removal of pipelines and pumps associated with the CPP-603 basin water treatment system. Cleanout standards for the pipes will be the same as those used for the process vessels.

Kimmitt, Raymond Rodney; Faultersack, Wendell Gale; Foster, Jonathan Kay; Berry, Stephen Michael

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Integrated thermal treatment system study: Phase 1 results. Volume 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An integrated systems engineering approach is used for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for management of contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. Ten different systems encompassing several incineration design options are studied. All subsystems, including facilities, equipment, and methods needed for integration of each of the ten systems are identified. Typical subsystems needed for complete treatment of MLLW are incoming waste receiving and preparation (characterization, sorting, sizing, and separation), thermal treatment, air pollution control, primary and secondary stabilization, metal decontamination, metal melting, mercury recovery, lead recovery, and special waste and aqueous waste treatment. The evaluation is performed by developing a preconceptual design package and planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for each system. As part of the preconceptual design process, functional and operational requirements, flow sheets and mass balances, and conceptual equipment layouts are developed for each system. The PLCC components estimated are technology development, production facility construction, pre-operation, operation and maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning. Preconceptual design data and other technology information gathered during the study are examined and areas requiring further development, testing, and evaluation are identified and recommended. Using a qualitative method, each of the ten systems are ranked.

Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Hempill, H.G.; Groffie, F.J.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This final report of ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Water,'' DOE project No. DE-FC26-00BC15326 describes work performed in the third year of the project. Several good results were obtained, which are documented in this report. The compacted bentonite membranes were replaced by supported bentonite membranes, which exhibited the same salt rejection capability. Unfortunately, it also inherited the clay expansion problem due to water invasion into the interlayer spaces of the compacted bentonite membranes. We noted that the supported bentonite membrane developed in the project was the first of its kind reported in the literature. An {alpha}-alumina-supported MFI-type zeolite membrane synthesized by in-situ crystallization was fabricated and tested. Unlike the bentonite clay membranes, the zeolite membranes maintained stability and high salt rejection rate even for a highly saline solution. Actual produced brines from gas and oil fields were then tested. For gas fields producing brine, the 18,300 ppm TDS (total dissolved solids) in the produced brine was reduced to 3060 ppm, an 83.3% rejection rate of 15,240 ppm salt rejection. For oilfield brine, while the TDS was reduced from 181,600 ppm to 148,900 ppm, an 18% rejection rate of 32,700 ppm reduction, the zeolite membrane was stable. Preliminary results show the dissolved organics, mainly hydrocarbons, did not affect the salt rejection. However, the rejection of organics was inconclusive at this point. Finally, the by-product of this project, the {alpha}-alumina-supported Pt-Co/Na Y catalytic zeolite membrane was developed and demonstrated for overcoming the two-step limitation of nonoxidation methane (CH{sub 4}) conversion to higher hydrocarbons (C{sub 2+}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}). Detailed experiments to obtain quantitative results of H{sub 2} generation for various conditions are now being conducted. Technology transfer efforts included five manuscripts submitted to peer-reviewed journals and five conference presentations.

Robert L. Lee; Junghan Dong

2004-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

57

An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale  

SciTech Connect

This Final Scientific/ Technical Report submitted with respect to Project DE-FE0000833 titled 'An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale' in support of final reporting requirements. This final report contains a compilation of previous reports with the most current data in order to produce one final complete document. The goal of this research was to provide an integrated approach aimed at addressing the increasing water resource challenges between natural gas production and other water stakeholders in shale gas basins. The objective was to demonstrate that the AltelaRain{reg_sign} technology could be successfully deployed in the Marcellus Shale Basin to treat frac flow-back water. That objective has been successfully met.

Matthew Bruff; Ned Godshall; Karen Evans

2011-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

58

Environmental assessment for the Waste Water Treatment Facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project and finding of no significant impact  

SciTech Connect

The possible environmental impacts from the construction and operation of a waste water treatment facility for the West Valley Demonstration Project are presented. The West Valley Project is a demonstration project on the solidification of high-level radioactive wastes. The need for the facility is the result of a rise in the work force needed for the project which rendered the existing sewage treatment plant incapable of meeting the nonradioactive waste water treatment needs.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

59

TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS USING A SURFACTANT MODIFIED ZEOLITE/VAPOR PHASE BIOREACTOR SYSTEM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. It is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some of them must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current treatment options are successful in reducing the organic content; however, they cannot always meet the levels of current or proposed regulations for discharged water. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. Our previous DOE research work (DE-AC26-99BC15221) demonstrated that SMZ could successfully remove BTEX compounds from the produced water. In addition, SMZ could be regenerated through a simple air sparging process. The primary goal of this project is to develop a robust SMZ/VPB treatment system to efficiently remove the organic constituents from produced water in a cost-effective manner. This report summarizes work of this project from October 2002 to March 2003. In this starting stage of this study, we have continued our investigation of SMZ regeneration from our previous DOE project. Two saturation/stripping cycles have been completed for SMZ columns saturated with BTEX compounds. Preliminary results suggest that BTEX sorption actually increases with the number of saturation/regeneration cycles. Furthermore, the experimental vapor phase bioreactors for this project have been designed and are currently being assembled to treat the off-gas from the SMZ regeneration process.

Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R.S. Bowman; E.J. Sullivan

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Characterization and stabilization of arsenic in water treatment residuals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The characterization of water treatment residuals containing arsenic was investigated in the first study. Arsenic desorption and leachability from the residuals were the focus of this study. Arsenic leaching from water treatment residuals was found to be underestimated by the toxicity characteristic leaching test (TCLP) due to the pH of the leachates being favorable for As(V) adsorption. Competitive desorption of arsenic with phosphate was significant because phosphate tends to compete with As(V) on the surface of the metal hydroxide for adsorption sites. However, arsenic desorption by the competition of sulfate and chloride was found to be negligible. The pH in the leachate was a critical variable in controlling arsenic stability in the residuals. The release of arsenic from the residuals was elevated at low and high pH due to the increase dissolution of the adsorbents such as Fe and Al hydroxides. In the second phase of the study, the stabilization techniques for arsenic contained residuals and were examined to develop methods to suitably stabilize arsenic to eliminate and/or minimize leaching. A decrease of arsenic leaching was achieved by the addition of lime to the residuals and believed to be due to the formation of less soluble and stable calcium-arsenic compounds. However, it is suggested that the ordinary Portland cement (OPC) should be added with the lime for the long term stabilization because lime can be slowly consumed when directly exposed to atmospheric CO2. The solidification and stabilization (S/S) technique with lime and OPC was shown to be successfully applied by the immobilization of a wide variety of arsenic tainted water treatment residuals.

Wee, Hun Young

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water treatment result" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TREATMENT SYSTEMS FOR WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory implemented a constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) in 2000 to treat industrial discharge and stormwater from the Laboratory area. The industrial discharge volume is 3,030 m{sup 3} per day with elevated toxicity and metals (copper, zinc and mercury). The CWTS was identified as the best treatment option based on performance, capital and continuing cost, and schedule. A key factor for this natural system approach was the long-term binding capacity of heavy metals (especially copper, lead, and zinc) in the organic matter and sediments. The design required that the wetland treat the average daily discharge volume and be able to handle 83,280 m{sup 3} of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. The design allowed all water flow within the system to be driven entirely by gravity. The CWTS for A-01 outfall is composed of eight one-acre wetland cells connected in pairs and planted with giant bulrush to provide continuous organic matter input to the system. The retention basin was designed to hold stormwater flow and to allow controlled discharge to the wetland. The system became operational in October of 2000 and is the first wetland treatment system permitted by South Carolina DHEC for removal of metals. Because of the exceptional performance of the A-01 CWTS, the same strategy was used to improve water quality of the H-02 outfall that receives discharge and stormwater from the Tritium Area of SRS. The primary contaminants in this outfall were also copper and zinc. The design for this second system required that the wetland treat the average discharge volume of 415 m{sup 3} per day, and be able to handle 9,690 m{sup 3} of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. This allowed the building of a system much smaller than the A-01 CWTS. The system became operational in July 2007. Metal removal has been excellent since water flow through the treatment systems began, and performance improved with the maturation of the vegetation during the first season of growth of each system. Sediment samples after the first and third years of operation indicated that copper was being bound in the sediments very rapidly after entering the treatment system. The design of the system encourages low redox and sulfide production in the sediments. The objective is to stabilize metals, including mercury, as sulfide compounds in the sediments. Costs for maintenance and operation of the systems are minimal, consisting primarily of ensuring that the pipes are not clogged and that water is flowing through the system. The treatment cost per thousand gallons is many times less than conventional wastewater treatment facilities. Life expectancy and function of the biological system is based on the life of the engineering aspects and not the wetland ecology.

Nelson, E.

2010-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

62

Coalbed Methane Procduced Water Treatment Using Gas Hydrate Formation at the Wellhead  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water associated with coalbed methane (CBM) production is a significant and costly process waste stream, and economic treatment and/or disposal of this water is often the key to successful and profitable CBM development. In the past decade, advances have been made in the treatment of CBM produced water. However, produced water generally must be transported in some fashion to a centralized treatment and/or disposal facility. The cost of transporting this water, whether through the development of a water distribution system or by truck, is often greater than the cost of treatment or disposal. To address this economic issue, BC Technologies (BCT), in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and International Petroleum Environmental Consortium (IPEC), proposed developing a mechanical unit that could be used to treat CBM produced water by forming gas hydrates at the wellhead. This process involves creating a gas hydrate, washing it and then disassociating hydrate into water and gas molecules. The application of this technology results in three process streams: purified water, brine, and gas. The purified water can be discharged or reused for a variety of beneficial purposes and the smaller brine can be disposed of using conventional strategies. The overall objectives of this research are to develop a new treatment method for produced water where it could be purified directly at the wellhead, to determine the effectiveness of hydrate formation for the treatment of produced water with proof of concept laboratory experiments, to design a prototype-scale injector and test it in the laboratory under realistic wellhead conditions, and to demonstrate the technology under field conditions. By treating the water on-site, producers could substantially reduce their surface handling costs and economically remove impurities to a quality that would support beneficial use. Batch bench-scale experiments of the hydrate formation process and research conducted at ORNL confirmed the feasibility of the process. However, researchers at BCT were unable to develop equipment suitable for continuous operation and demonstration of the process in the field was not attempted. The significant achievements of the research area: Bench-scale batch results using carbon dioxide indicate >40% of the feed water to the hydrate formation reactor was converted to hydrate in a single pass; The batch results also indicate >23% of the feed water to the hydrate formation reactor (>50% of the hydrate formed) was converted to purified water of a quality suitable for discharge; Continuous discharge and collection of hydrates was achieved at atmospheric pressure. Continuous hydrate formation and collection at atmospheric conditions was the most significant achievement and preliminary economics indicate that if the unit could be made operable, it is potentially economic. However, the inability to continuously separate the hydrate melt fraction left the concept not ready for field demonstration and the project was terminated after Phase Two research.

BC Technologies

2009-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

63

Treatment of produced water using chemical and biological unit operations.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Water generated along with oil and gas during coal bed methane and oil shale operations is commonly known as produced water, formation water, or oilfield (more)

Li, Liang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Risk management program for the 283-W water treatment facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Risk Management (RM) Program covers the 283-W Water Treatment Facility (283W Facility), located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. A RM Program is necessary for this facility because it stores chlorine, a listed substance, in excess of or has the potential to exceed the threshold quantities defined in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 68 (EPA, 1998). The RM Program contains data that will be used to prepare a RM Plan, which is required by 40 CFR 68. The RM Plan is a summary of the RM Program information, contained within this document, and will be submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ultimately for distribution to the public. The RM Plan will be prepared and submitted separately from this document.

GREEN, W.E.

1999-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

65

FERRATES: SYNTHESIS, PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS IN WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The higher oxidation states of iron (Fe(VI) and Fe(V) in particular) have been shown to be strongly oxidizing in enzymatic systems, where they can carry out aliphatic hydrogen abstraction. In addition, they have been postulated as intermediates in Fenton-type systems. Fe(VI) itself is relatively stable and has been shown to have potential as an oxidant in the so-called ''green'' treatment of polluted waters. By contrast, Fe(V) is a relatively short-lived transient when produced in aqueous solution in the absence of strongly bonding ligands other than hydroxide, a feature that has limited studies of its reactivity. Fe(VI) has been proposed to be useful in battery design and a very interesting study suggested that ferrate may be able to oxidize insoluble chromium to chromate and thus serve to remove chromium contamination in the Hanford radioactive waste tanks.

CABELLI, D.E.; SHARMA, V.K.

2006-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

66

Water Treatment For Wet Electrostatic Precipitators: Conceptual Design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pilot testing has shown that replacement of the last field of a small dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP) with a single wet field can significantly reduce outlet particulate emissions from coal-fired power plants. This report summarizes a pilot wet ESP performance test, cost projections from an economic study, and results from a study of the water use and chemistry issues that need to be resolved to make the wet ESP technology an attractive option for electric utilities.

1997-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

67

Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment: Results of Mixed Waste Treatment at the M-4 Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Processing alternatives for commercial nuclear plant mixed wastes are limited. In order to expand potential treatment options, EPRI entered a collaborative research agreement to process mixed wastes at an environmental facility. This report documents the success of that effort to date.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

68

An Innovative System for the Efficient and Effective Treatment of Non-Traditional Waters for Reuse in Thermoelectric Power Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study assessed opportunities for improving water quality associated with coal-fired power generation including the use of non-traditional waters for cooling, innovative technology for recovering and reusing water within power plants, novel approaches for the removal of trace inorganic compounds from ash pond effluents, and novel approaches for removing biocides from cooling tower blowdown. This research evaluated specifically designed pilot-scale constructed wetland systems for treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters for reuse in thermoelectric power generation and other purposes. The overall objective of this project was to decrease targeted constituents in non-traditional waters to achieve reuse criteria or discharge limitations established by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Clean Water Act (CWA). The six original project objectives were completed, and results are presented in this final technical report. These objectives included identification of targeted constituents for treatment in four non-traditional water sources, determination of reuse or discharge criteria for treatment, design of constructed wetland treatment systems for these non-traditional waters, and measurement of treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters, as well as determination of the suitability of the treated non-traditional waters for reuse or discharge to receiving aquatic systems. The four non-traditional waters used to accomplish these objectives were ash basin water, cooling water, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) water, and produced water. The contaminants of concern identified in ash basin waters were arsenic, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Contaminants of concern in cooling waters included free oxidants (chlorine, bromine, and peroxides), copper, lead, zinc, pH, and total dissolved solids. FGD waters contained contaminants of concern including arsenic, boron, chlorides, selenium, mercury, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and zinc. Similar to FGD waters, produced waters contained contaminants of concern that are predominantly inorganic (arsenic, cadmium, chlorides, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, sulfide, zinc, total dissolved solids), but also contained some organics (benzene, PAHs, toluene, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, and oil and grease). Constituents of concern that may cause chemical scaling, biofouling and corrosion, such as pH, hardness and ionic strength, and nutrients (P, K, and N) may also be found in all four non-traditional waters. NPDES permits were obtained for these non-traditional waters and these permit limits are summarized in tabular format within this report. These limits were used to establish treatment goals for this research along with toxicity values for Ceriodaphnia dubia, water quality criteria established by the US EPA, irrigation standards established by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and reuse standards focused on minimization of damage to the power plant by treated waters. Constructed wetland treatment systems were designed for each non-traditional water source based on published literature reviews regarding remediation of the constituents of concern, biogeochemistry of the specific contaminants, and previous research. During this study, 4 non-traditional waters, which included ash basin water, cooling water, FGD water and produced water (PW) were obtained or simulated to measure constructed wetland treatment system performance. Based on data collected from FGD experiments, pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment systems can decrease aqueous concentrations of elements of concern (As, B, Hg, N, and Se). Percent removal was specific for each element, including ranges of 40.1% to 77.7% for As, 77.6% to 97.8% for Hg, 43.9% to 88.8% for N, and no measureable removal to 84.6% for Se. Other constituents of interest in final outflow samples should have aqueous characteristics sufficient for discharge, with the exception of chlorides (<2000 mg/L). Based on total dissolved solids, co-

John Rodgers; James Castle

2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

69

Water and Sustainability (Volume 4): U.S. Electricity Consumption for Water Supply and Treatment -- The Next Half Century  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fast growing demand for clean, fresh water -- coupled with the need to protect and enhance the environment -- has made many areas of the United States and the rest of the world vulnerable to water shortages for various human uses. As they interact with the electricity industry, these uses encompass agricultural irrigation, thermoelectric generation, municipal water/wastewater treatment and distribution, and industrial processes. The dependency of electricity supply and demand on water availability ca...

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Household water treatment and safe storage options for Northern Region Ghana : consumer preference and relative cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A range of household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) products are available in Northern Region Ghana which have the potential to significantly improve local drinking water quality. However, to date, the region has ...

Green, Vanessa (Vanessa Layton)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Monitoring effective use of household water treatment and safe storage technologies in Ethiopia and Ghana  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Household water treatment and storage (HWTS) technologies dissemination is beginning to scale-up to reach the almost 900 million people without access to an improved water supply (WHO/UNICEF/JMP, 2008). Without well-informed ...

Stevenson, Matthew M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Determining the removal effectiveness of flame retardants from drinking water treatment processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low concentrations of xenobiotic chemicals have recently become a concern in the surface water environment. The concern expands to drinking water treatment processes, and whether or not they remove these chemicals while ...

Lin, Joseph C. (Joseph Chris), 1981-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Forward osmosis for desalination and water treatment : a study of the factors influencing process performance.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis explores various factors that have significant impacts on FO process performance in desalination and water treatment. These factors mainly include working temperatures, solution (more)

Zhao, Shuaifei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from reject water of municipal wastewater treatment plant.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Reject water, the liquid fraction produced after dewatering of anaerobically digested activated sludge on a municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP), contains from 750 to 1500 (more)

Guo, Chenghong.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS USING A SURFACTANT MODIFIED ZEOLITE/VAPOR PHASE BIOREATOR SYSTEM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some of them must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. An efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed to remove these constituents. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. Our previous DOE research work (DE-AC26-99BC15221) demonstrated that SMZ could successfully remove BTEX compounds from the produced water. In addition, SMZ could be regenerated through a simple air sparging process. The primary goal of this project is to develop a robust SMZ/VPB treatment system to efficiently remove the organic constituents from produced water in a cost-effective manner. This report summarizes work of this project from March 2003 through September 2003. We have continued our investigation of SMZ regeneration from our previous DOE project. Ten saturation/stripping cycles have been completed for SMZ columns saturated with BTEX compounds. The results suggest that BTEX sorption capacity is not lost after ten saturation/regeneration cycles. The composition of produced water from a site operated by Crystal Solutions Ltd. in Wyoming has been characterized and was used to identify key semi-volatile components. Isotherms with selected semi-volatile components have been initiated and preliminary results have been obtained. The experimental vapor phase bioreactors for this project have been designed and assembled to treat the off-gas from the SMZ regeneration process. These columns will be used both in the laboratory and in the proposed field testing to be conducted next year. Innocula for the columns that degrade all of the BTEX columns have been developed.

LYNN E. KATZ; KERRY A. KINNEY; R.S. BOWMAN; E.J. SULLIVAN

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Coal conversion wastewater treatment by catalytic oxidation in supercritical water  

SciTech Connect

Wastewaters from coal-conversion processes contain phenolic compounds in appreciable concentrations. These compounds need to be removed so that the water can be discharged or re-used. Catalytic oxidation in supercritical water is one potential means of treating coal-conversion wastewaters, and this project examined the reactions of phenol over different heterogeneous oxidation catalysts in supercritical water. More specifically, the authors examined the oxidation of phenol over a commercial catalyst and over bulk MnO{sub 2}, bulk TiO{sub 2}, and CuO supported on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. They used phenol as the model pollutant because it is ubiquitous in coal-conversion wastewaters and there is a large database for non-catalytic supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) with which they can contrast results from catalytic SCWO. The overall objective of this research project is to obtain the reaction engineering information required to evaluate the utility of catalytic supercritical water oxidation for treating wastes arising from coal conversion processes. All four materials were active for catalytic supercritical water oxidation. Indeed, all four materials produced phenol conversions and CO{sub 2} yields in excess of those obtained from purely homogeneous, uncatalyzed oxidation reactions. The commercial catalyst was so active that the authors could not reliably measure reaction rates that were not limited by pore diffusion. Therefore, they performed experiments with bulk transition metal oxides. The bulk MnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} catalysts enhance both the phenol disappearance and CO{sub 2} formation rates during SCWO. MnO{sub 2} does not affect the selectivity to CO{sub 2}, or to the phenol dimers at a given phenol conversion. However, the selectivities to CO{sub 2} are increased and the selectivities to phenol dimers are decreased in the presence of TiO{sub 2}, which are desirable trends for a catalytic SCWO process. The role of the catalyst appears to be accelerating the rate of formation of phenoxy radicals, which then react in the fluid phase by the same mechanism operative for non-catalytic SCWO of phenol. The rates of phenol disappearance and CO{sub 2} formation are sensitive to the phenol and O{sub 2} concentrations, but independent of the water density. Power-law rate expressions were developed to correlate the catalytic kinetics. The catalytic kinetics were also consistent with a Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate law derived from a dual-site mechanism comprising the following steps: reversible adsorption of phenol on one type of catalytic site, reversible dissociative adsorption of oxygen on a different type of site, and irreversible, rate-determining surface reaction between adsorbed phenol and adsorbed oxygen.

Phillip E. Savage

1999-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

77

COAL CONVERSION WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY CATALYTIC OXIDATION IN SUPERCRITICAL WATER  

SciTech Connect

Wastewaters from coal-conversion processes contain phenolic compounds in appreciable concentrations. These compounds need to be removed so that the water can be discharged or re-used. Catalytic oxidation in supercritical water is one potential means of treating coal-conversion wastewaters, and this project examined the reactions of phenol over different heterogeneous oxidation catalysts in supercritical water. More specifically, we examined the oxidation of phenol over a commercial catalyst and over bulk MnO{sub 2}, bulk TiO{sub 2}, and CuO supported on Al{sub 2} O{sub 3}. We used phenol as the model pollutant because it is ubiquitous in coal-conversion wastewaters and there is a large database for non-catalytic supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) with which we can contrast results from catalytic SCWO. The overall objective of this research project is to obtain the reaction engineering information required to evaluate the utility of catalytic supercritical water oxidation for treating wastes arising from coal conversion processes. All four materials were active for catalytic supercritical water oxidation. Indeed, all four materials produced phenol conversions and CO{sub 2} yields in excess of those obtained from purely homogeneous, uncatalyzed oxidation reactions. The commercial catalyst was so active that we could not reliably measure reaction rates that were not limited by pore diffusion. Therefore, we performed experiments with bulk transition metal oxides. The bulk MnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} catalysts enhance both the phenol disappearance and CO{sub 2} formation rates during SCWO. MnO{sub 2} does not affect the selectivity to CO{sub 2}, or to the phenol dimers at a given phenol conversion. However, the selectivities to CO{sub 2} are increased and the selectivities to phenol dimers are decreased in the presence of TiO{sub 2} , which are desirable trends for a catalytic SCWO process. The role of the catalyst appears to be accelerating the rate of formation of phenoxy radicals, which then react in the fluid phase by the same mechanism operative for non-catalytic SCWO of phenol. The rates of phenol disappearance and CO{sub 2} formation are sensitive to the phenol and O{sub 2} concentrations, but independent of the water density. Power-law rate expressions were developed to correlate the catalytic kinetics. The catalytic kinetics were also consistent with a Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate law derived from a dual-site mechanism comprising the following steps: reversible adsorption of phenol on one type of catalytic site, reversible dissociative adsorption of oxygen on a different type of site, and irreversible, rate-determining surface reaction between adsorbed phenol and adsorbed oxygen.

Phillip E. Savage

1999-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

78

Removing Arsenic from Contaminated Drinking Water in Rural Bangladesh: Recent Fieldwork Results and Policy Implications  

SciTech Connect

ARUBA (Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash) has proven effective at removing high concentrations of arsenic from drinking water in Bangladesh. During fieldwork in four sub-districts of the country, ARUBA reduced arsenic levels ranging from 200 to 900 ppb to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. The technology is cost-effective because the substrate--bottom ash from coal fired power plants--is a waste material readily available in South Asia. In comparison to similar technologies, ARUBA uses less media for arsenic removal due to its high surface area to volume ratio. Hence, less waste is produced. A number of experiments were conducted in Bangladesh to determine the effectiveness of various water treatment protocols. It was found that (1) ARUBA removes more than half of the arsenic from water within five minutes of treatment, (2) ARUBA, that has settled at the bottom of a treatment vessel, continues to remove arsenic for 2-3 days, (3) ARUBA's arsenic removal efficiency can be improved through sequential partial dosing (adding a given amount of ARUBA in fractions versus all at once), and (4) allowing water to first stand for two to three days followed by treatment with ARUBA produced final arsenic levels ten times lower than treating water directly out of the well. Our findings imply a number of tradeoffs between ARUBA's effective arsenic removal capacity, treatment system costs, and waste output. These tradeoffs, some a function of arsenic-related policies in Bangladesh (e.g., waste disposal regulations), must be considered when designing an arsenic removal system. We propose that the most attractive option is to use ARUBA in communityscale water treatment centers, installed as public-private partnerships, in Bangladeshi villages.

Mathieu, Johanna L.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Kowolik, Kristin; Addy, Susan E.A.

2009-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

79

EDI as a Treatment Module in Recycling Spent Rinse Waters  

SciTech Connect

Recycling of the spent rinse water discharged from the wet benches commonly used in semiconductor processing is one tactic for responding to the targets for water usage published in the 1997 National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (NTRS). Not only does the NTRS list a target that dramatically reduces total water usage/unit area of silicon manufactured by the industry in the future but for the years 2003 and beyond, the NTRS actually touts goals which would have semiconductor manufacturers drawing less water from a regional water supply per unit area of silicon manufactured than the quantity of ultrapure water (UPW) used in the production of that same silicon. Achieving this latter NTRS target strongly implies more widespread recycling of spent rinse waters at semiconductor manufacturing sites. In spite of the fact that, by most metrics, spent rinse waters are of much higher purity than incoming municipal waters, recycling of these spent rinse waters back into the UPW production plant is not a simple, straightforward task. The rub is that certain of the chemicals used in semiconductor manufacturing, and thus potentially present in trace concentrations (or more) in spent rinse waters, are not found in municipal water supplies and are not necessarily removed by the conventional UPW production sequence used by semiconductor manufacturers. Some of these contaminants, unique to spent rinse waters, may actually foul the resins and membranes of the UPW system, posing a threat to UPW production and potentially even causing a shutdown.

Donovan, Robert P.; Morrison, Dennis J.

1999-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

80

Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment System Monticello, Utah, Permeable Reactive Barrier Site Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment System Monticello, Utah, Permeable Reactive Barrier Site Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment System Monticello, Utah, Permeable Reactive Barrier Site Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment System Monticello, Utah, Permeable Reactive Barrier Site More Documents & Publications Dispersivity Testing of Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells: Monticello, Utah, November 2005 Through February 2008 Third (March 2006) Coring and Analysis of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier, Monticello, Utah Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable

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81

Two Manufacturers, a Water Treatment Company and a Bank ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... today announced two manufacturers, a water ... America's largest, independent manufacturer and marketer of ... heavy duty, and off-highway vehicles. ...

2011-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

82

Treatment of Produced Water Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. Produced waters typically contain a high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component as well as chemicals added during the oil-production process. It has been estimated that a total of 14 billion barrels of produced water were generated in 2002 from onshore operations (Veil, 2004). Although much of this produced water is disposed via reinjection, environmental and cost considerations can make surface discharge of this water a more practical means of disposal. In addition, reinjection is not always a feasible option because of geographic, economic, or regulatory considerations. In these situations, it may be desirable, and often necessary from a regulatory viewpoint, to treat produced water before discharge. It may also be feasible to treat waters that slightly exceed regulatory limits for re-use in arid or drought-prone areas, rather than losing them to reinjection. A previous project conducted under DOE Contract DE-AC26-99BC15221 demonstrated that surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) represents a potential treatment technology for produced water containing BTEX. Laboratory and field experiments suggest that: (1) sorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) to SMZ follows linear isotherms in which sorption increases with increasing solute hydrophobicity; (2) the presence of high salt concentrations substantially increases the capacity of the SMZ for BTEX; (3) competitive sorption among the BTEX compounds is negligible; and, (4) complete recovery of the SMZ sorption capacity for BTEX can be achieved by air sparging the SMZ. This report summarizes research for a follow on project to optimize the regeneration process for multiple sorption/regeneration cycles, and to develop and incorporate a vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) system for treatment of the off-gas generated during air sparging. To this end, we conducted batch and column laboratory SMZ and VPB experiments with synthetic and actual produced waters. Based on the results of the laboratory testing, a pilot scale study was designed and conducted to evaluate the combined SMZ/VPB process. An economic and regulatory feasibility analysis was also completed as part of the current study to assess the viability of the process for various water re-use options.

Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; Robert S. Bowman; Enid J. Sullivan; Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Craig R. Altare

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

83

Additional Reserve Recovery Using New Polymer Treatment on High Water Oil Ratio Wells in Alameda Field, Kingman County, Kansas  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Flooding process, like a polymer treatment, as a tertiary (enhanced) oil recovery process can be a very good solution based on the condition of this field and its low cost compared to the drilling of new wells. It is an improved water flooding method in which high molecular-weight (macro-size molecules) and water-soluble polymers are added to the injection water to improve the mobility ratio by enhancing the viscosity of the water and by reducing permeability in invaded zones during the process. In other words, it can improve the sweep efficiency by reducing the water mobility. This polymer treatment can be performed on the same active oil producer well rather than on an injector well in the existence of strong water drive in the formation. Some parameters must be considered before any polymer job is performed such as: formation temperature, permeability, oil gravity and viscosity, location and formation thickness of the well, amount of remaining recoverable oil, fluid levels, well productivity, water oil ratio (WOR) and existence of water drive. This improved oil recovery technique has been used widely and has significant potential to extend reservoir life by increasing the oil production and decreasing the water cut. This new technology has the greatest potential in reservoirs that are moderately heterogeneous, contain moderately viscous oils, and have adverse water-oil mobility ratios. For example, many wells in Kansas's Arbuckle formation had similar treatments and we have seen very effective results. In addition, there were previous polymer treatments conducted by Texaco in Alameda Field on a number of wells throughout the Viola-Simpson formation in the early 70's. Most of the treatments proved to be very successful.

James Spillane

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF IN-SITU RETORT WATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Division of Oil, Gas, and Shale Technology of the U.S.Shale Retort Water by Electron Impact and Chemical Ioniz on from A Combined Gas

Ossio, Edmundo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

1.85 Water and Wastewater Treatment Engineering, Spring 2005  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Theory and design of systems for treating industrial and municipal wastewater and potable water supplies. Methods for characterizing wastewater properties. Physical, chemical, and biological processes, including primary ...

Shanahan, Peter

86

Treatment of Oilfield Produced Water with Dissolved Air Flotation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Produced water is one of the major by products of oil and gas exploitation which is produced in large amounts up to 80% of the (more)

Jaji, Kehinde Temitope

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Desalination and Water Treatment 16 (2010) 339353 www.deswater.com April  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

subsystems: (a) an air and/or the water heater, which can use the solar energy; (b) a humidifierDesalination and Water Treatment 16 (2010) 339­353 www.deswater.com April 1944 technology for small-scale water production applications. There are several embodiments of this technology

Lienhard V, John H.

88

Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy-National Energy Technologies Laboratory (DOE-NETL) are evaluating and demonstrating integration of terrestrial carbon sequestration techniques at a coal-fired electric power plant through the use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system gypsum as a soil amendment and mulch, and coal fly ash pond process water for periodic irrigation. From January to March 2002, the Project Team initiated the construction of a 40 ha Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) near TVA's Paradise Fossil Plant on marginally reclaimed surface coal mine lands in Kentucky. The CCWESTRS is growing commercial grade trees and cover crops and is expected to sequester 1.5-2.0 MT/ha carbon per year over a 20-year period. The concept could be used to meet a portion of the timber industry's needs while simultaneously sequestering carbon in lands which would otherwise remain non-productive. The CCWESTRS includes a constructed wetland to enhance the ability to sequester carbon and to remove any nutrients and metals present in the coal fly ash process water runoff. The CCWESTRS project is a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and DOE-NETL, with a total budget of $1,574,000. The proposed demonstration project began in October 2000 and has continued through December 2005. Additional funding is being sought in order to extend the project. The primary goal of the project is to determine if integrating power plant processes with carbon sequestration techniques will enhance carbon sequestration cost-effectively. This goal is consistent with DOE objectives to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options to offset projected growth in U.S. baseline emissions of greenhouse gases after 2010, achieve the long-term goal of $10/ton of avoided net costs for carbon sequestration, and provide half of the required reductions in global greenhouse gases by 2025. Other potential benefits of the demonstration include developing a passive technology for water treatment for trace metal and nutrient release reductions, using power plant by-products to improve coal mine land reclamation and carbon sequestration, developing wildlife habitat and green-space around production facilities, generating Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) credits for the use of process water, and producing wood products for use by the lumber and pulp and paper industry. Project activities conducted during the five year project period include: Assessing tree cultivation and other techniques used to sequester carbon; Project site assessment; Greenhouse studies to determine optimum plant species and by-product application; Designing, constructing, operating, monitoring, and evaluating the CCWESTRS system; and Reporting (ongoing). The ability of the system to sequester carbon will be the primary measure of effectiveness, measured by accessing survival and growth response of plants within the CCWESTRS. In addition, costs associated with design, construction, and monitoring will be evaluated and compared to projected benefits of other carbon sequestration technologies. The test plan involves the application of three levels each of two types of power plant by-products--three levels of FGD gypsum mulch, and three levels of ash pond irrigation water. This design produces nine treatment levels which are being tested with two species of hardwood trees (sweet gum and sycamore). The project is examining the effectiveness of applications of 0, 8-cm, and 15-cm thick gypsum mulch layers and 0, 13 cm, and 25 cm of coal fly ash water for irrigation. Each treatment combination is being replicated three times, resulting in a total of 54 treatment plots (3 FGD gypsum levels X 3 irrigation water levels x 2 tree species x 3 replicates). Survival and growth response of plant species in terms of sequestering carbon in plant material and soil will be the primary measure of effectiveness of each treatment. Additionally, the ability of the site soils and unsaturated zone subsurface m

P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

89

ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF IN-SITU RETORT WATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

condensate, on the other hand, exits from the retort as steam andSteam stripping of Geokinetics retort water (initial NH3 = 3,000 mg/1) removed 90 percent of the ammonia with recycle of condensate

Ossio, Edmundo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Treatment of arsenic-contaminated water using akaganeite adsorption  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention comprises a method and composition using akaganeite, an iron oxide, as an ion adsorption medium for the removal of arsenic from water and affixing it onto carrier media so that it can be used in filtration systems.

Cadena C., Fernando (Las Cruces, NM); Johnson, Michael D. (Las Cruces, NM)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Applications of nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Qilin Li* Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA a r demand, which is exacerbated by population growth, global climate change, and water quality deterioration and the improvement of living standard continuously drive up the demand. Moreover, global climate change accentuates

Alvarez, Pedro J.

92

SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. Characterizations of dry PFS synthesized from SO{sub 2} show the PFS possesses amorphous structure, which is desired for it to be a good coagulant in water and wastewater treatment. A series of lab-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of PFS synthesized from waste sulfur dioxide, ferrous sulfate and sodium chlorate. The performance assessments were based on the comparison of PFS and other conventional and new coagulants for the removal of turbidity and arsenic under different laboratory coagulant conditions. Pilot plant studies were conducted at Des Moines Water Works in Iowa and at the City of Savannah Industrial and Domestic (I&D) Water Treatment Plant in Port Wentworth, Georgia. PFS performances were compared with those of conventional coagulants. The tests in both water treatment plants have shown that PFS is, in general, comparable or better than other coagulants in removal of turbidity and organic substances. The corrosion behavior of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) prepared from SO{sub 2} and ferric chloride (FC) were compared. Results showed that both temperature and concentration of the coagulants substantially impact corrosion rates. The corrosion rates increased with the increase of temperature and concentration. The results from a scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that chloride caused more serious pitting than sulfate anion on both aluminum and steel specimens. Although SEM confirmed the existence of pitting corrosion, the results of weight loss indicated that the uniform corrosion predominate the corrosion mechanism, and pitting corrosion played a less important role. The test proved that PFS was less corrosive than FC, which may lead to the large-scale application of PFS in waste treatment. The kinetics of the new desulfurization process has been studied. The study results provide the theoretical guidance for improving sulfur removal efficiency and controlling the quality of PFS.

Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan; Adrienne Cooper

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Assessment of sludge management options in a waste water treatment plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis is part of a larger project which began in response to a request by the Spanish water agengy, Cadagua, for advice on life cycle assessment (LCA) and environmental impacts of Cadagua operated wastewater treatment ...

Lim, Jong hyun, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Overview of the status of treatment and recycle of produced water in in-situ recovery  

SciTech Connect

Conventional, steam-assisted, in situ oil recovery techniques require substantial quantities of reasonably high quality feedwater for steam generation purposes and yield nearly equivalent quantities of brackish, oily produced water. Because of the scarcity of fresh water supplies in many of the oil producing regions, and environmental pressures to explore alternatives to produced water disposal, the successful treatment and reuse of produced water is a major concern with the large scale application of steam stimulation projects. To date, this technology has been developing primarily in the California heavy oil fields and in the Alberta oil sands/ heavy oil areas. This work discusses steam generation methods commonly used in the in situ recovery process, their associated feedwater quality requirements, and emerging steam generation techniques. It reviews the current status of treatment and reuse of produced water in in situ recovery, treatment technologies employed, and areas of future work. 16 references.

Asano, B.H.; Kus, J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a method for removing inhibitor compounds from a cellulosic biomass-to-ethanol process which includes a pretreatment step of raw cellulosic biomass material and the production of fermentation process water after production and removal of ethanol from a fermentation step, the method comprising contacting said fermentation process water with an anode of a microbial fuel cell, said anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of said inhibitor compounds while producing electrical energy or hydrogen from said oxidative degradation, and wherein said anode is in electrical communication with a cathode, and a porous material (such as a porous or cation-permeable membrane) separates said anode and cathode.

Borole, Abhijeet P. (Knoxville, TN)

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

96

Analysis of micromixers and biocidal coatings on water-treatment membranes to minimize biofouling.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biofouling, the unwanted growth of biofilms on a surface, of water-treatment membranes negatively impacts in desalination and water treatment. With biofouling there is a decrease in permeate production, degradation of permeate water quality, and an increase in energy expenditure due to increased cross-flow pressure needed. To date, a universal successful and cost-effect method for controlling biofouling has not been implemented. The overall goal of the work described in this report was to use high-performance computing to direct polymer, material, and biological research to create the next generation of water-treatment membranes. Both physical (micromixers - UV-curable epoxy traces printed on the surface of a water-treatment membrane that promote chaotic mixing) and chemical (quaternary ammonium groups) modifications of the membranes for the purpose of increasing resistance to biofouling were evaluated. Creation of low-cost, efficient water-treatment membranes helps assure the availability of fresh water for human use, a growing need in both the U. S. and the world.

Webb, Stephen W.; James, Darryl L. (Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX); Hibbs, Michael R.; Jones, Howland D. T.; Hart, William Eugene; Khalsa, Siri Sahib; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Elimelech, Menachem (Yale University, New Haven, CT); Cornelius, Christopher James; Sanchez, Andres L. (LMATA Government Services LLC, Albuquerque, NM); Noek, Rachael M.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Kang, Seokatae (Yale University, New Haven, CT); Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Adout, Atar (Yale University, New Haven, CT); McGrath, Lucas K. (LMATA Government Services LLC, Albuquerque, NM); Cappelle, Malynda A.; Cook, Adam W.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Mathematical modelling of processes of reject water treatment in moving bed bioreactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Efficient treatment of reject water originating from sludge digestion process was achieved by implementing a moving bed bioreactor. Since the ongoing processes in the reactor were unclear, model development was chosen in order to map them. To describe ... Keywords: ANAMMOX, MBBR, nitrogen removal, reject water, steady-state simulation

Viola Somogyi; Bence Fazekas; Endre Domokos; kos Rdey

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Storing carbon dioxide in saline formations : analyzing extracted water treatment and use for power plant cooling.  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to address the potential to scale up of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and sequestration in the United States saline formations, an assessment model is being developed using a national database and modeling tool. This tool builds upon the existing NatCarb database as well as supplemental geological information to address scale up potential for carbon dioxide storage within these formations. The focus of the assessment model is to specifically address the question, 'Where are opportunities to couple CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use for existing and expanding power plants, and what are the economic impacts of these systems relative to traditional power systems?' Initial findings indicate that approximately less than 20% of all the existing complete saline formation well data points meet the working criteria for combined CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water treatment systems. The initial results of the analysis indicate that less than 20% of all the existing complete saline formation well data may meet the working depth, salinity and formation intersecting criteria. These results were taken from examining updated NatCarb data. This finding, while just an initial result, suggests that the combined use of saline formations for CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use may be limited by the selection criteria chosen. A second preliminary finding of the analysis suggests that some of the necessary data required for this analysis is not present in all of the NatCarb records. This type of analysis represents the beginning of the larger, in depth study for all existing coal and natural gas power plants and saline formations in the U.S. for the purpose of potential CO{sub 2} storage and water reuse for supplemental cooling. Additionally, this allows for potential policy insight when understanding the difficult nature of combined potential institutional (regulatory) and physical (engineered geological sequestration and extracted water system) constraints across the United States. Finally, a representative scenario for a 1,800 MW subcritical coal fired power plant (amongst other types including supercritical coal, integrated gasification combined cycle, natural gas turbine and natural gas combined cycle) can look to existing and new carbon capture, transportation, compression and sequestration technologies along with a suite of extracting and treating technologies for water to assess the system's overall physical and economic viability. Thus, this particular plant, with 90% capture, will reduce the net emissions of CO{sub 2} (original less the amount of energy and hence CO{sub 2} emissions required to power the carbon capture water treatment systems) less than 90%, and its water demands will increase by approximately 50%. These systems may increase the plant's LCOE by approximately 50% or more. This representative example suggests that scaling up these CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration technologies to many plants throughout the country could increase the water demands substantially at the regional, and possibly national level. These scenarios for all power plants and saline formations throughout U.S. can incorporate new information as it becomes available for potential new plant build out planning.

Dwyer, Brian P.; Heath, Jason E.; Borns, David James; Dewers, Thomas A.; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Roach, Jesse D.; McNemar, Andrea; Krumhansl, James Lee; Klise, Geoffrey T.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Side-by-Side Testing of Water Heating Systems: Results from the 2010 - 2011 Evaluation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) continues the testing and evaluation of seven water heating systems operating side-by-side at the HWS laboratory in Cocoa, Florida, and documents results in this report. All systems are submitted to alternating hot water draw schedules (ASHRAE 90.1 and NREL/BA). The most significant system change under the latest testing rotation comes from the evaluation of a new state-of-the-art electric heat pump water heater (HPWH) system. The HPWH water heater has demonstrated that under favorable ambient conditions it can perform very well against the best system evaluated in Phase I (2009-2010) ? the differentially controlled solar flat plate solar system.

Colon, C.; Parker, D.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management  

SciTech Connect

Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by nitrification helped to reduce the corrosivity and biocide demand. Also, the lower pH and alkalinity resulting from nitrification reduced the scaling to an acceptable level, without the addition of anti-scalant chemicals. Additional GAC adsorption treatment, MWW_NFG, yielded no net benefit. Removal of organic matter resulted in pitting corrosion in copper and cupronickel alloys. Negligible improvement was observed in scaling control and biofouling control. For all of the tertiary treatments, biofouling control was achievable, and most effectively with pre-formed monochloramine (2-3 ppm) in comparison with NaOCl and ClO2. Life cycle cost (LCC) analyses were performed for the tertiary treatment systems studied experimentally and for several other treatment options. A public domain conceptual costing tool (LC3 model) was developed for this purpose. MWW_SF (lime softening and sand filtration) and MWW_NF were the most cost-effective treatment options among the tertiary treatment alternatives considered because of the higher effluent quality with moderate infrastructure costs and the relatively low doses of conditioning chemicals required. Life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis along with integration of external costs of emissions with direct costs was performed to evaluate relative emissions to the environment and external costs associated with construction and operation of tertiary treatment alternatives. Integrated LCI and LCC analysis indicated that three-tiered treatment alternatives such as MWW_NSF and MWW_NFG, with regular chemical addition for treatment and conditioning and/or regeneration, tend to increase the impact costs and in turn the overall costs of tertiary treatment. River water supply and MWW_F alternatives with a single step of tertiary treatment were associated with lower impact costs, but the contribution of impact costs to overall annual costs was higher than all other treatment alternatives. MWW_NF and MWW_SF alternatives exhibited moderate external impact costs with moderate infrastructure and chemical conditioner dosing, which makes them (especially

David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water treatment result" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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101

Renewable Energy in Water and Wastewater Treatment Applications; Period of Performance: April 1, 2001--September 1, 2001  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This guidebook will help readers understand where and how renewable energy technologies can be used for water and wastewater treatment applications. It is specifically designed for rural and small urban center water supply and wastewater treatment applications. This guidebook also provides basic information for selecting water resources and for various kinds of commercially available water supply and wastewater treatment technologies and power sources currently in the market.

Argaw, N.

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Technology Review: Treatment of Complexed Cyanide in Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the issues faced by owners of former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites is the management of various forms of cyanide that may be present at these sites. The cyanide compounds, a remnant of purifier box wastes, may enter groundwater as a result of dissolution. An existing body of literature describes removal technologies and pertinent chemistry of cyanide compounds, which result from a number of industrial processes. This report surveys the literature and gives an overview of technology for treatm...

1997-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

103

DEWATERING TREATMENT SCALE-UP TESTING RESULTS OF HANFORD TANK WASTES  

SciTech Connect

This report documents CH2M HILL Hanford Group Inc. (CH2M HILL) 2007 dryer testing results in Richland, WA at the AMEC Nuclear Ltd., GeoMelt Division (AMEC) Horn Rapids Test Site. It provides a discussion of scope and results to qualify the dryer system as a viable unit-operation in the continuing evaluation of the bulk vitrification process. A 10,000 liter (L) dryer/mixer was tested for supplemental treatment of Hanford tank low-activity wastes, drying and mixing a simulated non-radioactive salt solution with glass forming minerals. Testing validated the full scale equipment for producing dried product similar to smaller scale tests, and qualified the dryer system for a subsequent integrated dryer/vitrification test using the same simulant and glass formers. The dryer system is planned for installation at the Hanford tank farms to dry/mix radioactive waste for final treatment evaluation of the supplemental bulk vitrification process.

TEDESCHI AR

2008-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

104

Spent Fuel Transportation Applications: Longitudinal Tearing Resulting from Transportation Accidents--A Probabilistic Treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents a probabilistic treatment of longitudinal tearing of spent fuel rods subjected to dynamic forces that could result from hypothetical spent fuel transportation accidents. Longitudinal tearing represents the failure configuration with the highest potential for occurring during transport because of the effects of radial hydrides on cladding resistance to fracture. Accurate assessment of this failure mode constitutes an important part of a general failure analysis methodology to quantify...

2006-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

105

Sludge Treatment and Extraction Technology Development: Results of FY 1993 studies  

SciTech Connect

This report describes experimental results from work conducted in FY 1993 under the Sludge Treatment and Extraction Technology Development Task of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pretreatment Technology Development Project at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Experiments were conducted in the following six general areas: (1) sludge washing, (2) sludge leaching, (3) sludge dissolution, (4) actinide separation by solvent extraction and extraction chromatography, (5) Sr separation by solvent extraction, and (6) extraction of Cs from acidic solution.

Lumetta, G.J.; Wagner, M.J.; Barrington, R.J.; Rapko, B.M.; Carlson, C.D.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Properties and potential uses of water treatment sludge from the Neches River of southeast Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Land application of water treatment plant (WTP) sludge has been an unsolved problem. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate characteristics of organic polymer sludge, and (2) to determine the effects of the sludge on soil properties that influence utilization of the sludge as a soil amendment. Water treatment sludges were obtained from water utilities along the Neches Rivet-near Beaumont, Texas. They were mostly coagulated with organic polymers. Mineralogical composition, cation exchange capacity (CEC), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), aggregate stability, Atterberg limits, hydraulic conductivity, dispersion, crust strength, adsorption characteristics, nitrogen content and mineralization potential of the sludge or sludge-amended soil were determined in this study. Mineralogical composition of organic polymer sludge was similar to local Beaumont clay soil. The major fraction of the sludge, the coarse clay, was estimated to be 40% kaolinite, 32% smectite, 20% quartz and 8% mica. However, XRD patterns of the sludge indicated that expansion of the smectite was inhibited by organic polymer coagulant added during water clarification, which also was confirmed by aggregate stability of the sludge. Cation exchange capacity of the bulk sludge samples ranged from 8 to 28 cmol kg-1. Quantitative mineralogical analyses showed that CEC of the sludge was reduced by blockage of cation exchange sites with organic polymers. SEM and TEM results indicated that the sludge was mostly fine aggregates of clay particles. Dried sludge aggregates were not prone to swell, due to their resistance to rewetting. The aggregate stability of dried sludge was above 90% after a 24 hours soaking period in water, compared to 7% aggregate stability of local Beaumont clay soil. Addition of 0 to 10% sludge to Boonville sandy loam soil increased the aggregate stability of the soil from 4 to 13%. Atterberg limit showed that wet sludge had wide ranges of moisture contents in semi-solid and plastic states, and shrunk greatly during drying. Shrinkage limit of the sludges ranged from 16 to 66%; plastic limit from 111 to 138%; and liquid limit from 208 to 320%, which suggested that the sludge was highly plastic and compressible. Addition of 0 to 10% sludge into Boonville sandy loam soil increased the infiltration rate of the soil two orders of magnitudes from 1.4 x 10-4 to 1. I X 10-2 CM / S, and reduced the dispersion of the soil significantly. Moreover, addition of from 0 to 10% sludge into Boonville sandy loam soil greatly reduced the crusting produced by rainfall, and the penetration resistance of the crust decreased from 53.1 to 14.4 kg / cm. Metal adsorbing ability of the Boonville sandy loam soil was reduced by addition of the sludge. Adsorption of Zn+2 decreased from 19.7 to 17.7 ug / g when the sludge was amended from 0 to 10%. Total nitrogen and exchangeable ammonium nitrogen (NH4+) contents of the sludge were four times and twenty times as high, respectively, as those of local Beaumont clay and Lake Charles clay soils. Organic polymer coagulants added during water treatment apparently increased nitrogen content of the sludge. Although the sludge contained considerable total nitrogen, incubation experiment of sludge-amended Beaumont clay or Lake Charles clay soil showed that nitrogen mineralization rate was not affected by the sludge addition. This study indicated that the sludge can improve soil physical properties significantly, e.g. soil aggregation, infiltration, dispersion and crusting. The low nitrogen mineralization rate of the sludge showed that the sludge had little fertility and would not produce a groundwater contamination problem.

Kan, Weiqun

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Compatibility of the ultraviolet light-ozone system for laundry waste water treatment in nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

As an alternative treatment system for laundry waste water in nuclear power plants, a system was chosen in which such organic compounds as surfactant would be oxidized by ultraviolet (UV) light and ozone. The system compatibility, UV light source, and dissolved ozone concentration were examined through experiments. First, ozone gas was absorbed in the waste water. After the dissolved ozone concentration equilibrated at the desired value, the waste water was irradiated by a mercury lamp. Then, the time dependence of the concentrations of the organic compounds, the dissolved ozone, and the hydrogen peroxide were measured to estimate the treatment rate of the system. The mercury lamp with a 10{sup 5}-Pa vapor pressure achieved large UV radiation and a treatment rate increase, leading to a compatible system without secondary waste generation. The effect of the dissolved ozone concentration on the treatment rate was saturated when concentration was >3.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} mol/10{sup {minus}3} m{sup 3} at the time UV radiation was started. Numerical results indicated the saturation was due to hydrogen peroxide generation, which prevents hydroxyl radical generation.

Matsuo, Toshiaki; Nishi, Takashi; Matsuda, Masami; Izumida, Tatsuo [Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Clean Water Act Section 316(b) Closed-Cycle Cooling Retrofit Research Program Results Summary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has investigated the implications of a potential U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Clean Water Act 316(b) rulemaking if it establishes closed-cycle cooling retrofits for facilities with once-through cooling as "best technology available" (BTA) for fish protection. This report provides a summary of the results of five studies that comprise EPRI's Closed-Cycle Cooling Retrofit Research Program. These studies evaluated the cost, both financial and econom...

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

109

Expanding the potential for saline formations : modeling carbon dioxide storage, water extraction and treatment for power plant cooling.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Water, Energy and Carbon Sequestration simulation model (WECSsim) is being developed to address the question, 'Where in the current and future U.S. fossil fuel based electricity generation fleet are there opportunities to couple CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use, and what are the economic and water demand-related impacts of these systems compared to traditional power systems?' The WECSsim collaborative team initially applied this framework to a test case region in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Recently, the model has been expanded to incorporate the lower 48 states of the U.S. Significant effort has been spent characterizing locations throughout the U.S. where CO{sub 2} might be stored in saline formations including substantial data collection and analysis efforts to supplement the incomplete brine data offered in the NatCarb database. WECSsim calculates costs associated with CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) for the power plant to saline formation combinations including parasitic energy costs of CO{sub 2} capture, CO{sub 2} pipelines, water treatment options, and the net benefit of water treatment for power plant cooling. Currently, the model can identify the least-cost deep saline formation CO{sub 2} storage option for any current or proposed coal or natural gas-fired power plant in the lower 48 states. Initial results suggest that additional, cumulative water withdrawals resulting from national scale CCS may range from 676 million gallons per day (MGD) to 30,155 MGD depending on the makeup power and cooling technologies being utilized. These demands represent 0.20% to 8.7% of the U.S. total fresh water withdrawals in the year 2000, respectively. These regional and ultimately nation-wide, bottom-up scenarios coupling power plants and saline formations throughout the U.S. can be used to support state or national energy development plans and strategies.

Not Available

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Long-Term Results of Percutaneous Bilioenteric Anastomotic Stricture Treatment in Liver-Transplanted Children  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mid- and long-term results of percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) and biliary drainage in children with isolated bilioenteric anastomotic stenosis (BAS) after pediatric liver transplantation. Sixty-four children underwent PTC from March 1993 to May 2008. Nineteen cholangiograms were normal; 10 showed intrahepatic biliary stenosis and BAS, and 35 showed isolated BAS. Cadaveric grafts were used in 19 and living donor grafts in 16 patients. Four patients received a whole liver, and 31 patients received a left lobe or left lateral segment. Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy was performed in all patients. Indication for PTC was based on clinical, laboratory, and histopathologic findings. In patients with isolated BAS, dilation and biliary catheter placement, with changes every 2 months, were performed. Patients were separated into 4 groups according to number of treatment sessions required. The drainage catheter was removed if cholangiogram showed no significant residual stenosis and normal biliary emptying time after a minimum of 6 months. The relationship between risk factors (recipient's weight <10 kg, previous exposure to Cytomegalovirus, donor-recipient sex and weight relations, autoimmune disease as indication for transplantion, previous Kasai's surgery, use of reduced liver grafts, chronic or acute rejection occurrence) and treatment was evaluated. Before PTC, fever was observed in 46%, biliary dilation in 23%, increased bilirubin in 57%, and increased gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in 100% of patients. In the group with BAS, 24 of 35 (69%) patients had histopathologic findings of cholestasis as did 9 of 19 (47%) patients in the group with normal PTC. Of the 35 patients, 23 (65.7%) needed 1 (group I), 7 needed 2 (group II), 4 needed 3 (group III), and 1 needed 4 treatment sessions (group IV). The best results were observed after 1 treatment session, and the mean duration of catheter placement and replacement was 10 months. The primary patency rate was 61.2%, and the recurrence rate was 34.3% (group I). Seven patients (7 of 35; 20%) had their stricture treated with a second treatment session (group II). The average drainage time in group II was 24 months. During a period >20 months, 4 patients (4 of 35; 11.4%) required 1 additional treatment session (group III), and 1 patient (1 of 35; 2.9%) had a catheter placed at the end of the study period (group IV). Drainage time in group I was significantly shorter than those in groups II, III, and IV (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant relation between therapeutic response and the selected risk factors (p > 0.05). The majority of complications, such as catheter displacement and leakage, were classified as minor; however, 2 patients (5.7%) with hemobilia were noted. Complications increased according to the need for reintervention. In conclusion, balloon dilation and percutaneous drainage placement is safe and effective, and it has long-term patency for children with BAS after liver transplantation. Because of prolonged treatment time, reintervention may be necessary, thereby increasing the complication rate. Balloon dilation and percutaneous drainage placement should be considered as the first treatment option because of its minimally invasive nature.

Moreira, Airton Mota, E-mail: motamoreira@gmail.com; Carnevale, Francisco Cesar [Sao Paulo University Medical School, Interventional Radiology Unit, Radiology Institute, Hospital das Clinicas (Brazil); Tannuri, Uenis [Sao Paulo University Medical School, Liver Transplantation Unit, Children's Institute, Hospital das Clinicas (Brazil); Suzuki, Lisa [Sao Paulo University Medical School, Interventional Radiology Unit, Radiology Institute, Hospital das Clinicas (Brazil); Gibelli, Nelson; Maksoud, Joao Gilberto [Sao Paulo University Medical School, Liver Transplantation Unit, Children's Institute, Hospital das Clinicas (Brazil); Cerri, Giovanni Guido [Sao Paulo University Medical School, Interventional Radiology Unit, Radiology Institute, Hospital das Clinicas (Brazil)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

111

K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) E-F Annular Filter Vessel Accident Calculations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Three bounding accidents postdated for the K West Basin integrated water treatment system are evaluated against applicable risk evaluation guidelines. The accidents are a spray leak during fuel retrieval, spray leak during backflushing, and a hydrogen explosion. Event trees and accident probabilities are estimated. In all cases, the unmitigated dose consequences are below the risk evaluation guidelines.

RITTMANN, P.D.

1999-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

112

A model of plasma discharges in pre-arcing regime for water treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is presented a simulation study of a water treatment system based upon 1 kHz frequency plasma discharges in the pre-arcing regime produced within a coaxial cylinder reactor. The proposed computational model takes into consideration the three main ... Keywords: modelling, pulsed corona discharges, simulation, streamers

B. G. Rodrguez-Mndez; R. Lpez-Callejas; R. Pea-Eguiluz; A. Mercado-Cabrera; R. Valencia-Alvarado; S. R. Barocio; A. de la Piedad-Beneitez; J. S. Bentez-Read; J. O. Pacheco-Sotelo

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) E-F Annular Filter Vessel Accident Calculations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Four bounding accidents postulated for the K West Basin integrated water treatment system are evaluated against applicable risk evaluation guidelines. The accidents are a spray leak during fuel retrieval, spray leak during backflushing a hydrogen explosion, and a fire breaching filter vessel and enclosure. Event trees and accident probabilities are estimated. In all cases, the unmitigated dose consequences are below the risk evaluation guidelines.

PIEPHO, M.G.

2000-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

114

EPA/NMED/LANL 1998 water quality results: Statistical analysis and comparison to regulatory standards  

SciTech Connect

Four governmental agencies conducted a round of groundwater, surface water, and spring water sampling at the Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1998. Samples were split among the four parties and sent to independent analytical laboratories. Results from three of the agencies were available for this study. Comparisons of analytical results that were paired by location and date were made between the various analytical laboratories. The results for over 50 split samples analyzed for inorganic chemicals, metals, and radionuclides were compared. Statistical analyses included non-parametric (sign test and signed-ranks test) and parametric (paired t-test and linear regression) methods. The data pairs were tested for statistically significant differences, defined by an observed significance level, or p-value, less than 0.05. The main conclusion is that the laboratories' performances are similar across most of the analytes that were measured. In some 95% of the laboratory measurements there was agreement on whether contaminant levels exceeded regulatory limits. The most significant differences in performance were noted for the radioactive suite, particularly for gross alpha particle activity and Sr-90.

B. Gallaher; T. Mercier; P. Black; K. Mullen

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Variability in energy factor test results for residential electric water heaters  

SciTech Connect

Recent modifications to the minimum energy efficiency requirements for residential water heaters have spurred an investigation into the variability in testing high-efficiency electric water heaters. While initial inter-laboratory comparisons showed excellent agreement between test results from different labs, subsequent inter-laboratory comparisons show differences between measured energy factors of up to 0.040. To determine the source of these differences, analyses of various parts of the test procedure are performed. For one case studied, the uncertainty in test results can be as high as +-0.028 if instrument accuracies reach the minimum level allowed in the test procedure. Other areas of the test procedure where variability is introduced are the optional use of pre-draws, the location of the lower tank temperature-measuring device, the use of insulation on tank fittings, and the use of a warm-up period before the simulated-use test commences. The implications of these issues on test results are provided.

Healy, William; Lutz, James D.; Lekov, Alex

2003-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

116

Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water Treatment  

SciTech Connect

Rapid deployment and the use of objective force aggressively reduce logistic footprints and replenishment demands. Maneuver Sustainment requires that Future Combat Systems be equipped with water systems that are lightweight, have small footprints, and are highly adaptable to a variety of environments. Technologies employed in these settings must be able to meet these demands. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has designed and previously field tested nano-engineered materials for the treatment of water. These materials have been either based on silica aerogel materials or consist of composites of these aerogels with granular activated carbon (GAC). Recent tests have proven successful for the removal of contaminants including uranium, hexavalent chromium, and arsenic. Silica aerogels were evaluated for their ability to purify water that had been spiked with the nerve agent VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothiolate). These results demonstrated that silica aerogels were able to remove the VX from the supply water and were nearly 30 times more adsorbent than GAC. This performance could result in REDUCING CHANGEOUT FREQUENCY BY A FACTOR OF 30 or DECREASING the VOLUME of adsorbent BY A FACTOR OF 30; thereby significantly reducing logistic footprints and replenishment demands. The use of the nano-engineered Silica Aerogel/GAC composites would provide a water purification technology that meets the needs of Future Combat Systems.

Daily, W; Coleman, S; Love, A; Reynolds, J; O'Brien, K; Gammon, S

2004-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

117

Low Molecular Weight Organic Contaminants in Advanced Treatment: Occurrence, Treatment and Implications to Desalination and Water Reuse Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

et al. 1987] while produced water from natural gas fields inin desalinated water produced by reverse osmosis systems (of bromophenols in water produced by seawater desalination

Agus, Eva

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Low Molecular Weight Organic Contaminants in Advanced Treatment: Occurrence, Treatment and Implications to Desalination and Water Reuse Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

power plant cooling water, intakes for desalination systemsimmediately after the intake water storage tank. Prior toconcentrations in pilot plant intake water potentially due

Agus, Eva

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Water Use in Parabolic Trough Power Plants: Summary Results from WorleyParsons' Analyses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with WorleyParsons Group, Inc. to examine the effect of switching from evaporative cooling to alternative cooling systems on a nominal 100-MW parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plant. WorleyParsons analyzed 13 different cases spanning three different geographic locations (Daggett, California; Las Vegas, Nevada; and Alamosa, Colorado) to assess the performance, cost, and water use impacts of switching from wet to dry or hybrid cooling systems. NREL developed matching cases in its Solar Advisor Model (SAM) for each scenario to allow for hourly modeling and provide a comparison to the WorleyParsons results.Our findings indicate that switching from 100% wet to 100% dry cooling will result in levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) increases of approximately 3% to 8% for parabolic trough plants throughout most of the southwestern United States. In cooler, high-altitude areas like Colorado's San Luis Valley, WorleyParsons estimated the increase at only 2.5%, while SAM predicted a 4.4% difference. In all cases, the transition to dry cooling will reduce water consumption by over 90%. Utility time-of-delivery (TOD) schedules had similar impacts for wet- and dry-cooled plants, suggesting that TOD schedules have a relatively minor effect on the dry-cooling penalty.

Turchi, C. S.; Wagner, M. J.; Kutscher, C. F.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Recovery of solid fuel from municipal solid waste by hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water was studied to recover solid fuel from MSW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More than 75% of carbon in MSW was recovered as char. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heating value of char was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyvinyl chloride was decomposed at 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa and was removed by washing. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatments using subcritical water (HTSW) such as that at 234 Degree-Sign C and 3 MPa (LT condition) and 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa (HT condition) were investigated to recover solid fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW). Printing paper, dog food (DF), wooden chopsticks, and mixed plastic film and sheets of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene were prepared as model MSW components, in which polyvinylchloride (PVC) powder and sodium chloride were used to simulate Cl sources. While more than 75% of carbon in paper, DF, and wood was recovered as char under both LT and HT conditions, plastics did not degrade under either LT or HT conditions. The heating value (HV) of obtained char was 13,886-27,544 kJ/kg and was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Higher formation of fixed carbon and greater oxygen dissociation during HTSW were thought to improve the HV of char. Cl atoms added as PVC powder and sodium chloride to raw material remained in char after HTSW. However, most Cl originating from PVC was found to converse into soluble Cl compounds during HTSW under the HT condition and could be removed by washing. From these results, the merit of HTSW as a method of recovering solid fuel from MSW is considered to produce char with minimal carbon loss without a drying process prior to HTSW. In addition, Cl originating from PVC decomposes into soluble Cl compound under the HT condition. The combination of HTSW under the HT condition and char washing might improve the quality of char as alternative fuel.

Hwang, In-Hee, E-mail: hwang@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060 8628 (Japan); Aoyama, Hiroya; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Nakagishi, Tatsuhiro; Matsuo, Takayuki [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060 8628 (Japan)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water treatment result" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Sanitary Waste Water Treatment System for the Hanford Decontamination Laundry Facility  

SciTech Connect

This is an engineering report for the Decontamination Laundry Facility (DLF) which will be located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The proposed Sanitary Waste Treatment System is new and does not involve interfacing with existing sanitary waste treatment systems. It will utilize a subsurface soil absorption system (SSAS), which are frequently used to dispose of sanitary waste water from facilities at the Hanford Site, since a majority of its` facilities are located in remote areas. Construction of the DLF is scheduled to start in 1992 and startup of the DLF is planned during the summer of 1994.

Yanochko, R.M.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Sanitary Waste Water Treatment System for the Hanford Decontamination Laundry Facility  

SciTech Connect

This is an engineering report for the Decontamination Laundry Facility (DLF) which will be located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The proposed Sanitary Waste Treatment System is new and does not involve interfacing with existing sanitary waste treatment systems. It will utilize a subsurface soil absorption system (SSAS), which are frequently used to dispose of sanitary waste water from facilities at the Hanford Site, since a majority of its' facilities are located in remote areas. Construction of the DLF is scheduled to start in 1992 and startup of the DLF is planned during the summer of 1994.

Yanochko, R.M.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes work performed on this project from October 2004 through March 2005. In previous work, a surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) was shown to be an effective system for removing BTEX contaminants from produced water. Additional work on this project demonstrated that a compost-based biofilter could biodegrade the BTEX contaminants found in the SMZ regeneration waste gas stream. However, it was also determined that the BTEX concentrations in the waste gas stream varied significantly during the regeneration period and the initial BTEX concentrations were too high for the biofilter to handle effectively. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using a passive adsorption column placed upstream of the biofilter to attenuate the peak gas-phase VOC concentrations delivered to the biofilter during the SMZ regeneration process. In preparation for the field test of the SMZ/VPB treatment system in New Mexico, a pilot-scale SMZ system was also designed and constructed during this reporting period. Finally, a cost and feasibility analysis was also completed. To investigate the merits of the passive buffering system during SMZ regeneration, two adsorbents, SMZ and granular activated carbon (GAC) were investigated in flow-through laboratory-scale columns to determine their capacity to handle steady and unsteady VOC feed conditions. When subjected to a toluene-contaminated air stream, the column containing SMZ reduced the peak inlet 1000 ppmv toluene concentration to 630 ppmv at a 10 second contact time. This level of buffering was insufficient to ensure complete removal in the downstream biofilter and the contact time was longer than desired. For this reason, using SMZ as a passive buffering system for the gas phase contaminants was not pursued further. In contrast to the SMZ results, GAC was found to be an effective adsorbent to handle the peak contaminant concentrations that occur early during the SMZ regeneration process. At a one second residence time, the GAC bed reduced peak contaminant concentrations by 97%. After the initial peak, the inlet VOC concentration in the SMZ regeneration gas stream drops exponentially with time. During this period, the contaminants on the GAC subsequently desorbed at a nearly steady rate over the next 45 hours resulting in a relatively steady effluent concentration of approximately 25 ppm{sub v}. This lower concentration is readily degradable by a downstream vapor phase biofilter (VPB) and the steady nature of the feed stream will prevent the biomass in the VPB from enduring starvation conditions between SMZ regeneration cycles. Repetitive sorption and desorption cycles that would be expected in the field were also investigated. It was determined that although the GAC initially lost some VOC sorption capacity, the adsorption and desorption profiles stabilized after approximately 6 cycles indicating that a GAC bed should be suitable for continuous operation. In preparation for the pilot field testing of the SMZ/VPB system, design, ''in-house'' construction and testing of the field system were completed during this project period. The design of the SMZ system for the pilot test was based on previous investigations by the PI's in Wyoming, 2002 and on analyses of the produced water at the field site in New Mexico. The field tests are scheduled for summer, 2005. A cost survey, feasibility of application and cost analyses were completed to investigate the long term effectiveness of the SMZ/VPB system as a method of treating produced water for re-use. Several factors were investigated, including: current costs to treat and dispose of produced water, end-use water quality requirements, and state and federal permitting requirements.

Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

2005-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

124

Interim report VII, production test IP-549-A half-plant low alum feed water treatment at F Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A half-plant low alum water treatment test began at F Reactor on January 16, 1963. The test, which had been prompted by the analysis of ledge corrosion attack on fuel elements, will demonstrate whether or not high alum feed is responsible for increasing the frequency of ledge and groove corrosion attack on fuel element surfaces. The effect will be evaluated by comparing visual examination results obtained from the normal production fuel irradiated in process water treated with two different alum feed rates. Six 20-column fuel discharges, ten columns from each side of the reactor, have been taken during the test as follows: (1) One discharge prior to the start of the test. (2) One discharge such that the test side was exposed to coolant treated with both high and low alum feed. (3) Four discharges under test conditions. This report discusses the results obtained from the fifth discharge under test conditions.

Geier, R.G.

1964-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

125

Stable water isotope simulation by current land-surface schemes:Results of IPILPS phase 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Phase 1 of isotopes in the Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (iPILPS) compares the simulation of two stable water isotopologues ({sup 1}H{sub 2} {sup 18}O and {sup 1}H{sup 2}H{sup 16}O) at the land-atmosphere interface. The simulations are off-line, with forcing from an isotopically enabled regional model for three locations selected to offer contrasting climates and ecotypes: an evergreen tropical forest, a sclerophyll eucalypt forest and a mixed deciduous wood. Here we report on the experimental framework, the quality control undertaken on the simulation results and the method of intercomparisons employed. The small number of available isotopically-enabled land-surface schemes (ILSSs) limits the drawing of strong conclusions but, despite this, there is shown to be benefit in undertaking this type of isotopic intercomparison. Although validation of isotopic simulations at the land surface must await more, and much more complete, observational campaigns, we find that the empirically-based Craig-Gordon parameterization (of isotopic fractionation during evaporation) gives adequately realistic isotopic simulations when incorporated in a wide range of land-surface codes. By introducing two new tools for understanding isotopic variability from the land surface, the Isotope Transfer Function and the iPILPS plot, we show that different hydrological parameterizations cause very different isotopic responses. We show that ILSS-simulated isotopic equilibrium is independent of the total water and energy budget (with respect to both equilibration time and state), but interestingly the partitioning of available energy and water is a function of the models' complexity.

Henderson-Sellers, A.; Fischer, M.; Aleinov, I.; McGuffie, K.; Riley, W.J.; Schmidt, G.A.; Sturm, K.; Yoshimura, K.; Irannejad, P.

2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

126

Use of ceragenins to create novel biofouling resistant water-treatment membranes.  

SciTech Connect

Scoping studies have demonstrated that ceragenins, when linked to water-treatment membranes have the potential to create biofouling resistant water-treatment membranes. Ceragenins are synthetically produced molecules that mimic antimicrobial peptides. Evidence includes measurements of CSA-13 prohibiting the growth of and killing planktonic Pseudomonas fluorescens. In addition, imaging of biofilms that were in contact of a ceragenin showed more dead cells relative to live cells than in a biofilm that had not been treated with a ceragenin. This work has demonstrated that ceragenins can be attached to polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, though work needs to improve the uniformity of the attachment. Finally, methods have been developed to use hyperspectral imaging with multivariate curve resolution to view ceragenins attached to the RO membrane. Future work will be conducted to better attach the ceragenin to the RO membranes and more completely test the biocidal effectiveness of the ceragenins on the membranes.

Hibbs, Michael R.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Feng, Yanshu (Brigham Young University, Provo, UT); Savage, Paul B. (Brigham Young University, Provo, UT); Pollard, Jacob (Brigham Young University, Provo, UT); Sanchez, Andres L. (LMATA, Albuquerque, NM); Fellows, Benjamin D.; Jones, Howland D. T.; McGrath, Lucas K. (LMATA, Albuquerque, NM)

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Current and Long-Term Effects of Delta Water Quality on Drinking Water Treatment Costs from Disinfection Byproduct Formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

current Delta water Plant and Intake Location System Size (future water quality conditions at different Delta intakesusing the intake with the better water quality between Old

Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Haunschild, Kristine; Lund, Jay R.; Fleenor, William E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Results of Year-Round Remotely Sensed Integrated Water Vapor by Ground-Based Microwave Radiometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on two years of measurements with a time resolution of 1 min, some climatological findings on precipitable water vapor (PWV) and cloud liquid water (CLW) in central Europe are given. A weak diurnal cycle is apparent. The mean overall ...

J. Gldner; D. Spnkuch

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Condensate induced water hammer in a steam distribution system results in fatality  

SciTech Connect

Water hammer event s in steam distribution piping interrupt service and have the potential to cause serious injury and property damage. Conditions of condensation induced water hammer are discussed and recommendations aimed to improve safety of steam systems are presented. Condensate induced water hammer events at Hanford, a DOE facility, are examined.

Debban, H.L.; Eyre, L.E.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Posters Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: Status and Water Vapor Continuum Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 Posters Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: Status and Water Vapor Continuum Results H. E. Revercomb, R. O. Knuteson, W. L. Smith, F. A. Best, and R. G. Dedecker University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin H. B. Howell National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Systems Design and Applications Branch Madison, Wisconsin Introduction Accurate and spectrally detailed observations of the thermal emission from radiatively important atmospheric gases, aerosols, and clouds are now being provided to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data base by the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) prototype at the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site. Spectra over the range from 520 to 3000 cm -1 (3 to 19 microns) with a resolution of 0.5 cm

131

Feasibility and Treatment of Oil and Gas Produced Water as a Medium for Nannochloropsis Salina cultivation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Some conclusions of this paper are: (1) How much PW is available - (a) Lots, but probably not enough to support the largest estimates of algae production needed, (b) Diluent water is likely needed to support cultivation in some cases, (c) An assessment of how much PW is really available for use is needed; (2) Where is it available - (a) In many places near other resources (land, CO{sub 2}, sunlight, nutrients) and infrastructure (pipelines, refineries, disposal operations/wells); (3) Is the water chemistry acceptable for use - (a) Yes, in many cases with minimal treatment, (b) Additional constituents of value exist in PW for media; (4) Does it need treatment prior to use - (a) Yes, it may often need treatment for organics, some metals, and biological contaminants, (b) Source control and monitoring can reduce need for treatment; (5) How much does it cost to treat it - (a) If desalination is not needed, from <$0.01-$0.60 per m3 is a starting estimate; and (6) Can you grow algae in it - (a) Yes, but we need more experimentation to optimize field conditions, media mixing, and algae types.

Sullivan, Enid J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dean, Cynthia A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yoshida, Thomas M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steichen, Seth A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Laur, Paul A. [Eldorado Biofuels; Visolay, Alfonz [VM Technologies

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

132

Results of the DF-4 BWR (boiling water reactor) control blade-channel box test  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The DF-4 in-pile fuel damage experiment investigated the behavior of boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel canisters and control blades in the high temperature environment of an unrecovered reactor accident. This experiment, which was carried out in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratories, was performed under the USNRC's internationally sponsored severe fuel damage (SFD) program. The DF-4 test is described herein and results from the experiment are presented. Important findings from the DF-4 test include the low temperature melting of the stainless steel control blade caused by reaction with the B{sub 4}C, and the subsequent low temperature attack of the Zr-4 channel box by the relocating molten blade components. Hydrogen generation was found to continue throughout the experiment, diminishing slightly following the relocation of molten oxidizing zircaloy to the lower extreme of the test bundle. A large blockage which was formed from this material continued to oxidize while steam was being fed into the the test bundle. The results of this test have provided information on the initial stages of core melt progression in BWR geometry involving the heatup and cladding oxidation stages of a severe accident and terminating at the point of melting and relocation of the metallic core components. The information is useful in modeling melt progression in BWR core geometry, and provides engineering insight into the key phenomena controlling these processes. 12 refs., 12 figs.

Gauntt, R.O.; Gasser, R.D.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes work of this project from October 2003 through March 2004. The major focus of the research was to further investigate BTEX removal from produced water, to quantify metal ion removal from produced water, and to evaluate a lab-scale vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) for BTEX destruction in off-gases produced during SMZ regeneration. Batch equilibrium sorption studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of semi-volatile organic compounds commonly found in produced water on the sorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) onto surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) and to examine selected metal ion sorption onto SMZ. The sorption of polar semi-volatile organic compounds and metals commonly found in produced water onto SMZ was also investigated. Batch experiments were performed in a synthetic saline solution that mimicked water from a produced water collection facility in Wyoming. Results indicated that increasing concentrations of semi-volatile organic compounds increased BTEX sorption. The sorption of phenol compounds could be described by linear isotherms, but the linear partitioning coefficients decreased with increasing pH, especially above the pKa's of the compounds. Linear correlations relating partitioning coefficients of phenol compounds with their respective solubilities and octanol-water partitioning coefficients were developed for data collected at pH 7.2. The sorption of chromate, selenate, and barium in synthetic produced water were also described by Langmuir isotherms. Experiments conducted with a lab-scale vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) packed with foam indicated that this system could achieve high BTEX removal efficiencies once the nutrient delivery system was optimized. The xylene isomers and benzene were found to require the greatest biofilter bed depth for removal. This result suggested that these VOCs would ultimately control the size of the biofilter required for the produced water application. The biofilter recovered rapidly from shutdowns showing that the system was resilient to discontinuous feed conditions therefore provided flexibility on the SMZ regeneration process.

Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

2004-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

134

Low Molecular Weight Organic Contaminants in Advanced Treatment: Occurrence, Treatment and Implications to Desalination and Water Reuse Systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Water reuse and desalination are increasingly considered as viable sources of potable water because improvements in materials and designs have decreased the cost of reverse (more)

Agus, Eva

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Membrane contactor/separator for an advanced ozone membrane reactor for treatment of recalcitrant organic pollutants in water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An advanced ozone membrane reactor that synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone gas, membrane contactor for pollutant adsorption and reaction, and membrane separator for clean water production is described. The membrane reactor represents an order of magnitude improvement over traditional semibatch reactor design and is capable of complete conversion of recalcitrant endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in water at less than three minutes residence time. Coating the membrane contactor with alumina and hydrotalcite (Mg/Al=3) adsorbs and traps the organics in the reaction zone resulting in 30% increase of total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Large surface area coating that diffuses surface charges from adsorbed polar organic molecules is preferred as it reduces membrane polarization that is detrimental to separation. - Graphical abstract: Advanced ozone membrane reactor synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone, membrane contactor for sorption and reaction and membrane separator for clean water production to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement in treatment performance compared to traditional ozone reactor. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel reactor using membranes for ozone distributor, reaction contactor and water separator. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Designed to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement over traditional reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and hydrotalcite coatings capture and trap pollutants giving additional 30% TOC removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High surface area coating prevents polarization and improves membrane separation and life.

Chan, Wai Kit, E-mail: kekyeung@ust.hk [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Joueet, Justine; Heng, Samuel; Yeung, King Lun [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Schrotter, Jean-Christophe [Water Research Center of Veolia, Anjou Recherche, Chemin de la Digue, BP 76. 78603, Maisons Laffitte, Cedex (France)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

136

Spatiotemporal Variations in Soil Water: First Results from the ARM SGP CART Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A network of automated soil water and temperature systems, installed at 21 locations in Oklahoma and Kansas in 1996 and 1997, is providing hourly profiles of soil temperature and water at eight depths, from 0.05 to 1.75 m below the surface, in ...

J. M. Schneider; D. K. Fisher; R. L. Elliott; G. O. Brown; C. P. Bahrmann

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti Part 1: Results from the Water Boiling Test  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In April 2010, a team of scientists and engineers from Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) and UC Berkeley, with support from the Darfur Stoves Project (DSP), undertook a fact-finding mission to Haiti in order to assess needs and opportunities for cookstove intervention. Based on data collected from informal interviews with Haitians and NGOs, the team, Scott Sadlon, Robert Cheng, and Kayje Booker, identified and recommended stove testing and comparison as a high priority need that could be filled by LBNL. In response to that recommendation, five charcoal stoves were tested at the LBNL stove testing facility using a modified form of version 3 of the Shell Foundation Household Energy Project Water Boiling Test (WBT). The original protocol is available online. Stoves were tested for time to boil, thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of CO, CO{sub 2}, and the ratio of CO/CO{sub 2}. In addition, Haitian user feedback and field observations over a subset of the stoves were combined with the experiences of the laboratory testing technicians to evaluate the usability of the stoves and their appropriateness for Haitian cooking. The laboratory results from emissions and efficiency testing and conclusions regarding usability of the stoves are presented in this report.

Booker, Kayje; Han, Tae Won; Granderson, Jessica; Jones, Jennifer; Lsk, Kathleen; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling and Analysis Results for 2011  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted natural gas sampling for the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, site on June 7 and 8, 2011. Natural gas sampling consists of collecting both gas samples and samples of produced water from gas production wells. Water samples from gas production wells were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides, gross alpha, gross beta, and tritium. Natural gas samples were analyzed for tritium and carbon-14. ALS Laboratory Group in Fort Collins, Colorado, analyzed water samples. Isotech Laboratories in Champaign, Illinois, analyzed natural gas samples.

None

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

WATER QUALITY CHANGES AS A RESULT OF COALBED METHANE DEVELOPMENT IN A ROCKY MOUNTAIN WATERSHED1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

discharge water in associated retention ponds moving from the south to the north. Further, Hulin (2003). LOWESS was used because it is usually superior to the parametric ordinary least squares regression sug

McClain, Michael

140

STUDIES OF METAL-WATER REACTIONS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES: I. THE CONDENSER DISCHARGE EXPERIMENT: PRELIMINARY RESULTS WITH ZIRCONIUM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The condenser-discharge method of conducting molten metal- water reactions at high temperatures was refined. Two methods to measure energy input to specimen wires and, therefore, to compute initial metal temperatures were developed. Calculated metal temperatures were estimated to be accurate to within 100 deg C. Two reaction cells were designed, one for operation at atmospheric pressure with water at room temperature, and the other for operation at high pressure and with water at elevated temperature. Means were developed to determine the surface area of metal exposed to reaction and to determine the total extent of reaction. Pressure transducers were used to record the rate of reactions. The zirconium- water reaction was studied with initial metal temperatures from 1100 to 4000 deg C with 30 and 60-mil wires in room-temperature water. Initial pressures in these runs were the vapor pressures of water at room temperature (20-30 mm). Runs were made with 60-mil wires in water heated to 200 deg C (225 psi). Results in room-temperature water indicated that the reaction became explosive at an initial metal temperature of 2600 deg C. Below this temperature, 20% or less reaction occurred. At higher water temperatures, reaction ranged from 40 to 70%. Runs in heated water showed markedly greater reaction, reaching 50% for fully melted metal at the melting point (1840 deg C). Results suggested that the rates of both solid-state processes and the diffusion of water vapor through the hydrogen blanket surrounding reacting particles must be considered. (auth)

Baker, L. Jr.; Warchal, R.L.; Vogel, R.C.; Kilpatrick, M.

1961-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water treatment result" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Wetland treatment of oil and gas well waste waters. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Constructed wetlands are small on-site systems that possess three of the most desirable components of an industrial waste water treatment scheme: low cost, low maintenance and upset resistance. The main objective of the present study is to extend the knowledge base of wetland treatment systems to include processes and substances of particular importance to small, on-site systems receiving oil and gas well wastewaters. A list of the most relevant and comprehensive publications on the design of wetlands for water quality improvement was compiled and critically reviewed. Based on our literature search and conversations with researchers in the private sector, toxic organics such as Phenolics and b-naphthoic acid, (NA), and metals such as CU(II) and CR(VI) were selected as target adsorbates. A total of 90 lysimeters equivalent to a laboratory-scale wetland were designed and built to monitor the uptake and transformation of toxic organics and the immobilization of metal ions. Studies on the uptake of toxic organics such as phenol and b-naphthoic acid (NA) and heavy metals such as Cu(II) and Cr(VI), the latter two singly or as non-stoichiometric mixtures by laboratory-type wetlands (LWs) were conducted. These LWs were designed and built during the first year of this study. A road map and guidelines for a field-scale implementation of a wetland system for the treatment of oil and gas wastewaters have been suggested. Two types of wetlands, surface flow (SF) and sub surface flow (SSF), have been considered, and the relative merits of each configuration have been reviewed.

Kadlec, R.; Srinivasan, K.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Interim Results from a Study of the Impacts of Tin (II) Based Mercury Treatment in a Small Stream Ecosystem: Tims Branch, Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

A research team is assessing the impacts of an innovative mercury treatment system in Tims Branch, a small southeastern stream. The treatment system, installed in 2007, reduces and removes inorganic mercury from water using tin(II) (stannous) chloride addition followed by air stripping. The system results in discharge of inorganic tin to the ecosystem. This screening study is based on historical information combined with measurements of contaminant concentrations in water, fish, sediment, biofilms and invertebrates. Initial mercury data indicate that first few years of mercury treatment resulted in a significant decrease in mercury concentration in an upper trophic level fish, redfin pickerel, at all sampling locations in the impacted reach. For example, the whole body mercury concentration in redfin pickerel collected from the most impacted pond decreased approximately 72% between 2006 (pre-treatment) and 2010 (post-treatment). Over this same period, mercury concentrations in the fillet of redfin pickerel in this pond were estimated to have decreased from approximately 1.45 {micro}g/g (wet weight basis) to 0.45 {micro}g/g - a decrease from 4.8x to 1.5x the current EPA guideline concentration for mercury in fillet (0.3 {micro}g/g). Thermodynamic modeling, scanning electron microscopy, and other sampling data for tin suggest that particulate tin (IV) oxides are a significant geochemical species entering the ecosystem with elevated levels of tin measured in surficial sediments and biofilms. Detectable increases in tin in sediments and biofilms extended approximately 3km from the discharge location. Tin oxides are recalcitrant solids that are relatively non-toxic and resistant to dissolution. Work continues to develop and validate methods to analyze total tin in the collected biota samples. In general, the interim results of this screening study suggest that the treatment process has performed as predicted and that the concentration of mercury in upper trophic level fish, as a surrogate for all of the underlying transport and transformation processes in a complex ecosystem, has declined as a direct result of the elimination of inorganic mercury inputs. Inorganic tin released to the ecosystem has been found in compartments where particles accumulate with notable levels measured in biofilms.

Looney, Brian [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); BryanJr., Larry [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory; Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Roy, W Kelly [ORNL; Jett, Robert T [ORNL; Smith, John G [ORNL

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

POTENTIAL USES OF SPENT SHALE IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL SHALE RETORT WATERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

situ oil shale combustion experiment con- A gas chro- Thisspent shales were waters were studied, retort water and gasof retort waters and gas condensate. Spent shale reduces the

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Hydrogen Water Chemistry Effects on BWR Radiation Buildup: Volume 1: Laboratory Results and Plant Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diverse laboratory experiments and a review of the most recent dose rate data from operating plants identify some of the key factors responsible for the increase in shutdown radiation fields at a number of BWRs following implementation of hydrogen water chemistry (HWC). These insights suggest strategies to minimize radiation field increases under HWC and to avoid possible problems during chemical decontamination.

1994-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

145

Results of Sun PhotometerDerived Precipitable Water Content over a Tropical Indian Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A compact, hand-held multiband sun photometer (ozone monitor) has been used to measure total precipitable water content (PWC) at the low-latitude tropical station in Pune, India (1832?N, 7351?E). Data collected in the daytime (07301800 LT) ...

P. Ernest Raj; P. C. S. Devara; R. S. Maheskumar; G. Pandithurai; K. K. Dani; S. K. Saha; S. M. Sonbawne; Y. K. Tiwari

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Disaggregating measurement uncertainty from population variability and Bayesian treatment of uncensored results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In making low-level radioactivity measurements of populations, it is commonly observed that a substantial portion of net results are negative. Furthermore, the observed variance of the measurement results arises from a combination of measurement uncertainty and population variability. This paper presents a method for disaggregating measurement uncertainty from population variability to produce a probability density function (PDF) of possibly true results. To do this, simple, justifiable, and reasonable assumptions are made about the relationship of the measurements to the measurands (the 'true values'). The measurements are assumed to be unbiased, that is, that their average value is the average of the measurands. Using traditional estimates of each measurement's uncertainty to disaggregate population variability from measurement uncertainty, a PDF of measurands for the population is produced. Then, using Bayes's theorem, the same assumptions, and all the data from the population of individuals, a prior PDF is computed for each individual's measurand. These PDFs are non-negative, and their average is equal to the average of the measurement results for the population. The uncertainty in these Bayesian posterior PDFs is all Berkson with no remaining classical component. The methods are applied to baseline bioassay data from the Hanford site. The data include 90Sr urinalysis measurements on 128 people, 137Cs in vivo measurements on 5,337 people, and 239Pu urinalysis measurements on 3,270 people. The method produces excellent results for the 90Sr and 137Cs measurements, since there are nonzero concentrations of these global fallout radionuclides in people who have not been occupationally exposed. The method does not work for the 239Pu measurements in non-occupationally exposed people because the population average is essentially zero.

Strom, Daniel J.; Joyce, Kevin E.; Maclellan, Jay A.; Watson, David J.; Lynch, Timothy P.; Antonio, Cheryl L.; Birchall, Alan; Anderson, Kevin K.; Zharov, Peter

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

147

Supplemental Power for the town of Browning Waste-Water Treatment Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This final report is issued for the "Supplemental power for the Town of Browning waste-water treatment facility" under the Field Verification Program for Small Wind Turbines Grant. The grant application was submitted on April 16, 1999 wherein the full description of this project is outlined. The project was initially designed to test the Bergy small wind turbines, 10 kW, applicability to residential and commercial applications. The objectives of the project were the following: 1. To verify the performance of the BWC Excel-S/E model wind turbine in an operational application in the fierce winds and severe weather conditions of the Class V winds of the Blackfeet Indian Reservation of Northern Montana. 2. To open up the Blackfeet reservation and northern Montana, to government sponsored, regionally distributed wind generation programs. 3. To examine the natural partnership of wind/electric with water pumping and water purification applications whose requirements parallel the variably available nature of energy produced by wind. 4. To provide data and hands-on experience to citizens, scientists, political leaders, utility operators and Tribal planners with regard to the potential uses of small-capacity, distributed-array wind turbines on the Blackfeet Reservation and in other areas of northern Montana. This project has not been without a few, which were worked out and at the time of this report continue to be worked on with the installation of two new Trace Technologies invertors and a rebuilt one with new technology inside. For the most part when the system has worked it produced power that was used within the wastewater system as was the purpose of this project.

William Morris; Dennis Fitzpatrick

2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

148

Percutaneous Intraductal Radiofrequency Ablation is a Safe Treatment for Malignant Biliary Obstruction: Feasibility and Early Results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. Previous clinical studies have shown the safety and efficacy of this novel radiofrequency ablation catheter when used for endoscopic palliative procedures. We report a retrospective study with the results of first in man percutaneous intraductal radiofrequency ablation in patients with malignant biliary obstruction. Methods. Thirty-nine patients with inoperable malignant biliary obstruction were included. These patients underwent intraductal biliary radiofrequency ablation of their malignant biliary strictures following external biliary decompression with an internal-external biliary drainage. Following ablation, they had a metal stent inserted. Results. Following this intervention, there were no 30-day mortality, hemorrhage, bile duct perforation, bile leak, or pancreatitis. Of the 39 patients, 28 are alive and 10 patients are dead with a median survival of 89.5 (range 14-260) days and median stent patency of 84.5 (range 14-260) days. One patient was lost to follow-up. All but one patient had their stent patent at the time of last follow-up or death. One patient with stent blockage at 42 days postprocedure underwent percutaneous transhepatic drain insertion and restenting. Among the patients who are alive (n = 28) the median stent patency was 92 (range 14-260) days, whereas the patients who died (n = 10) had a median stent patency of 62.5 (range 38-210) days. Conclusions. In this group of patients, it appears that this new approach is feasible and safe. Efficacy remains to be proven in future, randomized, prospective studies.

Mizandari, Malkhaz [Tbilisi State Medical University, Department of Radiology (Georgia); Pai, Madhava, E-mail: madhava.pai@imperial.ac.uk; Xi Feng [Imperial College, London, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Department of Surgery (United Kingdom); Valek, Vlastimil; Tomas, Andrasina [University Hospital Brno Bohunice, Department of Radiology (Czech Republic); Quaretti, Pietro [IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Radiology (Italy); Golfieri, Rita; Mosconi, Cristina [University of Bologna, Department of Radiology, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi (Italy); Ao Guokun [The 309 Hospital of Chinese PLA, Department of Radiology (China); Kyriakides, Charis [Imperial College, London, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Department of Surgery (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Robert [Imperial College London, Department of Bioengineering (United Kingdom); Nicholls, Joanna; Habib, Nagy, E-mail: nagy.habib@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College, London, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Department of Surgery (United Kingdom)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

149

Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laws Envirosearch Institutional Controls NEPA Activities RCRA RQ*Calculator Water HSS Logo Water Laws Overview of water-related legislation affecting DOE sites Clean...

150

Program on Technology Innovation: Technology Research Opportunities for Efficient Water Treatment and Use  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides background information on the use of freshwater in the United States and the basic technologies employed to treat and utilize water. The connections between water use and energy consumption are also highlighted. Opportunities are discussed for improving water use efficiency through on-site water reuse, water reclamation, and water use reductions. Lastly, recommendations are provided for future action to advance specific technologies and market opportunities.

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

151

Test results from the GA technologies engineering-scale off-gas treatment system  

SciTech Connect

One method for reducing the volume of HTGR fuel prior to reprocessing or spent fuel storage is to crush and burn the graphite fuel elements. The burner off-gas (BOG) contains radioactive components, principally H-3, C-14, Kr-85, I-129, and Rn-220, as well as chemical forms such as CO/sub 2/, CO, O/sub 2/, and SO/sub 2/. The BOG system employs components designed to remove these constitutents. Test results are reported for the iodine and SO/sub 2/ adsorbers and the CO/HT oxidizer. Silver-based iodine adsorbents were found to catalyze the premature conversion of CO to CO/sub 2/. Subsequent tests showed that iodine removal could not be performed downstream of the CO/HT oxidizer since iodine in the BOG system rapidly deactivated the Pt-coated alumina CO catalyst. Lead-exchanged zeolite (PbX) was found to be an acceptable alternative for removing iodine from BOG without CO conversion. Intermittent and steady-state tests of the pilot-plant SO/sub 2/ removal unit containing sodium-exchanged zeolite (NaX) demonstrated that decontamination factors greater than or equal to 100 could be maintained for up to 50 h. In a reprocessing flowsheet, the solid product from the burners is dissolved in nitric or Thorex acid. The dissolver off-gas (DOG) contains radioactive components H-3, Kr-85, I-129, Rn-220 plus chemical forms such as nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/). In the pilot-scale system at GA, iodine is removed from the DOG by adsorption. Tests of iodine removal have been conducted using either silver-exchanged mordenite (AgZ) or AgNO/sub 3/-impregnated silica gel (AC-6120). Although each sorbent performed well in the presence of NO/sub x/, the silica gel adsorbent proved more efficient in silver utilization and, thus, more cost effective.

Jensen, D.D.; Olguin, L.J.; Wilbourn, R.G.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Oil removal for produced water treatment and micellar cleaning of ultrafiltration membranes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Produced water is a major waste produced from oil and natural gas wells in the state of Texas. This water could be a possible source (more)

Beech, Scott Jay

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

H[sub 2]OTREAT: An acid for evaluating water treatment requirements for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A public-domain software package is available to aid engineers in the design of water treatment systems for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES). Geochemical phenomena that cause problems in ATES systems include formation of scale in heat exchangers, clogging of wells, corrosion in piping and heat exchangers, and degradation of aquifer materials. Preventing such problems frequently requires employing water treatment systems. Individual water treatment methods vary in cost. effectiveness, environmental impact, corrosion potential, and acceptability to regulatory bodies. Evaluating these water treatment options is generally required to determine the feasibility of ATFS systems. The H20TREAT software was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for use by engineers with limited or no experience in geochemistry. At the feasibility analysis and design stages, the software utilizes a recently revised geochemical model,MINTEQ, to calculate the saturation indices of selected carbonate, oxide, and hydroxide minerals based on water chemistry and temperature data provided by the user. The saturation indices of key calcium, iron. silica, and manganese carbonates, oxides, and hydroxides (calcite, rhodochrosite, siderite, Fe(OH)[sub 3][a], birnessite, chalcedony, and SiO[sub 2]) are calculated. Currently, H20TREAT does not perform cost calculations; however, treatment capacity requirements are provided. Treatments considered include (1) Na and H ion exchangers and pellet reactors to avoid calcite precipitation, and (2) in situ nitrate addition and cascade precipitation. The H20TREAT software also provides the user with guidance on other geochemical problems that must be considered, such as SiO[sub 2] precipitation, corrosion, and environmental considerations. The sodium adsorption ratio and sodium hazard are calculated to evaluate the likelihood of clay swelling and dispersion caused by high Na concentrations. H20TREAT is available for DOS and UNIX computers.

Vail, L.W.; Jenne, E.A.; Eary, L.E.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

H{sub 2}OTREAT: An acid for evaluating water treatment requirements for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A public-domain software package is available to aid engineers in the design of water treatment systems for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES). Geochemical phenomena that cause problems in ATES systems include formation of scale in heat exchangers, clogging of wells, corrosion in piping and heat exchangers, and degradation of aquifer materials. Preventing such problems frequently requires employing water treatment systems. Individual water treatment methods vary in cost. effectiveness, environmental impact, corrosion potential, and acceptability to regulatory bodies. Evaluating these water treatment options is generally required to determine the feasibility of ATFS systems. The H20TREAT software was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for use by engineers with limited or no experience in geochemistry. At the feasibility analysis and design stages, the software utilizes a recently revised geochemical model,MINTEQ, to calculate the saturation indices of selected carbonate, oxide, and hydroxide minerals based on water chemistry and temperature data provided by the user. The saturation indices of key calcium, iron. silica, and manganese carbonates, oxides, and hydroxides (calcite, rhodochrosite, siderite, Fe(OH){sub 3}[a], birnessite, chalcedony, and SiO{sub 2}) are calculated. Currently, H20TREAT does not perform cost calculations; however, treatment capacity requirements are provided. Treatments considered include (1) Na and H ion exchangers and pellet reactors to avoid calcite precipitation, and (2) in situ nitrate addition and cascade precipitation. The H20TREAT software also provides the user with guidance on other geochemical problems that must be considered, such as SiO{sub 2} precipitation, corrosion, and environmental considerations. The sodium adsorption ratio and sodium hazard are calculated to evaluate the likelihood of clay swelling and dispersion caused by high Na concentrations. H20TREAT is available for DOS and UNIX computers.

Vail, L.W.; Jenne, E.A.; Eary, L.E.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Collection and representation of GIS data to aid household water treatment and safe storage technology implementation in the northern region of Ghana  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 2005, a start-up social business called Pure Home Water (PHW) was begun in Ghana to promote and sell household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) technologies. The original aim of the company was to offer a variety ...

VanCalcar, Jenny E. (Jenny Elizabeth)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

KINETIC EXPERIMENTS ON WATER BOILERS-"A" CORE REPORT-PART II. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

The status of the analytic portion of the KEWB program at the time of completion of the spherical core experiments is summarized. Three computer programs were developed for use in this analytic effort. The first reassembles and smooths three decades of reactor power data read separately from oscillogram records of reactor excursions. It then computes the logarithmic derivative of the power, energy release, fuel solution temperature, and temperature compensated reactivity. The second program utilizes the space-independent neutron kinetics equations with any number of delayed neutron groups to determine the reactivity in the reactor from the power and its derivative. The third program solves the space-independent kinetics equations for the neutron flux from an input reactivity or initial period. Up to 50 reactivity feedback equations includirg delayed neutrons are provided for in this program. A mathematical model of the reactor investigated extensively was one containing six delayed neutron groups, conventional treatment of temperature reactivity compensation, and void compensation of reactivity induced by radiolytic gas void growth proportional to the product of reactor power and energy release. Partial mathematical solutions to the kinetic equations were derived for reactivity feedback proportional to prompt temperature and void growth according to the product of power and energy. These solutions apply where delayed neutrons can be neglected, which is the region of major interest. Expressions are available relating power and energy and defining the peak power and energy release to peak power in terms of basic reactor parameters. Experimental evidence, particularly the experimental inlmour curve, of another reactivity influencing mechanism was found present in the reactor at periods shorter than 10 msec. This mechanism was shown to behave as a delayed neutron group, having a mean delay time of approximately 2 msec and an abundance of 2%. A plausible origin of such neutrons was shown to be the reflector which thermalizes core neutrons and returns them to the core following a delay. (auth)

Dunenfeld, M. comp.

1962-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

An evaluation of household drinking water treatment systems in Peru : the table filter and the safe water system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) storage, and education. Tests on the SWSs in Peru demonstrated 99.6% E.coli removal and 95% total coliform removal. Only 30% of the SWSs tested contained water at or above the WHO-recommended concentration of free ...

Coulbert, Brittany, 1981-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Appropriate technology water treatment processes for MaeLa Temporary Shelter, Thailand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis recommends the use of horizontal-flow roughing filters to treat spring water of variable annual quality in MaeLa Temporary Shelter, Thailand. The public drinking water system for 45,000 refugees is overseen by ...

Vater, Katherine Ann

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Long Term Field Development of a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System for Treatment of Produced Waters for Power Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main goal of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using a combined physicochemical/biological treatment system to remove the organic constituents present in saline produced water. In order to meet this objective, a physical/chemical adsorption process was developed and two separate biological treatment techniques were investigated. Two previous research projects focused on the development of the surfactant modified zeolite adsorption process (DE-AC26-99BC15221) and development of a vapor phase biofilter (VPB) to treat the regeneration off-gas from the surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorption system (DE-FC26-02NT15461). In this research, the SMZ/VPB was modified to more effectively attenuate peak loads and to maintain stable biodegradation of the BTEX constituents from the produced water. Specifically, a load equalization system was incorporated into the regeneration flow stream. In addition, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) system was tested for its ability to simultaneously remove the aromatic hydrocarbon and carboxylate components from produced water. The specific objectives related to these efforts included the following: (1) Optimize the performance VPBs treating the transient loading expected during SMZ regeneration: (a) Evaluate the impact of biofilter operating parameters on process performance under stable operating conditions. (b) Investigate how transient loads affect biofilter performance, and identify an appropriate technology to improve biological treatment performance during the transient regeneration period of an SMZ adsorption system. (c) Examine the merits of a load equalization technology to attenuate peak VOC loads prior to a VPB system. (d) Evaluate the capability of an SMZ/VPB to remove BTEX from produced water in a field trial. (2) Investigate the feasibility of MBR treatment of produced water: (a) Evaluate the biodegradation of carboxylates and BTEX constituents from synthetic produced water in a laboratory-scale MBR. (b) Evaluate the capability of an SMZ/MBR system to remove carboxylates and BTEX from produced water in a field trial. Laboratory experiments were conducted to provide a better understanding of each component of the SMZ/VPB and SMZ/MBR process. Laboratory VPB studies were designed to address the issue of influent variability and periodic operation (see DE-FC26-02NT15461). These experiments examined multiple influent loading cycles and variable concentration loadings that simulate air sparging as the regeneration option for the SMZ system. Two pilot studies were conducted at a produced water processing facility near Farmington, New Mexico. The first field test evaluated SMZ adsorption, SMZ regeneration, VPB buffering, and VPB performance, and the second test focused on MBR and SMZ/MBR operation. The design of the field studies were based on the results from the previous field tests and laboratory studies. Both of the biological treatment systems were capable of removing the BTEX constituents in the laboratory and in the field over a range of operating conditions. For the VPB, separation of the BTEX constituents from the saline aqueous phase yielded high removal efficiencies. However, carboxylates remained in the aqueous phase and were not removed in the combined VPB/SMZ system. In contrast, the MBR was capable of directly treating the saline produced water and simultaneously removing the BTEX and carboxylate constituents. The major limitation of the MBR system is the potential for membrane fouling, particularly when the system is treating produced water under field conditions. The combined process was able to effectively pretreat water for reverse osmosis treatment and subsequent downstream reuse options including utilization in power generation facilities. The specific conclusions that can be drawn from this study are summarized.

Lynn Katz; Kerry Kinney; Robert Bowman; Enid Sullivan; Soondong Kwon; Elaine Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Craig Altare

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

160

Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength Tests (SSWICS) SSWICS-6 test data report : thermal hydraulic results, Rev. 0.  

SciTech Connect

The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core/concrete interaction (MCCI) when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. However, due to the integral nature of these tests, several questions regarding the crust freezing behavior could not be adequately resolved. These questions include: (1) To what extent does water ingression into the crust increase the melt quench rate above the conduction-limited rate and how is this affected by melt composition and system pressure? (2) What is the fracture strength of the corium crust when subjected to a thermal-mechanical load and how does it depend upon the melt composition? A series of separate-effects experiments are being conducted to address these issues. The first employs an apparatus designed to measure the quench rate of a pool of corium ({approx} {phi} 30 cm; up to 20 cm deep). The main parameter to be varied in these quench tests is the melt composition since it is thought to have a critical influence on the crust cracking behavior which, in turn, alters quench rate. The issue of crust strength is being addressed with a second apparatus designed to mechanically load the crust produced by the quench tests. This apparatus measures the fracture strength of the crust while it is either at room temperature or above, the latter state being achieved with a heating element placed below the crust. The two apparatuses used to measure the melt quench rate and crust strength are jointly referred to as SSWICS (Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength). This report describes results of the sixth water ingression test, designated SSWICS-6. This test investigated the quenching behavior of a fully oxidized PWR corium melt containing 15 wt% siliceous concrete at a system pressure of 1 bar absolute. The report includes a description of the test apparatus, the instrumentation used, plots of the recorded data, and some rudimentary data reduction to obtain an estimate of the heat flux from the corium to the overlying water pool.

Lomperski, S.; Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D.; Aeschlimann, B. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

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161

COMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR QUARTER 1 SURFACE WATER SPLIT SAMPLES COLLECTED AT THE NUCLEAR FUEL SERVICES SITE ERWIN, TENNESSEE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, collected split surface water samples with Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) representatives on August 22, 2012. Representatives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation were also in attendance. Samples were collected at four surface water stations, as required in the approved Request for Technical Assistance number 11-018. These stations included Nolichucky River upstream (NRU), Nolichucky River downstream (NRD), Martin Creek upstream (MCU), and Martin Creek downstream (MCD). Both ORAU and NFS performed gross alpha and gross beta analyses. The comparison of results using the duplicate error ratio (DER), also known as the normalized absolute difference. A DER ? 3 indicates that, at a 99% confidence interval, split sample results do not differ significantly when compared to their respective one standard deviation (sigma) uncertainty. The NFS split sample report does not specify the confidence level of reported uncertainties. Therefore, standard two sigma reporting is assumed and uncertainty values were divided by 1.96. A comparison of split sample results, using the DER equation, indicates one set with a DER greater than 3. A DER of 3.1 is calculated for gross alpha results from ORAU sample 5198W0003 and NFS sample MCU-310212003. The ORAU result is 0.98 0.30 pCi/L (value 2 sigma) compared to the NFS result of -0.08 0.60 pCi/L. Relatively high DER values are not unexpected for low (e.g., background) analyte concentrations analyzed by separate laboratories, as is the case here. It is noted, however, NFS uncertainties are at least twice the ORAU uncertainties, which contributes to the elevated DER value. Differences in ORAU and NFS minimum detectable activities are even more pronounced. comparison of ORAU and NFS split samples produces reasonably consistent results for low (e.g., background) concentrations.

David A. King, CHP, PMP

2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

162

Meeting the Need for Safe Drinking Water in Rural Mexico through Point-of-Use Treatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are boiling and adding chlorine in the form of tablets orto water quality problems. Chlorine pills and bleach requireassociated with boiling, chlorine tablets, and bleach. Two

Lang, Micah; Kaser, Forrest; Reygadas, Fermin; Nelson, Kara; Kammen, Daniel M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Numerical Treatment of the Loss of Hyperbolicity of the Two-Layer Shallow-Water System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article is devoted to the numerical solution of the inviscid two-layer shallow water system. This system may lose the hyperbolic character when the shear between the layer is big enough. This loss of hyperbolicity is related to the appearance of ... Keywords: Complex eigenvalues, Finite volume method, Path-conservative, Two-layer shallow water

M. J. Castro-Daz; E. D. Fernndez-Nieto; J. M. Gonzlez-Vida; C. Pars-Madroal

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Population dynamics of iron-oxidizing communities in pilot plants for the treatment of acid mine waters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The iron-oxidizing microbial community in two pilot plants for the treatment of acid mine water was monitored to investigate the influence of different process parameters such as pH, iron concentration, and retention time on the stability of the system to evaluate the applicability of this treatment technology on an industrial scale. The dynamics of the microbial populations were followed using T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) over a period of several months. For a more precise quantification, two TaqMan assays specific for the two prominent groups were developed and the relative abundance of these taxa in the iron-oxidizing community was verified by real-time PCR. The investigations revealed that the iron-oxidizing community was clearly dominated by two groups of Betaproteobacteria affiliated with the poorly known and not yet recognized species 'Ferrovum myxofaciens' and with strains related to Gallionella ferruginea, respectively. These taxa dominated the microbial community during the whole investigation period and accelerated the oxidation of ferrous iron despite the changing characteristics of mine waters flowing into the plants. Thus, it is assumed that the treatment technology can also be applied to other mine sites and that these organisms play a crucial role in such treatment systems. 32 refs., 4 figs. 1 tab.

Elke Heinzel; Eberhard Janneck; Franz Glombitza; Michael Schlmann; Jana Seifert [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg (Germany). Interdisciplinary Ecological Center

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

165

Capital and O and M cost estimates for attached-growth biological waste-water-treatment processes  

SciTech Connect

Data for projecting process capabilities of attached-growth biological waste-water-treatment systems and procedures for making design calculations are presented in the report. Carbonaceous oxidation (secondary treatment) and single stage nitrification design examples are given. Information for estimating average construction costs and operation and maintenance requirements are presented for typical wastewater treatment plants ranging in size from 1 to 100-Mgd capacity. Estimated average construction costs and operation and maintenance requirements for individual unit processes are related graphically to appropriate single parameters for each component. Construction costs are broken down into labor and materials components; operation and maintenance requirements are given for labor, energy, and maintenance materials and supplies. The data in the report provide a means of estimating anticipated average performance and costs for facilities.

Benjes, H.H.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

INTERIM RESULTS FROM A STUDY OF THE IMPACTS OF TIN(II) BASED MERCURY TREATMENT IN A SMALL STREAM ECOSYSTEM: TIMS BRANCH, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mercury (Hg) has been identified as a 'persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic' pollutant with widespread impacts throughout North America and the world (EPA. 1997a, 1997b, 1998a, 1998b, 2000). Although most of the mercury in the environment is inorganic Hg, a small proportion of total Hg is transformed through the actions of aquatic microbes into methylmercury (MeHg). In contrast to virtually all other metals, MeHg biomagnifies or becomes increasingly concentrated as it is transferred through aquatic food chains so that the consumption of mercury contaminated fish is the primary route of this toxin to humans. For this reason, the ambient water quality criterion (AWQC) for mercury is based on a fish tissue endpoint rather than an aqueous Hg concentration, as the tissue concentration (e.g., fish are more closely linked to aqueous MeHg than to inorganic Hg concentrations (Sveinsdottir and Mason 2005), but MeHg production is not easily predicted or controlled. At point-source contaminated sites, mercury methylation is not only affected by the absolute mercury load, but also by the form of mercury loaded. In addition, once MeHg is formed, the hydrology, trophic structure, and water chemistry of a given system affect how it is transformed and transferred through the food chain to fish. Decreasing inorganic Hg concentrations and loading may often therefore be a more achievable remediation goal, but has led to mixed results in terms of responses in fish bioaccumulation. A number of source control measures have resulted in rapid responses in lake or reservoir fisheries (Joslin 1994, Turner and Southworth 1999; Orihel et al., 2007), but examples of similar responses in Hg-contaminated stream ecosystems are less common. Recent work suggests that stream systems may actually be more susceptible to mercury bioaccumulation than lakes, highlighting the need to better understand the ecological drivers of mercury bioaccumulation in stream-dwelling fish (Chasar et al. 2009, Ward et al. 2010). In the present study we examine the response of fish to remedial actions in Tims Branch, a point-source contaminated stream on the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. This second order stream received inorganic mercury inputs at its headwaters from the 1950s-2000s which contaminated the water, sediments, and biota downstream. In 2007, an innovative mercury removal system using tin (II) chloride (stannous chloride, SnCl{sub 2}) was implemented at a pre-existing air stripper. Tin(II) reduces dissolved Hg (II) to Hg (0), which is removed by the air stripper. During this process, tin(II) is oxidized to tin (IV) which is expected to precipitate as colloidal tin(IV) oxides and hydroxides, particulate materials with relatively low toxicity (Hallas and Cooney, 1981, EPA 2002, ATSDR, 2005). The objectives of the present research are to provide an initial assessment of the net impacts of the tin(II) based mercury treatment on key biota and to document the distribution and fate of inorganic tin in this small stream ecosystem after the first several years of operating a full scale system. To support these objectives, we collected fish, sediment, water, invertebrates, and biofilm samples from Tims Branch to quantify the general behavior and accumulation patterns for mercury and tin in the ecosystem and to determine if the treatment process has resulted in: (1) a measurable beneficial impact on (i.e., decrease of) mercury concentration in upper trophic level fish and other biota; this is a key environmental endpoint since reducing mercury concen

Looney, B.; Bryan, L.; Mathews, T.

2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

167

Preliminary results from bench-scale testing of a sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Portions of a bench-scale model of a sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle have been operated at General Atomic Company as part of a comprehensive program to demonstrate the technology for hydrogen production from nonfossil sources. The hydrogen program is funded by the US Department of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, and General Atomic Company. The bench-scale model consists of three subunits which can be operated separately or together and is capable of producing as much as 4 std liters/min (6.7 x 10/sup -5/ m/sup 3//s at standard conditions) of gaseous hydrogen. One subunit (main solution reaction) reacts liquid water, liquid iodine (I/sub 2/) and gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) to form two separable liquid phases: 50 wt % sulfuric acid (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) and a solution of iodine in hydriodic acid (HI/sub x/). Another subunit (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ concentration and decomposition) concentrates the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ phase to the azeotropic composition, then decomposes it at high temperature over a catalyst to form gaseous SO/sub 2/ and oxygen. The third subunit (HI separation and decomposition) separates the HI from water and I/sub 2/ by extractive distillation with phosphoric acid (H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/) and decomposes the HI in the vapor phase over a catalyst to form I/sub 2/ and product hydrogen. This paper presents the results of on-going parametric studies to determine the operating characteristics, performance, and capacity limitations of major components.

O'Keefe, D.; Allen, C.; Besenbruch, G.; McCorkle, K.; Norman, J.; Sharp, R.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Willamette River Water Treatment Plant - Wilsonville, Oregon [EDRA / Places Awards, 20004 -- Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

per-day drinking-water EDRA/Places Awards 2004 In this issuewe present the EDRA/ Places awards for 2004.These awards, in design, planning and research, highlight

Sensenig, Chris

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Spirasol : improvements to semi-continuous solar disinfection water treatment systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study was carried out to determine the feasibility of an original point of use solar water disinfection system created by the author and named "Spirasol." The study primarily focused on the comparison of ...

Loux, Brian Michael, 1981-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Emissions of volatile and potentially toxic organic compounds from waste-water treatment plants and collection systems (Phase 2). Volume 1. Project summaries. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the Phase II research project on emission of potentially toxic organic compounds (PTOCs) from wastewater treatment plants were fivefold: (1) assessment of the importance of gaseous emissions from municipal wastewater collection systems; (2) resolution of the discrepancy between the measured and estimated emissions (Phase I), from the Joint Water Pollution Control Plant (JWPCP) operated by the County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County (CSDLAC); (3) determination of airborne concentrations of PTOCS immediately downwind of an activated sludge aeration process at the City of Los Angeles' Hyperion Treatment Plant (HTP); (4) a modeling assessment of the effects of transient loading on emissions during preliminary and primary treatment at a typical municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP); (5) a preliminary investigation of effects of chlorination practices on haloform production. Volume 1, for which the abstract was prepared, contains a summary of results from each project; Volume 2 contains the discussion regarding the modeling of collection system emissions; Volume 3 addresses methods development and field sampling efforts at the JWPCP and HTP, data on emissions from a mechanically ventilated sewer and results of some preliminary haloform formation studies in wastewaters; and Volume 4 discusses aspects of the emissions modeling problem.

Chang, D.P.Y.; Schroeder, E.D.; Corsi, R.L.; Guensler, R.; Meyerhofer, J.A.

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Developing an Operational, Surface-Based, GPS, Water Vapor Observing System for NOAA: Network Design and Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The need for a reliable, low-cost observing system to measure water vapor in the atmosphere is incontrovertible. Experiments have shown the potential for using Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to measure total precipitable water vapor ...

Daniel E. Wolfe; Seth I. Gutman

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Emissions of volatile and potentially toxic organic compounds from waste-water treatment plants and collection systems (Phase 2). Volume 3. Waste-water treatment-plant emissions. Experimental phase. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Volume 3 describes the measurements and experimental data obtained to assess emissions from various points within a POTW. Included are a discussion of sampling methods development, emissions studies of activated carbon bed odor control units located at various points of a large municipal wastewater treatment plant and its collection system, upwind/downwind sampling from an activated sludge aeration basins at a large municipal wastewater treatment plant, and preliminary studies of haloform formation as a result of chlorination of wastewater.

Chang, D.P.Y.; Guensler, R.; Kim, J.O.; Chou, T.L.; Uyeminami, D.

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Application of Membranes to Treatment of Water Based Exploration and Production Wastes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Produced water and spent drilling fluids from petroleum operations represent a significant expense to companies developing new energy reserves. These spent fluids, seldom recycled, offer a viable source of water resources for oil-field reuse. A major obstacle to reuse is the presence of suspended solid material in the fluids. Such contaminants, if not removed, will not only prevent any reuse but will also impede disposal. The objective of this project was to evaluate membrane filtration as a way to remove suspended and entrained particles to produce re-useable effluents using membranes. Ceramic and Polyvinylidene Flouride (PVDF) hollow fibre membranes were used in laboratory scale experiments in the investigation of the colloidal filtration of field produced spent drilling fluids and produced water. Feed parameter and operational parameter evaluation of ceramic and PVDF hollow fibre membrane filtration of spent drilling fluids and produced water showed that feed concentration, solids in the spent drilling fluid and oil in the produced water, is the most important parameter during membrane filtration. Operational parameter variation showed that high cross flow velocity was beneficial in flux maintenance during spent drilling fluid filtration due to its high solids concentration because of the scouring effect on the cake layer on the membrane surface. Pressure regimens were important in flux decline as relatively high pressures accelerate the consolidation of the concentration polarization layer causing flux decline. High temperatures were generally beneficial for increased flux in the filtration of produced water and spent drilling fluids. Resistance calculations were used to deduce the contribution of individual resistances during the ceramic filtration of produced water and spent drilling fluids and were identified as a real-time tool for monitoring membrane integrity and fouling. Backwashing as a fouling mitigation technique was effective in flux maintenance in ceramic membranes especially in the filtration of produced water; cleaning solutions were effective in flux recovery in ceramic membrane filtration and to a slightly lesser degree in hollow fibre membrane filtration. A methodology in determining the suitability of water based oil field wastes using membranes was developed to help future investigations of this type.

Olatubi, Oluwaseun Alfred

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Activated charcoal filters: Water treatment, pollution control, and industrial applications. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic File with exemplary claims). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning activated charcoal filters and their applications in water treatment, pollution control, and industrial processes. Filtering methods and equipment for air and water purification, industrial distillation and extraction, and filtration of toxic materials and contaminants are described. Applications are discussed, including drinking water purification, air and water pollution control, manufacture of industrial materials, materials recovery, waste treatment, automotive fuel and exhaust systems, cigarette filters, ventilation systems, medical filtration, and odor absorbing materials. (Contains a minimum of 125 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Activated charcoal filters: Water treatment, pollution control, and industrial applications. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning activated charcoal filters and their applications in water treatment, pollution control, and industrial processes. Filtering methods and equipment for air and water purification, industrial distillation and extraction, and filtration of toxic materials and contaminants are described. Applications are discussed, including drinking water purification, air and water pollution control, manufacture of industrial materials, materials recovery, waste treatment, automotive fuel and exhaust systems, cigarette filters, ventilation systems, medical filtration, and odor absorbing materials. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Pharmaceutical Waters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 3   Water treatment process for water for injection (WFI)...deionization WFI production Evaporation still or vapor compression...

177

ACCEPTED BY WATER ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH ODOR AND VOC REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Compost Amendment to Reduce Nutrient Runoff. Prepared for the City of Redmond. College of Forestry. Water Quality and Quantity Effects of Amending Soils with Compost Surface runoff decreased by five to 10 times after amending the soil with compost (4 in of compost tilled 8 in into the soil), compared

178

Considerations in the Design of Treatment Best Management Practices (BMPs) to Improve Water Quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This document has been reviewed in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency=s peer and administrative review policies and approved for publiction. Mention of trade names, commercial products, or design procedures does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. ii Foreword The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged by Congress with protecting the Nations land, air, and water resources. Under a mandate of national environmental laws, the Agency strives to formulate and implement actions leading to a compatible balance between human activities and the ability of natural systems to support and nurture life. To meet this mandate, EPAs research program is providing data and technical support for solving environmental problems today and building a science knowledge base necessary to manage our ecological resources wisely, understand how pollutants affect our health, and prevent or reduce environmental risks in the future. The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is the Agencys center for investigation of technological and management approaches for preventing and reducing risks from pollution that threaten human health and the environment. The focus of the Laboratorys research program is on methods and their cost-effectiveness for prevention and control of pollution to air, land, water, and subsurface resources; protection of water quality in public water systems; remediation of contaminated sites, sediments and ground water; prevention and control of indoor air pollution; and restoration of ecosystems. NRMRL collaborates with both public and private sector partners to foster technologies that reduce the cost of compliance and to anticipate emerging problems. NRMRLs research provides solutions to environmental problems by: developing and promoting technologies that protect and improve the environment; advancing

unknown authors

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

A reverse osmosis treatment process for produced water: optimization, process control, and renewable energy application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fresh water resources in many of the world's oil producing regions, such as western Texas, are scarce, while produced water from oil wells is plentiful, though unfit for most applications due to high salinity and other contamination. Disposing of this water is a great expense to oil producers. This research seeks to advance a technology developed to treat produced water by reverse osmosis and other means to render it suitable for agricultural or industrial use, while simultaneously reducing disposal costs. Pilot testing of the process thus far has demonstrated the technology's capability to produce good-quality water, but process optimization and control were yet to be fully addressed and are focuses of this work. Also, the use of renewable resources (wind and solar) are analyzed as potential power sources for the process, and an overview of reverse osmosis membrane fouling is presented. A computer model of the process was created using a dynamic simulator, Aspen Dynamics, to determine energy consumption of various process design alternatives, and to test control strategies. By preserving the mechanical energy of the concentrate stream of the reverse osmosis membrane, process energy requirements can be reduced several fold from that of the current configuration. Process control schemes utilizing basic feedback control methods with proportional-integral (PI) controllers are proposed, with the feasibility of the strategy for the most complex process design verified by successful dynamic simulation. A macro-driven spreadsheet was created to allow for quick and easy cost comparisons of renewable energy sources in a variety of locations. Using this tool, wind and solar costs were compared for cities in regions throughout Texas. The renewable energy resource showing the greatest potential was wind power, with the analysis showing that in windy regions such as the Texas Panhandle, wind-generated power costs are approximately equal to those generated with diesel fuel.

Mareth, Brett

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Characterization of forest crops with a range of nutrient and water treatments using AISA Hyperspectral Imagery.  

SciTech Connect

This research examined the utility of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Applications (AISA) hyperspectral imagery for estimating the biomass of three forest crops---sycamore, sweetgum and loblolly pine--planted in experimental plots with a range of fertilization and irrigation treatments on the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina.

Gong, Binglei; Im, Jungho; Jensen, John, R.; Coleman, Mark; Rhee, Jinyoung; Nelson, Eric

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water treatment result" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

C. Champollion Atm. Res. Version 1 14/05/04 GPS Water Vapour Tomography: Preliminary results from the ESCOMPTE Field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

obtained with a time windows of 30min intervals and input data evaluation every 15 min. The optimal grid of available measurements. The GPS has proved its capacity to measure the integrated water vapour at zenith water vapour in the line of sight of the GPS satellite. These observations can be used to study the 3D

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

182

Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes work performed on this project from April 2005 through September 2005. In previous work, a series of laboratory scale experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using a SMZ system coupled with a VPB to remove and ultimately destroy the organic pollutants found in produced water. Based on the laboratory scale data, a field test of the process was conducted at the McGrath Salt Water Disposal facility in July and August of 2005. The system performed well over repeated feed and regeneration cycles demonstrating the viability of the process for long term operation. Of the BTEX components present in the produced water, benzene had the lowest adsorption affinity for the SMZ and thus controlled the sorption cycle length. Regeneration of the SMZ using air sparging was found to be sufficient in the field to maintain the SMZ adsorption capacity and to allow continuous operation of the system. As expected, the BTEX concentrations in the regeneration off gas stream were initially very high in a given regeneration cycle. However, a granular activated carbon buffering column placed upstream of the VPB reduced the peak BTEX concentrations to acceptable levels for the VPB. In this way, the VPB was able to maintain stable performance over the entire SMZ regeneration period despite the intermittent nature of the feed.

Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

2005-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

183

Evaluation of the freeze-thaw/evaporation process for the treatment of produced waters. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of freeze-crystallization is being increasingly acknowledged as a low-cost, energy-efficient method for purifying contaminated water. Freeze-crystallization has been shown to be effective in removing a wide variety of contaminants from water. Water purification by using natural conditions to promote freezing appears to be an extremely attractive process for the treatment of contaminated water in many areas where natural climatic conditions will seasonally promote freezing. The natural freezing process can be coupled with natural evaporative processes to treat oil and gas produced waters year-round in regions where subfreezing temperatures seasonally occur. The objectives of this research are related to development of a commercially-economic natural freeze-thaw/evaporation (FTE) process for the treatment and purification of water produced in conjunction with oil and gas.

Boysen, J.; Morotti, J.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Residential Ground Source Heat Pumps with Integrated Domestic Hot Water Generation: Performance Results from Long-Term Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) show promise for reducing house energy consumption, and a desuperheater can potentially further reduce energy consumption where the heat pump from the space conditioning system creates hot water. Two unoccupied houses were instrumented to document the installed operational space conditioning and water heating efficiency of their GSHP systems. This paper discusses instrumentation methods and field operation characteristics of the GSHPs, compares manufacturers' values of the coefficients of performance calculated from field measured data for the two GSHPs, and compares the measured efficiency of the desuperheater system to other domestic hot water systems.

Stecher, D.; Allison, K.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Importance of denitrification to the efficiency of waste-water treatment in forested wetlands. Project completion report  

SciTech Connect

Wastewater, even after secondary treatment, typically contains high concentrations of nutrients that can cause eutrophication of receiving waters and deterioration of water quality. Therefore, there has been much interest in the use of natural wetlands as a simple and energy-efficient means of removing nutrients from wastewater and improving water quality. The utilization of a wetland for tertiary treatment of wastewater is based on the ability of the wetland to act as a nutrient sink. One of the most important processes in wetland ecosystems that influences their capacity as a nitrogen sink is the gaseous exchange of nitrogen with the atmosphere known as denitrification. Since denitrification represents a loss of nitrogen to the atmosphere, the mechanism tends to be most favorable for the removal of nitrogen. The objectives of the research project were to (1) determine the temporal and spatial ambient rates of denitrification and compare these rates to those of sediments amended with increased concentrations of nitrate comparable to concentrations of total nitrogen in the sewage effluent to be discharged; and (2) determine the proportion of total denitrification that can be attributed to direct utilization of nitrate loaded into the wetland, as compared to nitrate produced via nitrification within the wetland. Although nitrate is readily denitrified, short-term incubation rates are relatively low which is attributed to the presently low nitrate concentrations and subsequent reduced denitrifying microbial population in the wetland sediments. Nitrate concentrations varied seasonally associated with increased flooding during spring. Rates of nitrification coupled with denitrification were investigated with nitrogen-15 isotopes. Nitrification is limited in the wetland sedments; therefore, controls the rate of total nitrogen loss from the system.

Twilley, R.R.; Boustany, R.G.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Activated charcoal filters: Water treatment, pollution control, and industrial applications. (Latest citations from the Patent Bibliographic database with exemplary claims. ) Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning activated charcoal filters and their applications in water treatment, pollution control, and industrial processes. Filtering methods and equipment for air and water purification, industrial distillation and extraction, industrial leaching, and filtration of toxic materials and contaminants are described. Applications include drinking water purification, filtering beverages, production of polymer materials, solvent and metal recovery, waste conversion, automotive fuel and exhaust systems, swimming pool filtration, tobacco smoke filters, kitchen ventilators, medical filtration treatment, and odor absorbing materials. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Results of HWVP transuranic process waste treatment laboratory and pilot-scale filtration tests using specially ground zeolite  

SciTech Connect

Process waste streams from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) may require treatment for cesium, strontium, and transuranic (TRU) element removal in order to meet criteria for incorporation in grout. The approach planned for cesium and strontium removal is ion exchange using a zeolite exchanger followed by filtration. Filtration using a pneumatic hydropulse filter is planned to remove TRU elements which are associated with process solids and to also remove zeolite bearing the cesium and strontium. The solids removed during filtration are recycled to the melter feed system to be incorporated into the HWVP glass product. Fluor Daniel, Inc., the architect-engineering firm for HWVP, recommended a Pneumatic Hydropulse (PHP) filter manufactured by Mott Metallurgical Corporation for use in the HWVP. The primary waste streams considered for application of zeolite contact and filtration are melter off-gas condensate from the submerged bed scrubber (SBS), and equipment decontamination solutions from the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT). Other waste streams could be treated depending on TRU element and radionuclide content. Laboratory and pilot-scale filtration tests were conducted to provide a preliminary assessment of the adequacy of the recommended filter for application to HWVP waste treatment.

Eakin, D.E.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

INTERIM RESULTS FROM A STUDY OF THE IMPACTS OF TIN(II) BASED MERCURY TREATMENT IN A SMALL STREAM ECOSYSTEM: TIMS BRANCH, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

SciTech Connect

Mercury (Hg) has been identified as a 'persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic' pollutant with widespread impacts throughout North America and the world (EPA. 1997a, 1997b, 1998a, 1998b, 2000). Although most of the mercury in the environment is inorganic Hg, a small proportion of total Hg is transformed through the actions of aquatic microbes into methylmercury (MeHg). In contrast to virtually all other metals, MeHg biomagnifies or becomes increasingly concentrated as it is transferred through aquatic food chains so that the consumption of mercury contaminated fish is the primary route of this toxin to humans. For this reason, the ambient water quality criterion (AWQC) for mercury is based on a fish tissue endpoint rather than an aqueous Hg concentration, as the tissue concentration (e.g., < 0.3 {mu}g/g fillet) is considered to be a more consistent indicator of exposure and risk (EPA, 2001). Effective mercury remediation at point-source contaminated sites requires an understanding of the nature and magnitude of mercury inputs, and also knowledge of how these inputs must be controlled in order to achieve the desired reduction of mercury contamination in biota necessary for compliance with AWQC targets. One of the challenges to remediation is that mercury body burdens in fish are more closely linked to aqueous MeHg than to inorganic Hg concentrations (Sveinsdottir and Mason 2005), but MeHg production is not easily predicted or controlled. At point-source contaminated sites, mercury methylation is not only affected by the absolute mercury load, but also by the form of mercury loaded. In addition, once MeHg is formed, the hydrology, trophic structure, and water chemistry of a given system affect how it is transformed and transferred through the food chain to fish. Decreasing inorganic Hg concentrations and loading may often therefore be a more achievable remediation goal, but has led to mixed results in terms of responses in fish bioaccumulation. A number of source control measures have resulted in rapid responses in lake or reservoir fisheries (Joslin 1994, Turner and Southworth 1999; Orihel et al., 2007), but examples of similar responses in Hg-contaminated stream ecosystems are less common. Recent work suggests that stream systems may actually be more susceptible to mercury bioaccumulation than lakes, highlighting the need to better understand the ecological drivers of mercury bioaccumulation in stream-dwelling fish (Chasar et al. 2009, Ward et al. 2010). In the present study we examine the response of fish to remedial actions in Tims Branch, a point-source contaminated stream on the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. This second order stream received inorganic mercury inputs at its headwaters from the 1950s-2000s which contaminated the water, sediments, and biota downstream. In 2007, an innovative mercury removal system using tin (II) chloride (stannous chloride, SnCl{sub 2}) was implemented at a pre-existing air stripper. Tin(II) reduces dissolved Hg (II) to Hg (0), which is removed by the air stripper. During this process, tin(II) is oxidized to tin (IV) which is expected to precipitate as colloidal tin(IV) oxides and hydroxides, particulate materials with relatively low toxicity (Hallas and Cooney, 1981, EPA 2002, ATSDR, 2005). The objectives of the present research are to provide an initial assessment of the net impacts of the tin(II) based mercury treatment on key biota and to document the distribution and fate of inorganic tin in this small stream ecosystem after the first several years of operating a full scale system. To support these objectives, we collected fish, sediment, water, invertebrates, and biofilm samples from Tims Branch to quantify the general behavior and accumulation patterns for mercury and tin in the ecosystem and to determine if the treatment process has resulted in: (1) a measurable beneficial impact on (i.e., decrease of) mercury concentration in upper trophic level fish and other biota; this is a key environmental endpoint since reducing mercury concen

Looney, B.; Bryan, L.; Mathews, T.

2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

189

Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work performed on this project from April 2004 through September 2004. Our previous work demonstrated that a polyurethane foam biofilter could successfully biodegrade the BTEX contaminants found in the SMZ regeneration waste gas stream. However, establishing the biomass on the polyurethane foam packing was relatively time consuming and daily recirculation of a concentrated nutrient solution was required for efficient operation of the foam biofilter. To simplify the start up and operating requirements of the biofilter system, a simple, compost-based biofilter was investigated for its ability to treat the BTEX contaminants generated during the SMZ regeneration process. The investigation of the compost biofilter was divided into three experimental phases that spanned 180 days of biofilter operation. During Phase 1, the biofilter was continuously supplied a BTEX-contaminated waste gas stream. During Phase 2, a series of periodic shutdown tests were conducted to assess how the biofilter responded when the BTEX feed was discontinued for periods ranging from 1 day to 2.8 days. The Phase 3 experiments focused on determining how the biofilter would handle periodic spikes in inlet BTEX concentration as would be expected when it is coupled with an SMZ column. Results from the continuous feed (Phase 1) experiments demonstrated that the compost biofilter could maintain BTEX removals of greater than 98% within two weeks of startup. Results of the shutdown experiments indicated that benzene removal was the most sensitive to interruptions in the BTEX feed. Nevertheless, the BTEX removal efficiency exceeded 95% within 6 hours of reestablishing the BTEX feed to the biofilter. When the biofilter was subjected to periodic spikes in BTEX concentration (Phase 3), it was found that the total BTEX removal efficiency stabilized at approximately 75% despite the fact that the biofilter was only fed BTEX contaminants 8 hours per day. Finally, the effects of nutrient supply and EBCT on compost biofilter performance were also investigated. The bioreactor maintained greater than 95% removal efficiency for over 40 days without an additional supply of nutrients when a 10X concentrated HCMM was mixed with the compost packing at the beginning of the experiments. Results also suggest that an EBCT greater than 30 seconds is required to maintain high BTEX removal efficiencies in the compost biofilter system.

Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

2004-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

190

Pilot-Scale and Full-Scale Evaluation of Treatment Technologies for the Removal of Mercury and Selenium in Flue Gas Desulphurization Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents an overall evaluation of the various advanced treatment technologies that the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has tested for removal of mercury and selenium from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) water. EPRI conducted a literature survey followed by a preliminary laboratory-scale evaluation to screen promising technologies. For the technologies that were selected based on the success of laboratory-scale testing, EPRI worked with treatment vendors to further evaluate these techn...

2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

191

Nanomaterials-Enhanced Electrically Switched Ion Exchange Process for Water Treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of our work is to develop an electrically switched ion exchange (ESIX) system based on conducting polymer/carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposites as a new and cost-effective approach for removal of radioactive cesium, chromate, and perchlorate from contaminated groundwater. The ESIX technology combines ion exchange and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible method for the removal of target species from wastewater. In this technique, an electroactive ion exchange layer is deposited on a conducting substrate, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulation of the potential of the layer. ESIX offers the advantages of highly-efficient use of electrical energy combined with no secondary waste generation. Recently, we have improved upon the ESIX process by modifying the conducting substrate with carbon nanotubes prior to the deposition of the electroactive ion exchanger. The nanomaterial-based electroactive ion exchange technology will remove cesium-137, chromate, and perchlorate rapidly from wastewater. The high porosity and high surface area of the electroactive ion exchange nanocomposites results in high loading capacity and minimize interferences for non-target species. Since the ion adsorption/desorption is controlled electrically without generating a secondary waste, this electrically active ion exchange process is a green process technology that will greatly reduce operating costs.

Lin, Yuehe; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Jun; Bontha, Jagannadha R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Activated-charcoal filters: water treatment, pollution control, and industrial applications. January 1970-July 1988 (citations from the US Patent data base). Report for January 1970-July 1988  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning activated-charcoal filters and their applications in water treatment, pollution control, and industrial processes. Filtering methods and equipment for air and water purification, industrial distillation and extraction, industrial leaching, and filtration of toxic gases and pollutants are described. Applications include drinking water purification, filtering beverages, production of polymer materials, solvent and metal recovery, swimming pool filtration, waste conversion, automobile fuel and exhaust systems, and footwear deodorizing. (Contains 129 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Pressure Calculation in Polar and Charged Systems using Ewald Summation Results for the Extended Simple Point Charge Model of Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ewald summation and physically equivalent methods such as particle-mesh Ewald, kubic-harmonic expansions, or Lekner sums are commonly used to calculate long-range electrostatic interactions in computer simulations of polar and charged substances. The calculation of pressures in such systems is investigated. We find that the virial and thermodynamic pressures differ because of the explicit volume dependence of the effective, resummed Ewald potential. The thermodynamic pressure, obtained from the volume derivative of the Helmholtz free energy, can be expressed easily for both ionic and rigid molecular systems. For a system of rigid molecules, the electrostatic energy and the forces at the atom positions are required, both of which are readily available in molecular dynamics codes. We then calculate the virial and thermodynamic pressures for the extended simple point charge (SPC/E) water model at standard conditions. We find that the thermodynamic pressure exhibits considerably less system size dependence than t...

Hummer, G; Neumann, M; Hummer, Gerhard; Gr{}nbech-Jensen, Niels; Neumann, Martin

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Pressure Calculation in Polar and Charged Systems using Ewald Summation: Results for the Extended Simple Point Charge Model of Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ewald summation and physically equivalent methods such as particle-mesh Ewald, kubic-harmonic expansions, or Lekner sums are commonly used to calculate long-range electrostatic interactions in computer simulations of polar and charged substances. The calculation of pressures in such systems is investigated. We find that the virial and thermodynamic pressures differ because of the explicit volume dependence of the effective, resummed Ewald potential. The thermodynamic pressure, obtained from the volume derivative of the Helmholtz free energy, can be expressed easily for both ionic and rigid molecular systems. For a system of rigid molecules, the electrostatic energy and the forces at the atom positions are required, both of which are readily available in molecular dynamics codes. We then calculate the virial and thermodynamic pressures for the extended simple point charge (SPC/E) water model at standard conditions. We find that the thermodynamic pressure exhibits considerably...

Gerhard Hummer; Niels Grnbech-Jensen; Martin Neumann

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

The effect of efficiency standards on water use and water heating energy use in the US: A detailed end-use treatment  

SciTech Connect

Water heating is an important end-use, accounting for roughly 16% of total primary energy consumption in the US residential sector. Recently enacted efficiency standards on water heaters and hot water-using equipment (e.g., dishwashers, clothes washers, showerheads, and faucets) will substantially affect the energy use of water heaters in the future. Assessment of current and future utility programs and government policies requires that regulators, resource planners, and forecasters understand the effects of these regulations. In order to quantify these impacts, this paper presents a detailed end-use breakdown of household hot and cold water use developed for the US Department of Energy. This breakdown is based on both previous studies and new data and analysis. It is implemented in a spreadsheet forecasting framework, which allows significant flexibility in specifying end-use demands and linkages between water heaters and hot water-using appliances. We disaggregate total hot and cold water use (gallons per day) into their component parts: showers, baths, faucets (flow dominated and volume dominated), toilets, landscaping/other, dishwashers, and clotheswashers. We then use the end-use breakdown and data on equipment characteristics to assess the impacts of current efficiency standards on hot water use and water heater energy consumption.

Koomey, J.G.; Dunham, C.; Lutz, J.D.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Membrane Filtration and Ozonation of Poultry Chiller Overflow Water: Study of Membrane Treatment To Reduce Water Use and Ozonation for Sanitation at a Poultry Processing Plant in California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Poultry processing plants use large volume of water and the cost of obtaining and disposal of water is increasing rapidly. HACCP quality control procedures introduced recently have increased the water and compounded the situation. Chlorine is widely used in sanitation of poultry operations. Chlorine generates several byproducts that are proven to be harmful from food safety and environmental points of view. The search for alternatives to chlorine in poultry operations, particularly in the chiller, is of ...

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Long-Term Reduction in 137Cs Concentration in Food Crops on Coral Atolls Resulting from Potassium Treatment  

SciTech Connect

Bikini Island was contaminated March 1, 1954 by the Bravo detonation (U.S nuclear test series, Castle) at Bikini Atoll. About 90% of the estimated dose from nuclear fallout to potential island residents is from cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) transferred from soil to plants that are consumed by residents. Thus, radioecology research efforts have been focused on removing {sup 137}Cs from soil and/or reducing its uptake into vegetation. Most effective was addition of potassium (K) to soil that reduces {sup 137}Cs concentration in fruits to 3-5% of pretreatment concentrations. Initial observations indicated this low concentration continued for some time after K was last applied. Long-term studies were designed to evaluate this persistence in more detail because it is very important to provide assurance to returning populations that {sup 137}Cs concentrations in food (and, therefore, radiation dose) will remain low for extended periods, even if K is not applied annually or biennially. Potassium applied at 300, 660, 1260, and 1970 kg ha{sup -1} lead to a {sup 137}Cs concentration in drinking coconut meat that is 34, 22, 10, and about 4 % of original concentration, respectively. Concentration of {sup 137}Cs remains low 8 to 10 y after K is last applied. An explanation for this unexpected result is discussed.

Robison, W; Stone, E; Hamilton, T; Conrado, C

2005-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

198

Pressure Calculation in Polar and Charged Systems using Ewald Summation: Results for the Extended Simple Point Charge Model of Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ewald summation and physically equivalent methods such as particle-mesh Ewald, kubic-harmonic expansions, or Lekner sums are commonly used to calculate long-range electrostatic interactions in computer simulations of polar and charged substances. The calculation of pressures in such systems is investigated. We find that the virial and thermodynamic pressures differ because of the explicit volume dependence of the effective, resummed Ewald potential. The thermodynamic pressure, obtained from the volume derivative of the Helmholtz free energy, can be expressed easily for both ionic and rigid molecular systems. For a system of rigid molecules, the electrostatic energy and the forces at the atom positions are required, both of which are readily available in molecular dynamics codes. We then calculate the virial and thermodynamic pressures for the extended simple point charge (SPC/E) water model at standard conditions. We find that the thermodynamic pressure exhibits considerably less system size dependence than the virial pressure. From an analysis of the cross correlation between the virial and thermodynamic pressure, we conclude that the thermodynamic pressure should be used to drive volume fluctuations in constant-pressure simulations.

Gerhard Hummer; Niels Grnbech-Jensen; Martin Neumann

1998-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

199

Pressure calculation in polar and charged systems using Ewald summation: Results for the extended simple point charge model of water  

SciTech Connect

Ewald summation and physically equivalent methods such as particle-mesh Ewald, kubic-harmonic expansions, or Lekner sums are commonly used to calculate long-range electrostatic interactions in computer simulations of polar and charged substances. The calculation of pressures in such systems is investigated. We find that the virial and thermodynamic pressures differ because of the explicit volume dependence of the effective, resummed Ewald potential. The thermodynamic pressure, obtained from the volume derivative of the Helmholtz free energy, can be expressed easily for both ionic and rigid molecular systems. For a system of rigid molecules, the electrostatic energy and the forces at the atom positions are required, both of which are readily available in molecular dynamics codes. We then calculate the virial and thermodynamic pressures for the extended simple point charge (SPC/E) water model at standard conditions. We find that the thermodynamic pressure exhibits considerably less system size dependence than the virial pressure. From an analysis of the cross correlation between the virial and thermodynamic pressure, we conclude that the thermodynamic pressure should be used to drive volume fluctuations in constant-pressure simulations. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Hummer, G.; Gro/nbech-Jensen, N. [Theoretical Division, MS K710, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Neumann, M. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Wien, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)] [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Wien, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

H2O[underscore]TREAT users' manual: An aid for evaluating water treatment requirements for aquifer thermal energy storage systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This manual addresses the use of a public-domain software package developed to aid engineers in the desip of water treatment systems for aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES). The software, H20[underscore]TREAT, which runs in the DOS or UNIX Environment, was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and targeted to engineers possessing limited or no experience in geochemistry. To do this, the software provides guidance on geochemical phenomena that can cause problems in ATES systems (i.e., the formation of scale in heat exchangers, clogging of wells, corrosion in piping and heat exchangers, and degradation of aquifer materials causing a reduction in permeability). Preventing such problems frequently requires the use of water treatment systems. Because individual water treatment methods vary in cost, effectiveness, environmental impact, corrosion potential, and acceptability to regulators, proper evaluation of treatment options is required to determine the feasibility of ATES systems. The software is available for DOS- and UNIX-based computers. It uses a recently revised geochemical model, MINTEQ, to calculate the saturation indices of selected carbonate, oxide, and hydroxide minerals based on water chemistry and temperature data provided by the user. The saturation index of a specific mineral defines the point at which that mineral is oversaturated and hence may precipitate at the specified temperature. Cost calculations are not performed by the software; however, treatment capacity requirements are provided. Treatments include Na and H ion exchanger, fluidized-bed heat exchanger or pellet reactors, and CO[sub 2] injection. The H2O[underscore]TREAT software also provides the user with warning of geochemical problems that must be addressed, such as Fe and Mn oxide precipitation, SiO[sub 2] precipitation at high temperatures, corrosion, and clay swelling and dispersion.

Vail, L.W.; Jenne, E.A.; Zipperer, J.P.; McKinley, M.I.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water treatment result" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

H2O{underscore}TREAT users` manual: An aid for evaluating water treatment requirements for aquifer thermal energy storage systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This manual addresses the use of a public-domain software package developed to aid engineers in the desip of water treatment systems for aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES). The software, H20{underscore}TREAT, which runs in the DOS or UNIX Environment, was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and targeted to engineers possessing limited or no experience in geochemistry. To do this, the software provides guidance on geochemical phenomena that can cause problems in ATES systems (i.e., the formation of scale in heat exchangers, clogging of wells, corrosion in piping and heat exchangers, and degradation of aquifer materials causing a reduction in permeability). Preventing such problems frequently requires the use of water treatment systems. Because individual water treatment methods vary in cost, effectiveness, environmental impact, corrosion potential, and acceptability to regulators, proper evaluation of treatment options is required to determine the feasibility of ATES systems. The software is available for DOS- and UNIX-based computers. It uses a recently revised geochemical model, MINTEQ, to calculate the saturation indices of selected carbonate, oxide, and hydroxide minerals based on water chemistry and temperature data provided by the user. The saturation index of a specific mineral defines the point at which that mineral is oversaturated and hence may precipitate at the specified temperature. Cost calculations are not performed by the software; however, treatment capacity requirements are provided. Treatments include Na and H ion exchanger, fluidized-bed heat exchanger or pellet reactors, and CO{sub 2} injection. The H2O{underscore}TREAT software also provides the user with warning of geochemical problems that must be addressed, such as Fe and Mn oxide precipitation, SiO{sub 2} precipitation at high temperatures, corrosion, and clay swelling and dispersion.

Vail, L.W.; Jenne, E.A.; Zipperer, J.P.; McKinley, M.I.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Water treatment by reverse osmosis. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning water purification systems and components using reverse osmosis technology. Patents include purification systems and devices for seawater, waste water, and drinking water. Topics also include complete purification systems, valves and distribution components, membranes, supports, storage units, and monitors. Water purification systems using activated charcoal are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 146 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Water treatment by reverse osmosis. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning water purification systems and components using reverse osmosis technology. Patents include purification systems and devices for seawater, waste water, and drinking water. Topics also include complete purification systems, valves and distribution components, membranes, supports, storage units, and monitors. Water purification systems using activated charcoal are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Steam treatment of surface soil: how does it affect water-soluble organic matter, C mineralization, and bacterial community composition?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the newly released carbon. Steam treatment showed strong but010-0468-6 ORIGINAL PAPER Steam treatment of surface soil:at Springerlink.com Abstract Steam soil disinfestation is

Roux-Michollet, Dad; Dudal, Yves; Jocteur-Monrozier, Lucile; Czarnes, Sonia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Wastewater and Wastewater Treatment Systems (Oklahoma)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality administers regulations for waste water and waste water treatment systems. Construction of a municipal treatment work, non-industrial waste water...

206

Wastewater treatment: Dye and pigment industry. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning treatment of wastewater containing dyes and pigments. The citations discuss the of dyes and pigments in wastewater treatment systems, biodegradation of dyes, absorption and adsorption processes to remove dyes from wastewater, environmental effects from the disposal of dye-containing wastes, and methods of analysis for dyes in waste streams. Treatment methods such as ozonation, reverse osmosis, activated charcoal filtration, activated sludge, electrochemical treatments, thermal treatments, simple filtration, and absorption media are included. (Contains a minimum of 112 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Results of Water and Sediment Toxicity Tests and Chemical Analyses Conducted at the Central Shops Burning Rubble Pit Waste Unit, January 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Central Shops Burning Rubble Pit Operable Unit consists of two inactive rubble pits (631-1G and 631-3G) that have been capped, and one active burning rubble pit (631-2G), where wooden pallets and other non-hazardous debris are periodically burned. The inactive rubble pits may have received hazardous materials, such as asbestos, batteries, and paint cans, as well as non-hazardous materials, such as ash, paper, and glass. In an effort to determine if long term surface water flows of potentially contaminated water from the 631-1G, 631-3G, and 631-2G areas have resulted in an accumulation of chemical constituents at toxic levels in the vicinity of the settling basin and wetlands area, chemical analyses for significant ecological preliminary constituents of concern (pCOCs) were performed on aqueous and sediment samples. In addition, aquatic and sediment toxicity tests were performed in accordance with U.S. EPA methods (U.S. EPA 1989, 1994). Based on the results of the chemical analyses, unfiltered water samples collected from a wetland and settling basins located adjacent to the CSBRP Operable Unit exceed Toxicity Reference Values (TRVs) for aluminum, barium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, and vanadium at one or more of the four locations that were sampled. The water contained very high concentrations of clay particles that were present as suspended solids. A substantial portion of the metals were present as filterable particulates, bound to the clay particles, and were therefore not biologically available. Based on dissolved metal concentrations, the wetland and settling basin exceeded TRVs for aluminum and barium. However, the background reference location also exceeded the TRV for barium, which suggests that this value may be too low, based on local geochemistry. The detection limits for both total and dissolved mercury were higher than the TRV, so it was not possible to determine if the TRV for mercury was exceeded. Dissolved metal levels of chromium, copper, iron, lead and vanadium were below the TRVs. Metal concentrations in the sediment exceeded the TRVs for arsenic, chromium, copper, and mercury but not for antimony and lead. The results of the water toxicity tests indicated no evidence of acute toxicity in any of the samples. The results of the chronic toxicity tests indicated possible reproductive impairment at two locations. However, the results appear to be anomalous, since the toxicity was unrelated to concentration, and because the concentrations of pCOCs were similar in the toxic and the non-toxic samples. The results of the sediment toxicity tests indicated significant mortality in all but one sample, including the background reference sediment. When the results of the CSBRP sediment toxicity tests were statistically compared to the result from the background reference sediment, there was no significant mortality. These results suggest that the surface water and sediment at the CSBRP Operable Unit are not toxic to the biota that inhabit the wetland and the settling basin.

Specht, W.L.

1999-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

208

Is Primary Prostate Cancer Treatment Influenced by Likelihood of Extraprostatic Disease? A Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Patterns of Care Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To examine the patterns of primary treatment in a recent population-based cohort of prostate cancer patients, stratified by the likelihood of extraprostatic cancer as predicted by disease characteristics available at diagnosis. Methods and Materials: A total of 157,371 patients diagnosed from 2004 to 2008 with clinically localized and potentially curable (node-negative, nonmetastatic) prostate cancer, who have complete information on prostate-specific antigen, Gleason score, and clinical stage, were included. Patients with clinical T1/T2 disease were grouped into categories of 50% likelihood of having extraprostatic disease using the Partin nomogram. Clinical T3/T4 patients were examined separately as the highest-risk group. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between patient group and receipt of each primary treatment, adjusting for age, race, year of diagnosis, marital status, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database region, and county-level education. Separate models were constructed for primary surgery, external-beam radiotherapy (RT), and conservative management. Results: On multivariable analysis, increasing likelihood of extraprostatic disease was significantly associated with increasing use of RT and decreased conservative management. Use of surgery also increased. Patients with >50% likelihood of extraprostatic cancer had almost twice the odds of receiving prostatectomy as those with 50% likelihood of extraprostatic cancer (34%) and clinical T3-T4 disease (24%). The proportion of patients who received prostatectomy or conservative management was approximately 50% or slightly higher in all groups. Conclusions: There may be underutilization of RT in older prostate cancer patients and those with likely extraprostatic disease. Because more than half of prostate cancer patients do not consult with a radiation oncologist, a multidisciplinary consultation may affect the treatment decision-making process.

Holmes, Jordan A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Wang, Andrew Z. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); University of North Carolina-Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Hoffman, Karen E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Hendrix, Laura H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Rosenman, Julian G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); University of North Carolina-Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Carpenter, William R. [University of North Carolina-Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States) [University of North Carolina-Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Department of Health Policy and Management, University of North Carolina School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Godley, Paul A. [University of North Carolina-Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States) [University of North Carolina-Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Chen, Ronald C., E-mail: ronald_chen@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); University of North Carolina-Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the Basin Facility Basin Water Treatment System - Voluntary Consent Order NEW-CPP-016 Action Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan for the Basin Water Treatment System located in the Basin Facility (CPP-603), Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), Idaho National Laboratory Site, was developed to meet future milestones established under the Voluntary Consent Order. The system to be closed includes units and associated ancillary equipment included in the Voluntary Consent Order NEW-CPP-016 Action Plan and Voluntary Consent Order SITE-TANK-005 Tank Systems INTEC-077 and INTEC-078 that were determined to have managed hazardous waste. The Basin Water Treatment System will be closed in accordance with the requirements of the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as implemented by the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.05.009 and 40 Code of Federal Regulations 265, to achieve "clean closure" of the tank system. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods of achieving those standards for the Basin Water Treatment Systems.

Evans, S. K.

2007-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

210

Evaluation of the freeze-thaw/evaporation process for the treatment of produced waters. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of freeze-crystallization is being increasingly acknowledged as a low-cost, energy-efficient method for purifying contaminated water. The natural freezing process can be coupled with natural evaporative processes to treat oil and gas produced waters year round in regions where sub-freezing temperatures seasonally occur. The objectives of this research are related to development of a commercially-economic natural freeze-thaw/evaporation (FTE) process for the treatment and purification of water produced in conjunction with oil and gas. Research efforts this quarter were: to complete the required annual reports; to continue work to finalize the draft of the Task 1 and Task 2 Report; and to obtain site information and design a 200 bbl/day FTE demonstration plant to operate in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico. Specific objectives of the whole project are to: develop an economic model for determining the commercial viability, economically significant parameters, and research issues of the FTE process; conduct laboratory-scale process simulations to optimize the design of the FTE process; and to evaluate on-location treatment of water from a producing well to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of the FTE process.

Boysen, J.; Morotti, J.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Status of household water treatment and safe storage in 45 countries and a case study in Northern India  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis examines the present of the status of HWTS technologies across the world, and in one location Lucknow, India. The data for the global status of HWTS was collected by contacting the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene ...

Jain, Mehul

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Waste Treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...rates, and batch collection volume requirements Water conservation possibilities What is required to meet discharge limits Availability and type of treatment chemicals How sludge will be dewatered, dried, and disposed...

213

Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution; Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Achieving Results with Renewable Energy in the Federal Government (Brochure)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front

214

Onondaga County Department of Water Environment Protection: Process Optimization Saves Energy at Metropolitan Syracuse Wastewater Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Onondaga County, New York, is saving nearly 3 million kWh and 270 million Btu annually at a wastewater treatment plant after replacing inefficient motors and upgrading pumps.

Not Available

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Saving Water Saves Energy  

SciTech Connect

Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as wellas for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energyconsumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigatinglandscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport andtreat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32 percent ofnatural gas consumption is related to water. There is a criticalinterdependence between energy and water systems: thermal power plantsrequire cooling water, and water pumping and treatment require energy.Energy efficiency can be increased by a number of means, includingmore-efficient appliances (e.g., clothes washers or dishwashers that useless total water and less heated water), water-conserving plumbingfixtures and fittings (e.g., showerheads, faucets, toilets) and changesin consumer behavior (e.g., lower temperature set points for storagewater heaters, shorter showers). Water- and energy-conserving activitiescan help offset the stress imposed on limited water (and energy) suppliesfrom increasing population in some areas, particularly in drought years,or increased consumption (e.g., some new shower systems) as a result ofincreased wealth. This paper explores the connections between householdwater use and energy, and suggests options for increased efficiencies inboth individual technologies and systems. Studies indicate that urbanwater use can be reduced cost-effectively by up to 30 percent withcommercially available products. The energy savings associated with watersavings may represent a large additional and largely untappedcost-effective opportunity.

McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

216

Physico-chemical fracturing and cleaning of coal. [Treatment with CO/sub 2/ in water at high pressure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a method of producing a crushable coal and reducing the metallic values in coal represented by Si, Al, Ca, Na, K, and Mg, which comprises contacting a coal/water mix in a weight ratio of from about 4:1 to 1:6 in the presence of CO/sub 2/ at pressures of about 100 to 1400 psi and a minimum temperature of about 15/sup 0/C for a period of about one or more hours to produce a treated coal/water mix. In the process the treated coal/water mix has reduced values for Ca and Mg of up to 78% over the starting mix and the advantageous CO/sub 2/ concentration is in the range of about 3 to 30 g/L. Below 5 g/L CO/sub 2/ only small effects are observed and above 30 g/L no further special advantages are achieved. The coal/water ratios in the range 1:2 to 2:1 are particularly desirable and such ratios are compatible with coal water slurry applications.

Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.R.

1983-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

217

Five-year Results of Whole Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Early Stage Breast Cancer: The Fox Chase Cancer Center Experience  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To report the 5-year outcomes using whole-breast intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of early-stage-breast cancer at the Fox Chase Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: A total of 946 women with early-stage breast cancer (stage 0, I, or II) were treated with IMRT after surgery with or without systemic therapy from 2003-2010. Whole-breast radiation was delivered via an IMRT technique with a median whole-breast radiation dose of 46 Gy and median tumor bed boost of 14 Gy. Endpoints included local-regional recurrence, cosmesis, and late complications. Results: With a median follow-up of 31 months (range, 1-97 months), there were 12 ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTR) and one locoregional recurrence. The 5-year actuarial IBTR and locoregional recurrence rates were 2.0% and 2.4%. Physician-reported cosmestic outcomes were available for 645 patients: 63% were considered 'excellent', 33% 'good', and =}16 Gy, breast size >900 cc, or boost volumes >34 cc were significantly associated with a 'fair/poor' cosmetic outcome. Fibrosis, edema, erythema, and telangectasia were also associated with 'fair/poor' physician-reported cosmesis; erythema and telangectasia remained significant on multivariate analysis. Patient-reported cosmesis was available for 548 patients, and 33%, 50%, and 17% of patients reported 'excellent', 'good', and 'fair/poor' cosmesis, respectively. The use of a boost and increased boost volume: breast volume ratio were significantly associated with 'fair/poor' outcomes. No parameter for patient-reported cosmesis was significant on multivariate analysis. The chances of experiencing a treatment related effect was significantly associated with a boost dose {>=}16 Gy, receipt of chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, large breast size, and electron boost energy. Conclusions: Whole-breast IMRT is associated with very low rates of local recurrence at 5 years, 83%-98% 'good/excellent' cosmetic outcomes, and minimal chronic toxicity, including late fibrosis.

Keller, Lanea M.M., E-mail: Lanea.Keller@fccc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Sopka, Dennis M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Li Tianyu [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Klayton, Tracy; Li Jinsheng; Anderson, Penny R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bleicher, Richard J.; Sigurdson, Elin R. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Freedman, Gary M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

218

Produced Water R&D | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Shale Gas » Produced Water Shale Gas » Produced Water R&D Produced Water R&D Developed as a result of lessons learned from the NETL funded demonstration project, the Altela 600 water treatment system (shown above) treats about 25,000 gallons per day of produced and flowback water from hydraulic fracturing. [Photo courtesy of Altela Inc.] Developed as a result of lessons learned from the NETL funded demonstration project, the Altela 600 water treatment system (shown above) treats about 25,000 gallons per day of produced and flowback water from hydraulic fracturing. [Photo courtesy of Altela Inc.] Drilling and fracturing wells produce water along with the natural gas. Some of this water is returned fracture fluid and some is natural formation water. The actual water production of a particular well depends on the well

219

Decision Document for the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant, Pesticide Rinse Area, Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, Illicit PCB Dump Site, and the Battery Acid Pit Fort Lewis, Washington  

SciTech Connect

PNNL conducted independent site evaluations for four sites at Fort Lewis, Washington, to determine their suitability for closure on behalf of the installation. These sites were recommended for "No Further Action" by previous invesitgators and included the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Waste Water Treatment Plant (IWTP), the Pesticide Rinse Area, the Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, and the Illicit PCB Dump Site.

Cantrell, Kirk J.; Liikala, Terry L.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Taira, Randal Y.

2000-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

220

Devising wastewater treatment strategies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Troubleshooting a waste water treatment system takes basic knowledge of how the process is designed to work, tools, and a few resources. This paper describes a Seven Steps Program employed fopr troubleshooting. A well-designed troubleshooting program should be comprehensive, thoroughly tested and constantly revisited to maintain a reliable and efficient wastewater treatment system. Such a method includes each of the integral components including biological, human, mechanical, and chemical. This total systems approach can result in improved system operation and better bottom line results.

Hornby, L.E.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water treatment result" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

NETL Water and Power Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water and Power Plants Review Water and Power Plants Review A review meeting was held on June 20, 2006 of the NETL Water and Power Plants research program at the Pittsburgh NETL site. Thomas Feeley, Technology Manager for the Innovations for Existing Plants Program, gave background information and an overview of the Innovations for Existing Plants Water Program. Ongoing/Ending Projects Alternative Water Sources Michael DiFilippo, a consultant for EPRI, presented results from the project "Use of Produced Water in Recirculated Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities". John Rodgers, from Clemson University, presented results from the project "An Innovative System for the Efficient and Effective Treatment of Non-traditional Waters for Reuse in Thermoelectric Power Generation".

222

In-situ biological treatment test at Kelly Air Force Base. Volume 2. Field test results and cost model. Final report, 1 June 1985-31 May 1987  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this effort was to field test in-situ biodegradation to treat aquifer contaminants. In-situ biodegradation is enhanced by stimulating in indigenous subsurface microbial population by the addition of nutrients and an oxygen source to promote degradation of organic contaminants. In-situ treatments affects contaminants with a mixture of organic and inorganic chemicals. The treatment system consisted of an array of nine pumping wells and four infiltration wells. These wells circulated groundwater and transported the treatment chemical s throughout the 2800-square-feet treatment area. Oxygen was supplied by means of a hydrogen peroxide solution. Nutrients were principally ammonium and phosphate salts. The system was operated for 9 months. Data showed evidence of both aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation. Decreases in tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene concentrations in groundwater correlate with anaerobic microcosm tests. Aerobic biodegradation was indicated by acid and carbon dioxide production, and increases in petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in groundwater, However, any biodegradation of these hydrocarbons was too small to be quantified. The study confirms that indigenous bacteria can be enhanced to degrade organic contaminants. The problems with in situ treatment are primarily those of delivery of chemicals and minimizing adverse reactions between injection chemicals and subsurface minerals.

Wetzel, R.S.; Durst, C.M.; Davidson, D.H.; Sarno, D.J.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Investigating the Impacts of Conventional and Advanced Treatment Technologies on Energy Consumption at Satellite Water Reuse Plants.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??With the ever increasing world population and the resulting increase in industrialization and agricultural practices, depletion of two of the world's most important natural resources, (more)

Bailey, Jonathan Roy

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

NORDIC WASTE WATER TREATMENT SLUDGE TREATMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

biogas, electricity and fertilizer from 30 000 tons of annually waste. The plant was opened in March 2008 together it an- nually produces 18,9 GWh biogas and around 10 GWh of elec- tricity. The Cambi THP ­process

225

Exploiting interfacial water properties for desalination and purification applications.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A molecular-scale interpretation of interfacial processes is often downplayed in the analysis of traditional water treatment methods. However, such an approach is critical for the development of enhanced performance in traditional desalination and water treatments. Water confined between surfaces, within channels, or in pores is ubiquitous in technology and nature. Its physical and chemical properties in such environments are unpredictably different from bulk water. As a result, advances in water desalination and purification methods may be accomplished through an improved analysis of water behavior in these challenging environments using state-of-the-art microscopy, spectroscopy, experimental, and computational methods.

Xu, Hongwu (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Varma, Sameer; Nyman, May Devan; Alam, Todd Michael; Thuermer, Konrad; Holland, Gregory P.; Leung, Kevin; Liu, Nanguo (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Xomeritakis, George K. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Frankamp, Benjamin L.; Siepmann, J. Ilja (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Cygan, Randall Timothy; Hartl, Monika A. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Travesset, Alex (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Anderson, Joshua A. (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Huber, Dale L.; Kissel, David J. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Bunker, Bruce Conrad; Lorenz, Christian Douglas; Major, Ryan C. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); McGrath, Matthew J. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Farrow, Darcie; Cecchi, Joseph L. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); van Swol, Frank B.; Singh, Seema; Rempe, Susan B.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Clawson, Jacalyn S.; Feibelman, Peter Julian; Houston, Jack E.; Crozier, Paul Stewart; Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Chen, Zhu (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Zhu, Xiaoyang (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Dunphy, Darren Robert (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Orendorff, Christopher J.; Pless, Jason D.; Daemen, Luke L. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Gerung, Henry (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Ockwig, Nathan W.; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Stevens, Mark Jackson

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

WATER AND GROWTH: FUTURE WATER SUPPLIES FOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Reclaimed Water As people use water, a wastewater stream is produced. Once cleaned to acceptable standards and is available as reclaimed water. #12;20 New growth in central Arizona will produce significant quantities to return for wastewater treatment51 . Of the reclaimed water produced, 30% is assumed available to meet

Gelt, Joe

227

Sanitizing Stored Water Supplies R. Craig Runyan1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Publication date: September 2009. This publication is produced by the Southern Regional Water Program, scrubbing the interior tank walls with mild detergent can produce excellent results. Even when water stored quantities. Treatment of stored water using standard household bleach will usually produce good

228

NETL: Water-Energy Interface - Power Plant Water Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in Cooling Towers GE Global Research will develop treatment technologies to enable power plant use of non-traditional waters. Using effective treatment methods to make...

229

Water treatment by reverse osmosis. November 1970-October 1989 (Citations from the US Patent data base). Report for November 1970-October 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning water purification systems and components using reverse-osmosis technology. Patents include systems and devices for sea water, waste water, and drinking water purification. Topics include complete purification systems, valves and distribution components, membranes, supports, storage units, and monitors. Water purification systems using activated charcoal are referenced in a related published bibliography. (Contains 103 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

NETL: Water-Energy Interface - Power Plant Water Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management Carnegie Mellon University, in a joint effort with the University of Pittsburgh, is conducting a study of the use of treated municipal wastewater as cooling system makeup for coal fired power plants. This project builds upon a study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy entitled, "Reuse of Treated Internal or External Wastewaters in the Cooling Systems of Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants," which showed that treated municipal wastewater is the most common and widespread source in the United States. Data analysis revealed that 81 percent of power plants proposed for construction by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) would have sufficient cooling water supply from one to two publicly owned treatment works (POTW) within a 10-mile radius, while 97 percent of the proposed power plants would be able to meet their cooling water needs with one to two POTWs within 25 miles of these plants. Thus, municipal wastewater will be the impaired water source most likely to be locally available in sufficient and reliable quantities for power plants. Results of initial studies indicate that it is feasible to use secondary treated municipal wastewater as cooling system makeup. The biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, and phosphorus in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, although current research is demonstrating that these problems can be controlled through aggressive chemical management. It is currently unclear whether tertiary treatment of municipal waste water prior to its re-use can be a cost-effective option to aggressive chemical management of the bulk cooling water volume.

231

Evaluation of Confining Layer Integrity Beneath the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, Dade County, Florida  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A review has been performed of existing information that describes geology, hydrogeology, and geochemistry at the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, which is operated by the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, in Dade County, Florida. Treated sanitary wastewater is injected into a saline aquifer beneath the plant. Detection of contaminants commonly associated with treated sanitary wastewater in the freshwater aquifer that overlies the saline aquifer has indicated a need for a reevaluation of the ability of the confining layer above the saline aquifer to prevent fluid migration into the overlying freshwater aquifer. Review of the available data shows that the geologic data set is not sufficient to demonstrate that a competent confining layer is present between the saline and freshwater aquifers. The hydrogeologic data also do not indicate that a competent confining layer is present. The geochemical data show that the freshwater aquifer is contaminated with treated wastewater, and the spatial patterns of contamination are consistent with upward migration through localized conduits through the Middle Confining Unit, such as leaking wells or natural features. Recommendations for collection and interpretation of additional site characterization data are provided.

Starr, R.C.; Green, T.S.; Hull, L.C.

2001-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

232

Evaluation of Confining Layer Integrity Beneath the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, Dade County, Florida  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A review has been performed of existing information that describes geology, hydrogeology, and geochemistry at the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, which is operated by the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, in Dade County, Florida. Treated sanitary wastewater is injected into a saline aquifer beneath the plant. Detection of contaminants commonly associated with treated sanitary wastewater in the freshwater aquifer that overlies the saline aquifer has indicated a need for a reevaluation of the ability of the confining layer above the saline aquifer to prevent fluid migration into the overlying freshwater aquifer. Review of the available data shows that the geologic data set is not sufficient to demonstrate that a competent confining layer is present between the saline and freshwater aquifers. The hydrogeologic data also do not indicate that a competent confining layer is present. The geochemical data show that the freshwater aquifer is contaminated with treated wastewater, and the spatial patterns of contamination are consistent with upward migration through localized conduits through the Middle Confining Unit, such as leaking wells or natural features. Recommendations for collection and interpretation of additional site characterization data are provided.

Starr, Robert Charles; Green, Timothy Scott; Hull, Laurence Charles

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Waste water treatment in Antarctica.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Today more and more of our focus in Antarctica and the rest of the world are turning towards how we, theinhabitants, leave footprints on (more)

Thomsen, Ann

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy ofGaP_{1-x}N_x Photocorroded as a Result of Hydrogen Productionthrough Water Electrolysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells produce hydrogen gas through the sunlight driven electrolysis of water. By extracting hydrogen and oxygen from water and storing solar energy in the H-H bond, they offer a promising renewable energy technology. Addition of dilute amounts of nitrogen to III-V semiconductors has been shown to dramatically increase the stability of these materials for hydrogen production. In an effort to learn more about the origin of semiconductor photocorrosion in PEC cells, three samples of p-type GaP with varying levels of nitrogen content (0%, 0.2%, 2%) were photocorroded and examined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). GaPN samples were observed to be more efficient during the hydrogen production process than the pure GaP samples. Sample surfaces contained gallium oxides in the form of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ga(OH){sub 3} and phosphorus oxide (P{sub 2}O{sub 5}), as well as surface oxides from exposure to air. A significant shift in intensity from bulk to surface peaks dramatic nitrogen segregation to the surface during photoelectrochemical hydrogen production. Further investigations, including using a scanning electron microscope to investigate sample topography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis for solution analyses, are under way to determine the mechanism for these changes.

Mayer, Marie A.; /Illinois U., Urbana /SLAC

2006-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

235

Drinking Water Problems: Arsenic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High levels of arsenic in drinking water can poison and even kill people. This publication explains the symptoms of arsenic poisoning and common treatment methods for removing arsenic from your water supply.

Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

2005-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

236

Search results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ECP Suppression Mechanism and ECP Simulation for a Small-Area Noble Metal Deposition under Hydrogen Water Chemistry Conditions by M. Sakai, $10.00...

237

Influence of Water Quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...BP. Boffardi, Corrosion Inhibitors in the Water Treatment Industry, Corrosion: Fundamentals, Testing, and Protection, Vol 13A, ASM Handbook, ASM International, 2003, p 891??906...

238

Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water  

SciTech Connect

This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron, and organics. Pilot study results indicate that produced water from the San Ardo oilfield can be treated to meet project water quality goals. Approximately 600 mg/l of caustic and 100 mg/l magnesium dosing were required to meet the hardness and silica goals in the warm softening unit. Approximately 30% of the ammonia was removed in the cooling tower; additional ammonia could be removed by ion exchange or other methods if necessary. A brackish water reverse osmosis membrane was effective in removing total dissolved solids and organics at all pH levels evaluated; however, the boron treatment objective was only achieved at a pH of 10.5 and above.

Robert A. Liske

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

239

Changes in Water Vapor Transport and the Production of Precipitation in the Eastern Fertile Crescent as a Result of Global Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates changes in the types of storm events occurring in the Fertile Crescent as a result of global warming. Regional climate model [fifth-generation Pennsylvania State UniversityNational Center for Atmospheric Research ...

J. P. Evans

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

2012 BNL Water Quality Consumer Confidence Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

because it comes from one of the two drinking- water wells that produces water naturally low in iron water is produced with pride by the staff of BNL's Water Treatment Facility (WTF) of the Energy & Utilities Division. Producing BNL's finished water are five water- treatment engineers, each having NYSDOH

Ohta, Shigemi

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water treatment result" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Brookhaven's Drinking-Water Quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Quality Water Quality The Lab's finished drinking water is produced with pride by the staff of BNL's Water Treatment Facility Home Groundwater Consumer Confidence Reports Water Treatment Process Resources Tap Water Recommendations Water Cooler Cleaning Additional Resources Brookhaven Lab Drinking Water Brookhaven produces its own drinking water for all employees, facility-users, guests, residents, and visitors on site at its Water Treatment Facility (WTF). BNL's drinking water is pumped from groundwater by five active wells and processed at the WTF which can handle up to 6 million gallons per day. The "finished" water is sent to the Lab's two storage towers and then distributed around the site via 45 miles of pipeline. To ensure that Brookhaven's water meets all applicable local, state, and

242

Water pollution  

SciTech Connect

Ballast water, which is sea water that is carried in oil tankers to provide stability, can become contaminated with oil. Alyeska Pipeline Service Company runs a water treatment plant at its pipeline terminal at Prot Valdez, Alaska, to treat ballast water before it is discharged into the sea. GAO reviewed EPA's recently reissued National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit for the Port Valdez facility. In this report, GAO compares the effluent limits and other requirements under the reissued permit with those of the old permit, determines the reasons for changes in the reissued permit, and examines Alyeska's initial efforts to comply with the reissued permit's effluent limits and reporting requirements.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Trends in the Utilization of Adjuvant Vaginal Cuff Brachytherapy and/or External Beam Radiation Treatment in Stage I and II Endometrial Cancer: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The optimal adjuvant radiation treatment for endometrial carcinoma (EC) remains controversial. Adjuvant vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VB) has emerged as an increasingly common treatment modality. However, the time trends for using VB, external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), or combined therapy (VB+EBRT) have not been well characterized. We therefore examined the utilization trends of VB, EBRT, and VB+EBRT for adjuvant RT in International Federation of Gynecologic Oncology (FIGO) stage I and II EC over time. Methods and Materials: We evaluated treatment patterns for 48,122 patients with EC diagnosed between January 1995 and December 2005, using the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) public use database. Chi-squared tests were used to assess differences by radiation type (VB, EBRT, and VB+EBRT) and various demographic and clinical variables. Results: Analyses were limited to 9,815 patients (20.4%) with EC who met the inclusion criteria. Among women who received adjuvant RT, the proportion receiving VB increased yearly (12.9% in 1995 compared to 32.8% in 2005 (p < 0.0001). The increasing use of VB was proportional to the decreasing use of EBRT (56.1% in 1995 to 45.8% in 2005; p < 0.0001) and VB+EBRT (31.0% in 1995 to 21.4% in 2005; p < 0.001). Conclusions: This population-based report demonstrates an increasing trend in the use of VB in the adjuvant setting after hysterectomy for treatment of women with FIGO stage I-II EC. VB alone appears to be replacing pelvic EBRT and VB+EBRT therapy in the management of stage I-II EC.

Patel, Mehul K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Cote, Michele L. [Karmanos Cancer Institute and Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Ali-Fehmi, Rouba [Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Buekers, Thomas; Munkarah, Adnan R. [Department of Women's Health Services, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Elshaikh, Mohamed A., E-mail: melshai1@hfhs.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Information Sources for Small Water Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Managers of small waters systems must have information about a variety of topics. This publication lists essential printed and electronic resources on disaster preparedness, national drinking water standards, private water well management, water treatment, and many other topics.

Dozier, Monty; Theodori, Gene L.; Jensen, Ricard

2007-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

245

WaterSense Program: Methodology for National Water Savings Analysis Model Indoor Residential Water Use  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) influences the market for plumbing fixtures and fittings by encouraging consumers to purchase products that carry the WaterSense label, which certifies those products as performing at low flow rates compared to unlabeled fixtures and fittings. As consumers decide to purchase water-efficient products, water consumption will decline nationwide. Decreased water consumption should prolong the operating life of water and wastewater treatment facilities.This report describes the method used to calculate national water savings attributable to EPA?s WaterSense program. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet model, the National Water Savings (NWS) analysis model, accompanies this methodology report. Version 1.0 of the NWS model evaluates indoor residential water consumption. Two additional documents, a Users? Guide to the spreadsheet model and an Impacts Report, accompany the NWS model and this methodology document. Altogether, these four documents represent Phase One of this project. The Users? Guide leads policy makers through the spreadsheet options available for projecting the water savings that result from various policy scenarios. The Impacts Report shows national water savings that will result from differing degrees of market saturation of high-efficiency water-using products.This detailed methodology report describes the NWS analysis model, which examines the effects of WaterSense by tracking the shipments of products that WaterSense has designated as water-efficient. The model estimates market penetration of products that carry the WaterSense label. Market penetration is calculated for both existing and new construction. The NWS model estimates savings based on an accounting analysis of water-using products and of building stock. Estimates of future national water savings will help policy makers further direct the focus of WaterSense and calculate stakeholder impacts from the program.Calculating the total gallons of water the WaterSense program saves nationwide involves integrating two components, or modules, of the NWS model. Module 1 calculates the baseline national water consumption of typical fixtures, fittings, and appliances prior to the program (as described in Section 2.0 of this report). Module 2 develops trends in efficiency for water-using products both in the business-as-usual case and as a result of the program (Section 3.0). The NWS model combines the two modules to calculate total gallons saved by the WaterSense program (Section 4.0). Figure 1 illustrates the modules and the process involved in modeling for the NWS model analysis.The output of the NWS model provides the base case for each end use, as well as a prediction of total residential indoor water consumption during the next two decades. Based on the calculations described in Section 4.0, we can project a timeline of water savings attributable to the WaterSense program. The savings increase each year as the program results in the installation of greater numbers of efficient products, which come to compose more and more of the product stock in households throughout the United States.

Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; McNeil, Michael; Dunham_Whitehead, Camilla; Letschert, Virginie; della_Cava, Mirka

2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

246

Effects of Irrigating with Treated Oil and Gas Product Water on Crop Biomass and Soil Permeability  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Demonstrating effective treatment technologies and beneficial uses for oil and gas produced water is essential for producers who must meet environmental standards and deal with high costs associated with produced water management. Proven, effective produced-water treatment technologies coupled with comprehensive data regarding blending ratios for productive long-term irrigation will improve the state-of-knowledge surrounding produced-water management. Effective produced-water management scenarios such as cost-effective treatment and irrigation will discourage discharge practices that result in legal battles between stakeholder entities. The goal of this work is to determine the optimal blending ratio required for irrigating crops with CBNG and conventional oil and gas produced water treated by ion exchange (IX), reverse osmosis (RO), or electro-dialysis reversal (EDR) in order to maintain the long term physical integrity of soils and to achieve normal crop production. The soils treated with CBNG produced water were characterized with significantly lower SAR values compared to those impacted with conventional oil and gas produced water. The CBNG produced water treated with RO at the 100% treatment level was significantly different from the untreated produced water, while the 25%, 50% and 75% water treatment levels were not significantly different from the untreated water. Conventional oil and gas produced water treated with EDR and RO showed comparable SAR results for the water treatment technologies. There was no significant difference between the 100% treated produced water and the control (river water). The EDR water treatment resulted with differences at each level of treatment, which were similar to RO treated conventional oil and gas water. The 100% treated water had SAR values significantly lower than the 75% and 50% treatments, which were similar (not significantly different). The results of the greenhouse irrigation study found the differences in biomass production between each soil were significant for Western Wheatgrass and Alfafla. The Sheridan sandy loam soil resulted in the highest production for western wheatgrass and alfalfa while the X-ranch sandy loam had the lowest production rate for both plants. Plant production levels resulting from untreated CBNG produced water were significantly higher compared to untreated conventional oil and gas produced water. However, few differences were found between water treatments. The biomass produced from the greenhouse study was analyzed for elemental composition and for forage value. Elemental composition indentified several interesting findings. Some of the biomass was characterized with seemly high boron and sodium levels. High levels of boron found in some of the biomass was unexpected and may indicate that alfalfa and western wheatgrass plants may have been impacted by either soil or irrigation water containing high boron levels. Plants irrigated with water treated using EDR technology appeared to contain higher levels of boron with increased levels of treatment. Forage evaluations were conducted using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. The data collected show small differences, generally less than 10%, between produced water treatments including the no treatment and 100% treatment conditions for each plant species studied. The forage value of alfalfa and western wheatgrass did not show significant tendencies dependent on soil, the amount of produced water treatment, or treatment technology.

Terry Brown; Jeffrey Morris; Patrick Richards; Joel Mason

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

247

Hydrogen and Water: An Engineering, Economic and Environmental Analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The multi-year program plan for the Department of Energy's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technology Program (USDOE, 2007a) calls for the development of system models to determine economic, environmental and cross-cutting impacts of the transition to a hydrogen economy. One component of the hydrogen production and delivery chain is water; water's use and disposal can incur costs and environmental consequences for almost any industrial product. It has become increasingly clear that due to factors such as competing water demands and climate change, the potential for a water-constrained world is real. Thus, any future hydrogen economy will need to be constructed so that any associated water impacts are minimized. This, in turn, requires the analysis and comparison of specific hydrogen production schemes in terms of their water use. Broadly speaking, two types of water are used in hydrogen production: process water and cooling water. In the production plant, process water is used as a direct input for the conversion processes (e.g. steam for Steam Methane Reforming {l_brace}SMR{r_brace}, water for electrolysis). Cooling water, by distinction, is used indirectly to cool related fluids or equipment, and is an important factor in making plant processes efficient and reliable. Hydrogen production further relies on water used indirectly to generate other feedstocks required by a hydrogen plant. This second order indirect water is referred to here as 'embedded' water. For example, electricity production uses significant quantities of water; this 'thermoelectric cooling' contributes significantly to the total water footprint of the hydrogen production chain. A comprehensive systems analysis of the hydrogen economy includes the aggregate of the water intensities from every step in the production chain including direct, indirect, and embedded water. Process and cooling waters have distinct technical quality requirements. Process water, which is typically high purity (limited dissolved solids) is used inside boilers, reactors or electrolyzers because as it changes phase or is consumed, it leaves very little residue behind. Pre-treatment of 'raw' source water to remove impurities not only enables efficient hydrogen production, but also reduces maintenance costs associated with component degradation due to those impurities. Cooling water has lower overall quality specifications, though it is required in larger volumes. Cooling water has distinct quality requirements aimed at preserving the cooling equipment by reducing scaling and fouling from untreated water. At least as important as the quantity, quality and cost of water inputs to a process are the quantity, quality and cost of water discharge. In many parts of the world, contamination from wastewater streams is a far greater threat to water supply than scarcity or drought (Brooks, 2002). Wastewater can be produced during the pre-treatment processes for process and cooling water, and is also sometimes generated during the hydrogen production and cooling operations themselves. Wastewater is, by definition, lower quality than supply water. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities can handle some industrial wastewaters; others must be treated on-site or recycled. Any of these options can incur additional cost and/or complexity. DOE's 'H2A' studies have developed cost and energy intensity estimates for a variety of hydrogen production pathways. These assessments, however, have not focused on the details of water use, treatment and disposal. As a result, relatively coarse consumption numbers have been used to estimate water intensities. The water intensity for hydrogen production ranges between 1.5-40 gallons per kilogram of hydrogen, including the embedded water due to electricity consumption and considering the wide variety of hydrogen production, water treatment, and cooling options. Understanding the consequences of water management choices enables stakeholders to make informed decisions regarding water use. Water is a fundamentally regional commodity. Water resources vary in quality and qu

Simon, A J; Daily, W; White, R G

2010-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

248

Long-Term Outcome and Morbidity After Treatment With Accelerated Radiotherapy and Weekly Cisplatin for Locally Advanced Head-and-Neck Cancer: Results of a Multidisciplinary Late Morbidity Clinic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate the long-term outcome and morbidity after intensified treatment for locally advanced head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Between May 2003 and December 2007, 77 patients with Stage III to IV head-and-neck cancer were treated with curative intent. Treatment consisted of accelerated radiotherapy to a dose of 68 Gy and concurrent cisplatin. Long-term survivors were invited to a multidisciplinary outpatient clinic for a comprehensive assessment of late morbidity with special emphasis on dysphagia, including radiological evaluation of swallowing function in all patients. Results: Compliance with the treatment protocol was high, with 87% of the patients receiving at least five cycles of cisplatin and all but 1 patient completing the radiotherapy as planned. The 5-year actuarial disease-free survival and overall survival rates were 40% and 47%, respectively. Locoregional recurrence-free survival at 5 years was 61%. The 5-year actuarial rates of overall late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Grade 3 and Grade 4 toxicity were 52% and 25% respectively. Radiologic evaluation after a median follow-up of 44 months demonstrated impaired swallowing in 57% of the patients, including 23% with silent aspiration. Subjective assessment using a systematic scoring system indicated normalcy of diet in only 15.6% of the patients. Conclusion: This regimen of accelerated radiotherapy with weekly cisplatin produced favorable tumor control rates and survival rates while compliance was high. However, comprehensive assessment by a multidisciplinary team of medical and paramedical specialists revealed significant long-term morbidity in the majority of the patients, with dysphagia being a major concern.

Ruetten, Heidi, E-mail: h.rutten@rther.umcn.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Pop, Lucas A.M.; Janssens, Geert O.R.J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Takes, Robert P. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Knuijt, Simone [Department of Rehabilitation/Speech Pathology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Rooijakkers, Antoinette F. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Berg, Manon van den [Department of Gastroenterology-Dietetics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Merkx, Matthias A. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Herpen, Carla M.L. van [Department of Medical Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

249

Hydrogen and Water: An Engineering, Economic and Environmental Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The multi-year program plan for the Department of Energy's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technology Program (USDOE, 2007a) calls for the development of system models to determine economic, environmental and cross-cutting impacts of the transition to a hydrogen economy. One component of the hydrogen production and delivery chain is water; water's use and disposal can incur costs and environmental consequences for almost any industrial product. It has become increasingly clear that due to factors such as competing water demands and climate change, the potential for a water-constrained world is real. Thus, any future hydrogen economy will need to be constructed so that any associated water impacts are minimized. This, in turn, requires the analysis and comparison of specific hydrogen production schemes in terms of their water use. Broadly speaking, two types of water are used in hydrogen production: process water and cooling water. In the production plant, process water is used as a direct input for the conversion processes (e.g. steam for Steam Methane Reforming {l_brace}SMR{r_brace}, water for electrolysis). Cooling water, by distinction, is used indirectly to cool related fluids or equipment, and is an important factor in making plant processes efficient and reliable. Hydrogen production further relies on water used indirectly to generate other feedstocks required by a hydrogen plant. This second order indirect water is referred to here as 'embedded' water. For example, electricity production uses significant quantities of water; this 'thermoelectric cooling' contributes significantly to the total water footprint of the hydrogen production chain. A comprehensive systems analysis of the hydrogen economy includes the aggregate of the water intensities from every step in the production chain including direct, indirect, and embedded water. Process and cooling waters have distinct technical quality requirements. Process water, which is typically high purity (limited dissolved solids) is used inside boilers, reactors or electrolyzers because as it changes phase or is consumed, it leaves very little residue behind. Pre-treatment of 'raw' source water to remove impurities not only enables efficient hydrogen production, but also reduces maintenance costs associated with component degradation due to those impurities. Cooling water has lower overall quality specifications, though it is required in larger volumes. Cooling water has distinct quality requirements aimed at preserving the cooling equipment by reducing scaling and fouling from untreated water. At least as important as the quantity, quality and cost of water inputs to a process are the quantity, quality and cost of water discharge. In many parts of the world, contamination from wastewater streams is a far greater threat to water supply than scarcity or drought (Brooks, 2002). Wastewater can be produced during the pre-treatment processes for process and cooling water, and is also sometimes generated during the hydrogen production and cooling operations themselves. Wastewater is, by definition, lower quality than supply water. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities can handle some industrial wastewaters; others must be treated on-site or recycled. Any of these options can incur additional cost and/or complexity. DOE's 'H2A' studies have developed cost and energy intensity estimates for a variety of hydrogen production pathways. These assessments, however, have not focused on the details of water use, treatment and disposal. As a result, relatively coarse consumption numbers have been used to estimate water intensities. The water intensity for hydrogen production ranges between 1.5-40 gallons per kilogram of hydrogen, including the embedded water due to electricity consumption and considering the wide variety of hydrogen production, water treatment, and cooling options. Understanding the consequences of water management choices enables stakeholders to make informed decisions regarding water use. Water is a fundamentally reg

Simon, A J; Daily, W; White, R G

2010-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

250

Test of a magnetic device for the amelioration of scale formation at Treatment Facility D  

SciTech Connect

A commercial device (Descal-A-Matic{reg_sign}, Norfolk, VA) designed to treat water by means of a magnetic field has been evaluated for its effect on the formation of calcite scale at LLNL Treatment Facility D. At this facility, volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) are removed by air stripping, which raises the water pH, causing the deposition of calcium carbonate as calcite scale downstream. To evaluate the magnetic treatment technique, the ground water was passed through the Descal-A-Matic{reg_sign} device before treatment by the air stripping unit, and the resulting scale formation and other water characteristics were compared with those found during a test with no water treatment and a test with chemical treatment with a polyphosphate additive. No beneficial effect was found when using the magnetic device. 6 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Krauter, P.W., Harrar, J.E., Orloff, S.P., Bahowick, S.M.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Solving Water Quality Problems in the Home  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

If your drinking water comes from a private water well, there are certain procedures you can follow to make sure the water is safe. This publication explains how to get your water tested and, if treatment is necessary, to select the correct treatment equipment. Tables display common water problems and the equipment used to treat them.

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2004-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

252

The Drinking Water Security and Safety Amendments of 2002: Is America's Drinking Water Infrastructure Safer Four Years Later?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pumping station, or water intake could deprive large areasthe pre-treatment and water intake part of the system; and 'around intakes; intruder resis- tant fences enclosing water

Shermer, Steven D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

III, "Method of Breaking Shale Oil-Water Emulsion," U. S.and Biological Treatment of Shale Oil Retort Water, DraftPA (1979). H. H. Peters, Shale Oil Waste Water Recovery by

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Iron Mountain Electromagnetic Results  

SciTech Connect

Iron Mountain Mine is located seventeen miles northwest of Redding, CA. After the completion of mining in early 1960s, the mine workings have been exposed to environmental elements which have resulted in degradation in water quality in the surrounding water sheds. In 1985, the EPA plugged ore stoops in many of the accessible mine drifts in an attempt to restrict water flow through the mine workings. During this process little data was gathered on the orientation of the stoops and construction of the plugs. During the last 25 years, plugs have begun to deteriorate and allow acidic waters from the upper workings to flow out of the mine. A team from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed geophysical surveys on a single mine drift and 3 concrete plugs. The project goal was to evaluate several geophysical methods to determine competence of the concrete plugs and orientation of the stopes.

Gail Heath

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Carbon and Water Resource Management for Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

upgrades, and different water sources (desalination).Desalination and sewage treatment upgrades were found tolater in this chapter. Desalination proved to have 2-18

Hendrickson, Thomas Peter

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

NETL: Water-Energy Interface - Power Plant Water Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermoelectric Power Plant Water Demands Using Alternative Water Supplies: Thermoelectric Power Plant Water Demands Using Alternative Water Supplies: Power Demand Options in Regions of Water Stress and Future Carbon Management Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is conducting a regional modeling assessment of non-traditional water sources for use in thermoelectric power plants. The assessment includes the development of a model to characterize water quantity and quality from several sources of non-traditional water, initially focused within the Southeastern United States. The project includes four primary tasks: (1) identify water sources, needs, and treatment options; (2) assess and model non-traditional water quantity and quality; (3) identify and characterize water treatment options including an assessment of cost; and (4) develop a framework of metrics, processes, and modeling aspects that can be applied to other regions of the United States.

257

Search Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Search Results. CAS Number, Formula, Name, State, JANAF Table, Links. 7439-97-6, Hg, Mercury, ref, view, ... 7439-97-6, Hg, Mercury, cr,l, view, ...

258

GLODAP Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Results Evaluation of Inorganic Carbon Quality Carbon Thermodynamics Anthropogenic CO2 Radio Carbon Gridded Carbon Fields Click the map to enlarge. Indian Ocean Pacific Ocean...

259

Search Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Search Results. CAS Number, Formula, Name, State, JANAF Table, Links. 7440-33-7, W, Tungsten, cr,l, view, ... 7440-33-7, W, Tungsten, cr, view, ...

260

Water driven : New Orleans City Hall as a sustainable civic center for 21st century  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The devastating struck of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans in late summer of 2005 was deadly and immense. The storm destroyed over 170 drinking water facilities and 47 wastewater treatments around the city, and resulted ...

Sangthong, Pholkrit

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water treatment result" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Anodic Treatments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...pickled after being sand blasted. (d) Water from steam condensate or water treated by ion exchange should

262

UV water disinfector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system and an air-suspended bare UV lamp are disclosed. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir. 7 figs.

Gadgil, A.; Garud, V.

1998-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

263

UV water disinfector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system, and an air-suspended bare UV lamp. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir.

Gadgil, Ashok (El Cerrito, CA); Garud, Vikas (Bombay, IN)

1998-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

264

SEARCH RESULTS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home | search results Please enter one or more search words. ADVANCED SEARCH with all the words with the exact phrase with at least one of the words without the words File Format...

265

NETL: Water-Energy Interface - Power Plant Water Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanofiltration Treatment Options for Thermoelectric Power Plant Water Treatment Demands Nanofiltration Treatment Options for Thermoelectric Power Plant Water Treatment Demands Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is conducting a study on the use of nanofiltration (NF) treatment options to enable use of non-traditional water sources as an alternative to freshwater make-up for thermoelectric power plants. The project includes a technical and economic evaluation of NF for two types of water that contain moderate to high levels of total dissolved solids (TDS): (1) cooling tower recirculating water and (2) produced waters from oil & gas extraction operations. Reverse osmosis (RO) is the most mature and commonly considered option for high TDS water treatment. However, RO is generally considered to be too expensive to make treatment of produced waters for power plant use a feasible application. Therefore, SNL is investigating the use of NF, which could be a more cost effective treatment option than RO. Similar to RO, NF is a membrane-based process. Although NF is not as effective as RO for the removal of TDS (typical salt rejection is ~85 percent, compared to >95 percent for RO), its performance should be sufficient for typical power plant applications. In addition to its lower capital cost, an NF system should have lower operating costs because it requires less pressure to achieve an equivalent flux of product water.

266

The Relationship between Water and Energy: Optimizing Water and Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In an effort to conserve water, drought-proof operating plants and control costs, the critical relationship of water and energy is clearly exposed. Five years of effort has transpired into countless studies, more than 100 projects and a clear understanding that the highest value opportunities for water conservation usually exist where there is the strongest interaction of water and energy. Steam management systems, process cooling, high quality water production and waste water treatment represent high probability areas for water conservation and value capture. These are not the only areas to reduce water management infrastructure and environmental footprint but they represent areas with the high potential for efforts to return bottom line value.

Finley, T.; Fennessey, K.; Light, R.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Energy-Water Overview  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Emerging Issues and Challenges Emerging Issues and Challenges DOE/EIA 2010 Energy Conference Mike Hightower Sandia National Laboratories mmhight@sandia.gov, 505-844-5499 Energy and Water are ... Interdependent Water for Energy and Energy for Water Energy and power production require water: * Thermoelectric cooling * Hydropower * Energy minerals extraction/mining * Fuel Production (fossil fuels, H 2 , biofuels) * Emission control Water production, processing, distribution, and end-use require energy: * Pumping * Conveyance and Transport * Treatment * Use conditioning * Surface and Ground water Water Consumption by Sector U.S. Freshwater Consumption, 100 Bgal/day Livestock 3.3% Thermoelectric 3.3% Commercial 1.2% Domestic 7.1% Industrial 3.3% Mining 1.2% Irrigation 80.6% Energy uses 27 percent of all non-agricultural fresh water

268

Service Water Piping Guideline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the years 1988 and 1989, EPRI organized the Service Water Working Group (SWWG) to identify and help resolve the many issues surrounding service water (SW) systems in nuclear power plants. One issue identified by the SWWG was corrosion in service water piping systems. Interest in this issue resulted in the development of several technical reports: Guidelines for the Repair/Replacement Welding of Nuclear Service Water Systems, TR-100386; Guide for the Examination of Service Water System Piping, TR-10206...

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

269

Recycling produced water for algal cultivation for biofuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Algal growth demands a continuous source of water of appropriate salinity and nutritional content. Fresh water sources are scarce in the deserts of the Southwestern United States, hence, salt water algae species are being investigated as a renewable biofuel source. The use of produced water from oil wells (PW) could offset the demand for fresh water in cultivation. Produced water can contain various concentrations of dissolved solids, metals and organic contaminants and often requires treatment beyond oil/water separation to make it suitable for algae cultivation. The produced water used in this study was taken from an oil well in Jal, New Mexico. An F/2-Si (minus silica) growth media commonly used to cultivate Nannochloropsis salina 1776 (NS 1776) was prepared using the produced water (F/2-Si PW) taking into account the metals and salts already present in the water. NS 1776 was seeded into a bioreactor containing 5L of the (F/2-Si PW) media. After eleven days the optical density at 750 nm (an indicator of algal growth) increased from 0 to 2.52. These results indicate algae are able to grow, though inhibited when compared with non-PW media, in the complex chemical conditions found in produced water. Savings from using nutrients present in the PW, such as P, K, and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, results in a 44.38% cost savings over fresh water to mix the F/2-Si media.

Neal, Justin N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sullivan, Enid J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dean, Cynthia A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steichen, Seth A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

270

Water Quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

271

Water footprint of electric power generation : modeling its use and analyzing options for a water-scarce future  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The interdependency between water and energy, sometimes called the water-energy nexus, is growing in importance as demand for both water and energy increases. Energy is required for water treatment and supply, while virtually ...

Delgado Martn, Anna

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

ZERO WATER DISCHARGE SYSTEM FOR THE BABYLON RESOURCE RECOVERY FACILITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

plant, involves a complex series of water users and wastewater producers. The water quality of each will be produced and 23,000 gal!day (87 m3/d) of extracted water will be returned to the Well Water Treatment description of each of the subsystems: BOILER FEEDWATER TREATMENT High purity boiler makeup water is produced

Columbia University

273

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Waters from Green River Oil Shale," Chem. and Ind. , 1. ,Effluents from In-Situ oil Shale Processing," in Proceedingsin the Treatment of Oil Shale Retort Waters," in Proceedings

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Instantaneous gas water heater  

SciTech Connect

Hot water supply temperature is set by a temperature setting device in response to an instantaneous flow rate signal from a water flow rate sensor arranged in a water supply pipe and a feeding water temperature signal from a feeding water temperature sensor which are compared with a predetermined hot water supply temperature and calculated in a control unit. A proportional valve and other devices in a gas supply pipe are controlled in response to the result of the comparison and calculation to define a required volume of gas for ignition and heating. At the same time, a fan damper is controlled by a damper control device so as to adjust the volume of combustion air. A signal representing discharging hot water temperature from a discharging hot water temperature sensor arranged in a hot water feeding pipe is fed back to the control unit and calculated therein, and a valve in the hot water supply pipe is adjusted in response to the result of calculation to attain the desired hot water supply temperature. In order to prevent freezing in the system in winter season, a signal from a thermostat in the water feeding pipe is transmitted to a heater arranged in an air supply chamber so as to heat a heat exchanger pipe and, at the same time, heaters arranged in the water feeding pipe and the hot water supply pipe are also controlled to prevent freezing.

Tsutsui, O.; Kuwahara, H.; Murakami, Sh.; Yasunaga, Sh.

1985-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

275

Municipal waste water as a source of cooling water for California electric power plants  

SciTech Connect

The results of an investigation of sources of municipal waste water for potential use as cooling water in California power plants and the major factors which affect this practice are presented. Municipal treatment facilities in California with discharge volumes deemed adequate to supply new power plants are identified. Also included is a summary of the experiences of several utilities in California and other western states with existing or planned applications of municipal waste water in power plant cooling towers. Due to limited supplies of high-quality water, municipal waste water is increasingly viewed as an alternative source of supply for a variety of water uses, including electric power plant evaporative cooling. In California, enough municipal effluent is discharged to the ocean to conceivably supply the total projected cooling water needs of new power plants for the next 20 years or more. A number of existing applications of such waste water for power plant cooling, including several California cases, demonstrate the technical feasibility of its use for this purpose. However, a combination of economic, environmental, and geographic factors reduce the likelihood of widespread use of this alternative for meeting anticipated large increases in power plant water requirements in the state. The most important factors are: the long distances involved; the public health concerns; added costs and environmental effects; and unreliability of supply quality.

McDonald, T.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Treatment of oily wastewaters from onshore operations  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of samples of process water from the Alyeska ballast treatment plant, Port Valdez, Alaska, disclosed that organic matter present in the process stream included volatile organic matter (lower molecular weight hydrocarbons), dissolved nonvolatile organic matter (including phenolic and naphthalenic compounds), and suspended oil. To develop informaton on the effectiveness of oil removal and to characterize the chemical redistribution taking place in the process, concentrations of each organic fraction were measured and the principal compounds were characterized chemically. Results show that the treatment plant was effective in reducing free oil content of the ballast water. A reduction of 99.8% in the organic load was realized, producing effluent generally within federal regulations regarding discharge of oil. The bulk of organic content reduction took place in the gravity separator. (JMT)

Lysyj, I.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Section 6.1 Water Management: Greening Federal Facilities; Second...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

resources, reduces the amount of energy and chemicals used for water and wastewater treatment, and, to the extent that the use of hot water is reduced, increases energy...

278

Power Plant Wastewater Treatment Technology Review Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Assessing power plant water management options means screening an increasing number of wastewater treatment technologies. This report provides engineers with detailed information on treatment process performance, economics, and applications to complete rapid, yet meaningful, technology screening evaluations.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Energy Efficiency Strategies for Municipal Wastewater Treatment...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities J. Daw and K. Hallett National Renewable Energy Laboratory J. DeWolfe and I. Venner Malcolm Pirnie, the Water Division of ARCADIS...

280

Turbid water Clear water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: The submersible laser bathymetric (LBath) optical system is capable of simultaneously providing visual images- dynamical wing. This underwater package is pulled through the water by a single towed cable with fiber optic special high energy density optical fibers. A remote Pentium based PC also at the surface is used

Jaffe, Jules

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water treatment result" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Removal of heavy metal ions from oil shale beneficiation process water by ferrite process  

SciTech Connect

The ferrite process is an established technique for removing heavy metals from waste water. Because the process water resulting from oil shale beneficiation falls into the category of industrial waste water, it is anticipated that this process may turn out to be a potential viable treatment for oil shale beneficiation process water containing many heave metal ions. The process is chemoremedial because not only effluent water comply with quality standards, but harmful heavy metals are converted into a valuable, chemically stable by-product known as ferrite. These spinel ferrites have magnetic properties, and therefore can be use in applications such as magnetic marker, ferrofluid, microwave absorbing and scavenging material. Experimental results from this process are presented along with results of treatment technique such as sulfide precipitation.

Mehta, R.K.; Zhang, L.; Lamont, W.E.; Schultz, C.W. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States). Mineral Resources Inst.)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Removal of heavy metal ions from oil shale beneficiation process water by ferrite process  

SciTech Connect

The ferrite process is an established technique for removing heavy metals from waste water. Because the process water resulting from oil shale beneficiation falls into the category of industrial waste water, it is anticipated that this process may turn out to be a potential viable treatment for oil shale beneficiation process water containing many heave metal ions. The process is chemoremedial because not only effluent water comply with quality standards, but harmful heavy metals are converted into a valuable, chemically stable by-product known as ferrite. These spinel ferrites have magnetic properties, and therefore can be use in applications such as magnetic marker, ferrofluid, microwave absorbing and scavenging material. Experimental results from this process are presented along with results of treatment technique such as sulfide precipitation.

Mehta, R.K.; Zhang, L.; Lamont, W.E.; Schultz, C.W. [Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States). Mineral Resources Inst.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

283

IEP - Water-Energy Interface: Advanced Water Treatment and Detection...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

systems used to control nitrogen oxide emissions can appear in a power plant's wastewater streams. Research is needed for advanced technologies to detect and remove mercury,...

284

Water Intoxication  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2008, May 14). Too much water raises seizure risk in babies.id=4844 9. Schoenly, Lorry. Water Intoxication and Inmates:article/246650- overview>. 13. Water intoxication alert. (

Lingampalli, Nithya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Water Snakes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation WATER SNAKES Contrary to popular belief, the Water Moccasin commonly known as the...

286

Water and Wastewater Technology Demonstration Projects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project was funded jointly by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Southern California Edison (SCE), and the California Energy Commission (CEC), with project management by SCE. The primary objective was to identify and develop technologies that could help California's water/wastewater industry reduce the cost of water and wastewater treatment and improve the overall operation at treatment facilities. Metropolitan Water District (MWD) and Orange County Water District (OCWD) were commissioned...

2002-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

287

Investigating Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This 3-ring binder contains teaching plans for 12 lessons on topics such as "Water in Our Daily Lives," "The Water Cycle," "Amazing Aquifers," "Water and Soil," "Aquatic Ecosystems," and "Water Wise Use." Accompanying each lesson plan are activity and record sheets for hands-on learning experiences. This curriculum is intended for students in about 4th to 8th grades.

Howard Jr., Ronald A.

2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

288

Municipal wastewater treatment with special reference to the central wastewater treatment plant in Poznan, Poland.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Wastewater treatment is becoming a more critical topic due to diminishing water resources, increasing cost of disposing wastewater and also stricter measures and legislations set (more)

Orukpe, Otaigbe Stephen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Thermodynamic and transport property modeling in super critical water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a thermally-based, remediation and waste-treatment process that relies on unique property changes of water when water is heated and pressurized above its critical point. Above its ...

Kutney, Michael C. (Michael Charles)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Prevention & Treatment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Prevention and Treatment Prevention and Treatment These steps may help prevent the spread of respiratory illnesses such as the flu: Stay Healthy Vaccination Antivirals Stay Informed Stay Healthy Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze-throw the tissue away immediately after you use it. Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially after you cough or sneeze. If you are not near water, use an alcohol-based (60-95%) hand cleaner. Avoid close contact with people who are sick. When you are sick, keep your distance from others to protect them from getting sick too. If you get the flu, stay home from work, school, and social gatherings. This will help prevent others from catching your illness. Try not to touch your eyes, nose, or mouth. Germs often spread this way.

291

Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environmental Impacts of Produced Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post-reverse osmosis produced water was designed to promote oxidizing conditions within the first wetland cell for nitrification of ammonia, and the subsequent three cells were designed to promote reducing conditions for denitrification of nitrate. By incorporating multiple wetland cells in a CWTS, the conditions within each cell can be modified for removal of specific COCs. In addition, a CWTS designed with multiple cells allows for convenient sample collection points so that biogeochemical conditions of individual cells can be monitored and performance evaluated. Removal rate coefficients determined from the pilot-scale CWTS experiments and confirmed by the demonstration system can be used to calculate HRTs required to treat COCs in full-scale CWTSs. The calculated HRTs can then be used to determine the surface area or ?footprint? of a full-size CWTS for a given inflow rate of produced water.

Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Beebe, Alex; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

292

Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environment Impacts of Produced Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post-reverse osmosis produced water was designed to promote oxidizing conditions within the first wetland cell for nitrification of ammonia, and the subsequent three cells were designed to promote reducing conditions for denitrification of nitrate. By incorporating multiple wetland cells in a CWTS, the conditions within each cell can be modified for removal of specific COCs. In addition, a CWTS designed with multiple cells allows for convenient sample collection points so that biogeochemical conditions of individual cells can be monitored and performance evaluated. Removal rate coefficients determined from the pilot-scale CWTS experiments and confirmed by the demonstration system can be used to calculate HRTs required to treat COCs in full-scale CWTSs. The calculated HRTs can then be used to determine the surface area or ?footprint? of a full-size CWTS for a given inflow rate of produced water.

Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

293

Removing Arsenic from Contaminated Drinking Water in Rural Bangladesh:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Removing Arsenic from Contaminated Drinking Water in Rural Bangladesh: Removing Arsenic from Contaminated Drinking Water in Rural Bangladesh: Recent Fieldwork Results & Policy Implications Title Removing Arsenic from Contaminated Drinking Water in Rural Bangladesh: Recent Fieldwork Results & Policy Implications Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2009 Authors Mathieu, Johanna L., Ashok J. Gadgil, Kristin Kowolik, and Susan E. Addy Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract of arsenic from drinking water in Bangladesh. During fieldwork in four sub-districts of the country, ARUBA reduced arsenic levels ranging from 200 to 900 ppb to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. The technology is cost-effective because the substrate-bottom ash from coal fired power plants-is a waste material readily available in South Asia. In comparison to similar technologies, ARUBA uses less media for arsenic removal due to its high surface area to volume ratio. Hence, less waste is produced. A number of experiments were conducted in Bangladesh to determine the effectiveness of various water treatment protocols. It was found that (1) ARUBA removes more thanhalf of the arsenic from water within five minutes of treatment, (2) ARUBA, that has settled at the bottom of a treatment vessel, continues to remove arsenic for 2-3 days, (3) ARUBA's arsenic removal efficiency can be improved through sequential partial dosing (adding a given amount of ARUBA in fractions versus all at once), and (4) allowing water to first stand for two to three days followed by treatment with ARUBA produced final arsenic levels ten times lower than treating water directly out of the well. Our findings imply a number of tradeoffs between ARUBA's effective arsenic removal capacity, treatment system costs, and waste output. These tradeoffs, some a function of arsenic-related policies in Bangladesh (e.g., waste disposal regulations), must be considered when designing anarsenic removal system. We propose that the most attractive option is to use ARUBA in communityscale water treatment centers, installed as public-private partnerships, in Bangladeshi villages

294

Par Pond water balance  

SciTech Connect

A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs.

Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Energy Basics: Water Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Storage Water Heaters Tankless Demand Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Tankless Coil & Indirect Water Heaters Water Heating A variety of...

296

Ground Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Nature Bulletin No. 408-A February 27, 1971 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation GROUND WATER We take...

297

Water Dogs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NA Question: I'd like to know about the water dogs and their life cycle? Replies: Water dog, or mud puppy, is a common name for a type of salamander that never develops lungs, but...

298

Analysis of hydrocarbon removal methods for the management of oilfield brines and produced waters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

According to the Texas Railroad Commission (TRC), ????over 250 billion gallons of produced water is taken out of Texas Soil every year, and more than 35% of this water is not currently fit to use.?? Therefore, it can be assumed that domestically and globally, the petroleum industries challenge has been to develop a high-tech and cost effective method to purify the large volumes of oilfield brines and produced water. Currently, most of the produced water requires several pre- and post- treatment methods to aide in reducing fouling of membranes, separation of components, increasing influent and effluent quality, and preventing unwanted work stoppage during the desalination process. As a result, the pre- and post- treatment conditioning of the produced water affects the economics and scale-up (i.e. residence times, absorption capacity, etc??) of the varying processes parameters. Therefore, this research focuses on developing an economic analysis and determining the adsorption capacity of an organoclay system to remove oil.

Furrow, Brendan Eugene

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

NETL: Water-Energy Interface - A Novel Concept for Reducing Water...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Management An Innovative System for Treatment of Non-Traditional Waters for Reuse in Power Generation - Clemson University Clemson University is evaluating pilot-scale...

300

Biological processes for concentrating trace elements from uranium mine waters. Technical completion report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Waste water from uranium mines in the Ambrosia Lake district near Grants, New Mexico, USA, contains uranium, selenium, radium and molybdenum. The Kerr-McGee Corporation has a novel treatment process for waters from two mines to reduce the concentrations of the trace contaminants. Particulates are settled by ponding, and the waters are passed through an ion exchange resin to remove uranium; barium chloride is added to precipitate sulfate and radium from the mine waters. The mine waters are subsequently passed through three consecutive algae ponds prior to discharge. Water, sediment and biological samples were collected over a 4-year period and analyzed to assess the role of biological agents in removal of inorganic trace contaminants from the mine waters. Some of the conclusions derived from this study are: (1) The concentrations of soluble uranium, selenium and molybdenum were not diminished in the mine waters by passage through the series of impoundments which constituted the mine water treatment facility. Uranium concentrations were reduced but this was due to passage of the water through an ion exchange column. (2) The particulate concentrations of the mine water were reduced at least ten-fold by passage of the waters through the impoundments. (3) The sediments were anoxic and enriched in uranium, molybdenum and selenium. The deposition of particulates and the formation of insoluble compounds were proposed as mechanisms for sediment enrichment. (4) The predominant algae of the treatment ponds were the filamentous Spirogyra and Oscillatoria, and the benthic alga, Chara. (5) Adsorptive processes resulted in the accumulation of metals in the algae cells. (6) Stimulation of sulfate reduction by the bacteria resulted in retention of molybdenum, selenium, and uranium in sediments. 1 figure, 16 tables.

Brierley, C.L.; Brierley, J.A.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water treatment result" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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301

Reuse of Produced Water from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery, Coal-Bed Methane, and Mine Pool Water by Coal-Based Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power generation in the Illinois Basin is expected to increase by as much as 30% by the year 2030, and this would increase the cooling water consumption in the region by approximately 40%. This project investigated the potential use of produced water from CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (CO{sub 2}-EOR) operations; coal-bed methane (CBM) recovery; and active and abandoned underground coal mines for power plant cooling in the Illinois Basin. Specific objectives of this project were: (1) to characterize the quantity, quality, and geographic distribution of produced water in the Illinois Basin; (2) to evaluate treatment options so that produced water may be used beneficially at power plants; and (3) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the treatment and transportation of produced water to thermoelectric power plants in the Illinois Basin. Current produced water availability within the basin is not large, but potential flow rates up to 257 million liters per day (68 million gallons per day (MGD)) are possible if CO{sub 2}-enhanced oil recovery and coal bed methane recovery are implemented on a large scale. Produced water samples taken during the project tend to have dissolved solids concentrations between 10 and 100 g/L, and water from coal beds tends to have lower TDS values than water from oil fields. Current pretreatment and desalination technologies including filtration, adsorption, reverse osmosis (RO), and distillation can be used to treat produced water to a high quality level, with estimated costs ranging from $2.6 to $10.5 per cubic meter ($10 to $40 per 1000 gallons). Because of the distances between produced water sources and power plants, transportation costs tend to be greater than treatment costs. An optimization algorithm was developed to determine the lowest cost pipe network connecting sources and sinks. Total water costs increased with flow rate up to 26 million liters per day (7 MGD), and the range was from $4 to $16 per cubic meter ($15 to $60 per 1000 gallons), with treatment costs accounting for 13 ?? 23% of the overall cost. Results from this project suggest that produced water is a potential large source of cooling water, but treatment and transportation costs for this water are large.

Chad Knutson; Seyed Dastgheib; Yaning Yang; Ali Ashraf; Cole Duckworth; Priscilla Sinata; Ivan Sugiyono; Mark Shannon; Charles Werth

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

302

Water Waves and Integrability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Euler's equations describe the motion of inviscid fluid. In the case of shallow water, when a perturbative asymtotic expansion of the Euler's equations is taken (to a certain order of smallness of the scale parameters), relations to certain integrable equations emerge. Some recent results concerning the use of integrable equation in modeling the motion of shallow water waves are reviewed in this contribution.

Rossen I. Ivanov

2007-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

303

Reduce Overhead, Implement Energy Efficiency in Water/Wastewater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Through the Focus on Energy program in the State of Wisconsin we have been able to identify savings for industries in their water/wastewater treatment or distribution systems. Modifications required to realize savings resulted in reduced energy consumption and reduced cost to industry. Reduced cost is a pleasant benefit when the cost of utility bills comes off the bottom line and if the industry is working on a 5 percent margin the actual value of the savings could be considered to be 20 times its actual savings. Modifications can be made in wastewater treatment applications by adjusting dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in treatment process, modifying aeration system blowers, changing diffusers, and considering a DO automatic control system. In water systems, changes in pump operations by not throttling valves for control, adding variable speed drives to constant speed operations, and reducing pressure on systems where it will not adversely impact the process.

Cantwell, J. C.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Clinical and Isokinetic Results  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The importance of the menisci for transmitting workloads in the knee joint to protect the articular cartilage is widely acknowledged. Therefore various techniques have been introduced to repair the damaged meniscus. We performed an arthroscopic meniscus repair with a modified outside-in technique on 29 patients (average 25 years) between 2/91 and 10/94. The average time between trauma and operation was 29 weeks (1-186) the follow-up 16.3 months (4-49). All the patients were interviewed by phone 23 were available for clinical respectively isokinetic examination, and categorized following the Lysholm and Lais scores. Twenty-eight patients were happy with the result of the procedure. Following the Lysholm score we found 78 % good]excellent results (Lais score 74%). Isokinetic testing showed a muscular deficit of less than 20 % in 91 % of the cases for flexion (extension 69%). No significant influence neither of the age of the patient nor the time period between trauma and operation on the outcome of the procedure could be found. No complications were reported. Based on our results and well aware of the deleterious long term effects of total meniscectomy the arthroscopic menical repair performed by an experienced surgeon should be generous choice of therapy for the treatment of the ruptured meniscus.

Arthroscopic Meniscus Repair; Christoph Erggelet A; Carmen Grosse B; Hans-rudolph Henche B; Bart De Koning

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Water Bugs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bugs Bugs Nature Bulletin No. 221-A March 12, 1966 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Seymour Simon, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation WATER BUGS It is fascinating to lie in a boat or on a log at the edge of the water and watch the drama that unfolds among the small water animals. Among the star performers in small streams and ponds are the Water Bugs. These are aquatic members of that large group of insects called the "true bugs", most of which live on land. Moreover, unlike many other types of water insects, they do not have gills but get their oxygen directly from the air. Those that do go beneath the surface usually carry an oxygen supply with them in the form of a shiny glistening sheath of air imprisoned among a covering of fine waterproof hairs. The common water insect known to small boys at the "Whirligig Bug" is not a water bug but a beetle.

306

EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION Leadership Team Subcommittee: Joan Bradshaw Michael Dukes Pierce Jones Kati Migliaccio #12;Water Conservation - Situation · Florida water supplies;Water Conservation Initiative 2: Enhancing and protecting water quality, quantity, and supply Priority 1

Slatton, Clint

307

Inefficient remediation of ground-water pollution  

SciTech Connect

The problem of trying to remove ground-water pollution by pumping and treating are pointed out. Various Superfund sites are discussed briefly. It is pointed out that many chemicals have been discarded in an undocumented manner, and their place in the groundwater is not known. Results of a remedial program to remove perchloroethylene at a concentration of 6132 parts per billion from groundwater in a site in New Jersey showed that with an average extraction rate of 300 gallons per minute from 1978 to 1984 contamination level was lowered below 100 parts per billion. However, after shutdown of pumping the level rose to 12,588 parts per billion in 1988. These results lead the author to propose that the practical solutions for water supplies may be treatment at the time it enters the system for use.

Abelson, P.H.

1990-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

308

Water Data Collection in the 2007 CBECS  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Water Data Collection in the 2007 CBECS CBECS 2007 - Release date: August 28, 2012 Did you know? Select water data results are described in the accompanying report, Energy...

309

Cleanroom energy benchmarking results  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cooling system using cooling tower water for sensible andfor process cooling. Improve cooling tower efficiency byoperating multiple cooling towers at reduced fan speed

Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Shock Chlorination of Stored Water Supplies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Treatment of drinking water to improve its sanitary or bacteriological quality is referred to as disinfection. Shock chlorination is one disinfection method employed by public suppliers to reduce bacterial contamination of water. This method also can be used by private-water-well owners.

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2005-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

311

Shock Chlorination of Stored Water Supplies (Spanish)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Treatment of drinking water to improve its sanitary or bacteriological quality is referred to as disinfection. Shock chlorination is one disinfection method employed by public suppliers to reduce bacterial contamination of water. This method also can be used by private-water-well owners.

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2005-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

312

NETL: Water-Energy Interface - Power Plant Water Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Environmentally-Safe Control of Zebra Mussel Fouling - Environmentally-Safe Control of Zebra Mussel Fouling - New York State Education Department Coal-fired power plants within North America need an effective, economical, and non-polluting technique for managing infestations of zebra mussels within their facilities, particularly in cooling water intake systems. Unfortunately, due to a lack of options, many facilities have relied on the use of broad-spectrum, chemical biocides for control of these freshwater, macro-fouling mussels. Biocide treatments, such as continuous chlorination for three weeks, are widely regarded as environmentally unacceptable. Chlorine, for example, can combine with organic compounds in water resulting in the formation of trihalomethanes, dioxins, and other potentially carcinogenic substances. Because of this, there is growing concern within the power generation industry that such broad-spectrum biocides will be banned by individual states and/or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This would result in a crisis situation for the electric utility industry. Even if such an outright ban does not occur, the reduction in the use of such biocides is generally viewed by coal-fired and other power generating industries as environmentally prudent and desirable.

313

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Alluvial Aquifer, that has resulted from oil and gas operations in the area, particularly in south, discharge from poultry and hog plants, and leaky landfills, among others. Saline water intrusion and near

Soerens, Thomas

314

INEEL Source Water Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEELs drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Surveys Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agencys Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEELs Source Water Assessment. Of the INEELs 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will protect the INEELs public water systems yet not too conservative to inhibit the INEEL from carrying out its missions.

Sehlke, Gerald

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Reusing Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reusing Water Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into the environment. April 12, 2012 Water from cooling the supercomputer is release to maintain a healthy wetland. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email We reuse the same water up to six times before releasing it back into the environment cleaner than when it was pumped. How many times does LANL reuse water? Wastewater is generated from some of the facilities responsible for the Lab's biggest missions, such as the cooling towers of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, one of the Lab's premier science research

316

Water Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Systems Analyses and Planning EUEC Energy & Environment Conference 2008, EPS,1292008 2 * Water Scarcity Seen Dampening Case...

317

Decision support for integrated water-energy planning.  

SciTech Connect

Currently, electrical power generation uses about 140 billion gallons of water per day accounting for over 39% of all freshwater withdrawals thus competing with irrigated agriculture as the leading user of water. Coupled to this water use is the required pumping, conveyance, treatment, storage and distribution of the water which requires on average 3% of all electric power generated. While water and energy use are tightly coupled, planning and management of these fundamental resources are rarely treated in an integrated fashion. Toward this need, a decision support framework has been developed that targets the shared needs of energy and water producers, resource managers, regulators, and decision makers at the federal, state and local levels. The framework integrates analysis and optimization capabilities to identify trade-offs, and 'best' alternatives among a broad list of energy/water options and objectives. The decision support framework is formulated in a modular architecture, facilitating tailored analyses over different geographical regions and scales (e.g., national, state, county, watershed, NERC region). An interactive interface allows direct control of the model and access to real-time results displayed as charts, graphs and maps. Ultimately, this open and interactive modeling framework provides a tool for evaluating competing policy and technical options relevant to the energy-water nexus.

Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Castillo, Cesar; Hart, William Eugene; Klise, Geoffrey T.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

DOE Annual Progress Report: Water Needs and Constraints for Hydrogen Pathways  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Water is a critical feedstock in the production of hydrogen. In fact, water and many of the energy transformations upon which society depends are inextricably linked. Approximately 39% of freshwater withdrawals are used for cooling of power plants, and another 8% are used in industry and mining (including oil and gas extraction and refining). Major changes in the energy infrastructure (as envisioned in a transformation to a hydrogen economy) will necessarily result in changes to the water infrastructure. Depending on the manner in which a hydrogen economy evolves, these changes could be large or small, detrimental or benign. Water is used as a chemical feedstock for hydrogen production and as a coolant for the production process. Process and cooling water must meet minimum quality specifications (limits on mineral and organic contaminants) at both the inlet to the process and at the point of discharge. If these specifications are not met, then the water must be treated, which involves extra expenditure on equipment and energy. There are multiple options for water treatment and cooling systems, each of which has a different profile of equipment cost and operational requirements. The engineering decisions that are made when building out the hydrogen infrastructure will play an important role in the cost of producing hydrogen, and those decisions will be influenced by the regional and national policies that help to manage water resources. In order to evaluate the impacts of water on hydrogen production and of a hydrogen economy on water resources, this project takes a narrowly-scoped lifecycle analysis approach. We begin with a process model of hydrogen production and calculate the process water, cooling, electricity and energy feedstock demands. We expand beyond the production process itself by analyzing the details of the cooling system and water treatment system. At a regional scale, we also consider the water use associated with the electricity and fuel that feed hydrogen production and distribution. The narrow scope of the lifecycle analysis enables economic optimization at the plant level with respect to cooling and water treatment technologies. As water withdrawal and disposal costs increase, more expensive, but more water-efficient technologies become more attractive. Some of the benefits of these technologies are offset by their increased energy usage. We use the H2A hydrogen production model to determine the overall cost of hydrogen under a range of water cost and technology scenarios. At the regional level, we are planning on following the hydrogen roll-out scenarios envisioned by Greene and Leiby (2008) to determine the impact of hydrogen market penetration on various watersheds. The economics of various water technologies will eventually be incorporated into the temporal and geographic Macro System Model via a water module that automates the spreadsheet models described. At the time of this progress report, the major achievement for FY2009 has been the completion of the framework and analytical results of the economic optimization of water technology for hydrogen production. This accomplishment required the collection of cost and performance data for multiple cooling and water treatment technologies, as well as the integration of a water and energy balance model with the H2A framework. 22 (twenty-two) different combinations of production method (SMR, electrolysis), scale (centralized, forecourt), cooling (evaporative tower, dry) and water treatment (reverse osmosis, ion exchange) were evaluated. The following data were collected: water withdrawal, water discharge, electricity consumption, equipment footprint, equipment cost, installation cost, annual equipment and material costs and annual labor costs. These data, when consolidated, fit into a small number of input cells in H2A. Items such as capital cost end up as line-items for which there is space in the existing H2A spreadsheets. Items such as electricity use are added to the values that already exist in H2A. Table 1 lists eight potential technology combina

Simon, A; Daily, W

2009-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

319

Use of Produced Water in Recirculating Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. This deliverable describes possible test configurations for produced water demonstration projects at SJGS. The ability to host demonstration projects would enable the testing and advancement of promising produced water treatment technologies. Testing is described for two scenarios: Scenario 1--PNM builds a produced water treatment system at SJGS and incorporates planned and future demonstration projects into the design of the system. Scenario 2--PNM forestalls or decides not to install a produced water treatment system and would either conduct limited testing at SJGS (produced water would have to be delivered by tanker trucked) or at a salt water disposal facility (SWD). Each scenario would accommodate demonstration projects differently and these differences are discussed in this deliverable. PNM will host a demonstration test of water-conserving cooling technology--Wet Surface Air Cooling (WSAC) using cooling tower blowdown from the existing SJGS Unit 3 tower--during the summer months of 2005. If successful, there may be follow-on testing using produced water. WSAC is discussed in this deliverable. Recall that Deliverable 4, Emerging Technology Testing, describes the pilot testing conducted at a salt water disposal facility (SWD) by the CeraMem Corporation. This filtration technology could be a candidate for future demonstration testing and is also discussed in this deliverable.

Kent Zammit; Michael N. DiFilippo

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

NETL: Water-Energy Interface - Power Plant Water Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Application of Pulsed Electrical Fields for Advanced Cooling in Coal-Fired Power Plants Application of Pulsed Electrical Fields for Advanced Cooling in Coal-Fired Power Plants Drexel University is conducting research with the overall objective of developing technologies to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. The goal of this research is to develop a scale-prevention technology based on a novel filtration method and an integrated system of physical water treatment in an effort to reduce the amount of water needed for cooling tower blowdown. This objective is being pursued under two coordinated, National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored research and development projects. In both projects, pulsed electrical fields are employed to promote the precipitation and removal of mineral deposits from power plant cooling water, thereby allowing the water to be recirculated for longer periods of time before fresh makeup water has to be introduced into the cooling water system.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water treatment result" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

NETL: Water-Energy Interface - Power Plant Water Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Power Plant Water Management Power Plant Water Management A Synergistic Combination of Advanced Separation and Chemical Scale Inhibitor Technologies for Efficient Use of Impaired Water as Cooling Water in Coal-Based Power Plants – Nalco Company Example of Pipe Scaling The overall objective of this project, conducted by Nalco Company in partnership with Argonne National Laboratory, is to develop advanced-scale control technologies to enable coal-based power plants to use impaired water in recirculating cooling systems. The use of impaired water is currently challenged technically and economically due to additional physical and chemical treatment requirements to address scaling, corrosion, and biofouling. Nalco's research focuses on methods to economically manage scaling issues (see Figure 1). The overall approach uses synergistic

322

Water and Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water in swimming pool Water and Energy The water and energy technology research focuses on improving the efficiency of energy and water use in water delivery, supply and...

323

Energy Basics: Water Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

about: Conventional Storage Water Heaters Demand (Tankless or Instantaneous) Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters...

324

BOILING WATER REACTOR WITH FEED WATER INJECTION NOZZLES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent covers the use of injection nozzles for pumping water into the lower ends of reactor fuel tubes in which water is converted directly to steam. Pumping water through fuel tubes of this type of boiling water reactor increases its power. The injection nozzles decrease the size of pump needed, because the pump handles only the water going through the nozzles, additional water being sucked into the tubes by the nozzles independently of the pump from the exterior body of water in which the fuel tubes are immersed. The resulting movement of exterior water along the tubes holds down steam formation, and thus maintains the moderator effectiveness, of the exterior body of water. (AEC)

Treshow, M.

1963-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

325

Biological denitrification of water  

SciTech Connect

The authors discuss research regarding the denitrification of drinking water. Most work has been done in Europe. As a consequence there may be a gap in the understanding of the international state of the art with regard to drinking-water denitrification. Numerous substrates have been evaluated including methanol, ethanol, acetic acid, methane, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and various sulfur compounds. Various unit processes have been utilized including biofilters, fluidized-bed and packed-bed reactors, packed towers containing cells immobilized in polymer gels, and completely mixed reactors with cells attached to bouyant porous carriers. There are several commercial facilities currently providing drinking water to European communities. Most include post-treatment with flocculation, filtration, and disinfection. A common concern in denitrification operations is the minimization of nitrite accumulation.

Gayle, B.P. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (USA)); Boardman, G.D.; Sherrard, J.H. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Benoit, R.E. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (USA). Dept. of Biology)

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Protective tubes for sodium heated water tubes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger in which water tubes are heated by liquid sodium which minimizes the results of accidental contact between the water and the sodium caused by failure of one or more of the water tubes. A cylindrical protective tube envelopes each water tube and the sodium flows axially in the annular spaces between the protective tubes and the water tubes.

Essebaggers, Jan (39 Honeyman Dr., Succasunna, NJ 07876)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) System for Flue-Gas Derived Water From Oxy-Combustion Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) located in Albany, Oregon, have patented a process - Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO{sub 2} stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Capturing CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel combustion generates a significant water product which can be tapped for use in the power plant and its peripherals. Water condensed in the IPR{reg_sign} process may contain fly ash particles, sodium (from pH control), and sulfur species, as well as heavy metals, cations and anions. NETL is developing a treatment approach for zero liquid discharge while maximizing available heat from IPR. Current treatment-process steps being studied are flocculation/coagulation, for removal of cations and fine particles, and reverse osmosis, for anion removal as well as for scavenging the remaining cations. After reverse osmosis process steps, thermal evaporation and crystallization steps will be carried out in order to build the whole zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system for flue-gas condensed wastewater. Gypsum is the major product from crystallization process. Fast, in-line treatment of water for re-use in IPR seems to be one practical step for minimizing water treatment requirements for CO{sub 2} capture. The results obtained from above experiments are being used to build water treatment models.

Sivaram Harendra; Danylo Oryshchyn; Thomas Ochs; Stephen J. Gerdemann; John Clark

2011-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

328

Summary of resources available to small water systems for meeting the 10 ppb arsenic drinking water limit.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the lowering of the EPA maximum contaminant level of arsenic from 50 parts per billion (ppb) to 10 ppb, many public water systems in the country and in New Mexico in particular, are faced with making decisions about how to bring their system into compliance. This document provides detail on the options available to the water systems and the steps they need to take to achieve compliance with this regulation. Additionally, this document provides extensive resources and reference information for additional outreach support, financing options, vendors for treatment systems, and media pilot project results.

Krumhansl, James Lee; Thomson, Bruce M. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Ziegler, Matt (New Mexico Tech, Albuquerque, NM); Butler, Susan (New Mexico Tech, Albuquerque, NM); Himmelberger, Heather (New Mexico Tech, Albuquerque, NM); Holt, Kathleen Caroline

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Development and Demonstration of a Modeling Framework for Assessing the Efficacy of Using Mine Water for Thermoelectric Power Generation  

SciTech Connect

Thermoelectric power plants use large volumes of water for condenser cooling and other plant operations. Traditionally, this water has been withdrawn from the cleanest water available in streams and rivers. However, as demand for electrical power increases it places increasing demands on freshwater resources resulting in conflicts with other off stream water users. In July 2002, NETL and the Governor of Pennsylvania called for the use of water from abandoned mines to replace our reliance on the diminishing and sometimes over allocated surface water resource. In previous studies the National Mine Land Reclamation Center (NMLRC) at West Virginia University has demonstrated that mine water has the potential to reduce the capital cost of acquiring cooling water while at the same time improving the efficiency of the cooling process due to the constant water temperatures associated with deep mine discharges. The objectives of this project were to develop and demonstrate a user-friendly computer based design aid for assessing the costs, technical and regulatory aspects and potential environmental benefits for using mine water for thermoelectric generation. The framework provides a systematic process for evaluating the hydrologic, chemical, engineering and environmental factors to be considered in using mine water as an alternative to traditional freshwater supply. A field investigation and case study was conducted for the proposed 300 MW Beech Hollow Power Plant located in Champion, Pennsylvania. The field study based on previous research conducted by NMLRC identified mine water sources sufficient to reliably supply the 2-3,000gpm water supply requirement of Beech Hollow. A water collection, transportation and treatment system was designed around this facility. Using this case study a computer based design aid applicable to large industrial water users was developed utilizing water collection and handling principals derived in the field investigation and during previous studies of mine water and power plant cooling. Visual basic software was used to create general information/evaluation modules for a range of power plant water needs that were tested/verified against the Beech Hollow project. The program allows for consideration of blending mine water as needed as well as considering potential thermal and environmental benefits that can be derived from using constant temperature mine water. Users input mine water flow, quality, distance to source, elevations to determine collection, transport and treatment system design criteria. The program also evaluates low flow volumes and sustainable yields for various sources. All modules have been integrated into a seamless user friendly computer design aid and user's manual for evaluating the capital and operating costs of mine water use. The framework will facilitate the use of mine water for thermoelectric generation, reduce demand on freshwater resources and result in environmental benefits from reduced emissions and abated mine discharges.

None

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Federal Energy Management Program: Water Efficiency Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics Basics Graphic of the eTraining logo Training Available Managing Water Assessment in Federal Facilities: Learn how to manage the Water Assessment process in Federal facilities by taking this FEMP eTraining course. Although two-thirds of the Earth's surface is water, less than one-half of one percent of that water is currently available for our use. As the U.S. population increases, so does our water use, making water resources increasingly scarce. Many regions feel the strain. The Federal Government uses an estimated 148 to 165 billion gallons of potable water annually. This is equal to the annual water use of a state the size of New Jersey or almost 8 million people1. This is, in part, because water requires significant energy input for treatment, pumping, heating, and process uses. Water is integral to the cooling of power plants that provide energy to Federal facilities.

331

Water Efficiency Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Basics Basics Water Efficiency Basics October 7, 2013 - 2:38pm Addthis Training Available Graphic of the eTraining logo Managing Water Assessment in Federal Facilities: Learn how to manage the Water Assessment process in Federal facilities by taking this FEMP eTraining course. Although two-thirds of the Earth's surface is water, less than one-half of one percent of that water is currently available for our use. As the U.S. population increases, so does our water use, making water resources increasingly scarce. Many regions feel the strain. The Federal Government uses an estimated 148 to 165 billion gallons of potable water annually. This is equal to the annual water use of a state the size of New Jersey or almost 8 million people1. This is, in part, because water requires significant energy input for treatment, pumping,

332

Chemical Finishing Treatments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...after being sand blasted. (d) Water from steam condensate or water treated by ion exchange should

333

Assessment of Water Balance Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power generating plants perform water balance studies for a variety of reasons, and they use a range of different modeling approaches and tools to accomplish their specific objectives. This EPRI report presents the results of a project conducted with the objective of providing the industry and the interested public with an assessment of the value of water balance models to conserve and manage water. The report provides an overview of the state-of-the-art water balance models and identifies ...

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

334

THE ARIZONA WATER-ENERGY NEXUS: ELECTRICITY FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER SERVICES .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The water-energy nexus is the dependent relationship between water and energy resources. The nexus results in complex policy and management challenges for resources that have (more)

Hoover, Joseph Hamilton

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

The Arizona water-energy nexus| Electricity for water and wastewater services.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The water-energy nexus is the dependent relationship between water and energy resources. The nexus results in complex policy and management challenges for resources that (more)

Hoover, Joseph Hamilton

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Water softening process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention involves an improved process for softening hard water which comprises selectively precipitaing CaCO.sub.3 to form a thin layer thereof, increasing the pH of said water to precipitate magnesium as magnesium hydroxide and then filtering the resultant slurry through said layer. The CaCO.sub.3 layer serves as a thin permeable layer which has particularly useful application in cross-flow filtration applications.

Sheppard, John D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Thomas, David G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Foliar water uptake: a common water acquisition strategy for plants of the redwood forest  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LB (1995) Foliar uptake of water by wet leaves of Sloaneaand the resultant ?lm of water they deposit on foliage slownot greatly increase soil water availability and may provide

Limm, Emily Burns; Simonin, Kevin A.; Bothman, Aron G.; Dawson, Todd E.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Portable treatment systems study  

SciTech Connect

In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas.

Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Feasibility study for alternate fuels production: unconventional natural gas from wastewater treatment plants. Volume II, Appendix D. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Data are presented from a study performed to determined the feasibility of recovering methane from sewage at a typical biological secondary wastewater treatment plant. Three tasks are involved: optimization of digester gas; digester gas scrubbing; and application to the East Bay Municipal Utility District water pollution control plant. Results indicate that excess digester gas can be used economically at the wastewater treatment plant and that distribution and scrubbing can be complex and costly. (DMC) 193 references, 93 figures, 26 tables.

Overly, P.; Tawiah, K.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water treatment result" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

WASTE DISPOSAL TREATMENT OF PWR HOT LAUNDRY AND DECONTAMINATION ROOM WASTES. Appendix I: SURVEY OF APPLICATION OF STANDARD WATER CLARIFICATION PROCEDURES TO PWR LAUNDRY AND DECONTAMINATION ROOM WASTES. Appendix II: CONFERENCE BETWEEN R. LLOYD AND J.R. POINTE TO ESTABLISH TENTATIVE PROCEDURES AND DETERMINE EQUIPMENT FOR APPLYING ADSORPTION-FLOCCULATION TREATMENT TO PWR LAUNDRY W  

SciTech Connect

This report and three appendixes were issued separately, but are cataloged as a unit. The necessity for treatment of hot laundry and decontamination room wastes prior to disposal at the out, and means for accomplishing this are discussed. A feasible procedure suggested consists of an adsorptionflocculation treatment with supernate disposal by dilution, pass through an evaporator, transfer to surge and decay tanks, with final sludge concentration in drums for retention and burial at sea. (T.R.H.)

Cohen, P.; Lloyd, R.; LaPointe, J.R.; Abrams, C.S.

1956-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

342

Treatment of biomass-gasification wastewater  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results obtained in innovative biological wastewater treatment process studies and a solvent extraction study are reported. (MHR)

Maxham, J.V.; Bell, N.E.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Flue gas desulfurization wastewater treatment primer  

SciTech Connect

Purge water from a typical wet flue gas desulfurization system contains myriad chemical constituents and heavy metals whose mixture is determined by the fuel source and combustion products as well as the stack gas treatment process. A well-designed water treatment system can tolerate upstream fuel and sorbent arranged in just the right order to produce wastewater acceptable for discharge. This article presents state-of-the-art technologies for treating the waste water that is generated by wet FGD systems. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Higgins, T.E.; Sandy, A.T.; Givens, S.W.

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

344

Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan For SWMUS and AOCs (Sites)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wells, tanks, and container storage areas. Waste water treatment system, and transfer stations report (LANL 1990). Contamination originated from septic tanks and lines, chemical storage areas

345

Supercritical Water Gasification of Biomass & Biomass Model Compounds.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is an innovative, modern, and effective destruction process for the treatment of organic compounds. Hydrogen production using SCWG of biomass or (more)

Youssef, Emhemmed A.E.A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Water Boatman  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Boatman Water Boatman Name: Joshua Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I am doing a research on water boatman. I go through your web, I only find little information about it. Can you give me its habitat, its appearance, life cycles and communication between themselves and they defenses themselves? Replies: Find a good book in the library on insects, also on pond biology/ecology, as boatmen live in ponds and marshes. It should be easy to find. J.Elliott Try this web site: http://www.dnr.state.il.us/ctap.ctaphome.htm or http://www.dnr.state.il.us/nredu/nredpage.htm this is the state of Illinois Dept. of Natural Resources homepage and somewhere on there is a page called "bugpage". They have pictures and characteristics of aquatic insects there. good luck

347

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculations for residentialgas water heaters; and pressure loss calculations for residential

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Water Data Report: An Annotated Bibliography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report and its accompanying Microsoft Excel workbooksummarize water data we found to support efforts of the EnvironmentalProtection Agency s WaterSense program. WaterSense aims to extend theoperating life of water and wastewater treatment facilities and prolongthe availability of water resourcesby reducing residential andcommercial water consumption through the voluntary replacement ofinefficient water-using products with more efficient ones. WaterSense hasan immediate need for water consumption data categorized by sector and,for the residential sector, per capita data available by region. Thisinformation will assist policy makers, water and wastewater utilityplanners, and others in defining and refining program possibilities.Future data needs concern water supply, wastewater flow volumes, waterquality, and watersheds. This report focuses primarily on the immediateneed for data regarding water consumption and product end-use. We found avariety of data on water consumption at the national, state, andmunicipal levels. We also found several databases related towater-consuming products. Most of the data are available in electronicform on the Web pages of the data-collecting organizations. In addition,we found national, state, and local data on water supply, wastewater,water quality, and watersheds.

Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Melody, Moya

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Cryogenic Treatment of Metal Parts  

SciTech Connect

Cryogenic treatment and its variables have been described. Results of eight engineering tests carried out on cryotreated parts have been presented. Cryogenic treatment of metal parts enhances useful properties which in turn, improves various strengths. Our tests viz. Abrasion, Torsion, Fatigue, Tensile, Shear, Hardness and Impact on Mild steel, Cast Iron, Brass and Copper show that the cryogenic treatment improved useful properties of mild steel parts appreciably but did not show promise with brass and copper parts.

Chillar, Rahul [S. P. College of Engineering, Andheri (W), Mumbai - 400 058 (India); Agrawal, S. C. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai - 400 005 (India)

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

350

AUTOMATED WATER LEVEL MEASUREMENTS IN SMALL-DIAMETER AQUIFER TUBES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Groundwater contaminated with hexavalent chromium, strontium-90, and uranium discharges into the Columbia River along approximately 16 km (10 mi) of the shoreline. Various treatment systems have and will continue to be implemented to eliminate the impact of Hanford Site contamination to the river. To optimize the various remediation strategies, it is important to understand interactions between groundwater and the surface water of the Columbia River. An automated system to record water levels in aquifer sampling tubes installed in the hyporheic zone was designed and tested to (1) gain a more complete understanding of groundwater/river water interactions based on gaining and losing conditions ofthe Columbia River, (2) record and interpret data for consistent and defensible groundwater/surface water conceptual models that may be used to better predict subsurface contaminant fate and transport, and (3) evaluate the hydrodynamic influence of extraction wells in an expanded pump-and-treat system to optimize the treatment system. A system to measure water levels in small-diameter aquifer tubes was designed and tested in the laboratory and field. The system was configured to allow manual measurements to periodically calibrate the instrument and to permit aquifer tube sampling without removing the transducer tube. Manual measurements were collected with an e-tape designed and fabricated especially for this test. Results indicate that the transducer system accurately records groundwater levels in aquifer tubes. These data are being used to refine the conceptual and numeric models to better understand interactions in the hyporheic zone of the Columbia River and the adjacent river water and groundwater, and changes in hydrochemistry relative to groundwater flux as river water recharges the aquifer and then drains back out in response to changes in the river level.

PETERSEN SW; EDRINGTON RS; MAHOOD RO; VANMIDDLESWORTH PE

2011-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

351

Liquid chromatographic determination of water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A sensitive method for the determination of water in the presence of common interferences is presented. The detection system is based on the effect of water on the equilibrium which results from the reaction aryl aldehydes, such as cinnamaldehyde and methanol in the eluent to form cinnamaldehyde dimethylacetal, plus water. This equilibrium is shifted in a catalytic atmosphere of a hydrogen ion form past column reactor. The extent of the shift and the resulting change in absorbance are proportional to the amount of water present.

Fortier, Nancy E. (Fairfield, OH); Fritz, James S. (Ames, IA)

1990-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

352

Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations  

SciTech Connect

Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes for the removal of hydrocarbons from produced water. The results of these experiments show that hydrocarbons from produced water can be reduced from 200 ppm to below 29 ppm level. Experiments were also done to remove the dissolved solids (salts) from the pretreated produced water using desalination membranes. Produced water with up to 45,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS) can be treated to agricultural water quality water standards having less than 500 ppm TDS. The Report also discusses the results of field testing of various process trains to measure performance of the desalination process. Economic analysis based on field testing, including capital and operational costs, was done to predict the water treatment costs. Cost of treating produced water containing 15,000 ppm total dissolved solids and 200 ppm hydrocarbons to obtain agricultural water quality with less than 200 ppm TDS and 2 ppm hydrocarbons range between $0.5-1.5 /bbl. The contribution of fresh water resource from produced water will contribute enormously to the sustainable development of the communities where oil and gas is produced and fresh water is a scarce resource. This water can be used for many beneficial purposes such as agriculture, horticulture, rangeland and ecological restorations, and other environmental and industrial application.

David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

2006-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

353

Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Annual Report FY09  

SciTech Connect

This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine is reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction, such that the volume of fresh water extracted balances the volume of CO{sub 2} injected into the formation. This process provides additional CO{sub 2} storage capacity in the aquifer, reduces operational risks (cap-rock fracturing, contamination of neighboring fresh water aquifers, and seismicity) by relieving overpressure in the formation, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. This multi-faceted project combines elements of geochemistry, reservoir engineering, and water treatment engineering. The range of saline formation waters is being identified and analyzed. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the storage aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. Water treatment costs are being evaluated by comparing the necessary process facilities to those in common use for seawater RO. There are presently limited brine composition data available for actual CCS sites by the site operators including in the U.S. the seven regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (CSPs). To work around this, we are building a 'catalog' of compositions representative of 'produced' waters (waters produced in the course of seeking or producing oil and gas), to which we are adding data from actual CCS sites as they become available. Produced waters comprise the most common examples of saline formation waters. Therefore, they are expected to be representative of saline formation waters at actual and potential future CCS sites. We are using a produced waters database (Breit, 2002) covering most of the United States compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In one instance to date, we have used this database to find a composition corresponding to the brine expected at an actual CCS site (Big Sky CSP, Nugget Formation, Sublette County, Wyoming). We have located other produced waters databases, which are usually of regional scope (e.g., NETL, 2005, Rocky Mountains basins).

Wolery, T; Aines, R; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W; Wolfe, T; Haussman, C

2009-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

354

Functional and structural diversity of the microbial communities associated with the use of FischerTropsch GTL Primary Column Bottoms as process cooling water / van Niekerk B.F.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Despite emerging water shortages, most water is only used once, and often with low efficiency. However, with appropriate treatment, water can be reused to reduce (more)

Van Niekerk, Bertina Freda

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Drinking Water Problems: Iron and Manganese  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Iron and manganese can give water an unpleasant taste, odor and color. In this publication you'll learn how to know whether your water contains iron or manganese and how to eliminate these contaminants with various treatment methods such as aeration and chemical oxidation.

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2004-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

356

Treatment of organic waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An organic waste containing at least one element selected from the group consisting of strontium, cesium, iodine and ruthenium is treated to achieve a substantial reduction in the volume of the waste and provide for fixation of the selected element in an inert salt. The method of treatment comprises introducing the organic waste and a source of oxygen into a molten salt bath maintained at an elevated temperature to produce solid and gaseous reaction products. The gaseous reaction products comprise carbon dioxide and water vapor, and the solid reaction products comprise the inorganic ash constituents of the organic waste and the selected element which is retained in the molten salt. The molten salt bath comprises one or more alkali metal carbonates, and may optionally include from 1 to about 25 wt.% of an alkali metal sulfate.

Grantham, LeRoy F. (Calabasas, CA)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Help - Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Search Results The search results are displayed ten documents at a time. The Next >> and << Back links at the top and bottom of the list allow you to navigate through the results...

358

ANI Testbed: Published Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Testbed Results R&D Overview 100G Testbed Testbed Description Testbed Results Current Testbed Research Proposal Process Terms and Conditions Virtual Circuits (OSCARS) Performance...

359

Nuclear quantum effects in water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, a path integral Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulation of liquid water is performed. It is found that the inclusion of nuclear quantum effects systematically improves the agreement of first principles simulations of liquid water with experiment. In addition, the proton momentum distribution is computed utilizing a recently developed open path integral molecular dynamics methodology. It is shown that these results are in good agreement with neutron Compton scattering data for liquid water and ice.

Joseph A. Morrone; Roberto Car

2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

360

Integrated nonthermal treatment system study  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a study of nonthermal treatment technologies. The study consisted of a systematic assessment of five nonthermal treatment alternatives. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The alternatives considered were innovative nonthermal treatments for organic liquids and sludges, process residue, soil and debris. Vacuum desorption or various washing approaches are considered for treatment of soil, residue and debris. Organic destruction methods include mediated electrochemical oxidation, catalytic wet oxidation, and acid digestion. Other methods studied included stabilization technologies and mercury separation of treatment residues. This study is a companion to the integrated thermal treatment study which examined 19 alternatives for thermal treatment of MLLW waste. The quantities and physical and chemical compositions of the input waste are based on the inventory database developed by the US Department of Energy. The Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) systems were evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 pounds per hour) as the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS). 48 refs., 68 figs., 37 tabs.

Biagi, C.; Bahar, D.; Teheranian, B.; Vetromile, J. [Morrison Knudsen Corp. (United States); Quapp, W.J. [Nuclear Metals (United States); Bechtold, T.; Brown, B.; Schwinkendorf, W. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swartz, G. [Swartz and Associates (United States)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water treatment result" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Oasys Water | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Oasys Water Oasys Water Jump to: navigation, search Name Oasys Water Place Cambridge, Massachusetts Product Cambridge-based developer of Engineered Osmosis, desalination and water treatment technology. Coordinates 43.003745°, -89.017499° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.003745,"lon":-89.017499,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

362

Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower water.  

SciTech Connect

The formation of silica scale is a problem for thermoelectric power generating facilities, and this study investigated the potential for removal of silica by means of chemical coagulation from source water before it is subjected to mineral concentration in cooling towers. In Phase I, a screening of many typical as well as novel coagulants was carried out using concentrated cooling tower water, with and without flocculation aids, at concentrations typical for water purification with limited results. In Phase II, it was decided that treatment of source or make up water was more appropriate, and that higher dosing with coagulants delivered promising results. In fact, the less exotic coagulants proved to be more efficacious for reasons not yet fully determined. Some analysis was made of the molecular nature of the precipitated floc, which may aid in process improvements. In Phase III, more detailed study of process conditions for aluminum chloride coagulation was undertaken. Lime-soda water softening and the precipitation of magnesium hydroxide were shown to be too limited in terms of effectiveness, speed, and energy consumption to be considered further for the present application. In Phase IV, sodium aluminate emerged as an effective coagulant for silica, and the most attractive of those tested to date because of its availability, ease of use, and low requirement for additional chemicals. Some process optimization was performed for coagulant concentration and operational pH. It is concluded that silica coagulation with simple aluminum-based agents is effective, simple, and compatible with other industrial processes.

Nyman, May Devan; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Stewart, Tom

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Grid result checking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Result checking is the theory and practice of proving that the result of an execution of a program on an input is correct. Result checking has most often been envisioned in the framework of program testing or property testing, where the issue is the ... Keywords: grids, result checking, simulation

Ccile Germain-Renaud; Dephine Monnier-Ragaigne

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

CONTAM Overview - Simulation Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Currently there are two types: boundary layer diffusion (BLS) deposition/ resuspension (DVR). Table CONTAM Results Files. ...

365

Performance of active solar domestic hot water heating systems. Comparative report, 1979-1980 season  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The most recent composite results of analysis performed by Vitro Laboratories of solar hot water heating data for selected hot water sites in the National Solar Data Network (NSDN) are presented. Results presented have been developed on the basis of analysis of instrumented sites monitored through 1979-1980. A total of 45 sites in the National Solar Data Network (NSDN) were examined for this study. Eighteen of these were selected for in-depth treatment because of the availability of valid long term data. System descriptions, schematic diagrams and energy flow diagrams for these 18 sites are presented in Appendices A, B, and C, respectively. (WHK)

Cramer, M.A.; Kendall, P.W.; Rosenbusch, J.M.; Weinstein, R.A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Water Conservation with Urban Landscape Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water shortages are a common problem in much of the southwest. Increasing urbanization and increasing population places greater demands on dwindling water supplies. Over half of the water used in urban areas of the southwest is used in the irrigation of landscapes. To help cope with increased urban water demands and low water supplies, research was conducted from March 1981 to July 1983 at The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station at Dallas to gain information relative to consumptive water use by native and non-native landscape plants. Twenty weighing lysimeters were constructed and installed and plants established in the lysimeters and adjacent areas. The lysimeters were made from 0.6 X 0.9 m undisturbed cores of Austin silty clay soil. Plants used in the lysimeter study were buffalograss, St. Augustine grass, cenizo, boxwood and Texas barberry. All plants are native to Texas except boxwood and St. Augustine grass. Four lysimeters were planted to each plant type. This allowed two moisture levels and two replications of each plant type. There was no difference in water use by St. Augustine grass and buffalo grass during the year of establishment. Daily water use ranged from 0.49 to 0.08 cm per day but was generally 50% class A pan evaporation. St. Augustine grass used 0.03 cm/day more water than buffalo grass during 1982. -Irrigation treatments used in 1982 did not influence water use by either grass type but buffalo grass retained higher quality under dry treatment (irrigated at 0.40 bar moisture tension) than St. Augustine grass. Water use from May to July 1983 was highest (of all treatments) by St. Augustine grass when irrigated at 0.25 bar soil moisture tension at 76 cm depth and lowest (of all treatments) by buffalograss when irrigated at 0.75 bar soil moisture tension at 76 cm depth. Application of 50% class A pan evaporation each week appears to be an acceptable guideline for irrigation of either turfgrass but research should be conducted over a longer time period to obtain more specific guidelines for each grass species. Water use by shrubs in lysimeters was variable and not influenced by plant type during the period of establishment (Fall 1981). During 1982 water use was influenced more by plant size than by specie or water level. Cenizo had much faster growth rate than the other shrubs in the study. Water use by container grown plants indicated that cenizo had higher water use efficiency than boxwood or Indian Hawthorn. Water use was determined for several native shrubs and of the ones compared, Texas barberry appeared to have the most promise for use in water conserving landscapes.

Hip, B. W.; Giordano, C.; Simpson, B.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Regeneration of Carbon Aerogel Exhausted in Water Purification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon has been used electrochemically in various forms for water treatment and the carbon aerogel is one of them. Carbon Aerogels (CA) are used as electrodes due to their high surface capacity and high electrical conductivity. They are also known as Carbon Nanofoams (CNF). CA electrodes attract oppositely charged ions that are nearby. This concept is known as Capacitive De-Ionization (CDI). The use of CA in CDI for water purification is well documented, but not much work has been done on regeneration of CA electrodes. Once saturated, these electrodes lose their ability to adsorb additional ions and it must be restored by regeneration. If they cannot be regenerated, they would need to be replaced, which would greatly increase the cost of the treatment they are expensive. The goal of this study is to obtain data to define optimal regeneration conditions and to develop predictive capability by examining desorption behavior of adsorbed ions on CA electrodes. This study focuses on desorption of adsorbed ions and regeneration of CA. Various experiments were conducted to explore the effects on regeneration of CA of shorting of electrodes, change of polarity of electrodes, flow speed of water over CA electrodes, and temperature of regeneration water. The optimal combination of experimental variables was identified and was used for remaining experiments that tested the effect of size, charge and mass of adsorbed ions on regeneration of CA. Also, the effect of thickness of CA and its pore size on regeneration of CA was studied. Results indicated that application of reverse potential for the first few minutes of the total regeneration time provided the greatest regeneration. Longer application of reverse potential did not result in higher regeneration. The regeneration behavior when no potential applied with and without shorting was as expected. Application of reverse potential with variable temperature or variable flow speed of water over CA surfaces provided results that were different from the ones that were obtained with no potential being applied with or without shorting of electrodes.

Tewari, Sanjay

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Gravel admix, vegetation, and soil water interactions in protective barriers: Experimental design, construction, and initial conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to measure the interactive effects of gravel admix and greater precipitation on soil water storage and plant abundance. The study is one of many tasks in the Protective Barrier Development Program for the disposal of Hanford defense waste. A factorial field-plot experiment was set up at the site selected as the borrow area for barrier topsoil. Gravel admix, vegetation, and enhanced precipitation treatments were randomly assigned to the plots using a split-split plot design structure. Changes in soil water storage and plant cover were monitored using neutron probe and point intercept methods, respectively. The first-year results suggest that water extraction by plants will offset gravel-caused increases in soil water storage. Near-surface soil water contents were much lower in graveled plots with plants than in nongraveled plots without plants. Large inherent variability in deep soil water storage masked any effects gravel may have had on water content below the root zone. In the future, this source of variation will be removed by differencing monthly data series and testing for changes in soil water storage. Tests of the effects of greater precipitation on soil water storage were inconclusive. A telling test will be possible in the spring of 1988, following the first wet season during which normal precipitation is doubled. 26 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

Waugh, W.J.

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

FGD wastewater treatment still has a way to go  

SciTech Connect

The power industry should jointly address questions about FGD water treatment and share the lessons it has learned so far. The article describes a scheme developed by CH2M Hill to treat FGD wastewater and remove heavy metals. The process desaturates the waste water of sulfates and removes the bulk of the insoluble suspended solids prior to tertiary treatment of heavy metals using a chemical/physical treatment process. Additional treatment could be provided (for example, anoxic biological treatment) for selenium, nitrates and organics. 2 figs.

Higgins, T.; Givens, S.; Sandy, T. [CH2M Hill (United States)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

Energy Efficiency Strategies for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities  

SciTech Connect

Water and wastewater systems are significant energy consumers with an estimated 3%-4% of total U.S. electricity consumption used for the movement and treatment of water and wastewater. Water-energy issues are of growing importance in the context of water shortages, higher energy and material costs, and a changing climate. In this economic environment, it is in the best interest for utilities to find efficiencies, both in water and energy use. Performing energy audits at water and wastewater treatment facilities is one way community energy managers can identify opportunities to save money, energy, and water. In this paper the importance of energy use in wastewater facilities is illustrated by a case study of a process energy audit performed for Crested Butte, Colorado's wastewater treatment plant. The energy audit identified opportunities for significant energy savings by looking at power intensive unit processes such as influent pumping, aeration, ultraviolet disinfection, and solids handling. This case study presents best practices that can be readily adopted by facility managers in their pursuit of energy and financial savings in water and wastewater treatment. This paper is intended to improve community energy managers understanding of the role that the water and wastewater sector plays in a community's total energy consumption. The energy efficiency strategies described provide information on energy savings opportunities, which can be used as a basis for discussing energy management goals with water and wastewater treatment facility managers.

Daw, J.; Hallett, K.; DeWolfe, J.; Venner, I.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Evaluation of functionality for whey protein concentrate with different ultrafiltration treatments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Production of whey protein concentrates has increased significantly in the United States in recent years. This may be attributed mainly to greater effort on the part of whey producers to abide by pollution regulations and to availability of improved the ultrafiltration separation and its product WPC functionality. The objective of this research is to evaluate the WPC functionality with two treatment during separation. The whey powder was dissolved into the distilled water and tested for two treatment using ultrafiltration separation process. The temperature which was room temperature, 35 and 50 'C and pH which was 1.5, 4, 6 were selected for the two treatment. Three repetitions were completed for each treatment. The WPCs exhibited comparable composition and functionality. The composition which were included protein denaturation, fat, ash, protein content indicated different variations for the two treatment. The influence of temperature treatment was primarily dependent on the first three contents, but the effect of pH treatment was limited to the first two factors, protein denaturation and fat contents. The functionality of foaming ability, emulsion ability, gel strength and viscosity were investigated in this test. The increase functionality was achieved for the pH treatment while the reduced properties occurred for the temperature treatment. The viscosity indicated profoundly increase in the pH treatment when compared the almost constant trend in the temperature treatment. The major difference were contributed to the operation processing particularly composition changes during the two treatment. The GLM could be only fitted for the gel strength and viscosity. The AVONA results revealed that the function variables were affected by the two treatment. The data from this test showed gel strength and viscosity properties of WPCs as a function of pH and temperature were significantly difference. The difference properties observed in this research demonstrated that the temperature and pH effects on the WPCs functionality were widely contrasting.

Wu, Ying

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

NETL: Water-Energy Interface - Power Plant Water Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Use of Air2Air™ Technology to Recover Fresh-Water from the Normal Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants – SPX Cooling Systems Use of Air2Air™ Technology to Recover Fresh-Water from the Normal Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants – SPX Cooling Systems In this project, SPX Cooling Systems, formerly Marley Cooling Technologies, Inc., evaluates the performance of its patented Air2Air(tm) condensing technology in cooling tower applications at coal-fired electric power plants. Researchers quantify Air2Air(tm) water conservation capabilities with results segmented by season and time of day. They determine the pressure drop and energy use during operation. Additionally, SPX Cooling Systems develops a collection method for the recovered water, analyzes water quality, and identifies potential on-site processes capable of utilizing the recovered water.

373

Physiological applications for determining water use efficiency among cotton genotypes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Drought stress can substantially alter plant metabolism by decreasing plant growth and photosynthesis. The lack of rapid and reliable screening criteria and measurement techniques for determining water use efficiency (WUE) of crop plants has greatly restricted progress in this critical area of crop improvement. In grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), WUE was associated with the transpiration ratio [CO2 assimilation (A) / transpiration rate (E), A:E] from leaf gas exchange measurements. Research is needed to identify drought effects on plant productivity and to exploit the use of this knowledge in breeding and agronomic efforts. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine if differences in A:E and other physiological parameters existed between two selected cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genotypes and to evaluate the response of cotton genotypes experiencing water stress at two different growth stages on biomass production and yield. Two experiments were conducted using two cotton genotypes differing in drought tolerance. Each experiment was repeated three times in a randomized complete block design with six replications. In Experiment I, the water stress treatment was induced by withholding water when the plants reached the 4-node growth stage. The water stress treatment in Experiment II was imposed at early bloom. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were collected during dry-down and recovery periods to determine water stress effects on plant physiology. Biomass was partitioned following the recovery period, to examine phenotypic responses of plants exposed to water stress. The results of these experiments indicate that A:E is significantly increased as leaf water potential (?L) decreases with no differences in A:E between the two genotypes. Gas exchange measurements showed significant decreases with declining ?L and significant increases upon re-watering; yet, no differences were observed between the two genotypes. Chlorophyll fluorescence was not different between genotypes in either light- or dark-adapted leaves. In Experiment I TAM 89E-51 had a significantly greater seedcotton yield; however, in Experiment II TAMCOT 22 had the greater yield. These experiments suggest that the effects of water stress on cotton are a function of the intensity of the stress and the growth stage in which the stress is experienced.

Bynum, Joshua Brian

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

CMS: First Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A summary of the LHC and CMS detector performance is given and the first CMS results are presented. In particular

Paolo Checchia; The CMS collaboration

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Review of Test Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

GAC004 Revision 1 Effective June 2008 Review of Test Results Prepared by Electric Transportation Applications Prepared by: Date: Garrett...

376

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effect on water and gas usage from cross-flow betweencontrols have on water and gas usage over a large number ofsystems, and their water and gas usage. Hourly schedules for

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Automated Demand Response Opportunities in Wastewater Treatment Facilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wastewater treatment is an energy intensive process which, together with water treatment, comprises about three percent of U.S. annual energy use. Yet, since wastewater treatment facilities are often peripheral to major electricity-using industries, they are frequently an overlooked area for automated demand response opportunities. Demand response is a set of actions taken to reduce electric loads when contingencies, such as emergencies or congestion, occur that threaten supply-demand balance, and/or market conditions occur that raise electric supply costs. Demand response programs are designed to improve the reliability of the electric grid and to lower the use of electricity during peak times to reduce the total system costs. Open automated demand response is a set of continuous, open communication signals and systems provided over the Internet to allow facilities to automate their demand response activities without the need for manual actions. Automated demand response strategies can be implemented as an enhanced use of upgraded equipment and facility control strategies installed as energy efficiency measures. Conversely, installation of controls to support automated demand response may result in improved energy efficiency through real-time access to operational data. This paper argues that the implementation of energy efficiency opportunities in wastewater treatment facilities creates a base for achieving successful demand reductions. This paper characterizes energy use and the state of demand response readiness in wastewater treatment facilities and outlines automated demand response opportunities.

Thompson, Lisa; Song, Katherine; Lekov, Alex; McKane, Aimee

2008-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

378

Water simulation of sodium reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The thermal hydraulic simulation of a large sodium reactor by a scaled water model is examined. The Richardson Number, friction coefficient and the Peclet Number can be closely matched with the water system at full power and the similarity is retained for buoyancy driven flows. The simulation of thermal-hydraulic conditions in a reactor vessel provided by a scaled water experiment is better than that by a scaled sodium test. Results from a correctly scaled water test can be tentatively extrapolated to a full size sodium system.

Grewal, S.S.; Gluekler, E.L.

1981-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

379

Modeling water emission from low-mass protostellar envelopes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Within low-mass star formation, water vapor plays a key role in the chemistry and energy balance of the circumstellar material. The Herschel Space Observatory will open up the possibility to observe water lines originating from a wide range of excitation energies.Our aim is to simulate the emission of rotational water lines from envelopes characteristic of embedded low-mass protostars. A large number of parameters that influence the water line emission are explored: luminosity, density,density slope and water abundances.Both dust and water emission are modelled using full radiative transfer in spherical symmetry. The temperature profile is calculated for a given density profile. The H2O level populations and emission profiles are in turn computed with a non-LTE line code. The results are analyzed to determine the diagnostic value of different lines, and are compared with existing observations. Lines can be categorized in: (i) optically thick lines, including ground-state lines, mostly sensitive to the cold outer part; (ii) highly excited (E_u>200-250 K) optically thin lines sensitive to the abundance in the hot inner part; and (iii) lines which vary from optically thick to thin depending on the abundances. Dust influences the emission of water significantly by becoming optically thick at the higher frequencies, and by pumping optically thin lines. A good physical model of a source, including a correct treatment of dust, is a prerequisite to infer the water abundance structure and possible jumps at the evaporation temperature from observations. The inner warm (T>100 K) envelope can be probed byhighly-excited lines, while a combination of excited and spectrally resolved ground state lines probes the outer envelope. Observations of H218O lines, although weak, provide even stronger constraints on abundances.

T. A. van Kempen; S. D. Doty; E. F. van Dishoeck; M. R. Hogerheijde; J. K. Joergensen

2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

380

Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.1 Buildings Sector Water Consumption  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

3 3 Energy Use of Wastewater Treatment Plants by Capacity and Treatment Level (kWh per Million Gallons) 1 - 5 - 10 - 20 - 50 - 100 - Note(s): Source(s): 673 1,028 1,188 1,558 The level of treatment indicates the amount of processing involved before water is released from the treatment facility. Primary treatment removes solids and oils from wastewater. Secondary treatment uses biological processes to remove organic material from the water. Tertiary treatment includes additional processes to further refine the water. Nitrification is a process to remove nitrogen from water. Electric Power Research Institute, Water & Sustainability (Volume 4): U.S. Electricity Consumption for Water Supply & Treatment - The Next Half Century,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water treatment result" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Efficient Water Use & Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sustainability Goals Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary...

382

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A white paper describing produced water from production ofCE, Veil JA. 2009. Produced Water Volumes and Managementunderground formations (produced water) are often extracted

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Saving Water Saves Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Californias Water Conservation Standards for ResidentialCalifornia Urban Water Conservation Council, 2006. http://http://www.nrdc.org/water/conservation/edrain/edrain.pdf

McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Texas Hot Water Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

coil hot water storage tank, a backup instantaneous electric water heater, a hydronic fan coil unit for space heating, and an efficient plumbing manifold for domestic hot water...

385

Water Permits (Louisiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Water Permits Division authorizes permits administered under the Water Quality Regulations. Louisiana's Water Quality Regulations require permits for the discharge of pollutants from any point...

386

Spent fuel drying system test results (first dry-run)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks in the basin have been detected and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site. Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the first dry-run test, which was conducted without a fuel element. The empty test apparatus was subjected to a combination of low- and high-temperature vacuum drying treatments that were intended to mimic, wherever possible, the fuel treatment strategies of the IPS. The data from this dry-run test can serve as a baseline for the first two fuel element tests, 1990 (Run 1) and 3128W (Run 2). The purpose of this dry-run was to establish the background levels of hydrogen in the system, and the hydrogen generation and release characteristics attributable to the test system without a fuel element present. This test also serves to establish the background levels of water in the system and the water release characteristics. The system used for the drying test series was the Whole Element Furnace Testing System, described in Section 2.0, which is located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL, 327 Building). The test conditions and methodology are given in section 3.0, and the experimental results provided in Section 4.0. These results are further discussed in Section 5.0.

Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Identifying Critical Thresholds for Acute Response of Plants and Ecosystems to Water Stress (TARP)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The experimental system was able to produce statistically significant differences in soil water status after only for a minimum of 40 days to be effective at producing soil water deficits sufficient to reduce plant water use successfully produced significantly lower soil water contents and water potentials under all treatment trees

388

NZERTF, Recent Research Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... A. Hunter Fanney, Chief Building Environment Division (301) 975-5864 hunter.fanney@nist.gov. *. Bookmark and Share. Recent Research Results. ...

2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

389

Search Results Quadrats  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

lassoquadratss-searchresults-quadrat2006.lasso (1 of 2)61507 10:18 AM Search Results Quadrats 3183 Lederman Science Center Docent .P 3184 Lederman Science Center...

390

A hydrologic information system for water availability modeling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Texas water availability modeling has undergone a transition from paper-based documents to digital databases and GIS maps. This results in many discrete components: a water (more)

Siler, Clark D., 1978-

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Technology Search Results | Brookhaven Technology ...  

Non-Noble Metal Water Electrolysis Catalysts; Find a Technology. Search our technologies by categories or by keywords. Search ...

392

Low-level liquid waste treatment system start-up  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Following removal of Cs-137 by ion exchange in the Supernatant Treatment System immediately upstream, the radioactive liquid waste is volume-reduced by evaporation. Trace amounts of Cs-137 in the resulting distillate are removed by ion exchange, then the distillate is discharged to the existing plant water treatment system. The concentrated product, 37 to 41 percent solids (by weight), is encapsulated in cement, producing a stable low-level waste form. This report provides a summary of work performed to test the Liquid Waste Treatment System following construction turnover and prior to radioactive operation. All mechanical and electrical components, piping, valves, pumps, tanks, controls, and instrumentation required to operate the system were tested; first with water, then with simulated waste. Subsystems (individual tanks, pumps, and control loops) were tested individually, then as a complete system. Finally, the system began a controlled start-up phase, which included the first four months of radioactive operation. Components were tested for operability then for performance data to verify the system`s ability to produce an acceptable waste form at design feed rates.

Baker, M.N.; Gessner, R.F.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Waste Treatment Plant Overview  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington state, Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington state, was the largest of three defense production sites in the U.S. Over the span of 40 years, it was used to produce 64 metric tons of plutonium, helping end World War II and playing a major role in military defense efforts during the Cold War. As a result, 56 million gallons of radioactive and chemical wastes are now stored in 177 underground tanks on the Hanford Site. To address this challenge, the U.S. Department of Energy contracted Bechtel National, Inc., to design and build the world's largest radioactive waste treatment plant. The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), also known as the "Vit Plant," will use vitrification to immobilize most of Hanford's dangerous tank waste.

394

Water Beetles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beetles Beetles Nature Bulletin No. 639-A April 29, 1961 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis Supt. of Conservation WATER BEETLES The world is full of beetles. They live everywhere except in the oceans and in the polar regions. There are more of them than any other kind of insect. A quarter of a million species are known and new ones are being discovered every year. Whether it is a microscopic mushroom beetle a hundredth of an inch long, or a giant six-inch Hercules beetle from South America, it can be recognized by its wings. The upper pair forms a hard shell curving like a shield over the thin folded lower wings and the abdomen. In flight, the upper pair is extended like the wings of an airplane and the lower two become buzzing propellers.

395

Water watch  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Hydropower Generation Report provides generation figures for the largest hydropower producers in each of six regions in the US. The report compares, for each month, the amount of hydroelectricity generated (in thousands of megawatt-hours) by each producers in the last two years to the ten-year average for that month. This database is used to figure long-term generation averages and percent of averages. The producers regularly provide current generation data to update the database. This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on winter snow conditions across the US as of mid-January. In addition, the department provides an outlook of spring flood potential. The information presented is based on data from the US Geological Survey, the National Weather Service, and the Soil Conservation Service.

Not Available

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Diffraction Results from CDF  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present final results by the CDF II collaboration on diffractive W and Z production, report on the status of ongoing analyses on diffractive dijet production and on rapidity gaps between jets, and briefly summarize results obtained on exclusive production pointing to their relevance to calibrating theoretical models used to predict exclusive Higgs-boson production at the LHC.

Goulianos, Konstantin

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Activation of Hydrogen Peroxide by Iron-Containing Minerals and Catalysts in Circumneutral pH Solutions: Implications for ex situ and in situ Treatment of Contaminated Water and Soil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and methods .. 87 6.2.1 Synthesis of mesoporous silica supports.. 87 iv 6.2.2 Characterization 88 6.2.3 Dissolutionmethods . 89 6.3 Results and discussion .. 91 6.3.1 Materials characterization 91 6.3.2 Dissolution

Pham, Anh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Microsoft Word - S08153_Results  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling and Analysis Results for 2011 September 2011 Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited LMS/GSB/S08153 Available for sale to the public from: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5301 Shawnee Road Alexandria, VA 22312 Telephone: 800.553.6847 Fax: 703.605.6900 E-mail: orders@ntis.gov Online Ordering: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/bridge Available for a processing fee to U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors, in paper, from: U.S. Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information P.O. Box 62 Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0062 Phone: 865.576.8401 Fax: 865.576.5728

399

Water Conservation Tips  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gardener Water Conservation Tips fo r t h e UCSC Farm &share some of the water-conservation techniques used at theWinter Squash Water Conservation Mulches will save water,

Brown, Martha

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Drinking Water Problems: Lead  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lead in drinking water can damage the brain, kidneys, nervous system and red blood cells. This publication explains how lead can enter drinking water, how to have your water tested, and how to eliminate lead from drinking water.

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2004-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

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401

Water Conservation Tips  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gardener Water Conservation Tips fo r t h e UCSC Farm &we share some of the water-conservation techniques used atWinter Squash Water Conservation Mulches will save water,

Brown, Martha

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

NIST: NIF - Water Sensitivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water Sensitivity. Neutrons are extremely sensitive to small amounts of water. To quantify and calibrate this sensitivity we ...

403

Conventional Storage Water Heaters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Conventional storage water heaters remain the most popular type of water heating system for homes and buildings.

404

The Impact of Advanced Wastewater Treatment Technologies and Wastewater Strength on the Energy Consumption of Large Wastewater Treatment Plants.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Wastewater treatment is an energy intensive process often requiring the use of advanced treatment technologies. Stricter effluent standards have resulted in an increase in the (more)

Newell, Timothy Stephen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Municipal waste water as a source of cooling water for California electric power plants. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses sources of municipal waste water for potential use as cooling water in California power plants. It notes the major factors which affect this practice. Municipal treatment facilities in California with discharge volumes deemed adequate to supply new power plants are identified. Also included is a summary of the experiences of several utilities in California and other western states with existing or planned applications of municipal waste water in power plant cooling towers.

MacDonald, T.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Sustainable Water Resources Management, Volume 3: Case Studies on New Water Paradigm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report identifies and evaluates the foundation and requirements for a sustainable water infrastructure at the community and watershed scales. The report will be of value not only to the public water supply, stormwater management, and wastewater treatment sectors, but also the electric power sector, given the strong interdependencies among the four sectors. In addition, the report will of value to government agencies involved in water regulations and policy.

2010-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

407

Water Pinch Technology for Process Water Reduction: Success Story at Solutia's Krummrich Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A site-wide water conservation and wastewater minimization study complementing the previous energy study was undertaken by a consulting engineering company specializing in pinch analysis for Solutia's W. G. Krummrich plant in Sauget, Illinois. The 1995 fresh water intake and wastewater effluent for the site were approximately 2400 gpm and 2000 gpm, respectively. The effluent from the plant was treated off-site by two publicly owned treatment works (POTWs). The total annual cost to Solutia for city water ...

2000-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

408

ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals